Inside Water March/April 2024

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The benefits that arise from IoT devices

ISSUE 11 MARCH/APRIL 2024 Water Industry Showcase Rattenbury for healthy waterways Managing cybersecurity risks
FLOW-ON The effect
visit “Utilising trenchless technologies to rehabilitate ageing infrastructure has negated many of the construction risks associated with traditional trench and lay.” – Allan Moran, Interflow visit



The INSIDE WATER 3 CONTENTS Issue 11: March/April 2024
Editor’s Note COVER STORY
flow-on effect of operating Internet of Things (IoT) devices within water and wastewater management. INDUSTRY INSIGHT
Shane Rattenbury
ACT Minister for Environment, Climate Change and Water is working tirelessly to ensure healthy waterways across the Australian Capital Territory. YOUNG PROFESSIONAL
Ashlynn Davies
management in regional New South Wales can be an enormous challenge. How is one researcher trying to move the dial? ASSOCIATIONS
you keeping on top of your cybersecurity risks? One group is helping water utilities navigate these choppy waters together.
sustainable service models for Queensland’s urban water authorities
WateReuse Association
new direct potable reuse framework is now in place. Where is it and how did it get there? PIPES
Kallipr Edging beyond remote monitoring.
Interflow Trenchless Titeflow means success.
Option X Riteline is right for centralising and spacing pipes within an existing pipe network.
WaterGroup SmartEAR helps amplify your leak-finding techniques.
PIPA Using plastic for good when laying out extensive pipe networks.
Iplex EZIpit makes life easy for water utilities. REGULAR FOCUS 11 23 47 56 WATER INDUSTRY SHOWCASE
Water Industry Showcase What is the Water Industry Showcase? How can it help you? PFAS
thermal drying part of our future? One company is trying to find out.
South East Water Destroying PFAS through biochar management PURIFICATION SYSTEMS
provides purification opportunities for the water industry.

Navigating the landscape of water

AS THE EDITOR of this industry publication, I am constantly intrigued by the dynamic landscape we navigate. From the ever-present challenges like PFAS contamination and cyber threats to the ongoing advancements in pipe technology and purification systems, innovation and vigilance go hand-in-hand.

It’s a pleasure to see IFM go from strength to strength within the water and wastewater management industries. Its commitment to combating water scarcity through Internet of Things (IoT) devices and management platforms provides a range of opportunities for the water industry. Its IO-Link solutions have supported the water and wastewater industries through its passionate team dedicated to solving environmental and water issues.

The spectre of PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, looms large. These persistent chemicals, linked to various health concerns, have infiltrated water supplies across the globe. Addressing this widespread contaminant demands a multi-pronged approach, encompassing advanced filtration technologies, stricter regulations, and robust public awareness campaigns. Collaborative efforts between researchers, policymakers, and communities are crucial to tackling this complex issue head-on.

Meanwhile, the digital age casts a new shadow on water security. The vulnerability of our increasingly interconnected water infrastructure to cyberattacks poses a significant threat. Implementing robust cybersecurity measures, investing in resilient systems, and fostering a culture of preparedness are essential steps to safeguard our water from malicious actors.

Yet, the most fundamental challenge lies beneath our feet: our aging pipe networks.

Crumbling infrastructure leaks precious water, harbours contaminants, and amplifies the risk of service disruptions. Prioritising pipe replacement and rehabilitation projects while exploring innovative materials and construction techniques is vital to ensure the longevity and efficiency of our water delivery systems.

Fortunately, innovation offers a beacon of hope. Advancements in purification systems, fuelled by cutting-edge technologies like membrane filtration and nanotechnologies, promise to remove emerging contaminants effectively. Decentralised water treatment solutions can also play a role in providing more localised and sustainable water supplies.

As an editor, I believe in the power of informed dialogue and collaborative action. By fostering open communication between experts, policymakers, and the public, we can navigate these turbulent waters and secure a future where clean water is not a privilege but a basic right. Let us join hands to ensure that every drop counts and every community has access to the life-giving resource it deserves.

Together, we can build a more resilient and sustainable water future where innovation meets responsibility, and clean water flows freely for generations to come.

Chief Executive Officer

John Murphy

Chief Operating Officer

Christine Clancy


Sarah Baker

Managing Editor Mike Wheeler


Chris Edwards


Daz Woolley/Tom Anderson

Head of Design Blake Storey

Design Production Manager Michelle Weston

Brand Manager

Chelsea Daniel

p: +61 425 699 878

Client Success Manager

Glenn Delaney

Head Office

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All articles submitted for publication become the property of the publisher. The Editor reserves the right to adjust any article to conform with the magazine format.


Inside Water is owned by Prime Creative Media and published by John Murphy. All material in Inside Water is copyright and no part may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic or mechanical including information and retrieval systems) without written permission of the publisher. The Editor welcomes contributions but reserves the right to accept or reject any material. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information, Prime Creative Media will not accept responsibility for errors or omissions or for any consequences arising from reliance on information published. The opinions expressed in Inside Water are not necessarily the  opinions of, or endorsed by the publisher unless otherwise stated.

4 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024



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The flow-on effect

Already a dry continent, Australia’s water scarcity issues are likely to be exacerbated by changes to weather patterns – caused by climate change – as well as the increased demands of a growing population.


an abundance of natural resources. However, water is not among them.

As the world’s driest inhabited continent, Australia has always faced challenges in terms of meeting its water consumption needs. Its average rainfall is roughly 470 millimetres a year – well below the global average. Temperatures in Central Australia can reach and exceed 50 degrees Celsius. Further to that, what rainfall Australia does receive is concentrated along the north and east coasts of the country.

The twin challenges of climate change and population growth compound Australia’s inherent water scarcity. Indeed, the Productivity Commission noted in a 2021 report that drought conditions are likely to become more frequent, severe, and prolonged in some regions – owing to climate change – and that reductions in supply should be expected alongside growing demand due to population increase.

In this context, providing safe drinking water is a key challenge, and more sophisticated and effective

methods of treating water are crucial to meeting today’s and tomorrow’s demands.


Industry expert Freddie Coertze is the National IoT Business Manager and Digital Strategy Leader for ifm. He said that ifm’s goal is to help maintain Australian water networks and help make them more efficient.

“In Australia, maintaining our water networks is a make-or-break issue,” he said. “This is why ifm is committed to working with local companies tackling water scarcity issues.”

Not all water is created equally or even recycled equally. Each state and territory has its regulatory frameworks, primarily managed by each jurisdiction’s Environmental Protection Agency (or equivalent). These departments or agencies govern how different types of wastewater are treated. Those regulations also set the quality standards to be met when transforming wastewater into usable water for different purposes. On-site wastewater management systems need to perform effectively

The IO-Link system is designed to be plug-and-play.

Images: ifm

and be appropriately managed to reduce risks to the environment and public health.

Among the criteria governing wastewater handling are the source of wastewater, site constraints, treatment methods, and the quality of effluent needed for proposed end-uses of treated water. Australian states and territories have their own regulatory frameworks that govern the conditions under which permits for the construction, installation, and alteration of wastewater management systems will be granted.

Grant Smith, Senior Applications Engineer at ifm, says that the challenge for wastewater treatment operations is to run plants effectively along the entire cycle – producing a result that is economical, effective, safe, and in line with environmental

6 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

for richer and more transparent data monitoring and doing away with complex physical wiring processes.

Coertze noted that in more

In Australia, maintaining our water networks is a make-or-break issue. ”

standard cables. Furthermore, expensive analogue input cards are no longer needed with the

“These features save time,” Coertze said. “There’s no need to integrate different data outputs. That also means that companies can save money in the volume of engineering hours needed to integrate different data sets from different operating systems. That also saves on

The IO-Link system is a plug-andplay system. Users screw the cables into place, and the system is ready to go. That’s why it is great for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs).

“With IO-Link, you will get more diagnostics for less wiring,” said Youssef Attallah, New South Wales Branch Manager of ifm.

The Aerofloat experience

Attallah pointed out that ifm has worked with water treatment companies with sensor and control systems for many years. Its sensors INSIDE WATER 7

and IO-Link solution is cost-effective for small-to-medium size enterprises (SMEs).

One such enterprise is Aerofloat, an Australian industrial wastewater treatment specialist that ifm has been working with to help provide customers with affordable, Australian-compliant treatment services.

“Aerofloat is an ideal customer for ifm,” said Attallah. “It provides wastewater treatment solutions across various industries. As a homegrown Australian company, it gives new opportunities for ifm products to be utilised in new ways by new companies.”

Aerofloat has a history of dealing with a range of projects. One day, they could be installing a solution in a food factory, the next in a winery, and the third solution could be somewhere else again.

“No two days are the same,” he said. “For ifm, as a company with an international footprint, it’s great to see our products utilised in new ways for new customers. We know that ifm and Aerofloat are not only producing business benefits to the end-user. It will also contribute to the societal good through more provision of a scarce resource in Australia: water.”

History of Aerofloat

Michael Anderson, General Manager of Engineering and Operations at Aerofloat, co-founded the company in 2009. The other co-founders are father and Managing Director Ray Anderson and sister Katie Moor, the General Manager of Business Operations.

Michael says that Ray, a chemical engineer, was doing consulting work when he spotted an opportunity

to solve a problem treating grey water on houseboats on the Murray River in South Australia. The three teamed up to address the issues, complementing their individual skill sets. They combined Ray’s vast experience in the wastewater treatment industry, Katie’s chemical engineering background and business acumen, and Michael’s passion and adeptness in product design.

“We got to work designing the product, got it certified to Australian standards, commercialised it, and installed about 200 systems,” Michael said. “That took roughly three years. At that point, the Environment Protection Authority relaxed its standards for greywater discharge from houseboats on the Murray. The market we had been solely catering to disappeared.”

Michael spoke about how Aerofloat had to pivot by scaling up the technology it had developed to supply a new product. That product was Aerofloat’s Dissolved Air Flotation systems (‘AeroDAF’) and designed for industrial wastewater applications.

From working on relatively small projects, Aerofloat has grown to do projects for industrial wastewater plants, breweries, and food manufacturers. There are also projects for local and state governments.

Aerofloat and ifm

“We’re committed to innovation and sustainable solutions,” Michael said. “We have several patented technologies, and we’re very R&D focused. I’d say our biggest point of differentiation is that we are an end-to-end solution provider in wastewater treatment. Every customer is different. Relationships like the one we’ve built with ifm are critical. We’ve done some reliable wastewater treatment

8 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
A dissolved air flotation (DAF) system is a vital part of water and wastewater management.


Building better water norms in the ACT

Originally from Batemans Bay, the Australian Capital Territory’s Minister for Water, Energy and Emissions Reduction has worked tirelessly to build a better water outcomes for the Territory. Inside Water Magazine spoke to Shane Rattenbury.

SHANE RATTENBURY FIRST moved to Canberra in 1984. He attended Canberra Grammar School and gained a BEc and LLB (Honours) from the Australian National University (ANU). The start of his career saw him land a job with the Australian Government Department of Industry, Science and Tourism (now the Department of Industry, Science and Resources). He later worked in the non-government sector on a range of environmental issues.

“I have been campaigning on environmental issues for many years,” Rattenbury said. “I continue to be inspired by the beauty and complexity of nature. From a young age, I was interested in environmental issues, including ozone depletion, Antarctic protection, and forest conservation. I worked for Greenpeace in Australia,

South East Asia and for Greenpeace International. As ACT Minister for Water, I enjoy the opportunity to look after and restore our local waterways that provide valuable habitat for many species.”

The water industry in the ACT

There are many different players, roles, and responsibilities within the water sector in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). This includes the Territory Government, industry, the water utility (Icon Water) and water users themselves, both industrial and residential.

“The ACT Government is working to improve governance and to clarify roles and responsibilities,” Rattenbury said. “We are all working towards a vision of improved water security and water health and we welcome the water industry to play a part in

Images: Minister Shane Rattenbury

supporting the work of the Office of Water to build robust policy and deliver contemporary programs that result in well-informed users and the efficient use of water.”


As well as being the Minister for Water, Energy and Emissions Reduction, Rattenbury is also the Attorney-General, Minister for Consumer Affairs, and the Minister for Gaming. In the water portfolio, he can point to a series of positive achievements during his tenure.

“We have established the Office of Water which is on a pathway to deliver on its core aims,” he said.

“That includes strengthening the ACT’s water security through holistic and coordinated water management and policy. It’s also been improving engagement with the public on ACT water resource management issues, and continuing to deliver the Healthy Waterways program that is delivering infrastructure, research, education and catchment planning to improve waterway health.

The Office respects the multiple roles and responsibilities across INSIDE WATER 11
From left, Dr Ralph Ogden, Program Manager, ACT Healthy Waterways; Jo Clay, Member for Ginninderra; Kathryn McGilp, Executive Office, Ginninderra Catchment Group; and Minister for Water, Energy and Emissions Reduction Shane Rattenbury.


the water sector. As an advocate for improving regional water management, it is building stronger regional partnerships.

“We are playing an active role in the Murray Darling Basin reforms that aim to promote transparency and accountability in implementing the Basin Plan,” said Rattenbury.

He was heartened by the recent announcements for investment in improving water management in the upper Murrumbidgee River, and the progress made in response to efforts to raise this issue with Federal counterparts, which comes after many years of work by community advocates.

The Healthy Waterways program has been the cornerstone of water quality management across the ACT.

“The findings and lessons learned in the Healthy Waterways program have changed how the ACT Government views water quality management,” he said. “It’s also helping the Office approach solutions to stormwater problems. We are much better able to tackle water quality problems now than a decade ago.”

Water quality

The latest Catchment Health Indicator Program (CHIP) report released by Upper Murrumbidgee Waterwatch in March 2023 gave a tick of approval.

The CHIP report was drawn from 2000 surveys from more than 200 volunteers at 237 sites in the Cooma, Ginninderra, Molonglo, Southern ACT, and Yass sub-catchments.

“The ACT Government’s investment in and delivery of a large program of constructed wetlands is helping to improve water quality within the ACT,” Rattenbury said. “This is in addition to significant work by catchment groups to re-naturalise and maintain these waterways, as well as changes in community behaviour in managing grass clippings, leaves and fertiliser runoff.”

The higher rainfall rates over the past few years have also provided flushing flows and steady baseflows. That’s been good for the health of waterways across the ACT.

At the same time, the Murrumbidgee River has been closed on occasion due to higher bacterial levels. Rattenbury has continued working with departments and agencies to solve the problem.

“The ACT Government is in the early stages of researching in more detail the sources of bacterial contamination in some ACT waterways,” he said. “The focus up until now has been on studying the more immediate problem of toxic blue-green algal blooms. However, reducing bacteria levels in our

Conserving wetlands in the ACT is vital for improving the quality of stormwater and providing habitat for native plants and animal species.

waterways is also a high priority.”

One potential source of bacterial contamination is livestock accessing the waterways higher up in the catchment. Rattenbury believes that once the sources of the bacteria levels are better understood, the catchment plans will be developed to address the problem.

Murray-Darling Basin

It’s regularly forgotten that Canberra is located in the Murray Darling Basin, with the Murrumbidgee River running through the ACT and before flowing inland to meet the Murray River near Balranald. As such, the ACT is one of the Basin partners to the MurrayDarling Basin Plan. Rattenbury believes that the Murray-Darling Basin Plan can provide improved water resource management.

“It was established to transcend jurisdictional boundaries,” he said.

“The Murray-Darling Basin Plan allows these significant rivers to be managed in the national interest. The Plan has made some progress. However, there is much more work to do.

Implementation has been slow.

Rattenbury believes that further reforms are required to deliver the Basin Plan, such as lifting the scale of water management to provide a holistic approach to water catchment management, improving

12 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

water accounting and water information, incorporating climate projections into water planning and decisions, and incorporating cultural values and interests of First Nations in water planning.

“There are also significant issues that we are seeing in the upper Murrumbidgee River,” Rattenbury pointed out. “Around 95 per cent of the river’s natural flow is diverted to the Snowy Hydro Scheme, where the Basin Plan has yet to take effect. The health of the Murrumbidgee River would benefit from increased environmental flows from Tantangara Dam and the protection of these flows from extraction. We are working towards this aim, and I would like to explore whether it can be achieved through Basin Plan mechanisms.”

Sustainability and resilience

The ACT’s location has given rise to it being called the Bush Capital. That has given rise to it being at risk of bushfires on a regular basis.

“Bushfires pose multiple risks to the resilience of our communities in the ACT,” said Rattenbury. “It can have significant impacts on the environment, including water resources. Runoff after fires can taint reservoir water, making it undrinkable or expensive to treat, which happened after the 2003 Canberra Bushfires. The reservoirs eventually recover their good water quality, but this can take some time.”

He notes that the changing climate also poses risks to waterway health. Heavy rainfall after hot fires can strip hillsides of soils, smothering pool-riffle streams with sand, which happened after the 2019-2020 Bushfires. When burnt organic matter is washed into streams, it can lead to oxygen stress, killing sensitive aquatic fauna. Both processes can lead to long-term impacts on waterways.

“Icon Water has contingency plans for when water in a reservoir becomes tainted,” he said. “It works closely with

It’s not your grandma’s hearing aid…
…but it allows you to hear leaks in your water network when they happen!
Minister for Water, Energy and Emissions Reduction, Shane Rattenbury, at a redesigned curb outlet in Kambah.


the ACT Government to mitigate problems. For example, in 2003, Icon (then ACTEW Corporation), the ACT Government and the University of Canberra collaborated to release tainted water in Bendora Reservoir to avoid impacts and benefit the downstream waterway health.“

Stormwater management

As part of the ACT Healthy Waterways Project, considerable work is being done to manage stormwater entering Lake Tuggeranong. It’s become a bigger issue, with the highest levels of pollution coming from the Kambah and Wanniassa stormwater drains. A network of older stormwater pipes and concrete-lined channels is also designed to move run-off into Lake Tuggeranong as quickly as possible. That’s an older method compared to the nature-lined creeks common in other parts of Australia.

“We are focusing a lot of research and monitoring in the Lake Tuggeranong catchment,” said Rattenbury. “We want to understand the source of plant nutrients driving the algal blooms in the lake. We are also trialling new kinds of water quality infrastructure to reduce pollution. This includes a major channel re-naturalisation in Calwell, bioretention swales around sports fields, roadside drain outlets into green spaces in Kambah, and stormwater treatment and recycling to irrigate sports fields in Kambah.”

Three pilot public education programs have already been undertaken to ensure leaves

and grass clipping do not enter streetside drains.

“These programs have delivered promising results,” he said. “Over the next year, we will use lessons from these and other projects to create a Healthy Waterways plan for Lake Tuggeranong that will canvas options for reducing or eliminating algal blooms from the lake.”

Healthy waterways

The ACT Government has recently invested $28.5 million in the Expanding Healthy Waterways program. It builds on previous investments by the ACT and Australian governments that represent a commitment to finding the right long-term solutions to ongoing water quality problems.

“At a community level, we have seen that residents enjoy both the amenities of the constructed wetlands and the opportunities created to be a part of the solution to a problem through caring for their local wetlands,” Rattenbury said. “Encouraging community involvement will remain a key priority as Healthy Waterways plans are developed and solutions to water quality problems are implemented.”

He acknowledged that it would take time to improve at a catchment scale. The goal is to achieve the long-term goal of water quality in the lakes and ponds materially improved. Ideally, it would also see problems like blue-green algal blooms having either been eliminated or greatly diminished.

“We are considering several interim in-lake measures while the catchments adjust to deal with problems like blue-green algal blooms and faecal coliforms,” he said. “The National Capital Authority is responsible for Lake Burley Griffin, and the ACT Government will engage with them in preparing the Healthy Waterways plan for the lake.

The future

Rattenbury has a positive outlook for the future of the Territory’s waterways. He has completed a lot of work within his portfolio and is looking to continue that work.

“I would like to continue our work to improve the health of waterways and catchments throughout the ACT through our on-ground programs, new water quality assets like wetlands and creek naturalisations, and community engagement and education programs,” he said. “We are so fortunate to have this beautiful network of waterways through the ACT, and I look forward to continuing to protect and restore their health and provide great outdoor places for Canberrans to enjoy.”

When it comes to specifics, he believes that working on the health of the upper Murrumbidgee River as part of the Murray-Darling Basin Plan and its multi-jurisdictional influence will be of key importance for the coming years.

“I will also be working to improve the health of the upper Murrumbidgee River by delivering increased environmental flows,” said Rattenbury. “I will continue to highlight the need for delivering the MDB Plan in full, ensuring we are measuring the outcomes of the MDB Plan through improved on-ground auditing and working collaboratively with First Nations peoples to deliver cultural flows, protect cultural values and manage waterways across the Basin.”

14 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
Minister Shane Rattenbury (red helmet) at the Tuggeranong Creek Naturalisation Project.


Pressure management in regional NSW

The proper pressure level in a water network is vital for water loss management. Ashlynn Davies has been studying this and has been rewarded for her project.


regional water utilities, they rarely think about the issues of leaks and high pressure. However, these can be some of the biggest problems facing regional water utilities with smaller connection bases.

Improving the efficiency of water networks is essential for these regulated businesses, and Ashlynn Davies from the University of Sydney studied it at the regional level. Her paper, Improving Water Network Efficiency in Regional New South Wales: Leakage and Energy Use Reduction Through Pressure Management, was nominated as a finalist in the New South Wales branch of the Australian Water Association (AWA) Student Water Prize.

“I had a less conventional path into the water industry,” said Davies. “I was fortunate to receive a Major Industrial Project Placement Scheme Scholarship through the University of Sydney’s School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.”

This program supports outstanding senior students completing a highlevel industrial project during a six-month employment placement. Davies was placed with the Central New South Wales Joint Organisation (CNSWJO), which represents 11 central NSW local government authorities (LGAs). While her project specifically involved collaborating with Parkes, Orange and Bathurst councils, her findings were aimed at having wider applicability across the region.

“The project required me to look at water loss from an energy perspective,” she said. “It was an

expansion of the previous year’s project, which had just looked at water loss. Once I had explored water losses and associated energy losses from each council’s network, I saw an opportunity to expand my project into exploring pressure management to address these inefficiencies.”

Water leakage

The reality is that there are no water utilities of any size that do not have any water leaks anywhere in their systems. The difference between large cities and smaller regional towns can be stark.

“In regional areas, many towns were established over 100 years ago,” Davies said. “Their establishment led to the origins of its water networks. Those networks grew as the population of the towns grew. The challenge is that there is a lot of ageing infrastructure in these areas and limited funding for large-scale infrastructure renewal projects.”

That drove Davies’ motivation for pursuing pressure management options. If there is no money for significant renewal works, what can be done to save water, energy, and money? It’s all about utilising the councils’ resources as effectively as possible.

“Water is a vital resource for regional communities,” she said. “In times of drought, the local population is extremely aware of water scarcity. As we face growing uncertainty around water security in the future, it is increasingly important for these councils to study their systems and understand where they can be improved.”

Davies examining a model of Parkes’ water distribution network in InfoWorks Pro.

Images: Ashlynn Davies

What Davies did

There were four stages to Davies’ research, with the first three working towards the final stage of her research.

“The first thing I did was quantify the water losses,” she said. “Typically, that uses the International Water Association (IWA) water balance method that looks at the entire system. However, I quickly decided it wouldn’t provide the granularity I needed. Instead, I wanted to quantify water and energy losses from each specific network zone rather than just the network as a whole.”

She had to combine various data sets to develop a water balance in each network zone to achieve this. That included billing, geographic information systems (GIS), and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The GIS had a layer that showed what areas were fed by what reservoirs. Pairing this information with the billing data allowed her to calculate the total consumption in each zone. Meanwhile, the SCADA system provided the bulk water meter data to estimate the total water delivered to each zone.

16 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

“Essentially, I did a water balance across every specific network zone that I could,” said Davies. “That allowed me to pinpoint how much water was lost from each network zone. Surprisingly, there were immediate actions I could identify at this first stage of my research.”

As part of this stage, she found significant water loss in Lucknow, not far from Orange. A repairman was sent out, who found a leak on the line between Lucknow and Orange and fixed it.

“The second stage saw me develop a methodology to calculate the embedded energy lost from water for each specific zone. Each time water is pumped or treated, its embedded energy increases, resulting in greater energy losses when that water is ultimately lost from the network,” Davies said. “This allowed me to determine which zones are the most energy intensive and contribute most to the networks’ overall inefficiency.”

The third stage saw Davies use InfoWorks Pro, a hydraulic modelling software. She used this to perform an energy balance on each network zone to quantify which areas delivered the most excess pressure

The final stage of the research

The fourth and final stage saw Davies combine the first three stages of her research to determine what network segments needed prioritising for pressure management and other efficiency improvements.

“I modelled 12 different actions that could be taken across the three councils I worked with,” she said. “According to my calculations, implementing these would result in a water loss reduction of 184 megalitres annually with an annual retail value of $423,000 and energy savings of 366,000 kilowatt-hours per year.”

Davies specifically recommended actions where little investment is

Davies installed a pressure logger to verify her modelling work.

At Bathurst Water Filtration Plant, Davies with Dave Cashen (plant supervisor). He is one of the many people who were invaluable to the project.

would be the purchase of a pressure relief valve (PRV). However, more than half of the actions required simply changing the configuration of the zones to ensure areas are not supplied by reservoirs at a higher elevation than necessary.

“That meant opening a couple of zone valves and closing a couple of others, as there was often an adjacent reservoir capable of supply the ideal pressure,” Davies said. “Those were the actions that were most surprising to me. It was exciting to find ways for the councils to use the infrastructure already in place to improve water loss and resulting energy loss.”

“Similar actions can likely be found in the networks of other local water utilities across the region, with the methodologies I developed through my project a great place to start.”

Award winner and nominee Davies has been nominated for the NSW AWA Student Water Prize and won the best undergraduate thesis from the University of Sydney’s School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.

“I’m just excited that my work was able to lead to real actionable benefits for the three councils, with the potential to help many other local water utilities. It’s a nomination for a lot of people, for whom a project of this scale otherwise could not happen.”. INSIDE WATER 17

Edging beyond remote monitoring

Edge devices are not things we often think about when it comes to the water industry. However, one Australian company is looking to shift the paradigm in a new direction.

EDGE DEVICES PROVIDE an entry point into enterprise or service provider core networks. They can be anything from simple sensors up to complex industrial systems. What groups them is that they are all Internet of Things (IoT) devices. You could think of them as every “thing” in the Internet of Things.

are being rolled out by different companies trying to achieve different things. With hundreds of thousands of kilometres of pipes under the ground, there’s not much visibility about what is going on in and around those pipes.

up to the plate. Its range of Series 2 devices is looking to redefine the

capture, measurement, and analysis of data in extreme environments.

The movement from Series 1 to Series 2 was led by feedback from its customers and an understanding of the business models of water utilities.

“We focus on three things at Kallipr,” said Gerhard Loots, the company’s Chief Executive Officer. “We focus on

Left: the Captis Series 2, mounted with a radar sensor, on an agricultural site.

Below: a range of battery sizes

detect what type of sensor it has been attached to and load configuration files to it,” Loots said. “We use standard industry protocols that provide us with access to over 600 sensors that are compatible with our system, which we’re constantly expanding”

Installation time is another aspect of that. For example, if a water utility was to have 20,000 units installed, and each one needed 10 minutes to be set up, that’s 200,000 minutes. That’s more than 1.6 years of working days that need to be done by someone who needs to be paid.

“When we were looking at this, we wanted to ensure that shorter installation time worked seamlessly

18 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

battery replacement on our device, but I believe our current record is 7.2 seconds.”

Another aspect of the battery is its patent-pending design. One of the challenges of the industry-standard lithium thionyl chloride batteries (Li/SOCl₂) is that the voltage drops immediately once they run out of charge. That makes it hard to know when such a battery might need replacing. Kallipr’s new technology gives users more accuracy as to when the battery needs replacing, resulting in lowering the cost of replacement as it can be planned proactively

“To the best of our knowledge, we are the only company in the world that can do this,” Loots said. “It puts us at the cutting edge of battery technology for data loggers.”

Military ruggedness

Data loggers are not things the average person is used to seeing as part of their daily lives. That means they get kicked off, moved around, and can wind up in unusual places. Kallipr has prepared for that by assessing the Series 2 against military ruggedness standards.

“We’ve worked hard to be best in class with the Series 2,” said Loots. “We can guarantee operations at five metres underwater. However, we

have successfully tested the device as deep as 20 metres underwater. That’s important when you think about recent flood events in Australia and New Zealand. That data is essential for water utilities, and it’s a big task to get an electronic device to work well under those circumstances.”

The military standards have required Kallipr to rethink how it builds its devices. Its work sees the battery life extended to 20 years. That’s impressive when they are installing small computers in the Series 2, with blockchain and security certificate capabilities.

“That’s critical for environmental compliance data,” he said. “There’s no way to fudge the data. The relevant regulatory authorities can see the data generated from a specific sensor in a determined location at a set time. As far as we know, we are the only company currently doing that.”

Thinking for the future

Kallipr has thought beyond a single battery pack. It has designed a range of battery packs that can be installed on the Series 2. They’ve also considered connectivity, which can be an issue when specific networks are down.

“We’ve built the Series 2 to have

more than one SIM card inside,” he said. “That gives users flexibility around service providers while also giving backup connectivity.”

Kallipr has also built a sustainable recycling system for the batteries. Given the large number of batteries that need to be replaced regularly, having this recyclability is vital for them.

With the launch of this product, Kallipr and Loots are already looking into the future. It’s not just the water industry that can benefit from their new technology.

“The next step for us is automating as much as possible,” Loots said. “It’s all about having the architecture to collect and interpret the data. That way, we can have people heading out to deal with a problem without needing more people to organise it. You could think of it like Uber, in that a service is provided as required. It’s also providing the opportunity to improve safety for people. The goal is to combine the right data sets so that people in the water, mining, wastewater, and similar sectors can control a robot to go where it is needed. With our systems, we want to build it in a way for the data to be addressable through more than just a dashboard.”

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 19
The Captis Series 2, mounted on an urban water mains.


Trenchless Titeflow

When it comes to minimal community impact, trenchless technologies are often sought after. That was the case when Interflow came on board for a challenging project.

HUNTER WATER REACHED out to Interflow to help deal with a water main that had failed at several points in Rutherford, near Newcastle, NSW. The pipe ran under a wellestablished and built-up industrial area with substantial traffic flow.

While the water main was isolated, network capacity was reduced. This was an untenable situation, hence the call to Interflow.

The pipe ran under multiple properties, so digging up the whole pipe would disrupt the businesses affected. It’s why a trenchless solution was sought, as it would maximise the residual value of the water main.

Titeflow is Interflow’s die-reduction close-fit lining system which installs a brand-new HDPE water pipe. This offered cost benefits over other rehabilitation alternatives and would result in an acceptable internal diameter.

Allan Moran is the Hunter Region Delivery Manager for Interflow. He was in charge of what turned out to be a mammoth task.

“Titeflow works by pulling a

standard HDPE water pipe through a static die, temporarily reducing its diameter,” said Moran. “Whilst under tension, it’s then pulled through the host pipe. Once the new pipe is in place, the pulling load is released, and the pipe reverts to near its original diameter. This means it fits

Titeflow needed to be laid out in full in the nearby area before being pulled through the existing pipeline.

Images: Interflow

tightly against the host pipe and provides the maximum potential internal diameter. With a wall thickness of 48 millimetres, extreme force was needed to winch all 560 metres of pipe into its place and stretch it through the static die –85 tonnes in total.”

20 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

New records

At 560 metres, this was the longest single installation of Titeflow that Interflow has ever installed. It nudged out the previous record of 550 metres in 2014. Interflow has completed many Titeflow installations using similar diameter pipelines and is using this experience to install longer lengths in single pulls.

Hunter Water and regional and local councils were invited to watch the installation and the die-reduction process and see a record-breaking pull and further their understanding of this process.

“We had people from Liverpool Plains, Port Macquarie, and other local government authorities from the region,” Moran said. “It was a great opportunity to teach them what we do and how Titeflow works. One thing we had to show was the extension of the pipe as we pulled it through. There was an extra 42 metres in stretch that returns to size once the tension is removed from the pull.”

Longer installation lengths mean fewer excavations and shorter project durations, which can, in turn, mean fewer traffic disruptions, reduced environmental risk, and minimal community fatigue. The success of this project proves to the water industry that long lengths of new pipe can be installed with minimal community disruption.

Innovations meet challenges

There were challenges associated with this project. Moran spoke about a few of them.

“The existing water main and easement transected the industrial parcels,” he said. “Replacing the water main by trenching in the existing alignment would have resulted in the closure of several businesses during the construction period. That was not an option.”

costs if an open-cut approach had been adopted. There had already been several pipe failures, so a key project driver was to rehabilitate the pipe without further impacting business operations.

“It’s why Hunter Water wanted to investigate trenchless technology for rehabilitating the pipe,” said Moran. “They wanted to reduce the community impact of this project.”

What makes this project different from other trenchless rehabilitation projects is the sheer length of the installed HDPE pipe. To avoid interrupting business operations, the entire length needed to be rehabilitated in one pull.

“Once the pipe’s diameter exceeds 180 millimetres, it can no longer be spooled,” he said. “This means the entire length of pipe needs to be delivered in sections, welded together, and laid out flat before installation. The total length of Titeflow that can be installed is usually limited by the space available to string the pipe out. The longer the length, the greater the potential to disrupt the community or to run out of space to store the pipe.”

As part of this project, the new water main could be strung out next to a nearby creek before installing it into the pipeline. That ensured minimal disruption and made Titeflow the most cost-effective trenchless solution.


Following the completion of the project, the water main has been returned to service with confidence that it will not fail. This will allow

of the water pipeline has reduced the short-term water continuity risks while an expansion of the water mains is under design and delivery.

“Utilising trenchless technologies to rehabilitate ageing infrastructure has negated many of the construction risks associated with traditional trench and lay,” Moran said. “The construction footprint, including the requirement for stockpile and sediment and erosion control, is significantly reduced. Since the water main was first installed, heavy commercial development has occurred in the area. Given the nature of the site, the established industrial businesses had considerable hardstand within their yards. Titeflow was able to negate the expensive restoration of brownfield sites.”

The chosen rehabilitation solution was also the most economical. This meant cost benefits for Hunter Water and for their end users. Any solution that required extensive or multiple excavation points would have come with a substantial cost. By choosing a trenchless method, disruption and capital costs were minimised.

“Titeflow had a 20 per cent cost benefit versus other proposed trenchless solutions,” he said. “From our perspective, we had to think outside the box to complete this project, and now we know we can perform these sorts of long pulls.”

“Longer pulls open opportunities to reduce the social, environmental and economic impacts of water main rehabilitation.”

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 21
to stretch Titeflow through the existing pipeline.
EZIpit® Sewer Maintenance & Inspection Structure The easy decision Proven performance in gravity sewers WSAA appraised to WSA137 Fast, safe and easy to install Civil 13 10 86 Iplex Pipelines Visit Iplex at Ozwater’24 on stand KO1 to learn more about the EZIpit® range

The right line for your pipes

The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) has given Riteline Centralisers the coveted product appraisal certificate. What does this mean for the water industry?

RITELINE CENTRALISERS ARE a product of OptionX Group. Late last year, the technology was approved by WSAA for use in the water and wastewater industry. Under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer Stuart Harrison, OptionX Group has made waves in the trenchless technology field.

“Riteline was developed to overcome several limitations of traditional spacers that can increase the risk on pipeline projects,” Harrison said. “I’m excited to see that the industry has officially recognised the spacers.”

Riteline spacers have been successfully appraised by the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA). It provides a new option for

pipeline installations and complies with WSA PS-324 for casing spacers. Riteline Centralisers represent an innovative solution designed to revolutionise the accuracy of trenchless installations by supporting the carrier pipe, ensuring its fixed position relative to the bored hole or encasement pipe.

“Contractors and operators can confidently use Riteline Centralisers on their projects, knowing they have been through the necessary tests and third-party analysis,” he said. “The WSAA appraisal serves as a benchmark for quality within the industry. It signifies that Riteline Centralisers have met the highest strength, reliability, and quality assurance standards.”

What are Riteline Centralisers?

Riteline Centralisers have been designed for the horizontal drilling sector, where precision and adaptability are essential. Unlike traditional casing spacers, Riteline Centralisers offer greater flexibility, accommodating pipes ranging from 100 millimetres in diameter.

The ability to make incremental adjustments on-site eliminates the need to purchase specific sizes, reducing time, cost, and stock wastage. It also features adjustable heights spanning from 30 to 125 millimetres. This versatility addresses the diverse needs of trenchless drilling projects, allowing for seamless adaptation to varying conditions.

“One of the limitations of traditional casing spacers was that they needed to be purchased in specific sizes and couldn’t be adapted on-site to meet changing needs,” he said. “This resulted in time, money, and stock wastage. With Riteline Centralisers, INSIDE WATER 23
The installation of Riteline Centralisers is simple for users. Photo by OptionX Group

there is no

was fuelled by industry feedback and real-world field data. The collaborative nature of OptionX Group allowed Riteline to address industry frustrations innovatively, resulting in a product that aligns seamlessly with the unique demands of horizontal drilling projects.

Unique features

A distinctive feature of Riteline Centralisers is their individually attached design, minimising the risk of catastrophic failure. This approach enhances safety and reliability, crucial factors in the success of trenchless drilling projects. Riteline’s design ensures a more secure and resilient installation. This is unlike traditional centralisers that surround the pipe. They can be prone to failure when snagged on obstacles.

The low-profile design of Riteline Centralisers further sets them apart. This engineering facilitates seamless grouting, preventing failures and ensuring secure and accurate installations in trenchless drilling operations. Minimising the risk of grouting issues contributes to

the pipe or must be designed in a size

is called for. Riteline overcomes this limitation as they can be attached to the pipe as needed, with the number of spacers required based on the load, providing a tailored and efficient solution. This feature minimises excess product use, reducing costs and environmental impact.

“As each centraliser is individually attached to the pipe, the risk of catastrophic failure is reduced. Traditional centralisers that surround the pipe can fail when they snag on an obstacle in the bore, which can cause an entire ring of centralisers to move, compromising the installation,” Harrison said.

Flexibility and adaptability

The system can be used for all pipe materials, including steel, ductile iron, GRP, FRP, concrete, PVC and PE for pressure and non-pressure pipelines. The Flex Series can only be installed in grouted applications,

Left: it is extremely easy to install the Riteline spacers on the pipe, ahead of the pipe’s installation on site.

Right: Riteline spacers can fit smoothly into any pipe.

Image: Riteline Centralisers

whereas the Rigid Series suits both grouted and un-grouted installations.

The Flex series is designed to flex around bore imperfections with its unique spring-like design. This not only allows for tension adjustment but also enables elastic deformation around obstacles, preventing jamming and ensuring a smooth workflow in horizontal drilling applications.

At the same time, the Rigid Series incorporates supports that provide a high load-bearing capacity and is recommended for most installations.

Industry recognition

It’s not just the WSAA that has recognised the range of Riteline Centralisers. They were acknowledged as finalists in the New Technology category at the 2023 ASTT awards, attesting to their innovation and game-changing capabilities.

“Riteline Centralisers are Australianowned and manufactured, developed over almost ten years,” Harrison said. “It is fantastic to see them recognised as an innovative and game-changing product.”

For more information, visit

24 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
need to buy multiple centralisers of different sizes.”
1300 211 954 Agriculture | Food and Beverage | Mining | Manufacturing | Quarry and Cement | Waste Water

SmartEAR: amplifying your leak finding

Today, water utilities and local councils in Australia will lose more than 1.5 times the volume of Sydney Harbour, a staggering 800GL, of perfectly treated drinking water. A new product by WaterGroup aims to change this sad “tradition”.

WHEN IT COMES to water losses, they are at the same rate today as they were 100 years ago. This is despite the significant technological advances, IoT capability, and affordable pricing. In addition, there is increasing pressure on our water supplies and, thus, the need to conserve available resources better.

“Sadly, these underground pipes and their leaks tend to be very much out of sight, out of mind,” said Managing Director of WaterGroup, Guenter Hauber-Davidson.

Leaks can occur from any connection, whether a pipe joint, a bend, a valve or a hydrant. We also need to consider holes in ageing and corroding pipes. For eons, it has been a well-accepted industry rule of thumb to lose at least 10 per

cent (and often much more, over 20-30 per cent, even 50 per cent) of precious potable water.

“We need to shift that paradigm,” he said. “We need to push and reach a point where this is simply unacceptable. This represents a clear call for action.”

WaterGroup and SmartEAR

WaterGroup has entered the pipe monitoring industry with its SmartEAR acoustic Internet of Things (IoT) logger for water networks. The SmartEAR is designed for Australian water utilities but could be utilised in a range of countries.

“By providing better monitoring and visibility, it makes it easier to step up and stop the worst leaks in a system,” said Hauber-Davidson. “If we look

at crime as an analogy, we want to identify and lock up the biggest offenders first. Once security is improved, the organisation can refine their approach and cast a finer net.”

SmartEAR, in the opinion of HauberDavidson, is the quintessential technology that provides visibility relative to underground leaks.

“When people see how the platform operates, they immediately grasp its value,” he said. “Knowing that pipe leaks are detected when they happen allows network operators to sleep easily at night. Most critically, it prevents and avoids disruptive bursts requiring emergency repairs that make the evening news.”


One of the main features of technology is that it gets cheaper as more of it is rolled out. The savings arising from the increased distribution of IoT add to the increased value for water utilities and local councils.

“We’ve seen that increase in value from adopting new technology in an appropriate, practical, cost-effective, and results-driven fashion for our customers,” Hauber-Davidson said. “We’ve been able to demonstrate that over the past 15 years. In a recent audit, we showed that we have saved over $8 million worth of water for our customers just in the last three years. We can do exactly the same with our pipeline monitoring technology, supporting water supply networks for councils and utilities.”

Security risks from IoT and Benefits

As with any additional internet connection, risks need to be assessed. People are concerned about residential IoT devices being hacked. This extends to commercial IoT data loggers.

26 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
Aimi Macready, the head of Sales and Marketing at WaterGroup, showing the SmartEAR. Images: WaterGroup

The water industry is no exception.

“Cybersecurity is obviously at the front of everyone’s minds,” said Hauber-Davidson. “There have been plenty of well-publicised cases. However, this should not be used as an excuse to not do something.”

Technology moves on, and very few advocate for the return to reams of paper full of hard copies of data. He pointed out that the benefits of electronic data far outweigh the costs (or risks). Hence, we have accepted those risks, and they are typically well-managed. As a result, we are now far better off than in the old days.

One aspect of how WaterGroup reduces cybersecurity risks is by keeping its monitoring solutions separate. For example, the SmartEAR does not interact with or control any asset.

“Even if somebody were to get into the monitoring system,” he said, “all they can see is where a leak might exist. In the grand scheme of things, that’s not too bad. The important thing to remember is that in most of the well-publicised cases, illegal access has been acquired through obtaining poorly secured repeated passwords, often from private social or shopping accounts. It seems almost inconceivable how people could hack a simple IoT logger with minimal bandwidth to create a pathway for back door access such as into the SCADA system.”

Safety in cyber

One of the most important aspects of cybersecurity and safety is to build in safety and security measures at every level and aspect of the data and communications chain. That extra effort makes it infinitely harder to hack a system.

Hauber-Davidson believes there are benefits in safely and securely sharing different types of data

amongst different organisations.

“That data can be network monitoring data, including water usage, consumption data and perhaps some operating data,” he said. “We still need to put clear segregations in place so that at least the operational control is completely removed from the data.”

almost any water system.

companies like WaterGroup can deliver a valuable resource for water utilities, local councils, and industrial water users.

Hauber-Davidson looked at the work done by Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW). Five or six years earlier, NSW Trains (now TfNSW) allowed open access to certain types of data, including geolocation data, routes, entry and exit data across every station, station maps, occupancy information, and even parking lot capacity.

“This access to data has given rise to a whole raft of companies that have developed mobile apps,” Hauber-Davidson said. “Those apps provide excellent information at a fraction of the cost and much faster than the government could have ever achieved. It shows that data can be shared more openly if organisations and governments are confident in their security.”

Understanding data

The beauty of smart water meters and data loggers is that they help water utilities and local councils see where, how, and when water is used and where it is lost in near real time. However, this data needs to be analysed and acted upon to

“It’s important to remember that once our customers receive more data in a day than they previously received in a whole year, they must have resources to interpret it. We can help by triaging the data, turning it into actionable information, and by assisting to take the corresponding meaningful corrective action.”

In Hauber-Davidson’s eyes, the icing on the cake is to monitor the results of those actions, verify what has been achieved, report on it, and then drive even greater overall system benefits to close that feedback loop. Is it a case of having your cake and eating it?

“Once customers have all that data, they will see a whole range of potential issues,” HauberDavidson said.

“The next challenge is prioritising those issues, as no organisation can deal with them all at once. It’s an opportunity to proactively deal with individual issues and systemic issues. A good dataset will help customers understand what is happening and allow them to pre-emptively deal with them.”

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 27


Using plastic for good

Plastic pipes and fittings have transformed how we live, delivering essential services and utilities to our homes and communities.

IT’S HARD TO comprehend the vast network of plastic pipelines installed and in operation here in Australia and around the world.

The Plastic Industry Pipe Association of Australia (PIPA) is the peak industry body representing manufacturers and suppliers of plastics pipe and fittings, plastics resin suppliers, plastic fabricators, pipeline installers, rubber seal ring manufacturers, and training and certification bodies.

As a non-profit association, PIPA promotes the appropriate and contemporary use of plastic pipes and fittings throughout Australia. This is achieved through its four key pillars of advocate, educate, technical and sustainability.

“By collaborating with our members, industry professionals and global counterparts, we leverage the latest insights and technology to develop robust guidelines for best practice manufacture, installation,

and use of plastic pipeline systems,” said Executive General Manager Cindy Bray.

Underpinning our approach is a commitment to future-focused leadership. Through research, education, technical expertise, and advocacy, we help advance the use of plastic pipes and fittings as an innovative, efficient, and sustainable solution.”

Transitioning from a linear to a circular economy

With Australia’s focus on transitioning from a linear to a circular economy, PIPA recognises the importance of educating how plastic pipe systems align with the key principles of the circular economy – better use of resources, closed-looped resource flows and preventing waste and pollution through better design.

“When we talk about a circular economy, we are talking about an

Plastic pipes are designed to remain functional over their lifetime without requiring excess maintenance or repair.

Images: Plastic Industry Pipe Association of Australia (PIPA)

innovative model for rethinking our approach to products by design,” Bray said. “The aim is to ensure products are used efficiently and in use for as long as possible. Plastic pipe systems achieve this with their long life – from design, manufacturing, use, repair, re-use, recovery, and recyclability.

You can see why contractors prefer to replace and upgrade other pipe materials worldwide. This is extremely important for critical infrastructure to last a long time.”

Plastic pipes are engineered products designed to last

The first phase of a circular economy is design and make. This covers efficient use of resources and prevention of waste and pollution through better design and manufacturing processes.

The plastic material used to manufacture pipes is engineered to be robust, reliable, and recyclable. They are intended and designed to last a long time, more than 100 years.

The engineered polymers used are stable materials. These properties suit a product such as pipes requiring long life expectancy.

28 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

Durability is a result of product design

Part of the circular economy is to design a product that can remain functional over its lifetime without requiring excess maintenance or repair when installed correctly under regular operation.

“For plastic pipes, it is intended that they can be installed and not require any maintenance or repair for decades, unlike other materials,” said Bray.

Plastic pipes withstand the forces to which they are subjected. They do not corrode and resist chemical attack. Plastic pipes resist abrasion and maintain a smooth bore for easy fluid flow and better hydraulics. They are also designed not to leach secondary material into the fluid flow, essential for drinking water applications. Plastic pipes are safe for the people and the planet.

Re-use before recover

At the end of their long service life, plastic pipe systems in buried infrastructure applications can be reused without removing them from under the ground.

“These services are likely to become a host for a new plastic pipe,” said Bray. “There is a strong focus on recycling, but reusing the pipe significantly reduces the use of energy and resources. It also reduces the environmental impact of digging up a pipeline after 100 years. There are some applications where suitable recycling streams are available, such as pipe off-cuts, but it’s not for all of them.”

Bray says that you can see why plastic is the material choice for pipes when looking at design, manufacture, installation, and performance benefits. They also support a circular economy in a closed-loop system.

Sustainable products

Alongside the importance of products being circular, Australia is also focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. When it comes to plastic pipe systems, the industry has been working on understanding the baseline and determining how carbon-intensive our systems are.

“The most reliable way to do this is through Environmental Product Declarations (EDPs),” Bray said. “These are underpinned by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and consider the whole life cycle of products or services compliant with the ISO standards. It looks at all areas of the lifecycle, including the origin of the raw materials, transportation, processing into production, distribution, installation and product use, maintenance, and end of life. EPDs provide information on environmental impacts, including energy, carbon and emissions.

Some PIPA members have published EPDs for their products. PIPA has worked with these manufacturers to establish an industry perspective on those aspects of the pipes’ lifecycle that are the same irrespective of manufacturer.

Using this information, PIPA has communicated the lifecycle stages of pipes and where the carbon impact occurs. It presents the opportunity to highlight the areas for decarbonisation. It also highlights how small the industry’s carbon impacts are compared to other materials like cement and steel.

“Some people may be surprised that the production plants for manufacturing plastic pipes are relatively simple,” she said. “No combustion or chemical reaction is required. As a result, no smoke or emissions are produced.”

The main inputs are plastic pellets or powder and electricity. Production equipment is electrically powered, and heating is electric as temperatures are relatively low to melt the plastic. This results in a clean and enclosed process. Scrap or re-work material generated in the manufacturing process is reused, designing out waste. Suitable post-consumer and pre-consumer materials can be used to manufacture non-pressure plastic pipes.

EPDs are helpful for manufacturers to benchmark their products. They also meet market demand for science-based, transparent, verified environmental product information and data, supporting sustainable procurement.

“Establishing these benchmarks through an EPD enables our industry to be transparent with our environmental impacts and sets our pathway towards net zero,” Bray said.

“It is easy to see why plastic is the material choice for pipe and supports a circular economy in a closedloop system. By using resources responsibility through better design, we are working smarter. We’re committed and working towards creating a healthier environment and sustainable future.”

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 29
Plastic pipes are engineered products designed to last more than 100 years.

EZIpit is the easy decision

Iplex continues to be one of Australia’s leading manufacturers and distributors of plastic pipe systems, continually working within the Australian water industry by providing innovative products and new perspectives on gravity-fed sewers.

WITH MORE THAN 85 years of experience, Iplex has a good understanding of the challenges the water industry faces. Its experienced team actively work and collaborates with customers to provide safe, secure, and innovative water solutions today and into the future.

Iplex has broad and proven capabilities. It is driven by what is important to the industry, its communities and its customers. The company provides innovative pipeline products and solutions for rural and agriculture applications, residential subdivisions and civil and mining infrastructure projects across Australia.

With that capability, Iplex continues to provide high-quality products such as EZIpit.

In South East Queensland, EZIpits are becoming more popular. The South East Queensland sewer code mandates maintenance holes for sewer network access, which is essential for inspection and ongoing maintenance. These one-metre-wide holes are traditionally constructed on site in concrete. Due to the curing process of concrete, these holes often need to remain open for an extended period. Adding complexity to the project, skilled concreters are necessary to construct concrete benching in the base.

This is where EZIpit steps in. There are three types, each providing unique benefits in sewer construction and flexibility in sewer networks. Water authorities’ environmental, technical, and economic demands for a water-tight, corrosion-proof, stable, and durable

sewer system are now a reality with Iplex EZIpit systems.

Manufactured from polypropylene, the EZIpit is lightweight. The ease of installation allows rapid assembly in the trench and can be backfilled at the same time, reducing the risk of leaving deep excavation holes open, especially overnight.

EZIpit is easy to manage

One of the most experienced people to talk to about EZIpit is Trent Hutchison, Iplex Queensland Regional Sales Manager.

“I’ve had a long history in the water industry,” Hutchison said. “I am extremely passionate about it, as I come from an irrigation family and

farming background. From there, I started working in the manufacturing side of the water industry over 21 years ago across different market sectors.”

From his perspective, EZIpit is a good solution for the water industry. It offers a range of benefits for water authorities across Australia and across the globe.

“Firstly, the EZIpit is very light compared to concrete alternatives,” he said. “That is the biggest benefit for contractors. That comes with a more environmentally friendly outcome, as smaller trucks can transport the EZIpits. Smaller trucks mean less diesel used and less emissions put into the environment.”

Another positive aspect of the EZIpit is its watertight construction. Using polypropylene to manufacture the products ensures a robust, watertight unit. That includes dirt, tree roots, and other contaminants entering the sewer. No contamination means

30 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
The EZIpit is easy for a team to install on-site.
Images: Iplex

key issue,” Hutchison said. “Sewer networks tend to build up a lot of bacteria, which can react with sulphates in the water to form hydrogen sulphide. That can create odour problems and the potential to form sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid attacks concrete pipes and reduces its service life. EZIpit, however, is resistant and is unaffected by hydrogen sulphide attack.”

Improving sustainability

Plastic does not always strike people as the most sustainable of products. However, Hutchison advocates for EZIpit and what single-use plastic means for the water industry.

“Plastics are usually designed for a single-use, which sounds terrible,” he said. “However, our EZIpit are designed to have a long service life. We can recycle them, but an EZIpit is designed to be in the ground forever. There’s no need to worry about pulling them out because they don’t need to be reworked, relined, or resealed.”

It’s not just environmentally sustainable but also financially sustainable. By having a system that lasts for decades, water utilities do not have to spend as much money on maintenance. It’s a big advantage provided by EZIpit.

“For example, I know of one water utility spending north of $500,000 a year upgrading its manholes,” Hutchison said. “EZIpit provides the opportunity to save that money.

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WELCOME TO THE inaugural Inside Water Contractor and Manufacturer Showcase. It’s designed as an easy reference point for any individual or organisation seeking to find a new partner.

Australia’s water and wastewater industry is supporting the development of a circular economy, while also facing down challenges around water quality and scarcity.

Manufacturers remain at the cutting edge of technology. They are testing innovative new techniques and providing solutions for a myriad of questions facing the industry.

At the same time, contractors are working across multiple industries to present water and wastewater management facilities, operations, and maintenance services.

The Water Industry Showcase seeks to be a one-stop shop to connect different aspects of the water and wastewater industry together, across Australia. Working together, there is little to nothing that can stop Australians from protecting and preserving this most precious of resources.

While the team at Inside Water has done its best to include every company in the industry, it takes no responsibility for omissions.

The data was collected through a variety of measures, including mailouts, website survey collection points and emails to comprehensive databases. Companies also actively sought to place themselves in this list. This list will be published online at a later date. INSIDE WATER 33
davidhewison/ SHOWCASE 2024
The Yan Yean reservoir is one of Australia’s oldest reservoirs, and represents just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to Australia’s water industry.

What products does your company manufacture or distribute?

34 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
SHOWCASE 2024 Products
Biochar, biosolids, and biowaste Filters and screens Internet of Things devices and software Irrigation systems Pipes and coatings Pumps, valves and seals Sludge management Stormwater management Trenchless technology Water meters and sensors, including leak detection Water recycling systems Water storage and tanks Water treatment Other Acciona Agua Australia Pty Ltd • ADC Plastics Plastics fabrications including tanks, pipe fittings and manifolds, pump enclosures and mounting systems, chemical cabinets and bespoke parts Ame Pump Specialists • • Amtac Professional Services • Backflow Test kits & accessories Aquacomb • ••• Atlas Copco Australia • Supply and service of air blowers and air compressors Bird Water Services • • Demand Management Care-Free Conditioners Australia • • Central Highlands Environmental Consultancy Waterway health assessments Civil Survey Solutions • Clean TeQ Water •• Metal recovery, tailings dewatering, brine management systems Colin Biggers & Paisley Law firm CST Wastewater Solutions • • Data Right Pty Ltd • DCS manufacturing • Drain Cleaning and Hydro Excavation Trucks Eco Detection Australia Pty Ltd • Enaxiom •• FiberSense • GROWAUS Pty Ltd ••• •••

Biochar, biosolids, and biowaste

What products does your company manufacture or distribute?

Filters and screens Internet of Things devices and software Irrigation systems Pipes and coatings Pumps, valves and seals Sludge management Stormwater management Trenchless technology Water meters and sensors, including leak detection Water recycling systems Water storage and tanks Water treatment Other

Cooling towers to process water to required temperature to within 3 degrees of location's wet-bulb temperature. INSIDE WATER 35
Haycarb Holdings
Hydrant Services Pty Ltd • Hydroflux Pty Ltd •• •• •• Kallipr • Lakeside Cooling Towers
Activated Carbon for water purification.
LINQ Solutions
Magnachem Contimont • Mejoras Energéticas S.A • •••• Motion Asia Pac • •• Naturalis Spring Water • Nature Positive Solutions • • Neoferma Australia Pty Ltd
•• Compressed Air Solar Power Storage with Atmospheric Water Generation
tanks & reservoirs
service based company OptiCorr Pty Ltd • Composite and Ceramic Technical Coatings Orbital Eye
monitoring software Pacific Urethanes • Petron Plus7 products Australia & NZ corporation Pty Ltd • •
Powell Industrial •• •
Image: Willyam Bradberry/
We are a
Enzyme Producing Bacteria is a living bacterial suspension treatments that liquefy suspended or trapped solids and fats carbohydrated breaks down and liquefy suspended
• National distributor of hose and fittings for the water industry.

SHOWCASE 2024 Products & Services

What products does your company manufacture or distribute?

36 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
Biochar, biosolids, and biowaste Filters and screens Internet of Things devices and software Irrigation systems Pipes and coatings Pumps, valves and seals Sludge management Stormwater
Trenchless technology Water meters and sensors, including leak detection Water recycling systems Water storage and tanks Water treatment Other Precise Lubrication • Oil Analysis, Filtration, Lubrication Management, Lubricants, Automatic Lubrication. Pumps and Systems •••••••• Sagemcom Australasia Pty Ltd • • SAPHI •• •• Automation technologies, AI Vision technologies SAVECO •• ••• •••• Smart Lock Group • SNAPI Pty Ltd • • Southland Filtration Pty Ltd • •• Stainless Fastener Supplies Fasteners Stainless & Carbon Steel all grades & finishes , Petrochemical stud bolts , U bolts & more Taggle • • TPS • Water Quality Test Instruments TracWater Pty Ltd • •• High-speed cloud data systems in non-stop use across water, power and gas since 2010 Ultra Bond Wangaratta • • UPG P/L • Mechanical and static mixers WaterGroup • Westernport Rewinding •••• •• Domestic water and filtration 24/7 Local Water Carting BULK WATER AND WE ALSO HIRE OUT WATER TRUCKS 37South Pty. Ltd. • •• Data Logging and Remote Telemetry


What kinds of services does your company offer? INSIDE WATER 37
engineering of facilities Education, training, and community consultation Project management ESG management, and reporting Flooding, groundwater
pollution management Maintenance Procurement
Research, strategy, policy, modelling,
planning Supply chain
logistics Wastewater auditing and management Water-sensitive urban
Other Acciona Agua Australia Pty Ltd ••• •• Ame Pump Specialists
Cybersecurity systems
management and
Selection, sales and maintenance. Amtac Professional Services Tracking, monitoring and managing compliance on trade waste, backflow, TMV and OSTF obligations and waste transport. Aquacomb
• We manufacture, install and distribute a range of OSD & OSR solutions Atlas Copco Australia
Energy auditing & optimization of low pressure aeration systems Bird Water Services • •• • Cable & Pipe Locations Pty Ltd • Drain Cleaning & CCTV Pipe Inspections and Reporting, Pipe Relining and Repairs Central Highlands Environmental Consultancy •••• • Civil Survey Solutions • Clean TeQ Water ••• • Colin Biggers & Paisley Legal services CST Wastewater Solutions • Data Right Pty Ltd • Installation of water meters & AMR's dcs manufacturing • CSDEE Engineering Project Management •• Eco Detection Australia Pty Ltd Autonomous laboratory grade water analysis Enaxiom •• Engineering consulting FiberSense Advanced fiber based monitoring tech for water networks, enabling quick detection and response to bursts and threats. GROWAUS Pty Ltd • ••••
Safety Consultancy
Safety and Environmental management system development, auditing, mentoring and management

What kinds of services does your company offer?

Infrastructure Advisory Group is Australia’s most trusted specialist infrastructure advisory firm, providing transaction, commercial, strategic advisory and delivery services.

Translation of innovative approaches, technologies and new ways of thinking from research to industry application

38 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024 SHOWCASE 2024 Services COMPANY
Cybersecurity systems Design and engineering of facilities Education, training, and community consultation Project management ESG management, and reporting Flooding, groundwater and pollution management Maintenance Procurement and tender development Research, strategy, policy, modelling, and planning Supply chain management and logistics Wastewater auditing and management Water-sensitive urban design Other Haycarb Holdings Water and wastewater treatment Hays Specialist recruitment, technology and adisory services Hydrant Services Pty Ltd •• Protection of assets Hydroflux Pty Ltd ••• • Infrastructure Advisory Group ••• •••
Intelligent Water Networks
Lakeside Cooling Towers • LINQ Solutions • • Supply and manufacturing of Battery/water combo Magnachem Contimont • Mejoras Energéticas S.A • • • Motion Asia Pac Engineering & technical support Naturalis Spring Water Distribution Nature Positive Solutions • • Neoferma Australia Pty Ltd Materials and Systems OneStone Consulting • ••• OptiCorr Pty Ltd • Resurfacing and Protection of Concrete and Metal plant & equipment Orbital Eye • Satellite-based monitoring service for infrastructure integrity Pacific Urethanes • Petron Plus7 products Australia & NZ corporation Pty Ltd •• Enzyme producing live Bacteria is environmentally friendly and boidegradable

Cybersecurity systems Design and engineering of facilities

What kinds of services does your company offer?

Education, training, and community consultation Project management ESG management, and reporting Flooding, groundwater and pollution management Maintenance Procurement and tender development Research, strategy, policy, modelling, and planning Supply chain management and logistics

Wastewater auditing and management

Water-sensitive urban design

Precise Lubrication •
and Systems •••
utility mapping
Australasia Pty Ltd •
•••• Automation services, Data capture services, Dam monitoring, Water Quality Monitoring SAVECO •
Lock Group
In situ pipe repair.
Pty Ltd •
Filtration Pty Ltd •••• •
Fastener Supplies
Water management through digital water metering TPS •
Pty Ltd
of cloud-enabled robotic sensor systems for use in water distribution, sewerage, environmental and industrial applications
Bond Wangaratta Specializing in Plastic Welding UPG P/L
manufacture and supply WaterGroup • Smart Water Metering, Water Efficiency and Leak Surveys Westernport Rewinding • • Design and installation of pump systems, domestic, irrigation, filtration, water treatment 24/7 Local Water Carting
Pty. Ltd.
Data Logging and Remote Telemetry Equipment
Trenchless Pipe
Technology -

SHOWCASE 2024 Directory

For your convenience, we present to you a contact list of all participating companies. Whether you would like to connect or learn more about their products and services provided, see below for their details.

Acciona Agua Australia Pty Ltd

South Brisbane, QLD

4101, Australia

Ph: +61 419 923 976



Office Locations: NSW, SA, VIC, WA, QLD

ADC Plastics

Hallam, VIC 3803, Australia

Ph: 0418 399 244



Office Locations: VIC

Ame Pump Specialists

Torrensville, SA

5031, Australia

Ph: 0882 342 090



Office Locations: SA

Amtac Professional Services

Greenbank, QLD 4124, Australia

Ph: +61733804600



Office Locations: ACT, NSW, QLD



2170, Australia

Ph: 1300 00 8396



Office Locations: NSW

Atlas Copco Australia

Blacktown, NSW 2148, Australia

Ph: +61448918604

Email: compressorsau@au.atlascopco. com


Office Locations: NSW, SA, VIC, WA, QLD

Bird Water Services

Kuluin, QLD

4558, Australia

Ph: 0477058453


Web: Bird Water Services

Office Locations: QLD

Cable & Pipe Locations Pty Ltd Woolgoolga, NSW 2456, Australia

Ph: 0408730430

Email: shane@cableandpipelocations.


Office Locations: NSW

Care-Free Conditioners Australia Porepunkah, VIC 3740, Australia

Ph: 1300300235



Office Locations: VIC

Central Highlands Environmental Consultancy

Newtown, VIC 3351, Australia

Ph: 0427803338


Web: Central highlands Environmental

Office Locations: VIC

Civil Survey Solutions

Notting Hill, VIC 3168, Australia

Ph: 1300254004




Office Locations: NSW, SA, VIC

Clean TeQ Water

Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia

Ph: 0397976700



Office Locations: NT, SA, VIC

Colin Biggers & Paisley

Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Ph: 82814522



Office Locations: NSW, VIC, QLD

CST Wastewater Solutions

Roseville, NSW 2069, Australia

Ph: 0412271279



Office Locations: NSW

Data Right Pty Ltd

Mackay, QLD 4740, Australia

Ph: 1300163837



Office Locations: QLD

dcs manufacturing dandenong sth, VIC 3175, aus

Ph: 03 9775 1330



Office Locations: VIC

CSDEE Engineering

Project Management

VARSITY LAKES, QLD 4227, Australia

Ph: 0403568509


Office Locations: QLD

Eco Detection Australia Pty Ltd

Richmond, VIC 3121, Australia

Ph: 0419574097



Office Locations: VIC


Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Ph: 0488133312



Office Locations: NSW


Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia

Ph: n/a



Office Locations: NSW, VIC, QLD


Wilsonton, QLD

4350, Australia

Ph: 0418737642



Office Locations: QLD

Hay Safety Consultancy

Bingara, NSW 2404, Australia

Ph: 0415502915



Office Locations: NSW

Haycarb Holdings


3125, Australia

Ph: (03)85550680



Office Locations: VIC, WA


Melbourne, VIC

3000, Australia

Ph: 1800 805 051



Office Locations: ACT, NSW, NT, SA, TAS, VIC, WA, QLD

Hydrant Services Pty Ltd

Karana Downs, QLD 4306, Australia

Ph: 32011539


Web: Hydrant Services Pty Ltd

Office Locations: QLD

Hydroflux Pty Ltd

Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Ph: 1300 417 697



Office Locations: NSW, VIC, WA, QLD, New Zealand, Fiji

Infrastructure Advisory Group

Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

Ph: +61438247783



Office Locations: ACT, NSW, VIC, QLD

Intelligent Water Networks

Melbourne, VIC

3000, Australia

Ph: +61400118459



Office Locations: VIC


Murrarie, QLD 4172, Australia

Ph: 0477896886



Office Locations: NSW, VIC, QLD

Lakeside Cooling Towers

Oakleigh South, VIC 3167, Australia

Ph: 03 95554844



Office Locations: VIC


North Lakes, QLD 4509, Australia

Ph: 0420252221

Email: Web:

Office Locations: QLD

Magnachem Contimont


Lima 18, Perú

Ph: +51994174514



Office Locations: Argentina

Mejoras Energéticas S.A Las Rozas/ Madrid, Madrid 28232, Spain

Ph: 916403462


Office Locations: ACT, Spain

Motion Asia Pac

BRAESIDE, VIC 3194, Australia

Ph: 0419351078

Email: Leon.stefanec@


Office Locations: ACT, NSW, NT, SA, TAS, VIC, WA, QLD

Naturalis Spring Water

Perth, WA 6159, Australia

Ph: 1800006462

Email: naturalisspringwater@


Office Locations: WA

Nature Positive Solutions

Saskatoon, SK

S7J 4B3, Canada

Ph: +14377785552

Email: naturepostivesolutions@gmail. com

Office Locations: Canada

Neoferma Australia Pty Ltd

Burleigh Heads, QLD 4220, Australia

Ph: 0755764922



Office Locations: NSW, QLD, United Arab Emirates

OneStone Consulting

Perth, WA 6000, Australia

Ph: 1300 840 192



Office Locations: WA

OptiCorr Pty Ltd

Dandenong South, VIC 3175, Australia

Ph: 0447562252


Office Locations: VIC

Orbital Eye

Delft, South Holand 2616LR, Netherlands

Ph: 0152152992

Email: max.romen-naegel@


Office Locations: Netherlands

Pacific Urethanes

Dandenong South, VIC 3175, Australia

Ph: +61428980124

Email: scott.gaebler@pacificurethanes. com


Office Locations: NSW, VIC, WA, QLD

Petron Plus7 Products

Breakfast Point, NSW 2137, Australia

Ph: +61458714515



Office Locations: NSW

SHOWCASE 2024 Directory

Powell Industrial

Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia

Ph: 07 3277 3722

Email: enquiries@powellindustrial.


Office Locations: NSW, SA, VIC, TAS, WA, QLD

Precise Lubrication

Nuriootpa, SA

5355, Austrlai

Ph: 0418836156

Email: admin@preciselubrication.


Office Locations: SA

Pumps and Systems

New Port, SA

5015, Australia

Ph: 0412843774

Email: robert@pumpsandsystems.


Office Locations: SA

Reveal Infrastructure

Wellington, NZ

6011, New Zealand

Ph: +64211970218



Office Locations: New Zealand

Sagemcom Australasia Pty Ltd

Tooronga, VIC 3146, Australia

Ph: 0408838338



Office Locations: NSW, VIC


Newcastle, NSW

2304, Australia

Ph: 0439577506



Office Locations: ACT, NSW, NT, SA, TAS, VIC, WA, QLD


Dandenong South, VIC 3175, Australia

Ph: +61 3 97 37 47 00



Office Locations: NSW, VIC, QLD

Smart Lock Group

Altona, VIC 3018, Australia

Ph: 0409768123

Email: mpolwarth@smartlockgroup. com


Office Locations: WA


Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia




Office Locations: SA, QLD

Southland Filtration Pty Ltd


2170, Australia

Ph: 1800656771

Email: hello@southlandfiltration.


Office Locations: NSW, TAS, VIC, QLD

Stainless Fastener Supplies

Cockburn Central, WA 6164, Australia

Ph: 08 9414 1116



Office Locations: WA


Marrickville, NSW 2204, Australia

Ph: 02 8999 1919



Office Locations: NSW, QLD


Brendale, QLD 4500, Austrlaia

Ph: +61732058027



Office Locations: QLD

TracWater Pty Ltd

Arundel, QLD 4214, Australia

Ph: 1300563219



Office Locations: QLD

Ultra Bond Wangaratta Wangaratta, VIC 3678, Australia

Ph: 0409573340



Office Locations: VIC


KENMORE, QLD 4069, Australia

Ph: +61448222667



Office Locations: NSW, QLD


Pymble, NSW 2073, Australia

Ph: 0294998795



Office Locations: NSW

Westernport Rewinding

Hastings, VIC 3915, Australia

Ph: 0414836168



Office Locations: VIC


LEWISTON, SA 5501, Australia

Ph: +61412821406



Office Locations: SA

37South Pty. Ltd.

Kilsyth, VIC 3137, Australia

Ph: 1300 855 142



Office Locations: VIC


WOMEN IN INDUSTRY NOMINATIONS ARE NOW OPEN. Now is your chance to nominate an industry leader who you believe is advocating for positive change and deserves to be recognised.


Thurs 20 June, 2024

The Women in Industry Awards recognise outstanding women leaders from across Australia’s industrials sector.

FOCUS Biosolids Is thermal drying part of our future?

As Australia builds a pathway for the sustainable management of biosolids, new technology is critical to developing a following among water utilities in Australia and New Zealand. What is that technology?

THE CONSIDERATION OF technology, legislative change, public perception, circular economy thinking and emerging contaminants are part of a roadmap to managing biosolids.

However, many options exist for delivering such infrastructure within a large country like Australia. Biosolids management is a crucial topic worldwide, and the water industry can learn from what other countries are implementing.

Some countries have moved towards centralised digestion with hydrolysis pre-treatment to exploit higher gas yields and green energy.

Others have mandated fertiliser recovery from sewage biosolids using thermal treatment. Regardless of which path is taken, exploiting the hidden energy potential of biosolids

is common. A drying step is typically employed for advanced thermal processes and fertiliser recovery.

What is the drying step?

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), heat drying (also known as thermal drying) is a technique where heat from direct or indirect dryers is used to evaporate water from wastewater solids.

It is one of several methods that can be used to reduce the volume and improve the quality of wastewater biosolids. However, an advantage of heat drying versus other biosolids improvement methods is that heat drying is ideal for producing Class A biosolids.

There are a few projects around Australia that involve thermal drying

The HUBER BT12 Belt Dryer will be installed as part of the thermal drying

facilities. Significant opportunities exist for those wishing to turn their biosolids into a valuable resource.

Hydroflux and biosolids

Recently, Hydroflux was awarded the Thermal Dryer Package for the new Sludge Minimisation Facility of Wellington City in New Zealand.

The McConnell Dowell-HEB Joint Venture was awarded a contract to construct the new facility, which will reduce sludge volumes by up to 80 per cent, reducing carbon emissions compared to the current disposal to landfills. It will also allow the sludge to be used sustainably, such as soil conditioner and fuel for industrial heat. The process will include advanced thermal hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, dewatering and thermal drying.

Hydroflux Epco NZ was awarded the design and delivery of the thermal dryer, which will dry all the digested sludge post-dewatering. A HUBER BT12 Belt Dryer was selected for the process. This groundbreaking project will have environmental benefits like reduced waste and carbon emissions. The benefits include reduced biosolids disposal costs, greater reuse opportunities of the final dried product, exploitation of waste gas, and the associated sustainability outcomes.


The US EPA says that Class A biosolids, as defined in 40 CFR Part 503, are biosolids that have met “the highest quality” pathogen reduction requirements confirmed by analytical testing and/or the use of a Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) as defined in 40 CFR

44 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

The European experience

In Belgium, two new centralised biosolids management facilities under construction will provide pelletised sludge to industry as a fuel. Also, a feed source for monoincineration will be used to produce green energy and phosphorous recovery – the West site will process 36,000 tonnes per annum, and the East Site will process up to 84,000 tonnes per annum. These centralised facilities will use HUBER BT Dryers and draw energy from waste heat from nearby wastewater treatment plants and industries.

The European experience has resulted in collaborations between industry and water utilities, aligned with circular economy thinking.

HUBER is currently involved in several projects where a municipal biosolids drying facility is used as a power plant heat sink. The sustainability outcomes for both water utility and industry are significant.

Many global players from the industrial and manufacturing space have a common decarbonisation goal. For example, building material specialist Heidelberg Cement AG recently set itself targets for reducing carbon emissions. Partnering with HUBER, Heidelberg Cement has commissioned a BT Thermal Drying Facility that uses waste heat from their cement manufacturing process and biosolids from the local water authority.

The facility in Wellington, New Zealand, will feature the newest technology for thermal drying of biosolids.

Hydroflux can offer a range of biosolid processing solutions, from struvite harvesting, biogas recovery and drying.

The dried biosolid output of the waste heat-driven dryer is used as fuel in the cement manufacturing process and has a calorific value of approximately 10 megajoules per kilogram. The drying system will process 70,000 tonnes per annum of biosolids and provide about 194,000 gigajoules of energy per year, displacing more than 20,000 tonnes per annum of brown coal that was previously in use and avoiding 70,000 tonnes per annum of biosolids going to landfill.

Being a renewable energy source, using dried biosolids as a fuel is key to Heidelberg Cement’s path to becoming carbon neutral. Many power plants across Europe are implementing similar strategies.

What does this mean?

The above are just some examples of what is being done to unlock biosolids’ energy potential and harvest nutrients. Biosolid drying can benefit from reducing emissions, reducing transport costs, and exploiting waste gas streams. It also forms a crucial step in allowing future recovery of phosphorous and energy if an advanced thermal process were to be implemented in the long term.

Hydroflux is a driver of ANZ’s future resilience in biosolids handling and disposal, with exclusive access to some of Europe’s leading biosolids technology, case histories and knowledge.

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 45 ISSUE 11 MARCH/APRIL 2024 Water Industry Showcase Rattenbury for healthy waterways Managing cybersecurity risks FLOW-ON The e ect The benefits that arise from IoT devices Inside Water is a new multi-platform publication for the Australian water industry. It is focused on the people, products and technology that enable sustainable and innovative management of Australia’s water resources. Visit, select Subscribe and use our easy online form to subscribe today! SUBSCRIBE TODAY

Next-generation technology inspiring young professionals

South East Water is working with several research partners to pilot new technologies that transform biosolids into biochar. Early trials indicate this process can also remove pathogens, contaminants, and microplastics that may be present in biosolids. Isobel Decru, a Research Officer at South East Water, has been involved in this work as a young professional in the water industry.


in South East Water’s internship program in 2019-20, before officially joining the Research and Development team in 2021. She also works with the ARC, Training Centre for the Transformation of Australia’s Biosolids Resource as a project officer.

“Throughout my university years, I found myself drawn to courses that explored the dynamics of water systems,” said Decru. “However, it wasn’t until my internship at South East Water in 2019/2020 that my fascination with the water industry truly blossomed. Immersed in the company’s daily operations and strategic initiatives, I gained invaluable insights into the multifaceted nature of the water sector.”

Decru witnessed firsthand water’s pivotal role in sustaining communities and driving innovation. Her time at South East Water saw her passion ignited to contribute to ongoing efforts within the industry to ensure water security, sustainability, and resilience.

Biosolids and biochar

Her interest in biochar and biosolids was sparked by her current manager, Aravind Surapaneni. Before her internship, Decru had little knowledge of biosolids and found working with Surapaneni an eye-

opening experience.

“Aravind introduced me to the concept and its potential applications, particularly in land application,” Decru said. “As an Environmental Science graduate, I was acutely aware of Australia’s challenging soil conditions, and learning about the transformative impact of biosolids on soil health and fertility was inspiring.”

Decru’s journey into the area of biochar began with the understanding that land application of biosolids may have limitations due to the potential for traces of contaminants to remain in processed biosolids, and the need for an alternative. South East Water’s partnership and her involvement in the DEECA Functionalised Biochar project sparked her interest in biochar. In late 2023, South East Water teamed up again with RMIT University, Intelligent Water Networks, Greater Western Water and Barwon Water to progress trials of an innovative pyrolysis technology (PYROCO) as part of the second phase (Mark 2) of a Biosolids to Biochar project.

“Currently, I’m involved in research into the conversion of biosolids into biochar and the associated destruction of contaminants using PYROCO Mark 2,” she said. “Our ongoing investigations are centred on understanding the production of

quality of biochar and its potential uses, and the fate of contaminants within PYROCO Mark 2, and early results show promising outcomes. PYROCO Mark 2 has garnered substantial support from other water utilities, leading to plans for a second phase of trials in the coming months. This collaborative effort underscores our commitment to the circular economy, addressing contamination challenges, and advancing innovative solutions for its remediation.”

Isobel is part of a team that includes university researchers and other water utility specialists with the skills and expertise to conduct in-depth scientific investigations. Decru says her involvement in South East Water projects has been an incredible learning opportunity.

“I’ve had the privilege of working alongside these researchers and water utility experts, contributing to the collective understanding of biosolids transformation and its implications,” Decru said.


The Biosolids to Biochar project uses next-generation pyrolysis technology to transform biosolids generated from wastewater treatment plants into biochar. The agriculture industry can use this safe and nutrient-rich material to regenerate soils. It can also INSIDE WATER 47
Aravind Surapaneni (left) and Isobel Decru (right) on-site at a composting facility.
Images: South East Water

be utilised in construction and to develop advanced carbon materials.

Biochar is a stable form of carbon and prevents further carbon emissions from being released into the environment, drawing carbon out from the emissions cycle.

“My experience with the collaborative effort on PYROCO alongside other water utilities has been truly enlightening,” said Decru. “It has underscored the complexity of biosolids transformations . Through this cross-collaboration, I’ve come to appreciate that biosolids and its contaminants can vary significantly, and the ultimate solution will need to be flexible and robust enough to deal with this unique challenge.”

This collaborative endeavour has the potential to transform the way the water industry manages waste. The research is advancing society’s understanding of biosolids by pooling resources, expertise, and insights. It is also paving the way for innovative solutions that built from the ground up based on genuine industry problems to solve. The collective efforts on PYROCO represent a step forward

48 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
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Search it. Find it.

FOCUS Purification Systems

Acquisition broadens treatment capabilities

The recent merger between Xylem and Evoqua has opened new opportunities for what is now the world’s largest pure-play water technology company.

THE COLLECTION OF innovative systems and solutions between the two companies has created the world’s most advanced platform of capabilities to address customers’ and communities’ critical water challenges. In Australia and New Zealand alone, Xylem and Evoqua work in 13 locations and employ about 350 staff. They serve a variety of markets, including local councils, mine sites, the industrial sector, farms, commercial business services, and residential communities.

“Xylem is an outstanding company with an exceptionally talented and purpose-driven team, said new Xylem CEO Matthew Pine. “I am humbled and excited to have the opportunity to build on the strong foundation, momentum and long-term trajectory created under Patrick’s leadership. As we integrate two great companies – Xylem and Evoqua – the whole team is committed to helping our customers address intensifying global water challenges by applying the power of technology and innovation, driving the digital transformation of water, and delivering solutions at scale.”

Fit for purpose disinfection

The Xylem + Evoqua merger combines two solutions providers with complimentary products, facilitating more options to be available to the customer from a disinfection perspective. The combined product portfolio enables customers to access the most comprehensive disinfection solutions.

This access is second to none and includes technologies ranging

from Ultraviolet (UV) and Ozone to Gas Chlorination, Chlorine Dioxide, and On-Site Electro-Chlorination (OSEC) with all the associated disinfection analytics.

“Looking at the Australian water landscape with the many challenges for water authorities in trying to provide disinfected water to their communities, Xylem can assist the customer in selecting the most appropriate disinfection technology to suit their needs,” said Volun Pirom, the Principal Applications Engineer (Disinfection) at Evoqua Water Technologies.

Improving safety

OSEC systems safely generate sodium hypochlorite on-demand, using only salt, water, and power. With over 40 years of experience installing On-Site Hypochlorite Generation (OSHG) systems worldwide, Xylem and Evoqua’s branded OSEC system is suited to many applications across municipal, aquatics, and industrial markets.

“With increasing compliance costs and safety concerns for operators, on-site chlorine generation is becoming more attractive as an option for disinfection,” said Pirom. “Furthermore, from a supply chain perspective, it allows the water utilities to better manage the risks associated with the availability of disinfection chemicals. Covid-19 has highlighted these supply chain vulnerabilities.”

projects by comparing capital and operating costs for different disinfection technologies.

“The more remote the location, the better the ROI for OSEC,” he said. “This is typically 1-2 years for small re-chlorination sites.”

An OSEC system eliminates the concerns of chlorine spills or gas leaks. That’s a safer environment for staff and the wider community. It also eliminates the need for hazardous materials storage, which creates peace of mind and better security.

Building on decades of credibility in the disinfection space, Evoqua/Xylem has assisted various water authorities in calculating the return on investment (ROI) for their disinfection

The OSEC system is also more cost-effective. There is no longer a need for pre-made solutions sitting in barrels. The system produces hypochlorite on demand, which means it’s a disinfection system that only makes what the water utility or industrial water user might need. That reduces chemical and storage expenses. That’s before considering the optimisation of the dosage and the minimised waste.

50 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
Volun Pirom (left) and colleague Alistair Hogan (right), preparing OSEC L demo unit for customer training session. Images: Xylem + Evoqua

This further improves its economic efficiency. Utilities can even schedule hypochlorite production to take advantage of cheaper electricity prices.

Flexibility and sustainability

“Furthermore, using solar power to reduce electricity costs means that OSEC is potentially the best ‘green’ disinfection solution that is practical and proven,” said Pirom.

Significant opportunities exist to adapt the OSEC system to an end user’s needs. By producing hypochlorite when needed, at the exact concentration required, there’s no longer a need to wait on suppliers or delivery dates.

It’s also an excellent way to show environmental, societal and governance (ESG) credentials. The OSEC system is an eco-friendly technology that reduces transport emissions and plastic waste compared to traditional methods. There are fewer unwanted byproducts, fewer plastic containers, and a smaller footprint on the planet.

Where has it been used?

In Queensland, Fraser Coast Regional Council (FCRC) operates a number of water supply schemes throughout the region. While service reservoirs within the networks provide the community security of potable water supply, these service reservoirs are often in more remote areas of the Fraser Coast.

In addition, service reservoirs experience varying seasonal demands which impacts the top-up chlorination required to maintain the chlorine residual levels per the requirements of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. Whilst chlorine gas continues to be successfully used, some of these sites also experience periods of low chlorine demand as a result of lower flows and/or lower chlorine decay.

as for trunk mains. There were also several important parameters that the technology had to meet. The technology had to be suitable for the remote locations of all sites. Minimal operator intervention and involvement were essential, as well as the lowest residual safety risks associated with chemical handling. It also needed to remove the risk of chlorine gas leaks that might affect nearby community members. There was also a financial aspect to account for. FCRC wanted a system capable of meeting water quality requirements in all parts of the network at the lowest total operating costs while also considering reliability, operator safety, safety to the public, ease of operation, and risk to the environment.

How did the project work?

FCRC had a wide range of applications for the OSEC

For more information, visit most optimised installation.

ability to produce disinfectant using only salt, water, and electricity.

Generating hypochlorite on demand eliminates concerns associated with transporting and storing liquefied chlorine gas or commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions. Salt bags can be easily delivered and stored on-site without handling hazardous chemicals.

With the Wallace & Tiernan Analyser for reservoir water quality monitoring and control, the FCRC was offered a safe, simple, and reliable system fit for their remote application.

The OSEC L system packages were installed and pre-tested in transportable buildings for all sites, minimising on-site installation time. This allowed the team at the council to become familiar with the system before installation on-site. INSIDE WATER 51

Understanding cybersecurity risk

The issue of cybersecurity and the risk of cyber attacks is continuing to grow for essential services, including water utilities. VicWater is showing how being Better Together can help the sector protect itself.

TARA DANIEL HAS been working for VicWater for two years while being in the industry for more than 15 years, both in Australia and the UK. Her insights into how cyber security impacts the water industry provide a view into the future.

“Joining the water industry was an accident,” Daniel said. “I was looking for a job when I graduated and was in the UK at the time. Most of the bigger manufacturing companies that could have utilised my knowledge in chemical engineering had closed their graduate programs. However, the energy and water industries were still open. I managed to land a gig with Severn Trent Water in their water quality team, and I’ve never looked back.”

In her time in the water industry, Daniel has spent time in various areas within the water sector. That includes operations, strategic planning, and digitalisation.

Data and digitisation

One of the biggest benefits of digitisation is the increased quantity and quality of data available for water utilities. Daniel believes that with all the different data sets, water utilities can pull them together to find new information.

“In my previous role (at Goulburn Valley Water), we did a lot of work examining water pattern usage throughout the day,” she said. “We

could actually work out which houses were experiencing financial hardship because their water consumption patterns differed from others. This came from overlaying different data sets that traditionally would have been separate. There is a lot of opportunity to come with so much data.”

Getting in front of issues and supporting customers is essential for water utilities. At the same time, having all that information presents its own challenges.

“The big question that needs answering looks at dealing with all that data,” Daniel said. “Water utilities need to work out what data to keep, how to store it securely, who has access to the data, and questioning whether it is the right data.”

Internet of Things

The uptake of Internet of Things (IoT) devices across water networks has seen water utilities access information that helps them predict what can happen in their system, including water treatment plants and sewerage systems.

“It also allows water utilities to be better prepared for what might happen to their networks during different situations,” Daniel said. “There’s also the possibility of using artificial intelligence (AI) to pick up new things in the networks. There are real benefits

in finding efficiencies across the operational landscape.”

At the same time, one of the biggest challenges is dealing with different operating systems across the entire information technology system. Each product range can have its own operating system or cloud-based services. Working out how to use the data efficiently and practically can also take a lot of work.

“One challenge we are facing is the upscaling and upskilling around new technology,” she said. “With the rate of technology changes, preparing the staff to know how to use that new technology can be tough for water utilities. That’s very true when considering the thousands of people employed by these institutions.”


Daniel has seen how views on cybersecurity have changed throughout her career. When she started, no one was talking about cybersecurity, but it became an emerging issue on the periphery of risk management.

“It’s now something water corporations view as a key risk,” she said. “I think it’s really embedded in a lot of what is being done across the sector on a day-to-day basis. When we look at cybersecurity from a water sector perspective, these companies supply essential services. That creates a range of issues around the continuity of service for customers.”

Daniel says there are two specific aspects to dealing with cybersecurity for water utilities –physical security and access.

“There’s a lot of work being done

52 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
Cybersecurity is a key risk for water uitlities to consider.

on what data has to be held by law versus what would be nice to hold onto,” she said. “There is a tension between what has to be kept under different laws and regulations and people’s concerns at having their personal data held. I think that some of these regulations haven’t kept up with the reality of data protection. .”

The vast amount of data held by essential services like water utilities is front of mind for these businesses. Seeing what has happened across Australia and worldwide has made them cognisant of the amount of personal data that could be used negatively.

“That’s why there is a lot of data auditing in terms of what is being kept,” said Daniel. “There’s also a lot of work around data governance. It’s not just customer data but also employee data. That data contains information about people’s sexuality, race, religion, gender, and other diversity issues. This is a prime example of reassessing the data they have on hand and determining whether it needs to be kept. If it needs to be kept, where is it stored so it is secure?”

Cyber Governance Steering Committee

VicWater continues to play a role in coordinating cyber-related

activities through the Cybersecurity Governance Steering Committee and working with relevant Victorian Government agencies to strengthen the sector’s capability.

“The Cybersecurity Governance Steering Committee (CGSC) was formed in 2020,” said Daniel.

“Initially, the CGSC came together to work with the Office of the Victorian Information Commissioner (OVIC) to create an addendum to the Victorian Protective Data Security Standards (VPDSS) to cover operational technology (OT).” The committee continued to meet after this, as they felt it beneficial to come together for collaboration, knowledge sharing and being Better Together.

“The CGSC provides a Victorian water sector perspective to the overall view on cybersecurity across Victoria,” Daniel said. “There are several cyber security communities of practice, including one from the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA), which looks broadly at the Australian water sector. The Victorian Department of Government Services (DGS) also shares in a community of practice specific to the Victorian public sector incorporating many different entities.”

The members of the CGSC tend to be cybersecurity subject matter experts and work at the water

utilities across the state. Every water utility, as well as the Department of Environment, Energy, and Climate Action (DEECA), are represented as their unique perspectives help the group make decisions and work together.

“We are working closely with DEECA to develop a sectorwide exercise to test emergency arrangements,” Daniel said. “Over the last couple of years, we’ve also worked closely with DGS to develop a strategic plan for the water sector focused on uplifting capability.”

The future

Daniel believes that the future of cybersecurity risk is a constant sea of change. Given the changes in technology over the past 40 years, there is no doubt that the risk will increase.

“I think part of managing this risk will come down to having the right people with the right training and skills in the right places,” she said. “Everything is changing, and the industry needs upskilling. That’s not limited to IT staff but everyone across the water industry. Everyone  can hold a keyboard and play a role.”

For more information, visit: INSIDE WATER 53
Tara Daniel is the Chief Operating Officer of VicWater and has played a vital role in developing cybersecurity policy within VicWater. Image: VicWater

ASSOCIATIONS qldwater Building sustainable service models

Ensuring that remote and regional communities have access to essential water and sewer services is challenging for Queensland councils. What is needed to build sustainable service models?


drinking water and sewer services are provided mainly by local governments to their communities.

There are 69 water service providers in Queensland, ranging in size from Urban Utilities, which provides services to 660,000 water connections across five Local Government Areas (LGAs) in South East Queensland, through to the smallest council, which is Croydon Shire Council with just 142 water connections.

Historically, essential water and sewer services have been supported through a range of State Government programs and grant investments in urban water and waste infrastructure.

The support provided by the State Government has varied over time and

has often been dependent on the size and location of the water service provider. Financial support through infrastructure grants has ranged from 33 per cent to 100 per cent.

Typically, higher state subsidies have been provided to smaller and more remote councils that lack the customer base to self-fund the necessary infrastructure.

Since 2009, due to the global financial crisis, local government water service providers have had to fund water and wastewater operations and infrastructure from the general and water rates via increasing debt or through a state grant system. This has traditionally focused on other policy priorities (such as economic development, jobs generation).

Wastewater treatment plants can vary in size, depending on the number of connections and the volume of wastewater that needs treating. Images: qldwater

New standards impact service models

Over the past 10 years, higher standards for drinking water and increasing community requirements for environmental protection have continued to add both capital and operating costs for water service providers.

Since 2011, the industry has been raising concerns about an impending infrastructure cliff and the financial sustainability of small local government water service providers to fund essential services for their communities as assets reach the end of their design life.

In 23-24, Queensland Water Minister Glen Butcher announced the implementation of a Statewide Urban Water Risk Assessment (UWRA).

The UWRA will work with local government water service providers across the State to review key risks, including drinking water quality, water security, industry skills and resourcing and sustainability of the infrastructure base.

Minister Butcher has indicated that the UWRA will advise the Government regarding appropriate long-term responses from the State Government to ensure that Queensland communities can access high-quality water and wastewater services.

What is the QWRAP?

The Queensland Water Regional Alliance Program (QWRAP) supports regional local government water service providers to collaborate on a regional scale to better manage water and wastewater services and infrastructure.

QWRAP is a joint initiative developed by qldwater (a membership body for water service providers in Queensland), the Local Government Association of Queensland (LGAQ) and the Queensland Government through the Department of Regional

54 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024

Development, Manufacturing and Water. Nine QWRAP regions represent 57 Local Governments throughout Queensland.

To support water service providers, QWRAP provides funds to employ a regional coordinator and offers small grants to facilitate the development of joint or collaborative approaches.

The South West Queensland Water and Sewerage Alliance (SWQWSA) was established as a QWRAP region in 2021, comprising the Shire Councils of Balonne, Bulloo, Murweh, Paroo and Quilpie and Maranoa Regional Council.

The SWQWSA Councils cover a total land area of 319,261 square kilometres or 18.5 per cent of Queensland, but their combined population of approximately 24,000 accounts for less than 0.5 per cent of the State.

The Councils provide potable water services to 26 communities with a total of 10,545 connections, non-potable water services comprising 1,157 connections to two communities, one of which does not receive a potable supply, and sewerage services to 14 communities, with 8,109 connections in total.

The largest potable water scheme serves 3,539 connections, with the smallest serving only 14 connections. Similarly, the largest sewerage scheme looks after 3,083 connections compared to the smallest of 25 connections. Of the 26 potable water schemes, only three have water treatment plants. Most schemes use bore water as their sole source, and many need to be disinfected.


service models for water and sewerage

In providing water and sewerage services, the SWQWSA Councils must overcome challenges posed by the remote and dispersed nature of their

communities, the very small scale of most of their schemes, limited rate bases and borrowing capacity, and small to very small communities with low per-capita incomes and inability/ unwillingness to pay the full cost of providing services but increasing expectations about service quality.

At the same time, they are subject to an increasingly rigorous regulatory regime and water quality and environmental standards that may be beyond the capacity of their existing infrastructure and resourcing.

During 2021, using QWRAP Bid Pool Funds, the SWQWSA developed a detailed application. It then successfully secured $1.6 million in funding from the Queensland Government’s Building Our Regions 6 (BOR 6) funding round.

The BOR 6 funding was used to undertake detailed asset management planning across all water and sewage asset categories. That includes Drinking Water Testing & Assessment of Water Quality, Sewerage Treatment Plant Inspection & Assessment, Reservoir Inspection & Assessment and Sewer Pump Station Inspection & Assessment.

This project aims to develop a clear picture of existing risks and activities to provide the community with safe drinking water and modern wastewater management outcomes.

The communities within these LGAs mostly rely on the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) for drinking water from bores at an average depth of 800 metres. GAB bores have an expected asset life of 75 years.

Potential risks and issues

Some key risks and issues that have been identified through the SWQWSA asset management plan are:

• 11 per cent of drinking water supply bores in the region are over 100 years old and at critical risk of failure.

There are nine regional water alliances among local councils throughout Queensland, with discussions for the tenth underway.

• 20 per cent of drinking water supply bores in the region are more than 80 years old and are at serious risk of failure.

• Several of these critical risk towns are single bore supply, placing these towns at risk of water security concerns.

• CCTV surveys of sewer network assets show that 12 per cent of sewer assets are at a point of critical failure by the length of assets.

The report has recommended allocating $3 million to a bore resleeving program to ensure water security for these communities, representing around 40 per cent of the total number of communities that rely on the GAB for drinking water supply. A further $8 million will be required for a regional sewer relining program to restore the integrity of the region’s 265 kilometres of sewer mains.

SWQWSA is working with Minister Butcher and the Queensland Government as part of the Statewide Urban Water Risk Assessment (UWRA) to develop a partnership to address the identified risks and create modern sustainable water and sewage services across the State’s South West.

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 55

A new direct potable reuse framework

The WateReuse Association has been at the forefront of advocating for changes in direct potable water reuse and has been collaborating with the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA).

HISTORY WAS MADE at the end of last year when California, USA passed regulations allowing ‘direct potable reuse.’ Direct potable reuse, also known as DPR, is the catchall phrase for purified recycled water provided directly into the community’s drinking water pipes and distribution systems.

“Today heralds a new era of water reuse, making it possible for more communities across California to benefit from an abundant, safe, resilient, and local water supply, and serving as an example to other states,” said Patricia Sinicropi, Executive Director of the WateReuse Association.

The change means that DPR doesn’t start its life in an environmental buffer such as an aquifer or reservoir. The purified recycled water can be added before the conventional water treatment plant or directly into the distribution system.

California’s regulations made headlines worldwide but are not even the first such framework in the United States. Colorado already has its own regulatory framework. Texas has permitted DPR projects on a case-by-case basis, with schemes operating in Big Spring and Wichita Falls for several years. El Paso is building a DPR facility for the future. Utah and Arizona also have such regulations in development.

Behind this work in the United States is the work of the WateReuse Association. It’s the only trade association in the United States dedicated to advancing laws, policy, funding, and public acceptance of recycled water.

WateReuse was established in California in 1990. It now has members in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and 11 countries.

“Potable reuse is a proven process used across the United States,” said

Water is a precious resource, which means society must reuse it in ways that benefit everyone.. Image: simikov/

Sinicropi. “Indirect potable reuse projects exist in California, Colorado, Texas, Georgia, Florida, and Virginia. Projects in these states operate in various ways, adding advanced purified water into drinking water sources via groundwater aquifers, rivers, and reservoirs.”

Global involvement

Trailblazers in water reuse include Namibia and Singapore, with recent advances including agricultural reuse in Europe and new plans for potable water reuse in South Africa. The WateReuse Association works closely with the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA). The two organisations are partnering to develop an international map of potable recycled water.

“WateReuse Association has worked with partners to advance water reuse for many years, said Sinicropi. “The WateReuse Association and the International Desalination and Reuse Association have recently partnered on a Global Dialogue on Water Reuse. The first part of the dialogue took place at the 2024 WateReuse Symposium, March 11-14, 2024, in Denver, Colorado. The second will

56 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
WateReuse Association

be the International Desalination and Reuse Association (IDRA)2024 World Congress in December 2024 in Abu Dhabi.

Benefits of reusing water

Water reuse is a safe, reliable, and local solution for communities of all shapes and sizes to incorporate into their water management strategies. Most communities pair water reuse programs with other water supply solutions, such as incentivising water conservation and diversifying its water sources from rivers, aquifers, and regional partnerships. When communities look beyond their conventional water supplies, the cost of water reuse often compares favourably to other new supplies and technologies.

According to a study in npj clean water, the benefits include providing reliable, additional sources of clean water and reducing water pollution discharges. It also consists of the preservation of aquatic life and biodiversity through the reduction of water pollution and the advancement of scientific knowledge and technology. The study by Cecilia Tortajada from the National University of Singapore focused on how recycled wastewater contributes to clean water and sanitation Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Following years of research, collaboration, and public engagement, California’s State Water Resources Control Board voted in December 2023 to adopt

potable reuse. Direct potable reuse is a practice that uses multiple phases of proven advanced water treatment technology to transform recycled water into safe, reliable purified water for blending directly into a community’s existing drinking water system.

California pioneers

California is a pioneer in purifying recycled water for use in drinking systems. In the 1960s, the Montebello Forebay Ground Water Recharge Project in Los Angeles made history by recharging a drinking water aquifer with purified recycled water. Today, communities across the state use purified water to recharge groundwater, reservoirs, and rivers in a practice known as indirect potable reuse. The new regulations create additional flexibility by allowing advanced purified water to be added directly into drinking water systems where it isn’t feasible to blend into a larger body.

The regulations herald a new era of water reuse, making It possible for more communities across California to benefit from an abundant, safe, resilient, and local water supply. It is hoped that this will serve as an example to other states and countries.

Events and the future

The Annual WateReuse Symposium is a conference dedicated to water recycling — attracting

recycled water has become more common around the world, the WateReuse Association has been working to move beyond irrigation.

Image: Simone/

reuse practitioners globally for knowledge-sharing, networking, and collaboration. The 40th annual WateReuse Symposium will take place March 16-19, 2025, in Tampa, Florida.

“The WateReuse Association also offers regular webcasts, networking events, educational resources, and an online community for members to exchange ideas and solutions,” said Sinicropi. “WateReuse membership is a great way for utilities and businesses to join the conversation on the future of water.”

Given the current water challenges, water reuse is an essential ingredient in a sustainable and reliable water future. Investment in water reuse builds modern, sustainable, and stable communities – ready for families to flourish and businesses to grow. In some communities, recycled water can create a resilient, drought-proof water supply. Water recycling protects sensitive waterways and alleviates overburdened centralised treatment facilities in other communities.

Across the country, communities and businesses investing in water reuse ensure that residents have safe drinking water supplies, industries have water to expand and create jobs, farmers have water to grow food, the environment is protected, and the economic future remains strong and secure.

For more information, visit INSIDE WATER 57

Water sounds different when poured

To finish each issue, we aim to look at the lighter side of water and water-related issues. If you’ve seen an amusing story, let us know so we can consider it for the next issue.

EARLIER IN Inside Water Magazine, we talked about how hot water and cold water sound different. The science of sound is full of surprises, and the humble water jet is no exception.

A new study has revealed that the shape of a water jet plays a surprisingly significant role in the sound it makes. This isn’t just about the whoosh of a garden hose, either – the findings could have implications for everything from understanding the crash of ocean waves to designing quieter aircraft engines.

Researchers, led by Dr. David Doria of the University of Cambridge, used high-speed cameras and microphones to capture the sound of water jets in action. They varied the shape of the jets, from thin streams to wide sprays, and measured the sound pressure waves they produced.

From the abstract of their paper, the team experimentally investigated

the amplitude of the common sound heard when we pour water, tea, or coffee into a filled receptacle. Using water jets from circular nozzles, they found that pouring water is audible when the nozzle distance from the free surface is above one-third of the jet breakup length.

What they found was that thinner jets make more noise than thicker ones. This is because the thinner jets break up into smaller droplets more efficiently, and these droplets create more turbulence as they collide with the air. The turbulence is what generates the sound waves that we hear.

The researchers also found that jets that break into more droplets make more noise than jets that stay in a single stream. This is because the droplets create more surface area for the air to interact with, leading to more turbulence and sound.

Since the jet corrugation is related

The rush of a roaring waterfall sounds different from the drip of a kettle. But why?

to the air entrainment rate, the sound of pouring can serve as a practical, non-invasive probe in the aeration processes. After the jet breaks up into drops impacting the free surface, the pouring sound amplitude increases with the nozzle diameter, unlike before the breakup of the water jet. These findings could have many practical applications. For example, they could be used to design quieter aircraft engines by reducing the turbulence created by the engine’s exhaust. They could also improve the efficiency of water jets in power plants and other industrial applications.

But beyond the practical applications, the study also sheds light on the fundamental physics of sound production. It shows that even something as simple as a water jet can generate a surprisingly complex soundscape. So next time you hear water hitting water, take a moment to appreciate the science that’s going on behind the scenes.

58 INSIDE WATER March/April 2024
FOCUS The last word


We are a global team unified in a common purpose: creating advanced technology solutions to the world’s water challenges. Developing new technologies that will improve the way water is used, conserved, and re-used in the future is central to our work. Our products and services move, treat, analyse, monitor, and return water to the environment, in public utility, industrial, residential, and commercial building services settings. We also provide a leading portfolio of smart metering, network technologies, and advanced analytics solutions.

We are a global team unified in a common purpose: creating advanced technology solutions to the world’s water challenges. Developing new technologies that will improve the way water is used, conserved, and re-used in the future is central to our work. Our products and services move, treat, analyse, monitor, and return water to the environment, in public utility, industrial, residential, and commercial building services settings. We also provide a leading portfolio of smart metering, network technologies, and advanced analytics solutions.



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