Issuu on Google+

Ingeo Biopolymer: A Sustainable Solution for Packaging Industries Junaidi Zen Principal Application Engineer NatureWorks LLC Green Packaging Conference November 21, 2013

1

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4.

NatureWorks Introduction The Biopolymers Landscape - An Overview Applications & Market Developments Why Ingeo?

2

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


What we offer •

• • • •

World’s leading bio-polymer player − 150,000 ton plant in Blair, NE − Engineering ongoing for a 2nd plant in S.E.Asia − Significant manufacturing know-how and an extensive IP position

Jointly owned by Cargill and PTTGC Proprietary portfolio of Ingeo biopolymers & intermediates

Ingeo - competitive on a cost and performance basis with traditional plastics (PS, PET)

Superior environmental characteristics − Lower carbon footprint , low fossil energy − Additional end-of-life options

Established global market channels − Over 100,000 ton in annual sales volume − Commercial partnerships with global brands 3

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


NatureWorks LLC Ingeo Biopolymer Plant Blair, Nebraska USA

4

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Global commercial footprint with sales to over 25 countries worldwide NatureWorks’ global footprint

Netherlands Minnetonka, MN UK Blair, NE

Savage, MN

Ireland

Naperville, IL Doylestown, PA USA

Belgium

Germany South Korea

Italy

Cary, NC Marietta, GA

Israel

Mexico

Shanghai Hong Kong

Japan Taiwan (Taipei)

Thailand

Vietnam Bangkok Singapore

Colombia Brazil

Australia Chile

South Africa

New Zealand

5

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


What We Do . . . CO2 CO2

Additives (Modifiers)

CO2

CO2

CO2

Adhesives

Intermediates

Coatings Printing Toners

The Conversion Chain

Specialty Lactates

Carbon dioxide and water

Resins

Surfactants

Plant Sugars

Plants

Manufacture 6

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Ingeo Ingredients from the Earth (geo = greek for earth) performance plastic & fibers from plants – not oil

7

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


What Ingeo stands for • It assures our partners, brands, retailers and ultimately the consumer that the product made from Ingeo Feedstocks

Environmnental Credentials

Ingeo has numerous 3rd party certifications, including those around: • where it comes from, • environmental performance, and • “where it goes” Compostability

8

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4.

NatureWorks Introduction The Biopolymers Landscape - An Overview Applications & Market Developments Why Ingeo?

9

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


What if … All a reality •

5 billion products bio-packaged, end 2011

Commits to begin conversion of its product to 100 % biobased packaging

Shifts to biobased plastic for Health & Beauty lineup

America’s favorite condiment repackaged in bio

Automotive supply chain partnership for bioplastics

Complete replacement of Polystyrene packaging

10

Global Sports Brand and Automaker team with others to accelerate 100% bioPET

“Plant PET Technology Collaborative” © 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


The Biopolymer Landscape

What Are Biopolymers ?

Renewable Feedstock

Renewable, NOT compostable

Renewable AND compostable

• Bio-PE- Braskem • Bio-PET – (partially bio) • Nylon 11

• Ingeo • PHA • Thermoplastics Starchs

Non-Compostable

•Biopolymers are NOT based on Petrochemical “degradable additives” based •Biopolymerse do NOT use NOT compostable “oxo-degradable” additives • Conventional Plastics (Not Considered (e.g. PE, PP, PS, PET, •Biopolymers are NOT Bioplastics) PC, PVC,and etc) designedABS, to fragment ‘disappear’

Compostable

Petrochemical based AND compostable • PBS, PBAS, PBAT, PBAST, PCL, etc. Non-renewable (fossil) Feedstock 11

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


And What Biopolymers Are Not… • • •

Biopolymers Are NOT Based on “degradable additives” Biopolymerse do NOT use “oxo-degradable” additives Biopolymers are NOT designed to fragment and ‘disappear’

Numerous National & GPnow PLASTICS ACCEPTS NAD local lawsuits, DECISION IN ‘GREEN’ CASE resulting in rulings against those who use “degradable additives” • Greenwashing • False advertising

12

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Numerous Industry Opinions & Concerns Against Degradable Additives The National Association for PET Container Resources

Dec 3, 2008

APR Position Statement on Degradable Additives use in Bottles & Films

BPI’s Position on “Degradable” Polystyrene Food Containers 13

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Environmental

Value drivers Biopolymers (NatureWorks)

(consumer, retail, brand owners) • Lower carbon footprint, less energy usage • Better end-of-life options (litter, landfill, incineration) • Target: lower environmental footprint of plastics

Economic

Strategic

(plastics value chain) • • •

Oil vs. plants feedstock cost (stability) Carbon or waste taxation Target: create viable alternate product portfolio (plastics)

(governments) • •

Renewable feedstock vs. oil Reduce dependence on foreign oil Target: cellulosic bio-refinery concept (gas + plastics)

14

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4.

NatureWorks Introduction The Biopolymers Landscape - An Overview Applications & Market Developments Why Ingeo?

15

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


What’s Resulted in the Global Market Rigids

Food Serviceware

Nonwovens / Fibers

Durables

Films

Lactides

Bus. Dev.

16

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo™ Grades • • • • •

2003D – Food service ware and rigid packaging 3251D, 3001D, 3052D, - Injection molding – Varying in MFI 4043D, 4032D, 4060D - Films/Graphic Arts – Polymers vary in melting point 6000 Series - Fibers 7001D, 7032D – Bottles (ISBM) –

Polymers vary in melting point

8052D - Foam

17

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Amorphous vs. Crystalline Ingeo™

18

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Amorphous Ingeo • Transparent in appearance • Glass transition is approx. 55C (130F) • Regrind will be amorphous. – Susceptible to feeding problems during processing. – Screw sticking/screw wrap

• Requires lower drying temperatures – 50C (120 F).

19

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Crystalline Ingeo • A majority of our grades are supplied from our plant crystalline. • Pellets are opaque in appearance. • Crystallinity improves extrusion performance. – Due to higher melting point (around 165C/330F) – Eliminates screw sticking/screw wrap

20

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Needs To Be Dried • Standard desiccant driers work well. CAN INGEO BE OVER DRIED ??

NO

21

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Drying Ingeo resins Drying Curve 3000

2500 Amorphous 40 C

Amorphous 50 C

Crystalline 50 C

Crystalline 80 C

Moisture Level (ppm)

2000

1500

1000

<400 ppm from our plant

500

0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Time (hrs)

Drying Curve of Ingeo pellets at various temperatures. Air flow volume rate was 0.25 cfm/lb of pellets. The air dew point was – 40 C. 22

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Viscosity Stability of Ingeo in the Presence of Water at Various Temperatures Viscosity Stability of Ingeo with 850 ppm of Water (constant shear rate of 10 sec-1)

Viscosity Stability of Ingeo with < 100 ppm Water (constant shear rate of 10 sec-1) 100000

100000

180 C

-4%

-4.5%

-5%

210 C

-5%

10000

-4.5

-5%

-5.5%

10000

- 11%

- 21%

-15%

-20%

- 17%

- 35%

- 23%

- 43%

- 29%

- 49%

1000

-7%

- 27%

- 10%

240 C

240 C

Viscosity (Pa-sec)

Viscosity (pa-sec)

180 C

210 C

- 37%

- 43%

- 43%

-24% 100 0

1000 0

300

600

900

1200

1500

300

600

900

1200

1500

1800

Time (seconds)

1800

Time (seconds)

30 minutes 23

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Moisture Pickup of Ingeo Biopolymers Water Pickup of Crystalline Ingeo Pellets 5000

50% RH 80% RH

4500

4000

In one hour moisture is too high

Water Content (ppm)

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0.1

1

10

100

Time (hrs)

24

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Moisture effects on Processing Ingeo extrusion

Lower viscosity

Melt strength

Water like extrudate (sag)

Melt pressure

Low pressure at die

Crystallinity

Higher rate of crystallinity

Casting

Poor web stability

Molding

Increased brittleness and potential flash

25

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Injection Molding Process and Applications 3251D 3001D 3052D

26

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Innovations in Durables

27

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


General Property Comparison Ingeo GPPS

PET

PP

Tensile Strength, Mpa

53.1

45.5

58.6

35.9

Elongation at Break,%

4.1

1.4

5.5

350

Tensile Modulus, Gpa

3.45

3.03

3.45

1.31

Izod Impact, J/m

16

21.4

26.7

48.1

Tg, C

60

102

74

-20

Melting Point, C

170

None

270

165

Density, g/cc

1.25

1.05

1.35

0.9

* properties measured on 3.2 mm thick injection molded tensile bars 28

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Process Conditions • • • • • • • • • • •

Melt Temp Feed Throat Feed Temperature (crystalline pellets) Feed Temperature (amorphous pellets) Compression Section Metering Section Nozzle Mold Screw Speed Back Pressure Mold Shrinkage

390 F (200C) 70 F (20 C) 330 F (165 C) 300 F (150 C) 380 F (195 C) 400 F (205 C) 400 F (205 C) 75 F (25 C) 100-175 rpm 50-100 psi 0.004 in/in

Note: These are only starting points 29

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Sheet Extrusion and Thermoforming 2003D

30

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Innovations in Food Serviceware

31

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Innovations in Rigids

32

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Extrusion Set Up • General purpose screws work well. • Completely clean hoppers, filters, convey lines. – This is easily over looked and the major cause or poor quality sheet

• Purge high melt polymers (PET) with PS, PP, or PETG. (follow guide) • Polymer must be dried. • Regrind up to 40% can be used. – Higher levels require recrystallizing the flake or screw cooling 33

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Sheet Extrusion Optimizing • • • • • •

Three roll stack with high PLI, 600-800 (similar to PET) Sheet cannot contact middle roll prior to top roll. (very important) Run very small or no bank in nips. Adjust roll temps to just below polymer sticking. Die as close as possible to roll. Reverse profile for larger extruders.

34

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Slitting • Rotary shear works the best. • Razors may work on thin sheet, highly modified sheet, or heated sheet. 35

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Thermoforming

36

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Thermoformed Parts Performance Features  Excellent clarity and printability = PET  High modulus for downgauging > PET, HIPS  Good practical toughness increased by orientation  Sealable -- heat, RF  Food contact compliance  Excellent resistance to food fats/oils  Annually renewable resource based 37

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Thermoforming 

Edge pre-heaters required

Deep draws with good definition (sheet ~200°F or ~93°C) Oven commonly set ~ 75-100°F (~24-38°C) below PET

Competitive cycle times with sufficient mold cooling

Forming characteristics on tools and part shrinkage like PET.

Matched metal, punch and die trim tools recommended Heated (250°F or 121°C) steel rule successfully used 38

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Blow Molding 7001D

39

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeoâ&#x201E;˘ Innovations in Bottles / Containers Bottles / Containers

40

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Process • ISBM process works well.

• Extrusion blow molding requires modified resin. – Increased melt strength

41

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Injection Molding Preforms • • •

Lower processing temperature (180-220oC) than PET The cycle time will need to be optimized to minimize part stress Ingeo™ can be injection molded on typical PET gate designs (both valve or thermal gates) Stretch ratios similar to PET but may need to be optimized – – –

Axial: 2-3 Radial: 3-4 Areal: 8-11

42

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Films 4043D 4032D 4060D 43

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo Innovations in Flexible Films

44

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Flexible and Rigid Films • Flexible (Blown)

– Typical PE applications – Ingeo by itself is too rigid. – Must be modified with other polymers. – Requires a compounding step. – EcoVio (BASF) is the most common polymer used for blown film.

Rigid (Oriented) – Ingeo works well in this application. – Stressed induced crystallization allows for higher heat. – Film stays clear. – Requires biaxial orienting assets.

45

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Differences in Film Grades • 4032D – High crystallinity – Low shrink oriented films

• 4043D – Modest crystallinity – Higher shrinkage oriented films – Tamper bands, etc.

• 4060D – No crystallinity – Typically used for a heat seal layer – 46

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Some Applications Develop Heat Resistance • Due to crystallization • Gift Cards – Develop crystallinity during a press polish step

• CPLA Thermoforming – Similar to thermoforming CPET using a nucleant

• Oriented films – Develop crystallinity during orientation and maintain clarity

• Fibers – High process speeds and drawing crystallize the fibers

47

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Increasing MW

Expanding Ingeo capabilities with ‘HP’ (High Productivity) grades

2500HP

4032D

2003D 4043D 7001D

3100HP 6100D

3001D 6201D 6202D

3052D 6752D 8052D

3260HP 6260D

3251D 6252D

4060D

6302D

In Development

Extrusion grade

Fiber & inj molding grade

Increasing D-isomer level

•HP grades with very low D-isomer content will have significant impact on physical properties 48

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Comparing High L to Low D

3100D (High L) vs. 3001D (Low D) • Practical Tm peak is increased by 8°C from 164 to 172°C • Melting shoulder is increased by 15°C • Practical crystallinity is increased from about 45 to 55 J/g (48 to 59%) • Quiescent crystallization rate increase by 3-4x • Lower stress required for stress induced crystallization 49

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Injection molding results with High L pilot materials • NatureWorks internal lab studies show that formulations made with new High L pilot material vs. traditional Low D commercial material process with about half the required cycle time for high quality injection molding • Customer feedback confirms this finding, with High L pilot material at about 60% of the Low D cycle time at constant additive package • Optimal mold temperature is 80 to 120C, depending on the formulation • High L formulas have broader mold temperature windows, leading to more robust process parameters 50

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Advantages of expanded offering for the durable & semi-durable market Compounders can produce more competitive materials – Higher productivity during molding – Wider processing window – Simpler & more cost effective formulations

• Potential for higher bio-content in formulations • Higher modulus above Tg, higher HDT • Improved performance in extruded & thermoformed durable applications 51

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4.

NatureWorks Introduction The Biopolymers Landscape - An Overview Applications & Market Developments Why Ingeo?

52

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeoâ&#x201E;˘ innovations transform parts from a functional commodity cost item to a differentiable marketing feature

53

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


New Additional Dimensions with Ingeo Biopolymers

Value proposition for Ingeo Biopolymers Traditional Plastics

Environment

Performance

Emotion

54

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Marketing Message • Made from plants – not oil – An annually renewable resource

• Provides an improved environmental footprint – Reduced greenhouse gases – Requires significantly less fossil fuels – Offers the potential for more post consumer options

• Uncompromised performance • Provides a point of differentiation • Innovation 55

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Ingeo™ Carbon Footprint Credentials

Environment

Review process for new Eco-Profile 1.

Publication in the Industrial Biotechnology Journal, August 2010. - Manuscript reviewed by several reviewers - Update of our 2007 publication

2.

Peer review by Dr. Ian Boustead of Boustead Consulting. - Final report now available

3.

Review by Dr. Alberta Carpenter of NREL followed by uploading the eco-profile as well as a process description into the US LCI database

www.nrel.gov/lci

Download: - Spreadsheets with the data files

- Report giving description of Ingeo production process 56

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Eco-Profile Environment

CO2

Sequester CO2 by corn production

N2 O

CO2

CO2

CH4 Atmosphere

Corn Milling, Fermentation, Polymerization Corn/Feedstock Production

Ingeo™ biopolymer

Production of: fuels, power, steam, fertilizers, water, acids, base, waste water treatment, etc. 57

Calculation of the eco-profile means drawing a ‘box’ around the process from field to factory gate, and rigorously identifying and including anything which crosses the system boundary © 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Environmental Benefits Credentials

Environment

-60%-50%

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Ingeo Ingeo Target Target 0.8 -60% Ingeo 2009 CITIngeo (current tech) 2009 CIT Ingeo Target

2.0

PVC PVC (suspension) (suspension)

1.9

1.3

Ingeo 2005

2.0

PVC (suspension)

1.9

Polypropylene

1.9

Polypropylene Polypropylene

PET 3.2 PET (amorphous) (amorphous)

PET (SSP)

3.4

Polystyrene (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

3.4

1

2

3

4

80 82 87

3.4

7.6 9.1

Polycarbonate Polycarbonate 0

77

3.4

Polycarbonate Polystyrene PS (HIPS/GPPS (HIPS/GPPS Avg) Avg)

Nylon 66

73

3.2

PET PET (SSP) (SSP)

Nylon 6

59

2.1

2.1

PET (amorphous)

50

1.9

LD LD Polyethylene Polyethylene

LD Polyethylene

-50%

42

1.3

Ingeo Ingeo 2005 2005

0.8

Ingeo 2009 CIT

Non-renewable energy use Non-renewable energy use 35

1137.6

7.9

Nylon Nylon 67 5 6 6

8

9

120

10

From cradle to polymer factory gate Nylon Nylon 66 66 [kg CO2 eq. / kg polymer]

00

9.1

7.9 138 120

2 40 3 60 4

80 5

100 6

7 120 8 1409

160 10

Continuous improvement process From cradle cradle to to polymer polymer factory factory gate gate From Ingeo 2005 Ingeo Current Ingeo Target [kg [MJ CO2/eq. / kg polymer] kg polymer] 58

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


It’s the natural selection for fresh food packaging. Better for the planet, so better for you, your family and business too.

“Did you know that if you convert just 500,000 medium sized deli containers to ones made with Ingeo™ the fossil energy savings is equivalent to 5,400 gallons of gasoline, and greenhouse gas savings are equivalent to driving a car over 122,000 miles?” ²

² These benefits are provided as an example and are based on the Ingeo™ eco-profile and available data on PET. Assumes replacement of a 30 gram PET deli container, with an equal weight Ingeo™ with no changes in the eco-footprint associated with the downstream processing from polymer to finished container.

59

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Danone’s Stonyfield - in their own words: “IMPACT OF INGEO CONVERSION”

• Carbon savings

Environmental

• 75% reduction in CO2 emissions • Equivalent to 1,320 MT CO2/year savings

Performance

• Ingeo out performs polystyrene • • • •

Stronger/less breakage Better lid adherence Lower temperature filling (less energy use) Maintained line speed and shelf life

The Consumer

• Addresses consumer concerns • Well received by key opinion leaders • Reduction in human toxicity • Did NOT increase our retail price

Stonyfield CEO Gary_Hirschberg, Innovation Takes Root Conference Keynote: “Inventing a WIN--WIN--WIN--WIN-­WIN FUTURE”, February 21, 2012

60

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Danone Ingeo Yogurt Cup Project Certified GM free feedstocks

Support from WWF-Germany

LCA comparing polystyrene with Ingeo Cups showing a benefit in GHG reduction

End-of-life for Cups: demonstration that Ingeo cups can be recycled:

Certification of Sustainable corn production & Chain of custody.

61

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Renewable Feedstock Evolution 1st Generation agricultural conversion route is short term Bridging Tool to bridge to 2nd generation and beyond

Gen I – 1st step

Gen I – 2nd step Where we’re going now

(Feedstock Generation #)

Gen II Next 3-5 Years . . .

Where we are today

Dextrose from corn starch

Dextrose from cassava starch and sugar cane

e.g. cellulose from wood chips, corn stover, switch grass and rice straw

62

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Mechanical Recycle

Ingeo Cradle to Cradle Options

Incumbent Plastics

Ingeo

   

X

X

Feedstock Recovery Compost Anaerobic Digestion Energy Recovery

Landfill 63

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Recycle Options

Mechanical Recycle

Incumbent Plastics

Ingeo

   

X

X

Feedstock Recovery Compost Anaerobic Digestion Energy Recovery

Landfill 64

© 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Save the Date!

A Collaborative Biopolymers Forum for the Global Ingeo Community Orlando, Florida | February 17-19, 2014 Orlando World Center Marriott

www.innovationtakesroot.com @natureworks Follow us on Twitter!

65

February 17-19, 2014 Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC


Thank You

Terimakasih

www.natureworksllc.com

66

Š 2013 NatureWorks LLC.


Ingeo biopolymer as a sustainable solution for the packaging Industry