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Volume 56, No. 3

Fall 2017

Pull Together N ava l H i s t or i c a l F o un d at i on

Welcome Secretary Spencer


The Perfect Holiday Stocking Stuffer!

2018 Navy Calendar Get yours today!

Find all your holiday gifts at the Navy Museum Store including: • Annual White House ornament • Nautical themed gifts • Plane and aircraft carrier models Go to http://museumstore.navyhistory.org or call 202-889-2212.

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Naval Historical Foundation

2018


Table of Contents 4

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Executive Director’s Note By Clair S. Sassin

Chairman’s Message By Adm. William J. Fallon, USN (Ret.)

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Oral History: One Man’s Journey from the U.S. Navy to the Big and Little Screen

By Carolyn E. Fix

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The Director’s Cut – WWI Centennial By RAdm. Sam Cox, USN (Ret.)

The Naval Historical Foundation

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Marolda , Stillwell & Sumida Honored

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preserves and honors

Red Navy Revealed: NHF-CIA Soviet Navy Seminar

the legacy of those

2017 NHF Knox Awards

12 Welcome Aboard Secretary Spencer 14 NHF Awards Vice Adm. Dunn Prizes 15 Maritime Grant Awarded to NHF American Revolution Documents to be Digitized

16 Dive on USS Bugara

See the Sub with Dr. Bob Ballard

18 From the Deckplate

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Captain Beach Award Presentation Aircraft Model Dedication The Hunt for Red October: Fact versus Fiction Captain Coskey Nation History Day Presentations Ship Model Tour

Naval History Book Reviews

who came before us while inspiring the generations who will follow. We focus on educating and creating global public interest about the importance of our rich naval history and linking it to today’s challenges and opportunities in the maritime domain.

Holloway Society www.navyhistory.org

COVER PHOTO: The Honorable Richard V. Spencer addresses crowd at Welcome Aboard Reception. Courtesy of Matt Eng, NHF Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Message from the Executive Director

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t has been a little over one year since taking over the reins at the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF). Quite a bit has happened over the last year and we have you, our members, and our donors to thank. First, though, a big thank you for the warm welcome. Your willingness to share your knowledge, ideas and volunteer time is critical to our success. Secondly, thank you for your patience as we implemented changes and reorganized internally. On this front please join me in welcoming Antonia Herzog. Antonia joined us the end of August and serves as our office manager and membership coordinator. This summer NHF returned to our refurbished office in Building 57, across from Leutze Park. The move back follows a two-year renovation of the 19th century structure that also houses the headquarters of the Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC) and a portion of the Navy’s archives. The proximity to NHHC enhances our partnership and promotes increased communications. The team is thrilled to be back in 57. We hope you will stop by to visit when in Washington. Finally, a special thank you to my predecessor, Capt. Todd Creekman, USN (Ret.). Todd, who held this position for 17 years, is the consummate professional. His dedication and commitment to NHF sets an example for all of us. He has been an invaluable resource to me, for which I’m eternally grateful. His knowledge of naval history and understanding of NHF is incredibly valuable. Todd’s shoes are big and you have my commitment that I am doing everything I can to fill them. On behalf of the NHF team, best wishes for a happy, healthy and peaceful holiday season.

NHF Correction There are a number of donors who gave at the $250 level and above whose names were inadvertently omitted in our last issue of Pull Together. We apologize for the oversight as we are most appreciative of your support.

Over $20,000 Mr. William H. White

$10,000–$19,999 Mr. Robert C. & Mrs. Terrye Bellas CACI

Dr. J. Phillip London

RAdm. John T. Mitchell

$1,000–$9,999 Adm. Harold W. Gehman

RAdm. William J. Holland Adm. John B. Nathman

The Honorable B.J. Penn Dr. David A. Rosenberg

$500–$999 Mr. Enid S. Dwyer

Adm. Leon A. Edney

Capt. John E. O’Neil, Jr. Mr. John K. Welch

$250–$499 Capt. Edward F. Bronson Dr. Charles Chadbourn

RAdm. Tam H. Etheridge Capt. Harold E. Old, Jr.

Clair S. Sassin 4

Naval Historical Foundation

VAdm. Nils R. Thunman


Chairman’s Message ★★ ★ ★

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uring the past year, the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF) has worked hard to connect current events in the maritime domain with our rich, at-sea history. This is an exciting time to be a part of interpreting maritime history. As we head into 2018, we will continue to offer new perspectives and initiatives. But first, a recap of this past year. 2017 marked the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Midway. At our annual meeting, members heard Dr. Tim Orr, a young historian, talk about Lt. Dusty Kleiss, the only pilot to land bomb hits on three ships, all of which sank and crippled the Japanese fleet. Although Lt. Kleiss earned a place in history, he never talked about his experiences until the last few years of his life, which Dr. Orr and his wife, Laura, captured in a book they had just released, “Never Call Me a Hero.” Continuing our partnership with Dr. Bob Ballard and his Ocean Exploration Trust’s undersea explorations, we provided the historical perspective for his dive on the USS Bugara, a Balao-class submarine and mapped her course on her third war patrol from Subic Bay to Freemantle, Australia (see story on p. 16). September was a busy month for NHF. We were honored to host a Welcome Aboard reception for the new Secretary of the Navy, the Honorable Richard V. Spencer; partnered with the CIA to do a press briefing and seminar on newly released formerly classified intelligence reports and assessments of the Soviet Navy; presented NHF’s 2017 Commodore Dudley W. Knox Naval History Lifetime Achievement Award to three outstanding individuals for their significant contributions to the naval history profession; and hosted a reception for the dedication of a Cold War Electronic Surveillance aircraft model at the National Museum of the U.S. Navy Cold War Gallery. Read more

about these events in the pages that follow. This year we also established the “Voices of Maritime History Competition for the Superintendent’s Annual Leadership and Vision Award.” This competition, among members of the United States Naval Academy Brigade of Midshipmen, is intended to connect lessons of history with current naval challenges while highlighting initiative, scholarship and persuasive skills. The top three finalists will orally present their work and advance new perspectives and innovative thought leadership while competing for awards to be presented in Spring, 2018. This is a wonderful opportunity for us to learn from the next generation. Thank you to Dr. J. Phillip London, an NHF board member, for initiating this award. NHF published 67 naval history book reviews and developed a program to enhance outreach to history teachers who encourage their students to focus projects on naval history or the maritime domain as part of the National History Day competition. In addition, we won a $49,700 matching grant from the National Park Service to digitize the first 12 volumes of the Naval Documents of the American Revolution series. A special thank you to Andy and Barbara Taylor who matched the initial grant and to RAdm. John Mitchell, USN (Ret.), former NHF president, for donating the first $5,000 for phase two of this project. Read more about the grant and how you can help on page 15. We have had an exciting year and look forward to bringing you more engaging programs next year. Thank you for your ongoing support. On behalf of the NHF team, best wishes for a happy holiday season and a healthy and peaceful new year.

Admiral William J. Fallon, U.S. Navy (Retired)

Stay Connected to the Naval Historical Foundation facebook.com/navalhistoricalfoundation

@USNavyHistory

naval-historical-foundation Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Oral History

One Man’s Journey from the U.S. Navy to the Big and Little Screen By Carolyn E. Fix

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aul Peter Fix, doed 300-400 miles well-known west of Brest. Listing character actor of badly and with the loss stage, screen and TV, was of 36 crewmembers, she born on March 9, 1901, managed to limp back to in Dobbs Ferry, New Brest where she was run York, to German parents, aground. She was patched Wilhelm (William) with a concrete plug, Fix and Louise Waltz. steel plates were scarce, Wilhelm was the brew and managed to cross the USS Mount Vernon in a drydock at Brest, France, after being torpedoed master of the Manilstormy North Atlantic. on September 8, 1918. la-Anchor Brewery. Paul was discharged from His father often took the Navy on September 5, him to operas in New York City and German festivals. 1919, as a Hospital Corpsman, First Class. At one of these festivals in Madison Square Garden, his After the war, Paul married Frances “Taddy” Harvey father won a raffle prize, a four-foot model of the SS of Zanesville, Ohio, in May 1922 and moved to HollyCrown Princess Cecilie, a North German Lines luxury liner, wood. He toured the Pacific coastal cities acting in plays circa 1907. Paul would float it in one of the brewery ponds with Clark Gable, Stu Erwin and Pauline Frederick. He and got into the “war spirit” by shooting and sinking it. also had small parts in early Westerns. His first role in a Little did he know that one day he would serve in the U.S. larger film was in 1928 in The First Kiss, which was part Navy on board the ship after she was transformed into the silent and part sound. From then until 1979 he acted in troopship USS Mount Vernon! several hundred films, including 25 featuring John Wayne, When the U.S. entered World War I, Paul enlisted in the and on TV. His best-known TV role was Sheriff Micah National Guard, but after three months of drilling, he left. Torrance in The Rifleman series. He died in Santa Monica, He then enlisted in the U.S. Army, which ended with the California, on October 14, 1983. same results. Finally, on March 23, 1918, he joined the U.S. Navy and was sent to boot camp in Newport, R.I. While This article is based on an interview conducted by Paul’s there he was selected to serve as the drill officer’s orderly. The daughter, Marilyn, also know as Mrs. Harry Carey, Jr. MarNavy eventually discovered his two prior desertions, but he ilyn’s cousin, Carolyn, used NHF’s oral history guide to turn was never punished. Instead, he was assigned his first stage Marilyn’s interview into a document that has been shared with appearance, a female role in the Navy Relief production of Navy libraries for use by historians. This is especially important H.M.S. Pinafore. because there are few interviews with enlisted Sailors from Paul eventually made several Atlantic crossings to Brest, this era. This story is from NHF’s collection of oral histories and France, aboard Mount Vernon, which were not without memoirs from the latter part of the 20th century. To read the problems. On September 8, 1918, the ship was torpefull oral history, visit www.navyhistory.org.

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This painting by Burnell Poole of the troopship USS Leviathan, escorted by USS Allen, was acquired and restored by NHF and donated to the Navy’s art collection.

The Director’s Cut: WWI Centennial By Rear Adm. Sam Cox, USN (Ret.)

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s we commemorate the 75th anniversary of the troops didn’t begin to arrive in Europe until after the great epoch year for naval history of 1942, we are also German offensive in the spring of 1918 that had already remembering another milestone in American reached its culminating point. However, the arrival of U.S. history – the entry of the U.S. into World War I. troops in June 1917, provided a huge boost to Allied morale On June 26, 1917, the first convoy transporting troops and resolve, and the subsequent arrival of vast quantities of of the American Expeditionary Force (14,000 total, war material protected by the U.S. Navy had a significant including 2,700 Marines) escorted by the U.S. Navy, impact on the Allies’ ability to hold out until the arrival of began arriving in St. Nazaire, France, only two and a two million American troops in 1918, which turned the tide half months after the U.S. declared and caused the Germans to sue for an war on Germany. Anchored in the armistice. Loire River off St. Nazaire, France, As this story has been largely the transports immediately began forgotten over time, we continue to disembarking troops, leading to one appreciate the support of the Naval of the most famous quotes of the Historical Foundation (NHF) in our Col. C.E. Stanton, U.S. Army war, “Lafayette, we are here” by AEF efforts to raise the awareness of the Commander Maj. Gen. John J. Pershcontributions made by our Sailors ing’s “designated orator,” Col. C.E. during World War I and during all Stanton, in Paris on July 4, 1917. our nation’s other conflicts. For example, the National Taken for granted today, the transport of that many Maritime Heritage Matching Grant (see story on p. 15) troops in so short a time was an astonishing feat in 1917 and that NHF obtained to digitize the Naval Documents of shocked the German high command, who had assured the the American Revolution series will make these founding Kaiser that even if the resumption of unrestricted submarine documents of our Navy assessable to educators across warfare caused the U.S. to enter the war on the side of the the nation for use in classroom studies. This and other Allies, there was no way that the United States could get the NHF initiatives are making a difference. I congratulate U.S. Army, then about the 17th largest in the world, through Clair Sassin on her first year as executive director. She the submarine blockade to Europe before the spring of has proven to be a good friend and outstanding liaison to 1918. With Czarist Russia knocked out of the war in the NHF’s leadership and staff. We look forward to continuing spring of 1917, the German plan was to shift hundreds of our long-standing partnership as the Navy approaches its thousands of troops from the Russian Front to the Western 250th Birthday and NHF celebrates its own centennial! Front and deal a knock-out blow to the French and British before the U.S. could get into the fight. The German high Rear Adm. Sam Cox, U.S. Navy (Ret.) is the director of the command was almost right; the vast majority of American Naval History and Heritage Command.

“Lafayette, we are here.”

Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Marolda, Stillwell & Sumida Receive NHF Knox Medal

The three 2017 Knox Medal Recipients (front l-r) Cdr. Paul Stillwell, Dr. Jon T. Sumida and Dr. Edward J. Marolda stand in front of past awardees (l-r) Dr. John B. Hattendorf, Dr. William S. Dudley, Dr. William N. Still, Dr. Craig Symonds, Lt. Cdr. Thomas J. Cutler, Dr. Kenneth J. Hagan, and Dr. James C. Bradford

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his fall, Dr. Ed Marolda, Cdr. Paul Stillwell and Dr. Jon T. Sumida received NHF’s 2017 Commodore Dudley W. Knox Naval History Lifetime Achievement Award for their significant contributions to the naval history profession. Established in 2013, the Award was named after Commodore Dudley Wright Knox ( June 21, 1877 - June 11, 1960). Knox had a distinguished career as a naval officer with service in the Spanish American War, Boxer Rebellion, Great White Fleet cruise and World War I. But it was his abilities as a historian, librarian, and archivist that most earned him respect and admiration among his peers and later generations. Transferred to the Retired List of the Navy on October 20, 1921, Commodore Knox served as Officer in Charge, Office of Naval Records and Library and curator for the Navy. The publication of his clarion call “Our Vanishing Naval History” in the Naval Institute Proceedings in January 1926 led to the establishment of NHF. He served as secretary of the organization for decades and was its president at the time of his death in 1960.

Criteria and Selection

Candidates for the award are evaluated on the following criteria: 8

Naval Historical Foundation

• Quantity and quality of scholarship (body of work) in naval history; • Mentorship and tutelage of promising naval history scholars; and • Involvement and leadership in academic associations that have connections with naval, maritime and military history.

Dr. Marolda flanked by Adm. Fallon and Dr. Dudley — “I’m Gob smacked,” Marolda exclaimed in his acceptance of the Award.

DR. EDWARD J. MAROLDA – after serving as a U.S. Army officer in Vietnam, Dr. Marolda joined the Naval Historical Center, now the Naval History and Heritage Command, as a staff historian and archivist. As the first


Head of the Contemporary History Branch and later as senior historian of the Navy, he oversaw outreach programs. These include the Colloquium on Contemporary History, Naval History Workshop, and the video history “Our Navy Story.” Historians in his charge produced over 40 monographs on U.S. naval history. He developed strategic and master plans for U.S. naval history, served as the program director for the Cold War Gallery and served as acting director of Naval History in 2008. He has authored, co-authored, or edited 15 works on naval history, including commemorative Korean and Vietnam war booklet series and two award-winning monographs, Shield and Sword: The U.S. Navy and the Persian Gulf War and By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia. Adm. Fallon presents the Knox medal to Cdr. Stillwell. In accepting his award, Stillwell spoke of his parents’ disdain for the bigotry prevalent in that era and how that tolerance served him well during his career.

CDR PAUL STILLWELL – enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1962, served in Washoe County off Vietnam and in battleship New Jersey, and retired as a Commander in 1992. His last active duty assignment involved collecting Sailors’ oral histories in the Persian Gulf in 1988. He spent 30 years in various positions with the U.S. Naval Institute. From 1974 through 1981 he was with the monthly Proceedings magazine. From 1981 to 1987 he was editor of the annual Naval Review issue of Proceedings, and from 1987 to 1992 he served as the first editor-in-chief of Naval History magazine. From 1993 to 2004, Commander Stillwell served as director of the Naval Institute’s History Division. He has authored or co-authored a dozen books and countless articles. The New York Times selected his The Golden Thirteen as one of the notable books published in the field of history in 1993. Stillwell has conducted hundreds of oral history interviews that are heavily used by scholars and has mentored individuals and conducted workshops on interviewing techniques. He has appeared in numerous television documentaries.

Dr. Sumida paid homage to his family, who spent time during World War II in internment camps due to their Japanese heritage.

DR. JON TETSURO SUMIDA – is a meticulous and demanding scholar and teacher. Dr. Sumida began his teaching career at the University of Maryland in 1980 and remains there today. He also served as a Visiting Lecturer, School of Advanced Warfighting at the Marine Corps University. His first article, “British Capital Ship Design and Fire Control in the Dreadnought Era: Sir John Fisher, Arthur Hungerford Pollen, and the Battle Cruiser,” Journal of Modern History ( June 1979) shook the foundations of British naval historical scholarship. His first book, In Defence of Naval Supremacy: Finance, Technology and British Naval Policy, 1889-1914 (1989), pioneered in developing a new approach to understanding the relationship between finance, technology and naval strategy and policy. Follow-on manuscripts include Inventing Grand Strategy and Teaching Command: The Classic Works of Alfred Thayer Mahan Reconsidered (1997); and Decoding Clausewitz: A New Approach to On War (2008). He has also published more than 30 major scholarly articles and book chapters. As a mentor, Dr. Sumida guided notable scholars including Timothy Francis, Mark Hagerott, John Vincent Houghton, James C. Rentfrow and Ingo Trauschweizer.

Past NHF Knox Award Recipients 2013

Dr. James C. Bradford Dr. Philip K. Lundeberg Dr. William N. Still

2014

Dr. William S. Dudley Dr. John B. Hattendorf Dr. Harold D. Langley Dr. Craig L. Symonds

2015

Dr. Dean C. Allard Lt. Cdr. Thomas J. Cutler Dr. Kenneth J. Hagan

2016

Mr. Christopher McKee

Pull Together • Fall 2017

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NHF Vice President Marty Bollinger (left) welcomed a large audience in the Cold War Gallery’s North Hall (center) to the NHF-CIA program moderated by Dr. David A. Rosenberg (right).

Red Navy Revealed: NHF-CIA Soviet Navy Seminar

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n late June, the CIA released nearly 100 formerly classified intelligence reports and assessments of the Soviet Navy dating from the mid-1950s until the late 1980s in a publication, The Soviet Navy: Intelligence and Analysis During the Cold War. To put these documents in proper context, NHF partnered with the CIA on two events – a media briefing at the National Press Club and a seminar at the Cold War Gallery. The Navy Museum’s Cold War Gallery Submarine exhibit served as a dramatic backdrop for the “Red Navy Revealed” seminar, which featured a panel of naval intelligence experts who provided a broad sweep of how these newly released documents reflected our understanding of the growth of the Soviet Navy and the threat posed to the United States and its alliances. Dr. David A. Rosenberg, a member of NHF’s board, moderated the seminar, which featured retired Rear Adm. Thomas Brooks, former director of Naval Intelligence; Norman Polmar, a well-known Soviet naval analyst; Eugene Sullivan, retired CIA analyst; and George Federoff, a long-time naval intelligence analyst. The director of the Naval History and Heritage Command, retired Rear Adm. Sam Cox, himself a former director of Naval Intelligence, provided closing remarks. In his opening remarks, Dr. Rosenberg noted that intelligence on the Soviet Navy was derived from a range of sources and that while the released documents empha-

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sized materials gathered from human (HUMINT) sources, there were other critical sources. He cited the availability of U-2 and CORONA, GAMBIT and HEXAGON satellite photography and the National Security Agency and National Reconnaissance Office declassification of the first two Navy ELINT satellites, GRAB and POPPY as examples. Dr. Rosenberg further noted the major elements of the recently declassified collection including the individual 1950s and 1960s HUMINT-derived reports, the late-1960s early 1970s formal classified assessments of the Soviet Navy, the late 1970s assessments of the role of the Soviet Navy in Sea Lines of Communication interdiction, the Military Thought and Warsaw Pact Journal articles from the late 1970s and early 1980s, and the 1983 Combat Regulations of the Soviet Navy, plus the two book-length studies of Khrushchev’s miscalculations in the Cuban Missile Crisis and “On the Trail of [Soviet] Submarine Disasters.” Citing recently published scholarship, Dr. Rosenberg argued that the new intelligence materials need to be examined in concert with Dr. John Hattendorf ’s Evolution of the Maritime Strategy, which has NIE 11-15-82D as an appendix, the Hattendorf edited book, U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1970s, Selected Documents, and the Hattendorf and Peter Swartz edited book, U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1980s, Selected Documents. He also mentioned Chris Ford’s, The


Commentators included (Left to right) Eugene Sullivan, Norman Polmar, Thomas Brooks, and George Fedoroff.

Admirals’ Advantage, a Navy Reserve study of U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence during the Cold War, built on interviews and a 1998 classified official symposium, because it discusses the evolution of naval intelligence assessments of the Soviet Navy at the cutting edge of Navy declassification. Dr. Rosenberg further emphasized that insight on the Soviet Navy was a critical ingredient to the development of the U.S. Navy’s maritime strategy of the 1980s. That was the conclusion, best expressed in the Key Judgments of NIE 11-15-82D that:

“Within the Soviets’ overall wartime strategy, however, the primary initial tasks of the navy remain:

• To deploy and provide protection for ballistic missile submarines in preparation for and conduct of strategic and theater nuclear strikes. • To defend the USSR and its allies from strikes by enemy ballistic missile submarines and aircraft carriers. Accomplishment of these tasks would entail attempts to control all or portions of the Kara, Barents, and northern Norwegian and Greenland seas, the seas of Japan and Okhotsk, and the Northwest Pacific Basin, and to conduct sea-denial operations beyond those areas to about 2,000 kilometers from Soviet territory. We believe that virtually all of the Northern and Pacific Fleets’ available major surface combatants and combat aircraft and some three-quarters of their available attack submarines would be committed initially to operations in these waters.” How these key judgments that deemphasized the long-held notion that the Soviet Navy had a primary offensive mission of interdiction in the North Atlantic

became a focal point of subsequent discussion. Eugene Sullivan focused on the Agency’s role and provided an overview of why the CIA conducted its own analysis of Soviet naval forces. He profiled some of the key contributors and how their conclusions challenged highly regarded assessments held within the Navy’s intelligence community. Given the scope and volume of the released documents, the three remaining panelists took a divide and conquer approach to discussing the papers. They focused on specific themes of the evolution of U.S. intelligence and Navy assessments and understanding of the potential role of the Soviet Navy, particularly its submarine force, in interdicting Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs) in event of a major war between the U.S. and NATO with the USSR and the Warsaw Pact. Mr. Polmar covered the period of 1945 to 1970, Rear Admiral Brooks covered the period of 1970 to 1982, and Mr. Fedoroff discussed the 1980s. Rear Admiral Cox closed the seminar by reflecting on his tenure as a naval analyst tracking Soviet naval movements in the Mediterranean and how the relationship changed in the 1980s. The press briefing on these documents was held earlier in the day at the National Press Club. Retired captain and NHF volunteer Kevin Wensing organized that event and served as moderator of a one-hour condensed version of the afternoon presentations. A number of members of the media attended and C-SPAN covered the briefing. The declassified documents can be found at: http://bit.ly/2ikig73 and a video of the afternoon session may be found at http://bit.ly/2A34IIk.

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Secretary Spencer and his wife, Polly, with Sailor volunteers who assisted NHF to make the reception a success.

Welcome Aboard

SecNav! I

n September, the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF) hosted a Welcome Aboard reception for the new Secretary of the Navy (SecNav), the Honorable Richard V. Spencer. Over 160 individuals attended the event including the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO), Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps (ACMC), former SecNavs, senior leaders from the aerospace and defense community, and other individuals from organizations interested in naval history and heritage. Having been recently confirmed, the reception provided Secretary Spencer, who served in the Marine Corps, to connect with his service’s heritage inside the Navy’s flagship museum – the National Museum of the United States Navy at

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the Washington Navy Yard. Following welcoming comments from NHF President Rear Adm. “Bud” Langston, USN (Ret.) and NHF Chairman Adm. William J. Fallon, Secretary Spencer was introduced by both VCNO Adm. Bill Moran and ACMC Gen. Glenn Walters. The forum provided Secretary Spencer an opportunity to discuss his appreciation of naval history and linked it with his three priorities – people, capabilities and processes – and emphasized the importance of a partnership between the Navy and industry leaders. NHF is grateful to all our supporters and volunteers, and the U.S. Navy Ceremonial Guard from Washington, DC, and the U.S. Navy Band for their support.


Top right down:

- NHF President Rear Adm. Bud Langston welcomes attendees.

- CNO Adm. John Richardson and his wife, Dana, arrive.

- Secretary of the Navy John W. Warner (1972-74) and his successor Amb. J. William Middendorf (1974-77) were on hand as were former secretaries William Ball and B.J. Penn. - Adm. William J. Fallon welcomes Adm. James F. Caldwell, Jr., director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program.

- Secretary Spencer is welcomed by NHF Board member, Dr. J. Phillip London and his wife, Dr. Jennifer London.

Thank You to Our Supporters MAINMAST CSRA Leidos MAINSAIL CACI International Inc. ANCHOR Deloitte General Dynamics Huntington Ingalls Rolls-Royce Naval Marine COMPASS EMR Group Salesforce Raytheon INDIVIDUAL Capital Bank CAPT James Noone Lockheed Martin Orbital ATK

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NHF Awards Vice Adm. Dunn Prizes

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he Naval Historical Foundation is pleased to announce the winners of the 2017 NHF Vice Adm. Robert F. Dunn History Essay competition for NROTC midshipmen around the nation. These awards recognize outstanding scholarship from programs that serve as the Navy’s largest source for commissioned officers. There is a “Grand” overall national first place award of $1000 and regional first and second place prizes of $500 and $250. Midshipman Jacob B. Weintraub of Cornell University NROTC received the grand prize ($1,000) for his paper titled: “U.S. Naval Aviation Failures in the Early Pacific Campaign of World War II.” Weintraub examined differences in aircraft development between the two navies and pilot training programs to draw his conclusion that the American naval aviators entered the conflict disadvantaged. Regional first place awards ($500) went to Midshipman Conner Chaney of San Diego State University for his paper, “(Not Quite) Our Finest Hour: The Battle of the

Java Sea,” and Midshipman Ryan Schleicher of Notre Dame for his entry, “Examining the Impact of Naval Special Warfare during Operation Urgent Fury.” Chaney’s essay looked at leadership shortfalls of the American, British, Dutch, Australian (ABDA) flotilla that was decimated by the Imperial Japanese Navy early in 1942. Schleicher reviewed the lessons learned from the 1983 Grenada campaign that led to the Goldwater-Nichols Act. This year there were three regional runner up awards. These were presented to Midshipman Nate Fierstos of the University of San Diego for his essay, “Battle of the Falkland Islands,” Midshipman Alexander D. Stevenson of Iowa State University for his submission, “History of Naval Information Warfare” and Midshipman Tyler Winship of the Rochester Institute of Technology for his article, “The Effects of Preparedness in the Battle of Midway.” In addition to cash prizes, each winner received an Achievement certificate and a one year student membership to NHF.

The James C. Bradford Dissertation Research Fellowship in Naval History Awarded by the North American Society for Oceanic History

AMOUNT: $1,000 CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATIONS: March 15, 2018 SEND APPLICATION MATERIALS TO: nasohbradfordfellowship@gmail.com ANNOUNCEMENT OF AWARD: May 15, 2018 The North American Society for Oceanic History is offering one dissertation fellowship in U.S. naval or North American naval history for 2018. The fellowship is named in honor of NASOH past-president and Naval Historical Foundation Commodore Knox Medal recipient Dr. James C. Bradford, in recognition of his distinguished contributions to the field of American naval history. ELIGIBILITY: Applicants must have completed all requirements for the Ph.D. at the time of application and have an approved dissertation proposal on file at their degree-granting institution. Topics include all periods of United States and North American naval history, including strategy, tactics, and operations; institutional development and administration; biography, personnel, and social development; exploration, science, and technology and science; and policy and diplomacy.

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Naval Historical Foundation

APPLICATION DOCUMENTS: Applications must include: 1). A completed and signed application cover sheet (the blank application cover sheet is available at www.nasoh.org); 2). Curriculum Vitae; 3). Copy of approved dissertation proposal; 4). Description of the status of the project (not over 1,000 words); 5). Brief statement of proposed use of the fellowship funds; 6). The names and contact information for the dissertation committee chair and two other individuals asked to submit letters of recommendation. SUBMISSION AND DEADLINE: All application materials and letters of recommendations are due on March 15, 2018; send by email with pdf attachments to: nasohbradfordfellowship@ gmail.com SELECTION: Applications will be evaluated by a three-person committee of NASOH members and the recipient notified by May 15, 2018.


NHF Wins National Maritime Heritage Grant

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n July, the Naval Historical Foundation won a $49,700 National Maritime Heritage Grant. The grant will be used to digitize the first 12-volumes of the Naval Documents of the American Revolution (NDAR) in a web-searchable format. This work will lay the groundwork for the online publication of additional volumes. The Selection Committee may have been impressed with the argument President John F. Kennedy wrote in the foreword of the first volume, “These volumes make amply clear the critical role played by sea power in the achievement of American independence.” The NDAR series makes possible the comprehensive study of the naval aspects of the War of Independence. The 12 volumes

in print contain the texts of the contemporary records necessary for the documentation of the war at sea during the period from December 1774 through May 1778. The volumes have won best documentary series awards from the Society for Military History, the North American Society for Oceanic History, and the Society for History in the Federal Government. The National Maritime Heritage Grant program is managed by the Department of the Interior. These grants are made possible thanks to the 1994 National Maritime Heritage Act, which allocates profits made from the scraping of Maritime Administration ships to be set aside for maritime preservation purposes.

Your Help is Needed to Complete the Project!

Awards made by the National Maritime Heritage Grant program require a dollar-for-dollar match. NHF is extremely fortunate that one of our donors, Andy and Barbara Taylor, matched the full grant. We are most appreciative of the Taylor’s generosity as we can now focus on raising funds for the promotion of these treasured documents once online. To jump start this effort, Rear Admiral John T. Mitchell, USN (Ret.), former NHF president, donated the first $5,000. NHF’s goal is $50,000. For more information on this project, contact Dr. Dave Winkler at dwinkler@navyhistory.org. To make a contribution, go to https://www.givedirect.org/donate/?cid=1359 and note “NDAR” in the Comments section or mail a check to NHF, P.O. 15473, Washington, DC 20003. Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Exploring Iconic Ships: Dive on World War II USS Bugara

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he Naval Historical Foundation (NHF) continued our partnership with Dr. Bob Ballard’s Ocean Exploration Trust’s (OET) “Victory at Sea” underwater archaeology campaign to explore, discover, and document iconic ships and aircraft lost during World War II. Ballard and his team returned to the Pacific to dive on ex-USS Bugara, a Balao-class submarine that received three battle stars for its service in World War II and later served in the Korean War and Vietnam War before being decommissioned in 1970. While under tow to serve as a target vessel in 1971, the submarine began to take on water and foundered off Cape Flattery, Washington. OET joined forces with NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries to conduct the first archaeological survey of the USS Bugara this past August.

A Storied History

In preparation for the dive, NHF created original content on the Bugara, using a Geographical Information System (GIS) interface and released deck logs. We visually chronicled the day-to-day operations of Bugara during her historic and highly successful third war patrol in 1945, which saw her sink or destroy 12 junks, 24 schooners, 16 coasters, three sea trucks, and one naval auxiliary. Following Bugara’s historic third war patrol, where she sunk 57 vessels totaling over 5,000 tons, she returned to the Pacific fleet conducting a variety of training missions and fleet exercises throughout the 1950s and 1960s. She also participated in the first two principal “hot conflicts” of the Cold War in Korea and Vietnam, before being decommissioned and struck from the Naval Register on October 16

Naval Historical Foundation

NHF assisted Dr. Ballard’s Ocean Exploration Trust team last Summer as they dove on the World War II era submarine Bugara off of the coast of Washington state. NHF posted an interactive track of one of Bugara’s war patrols in waters adjacent to Southeast Asia.

1, 1970. By 1969 she had made 7,000 dives. Bugara sank under tow after an aborted attempt to use her as a target for a new weapon system near Cape Flattery, Washington, on June 1, 1971. Her destination was the Bangor Naval Ammunition Depot in Washington. To provide additional context, NHF also interviewed Bob Fleck and Pete Smith, crewmembers aboard Bugara in the immediate years leading up to her decommissioning and sinking off the California coast. These interviews were turned into podcasts and are available on our website, navyhistory.org. In 2001, the Bugara wreck site was confirmed using an ROV fiber optic cable survey while undergoing a non-archaeological reconnaissance inspection. In September 2008, the NOAA’s ship, Oceans Explorer, surveyed the ex-USS Bugara using her newly installed multibeam sonar system.

From Wreck to Reef

The E/V Nautilus ROV survey in August compared the results of the two previous surveys and assessed any changes in the hull over the past 16 years. Maritime archaeologists, scientists, educators, and veterans were all on hand to see the first up-close look at “the bug” since her sinking in 1971. Thousands of individuals online and at satellite viewing parties at the Naval Undersea Museum and Submarine Force Museum saw the ship transform from wreck to reef, now part of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Special thanks to Jim Wickman, NHF volunteer, for his help with this initiative. Visit navyhistory.org/victory-at-sea2017-events and travel with the USS Bugara on her third war patrol.


❅ ❄❆❄ ❅ ❅ ❆ ❆ ❄ ❄ ❆

team

pport. u s g in o g n o r u o is grateful for y

Wishing you d n a n u f , s u o y a jo y a d i l o h l u f peace season. ation

al Found ic r o t is H l a v a N

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From the

DECKPLATE “Naval Historical Foundation Capt. Ned Beach Naval Academy History Award”

Former NHF Executive Director Capt. Charles T. Creekman, USN (Ret.) with Midn. 1st Class Patrick M. Leech, recipient of the NHF Capt. Ned Beach USNA History Award for his paper, “ War without Fire: Henry V’s Treat­ment of Civilians in his French Campaigns, 1415-1421.”

NHF Hosts Dedication of EC-121/EP-3 Model

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weapon in our nation’s arsenal.” n September, the Naval HistorNHF Chairman Admiral ical Foundation (NHF) and VQ William J. Fallon, USN (Ret.) joined Association hosted a reception for Admiral Harris in the unveiling of the dedication of a model airplane at the EC-121/EP-3 model to the the National Museum of the United delight of the crowd. Commander States Navy’s Cold War Gallery. The Jason Zaharris, the current squadron event celebrated the unveiling of a commander of VQ-1, attended and maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) in the spoke about the squadron’s current Cold War Gallery’s expansive model operations; and Rear Admiral Sam collection. Cox, director of the Naval History PACOM Commander Admiral and Heritage Command, was on hand Harry Harris, once an MPA aviator, PACOM Commander Adm. Harris speaks to accept the model on behalf of the attended the event to help unveil at a ceremony to welcome a model of a Museum. the model. He spoke about Pacific Maritime Patrol Aircraft to an exhibit of A special thank you to Capt. Keith Command’s ongoing operations and Cold War era aircraft that the NHF has May, USN (Ret.), president of the VQ praised NHF and the VQ Association funded over the past decade. Association and Capt. John Orem, for coordinating the event. “Your work USN (Ret.) for leading the effort to fund the model and to is important in the history of the Navy, especially during members of the VQ community for their support. the Cold War,” he said. He also talked about the history of NHF also thanks Cdr. Michael R. “Psycho” McCleod, the model plane. “The role that maritime patrol and recona retired F-18 aviator, who painstakingly made sure the naissance did, what the EP-3 community did, was signifimodel plane was true to the original. cant. It preserves the heritage of navy fliers.” He also noted how important the EC-121 aircraft became as a “powerful

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Naval Historical Foundation


The Hunt for Red October: Fact or Fiction

The panel, moderated by NHF Board member Dr. David A. Rosenberg, discussed the role of submarines in the Cold War and the movie that showed it to the world. A real world example of the interaction between U.S. and Soviet submarines occurred in 1972 when for 27 days, the USS Guardfish (SSN 612) tracked a Soviet submarine from Vladivostok to the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam. Though this mission was only declassified in 1999, writer Tom Clancy had learned enough about these encounters through discussions with submarine veterans to write The Hunt For Red October in 1984. In 1990, with the cooperation of the U.S. Navy, The Hunt for Red October was produced, bringing Tom Clancy’s dramatic story of the cat-and-mouse life of the Silent Service to the screen. Admiral Thomas D. Fargo discussed his experience as the commanding officer of USS Salt Lake City, which took actor Scott Glenn (who played the commanding officer of the USS Dallas in the movie) to sea to watch a real submarine crew at work before filming began. Commander David C. Minton was the commanding officer of USS Guardfish during the 1972 mission trailing a Soviet Echo II missile submarine and recounted that experience.

NHF Chairman Adm. William J. Lieutenant Fallon provided opening remarks Commander David R. for the annual Naval Historical Oliver was on Admiral Foundation-Naval Submarine Elmo Zumwalt’s staff League History Seminar. The focus in the Pentagon in 1972 this year was the story behind The and assisted Capt. Al Hunt For Red October. The Baciocco in the Naval program featured a star-studded Operations Command panel that included: Adm. Thomas D. Fargo, USN, Center when the (Ret.); Capt. David C. Minton, Guardfish alerted the III, USN, (Ret.), Rear Adm. David President that three R. Oliver, Jr., USN, (Ret.), and Mr. Russian submarines Mace Neufeld. armed with nuclear cruise missiles were underway, possibly to target U.S. carriers off the coast of Vietnam. Mr. Mace Neufeld provided the Hollywood perspective as the producer of The Hunt for Red October, Patriot Games, Clear and Present Danger, and The Sum of All Fears, all based on bestselling books of Tom Clancy.

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National History Day

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or over two decades the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF) has participated in the annual National History Day ceremonies at the University of Maryland. Former Executive Director Capt. Ken Coskey initiated NHF’s awards, which are presented to one high school and one middle school student, whose winning project has a naval theme. Today the Awards are named to honor Capt. Coskey for his service, which includes imprisonment in North Vietnam during the Vietnam War and his passion for naval history. His widow, Rosemary, underwrites the Award and represents NHF at the presentations. Last June she presented the senior high school Award to Joseph Horne of Noble High School in Maine for his website, “The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard: Helping America Take a Stand Against the Axis Powers.” The junior prize was accepted by a National History Day representative from Indiana on behalf of Jason Benyousky, Ryun Hoffert, Keller Bailey, and Geoffrey Hochstetler of the Warsaw Community Schools in recognition of their project “The Many Stands of Pearl Harbor.”

NHF Adds Ship Tour to Site

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n 2016, the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF) introduced www. usnavymuseums.org, a site for America’s naval historical resources including maritime museums and historic ships located in each state. Earlier this month NHF expanded the content to include pictures and information on 100 additional ships, most of which are no longer in existence but are on display at the National Museum of the United States Navy. Learn about the Turtle, Bonhomme Richard, Monitor and Missouri, to name a few. Visit www.usnavymuseums.org and see what naval history is in your backyard. Thank you to Eric Dubay, NHF’s summer intern, for his help with this project.

The Bonhomme Richard model.

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Naval Historical Foundation


Naval History Book Reviews

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ne of the Naval Historical Foundation’s (NHF) most popular member service is our Naval History Book Review program. These reviews are written by members for members. If you are interested in becoming a published reviewer, contact Dr. Dave Winkler at dwinkler@navyhistory.org.

Seablindness, How Political Neglect is Choking American Seapower and What to do About It

By Seth Cropsey, Encounter Books, New York, NY (2017) Review by John Grady, posted October 13: Seth Cropsey’s latest book is an excellent primer on the state of today’s weakened American naval forces and some ways that he thinks can right them now and strengthen them in the longer run to meet the future changing challenges from Moscow.

I Was Just a Radioman: The Memoirs of a WW2 Pearl Harbor Survivor

Edited by Pamela Ackerson. Self-published, (2016) Review by Charles H. Bogart, posted October 13. This self-published monograph was compiled by Ms. Ackerson to preserve the family history of Aviation Chief Radioman Henry Lawrence’s service in World War II. The audience at which the book is directed is family and friends.

A WWI Soldier and His Camera: Army 19th Engineers Seen Through Pvt. Emil Rezek’s Camera and His Duty with the 14-Inch Naval Railway Gun By William J. Brown. Self-Published (2017) Review by Charles H. Bogart, posted October 13: In 1917 Emil Rezek joined the U.S. Navy and subse-

quently deserted and joined the U.S. Army. In August 1918, Emil’s past caught up with him. Arrested in France as a deserter, instead of imprisonment, Emil was loaned by the Army to the Navy as a fireman for one of the locomotives assigned to United States Naval Railway Battery No. 5.

GOING DEEP: JOHN PHILIP HOLLAND AND THE INVENTION OF THE SUBMARINE

By Lawrence Goldstone, Pegasus Books Ltd., New York, NY (2017) Review by Louis Arthur Norton, posted October 2: Going Deep is a complex tale of competitive inventiveness, ruthless commercial subterfuge, naval dithering, governmental corruption, foreign intrigue and occasional shenanigans. The author opens the book with the stunning wartime success of the German U-9 (Unterseeboot 9).

HENRY FOXALL: METHODIST, INDUSTRIALIST, AMERICAN

By Jane B. Donovan, New Room Books, Nashville, TN (2017) Review by Suzanne Geissler, Ph.D., posted October 2: Henry Foxall (1758-1823) was a transplanted Englishman, a devout Methodist, and an industrialist who could rightly be considered America’s first defense contractor. This is the first biography of Foxall and is long overdue

AIRPOWER APPLIED: U.S., NATO, AND ISRAELI COMBAT EXPERIENCE

Edited by John Andreas Olsen, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD (2017) Review by Cdr. Peter Mersky, USNR (Ret.), posted September 28: Airpower Applied is a well-researched book offering a different angle of reporting on how three different groups—the U.S., NATO, and Israel—have conducted several significant aviation campaigns in the last 100 years.

STORM OF EAGLES: THE GREATEST AVIATION PHOTOGRAPHS OF WORLD WAR II

By John Dibbs and Kent Ramsey, Osprey Publishing, UK (2017) Review by Cdr. Peter Mersky, USNR (Ret.), posted September 28: This new coffee-table-size book is the result of an ambitious project. The end product is a collection of many excellent photographs, a few of which are fairly well known, but for the most part are new.

JUTLAND: THE UNFINISHED BATTLE

By Nicholas Jellicoe, Seaforth, South Yorkshire, UK (2016) Review by Stephen Phillips, USNR (Ret.), posted September 21: The grandson of the First Lord of the Admiralty John Rushworth Jellicoe, describes the battle at the strategic,

Continued on next page

Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Naval History Book Reviews (NHBR) (continued) operational, and tactical levels of warfare, and on the personal level as relayed by some who had a limited view but colorful perspective of the battle.

SEA POWER: THE HISTORY AND GEOPOLITICS OF THE WORLD’S OCEANS

By Adm. James Stavridis, USN (Ret.), Penguin Press, New York (2017) Review by John R. Satterfield, DBA, posted September 21: Stavridis addresses today’s policy issues from the broad context of maritime history, and by weaving his personal story throughout, his narrative is informal and conversational, but there is nothing shallow or dull about the messages he imparts.

HELIGOLAND: BRITAIN, GERMANY, AND THE STRUGGLE FOR THE NORTH SEA

By Jan Rüger. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK (2017) Review by Alan M. Anderson, Ph.D., posted September 21: Rüger uses Heligoland as the lens through which to view and interpret the relationship between Britain and Germany since the early nineteenth century. His monograph is a micro-history of the

island that provides a much-needed longer-term perspective on the Anglo-German relationship.

REDICTING PEARL HARBOR: BILLY MITCHELL AND THE PATH TO WAR

By Ronald J. Drez, Pelican Press, New York, NY (2017) Review by Charles C. Kolb, Ph.D., posted September 21: Drez’s latest volume focuses on William “Billy” Mitchell, a United States Army general regarded as the “father of the U.S. Air Force” and adds to the ever-growing list of publications about the Japanese Pearl Harbor attack, reminding us of the early predictions of Homer Lea and Hector C. Bywater.

CHURCHILL AND THE DARDANELLES

Christopher M. Bell. Oxford University Press, New York, NY (2017) Review by Larry Grant, posted August 18: Bell’s account of Churchill’s role in the Dardanelles campaign is thorough and convincing. It is well worth a careful reading for anyone interested in the high-level genesis, troubled execution, and ultimate failure of the attempt to open the strait.

SOLDIERS AND CIVILIZATION: HOW THE PROFESSION OF ARMS THOUGHT AND FOUGHT THE MODERN WORLD INTO EXISTENCE

By Reed Robert Bonadonna, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD (2017) Review by John R. Satterfield, DBA, posted August 18: The author presents a scholarly but approachable and persuasive rejoinder that affirms warfare’s reciprocal positive contributions to progress.

KNICKERBOCKER COMMODORE: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF JOHN DRAKE SLOAT 1781-1867

By Bruce A. Castleman, State University Press, Albany, NY (2016) Review by Charles H. Bogart, posted August 18: This book is much more than a well-researched and thoughtfully written biography of Commodore Sloat; it is a social history of the U. S. Navy during the years 1812-1857. Commodore Sloat is but the lightning rod used by the author to illuminate the character of the Navy during this period.

NHF Historian Publishes Old-New Book!

NHF is pleased to announce that Dr. Dave Winkler has republished his 1998 Ph.D. dissertation with the Naval Institute Press under the title, Incidents at Sea: American Confrontation and Cooperation with Russia and China, 1945-2016. Previously published under the title, Cold War at Sea and published in Canada and China, this edition updates the original text and adds two new chapters discussing incidents at sea over the past quarter century since the conclusion of the Cold War. In his praise for the book in the Foreword, former Senator John Warner concluded: “I commend the continuing work of the distinguished author and the Naval Historical Foundation.” 22

Naval Historical Foundation


The Admiral James L. Holloway III Society The Admiral James L. Holloway III Society is a group of benefactors who generously support the goals and mission of the Naval Historical Foundation through a pledge of support of at least $100,000 over five years. Dr. Dean C. & Mrs. Connie Allard Jr. Mr. Robert C. Jr. & Mrs. Terrye Bellas Mr. Martin J. Bollinger Mr. John K. Castle Adm. & Mrs. Bruce DeMars, USN (Ret.) Adm. Thomas B. Hayward, USN (Ret.) Adm. & Mrs. James L. Holloway III, USN (Ret.)

Dr. J. Phillip & Dr. Jennifer London Mr. Corbin A. McNeill Amb. J. William Middendorf II Rear Adm. John T. Mitchell Jr., USN (Ret.) Mr. Andy & Mrs. Barbara Taylor Mr. Michael J. & Mrs. Victoria Wallace Mr. William H. White

Members of the Society receive invitations to special events and other opportunities to engage in naval history. If you are interested in discussing membership in the Holloway Society please contact NHF’s Executive Director, Clair Sassin at csassin@navyhistory.org.

Naval Historical Foundation

Leadership

Preservation. Education. Commemoration. Since 1926

Adm. William J. Fallon, USN (Ret.) Chairman RAdm. Arthur N. Langston, USN (Ret.) President Mr. Martin J. Bollinger Vice President RAdm. Larry R. Marsh, USN (Ret.) Treasurer Capt. Dale Lumme, USN (Ret.) Secretary

Directors

Directors Emeritus

Capt. Maurice A. Gauthier, USN (Ret.) The Honorable Steven S. Honigman Dr. J. Phillip London Capt. James A. Noone, USN (Ret.) The Honorable B.J. Penn Dr. Barbara Pilling Dr. David A. Rosenberg

Ambassador J. William Middendorf II VAdm. William H. Rowden, USN (Ret.)

Chairmen Emeritus Adm. James L. Holloway III, USN (Ret.) Adm. Bruce DeMars, USN (Ret.)

Pull Together • Fall 2017

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Naval Historical Foundation at the Washington Navy Yard P.O. Box 15304 Washington, DC 20003

IN MEMORY OF: Richard W. Dattinee and Mandy Ourisman YOU MAKE A DIFFERENCE Preserving and Honoring the Legacy of Those Who Came Before Us; Educating and Inspiring the Generations Who Will Follow Membership in NHF is open to all who are interested in the history and heritage of the U.S. Navy. Membership dues are: Student - Complimentary Teacher - $35 Individual - $50 Family - $75 Supporter - $250 Life - $1,000 Organizational - $5,000 General members of the Holloway Society ($100,000 and up) are recognized in every edition of Pull Together. Members receive NHF’s publication, Pull Together, NHF’s Naval History Book Reviews and discounts at the Navy Museum Store, www.navyhistory.org. Help make a difference by giving a gift membership to a friend or associate.

Pull Together is published by the Naval Historical Foundation. Editorial Board Executive Director: Ms. Clair S. Sassin Executive Editor: Dr. David Winkler Designer: Marlece Lusk

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Naval Historical Foundation

____________________________________________________________________________ New member’s name, title or rank _active _veteran _retired ____________________________________________________________________________ Street Address/Duty Station ____________________________________________________________________________ City/State/Zip ____________________________________________________________________________ email This is a gift from: _____________________________________________________________ Join NHF or renew online by visiting www.navyhistory.org Dues and other monetary contributions to NHF are tax deductible. Please make checks payable to the Naval Historical Foundation and mail to NHF, P.O. Box 15304, Washington, DC 20003.

Address submissions and correspondence to Executive Editor, Pull Together, c/o NHF, P.O. Box 15304, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 678-4333. E-mail: info@navyhistory.org. Subscription is a benefit of membership in the Naval Historical Foundation. Advertisement inquiries for future issues and digital content are welcomed. Opinions expressed in Pull Together are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Naval Historical Foundation. © 2017

Pull Together Vol 56, No. 3 (Fall 2017)  
Pull Together Vol 56, No. 3 (Fall 2017)