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Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

ENGINEERING INTEGRITY March 2019 | Issue No. 46

TECHNICAL PAPER: Strain-life fatigue testing of additive layer manufactured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V by electron beam powder bed fusion


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Contents: March 2019

Index to Advertisements.................................................................................7 New Personal Members...................................................................................8 Editorial..................................................................................................................9 Diary of Events....................................................................................................9 Technical Paper: Strain-life fatigue testing of additive layer manufactured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V by electron beam

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering 2019..................................... 43 CaTs3 / Zwick..................... 4 Data Physics.......................2 Dewesoft........................... 46 DJB Instruments.............. 46 EIS.................................. 3 & 5

powder bed fusion .........................................................................................10

Head Acoustics..................6

Young Engineers............................................................................................... 17

IAC Acoustics...................45

EIS Working Party Proposal.......................................................................... 17

M+P International...........48

Product Design, Development & Manufacture....................................... 18

Micro Epsilon...................44

Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition.....................................20

Royal Aeronautical Soc..45

Industry News................................................................................................... 22

Sensors UK.......................42

Product News................................................................................................... 26

Team Corporation..........44

Fatigue 2020.................................................................................................... 28

Vibration Research........ 47

News from the Tipper Group......................................................................30 News from the Women’s Engineering Society...................................... 31 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers................................... 32 Peter Watson Prize 2019.............................................................................. 33 Inspiring the Next Generation..................................................................... 34 University of Wolverhampton Racing....................................................... 35 Group News...................................................................................................... 36 Committee Members..................................................................................... 38 Corporate Members Profiles.......................................................................40 Corporate Members....................................................................................... 43

Thank you to Serco, Derby for hosting the October 2018 committee meetings and Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby for hosting the January 2019 committee meetings.

If you would like to receive this journal electronically, please contact the Secretariat:



MANAGING EDITOR Catherine Pinder

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Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.


Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated. Photographic contributions for the front cover are welcomed. ISSN 1365-4101/2019

The Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985. Registered No. 1959979 Registered Office: c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Charity No: 327121

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PRINCIPAL ACTIVITY OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year. ‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Dr Farnoosh Farhad, Honorary Editor

Welcome to the Engineering Integrity journal winter 2019 issue, which has been produced with a new design.

Looking back at 2018, one of the EIS's main achievements has been providing those at the start of their engineering career with a unique opportunity to gain knowledge and skills by running a series of seminars and the platform to present their work and win prizes (see page 17). In addition to charitable activities (see the diary of 2019 events below), another New Year resolution for EIS is to take new initiatives with the potential of collaborative sharing knowledge and research with mutual benefit for all parties. We are looking for people, companies and universities to participate in this mutually beneficial initiative (see page 17). 2018 was called the Year of Engineering with the aim of encouraging the younger generation in engineering. But is one year enough for such a big mission? I think in the first place it is the nurturing parenting techniques that affect young people’s minds to get interested in engineering

or not. So it needs more than a year to at least change parents’ minds and make them ready to raise children who are enthusiastic and confident enough to take on engineering roles. In this issue, Tipper Group well spotted that a good engineer needs the skill of both ‘tinkers’ and ‘thinkers’ (see page 30). Also, the new chief executive of Women Engineering Society (WES) has talked about how WES is helping the diversity in engineering jobs and helping women to be the heart of engineering industry (see page 31). Trying to inspire the next generation, Grant Gibson has shared his STEM experience in Royal International Air Tattoo and his future STEM activity involving drones (see page 34). I hope you enjoy reading this issue and hope to see you at EIS Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing exhibition on 2nd April (see page 20 for details). Dr Farnoosh Farhad

Diary of Events Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition Silverstone | 2 April 2019 Electrifying Challenges for Road & Tyre Noise | MIRA Technology Institute | 15 May 2019 Durability & Integrity of Additive Manufactured Products: Do you really know what you’ve made? | MTC Coventry | 18 June 2019 Integrity of Joints | AMRC Sheffield/Rotherham | 4 July 2019 Fatigue 2020 | Downing College, Cambridge | 29 June - 1 July 2020


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 46, MARCH 2019, pp.10-16. ISSN 1365-4101/2019

Technical Paper: Strain-life fatigue testing of additive layer manufactured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V by electron beam powder bed fusion Mr. Rob Plaskitt [1], Application Engineer, Dr. Michelle Hill, Head of Materials Testing Dr. Andrew Halfpenny, Chief Technologist, Mr. Peter Lavelle, Application Engineer HBM Prenscia [1] Corresponding Author :

Abstract Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) methods, also known as 3D printing, are developing rapidly in many industries to reduce weight and lead times. With an additional advantage in aerospace for significant reduction in material buy-to-fly ratio. Aerospace OEMs and suppliers are identifying appropriate applications for ALM components and progressing their use from development prototypes, into components qualified for service on production aircraft. This paper describes strain-life fatigue testing of a titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy, additive layer manufactured by electron beam powder bed fusion into cylinders, machined and polished into tensile and fatigue test specimens. These are manufactured in two conditions; “as built”, and after a “standard heat treatment”. The standard heat treatment condition is further examined to assess their directional fatigue properties, using specimens manufactured with build directions vertical, horizontal and at 45 degrees to the axis of the specimen. In conclusion, fatigue tests on additive manufactured material, including both manufacturing process and any post manufacturing treatment, is considered essential because the fatigue performance cannot be inferred from the equivalent wrought material or from the static strength of the manufactured material.

Introduction Component qualification for service includes many stages from raw material and production process control, through to structural integrity in the service environment for the service life of the component. Computer aided simulation of the structural performance of a component is used to aid their design verification and validation. These structural simulations use finite element analysis methods to calculate stress in the component due to service loads. These stresses are used in fatigue analysis to identify areas of insufficient fatigue life (under design) and excessive fatigue life (over design). Fatigue analysis is very sensitive to the material’s fatigue properties; the stress-life or strain-life curves used are non-linear and use logarithmic fatigue damage models. Traditional stress-life fatigue damage models have been largely replaced by the strain-life fatigue damage model to better represent material response to stress and strain, particularly to understand low cycle fatigue with plastic behaviour.


Material properties of many traditional wrought metallic materials are usually considered to be homogeneous and isotropic. Though this is not always the case, for example in sheet material there are differences due to rolling direction, for practical purposes they are similar and the more conservative properties are used. This contrasts with composite materials which are non-homogeneous and are often designed to have highly non-isotropic properties. High quality strain-life material fatigue data is time consuming to obtain, is proprietary and typically not in the public domain. No strain-life material fatigue data has been observed in public domain literature for ALM material. Metal additive manufacturing processes are developing rapidly and are often categorised by their feedstock (powder or wire) and their heat source (laser, electron beam, electric arc). The two most common general methods are Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) and Directed Energy Deposition (DED). These are defined in ASTM 52900 and subcategorised according to their heat source; L for laser beam (PBF-L, DED-L) and EB for electron beam (PBF-EB, DED-EB). The tensile and fatigue test specimens used in these fatigue tests were additive layer manufactured by PBF-EB. The generic powder bed fusion process scans a high power laser or electron beam in a prescribed path, focussed on a bed of metal powder, to melt and fuse the powder. The powder bed is lowered, a new layer of powder is spread over the previous layer, and the process repeated forming a 3-dimensional structure of fused powder. Loose and unfused powder remains in position and is removed during post processing. The specific PBF-EB manufacturing process used is the Arcam EBM® “Electron Beam Melting” process. This manufacturing process occurs in a vacuum in the build chamber, where the powder is pre-heated to ~700°C, and maintains temperatures that effectively stress relieve the structure during the build. The equipment manufacturer claims “… the components produced are free from residual stress and have material properties better than cast and comparable to wrought material” [1]. A thorough review of additive manufacturing background and capabilities is provided by Milewski in “Additive Manufacturing of Metals” [2].

With thanks to and permission from the Royal Aeronautical Society, this is a reduced version of a full paper originally presented at their 6th Aircraft Structural Design Conference, 9 - 11 October 2018, Bristol, UK. For a copy of the full paper please contact the Royal Aeronautical Society at

Specimen Manufacture

as a basic check of expected material strength. Fatigue tests are much more time and resource consuming than tensile tests. If the tensile strength is unexpectedly low, this can be investigated and if necessary specimens can be re-manufactured.

Manufacturing details include; software version 5.0.41, using standard themes and 90 μm layer thickness. The source powder was plasma atomised Ti-6Al-4V (grade 5), meeting all Arcam specifications, with particle size distribution 45 - 106 μm to ASTM B214 and with 23.0 free flow rate to ASTM B213.

Two groups of tensile tests were tested; firstly with the material in the “As-Received” (AR) condition, and secondly after “Cyclic Stabilisation” (CS) with 500 cycles at an appropriate strain level.

Cylindrical blanks were manufactured in two builds by Arcam EBM® using an Arcam Q20plus, in the UK National Centre for Additive Manufacturing, at the Manufacturing Technology Centre.

Most blanks were manufactured in vertical orientation, with the long axis perpendicular to the deposition layers. To assess material property anisotropy, some specimens were manufactured in two other orientations; horizontal and 45 degree (Figure 1).

The average UTS results (MPa) are shown for these tensile tests below, for their as-received and cyclically stabilised conditions: Condition AR CS (MPa) (MPa)

Vertical (As-Built)



Vertical (HIP)



Horizontal (HIP)



45 Degree (HIP)



These averages are for only 2 or 3 test results in each tensile condition, and 4 or 6 in total for each material condition. This is too few tests to assess UTS variability, but is sufficient to demonstrate that these materials are manufactured with close to expected UTS values.

Orientation Vertical (a) 45 Degree (b) Horizontal (c)

Description Long axis perpendicular to deposition layers Long axis orientated at 45 degrees Long axis parallel to deposition layers

Figure 1: Specimen Build Orientation

Most blanks were post processed with a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment. To assess post process HIP treatment, some had no thermal or mechanical post processing treatments and remained in the “as-built” condition.

These UTS are within the ranges for PBF-EB as-built and HIP conditions reported by Lewandowski and Seifi in “Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties” [3]. These are also comparable with UTS values for previous and internally tested wrought bar Ti-6Al-4V.

Fatigue Tests

Fatigue tests were performed under strain control, using a triangular waveform, at an R-ratio of -1 (fully reversed). Strain test levels were set as testing progressed in order to achieve a relatively uniform distribution of lives in the range 2E3 -2E7 reversals to failure. In strain control, the test rig controller maintains the desired strain amplitude and waveform through measurements taken via an extensometer, and varies the applied load to maintain the strain waveform.

The HIP cycle was 2 hours at 920 °C with 100 MPa pressure in Argon, followed by cooling in an inert atmosphere to below 425 °C.

Test frequencies were 0.5 Hz for at least the first 43,200 cycles (=1 day at 0.5 Hz). Above these cycles, test frequencies were increased to reduce testing time, whilst ensuring a good waveform was maintained. This was only appropriate for low strain amplitude, high cycle fatigue tests.

For both conditions, the support structures were removed manually, and prior to any HIP treatment.

In total, 73 fatigue tests were performed, with total duration of about 400 test rig days:

Cylindrical fatigue specimens were machined from the blanks to ASTM E606; M12 threads, 10 mm gauge length and 5 mm gauge diameter, and polished.

Tensile Tests

• • • •

Vertical (As-Built) Vertical (HIP) Horizontal (HIP) 45 Degree (HIP)

15 tests 27 tests 16 tests 15 tests

Tensile tests were performed before fatigue tests 11

Fatigue Characterisation Method [Note: Figures 5, 6 and 7 are Fatigue Characterisation Analysis figures, are shown on page 15, and are kept together because they are best viewed together on one page. They are referred to in this Method section to help show how the fatigue test results are used to derive the parameters used in these equations.]

Before reviewing the fatigue test results, it is useful to describe the fatigue characterisation method for the strain-life fatigue damage model. The strain-life damage model contains both elastic and plastic terms to better represent material behaviour, so is appropriate in both the low cycle (plastic) and high cycle (elastic) fatigue regions. This is well presented by Halfpenny in “Fatigue Characterization and Testing of Materials� [4]. The fatigue parameters for a mean curve are determined by regression analysis using the following process: 1. Calculate the stress vs. strain hysteresis loops from the mid-life cycles in each fatigue test (Figure 2) and determine the following values:

• • • •

Total stress Total strain Plastic strain Elastic strain

Ďƒ Îľt Îľp Îľe

2. Calculate the Ramberg-Osgood parameters (Equation 1) representing the non-linear stress vs. strain behaviour of the material (Figure 7a). 1

đ?œŽđ?œŽ đ?œŽđ?œŽ đ?‘›đ?‘›â€˛ Îľ = + ( ) (1) đ??¸đ??¸ đ?‘˜đ?‘˜â€˛

Derive the following parameters by regression in Equation 1, using the elastic properties from Figure 5a and the plastic from Figure 5b:

• • • •

Elastic Modulus Cyclic Strength Coefficient Cyclic Strainhardening Exponent Standard Error of log(Îľ) (cyclic)

E k’ n’ SEc

3. Calculate the Basquin parameters (Equation 2) representing the elastic strain-life data (Îľe) vs. fatigue life (Figure 6a)

đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?‘’đ?‘’ =

đ?œŽđ?œŽđ?œŽđ?‘“đ?‘“ ∙ đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘?đ?‘? đ??¸đ??¸


Derive the following parameters by regression analysis of the elastic fatigue test results: • • • • •

Elastic Strain Reversals to failure Fatigue Strength Coefficient Fatigue Strength Exponent Standard Error of log(Îľe) (elastic)

Îľe Nr Ďƒâ€˜f b SEe

4. Calculate the Coffin-Manson parameters (Equation 3) representing the plastic strain-life data (Îľp) vs. fatigue life (Figure 6b)

đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?‘?đ?‘? = đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?‘“đ?‘“ ∙ đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘?đ?‘?


Derive the following parameters by regression in Equation 3: • Plastic Strain Îľp • Fatigue Ductility Coefficient Îľâ€˜f • Fatigue Ductility Exponent c • Standard Error of log(Îľp) (plastic) SEp Figure 2: Example fatigue test report showing hysteresis loops and cycles to % load drop 12

5. Secondary optimisation of parameters Ďƒâ€˜f and Îľâ€˜f in order to better represent the total strain-life data (Îľt vs. Nr), in the combined strain-life curve (Equation 4), the mean curve in Figure 7b.

only be used when the nominal stresses do not exceed the yield strength. This is because the stress-life fatigue damage model is an elastic model and so does not consider plasticity.

Fatigue Failure Criteria (4) During testing the number of cycles to separation failure is automatically recorded by the test rig controller. However cycles to separation is not the most appropriate failure criteria to use for the strainDesign curves with a specific reliability target (or life damage model. certainty of survival) and confidence interval can be further calculated using the standard errors SEe and For this fatigue characterisation analysis it is better to use a “percentage load drop� failure criteria; 20% load SEp, the design curve in Figure 7b. drop for this analysis. Design curves shown in the results section of this paper are for 97.7% Certainty of Survival (2 standard deviations During strain controlled testing, the load varies to maintain constant strain in the gauge length. The below the mean curve), with 95% Confidence. material is considered to have failed when the It is useful to include stress-life, as many will be familiar load required to create this strain drops by a given percentage, and the number of cycles is recorded. with this older fatigue analysis approach.

đ?œŽđ?œŽđ?œŽđ?‘“đ?‘“ đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą = ∙ đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘?đ?‘? +đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?œ€đ?‘“đ?‘“ ∙ đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘?đ?‘? đ??¸đ??¸

Stress-life curves can be derived from strain controlled fatigue test results, but not vice-versa. A single slope stress-life equation is shown in Equation 5. ��

Where: • •


= đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†1 ∙ đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?


Stress Range Sr Cycles to failure Nc [ 1 cycle = 2 reversals ]

Derive the following parameters by regression in Equation 5: • Stress Range Intercept • Fatigue Strength Exponent • Fatigue Transition Point (cycles)

SRI1 b1 Nc1

If required, a second fatigue strength exponent (b2), can be estimated after the fatigue transition point (Nc1). • • •

For a conservative assumption, where fatigue life is assumed to continue with the same exponent; b2 = b1 For a fatigue limiting assumption, where fatigue life is assumed to be infinite; b2 = 0 Alternatively, between these two extremes, Haibach’s empirical relationship estimates; b2 = b1 / (2+b1)

Stress-life curves should be treated with caution at high stress levels, low fatigue lives. A stress-life curve is only intended for use in high-cycle fatigue and should

This drop in load is explained by the presence of a crack, or by a material which has become entirely plastic in its behaviour. This failure criteria assumes that components which have lost 20% of their strength are unlikely to perform as intended, and are at risk of imminent failure. During testing, cycle number, applied load and strain response were measured at 1000 samples per second. These are post-processed prior to fatigue characterisation and curve fitting to identify hysteresis loops and the number of cycles to 20% load drop failure. Figure 2 shows an example fatigue test report showing hysteresis loops and cycles to % load drop failure; 910 cycles to 20% load drop (926 to separation) in this example. Note how the hysteresis loops change as the fatigue test progresses. There is some cyclic softening from the beginning of the test (100 cycles, red hysteresis loop) to the mid cycle (460 cycles, blue). Towards the end of the test, the load drop can clearly be seen in the peak tensile stress plot (red), and by the flattened tensile hysteresis loop (910 cycles, green).

Fatigue Characterisation Analysis A strain-life fatigue characterisation identifies test results to use in the regression analysis for the elastic line and plastic line. The test results are categorised for inclusion in the elastic or plastic regression analysis by reviewing their hysteresis loops in the fatigue test reports and their fracture surfaces. The width of the hysteresis loop shows the amount of plasticity at the test strain amplitude. For example, the hysteresis loops shown in Figure 2 are wide, and indicate plasticity occurring at this test strain level. Conversely the hysteresis loops for a predominantly elastic failure are either very narrow or just a straight line. 13

Figure 3: Example fracture surface from a plastic failure

Figure 4: Example fracture surface from an elastic failure

The fracture surface for this specimen, shown in Figure 3, also indicates that this is a predominantly plastic failure. The surface is rough and lumpy, similar to the cup-andcone shear surface and necking that occurs during a tensile failure, although less pronounced. Conversely Figure 4 shows a predominantly elastic failure surface, with an obvious crack nucleation location and growth region. However there are no obvious semi-circular “beach marks” often associated with a growing fatigue crack because this is a constant amplitude test. Beach marks tend to result from occasional overloads.

The as-built test results have low scatter, a steeper slope, and generally lower fatigue life than stock.

This categorisation of the test results for inclusion in either the elastic or plastic regression analysis is very important. The derivation of elastic and plastic lines is easily skewed by inclusion of inappropriate test results, and too few test results. More test results are always desirable, though are usually limited by financial and resource budgets, particularly for more high cycle elastic failures which may require months of testing.

The HIP post-manufacture treatment gives significant and increasing improvement in strain-life fatigue at low strain levels in the high cycle fatigue region. Though this increased fatigue performance may not be realisable because of the increased and significant scatter.

Following categorisation the appropriate test results are used in the regression analysis to fit Equations 1 to 4. The results for Vertical build orientation with HIP are shown in the following figures: • Figure 5: (a) Elastic and (b) Plastic curve fit for cyclic Stress-Strain curve characterisation • Figure 6: (a) Elastic and (b) Plastic curve fit for Strain-Life curve characterisation • Figure 7: Combining elastic and plastic curve fits into (a) Cyclic Stress-Strain and (b) Strain-Life curves

Test Results and Fatigue Curves (1)

Strain-Life : Compare As-Built and HIP Condition for Vertical Build Orientation

This comparison is shown in Figure 8. The as-built and HIP test results are superimposed on ‘stock’ wrought Ti-6Al-4V test results including their mean curve and ±3σ bounds. These stock test results are 65 samples from 3 batches, all annealed, 4mm sheet and 65mm diameter bar (2 batches). 14

For the HIP test results: • •

At high strain levels, in the low cycle fatigue region (<1E5), scatter is low, and the slope is similar to the as-built condition. At lower strain levels, in the high cycle fatigue region (>1E5), fatigue life increases, the slope becomes much shallower, and scatter increases.

The as-built specimens have been seen to contain porosity. These may be acting as fatigue initiation sites, which become more significant at low strain levels. Though porosity has not been observed in the HIP condition, it is potentially reduced but still present, and a potential contributor to the high scatter at low strain levels. (2)

Strain-Life : Compare HIP Condition for Vertical, Horizontal and 45° Build Orientation

[ These results comments and figures are not included in this reduced paper. For a copy of the full paper please contact the Royal Aeronautical Society at conferences@ ] (3)

Stress-Life : Compare HIP Condition for Vertical, Horizontal and 45° Build Orientations

[ These results comments and figures are not included in this reduced paper. For a copy of the full paper please contact the Royal Aeronautical Society at ]

Conclusions and Recommendations This work has led to useful knowledge of the fatigue performance of this Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy additively manufactured by electron beam powder bed fusion.

Figure 5: (a) Elastic and (b) Plastic curve fit for cyclic Stress-Strain curve characterisation

Figure 6: (a) Elastic and (b) Plastic curve fit for Strain-Life curve characterisation

Figure 7: Combining elastic and plastic curve fits into (a) Cyclic Stress-Strain and (b) Strain-Life curves 15

6. Validate the use of these strainlife fatigue curves in CAE fatigue simulation by correlation with physical tests of a component with appropriate variation in build direction and notches to introduce stress concentration locations. In conclusion, fatigue tests on additive manufactured material, including both manufacturing process and any post manufacturing treatment, is considered essential because the fatigue performance cannot be inferred from the wrought material. HBM Prenscia would like to thank and acknowledge the support of the Manufacturing Technology Centre in this work.

References Figure 8: Strain-Life results for Vertical build orientation as-built (blue) with HIP (red)

The conclusions are: 1.

The strain-life fatigue damage model and fatigue characterisation used to fit traditional metallic fatigue test results appears to be applicable to this material and manufacturing method.

2. The HIP process improves the fatigue performance in the high cycle region, when compared to the as-built condition, though with increased and significant scatter. The HIP process is expected to be reducing porosity in the material and improving the fatigue life, but any remaining porosity is potentially contributing to the increased scatter. 3.

The similar fatigue performance in the low cycle region for as-built and the HIP condition is potentially a new finding. There is very little strain-life data in public domain literature in this low cycle (plastic) region, and any stress-life data cannot show this.

Though some questions remain unanswered, and further questions become apparent, leading to the following recommendations: 4.

Perform tensile and fatigue tests from a 3rd build, containing blanks with vertical, horizontal and 45 degree build orientation, with the same build parameters and HIP treatment. This will determine whether fatigue performance differences are due to build orientation or being manufactured in a different build.


Perform more fatigue tests, particularly in the high cycle fatigue region, are desirable to better understand the scatter bounds.


1: Arcam EBM® Brochure, ‘Welcome to Manufacturing Unbound’, http://www. u p l o a d s/a rc a m e b m corp-brochure-fnlv3.pdf


Milewski, J. O., ‘Additive Manufacturing of Metals: From Fundamental Technology to Rocket Nozzles, Medical Implants and Custom Jewelry’, Springer, 2017


Lewandowski, J. J. and Seifi, M., ‘Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties’, Materials Issues in Additive Manufacturing, Volume 46, 2016

4 : Halfpenny, A., ‘Fatigue Characterization and Testing of Materials’, HBM Prenscia, July 2018, h t t p s : / / w w w. n c o d e.c o m / v i d e o s/ fa t i g u e characterisation-and-testing-of-materials

Young Engineers Latest News

One of our main charitable activities is our series of Young Engineers Seminars. These seminars are designed to provide those at the start of their engineering careers with a unique opportunity to gain knowledge and skills, providing a broader foundation of technical knowledge and accelerating development. The latest in the EIS series of seminars, aimed at those who have graduated within the last 4-5 years, was held in October at Rolls Royce in Derby. 22 delegates from a variety of companies across the UK attended the event. Delegates commented that that they found the small group size gave good opportunity for in-depth discussion as well as the chance to share knowledge and network with their peers. The presentations throughout the day focused on a variety of topics including dynamic and fatigue mechanical testing and optical strain measurement. We received great feedback on the quality of the presentations and it was fantastic to have a couple of our young engineers presenting during the day.

The society is now looking to offer further seminars during 2019. If you are able to support by hosting an event or if you have engineers who have graduated within the last 4-5 years who would be interested in joining the group please contact Sara Atkin: Our thanks go to Oliver Greenwood and Rolls Royce for organising the day.

EIS Working Group A key focus of the Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) is to find ways of improving our understanding of Engineering. In the past we have successfully facilitated working groups for like-minded engineers to discuss and overcome challenges in particular areas. A new focus we are exploring is an initiative focusing on joints, to collaborate, share knowledge and research for the benefit of all. We are looking for people, companies and universities to participate in this mutually beneficial project. There are always concerns that competitive advantage could be gained by sharing knowledge, but this inhibits beneficial learning and knowledge for both parties. By working together on projects we can all learn and develop, particularly where we come together from different industries such as aerospace and automotive. If we are in similar sectors where there are potential competitive issues, then we can still work together on joint research for mutual benefit. Through working separately we have to fund the entire research and development phase ourselves and we are also missing out on potential government funding initiatives. The creation of working groups enables us to connect companies that have the same engineering challenges to solve.

Initiative on Joints

There are many areas we could focus on including Fasteners / Bolted Joints, Spot Welds, Self-Piece Rivets, Seam Welds and Adhesives to name a few. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all advance our engineering knowledge together with the assistance of the Engineering Integrity Society. If you would like to get involved please contact the secretariat ( including details of the specific areas which interest you. Andrew Blows Jaguar Land Rover & EIS Committee Member


Product Design, Development and Manufacture DON'T IGNORE THE FUNDAMENTALS This section of the journal usually describes the HOW IT WORKS of a specific technique or piece of equipment, however this article will focus on the process and pitfalls in developing a new component.

As Product Design Engineers we are responsible come from a totally theoretical calculation further for the process of creating and developing new complicated by assumptions of the loading inputs products. We generally work as part of a larger and vectors. design and manufacturing team, and the job involves frequent internal and external collaboration in all stages of design and therefore we often rely on information from many sources such as materials database, modelling, testing and manufacture. We can't be experts in all of these areas, but how can we ensure our design is based upon a solid foundation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Don't Ignore the Fundamentals:One of the biggest problems in the engineering process is communication. At every stage we assume that what was asked for was supplied or carried out. As an example of this, tests were carried out on material supplied to a global company. This material had been passed as acceptable by their goods inwards and metallurgy departments, however when it was used to manufacture a lower wishbone suspension component, rig tests gave fatigue lives which varied by a factor of 3. So what went wrong? Design, material, process, test. Design and Modelling The design of a new product begins with the specification, function, physical restraints, predicted loading and usually a target weight and even cost. This information comes from several departments and it is the job of the Design Engineer to take this and use CAD to build a virtual model and then use FEA to predict the stress distribution under various loading conditions. Weight and cost restraints can influence the type and quantity of material that can be used which will have an influence on the stress model. Another difficulty in predicting stress is the loading information, this may be from a generic database but in a totally new application it may 18

Material and Manufacture The wishbone is made from hot rolled sheet material pressed into two halves and then seam welded to produce a rigid body into which rubber bushes are inserted. So from the beginning of this process there is scope for material variation due to the strain state of the sheet steel. Tests need to be done to confirm all specimens are the same. Most, if not all acceptance tests are static and the strain state is not measured. Tests need to be done to establish the strain state which can vary significantly in differing manufacture and finishing processes, in addition to material condition. Material properties from literature are

often incorrect and misleading. Residual Strain needs to be controlled in received material and in produced specimens. Also, specimens should be load cycled prior to test start. This process when observed shows that the mechanical properties change after initial low count cycles and then stabilise.

In Conclusion In the case of the lower wishbone, the range in fatigue life was eventually found to be caused by variations in stress levels at a critical location which when investigated further was the result of an assembly operation where the direction of a weld run was reversed between two factories. Thermal gradients during cooling from In this case the problem was a process induced manufacturing function generate residual strain. effect and could be solved by process control. These cooling cycles generally are uncontrolled However if it is a material issue there can also be and can create deformation during the forming a factor of 3 on life which is much more difficult process and then coupled with welding can halve to correct. or double the fatigue life of the finished part. In some cases if the residual strains can be controlled Finally Don't Ignore in the critical high stress locations, the fatigue life can be extended. Reliability of Material Data, Condition of Material as Supplied, Effect of Manufacturing Variables, Testing & Design Correlation Comparing Test Rig to Model, Test Repeatability, Collaboration between Design and Test to Improve Desired drive signals should be inspected for Predictions & Results. velocity and power to ensure stable performance. Inertial service loads are often not attainable Graham Hemmings/Norman Thornton on test rigs. It is assumed that the service data provided is relevant and complete in damaging events. There have been instances where service failures have occurred well below the predicted life and it was subsequently discovered that the most damaging event was kerb strikes for off road parking, none of which were included in data gathering. Therefore care should be taken to ensure that data represents true user operation where abuse can be frequent and the nature of this must be recorded. When designing the actual test rig the load input locations with anticipated stiffness need to be included along with reaction locations. It is critical at this stage that the test department and design department work together to ensure that the performance of the rig is validated against design predictions to ensure reliability and repeatability. This will even come down to tightening up bolts in a particular sequence and ensuring correct torques are used. 19

Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2 April 2019, Silverstone

A significant event in the engineering year, the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition is seen by many as the go-to event for testing and analysis technologies. With 65 exhibitors from sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Motorsport, Rail, Off-Highway, Mechanical Handling, Civil Engineering, Industrial and Power Generation the exhibition is an excellent opportunity to see the latest equipment and technologies as well as being a great meeting point for the exchange of ideas and contacts. Returning to the Silverstone Wing at Silverstone Race Circuit on 2 April, the exhibition attracts companies and individuals with an interest in the field of engineering involving measurement, analysis, testing and prediction. Attendance is free and visitors receive complimentary refreshments along with free parking. In addition, for 2019 all visitors will have the chance to win a pair of tickets to the Formula 1 British Grand Prix. A key part of the day is the series of mini seminars and this year’s overall theme is “Bridging the Gap between the Virtual & Physical Worlds”. The programme of 8 presentations throughout the day will cover a wide range of topics from well-respected engineers across several different sectors. The keynote speaker is Ian Jones, Expert-Metrology; Structures Test from Airbus who will present “The Route towards Smarter Testing of Aircraft Structures”. The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition opens at 10am on 2 April. More information and free registration is available at

Exhibiting Companies A&D Europe, UK Branch Anthony Best Dynamics Ltd AcSoft Ltd Applied Measurements Ltd BMTA Bruel & Kjaer UK Ltd CaTs3 Ltd CentraTEQ Ltd Concorde Publishing Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd Data Physics UK Ltd Datron Technology Ltd Dewesoft UK Ltd DWE Scientific Ltd Elstar Elektronik AG Enabling Process Technologies Ltd ETLG Ltd Frazer-Nash Consultancy Gantner Instruments GOM UK Granta Designs HBM UK Ltd 20

Head Acoustics UK Ltd IAC Acoustic Company UK Ltd IDT Interface Force Measurements Ltd Ipetronik GmbH & Co KG Julabo KDP Electronic Systems Ltd Kistler Instruments LaVision UK Ltd M&P International Measurements Group UK Ltd Mecmesin Meggitt Moog MTS Systems Mueller BBM VAS Optimax Imaging Inspection & Measurement Oxford Technical Solutions Ltd PARC – SOPEMEA PCB Piezotronics Ltd Peli Products (UK) Ltd Photo-Sonics International Ltd

Photron Europe Ltd Polytec Ltd Prosig Ltd Racelogic Ltd RDP Electronics Ltd Reliability Maintenance Solutions Ltd Sensors UK Ltd Servotest Testing Systems Ltd Severn Thermal Solutions Ltd Shimadzu UK Ltd Siemens PLM SIKA Instruments Strainsense Ltd Techni Measure Ltd Thermal Vision Research THP Systems Transmission Dynamics Vibes Technology B.V. Vibration Research UK Zwick Roell Ltd


All visitors have the chance to wi 2019 Formula 1 British Grand Pri tickets

PROGRAMME This year’s mini seminars are under the theme of “Bridging the Gap between the Virtual & Physical Worlds”. 10.30am Keynote The Route towards Smarter Testing of Aircraft Structures Ian Jones – Airbus

Register at

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11.15am Roads and how to incorporate them realistically into the virtual world Gordon Airey – University of Nottingham and Jan Prins – Jaguar Land Rover 11.45am Tuning an automotive exhaust for sound quality Mark Burnett – HORIBA MIRA

12.15pm How Simple is as Simple as Possible? Peter Heyes – HBM Prenscia

12.45pm Best Practice Materials Data Management – ensuring quality, traceability, and return on investment Steven Laine – Granta Designs 1.30pm Bridging the Gap between the Virtual & Physical Worlds - A Perspective from the Off-Highway Construction and Agricultural Equipment Industry David Panni – JCB 2pm Experimental Dynamic Substructuring: how to create Test Based Models for FEM Dennis de Klerk – Mueller BBM VAS 3pm Virtual Prototyping using a Driving Sound Simulator and Binaural Transfer Path Analysis / Synthesis Bernd Phillipen – Head Acoustics


Industry News IET challenges young entrepreneurs to ‘Save our Seas’ and solve real world plastic and toxic waste threat • 80% of marine litter originates from land with only 9% of plastic currently being recycled globally. • Single-use plastic and cigarette butts are the biggest threat to oceans and marine life. • IET Global Challenge encourages young professional engineers (aged 18-35) across the globe to address a real-world engineering challenge with their diverse academic and technical exposure. The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is calling for young entrepreneurs to enter a global challenge to develop an innovative solution to help clean up the estimated 18 billion pounds of increasing plastic waste that enters our oceans each year. In addition, approximately four trillion cigarette butts have made their way into the waters, leaching hundreds of toxic chemicals each and adding to the biggest global threat of our generation. Partnering with Greenpeace and GreenSeas Trust, the IET has set two very different challenges, with teams needing to solve one of them to be in with the chance of working with organisations that can make a real difference. The winning teams from both challenges will receive a £500 cash prize, trophy and an all-expenses-paid trip to attend the IET's prestigious Innovation Awards ceremony in London where their winning solution will be revealed to the audience. For more information, visit and follow the challenge on social media #IETSaveOurSeas. The closing date for entries is 14 March 2019.

Engineering students given lifetime opportunity to make a difference to the environment Talented engineering students from Exeter University (Penryn Campus) and Plymouth University will be battling it out to create the best water fountain design in order to win £500 and the chance of a lifetime to make a difference to the planet. Organised by Our Only World, a new Polzeath-based charity created by Tina Robinson who is also the treasurer of Polzeath Marine Conservation Group, the competition will run from term start in January 2019 to April 2019 with the ultimate hope of moving the production of UK water refill stations from abroad to the United Kingdom. 22

The idea for the competition came in October just after Sadiq Khan, Mayor of London, announced he was going to spend £1.7million on over 100 water fountains around the capital city in a bid to reduce plastic pollution. Up until now, the majority of these refill stations have been imported from the USA and Germany and it is Tina’s ambition that this is altered so that they are designed and produced entirely within the UK. Earlier this year, Polzeath Marine Conservation Group installed two water refill stations in Polzeath and Rock. Since the fountains were installed, they have seen more than 15,000 litres drawn, saving thousands of singleuse plastic bottles from entering the waste stream and our oceans. Our Only World is a charity set up to promote the children’s song with the same name, composed by David Smart and Joe Broadfoot, and all proceeds will go towards the funding of marine conservation projects. Please contact Tina Robinson at ouronlyworld@ or visit for more information and to offer support.

Hoppecke secures Vivarail deal for UK's first battery-powered passenger train In a deal that secures a long-term future for batterypowered trains in the UK, Hoppecke Industrial Batteries and Vivarail have confirmed that they will be working together to design and integrate batteries to power Vivarail's Class 230 passenger trains. In October last year Vivarail launched the UK's first passenger train powered by a mobile charging unit developed by Hoppecke, the UK's industrial power specialist. The train carried hundreds of passengers on an arduous route across Scotland. The event demonstrated that Hoppecke's Lithium-ion batteries are ideally suited to the most challenging routes, providing the rapid charging needed for batterypowered journeys. The Class 230 train utilises Hoppecke's Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), which stores electrical energy and then, when the train comes into a station, pumps 1MW of energy in just eight minutes - sufficient to provide a robust 65-mile range. As well as demonstrating that battery trains are truly fit for service, new information was collected on the Scottish route, allowing Vivarail and Hoppecke to assess performance data for the batteries. The train also benefits from regenerative braking, absorbing the energy used in braking and regenerating it back to power the train. Currently, Vivarail is building a fleet of diesel/battery hybrids to operate the Wrexham-Bidston line for Transport for Wales, where the diesel gensets will be used to charge the batteries not to power the train.

Designs for other types of hybrid trains exist and a new hydrogen variant is being developed which, similarly to the diesel hybrid, will exceed the pure battery train's range of 65 miles.

EEF survey – Industry urges Universities to work harder for vocational learners Key findings from the December 2018 survey: • Almost three quarters of companies recruiting Apprentices, up from 66% in 2014 • One third of companies recruiting Graduates, down from two thirds in 2014 • 80% of manufacturers say average age of workforce is 41 or older • Half of manufacturers expect up to a fifth of their workforce to retire within a decade • Almost half of companies are recruiting from other industries and sectors up from just over a third in 2014. Britain’s manufacturers are urging Universities to cast their net much wider to include vocational learners rather than prioritising academic pupils, on the back of new survey evidence showing companies are giving greater priority to investing in Apprenticeship programmes than recruiting Graduates. With companies still planning to expand despite the economic and political uncertainty they are increasingly looking to recruit employees with transferable skills from other industries and sectors to plug hard to fill roles. According to the survey almost three quarters of companies (72%) are planning to recruit Apprentices compared to 66% in 2014. But, by contrast, the number now planning to recruit Graduates has fallen to 34% compared to 66% in 2014. The need to bring fresh young talent into manufacturing is highlighted by the fact four fifths of companies say the average age of their workforce is 41 or older whilst almost half of companies expect between 11% and 20% of their workforce to retire in the next decade.

The first ‘Carbon Literate’ engineering students in the world have successfully completed their training at Manchester Metropolitan University Carbon Literacy is an awareness of climate change and knowledge of the ‘green’ actions we can take to keep the planet healthy – and the next generation of engineers will play a significant part in determining the future of the environment. Second year undergraduate students from Manchester Metropolitan’s Product Design and Technology BSc and Design Engineering BSc courses took part in the special training, which was embedded into their overall teaching. The training was delivered by the Carbon Literacy Project, based at the University’s Innospace business hub.

The students were introduced to the impacts of their carbon footprints. In three workshops, the students explored the wider issues around climate change, and devised ways in which they might use their training and expertise to halt it. For example, they developed a concept design for a sustainable, green product that could be used after a natural disaster, and they came up with ideas on how engineers can lessen the environmental impact of the rescue operation. The students graduated from their Carbon Literacy training at a ceremony in January 2019.

AFRC using rotary friction welding to reduce materials wastage and production time across UK manufacturing The University of Strathclyde’s Advanced Forming Research Centre (AFRC) is exploring innovative ways to reduce materials wastage and production time across UK manufacturing. Two rotary friction welding machines, the biggest of their kind in any UK research centre, are bringing a new capability to the centre. A welding process that benefits from enhanced integrity of materials, rotary friction welding is fast and highly energy efficient. The AFRC’s engineers and technicians will integrate this new capability with other advanced manufacturing techniques used at the centre, with big implications for industry. It is currently used across niche manufacturing areas within the aerospace and oil and gas sectors. The AFRC, which is part of the UK’s High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Catapult, is, however, seeking to change this and explore wider opportunities for rotary friction welding across various applications. Originally housed in the Manufacturing Technology Centre (MTC) in Coventry; also part of the HVM Catapult network, the 125 and 300 tonne machines, represent an investment in the region of £500K. They will provide efficient, low cost solutions for firms requiring high integrity manufacturing processes in sectors, such as aerospace, automotive and oil and gas. One of the initial projects using the new equipment will see rotary friction welding used alongside other capabilities at the centre to develop a high performance, high integrity component for aerospace applications.

Hundreds of UK teens honoured at national engineering awards Almost 400 UK teens have been honoured by one of the UK’s leading engineering programmes. Some 393 students - including a record-equalling 113 girls - achieved a coveted Arkwright Engineering Scholarship award as part of a drive to inspire future leaders in engineering. 23

The talented group, aged 16-17, were presented with their accolades at aerospace-themed ceremonies at the Institute of Engineering and Technology in London and the International Conference Centre in Edinburgh, supported by principal awards ceremony sponsors, the RAF. Those honoured were handpicked from 1,600 hopefuls who applied for the scholarship in 2018 following a rigorous selection process, which assesses their academic, practical and leadership skills in engineering disciplines. Founded in 1991, the Arkwright Engineering Scholarships programme aims to identify, inspire and nurture future leaders in engineering. More than 150 organisations such as professional institutions, trade associations and schools support the programme. Only the highest performing students from all educational backgrounds are selected following assessments including a two-hour aptitude exam and a university-based interview. Those who succeed receive academic and financial support during their studies. As part of the scholarship, students gain access to a range of enrichment experiences such as conferences, Connect Days, mentoring, residential courses and university VIP days. Since its inception, almost 5,400 young people have passed through the scholarship programme. For more information visit

Submarine skills for the future: BAE Systems' £25M submarine academy opens in Barrow-in-Furness The Academy for Skills and Knowledge, at BAE Systems’ Submarines site in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, has been officially opened by the Secretary of State for Defence, Gavin Williamson. The state-of-the-art £25m training academy covers 89,340 sq ft and was built to develop the world-class engineering skills required to design, build and deliver complex submarine programmes to the Royal Navy. Featuring classrooms, workshops, a virtual reality suite and scale-model sized submarine units, the academy will provide bespoke training to almost 9,000 employees, including nearly 800 apprentices. The Defence Secretary also used his visit to announce the award of a further £400m to BAE Systems for ongoing work on the Dreadnought programme, as well as reveal the name of the second boat in the class, which will be HMS Valiant. The academy is part of a substantial site investment programme that will provide a range of new and upgraded facilities to the workforce – from experienced naval architects and systems engineers to new apprentices and graduates – working to deliver the Astute and Dreadnought class submarines for the Royal Navy.


The academy will deliver a range of training, from mechanical and electrical skills in its 10 workshops to design and project management in its 30 classrooms. Resources such as the virtual reality training suite will allow employees to hone their skills in a simulated environment, before working on the real product. The Submarines academy is the second of its type to be opened by BAE Systems in North West England and joins a network of similar facilities in place to train and develop the 34,000 BAE Systems employees across the UK. The first Academy for Skills and Knowledge was opened in Samlesbury, Lancashire, to support BAE Systems’ Air business, and last year celebrated delivering more than 250,000 training hours in its first year.

Three outstanding women celebrated as Young Woman Engineers of the Year 2018 Three young female engineers have been recognised at the Institution of Engineering and Technology’s (IET) Young Woman Engineer of the Year Awards for their work in engineering. IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year: Sophie Harker (27), is an Aerodynamics & Performance Engineer for BAE Systems. In her role, Sophie performs aerodynamic and performance analyses on future combat jets, as well as exploring hypersonic flight concepts and the application of emerging technologies in aviation. IET Mary George Memorial Prize for Apprentices: Shajida Akthar (23) is a Software Engineer at Accenture which involves coding scripts to automate manual processes in Financial Services. Women’s Engineering Society (WES) Award: Lorna Bennet (29) is a Mechanical Engineer at the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult. She works to improve the operations and maintenance of offshore renewable energy assets. These prestigious engineering industry awards celebrate women working in modern engineering – and aim to help change the perception that engineering is predominantly a career for men by banishing outdated engineering stereotypes of hard hats and dirty overalls. The awards seek to find role models who can help address the UK science and engineering skills crisis by promoting engineering careers to more girls and women. This year’s YWE Awards were sponsored by Analog Devices, BAE Systems, Boeing, BP, Civil Aviation Authority, Coca Cola, GCHQ, GSK, Leonardo, MBDA, Ofcom, RAF, Royal Mail, Royal Navy, RS Components, Spirit Energy, Teledyne e2v, Wiley and WMG University of Warwick. For more information, visit

Jaguar Land Rover’s Castle Bromwich Assembly Plant receives Engineering Heritage Award Factory which manufactured more than 10,000 Spitfires during WWII and now produces Jaguars receives recognition Jaguar Land Rover’s Castle Bromwich Assembly Plant has been presented with a prestigious Engineering Heritage Award by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers which recognises its engineering importance as a plant that has been at the forefront of innovation, technology and high-quality manufacturing for nearly 80 years. The ceremony was held on Friday 16 November 2018. The Castle Bromwich Assembly Plant was a major contributor to the war effort through the manufacture of two of Britain’s most iconic aeroplanes. An estimated 11,989 Spitfires and around 305 Lancaster Bombers were produced at the site. Spitfire P7350, currently the oldest airworthy Spitfire in the world, was built at Castle Bromwich. The plane, which fought in the Battle of Britain, is one of a number of Spitfires produced at Castle Bromwich which fly with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, an event which was also awarded a coveted Engineering Heritage Award. The assembly plant is now home of the iconic brand Jaguar Land Rover, where a number of Jaguar models have been produced which have featured in James Bond films. The awards, established in 1984, aim to promote artefacts, sites or landmarks of significant engineering importance – past and present.

One every nine minutes – 60,000 electric cars registered in 2018 marking 7th consecutive year of growth • Electric vehicle market grew 19% in 2018 with almost 60,000 new plug-in electric cars registered in the UK • One new electric car registered every nine minutes in the UK last year • End-of-year figures show the seventh consecutive year of growth for the plug-in car market • Total number of electric cars registered to date in the UK now stands at almost 200,000 January 2019 – UK electric car registrations continue to set records, as latest figures place the total number of new 100% electric and plug-in hybrid cars registered last year at 59,911, making it the most successful year for electric cars to date. That equates to one new electric car registration every nine minutes in the UK. The total also means the market grew by 19% compared to 2017. Once again, plug-in hybrids accounted for the bulk of the market, with 74% of registrations. Pure electric cars also saw a significant boost in 2018, up 14% on the previous year. This takes the number of 100% electric and plug-in hybrid cars registered in the UK to date to 196,343.

From a regional perspective, the South East saw the highest demand across the nation, with 21,383 pure electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles registered – a 24% increase on 2017. Other leading regions include the West Midlands (8,601), South West (8,354), East Anglia (5,672), and Yorkshire and the Humber (5,344), making up the top five British regions for electric car uptake this year. However, the year ahead has the potential to be another strong year for registrations. A range of new models are set to hit the market in 2019, including the new allelectric Kia e-Niro, Audi e-tron and recently announced Nissan LEAF which will feature an increased battery size, to name just a few.

Solving the wellbeing puzzle Dame Carol Black advises how to create a wellbeing culture in three new films produced by the British Safety Council. Recent research by the British Safety Council identified significant levels of uncertainty in the UK about wellbeing at work. Its report 'Not just free fruit: wellbeing at work', found that employee wellbeing is often ignored or misunderstood, with employers unsure how to define it or how to improve staff wellbeing, what priority to give it and how to measure the effectiveness of wellbeing interventions and programmes. Now, Professor Dame Carol Black, expert government advisor on health and work and a passionate campaigner for better mental health and wellbeing, not only explains how it can be done simply but also the reasons why it should be done: improved welling in the workplace can improve productivity by up to 25%. Her views and advice were recorded by the British Safety Council in a series of film interviews about the nature of workplace wellbeing: •

Wellbeing in the workplace

Wellbeing and line managers

Wellbeing and SMEs

The British Safety Council’s report can be downloaded at: Professor Carol Black’s interview on workplace wellbeing, was published in Safety Management in December 2018 and can be downloaded at: h t t p s : / / w w w. b r i t s a fe.o rg /p u b l i c a t i o n s/s a fe t y m a n a g e m e n t - m a g a z i n e/s a f e t y - m a n a g e m e n t magazine/2018/a-place-you-trust/

Contributions to Industry News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 200 words. 25

Product News Introducing BK Connect - Software that works like you work BK Connect is the highly innovative software platform from Brüel & Kjær. This platform is a fully integrated user-centric software solution for multi-channel data acquisition (with industry-leading LAN-XI hardware), data processing, data management and reporting. The BK Connect structure and concept are based on configurable user workflows that provide users exactly what they need when they need it. This reduces the risk of error and the need for customer-specific development – while maintaining the full feature richness of a modern analysis platform. The core applications of BK Connect are designed for general-purpose sound and vibration engineering. Together, they provide a comprehensive set of tools for real-time measurement and data processing with the flexibility to deal with a wide range of engineering scenarios – from repetitive, standardized testing to complex troubleshooting investigations.

Other typical applications include fatigue and endurance testing on standard plastic and composite specimens, or on bonded components such as rubber/metal joints. Fracture mechanics investigations can also be carried out on aluminum and plastic CT and SEB specimens. Intuitive and informative operation via testXpert R and testXpert III software makes the LTM a genuine allrounder, which also suitable for research and training in educational establishments.

New Technology Enhances and Simplifies Field Data Acquisition The ObserVR1000 represents a new generation of technology for field data acquisition and analysis. Designed for mobile use, it is compact and battery powered, with an integrated SD card for data storage. Test configurations are setup using a smartphone or tablet via a wireless connection; after setup, users can choose to monitor and control tests wirelessly or just let them run autonomously.

In addition to the core applications, BK Connect also offers a range of specialized modules for structural dynamics, noise source location and angle domain analysis.

Testing and reporting efficiency is supported by enhancing features, including a microphone for adding spoken notes to a test record and a GPS interface for adding location information.

BK Connect applets portfolio: BK Connect Hammer Impact, BK Connect Loudness and Overall Analysis, BK Connect FFT Analysis, BK Connect FFT, CPB and Overall Analysis, BK Connect Order Analysis and BK Connect Acoustic Camera.

It is a powerful tool for advanced testing; engineers can instrument up to 16 sensors for a field trial, capturing every detail as each channel is sampled simultaneously at up to 128kHz.

Visit to learn more and to request a demo

Fatigue testing without oil! Electro-dynamic testing machines are used to determine material and component fatigue strength in the areas of fatigue life and fatigue limit. ZwickRoell’s LTM is an electro-dynamic testing machine with a drive based on linear motor technology. The new, patented drive concept enables the LTM to be used for dynamic, as well as static, materials and component testing. The low moving mass of the drive provides ideal conditions for fatigue and endurance testing. The LTM dynamic testing machine series is available with forces of ±5 and ±10 kN, and a total piston stroke of 60 mm. With its oil-free drive technology, the electro-dynamic testing machine is clean and dependable for use, especially in the medical industry. Core applications include standard compliance testing of hip, knee and dental implants. 26

The ObserVR1000 does not require special boards, PC drivers, or even a PC. After setup, data can be collected by simply pressing the record button. It is also equipped with a TEDS interface, WiFi connection, GPS, Tachometer inputs and a 6+ hour battery life. You’ll be confident in running lengthy tests and creating vibration reports with important additional data. Learn more at

Smart Oil Plug Transmission Dynamics have released the Smart Oil Plug, a next generation solution to rail gearbox monitoring. With bespoke external re-design to fit any gearbox, the Smart Oil Plug measures oil temperature, ferrous oil debris quantification, and gearbox vibration, is fully wireless, and features debris collecting magnets, location tracking, and a 3-year battery life. By measuring gearbox vibration directly, with no suspension attenuation, the Smart Oil Plug uniquely provides information on gear tooth damage, bearing damage, wheel condition including flats, condition

of the Cardan shaft and couplings, track quality monitoring, bedding in data, sudden ferrous increase from gear damage, hot running, and oil loss. This next generation device provides preventative maintenance opportunities and unsurpassed diagnostic capabilities. The Smart Oil Plug comes with several wireless and remotely selectable logging options, including an intelligent low-power mode and a continuous logging option. The latter allows the Smart Oil Plug to provide track quality information such as incorrect rail gauge sections, track damage, and foreign object presence, offering an alternative to ‘test trains’, which cannot replicate the dynamics and testing frequency of routinely operating trains. Each Smart Oil Plug system communicates wirelessly with Wi-Fi or the mobile phone network, so access is instant and global to any user or stakeholder. Our Global Data Network shows the user all of the relevant data and notifications with user-set alert levels written and deployed automatically by the system. Visit for further information

SLICE IP68 supports a variety of external sensors including bridge and IEPE transducers for gathering measurements including acceleration, displacement, strain, pressure, temperature, voltage and more. The modular system is user-configurable based on required sensor support, sampling rates and channel count. The three-channel sensor input layers can support up to 24 channels per stack, which can be daisy-chained for higher channel count tests. The new SLICE GPS Accessory Kit adds GPS time and location capabilities to the system. Data writes directly to 16GB internal flash memory and supports extended recording times up to months. The standalone system features onboard signal conditioning, filtering and samples up to 500k sps/channel. Visit for further information.

HBM’s new PACEline CFTplus series of piezoelectric force transducers

DJB Instruments Kick Starts an Exciting Year Ahead Launching a New Tapped Base Miniature Triaxial Accelerometer

HBM’s new PACEline CFTplus series of piezoelectric force transducers is an ideal choice for making measurements in the production and manufacturing sectors. CFTplus sensors are particularly suitable for covering very large measuring ranges, for e.g., when using presses with a large measuring range.

DJB Instruments is pleased to announce the launch of a new version of their popular miniature triaxial accelerometer, the AT/10 IEPE type and AT/01 charge type. The new design accommodates a tapped base for removable stud mounting, achieved with only a 1mm increase in the overall height of the accelerometer body, remaining one of the most compact of its type on the global market.

The CFTplus series’ piezoelectric force transducers are calibrated for three measuring ranges and, thus, can be used immediately upon installation. A calibration procedure does not become necessary at all. Its sensitivity is specified in three measuring ranges (1 %, 10%, and 100 %) to guarantee a wide measuring range.

Machined in titanium with fully welded construction for a robust and reliable assembly the AT/10/TB and AT/01/TB tapped base models retain DJB’s unique Konic Shear® design with three fully independent sensing elements and three fully independent IEPE circuits in the AT/10 version. Importantly, the design retains the industry standard ¼-28UNF 4 pin connector making cable sourcing lower cost and covered as part of DJB’s cable repair service. The AT/10/TB and AT/01/TB is available to order now with IEPE sensitivities up to 100mV/g or 2pC/g for the AT/01/TB. For more details about the AT/10 and AT/01 ranges please visit the DJB website, call the sales team 01638 712288 or email

Diversified Technical Systems 'Diversified Technical Systems' SLICE IP68 Data Acquisition System is designed to gather physical measurements in extreme environments. The rugged enclosure features special sealed layers and IP68-rated connectors, making it impervious to shock, water and dust from -30-80 C° temperatures. With a footprint of only 60 x 60 millimeters, SLICE IP68 is designed to embed on or in test articles, like a wheel or rotating shaft, without the need for waterproof enclosures or slip rings.

An extremely wide measuring range is typical for the piezoelectric measuring principle. Minimal forces can be reliably measured even under a high initial load. The CFTplus series force sensors have a minimal displacement, which is why the fundamental frequency is immensely high. Therefore, they are particularly suitable for measuring fast processes, such as press-fit processes. The EMC-tested force measuring elements are manufactured from rust resistant materials. HBM offers a comprehensive portfolio of piezoelectric sensors, charge amplifiers, and accessories for force measurement under the brand name “PACEline”. Additionally, numerous load cells that are based on the strain gauge technology are available in different configurations and precision levels. Customers, therefore, have the choice to select the best possible force measurement solution from a single source. Learn more on PACEline CFTplus at https://www.hbm. com/en/8158/paceline-cftplus-calibrated-piezo-forcetransducer/

Contributions to Product News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 200 words.


Fatigue 2020

Downing College, Cambridge 29 June - 1 July 2020

Following on from our successful 2017 conference, the EIS is pleased to organise the Fatigue 2020 conference, which will run 29 June to 1 July 2020 at Downing College, Cambridge. The 3 day conference builds on the long established philosophy of the Engineering Integrity Society to provide a forum for practising engineers and researchers to exchange ideas and experiences in all aspects of structural integrity. We’ve had an excellent response to our call for papers and full details can be found on our website. There’s still time to submit an abstract – please see Contributions are welcome from all disciplines, industries and research organisations. As well as giving practitioners an opportunity to keep up to date with the latest developments in durability of materials and structural analysis techniques, the conference will also provide an excellent forum for researchers to promote their work and enhance its transfer to, and impact on, industrial applications. We are particularly interested in papers that address the questions: • • • • •


Durability of advanced materials; Novel manufacturing techniques for improved component durability; Integrity of recycled and reprocessed materials; Joining technologies: bolts, welds, adhesives, joining dissimilar materials, correlation of testing and in-service durability; Surface engineering and durability; Innovations in 3D imaging for structural integrity

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Professor Youshi Hong (Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) Dr Tommaso Ghidini (European Space Agency)

PETER WATSON PRIZE A key focus of the EIS is to support engineers at the start of their careers. We encourage early careers engineers to submit abstracts to enter the Peter Watson Prize which will be awarded to the best presentation given by a young engineer. More information on eligibility can be found on our website: www.


Sponsorship opportunities are still available. Rolls Royce PLC is pleased to support the Fatigue 2020 conference. are still available.


News from the Tipper Group Tinkers versus Thinkers The Tipper Group represents women working in industries involved in welding and associated technologies. It is an interesting field, which relies heavily on technical expertise of the engineers, alongside the practical expertise of the welders and technicians. One of the challenges to getting more women into our industry could be in the way engineering careers are seen by the public. Children who naturally enjoy building and construction toys are often encouraged to see themselves in engineering type job roles. Boys are given these kind of toys more often than girls, and seem to be more likely to enjoy this kind of play. This aspect of engineering I describe as the ‘tinker’ role, and engineering relies heavily on those who can solve problems by trying out practical solutions. However, in engineering, as well as the practical skills of the ‘tinkers’ we need the creative and analytical skills of the ‘thinkers’. It is harder to identify the skills of the ‘thinker’ child, whose creativity is the ideas they have in their head. They might love designing, and they may have a flow of ideas from their unconstrained imagination. The ‘thinker’ child, however, may never have been told that their abilities would also make them an ideal engineer. While for many women engineers, the creative aspects of engineering are often the features of their jobs that they find the most enjoyable, it is common that children who do not naturally enjoy building with their hands consider that this in itself means they are not suited to engineering. When female e n g i n e e r s come into the profession though an academic route, this lack of practical handson experience can reduce their confidence as fully-rounded engineers. It can be hard to catch up if you did not have relatives who gave you the opportunity to experience practical skills while you were growing up. However, this is something that the Tipper Group at TWI Ltd was well placed to try and address, equipped as we are with an on-site welder training school. Therefore when TWI’s welder trainer invited us to run a practical welding course just for Tipper Group members, we jumped at the chance! Six female staff from a range of technical backgrounds at TWI, who would not ordinarily get the chance to do some welding, were able to spend two days in the welding training workshop learning the basics of practical welding using MMA, TIG and MAG welding processes, 30

as well as NDT techniques like penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection. The opportunity to learn about these aspects of welding engineering through hands-on experience, rather than through lectures and book-learning, gave the Tipper Group members the opportunity to challenge themselves outside of their comfort zone, while within a peer-supportive group. It took a surprisingly short time for the comments of ‘I’m really scared about trying this’ and ‘my attempt will be rubbish’ to turn into ‘I’d like to try again and make a better weld’ and ‘next I’m going to make ….’. While the session was great fun, we hope that all the staff who took part will have the confidence to try other things that they did not think they would be able to achieve. While it is not possible to really change the natural ways that people are creative, it is valuable to recognise that the best engineering requires the skills of both ‘tinkers’ and ‘thinkers’. Both sets of engineers can do great things when they understand the abilities and talents of their peers to work together to find solutions, try them out, think of new ideas, and work together to improve them. Maybe we need to change the way we view engineering, to embrace the diversity in the way individuals approach a problem and figure out a solution. We need to show teams of engineers working together, rather than the lone expert. If we can present this model of engineering to the world, then the children who love working in groups, who love thinking up crazy ideas, and who are motivated to find better ways to help people, will also find their way into engineering, along with those who love building and fixing and making things. Let’s try and emphasise to the public the diversity of skills needed in teams of engineers, as the best way to encourage diversity in the people going into engineering. Dr Philippa Moore Contact Us: The Tipper Group, TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL Email: Twitter: @TheTipperGroup Committee members: •Chair: Kamer Tuncbilek, •Media: Marion Bourebrab, marion.bourebrab@ twi.

News from the Women's Engineering Society

In August last year I was contacted by the Women’s Engineering Society to see if I would be their new Chief Executive Officer. Kirsten Bodley took up the opportunity to lead the Institute of Asset Management and they needed someone quickly. I was delighted to accept, and the last five months have been a mix of excitement, pride and enthusiasm at the privilege of leading this fantastic organisation in its Centenary year. My background is in IT, aerospace and systems thinking – a subset of systems engineering – and it is working across disciplines, bringing greater variety into the workforce that sets women apart from their male counterparts. Systems Thinking introduced me to Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety which states that the variety in the outcomes will be as large as the variety in the organisation. So, any organisation that doesn’t include many women will not be able to produce the requisite variety needed by the population. Diversity in Engineering is a hot topic these days, partly led by legal requirements to publish equal pay gaps, partly because companies have vacancies they can’t fill with men alone, and partly an awareness of the barriers women face in employment. I remember having to leave my building and cross an access road to go to the loo when I worked at RollsRoyce just over ten years ago. I thought it was a result of the obsolete architecture of buildings constructed before women joined the workforce, yet a young woman in motorsport told me in November that she still has to walk through the workshop past the comments of male colleagues to get to the Ladies. Like many women, she has turned a problem into an asset – at least they all know who I am, she said – but it’s no longer good enough that women should be expected to endure harassment in their everyday working life. Companies are waking up to the value of women in the engineering workforce. The Royal Navy have solved a lot of issues. If you are a woman on a boat, there will be a senior woman on board to whom you can turn, and you’ll be at least one of six women since every sailor has to bunk up with others on board. I’m also delighted that the Army has opened all its ranks to women, including the SAS. They haven’t lowered their standards and they’re finding that women are just as good as the men. WES is in an ideal position to support companies as they realise the value of opening up opportunities to women. We have a gender ad decoder on our website that detects whether a job advert is subtly coded for men or women. This matters because women won’t apply for a role that feels blokeish. We recommend that Essential Criteria are kept to a minimum, since men with two essential criteria will apply and get the

job, while women who tick all the boxes bar one won’t even apply. WES has access to the largest group of female engineering students in the UK, and we reach a huge number of female engineers through our members and social media presence. What’s more, we also reach women returning to engineering after a career break through our STEM Returners programme. These initiatives are why more companies than ever are looking to partner with us. In this centenary year, we are celebrating women in engineering and in our history, via our Heritage Lottery Funded Centenary Trail, remembering the women throughout the UK who brought change to engineering. And while we look back, we are also celebrating today’s female engineers who are making great strides in engineering. Part of our work involves mentoring young women in the final year of their engineering degree. Too many women study engineering but then don’t take up an engineering role, and we hope that our MentorSET project will plug the leaky pipe at that point – or at least let us know why women are opting to work elsewhere. That’s why International Women in Engineering Day (INWED) 2019 has the theme #TransformTheFuture. We face so many challenges due to climate change, globalisation and the digital economy that we must look to those women who will make a difference in the next hundred years. We have much to congratulate ourselves for, yet still so much more to do. As I look towards the next hundred years, having reached my own half century, it’s a thrilling prospect. No-one knows what the next century will bring, but women will be at the heart of it. Elizabeth Donnelly Chief Executive Officer


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 'Working faster and smarter' – five product design trends to keep an eye on in 2019 Rapid advances in technology means the people behind the scenes need to make sure their practices keep up the pace.

Individuals who focus on product design need to be sure that they are staying abreast of the latest capabilities and trends – whether that means using new technologies such as additive manufacturing or digital twins, or increasing collaboration to improve the product development process. Here are five of the top trends in product design that engineers are going to see in 2019. 1. Digital twin and the digital thread The terms digital twin and digital thread have been bandied around for a while but in 2019, most engineers are going to see both concepts in action every day. By combining the digital definition of a product with the physical experience of the asset in the field, manufacturers will have a complete digital record of a product throughout its entire lifecycle that can be used to improve the product design, ensure all legal and security regulations are met, and to improve efficiency and serviceability. With a digital thread of information feeding back into product design, engineers will finally be able to ‘talk’ to their products and answer some of their most burning questions. Whether they’re determining how well the product is functioning in the field or trying to identify which features and functions of the product customers are actually using, the digital thread of information coming back to form a complete digital twin will allow engineers to close the loop in the product lifecycle. 2. Breaking down barriers between engineering and manufacturing Manufacturers are increasingly realising that engineering and manufacturing are working in silos – not sharing information – to the detriment of the organisations. Because of these silos, engineering and manufacturing are disconnected – engineering passes information on to manufacturing when the designs are finalised and then shares changes to the design when they are implemented. Although this sounds straightforward, waiting for engineering to completely finish their part in the product lifecycle delays the preparation that manufacturing can do. In addition, small changes by the engineering team can have a large impact on production. With 32

automated manufacturing process planning, the production team can get a head-start on what they need to do and automatically see the most up-to-date product information – decreasing the time-to-market and reducing costs. 3. Augmented reality for enterprise visualisation The way that designers view the product has seriously evolved – from 2D drawings on paper to 3D CAD models on a desktop screen, designers are always looking for an easier way to accurately view a product before a prototype has been built. Augmented reality (AR) is the next evolution of enterprise visualisation. AR is a more natural way to interact with a product compared to 2D and 3D, as it provides context. With AR, there is an ability to superimpose the digital representation onto a physical asset once it has been produced, to compare the configurations of the product through its evolution – whether that is how it is designed, built, manufactured or serviced. AR makes it possible for a new product to be visualised in a real-life setting, such as the factory floor, at scale. Once there, stakeholders can interact with the data, getting under the hood and viewing the product in ways that aren’t easily accessible in just 2D or 3D. Whether it is used for service procedures, manufacturing work instructions, or by sales and marketing to promote new product options or additions to existing products, AR will make it easier than ever to bring products to life. 4. Additive manufacturing In the past few years, 3D printing technologies have surpassed the limits of prototype production and have achieved the quality and scalability needed for industrial use – which we call additive manufacturing. This technology trend has overcome the hype and shows tangible benefits in multiple uses, ranging from ultra-lightweight high-end parts for airplanes to costefficient mass customisation of consumer products. Entire industries, like hearing aids and dental implants, have already switched to being almost 100% 3D printed. However, the true disruptive potential of

additive manufacturing lies in the digital transformation of the product engineering and manufacturing process. Gone are the design constraints of conventional manufacturing methods – the expensive and timeconsuming tooling before even one part can be produced. Gone are the challenges of managing the supply chain and logistics. Because of these advantages, additive manufacturing becomes the optimal production technology in a continuously increasing number of situations, despite the still high cost for material and production equipment. Low-volume production during the introduction of a new product, replication of hard-to-source spare parts, distributed or local manufacturing in emerging markets… these are just some of the examples where additive manufacturing can yield benefits – even for lower-complexity parts. And new technologies, such as metal binder-jetting, can further increase production speed and efficiency.

are business-to-consumer. In 2019, we will start to see business-to-business companies provide apps to their customers as well. With apps for their enterprise systems, manufacturers will be able to quickly access important product and enterprise data on the fly, in a format that is easy for them to understand. Products with sensors that feed information from the field back to the factory floor can be connected to apps that enable stakeholders to quickly and easily view real-time information. Here is another way that AR can be used – with AR apps, global teams can quickly review designs or prototypes concurrently. The possibilities of enterprise apps are endless, and they will enable users to quickly and easily launch a system that has traditionally been tethered to a desktop. Dave Grammer Vice-President UK Nordics at PTC

5. The year of the app We’ve all been ruled by apps on our smartphones and tablet devices for years. Pretty much every company that provides a service to consumers has an app – whether it be Facebook or Bank of America. For the most part, though, these apps are coming from companies that

Peter Watson Prize Young engineers are invited to submit an entry for the 2019 EIS Peter Watson Prize, which will be held at a special event at Derby County Football Club in October 2019.

The prize is named after our founding President, Dr Peter Watson, who passed away in 2015. It was created to support young engineers at the start of their career, a cause Peter keenly supported throughout his working life. Entrants should meet at least one of the following criteria: • A person working in industry below the age of 28 on submission • A post-doctoral worker with a maximum of 3 years’ experience since completing a PhD/EngD • Any currently registered undergraduate or postgraduate student Interested engineers should submit an application form and a one page abstract summarising the

presentation they would like to give. The presentation should be relevant to the interests of the EIS and should be based on work that the applicant has undertaken themselves. Suitable topics include: durability, fatigue, NVH, sound and vibration, simulation, test and measurement. Applications will be assessed by a panel and the shortlisted candidates will be invited to present at the Final in October 2019. Finalists will make a 15 minute presentation followed by 5 minutes of questions from the panel, who will assess the candidates and their presentations for technical content, presentation quality and handling of questions. A prize of £400 will be presented to the young engineer who has delivered the best presentation as determined by the judges. A prize of £200 will be presented to the individual who the judges would like to highly commend. Application forms can be found at and entries must be received by 30 June 2019. 33

Inspiring the Next Generation Airshows, Drones and STEAM In the middle of what can only be described as a greenhouse on a runway not far from Swindon, I spent three days at the Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT). RIAT is the World’s largest military airshow which features almost non-stop flying for at least 8 hours. There is now a heavy focus on STEM with a large tent supported by a wide variety of companies. The RollsRoyce stand had an informal approach, handing out posters and careers information. I provided support across the three days of the airshow with the 3D printers, demonstrating the wide variety of usage of the technology. The event has a very interesting and diverse mixture of people; everyone from young families and aircraft enthusiasts to Air Commodores and Government dignitaries from around the World. Many of my conversations gravitated towards careers and the opportunities available for future generations. One of the growing concepts in aviation and RollsRoyce is the more electric aircraft, which will rely on technology like additive layer manufacturing to reduce weight and create innovative solutions for the future. With digital technology seen as the future, Farnborough airshow showcased robotics, 3D printing and our design concept for a personal transport solution in conjunction with Siemens and Cranfield University. The stand was a bold statement of intent, focussing on the future and introducing families and school pupils to coding through the use of Lego Boost, a suite of programmable Lego robots. In September I heard about a programmable drone through a colleague, the DJI Ryze Tello. The drone weighs 84 grams and has a battery life of approximately 10 minutes. I acquired a drone second hand for just £60 and have been absolutely amazed by it’s capability. The growing use of drones, both commercially and privately is due to the vast improvement in stability and control as well as the potential benefits that could be cached for situations such as natural disasters or where access is restricted and or dangerous. As with my previous robot club, the ability to programme a physical object is much more relevant to students than an abstract concept of coding. A programmable drone for education is not totally brand new, Airgineers is a national competition where students have to build a drone and also design and manufacture the chassis for it. They then race the drones through a series of laser light gates and record their learning online. Over the coming months I am hoping to trial some of the various drone based STEM activities that are available as part of my STEM outreach work.


Later in 2019 I have brand new project, currently without an official title but involves creating a CanSat and launching it into space. A CanSat is a “coke can sized satellite” and the aim of the project will be to 3D print frames and provide them to schools. Pupils will then design their own experiments using Raspberry Pi, Arduino or Micro:bit and then these satellites will be integrated into a large model rocket. The rocket will be transported to the very northernmost part of mainland Scotland where the idea is to launch the vehicle to the edge of the atmosphere. The project is in it’s infancy but promises to be an exciting one with lots of interest already being generated. Through my involvement as a Derby Maker and the National Communication Museum of Great Britain where we are based have expressed interest through their weekly code club. Pupils are likely to favour the use of Raspberry Pi due to the processing power and relative ease of use and native support hardware. The ultimate aim of the project is to generate a commercially viable payload launch system for the UK at low cost and in the process inspire the next generation of engineers. On a final note it was fantastic to receive the news that Bloodhound SSC has been saved from administration by a private investor. I really hope that 2019 re-ignites the project and builds on past successes to finally deliver a new land speed record. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) – Materials Technologist, Surface Engineering, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant.gibson@ 07469375700

University of Wolverhampton Racing Sponsored by the EIS

Months have passed since the University of Wolverhampton’s Racing team (UWR) concluded their racing season, but the memory of close calls lingers for the Racing Wolves. As the only student motorsport team to compete in the AR Morgan Challenge and the MSVR F3 Cup, this dedicated group of engineers, based at the Telford Innovation Campus near Shifnal, use everything they learn in the classroom and all of their practical knowledge from their Engineering degrees to take every competition down to the wire. The Morgan Plus 4 Club Sports, driven by Tony Hirst and Craig Hamilton-Smith, finished 1st and 2nd in class in the AR Morgan Challenge, and Hirst narrowly missed out on the over-all championship. In the MSVR F3 Cup, the team had hopes of retaking 2nd place in the competition, but a torrential downpour at Silverstone prevented any racing on the final day, ensuring driver Shane Kelly finished 3rd overall in the hardest fought paddock in a decade. While every member of UWR strives to win, their true success is in the opportunity the racing team gives each student to apply their theoretical knowledge in a real world situation, learning practical techniques and soft skills like team work and communication. As our reputation for training quality engineers grows, so do our student numbers, and 2019’s UWR has doubled in size as a result. 60 students will take part in three competitions in the coming season, and they’re now hard at work both in the lecture theatres and the workshops of the School of Engineering. It’s not just the UWR team that’s growing though. New equipment is being installed even now to enable the School of Engineering to help industry fill the skills gap. A new Composite Materials suite, complete with Autoclave, will make the production of resin moulds and carbon fibre parts a possibility, while a 30% scale subsonic wind tunnel will give the aerodynamicists more data than ever before. The University is keen to engage with businesses for industrial problem solving and commercial opportunities too, and this new equipment is an investment for our collective future.

UWR and the School of Engineering were proudly on show at Autosport International 2019 in January, and welcomed our generous sponsors including the Engineering Integrity Society to our mock F3 garage to meet the students that benefit from their support. Autosport International is a fantastic opportunity to rub shoulders with industry professionals and make contacts in motorsport at every point in the supply chain. Thomas Archer, 2nd year Automotive Engineering Student and Performance Engineering on UWR’s F3 team said “The essence of what UWR is, and its mission statement, are reflected beautifully in the exhibition. It’s an opportunity to showcase our skills, network with companies and individuals from every aspect of the motorsport industry, and meet enthusiasts and potential students brimming with passion just like ours.” The 2019 racing season will begin in April, with the Morgans getting their first run at Snetterton, Norfolk. The F3 Cup gets underway at Donington Park in Derby, where the Racing Wolves have won 7 of the last 9 races (alongside a 2nd and 3rd place). The students are hard at work performing the winter strip-down on the F3, while the Formula Student team are deep into the design process. A huge white board in the corner of the workshop proclaims “18 weeks until completed build”. It’s going to be a busy 18 weeks. UWR would like to thank all of their sponsors, especially the Engineering Integrity Society who contribute directly to the Formula Student team. Without your support we wouldn’t have such a phenomenal experience for the next generation of engineers. We look forward to keeping you updated through 2019. For more information, to follow us or to sponsor us visit: 35

Group News for reducing road noise whilst minimising vehicle weight.

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group The SVPP Group is currently preparing for a seminar on "Electrifying Challenges for Road and Tyre Noise". Road and tyre noise present a significant challenge to vehicle manufacturers, particularly with the electrification of vehicles. Powertrain noise levels are becoming significantly lower, leading to reduced masking of road noise in the vehicle cabin. With the introduction of additional heavy ancillary components, such as batteries and motors, there is a greater need to reduce vehicle chassis weight making the control of road noise even more challenging. Tyre and suspension specifications are also changing to cope with increased vehicle loads. This seminar will provide a range of technical presentations that look at the specific challenges in addressing road and tyre noise both inside the vehicle and in the environment. The scope for the seminar will include: legislative and road construction developments, new experimental and analytical methods for understanding and controlling road noise, the impact of electrification on road noise, as well as chassis, sound pack and suspension developments 36

We are pleased to be holding the seminar at the new MIRA Technology Institute (MTI): a global centre for skills on the grounds of the MIRA Technology Park. MTI is a unique partnership led by North Warwickshire and South Leicestershire College, along with HORIBA MIRA, Coventry University, Loughborough University and the University of Leicester. This collaboration means that MTI is able to provide businesses and individuals with a bespoke curriculum aimed at satisfying an ever-increasing need for specialist skills in the UK automotive sector, focussing particularly on disruptive technologies, such as electrification and driverless cars. The seminar takes place on Wednesday 15th May, and promises to be an interesting and educational day. For more details, please contact Sara Atkin ( I would like to thank Richard Johnson for all his work whilst a member of the group. We wish him well in his retirement.

Dave Fish Chairman Durability & Fatigue Group Since the last journal we have held two seminars. The first joint seminar with FESI “Engineering Integrity of Structures & Components Subjected to Degradation Mechanisms” which covered fatigue, creep and corrosion was held at Cranfield University, followed by a lab tour to see some of the work on wind

turbines under their SLIC project. The second was “The Challenges of Structural Integrity at High Temperature” at Phoenix Materials Testing and that too included a lab tour of associated test systems. Thank you to both organisations for their support. The group is growing and it is a pleasure to welcome four new members: Andrew Blows (Jaguar Land Rover), Jamie Shenton (JCB), Oliver Greenwood (Rolls Royce) and Prof Phil Irving (recently retired from Cranfield). Both Jamie and Oliver have organised days for the Young Engineers series, as members of that group.



We have five events in planning: Additive Manufacture (18th June MTC Coventry) which will focus on structural integrity of AM parts. This manufacturing process is not new, but is gaining widespread interest under the banner 3D printing. The seminar does not need to encourage use, but seeks to understand the important parameters in the production process and the role of postprocessing on the resulting structural performance. Structural performance of AM is covered in technical papers in the Journal, volume 45 and this edition.

Integrity of Joints (4th July AMRC Sheffield/Rotherham) was inspired by the Young Engineers and will be a joint event, covering a range of topics from traditional welds and bolts to newer joining techniques such as adhesives and self-pierced rivets (new methods take a long time to become established and even longer to refine, SPR was published at our 2003 conference by Blackmore & Ward). Design of test specimens and their use to predict full structural performance will be discussed and applications will include both aerospace and automotive. We intend that this becomes a series of workshops.

with tickets to the Silverstone Grand Prix as a prize. So, please come along and support the event which will have something for everyone.

Structural Integrity in Wind Wave & Tidal Energy and Structural Health Monitoring are both in their early stages of planning, so expressions of interest are welcome. Finally we have started to receive abstracts for our Fatigue 2020 conference and the hard work of reviewing papers beckons.

2018 saw a series of very successful seminars put together by STMG members, alongside the Young Engineer EIS events. We have plans to continue these in 2019, firstly continuing our series of data collection and analysis seminars in July, probably at MIRA, followed hopefully by an event on functional safety. Also at the request of the Young Engineers, a seminar covering fundamentals of wind tunnel testing and simulation.

Robert Cawte Chairman Simulation, Test Measurement Group


A good start to 2019 with some 17 STMG members at the first meeting of the year. We continued with the more flexible format, keeping the admin as brief as possible and we introduced a more technical bias to the discussion. Our time centred on the Exhibition, and how to promote more interesting STMG events. The exhibition should prove to continue its previous success. All tables have been taken, and we are looking at articles in a couple of publications and the event is co-sponsored by IMechE, BSSM, BMTA & GTMA who will also help to publicise the event. There will be a full set of seminars throughout the day. More importantly, this year we are entering all delegates into a draw

Seminars are something we should develop. It is the opportunity to pass on knowledge and skills to younger engineers. It is also a way to bring young engineers into the society. This will include a “Best Practices Manual”, starting with a series of data sheets to download off the website and we could share experience via social media. The STMG are also looking at using webinars alongside youtube type “how to” videos. It could be as simple as a video to accompany a paper or it could be a video of part of a seminar. It was suggested that Statistics, Strain Gauges and Scientific Method would be good initial topics. All is set for a very interesting year and with plenty to do. What is really satisfying to see is that we have a large number of EIS members willing to help out, and support our events.

David Ensor Chairman

The STMG is also supporting the Young Engineers Seminars by liaising with University of Wolverhampton and Morgan Cars to see if they would be willing to host an event. We are looking to receive ideas from you all on the subject matter. We are currently discussing cross-pollination of disciplines and how easy it is to get wrong answers due to a lack of knowledge of some obvious things. The STMG have discussed the use or misuse of the scientific method, and this was suggested as a possible topic on which to base a seminar. It is important for engineers to remember the statistics behind proving a result, the numbers of samples to test, how long to test, and how to distinguish a good result from bad. Any feedback on this would be very welcome. Our technical dIscussion also reviewed the STMG goals, and it was agreed that Young Engineers 37

Committee Members

President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Peter Bailey, Instron Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Nick Richardson, Servotest Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services

Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant

Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest

EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin

Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Farnoosh Farhad

Managing Editor Catherine Pinder

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman David Fish, JoTech

Members Emiel Barten, Muller BBM VAS Dave Boast, DB Engineering Solutions Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA Martin Cockrill, Polytec James Herbert, Bruel & Kjaer UK Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products Paul Jennings, Warwick University Chris Knowles, Consultant Andrew McQueen, Siemens Jon Richards, Honda UK Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman David Ensor, Engineering Consultant

Members Jack Allcock, Tata Steel Carl Babcock, Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd Marc Brown, Vibration Research Lloyd Butler, DTR VMS Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK)


Dave Copley, Consultant Robin Garvie, Airbus Steve Heath, Serco Rail Technical Services Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Jerry Hughes, Moog Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant Alex O'Neill, Jaguar Land Rover/University of Surrey Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA Tim Powell, MTS Systems Gary Rands, Siemens Nick Richardson, Servotest Paul Roberts, HBM Prenscia Raul Rodriguez, Hyster Yale Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground Scott Williams, Williams F1 Rob Wood, GOM Jeremy Yarnall, Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman

Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom

Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron

Members John Atkinson, Consultant Martin Bache, Swansea University Andrew Blows, Jaguar Land Rover Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy Richard Cornish, Birmingham City University Farnoosh Farhad, Coventry University/TWI Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University Lee Gilbert, Element Oliver Greenwood, Rolls Royce Phil Irving, Engineering Consultant Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group Chris Magazzeni, Oxford University Angelo Maligno, IISE, University of Derby Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University Andrew Mills, Siemens Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Karen Perkins, Swansea University Davood Sarchamy, Airbus Giora Shatil, Darwind Jamie Shenton, JCB Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls James Trainor Vicki Wilkes, Phoenix Materials Testing John Yates, Engineering Consultant Committee members can be contacted via the EIS Secretariat, Tel: 01623 884225 39

Corporate Member Profiles Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd


Tel: 01332 875450 Email: Website: Contact: Jeremy Yarnall

Tel: +49 7221 9922 0 Email: Website: Contact: Gregg Todd and Jens Powala

Data Acquisition & Testing Services provides data acquisition, test and measurement, instrumentation, analysis and engineering consultancy services across a wide spectrum of industries, from aerospace to rail. Based near Derby, with field engineers available nationally and outside the UK.

IPETRONIK GmbH & Co. is a globally operating company for mobile measurement technologies, DAQ software, engineering services, and test bench technology for the automotive industry. We combine technical development, practical application, and reliable data processing in an innovative system. With our extensive experience in vehicle testing, bench testing, climate acoustics, and thermal management, we help our customers to meet the increasingly demanding research, development, and testing requirements. Our portfolio offers ultra-precise measurement modules, data loggers, and sensors as well as an efficient configuration and data acquisition software.

Additionally, we provide sales and service of the latest digital data collection equipment, with a full calibration facility for instruments and sensors. Hire of dataloggers, sensors and cables is also offered. Vibration, and durability testing is provided in our in-house laboratory.

Dewesoft UK Ltd


Tel: 01234 381 261 Email: Website: Contact: Andy Hathway

Tel: 02476 639920 Email: Website: Contact: Rob Wood

Dewesoft supply flexible modular Data Acquisition Systems, for laboratory and mobile applications, with sample rates up to 1MS/s and signal conditioning for any type of sensor. Systems are also offered with IP67 rating for extreme environmental conditions.

GOM â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Professional 3D optical measurement.

Dewesoft instruments are supplied with turnkey data acquisition software addressing a wide range of measurement applications, including Power Analysis, NVH, Combustion Analysis, Road Load Data and many more. Dewesoft supplies systems to all industries, including Automotive, Aerospace, Defence, Power and Energy and transportation.


For material and component testing GOM Deformation products include Digital Image Correlation (DIC), point tracking and forming analysis. All systems are 3D and non-contact, DIC using a speckle pattern to give full field strain results, ideal for FEA comparison. The GOM ATOS 3D scanner is developed for reverse engineering and dimensional control of components. Fast, accurate scans are now an established way of reducing product development times and ensuring highest quality components.

HBM Prenscia Tel: 0114 254 1246 Email: and Website: and Contact: Aimee Wiltshire HBM Prenscia offers a range of solutions for engineers to efficiently transform data into decisions. HBM Prenscia is a global leader in providing technology and engineering software products and services for reliability, durability, and performance. We offer a broad range of engineering solutions that deliver compelling value to our customers for the design and development of reliable, robust systems, and reduce life cycle costs for mechanical and electronic hardware and software (mechatronics). By offering a range of industry leading software (nCode and ReliaSoft) and services (Omnicon and HBM nCode Federal LLC), we enable companies to enhance returns on investment and operational success through design and certification, optimized processes, data management and processing, and CAE simulation.

RAL Space, S.T.F.C. Rutherford Laboratory Tel: 01235 445040 Email: Website: Facilities/11324.aspx Contact: Giles Case Space Research Facilities offering a full range of Environmental test and cleanroom facilities. Thermal Vacuum, Orbital Simulation, Instrument Calibration combined with a large Cleanroom complex.

Millbrook Proving Ground Ltd

Severn Thermal Solutions Ltd

Tel: 01525 404242 Email: Website: Contact: Mrs. Sally Law

Tel: 01453 891880 Email: Website: Contact: Nigel Ryder

Millbrook provides vehicle test and validation services to customers in the automotive, transport, tyre, petrochemical, defence and security industries. It is independent and impartial in everything it does.

Severn Thermal Solutions has a wide range of experience in design and manufacture of high temperature furnaces and environmental systems (Temperature chambers) for a wide variety of applications within industry and academia.

It has a range of test facilities for components and full vehicles. These include varied indoor and outdoor test tracks in the UK and Northern Finland, engine dynamometers, environmental chambers, structural test laboratories, crash laboratories, interior systems laboratories and advanced emissions chassis dynamometers. Millbrookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s employees are passionate about safety, customer service and technical excellence, making them ideal partners at any stage in the development and launch of the vehicles of tomorrow. Millbrook is part of the Test and Measurement business segment of Spectris plc.

We offer standard and custom engineered solutions including a range of laboratory and test equipment featuring tube furnaces, split furnace systems and temperature chamber. Applications range from small-scale research and development to full-scale production systems. Severn Thermal Solutions has earned an exceptionally good reputation around the world supplying market leading organisations with both standard and custom engineered solutions.


Corporate Member Profiles Servotest Testing Systems Ltd

Vibration Research Corporation

Tel: 01784 274410 Email: Website: Contact: Nick Richardson

Tel: +1 616.669.3028 Email: Website: Contact: Marc Brown

Servotest design, manufacture and supply servohydraulic systems for motion simulation, characterisation and endurance testing. Bespoke solutions can be provided for special testing requirements. The systems provided cover a wide spectrum of applications including for example: Damper testing, 4 & 7 post vehicle test rigs, MAST systems for automotive & earthquake simulation, high temperature high rate deformation of materials and many more. The equipment includes hydrostatic bearing actuators, test frames, hydraulic supply & distribution, Pulsar digital controllers for single and multi channel requirements.

Celebrating 20 years in business, U.S.-based Vibration Research (VR) is the leading innovator in vibration control. We listen to our customers’ needs and offer testing products, software and support that deliver unrivalled value. Our VR9500 Revolution Vibration Controller and VibrationVIEW software are used by testing labs and engineers throughout the world. iDOF™, FDS, FDR, and Kurtosion® are a few of VR’s leading-edge testing applications that enable customers to quickly and accurately bridge the gap between lab and reality.

Strainsense Ltd Tel: 01908 305960 Email: Website: Contact: Edward Hall

KFGS series Improving on the best

Strainsense supply Data Acquisition and Sensors to suit a wide variety of applications including Crash Test, Test Rigs, Vehicle Dynamics, Mil/Aero, Rail. Sensor solutions include Pressure, Force, Position & Vibration for demanding applications.




For more information please visit:

Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft Airbus ANV Measurement Systems ASDEC Bruel and Kjaer CaTs3 CentraTEQ Correlated Solutions Dassault Systemes Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd Data Physics Datron Technology Dewesoft Flintec Gantner Instruments GOM HBM

Head Acoustics HORIBA MIRA Instron Interface Force Measurements iPetronik Kistler M&P International Mecmesin Meggit Sensing Systems Micro Measurements Micro-Epsilon Millbrook MOOG MTS Systems Muller BBM PCB Piezotronics PDS Hitech Phoenix Materials Testing Ltd

Polytec Prosig Rutherford Appleton Lab Sensors UK Servotest Severn Thermal Solutions Siemens Star Hydraulics Strainsense Systems Services Techni Measure Telonic THP Systems Tiab Transmission Dynamics Variohm Vibration Research Zwick

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Vibration Testing Solutions for Improved Product Quality

Team Corporation designs, builds and delivers high-performance vibration test systems and related components for the world’s most challenging applications. Our multi-axis test systems continue to advance the world of vibration testing.

Multi-Axis Test Systems

A member of the

Vibration Test Systems

Hydraulic Actuators

Hydrostatic Bearings

| |

Measurement Sensors Micro-Epsilon designs and manufactures precision sensors and measurement systems for displacement, profile, gap, thickness, distance, vibration, temperature and colour measurement.

 2D/3D Laser profile sensors  Thermal imaging cameras  Optical micrometers  Turbospeed sensors  Capacitive sensors  Laser triangulation sensors  Thickness sensors Micro-Epsilon is an expert in sensor technologies, get in touch and request your free onsite consultation.

+44 (0) 151 355 6070 | | 44


Simulation | Propulsion | UAVs | Materials | ATM | Space | Rotorcraft | Environmental issues | Aerodynamics | Structures

The Aeronautical Journal, established in 1897, is the international journal that publishes research papers which make significant contributions to every aspect of aerospace. Drawing upon the traditions, experience and expertise of its publisher, the Royal Aeronautical Society, in collaboration with Cambridge University Press, the Journal publishes full-length papers and review articles on all aspects of research, design and development, construction and operation of aircraft and space vehicles. Research papers concerning those topics are welcomed for review.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Professor Holger Babinsky FRAeS University of Cambridge Royal Aeronautical Society, UK CHAIRMAN Professor Mike Graham FREng FRAeS Imperial College London Royal Aeronautical Society, UK DEPUTY CHAIRMAN Professor Chris Atkin CEng FRAeS City, University of London Royal Aeronautical Society, UK


01962 873 000 |

experience is everything

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Accelerometers • • • • •

Full range of IEPE & Charge output accelerometers Engine, Turbo & Exhaust mount accelerometers to 900oC Miniature single and triaxial accelerometers DC MEMS Accelerometer Range Impedance Head

Instrumentation • • • •

Charge and Voltage Amplifiers DC/AC/Battery powered options IEPE Impact Hammers Inline Signal Conditioning

Cables & Accessories • • DJB Instruments (UK) Ltd Finchley Avenue, Mildenhall, Suffolk IP28 7BG +44 (0)1638 712 288


• •

Wide range of connectors available from stock Cable assemblies manufactured to any length Cable repairs for all manufacturers Range of mounting accessories

Training •

For dates please visit our website


Experts in Vibration m+p international supplies high-performance software and instrumentation for vibration control on a shaker, noise and vibration analysis, data acquisition and monitoring. Our products combine efficiency, accuracy, flexibility and test safety. Above this, we also offer consultancy and support to ensure successful outcomes for all of your applications.

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Tackle your unique challenges with m+p international’s engineering excellence.

m+p international (UK) Ltd Mead House Bentley, Hants GU10 5HY Phone: +44 1420 521222

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Engineering Integrity Issue 46 March 2019  

Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

Engineering Integrity Issue 46 March 2019  

Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

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