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October 2013 . Issue 07

Cross & Crescent

FROM THE EDITOR On Friday, September 20, 2013, 17 professional staff members from the International Headquarters in Indianapolis spent the afternoon volunteering at the Gleaners Food Bank of Indiana. Gleaners is affiliated with Feeding America, Lambda Chi’s new national philanthropy partner. Feeding America is a nationwide network of more than 200 food banks and provides food to more than 37 million people through 61,000 food pantries, soup kitchens, and shelters in communities across America. Feeding America also supports programs that improve food security, educates the public about the problem of hunger, and advocates for legislation that protects people from going hungry. Part of the professional staff ’s interest in volunteering at Gleaners is to demonstrate the Fraternity’s overall commitment to the new Feeding America partnership. At least quarterly, the staff plans to continue to volunteer at Gleaners.

Tad Lichtenauer Director of Communications/IT (317) 803-7322 tlichtenauer@lambdachi.org

In this issue of the Cross & Crescent you also can read an article from CEO Bill Farkas about his passion and commitment to our Feeding America partnership and fighting hunger. For more information about Feeding America, visit http://www.feedingamerica.org/. Or find them on Facebook at www.facebook.com/FeedingAmerica or follow them on Twitter at www. twitter.com/FeedingAmerica. In ZAX & friendship,

Tad Lichtenauer Editor, Cross & Crescent Magazine

Header Features 13


Departments Chapter News


Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death.

Fraternity News


Salute to Departing Staf

Fraternity News


Seeking High Pis to Mentor Chapters

27 History

An Examination of Secrecy

CREDITS Publisher: Bill Farkas Managing Editor: Tad Lichtenauer Assistant Editor: Andrew Talevich Layout & Design: Thomas Roberts Photographer: Walt Moser Research: Jon Williamson Editors: Jono Hren Bob McLaughlin

We believe our new national partnership with Feeding America will be an opportunity to give our men more of a chance to make a positive impact in the community. Through this experience our young men put the value of service and stewardship into action.

By Bill Farkas (Butler 1988)



David Stanko, a Phi-Delta alumni brother from Maryland-Baltimore County, helps his fraternal and biological brother, Joshua Stonko from Epsilon-Pi at MarylandCollege Park, with his Maryland state office campaign.

By David Stonko (Maryland-Baltimore County)



The Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation of Canada recently gave away seven scholarships to undergraduate brothers.

Andrew Talevich (Washington State)



On Founders Day, November 2, 2013, the Educational Foundation will kickoff a 10-day online campaign to share stories about Lambda Chi’s impact on our lives and rapidly increase progress toward completion of the Future Leaders Campaign.

by Mark Bauer (Cal State-Fullerton) CONTRIBUTIONS Content for consideration should be submitted by the 25th of the month (except Aug/Jan) Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity 8741 Founders Rd Indianapolis, IN 462681338


Chapter News Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

Akron (Gamma-Alpha)

University of Missouri. He came to Arkansas State University in 1954 as a professor of history. In his 39 years of service at ASU he not only was a professor emeritus of history but served as History Department chairman, acting dean of Liberal Arts, acting vice president of academic affairs, and was faculty sponsor of Lambda Chi Fraternity. He was the author of many books and articles on American medical ethics and biographies.

At the Summit County (Ohio) Sports Hall of Fame, Kenneth Thompson (1956) was awarded the Phil Dietrich Senior Athlete Award. At age 50, Thompson launched a career of running in marathons, ultra marathons, and other long-distance running events. Thompson has run in at least 180 marathons, including three in each of the 50 states, and on all seven continents.

Auburn-Montgomery (Phi-Kappa)

Arkansas (Gamma-Chi)

The chapter added 18 new associate members and also held an Associate Member Ceremony for the colony at Huntingdon, which added 14 associate members. The chapter also held a golf swap with Alpha Gamma Delta.

Baldwin-Wallace (Baldwin-Wallace Colony)

The chapter hosted its annual Watermelon Bust, raising more than over 140,000 canned goods to supply the food banks of North West Arkansas. The chapter added 38 associate members with an average 27 ACT and 3.69 GPA. Arkansas State (Iota-Theta) The chapter added 44 associate members during fall recruitment, the largest class on campus. Each of the new associate members had a minimum of a 3.0 GPA. Dr. Donald Konold died September 20, 2013. A World War II veteran, he was stationed in France where he met his future wife of 59 years, Flore Dupuis. Upon his return, he earned his bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in history from the www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent

Colony brothers held their second annual cookout to welcome the largest freshmen class on campus in 44 years, as well as all


Cross & Crescent October 2013


Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

returning students. This free event included food, games, music, and fun. The cookout, held on August 29, 2013, was attended by roughly 475 students as well as several faculty members. The colony added 10 associate members during fall recruitment.

Air Crew Medal along with numerous campaign and service ribbons. He also was awarded the Order of Military Merit from the Republic of Korea for service with the Korean Marine Corps in Vietnam.

Bucknell (Delta)

Ball State University (Iota-Alpha)

The chapter added 17 associate members during fall recruitment.

The chapter extended 19 bids to prospective associate members, with 10 acceptances. They held an Associate Member Ceremony for the first 10 and they plan to host another one in the coming days for the others.

Bradley (Kappa-Upsilon) Chapter brothers hosted their annual Crescent Week philanthropy for the Peoria Area Food Bank, raising more than $2,700. After the scores were tallied, Katie of Sigma Kappa was crowned the new Crescent Girl. Col. Donald G. Robison (ret) (1959) died June 10, 2013. After graduating from Bradley University, he went into the U.S. Marine Corps as a second lieutenant. He was sent to Korea where he served in numerous command and staff assignments. He served in Vietnam in 1966 and 1970-71. He retired in 1979 after serving three years with the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a flying staff officer with the National Emergency Airborne Command Post. Robison holds the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star, Joint Service Combat Medal, Combat Action Ribbon, and Combat

California-Berkeley (California-Berkeley) John Gezelius (1978) was interviewed by National Public Radio regarding his intercontinental ballistic missile experience following graduation.

California-Los Angeles (Epsilon-Sigma) Order of Merit recipient Tom Larson (1974) and his wife, Kathy, toured Parliament in London with alumnus brother Dr. Jim Schmitz (1974). Schmitz is a cardiologist who, at age 60, decided to enroll at the London Business School. He is the oldest person among his class of 60 Sloan Fellows. They were www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent


Cross Cross && Crescent Crescent October October 2013 2013


Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death given a tour of Parliament by Richard Fuller who is a member of the House of Commons. Pictured from left to right are Schmitz, Fuller, Larson and his wife.

On September 14, 2013, 14 chapter brothers participated in

California Polytechnic (Phi-Sigma) Chapter brothers teamed up with SLO SafeRide to participate

a friendly 5k Paint Run sponsored by the Phi Sigma Sigma sorority at the Cornell University Plantations. The event helped raise funds for local charities.

Drexel (Epsilon-Kappa) On September 28, 2013, the chapter brothers began their Inner Circle implementation as a part of their ongoing fraternity education. The chapter hosted members of the International Headquarters staff to learn more about how to get started.

in the inagural SLO-ly but Surely philanthropy event at Woods Humane Society. The brothers who attended had a great time and performed approximately $1,500 worth of landscaping.

Eastern Kentucky (Phi-Beta)

Chapter brothers participated in a clothing drive in which aprroximately $1,200 worth of clothes were donated to the local Goodwill.

Benjamin Fish died September 23, 2013.

Elmhurst (Pi-Zeta)

Cornell (Omicron)

The chapter brothers hosted their annual Watermelon Bust,



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death with 10 participating teams. The event raised $500 for different philanthropies. Continuing an annual tradition, the chapter brothers drove to Lake Forest College to spend an afternoon at the beach with the Pi-Pi chapter brothers, along with Alpha Phis from Elmhurst and Lake Forest.

Ferris State (Iota-Psi) Jim Quick (1994), general assembly area manager at General Motors Lansing Grand River Assembly, was promoted to executive. He began his career at General Motors in 1991, holding various positions inside of General Motors, most recently as Lansing regional quality manager, LGR Body Shop area manager, and an ISP position in Brazil as manufacturing integration manager and manager strategy and planning.

Florida Tech (Beta-Nu)

Florida International (Pi-Phi)

The chapter added 17 associate members during fall recruitment.

Undergraduate brother Matthew Reid is spending a semester abroad in Spain working with Disney and Tallink, a global shipping company.

The chapter brothers held their first road cleanup of the year to help clean the adopted section of road on South Babcock. The chapter collected 95 pounds of trash and performed a total of 72 hours community service.

Florida Southern (Epsilon-Xi)

A group of 20 chapter brothers helped support the Chi Omega sorority at the University of Central Florida in raising money for the Make-A-Wish Foundation.

The chapter added 26 associate members during fall recruitment, the largest class in recent years.



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

Georgetown (Kappa-Omega)

Georgia (Nu)

Paul Davis (1960) was named Illinoisan of the Year by the Illinois News Broadcasters Association. Davis, the son of Plaford and Zona B. Davis, began his broadcasting career in the 1950s at WCRA in Effingham, Illinois. He later went on to anchor the evening newscasts at WCIA-TV in Champaign, Illinois, and later anchored the nightly news at WGN-TV in Chicago. He has remained in the broadcast industry in recent years through documenting the history of broadcasting.

Don Harrison (1973) is the new president and CEO of Alliance Bank & Trust. Reynold Jennings (1969) is the president and CEO of WellStar.

Huntingdon (Huntingdon Colony)

George Washington (Delta-Xi)

The new colony currently has 27 associate members.

Illinois (Chi) Chapter brothers held their annual Watermelon Bust philanthropy, raising more than $400 for the Eastern Illinois Food Bank. Alumnus brother Jerry Edwards, the chapter house’s chef for the past 22 years, was featured in the university’s newspaper. The chapter added 12 associate members, the largest class in several years.

Indiana (Alpha-Omicron) The chapter added 35 associates members during fall recruitment.

In September 2013, chapter brothers held a bake sale with Pi Beta Phi to raise money for children’s literacy.



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

Indiana State (Indiana State Colony)

Kansas (Zeta-Iota)

The chapter received two awards from the university: Highest average library hours per chapter member, and second-highest average service hours per chapter member. The chapter brothers held an alumni cookout that was combined with a recruitment event.

The chapter added 18 associate members during fall recruitment. The chapter has more than tripled in size since the fall of 2012, with a current membership of 46 brothers.

On September 22, 2013, the colony held an Associate Member Ceremony for 13 new members. This brings the colony’s total to 43 members, achieving one of their chartering standards.

The newest initiated brothers are: Landon Dellenbaugh, Parker McMillan, Richie Noon, Kevin Scott, Nick Stadler, and Phillip Baiamonte. The chapter’s annual distinguished alumni awards dinner will be held October 4, 2013, and the annual homecoming tailgate will be held October 5, 2013.

John Carroll (John Carroll Colony)

Chapter brothers are continuing to provide volunteer hours to the Heartland Community Health Center. This includes moving heavy furniture, transporting bread from Panera to the food pantry, and volunteering during fundraising events.

Kentucky (Epsilon-Phi) Gary D. Fairman (1974) is a district court judge for the 7th Judicial District in Eastern Nevada. On September 29, 2013, the colony held an Associate Member Ceremony for 12 new members, bringing the total number of colony members to 30.

Lycoming (Iota-Beta) Chapter brothers participated in Lycoming College’s first Walk a Mile in Her Shoes sexual crime awareness event.

The colony brothers plan to apply for their charter in the spring semester.



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death The chapter added one associate member during fall recruitment.

The chapter added six associate members during fall recruitment. Mace Grafton won the Millersville’s Alpha Xi Delta’s inaugural “Xi Man” competition. The money raised from the event went to help Alpha Xi Delta’s philanthropy, Autism Speaks.

The chapter established an Alumni Advisory Board.

Millsaps (Theta-Eta) Charles Lathem (1981) joined the Millsaps Board of Trustees. He joins at least three other alumni brothers on the board: Maurice Hall, Vaughan McRae, and Steven Smith.

Missouri (Gamma-Kappa) Raymond L. Culli Jr. (1964) died August 19, 2013. He sought a career as an employment recruiter and excelled in this field for the next 40 years. Upon retiring, Ray held the position of resident property manager for the Southwood Apartments in Clayton, Missouri.

Mansfield (Beta-Omega) Brig. Gen. Francis L. Hendricks (1979), who served for five years as commander and deputy commander of the Army and Air Force Exchange Service in Dallas, was selected Wednesday by the Board of Governors of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) to be the next president of Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.

Nevada-Reno (Epsilon-Iota) Maj. Gen. Mark Yenter (1980) was named the 2013 University of Nevada-Reno alumnus of the year.

After 10 years of service, Steve Hulbert (1966) has retired as president of Nicholls State University. His retirement was effective August 1, 2013.

North Carolina-Charlotte (Beta-Upsilon)

Michigan (Sigma)

The chapter hosted its annual Watermelon Bust to collect food donations for a local food bank.

Chuck Cole (1973) has attained fellowship status, the highest honor bestowed on a certificate holder by the American College of Healthcare Architects. Fellowship is granted to ACHA Board certified architects specializing in healthcare who have shown distinction in fulfilling an area of expertise as determined by the College’s Council of Fellows.

Chapter brothers have volunteered to clean up a nearby stream. They also volunteered to distribute water at a recent HalfIronman triathlon.

North Carolina-Greensboro (Phi-Theta)

Millersville (Delta-Tau)

Chapter brothers held a Puppy Sit, raising more than $500 for the Alamance County Animal Shelter.

On September 24, 2013, chapter brothers helped Delta Zeta with setup and cleanup for their Turtle Tug competition. All proceeds from the event benefited Paint a Turtle Camp.


The chapter added six associate members during 2013 fall


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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

recruitment: Robert Hutwagner, Jake Werb, Max Hanuau, John Ornitto, Adrian Castillo, and Abdou Seck.

Northern Colorado (Sigma-Omega) IFC and chapter President Robbie Cummings made an information and awareness presentation to freshmen living in the dorms.

Ohio (Alpha-Omega)

North Carolina State (Gamma-Upsilon) Chapter brothers adopted a two-mile stretch of highway in Fuquay Varina, North Carolina, and conducted their first cleanup. The chapter plans to clean their stretch of highway four times a year for four years. On September 29, 2013, chapter brothers kicked off their canned food fundraiser by placing bags at more than 350 houses, with an informative note about the recent partnership between Feeding America and Lambda Chi Alpha. Brain Branch took a trip across the country this summer on his bike as part of a program called Bike and Build. During his experience, Branch helped build houses with Habitat for Humanity.

Steve Kline (1962) visited International Headquarters in Indianapolis to present Educational Foundation CEO Mark Bauer (Cal State-Fullerton) with a generous donation. In the photo, Bauer is pictured on the left and Kline is on the right.

Oklahoma City (Theta-Delta) The chapter added 13 associate members during 2013 fall recruitment.

North Carolina-Wilmington (Delta-Sigma) Maj. Robert Rideout (1995), U.S. Army Reserves, was activated and is currently serving as the command judge advocate for the U.S. Forces Garrison Command, 4th Infantry Division (4ID), Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. This is his second combat deployment. He is a former chapter president.



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

Oklahoma State (Alpha-Eta)

collected 1,508 cans of food for donation to a local food bank. At the Pittsburg State College of Technology Career Day, four companies were represented by Lambda Chi Alpha alumni, including Zach Whitehurst, Rene Martinez, Nick Doffing, and John Barnes.

Rensselaer (Epsilon-Eta) On September 21, 2013, chapter brothers held their 9th annual Watermelon Bash. Teams from four sororities and four fraternities participated in the event, which raised money for the Unity House in Troy, New York.

As a result of the chapter’s 9th annual Watermelon Bustphilanthropy, the chapter donated more than 11,000 pounds of food this year to the local Stillwater area. The donation will feed the Payne County area for an entire year. The week-long event included participation by all 12 sororities on campus. Alpha Chi Omega won the Watermelon Bust for the third year in a row.

The chapter added 20 associate members during fall recruitment, the largest fall class in five years.

Richmond (Alpha-Chi) The chapter added four associate members, all sophomores, during 2013 fall recruitment: Connor Kelly, Oliver Lee, Danny Fiddelman, and Andy Rothman.

Pennsylvania (Epsilon) Chapter brother Lewis Ellis was one of the organizers for the University of Pennsylvania’s biannual hackathon, PennApps. This fall, one of the largest student-run hackathons drew in a crowd of more than 1,000 students. PennApps gives students the opportunity to eat, sleep, and live hacking, allowing them to form teams to design a project in which they compete for prizes. Mentors from software companies also visit to provide guidance for the hackers. Lewis was involved in the planning and organizing of the event, which involved accommodating the sheer number of visiting students and setting up food which included midnight meal runs. At the event, Lewis oversaw the event, making sure things moved smoothly and as planned. He also helped lead the project presentations at the end of the Hackathon (see picture).

The chapter is also busy planning for Clay’s Day, a golf outing benefiting the Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma (PLGA) Foundation. Clay is the son of brother JD Derderian (1985). The event will take place on November 1, 2013, at Providence Golf Club in Richmond, Virginia. The cost is $150 and includes a round of golf, cart, driving range, lunch, and drinks. In addition, there will be a pre-game tailgate for the Homecoming game on Saturday, November 2, 2013, at the fraternity lodge.

Pittsburg State (Lambda-Chi) The chapter added 17 associate members during fall recruitment. Chapter brothers hosted the 2013 Watermelon Fest and



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

San Diego Regional Alumni Association

for brothers with high scholastic achievement. Ten brothers honored had GPAs over 3.8 for the last term. Chapter brothers participated in National Hazing Prevention Week by attending events and seminars hosted by the university and the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life.

On October 26, 2013, the alumni association will host its 4th annual Lambda Chi Alpha Homecoming Tailgate party. The event includes 100 tickets for the San Diego State University versus Fresno State football game. The cost for a game ticket and the tailgate party is $20 per person. The alumni association will supply food and non-alcoholic beverages. The tailgate will start two hours before kickoff so plan to meet in F3 in the parking lot at Qualcomm stadium. Please send your checks, made out to Lambda Chi Alpha Alumni Association, to Allan Koljonen, 7441 Neptune Dr., Carlsbad, CA 92011. Include with your check the number of tickets and names of those in your party.

Southern California (Zeta-Delta) Douglas. J. McMillan (1983) died September 22, 2013. He was instrumental in the 1980 chapter reorganization.

South Dakota (Alpha-Gamma) The chapter added 15 associate members during fall recruitment.

South Carolina (Epsilon-Psi) Southeast Missouri State (Delta-Phi) The chapter added 20 associate members during fall recruitment. The chapter’s soccer team placed third in Alpha Delta Pi’s philanthropy. The chapter hosted the Heroes Softball Tournament with many local organizations coming out to show support for local charities. The chapter hosted its annual Watermelon Bust, raising $350 dollars for Feeding America. The winning sororities were Alpha Xi Delta, Gamma Sigma Sigma, and Alpha Delta Pi.

The chapter added 26 associate members during fall recruitment, nearly doubling the size of the chapter.

Alex Dunn has been cast to be in the movie “Gone Girl” being filmed in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.

Chapter brothers volunteered at Columbia’a annual Greek Festival, cooking up gyros while completing 350 service hours. The chapter held its third consecutive scholarship dinner



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death

St. Joseph’s (Phi-Lambda)

barbeque where they presented Mike Whaley with a Brotherhood Achievement Award.

The chapter moved up to second place in the university’s Fraternity GPA ranking, falling short of first place by the narrowest margin of 0.01 points. The chapter’s associate member GPA surpassed the other fraternities by 0.1.

Tennessee-Chattanooga (Zeta-Phi) Chapter brothers celebrated Matt Priest’s return home from a tour in Afghanistan. Upon his return, he honored the chapter with an American flag that was flown over his base. The chapter is honored to have members like Priest serve as role models for other brothers. In addition, the chapter said farewell to a younger brother, Cole Kemper, who recently left for his deployment.

Wake Forest (Theta-Tau) The chapter added eight associate members during 2013 fall recruitment.

Union (Lambda-Zeta)

The chapter has a redesigned website that lists upcoming events and chapter information.

Using an extra bid they had from last year’s rush, the chapter added Daniel Mathis as the newest associate member.

On September 28, 2013, chapter brothers hosted a successful Watermelon Bash benefiting a local food bank. The competition included 11 teams representing seven sororities.

The chapter raised a total of $3,700 for Relay for Life in May and a total of 5,500 pounds of food for RIFA so far this semester.

Villanova (Beta-Iota) Undergraduate brother Charlie Dolan cofounded Pittsburghbased Sequoia Waste Solutions two years ago and helped create the proprietary technology that helps clients efficiently manage trash disposal. He has won the regional Global Student Entrepreneur Awards competition in Washington, D.C., and is competing in the finals Nov. 20 and 22 in Washington for $150,000 in cash and business services. The contest is held by the Entrepreneurs’ Organization, a global business network. Dolan will be up against 41 other student entrepreneurs who have founded, and are running, revenue-generating businesses.

Western Kentucky (Lambda-Lambda) Chapter brothers held a weeklong fundraiser to benefit Hope Harbor, a sexual abuse trauma recovery center for men and women. The non-profit crisis counseling center relies on grants, state funding, and national funding to cover their expenses.

William Jewell (Epsilon-Nu) Anthony Shop is the co-founder and chief strategy officer of Social Driver, a full service digital agency based in Washington, D.C. Social Driver was recently named the 7th fastest growing agency in the United States and No. 1 fastest growing in the mid-Atlantic region by The Agency Post’s 2013 Agency 100. Social Driver has also received recognition from The International Academy of Visual Arts, The D.C. Chamber of Commerce and The George Washington University.

Virginia Tech (Sigma-Lambda) Alumni brothers hosted a Virginia Tech 55th anniversary



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Chapter news, alumni news, and reports of death Dr. J. Glen Doran (1966) died August 15, 2013. An Eagle Scout and member of the Order of the Arrow, Glen received his doctor of osteopathic medicine degree from Kansas City University of Medicine & Biosciences in 1979. In addition, he was a data processor at McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis; and a real estate broker in Kansas City. As an undergraduate brother, he served as the chapter’s treasurer.

Wilmington College (Pi-Delta) Chapter brothers participated in a Greek street event where incoming freshmen can visit and learn more about Lambda Chi Alpha. Chapter brothers moved into their first chapter house.

Wittenberg (Nu-Zeta) The chapter has a new partnership with the Second Harvest Food Bank. The brothers will volunteer monthly at the warehouse to prepare boxes of food and other items to be shipped to the needy and elderly. Chapter President Alec Biehl is helping to launch a Greek 101 program to supplement the education of new members within each Greek organization. The chapter added two associate members.



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Making a Difference on College Campuses To increase transparency and inspire growth, the report cards reflect important information about membership, academics, education, harm reduction, alumni engagement, financial balance, and each chapter’s overall standing with the General Fraternity. By Bill Farkas (Butler 1988)

Watching college-aged men show others the value of serving those around them can change a person’s stereotype, perspective, and even their life. This past summer I was able to inform more than 500 undergraduate men that our organization, Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity, has become a national partner with Feeding America in the fight to end hunger.


Each fall, Greek organizations on college campuses begin to meet and discuss goals for the year. One of the topics discussed is the planning of a philanthropic event to raise funds or goods for a cause. Since 1993 Lambda Chi Alpha’s cause has been that of working to end hunger. We believe that our new partnership with Feeding America will be an opportunity to give our men more of a chance to


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make a positive impact on the community. Through this experience, our young men will put the value of service and stewardship into action. Being a CEO of a non-profit, men’s social fraternity has its challenges. However, it also has many amazing opportunities. When I introduced this new partnership the crowd of young men was sparked with enthusiasm. They embraced the challenge of raising 1.5 million pounds of food, and I feel that we will reach this goal. The established fact is that these men already raise more than one million pounds of food annually in order to help their communities. Since starting these food drives on the local level almost 20 years ago we have raised over 40 million pounds of food. We are honored to be a partnered with Feeding America in this fight. Our men are committed to making a difference on their campuses, in their communities, and in this world. I ask that you also get your hands dirty. You never know how valuable your efforts to end hunger can be until you get up and fight with us for this cause.

About Feeding America Feeding America is a nationwide network of more than 200 food banks that leads the fight against hunger in the United States. They provide food to more than 37 million people through 61,000 food pantries, soup kitchens, and shelters in communities across America. Feeding America also supports programs that improve food security among the people they serve. It educates the public about the problem of hunger and advocates for legislation that protects people from going hungry. Individuals, charities, businesses, and government all have a role in ending hunger. Donate. Volunteer. Advocate. Educate. Together we can solve hunger. Visit http://www.feedingamerica.org/. Find us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/FeedingAmerica or follow us on Twitter at www.twitter.com/FeedingAmerica. www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent


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• According to the USDA, limited resources prevent over 50 million Americans from getting enough food.

For More Information We are challenging each of our chapters to help us reach our 1.5 million pound target for food collection during the 2013-2014 academic year. Food totals will be reported in both December and May, and then the totals will be combined to calculate which chapters collected the most pounds.

Hunger and Poverty Statistics Unfortunately, hunger exists everywhere in the United States - in every county and every community. Last year, Feeding America provided 2.82 billion meals to 37 million people in all 50 states, Washington D.C., and Puerto Rico. Some of the most shocking statistics about hunger are:

A new Feeding America resource guide is available in Officer Portal to assist you in working with Feeding America Food Banks and how to report your food collection totals. You can find a Feeding America food bank by visiting http://feedingamerica.org/foodbank-results.aspx. For more information about Lambda Chi Alpha’s partnership with Feeding America, please visit lcafooddrive. org.

• 1 in 6 Americans face hunger. • 17 million children in the U.S. struggle with hunger. • According to the USDA, more than 17 million children are living in food-insecure households. • 36 percent of households served by Feeding America network include at least one adult who works. • 17 percent of the adults interviewed during the Hunger Study have attended college or a technical school. • More than 2 million rural households experience food insecurity.



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Undergrad Makes Run for State Office David Stanko, a Phi-Delta alumni brother from Maryland-Baltimore County, helps his fraternal and biological brother, Joshua Stonko from Epsilon-Pi at Maryland-College Park, with his Maryland state office campaign. By David Stonko (Maryland-Baltimore County)

In the spring of 2011 I became associated in the Phi-Delta chapter at the University of Maryland-Baltimore County, and the Fraternity immediately became a central part of my life. In addition to the Fraternity’s core values, one thing that has always stood out for me about Lambda Chi is the concept that is denoted by the words from our creed, “pure, high, ever growing:” the idea that we should strive to be the best that we can as a fraternity, as a chapter, and as an individual. One reason that this has stood out for me is that it’s something I have always tried to live by, even before I joined


Lambda Chi, and it is something that my parents often tried to instill into my two younger brothers and me as we were growing up. This was the first thought I had when my younger brother, Joshua Stonko (Maryland-College Park 2014), told me in 2012 that he had decided to join the Epsilon-Pi chapter at the University of Maryland, College Park. And it was my thought again last spring when I witnessed his initiation. I knew the idea of always pushing forward and always trying to be the best that we can was probably something that attracted Joshua as well.


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Role as Campaign Manager I saw this trend continue last year when Joshua and I first discussed the possibility of his candidacy for the Maryland House of Delegates. I think that most people would be surprised if their 19-year-old brother mentioned that he was considering running for statewide elected office, but I wasn’t and I immediately signed on as his campaign manager. This May we announced Joshua’s candidacy, and saw an outpouring of support from our community and from brothers throughout the country through social media and other outlets. In fact, our first donation came from the family of a brother from Epsilon-Pi. This further impressed the strength and meaning of the brotherhood upon me. As we moved forward with our first large-scale fundraiser in August, we were unsure of what to expect. Yet again, our brotherhood stepped forward. Active brothers from University of Maryland-Baltimore County and from the University of Maryland volunteered to help out at the event, with an attendance of about 150 people, including several of our alumni, and featured U.S. Congressional candidate Dan Bongino as the keynote speaker. I think this whole story exemplifies the idea depicted by the crescent that is on our coat of arms, and sharing this story was a big reason why I decided to write this article. Not only have I been amazed by the things that Joshua has been able to accomplish, but also by the way these two chapters have mobilized in support of their brother.

How to Support Candidate Stonko I would encourage you to support Joshua as well. You can find more information about candidate Joshua Stonko as well as contribution information at www.JoshuaStonko.com, and you can follow him on twitter at @Stonko2014.



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The Educational Foundation of Canada Aims to Help Canadian Undergrads Header The Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation of Canada recently gave away seven scholarships to undergraduate brothers. By Andrew Talevich (Washington State)

The Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation of Canada recently awarded seven scholarships to undergraduate brothers in Canadian chapters, highlighting the Canadian Educational Foundation’s growing outreach. The main reason for the establishment of the Canadian Educational Foundation was to ensure that Canadian citizens who donated to the Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation would receive tax benefits for their donations.


“If Canadians donated money, they wouldn’t get a taxable receipt,” said Bob Wilson (Toronto 1995), President of the Canadian Educational Foundation. “We thought if we could start here in Canada to support the chapters here, why wouldn’t we?” Since its establishment, the Canadian Educational Foundation has expanded its investments in order to make a broader impact on the lives of undergraduates across the country. At the beginning of the school year the Canadian Educational Foundation awarded seven scholarships; the


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most ever given out by the foundation in a single year. Each scholarship carries a value of $1,500 for the undergraduate recipients.

• Jonathan Alder Bliss (Toronto 2017) • Robert George Muff (Toronto 2014) • Jason Michael Stacey (Toronto 2013) • Jaw Chawla (Toronto 2014) One of the recipients for this year’s scholarship, Jake Sazio, currently serves as president of the University of Toronto chapter, Epsilon-Epsilon Zeta. He plans to apply the scholarship money to his academic expenses and books.

Educational Scholarships Canadian chapter brothers who had a 3.0 GPA or better were eligible to apply for the scholarships. For the application they had to provide the Canadian Educational Foundation with a letter of recommendation from a chapter advisor or previous chapter president, along with a letter of recommendation from a professor. Selection of the undergraduates to receive the scholarships was based on three criteria: scholastic achievement, leadership on campus, and financial need. “These are people who come from hardworking, middle class families who can use the support,” said Scott Rands (Western Ontario 1995), director on the board of the Canadian Educational Foundation. “They’re the guys who deserve to have their efforts and accomplishments recognized by the Fraternity.” The seven scholarship recipients are: • Bassel Mohammed Saad (Western Ontario 2015)

“The scholarship is there to help us. It’s there to facilitate the brothers with their academics and with the fraternity,” Sazio said. Wilson sees the scholarships as going a long way to help curb the costs of rising tuition and other expenses affiliated with higher education for the seven undergraduate brothers selected.

Western Ontario’s Twentieth Anniversary On November 2, the Delta-Eta chapter of Western Ontario will celebrate the twentieth anniversary of their being chartered. During the celebration the Canadian Educational Foundation will discuss the recent scholarships that were awarded, along with ways that brothers can give back to the chapter and the foundation.

“We’re trying to use this as a springboard to kick the Canadian Educational Foundation into high gear,” Rands said. Rands, who is one of the founding fathers of DeltaEta Zeta, is anticipating around 50 alumni at the twentieth anniversary celebration.

• Alexander John Scott MacLean (Western Ontario 2016) • Jake Mark Sazio (Toronto 2014) www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent


Cross & Crescent November 2012


Foundation to Host Online Celebration of Brotherhood Starting on Founders Day, November 2, 2013, the Educational Foundation will kick off a 10-day online campaign to share stories about Lambda Chi’s impact on our lives and rapidly increase our progress toward completion of the Future Leaders Campaign. By Mark Bauer (Cal State-Fullerton)

Starting on Founders Day, November 2, 2013, the Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation will kick off a 10day, online campaign to share stories about Lambda Chi’s impact on our lives and to accelerate progress toward our completion of the Future Leaders Campaign. Over those 10 days we invite you to celebrate by sharing stories of brotherhood, both in person and on-line. The event will then culminate with an on-line experience on November 12, 2013; a conversation with philanthropist, volunteer, leader, and brother, Jeff Stuerman (CulverStockton 1982), who serves as chairman, president, and CEO of Edwards Jones Trust Company, one of the most trusted brokerage firms in the nation. We will gather to hear about this brother’s rise to personal and professional success and then have the chance to ensure that the legacy of Lambda Chi endures through the decades. Please keep an eye out for email communications starting on Founders Day to kick off this 10-day event, and then join us on the 12th to hear more reasons why Lambda Chi is the fraternity of TRUE brotherhood.


About the Educational Foundation The Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation exists to support the Fraternity and its members. Its resources are used to advance the educational programs that cultivate lifelong applications for the Fraternity’s youngest members. The Educational Foundation supports Lambda Chi Alpha by funding leadership development and educational programs, perpetuating the existence of these programs for future generations. The Foundation was established in 1946 through a bequest to the Fraternity by Dr. John E. “Jack” Mason, the spiritual founder of Lambda Chi Alpha. In 1968 the name “Lambda Chi Alpha Educational Foundation” was formally adopted, in keeping with the objectives of the Foundation. It is not a part of the Fraternity, but rather an independent entity affiliated with the Fraternity and dedicated exclusively to public, charitable, and educational purposes. Its mission is to provide funding to continue and expand leadership development and educational programs, and to perpetuate the existence of these programs for future generations of youth, as a complement to higher education.


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Salute to Departing Staff

After helping make Lambda Chi Alpha better through their service, six professional staff members move on to the next chapter of their career.

By Tad Lichtenauer (Denison)

No matter where you work it is hard to find an environment as unique as the one at Lambda Chi Alpha’s International Headquarters in Indianapolis. One of the greatest benefits is having the feeling that you’re part of an extended family with everyone committed to the same cause. It’s essentially a more professional version of a fraternity chapter house. You know everyone. You can talk to anyone about anything. You can become as close to people as you would if you were still living in the chapter house. Just as with graduating seniors, younger staff members gain knowledge, networking and career experience. After a few years, they discover what their next career move should be. The following are the professional staff members who have left:

Chris Cole (Gettysburg 2009) Cole, who previously served as the associate director of harm reduction, is now an account executive at James R. Favor & Company in Denver. The company focuses on insurance brokerage and riskmanagement consulting. “Living in Colorado is pretty awesome,” Cole said. “The job is fantastic because I get to continue creating education and helping out the fraternity world in any way possible.” www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent


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me live Lambda Chi Alpha’s Creed by constantly trying to grow and better myself,” Hebert said. “I am excited for this program to continue and for me to be successful in it!”

When asked about his time on staff, Cole said what he most enjoyed was “...the ability to travel around the country to places I wouldn’t otherwise have had the opportunity to go. Traveling to visit with our brothers and spending time spreading the amazing word of Lambda Chi Alpha. I’ll never forget my time on staff!”

As for his time on staff, Hebert said it’s tough to pick just one highlight. “I would have to say the most positive takeaway that I have from being on staff is learning, living, loving, and applying all lessons and knowledge gathered on staff, to be able to pass it on to others as I continued my journey and worked for the fraternity as a volunteer,” he said. “Every single person that I was able to work with while on staff taught me a huge amount of the life lessons that I am lucky to have learned.”

Brandon Hebert (Simpson 2011) Hebert, who previously served as a senior educational leadership consultant, is now a staffing specialist for ManpowerGroup and a graduate teaching assistant at University of Minnesota StateMankato, and is also pursuing his master of arts degree in communication at the university.

Chris Kirkeby (South Dakota 2011)

What he likes about Manpower: “It is a huge honor and a privilege to help clients find work. I love providing people with assistance in their time of need to make sure they have money to pay bills, feed their families, etc. Knowing that I have helped someone survive by finding them a job that they want and are good at is an amazing gift that I am able to provide through my work at Manpower. As for being a teaching assistant, he said: “I love teaching my undergraduate course because I am able to have a direct positive impact on the students in my class. Helping them to learn, being their mentor, and providing useful knowledge and life lessons for the students in my class is a truly amazing thing to have in my life.” As for being a graduate student, Hebert said he enjoys being challenged by the material and the course load of his program.

Kirkeby, who previously served as a senior educational leadership consultant, is now a field producer and video editor for Sicmanta Multimedia based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. His most recent work adventure has taken him on a 20-day filming trip to wilderness in the Arctic Circle, as well as on a 14day trip along the border between the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory. “I’ve enjoyed traveling to remote locations and producing adventure films,” he said. “The most exciting thing that happened was on an archery hunt for moose, when three of us were surrounded by six wolves that were only five to 15 yards away, and all we had were two cameras and a bow and arrow.” Kirkeby commented that the networking and friendships he made were the biggest takeaways from being on staff.

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Nick Ludwig (Coe 2011) Ludwig, who previously was a senior educational leadership consultant, is a marketing coordinator for Stamats Communications, Inc. in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. “Working with Stamats gives me the chance to combine my experience of traveling to colleges and universities as a staff member of Lambda Chi Alpha, with my training for marketing. Stamats is one of the oldest marketing agencies that specialize in research and creative work for higher education,” Ludwig said. He added that serving on staff with Lambda Chi Alpha exposed him to the most important meaning of working in higher education. “There’s a lot of excitement around colleges and universities; my time on staff helps me remember that encouraging and engaging in continual growth and learning should remain as the priority for everyone involved in higher education,” Ludwig said.

the institution’s mission and vision.” As an Indiana alumnus, Smith also appreciates the opportunity to give back to the institution where he earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees. “Just like my time on Lambda Chi Alpha, it’s my personal obligation to give back to an organization that has invested in me and my future,” he said. Smith said it’s hard to highlight only one of his positive experiences on staff. “After five years on staff and two years on the Student Advisory Committee, it is clear that Lambda Chi Alpha invested time and resources in me,” he said. “Lambda Chi Alpha, institutionally, is an organization that exists to build better men through values-based relationships. I am a product of the great things that our Fraternity has to offer. My greatest takeaway has to be the experiences and knowledge I have gained that will be useful in the future. The relationships I have built with fellow staff members, collegians, and alumni across the country are priceless!”

Dave Walthius (Indiana 2011) Walthius, previously a senior educational leadership consultant, is now pursuing his master’s degree in student affairs and higher education at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. In addition, he is serving as a graduate assistant in the Greek Life Office.

Travis Smith (Indiana 2009) Smith, who previously served as the associate director of alumni relations for the Educational Foundation, is now the associate director of regional advancement for the Indiana University Foundation in Bloomington, Indiana. “My new job with the Indiana University Foundation is an opportunity for me to work with my alma mater and to gain experience and knowledge in a complex university setting,” Smith said. “Working for IU is an opportunity to work with a top-tier research institution and to help raise private philanthropic support to advance


“I really enjoy taking classes again and working with the amazing students and staff at Indiana State University,” Walthius said. Of his time on staff, he said his fondest memories are the number of friendships he gained from alumni and undergraduates.


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Seeking High Pis to Mentor Chapters

More than 30 chapters and colonies currently do not have a High Pi. These chapters are in need of a mentor who can assist with the chapter’s decision-making.

By George Taylor (High Point)

The High Pi, or a chapter’s primary alumni advisor, plays a crucial role in the success of a chapter and its members. Chapters that perform the best tend to be those with strong alumni support and led by the High Pi. A High Pi should have a familiarity with chapter operations, be present at a chapter’s weekly meetings, and be able to impart wisdom to the undergraduates of the chapter. Currently there are several chapters that do not have a High Pi. These chapters are in need of alumni leadership that will guide the chapter in a positive direction. At the moment these chapters do not have a certified High Pi: • Akron (Gamma-Alpha) • Arkansas (Gamma-Chi) • Bradley (Kappa-Upsilon) • California State- Fresno (Iota-Gamma) • Clemson (Delta-Omicron) • Eureka (Theta-Chi) • Gettysburg (Theta-Pi) • Huntingdon College (Huntingdon Colony) • Incarnate Word (Pi-Epsilon) • Lake Forest (Pi-Pi) www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent


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• Lehigh (Gamma-Psi)

• Minnesota State (Lambda-Delta)

• Texas - El Paso (Zeta-Epsilon)

• Loyola Marymount (Delta-Psi)

• Oklahoma State (Alpha-Eta)

• Texas A&M – Kingsville (BetaEpsilon)

• Lycoming (Iota-Beta)

• Pittsburg State (Lambda-Chi)

• Methodist (Sigma-Theta)

• Rhode Island (Eta)

• Miami (FL) (Epsilon-Omega)

• South Dakota State Colony

• Miami (OH) (Zeta-Upsilon)

• Southern Methodist (Gamma-Sigma)

• Michigan State (Gamma-Omicron)

• Stetson (Stetson Colony)

• Towson (Phi-Omega) • Truman State (Phi-Psi) • Virginia Tech (Sigma-Lambda)

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• Wisconsin - Whitewater (LambdaIota)

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Volunteer Protection Act To dispel any fear or concern a potential High Pi has about volunteering, I am going to provide a brief recap of the Volunteer Protection Act. People who volunteer to assist nonprofit organizations run the risk that their actions, while well-intentioned, may cause harm to another. If those actions are deemed negligent, the volunteer may face civil liability for damages caused by the negligent conduct. The Act generally eliminates the liability of an individual volunteer for damage caused by his or her simple or ordinary negligence, so long as the individual was acting within the scope of his or her responsibility to the eligible organization and was not grossly negligent or intentionally trying to cause harm. The Act provides protection to the individual volunteer only; it does not immunize or otherwise limit or affect the liability of the nonprofit organization or government entity itself.

Training & Certification The General Fraternity has created educational components to specifically train alumni volunteers, including High Pis. Neville Advisor’s College is the backbone of the alumni volunteer educational programming and is subsidized in part by generous contributions from Ronald A. Neville, an alumnus brother and High Pi of Theta-Sigma Zeta at Drury University. The next Neville Advisor’s College will be January 30 – February 2, 2014, in Indianapolis.

For More Information If you are interested in learning more about becoming a High Pi or volunteering in any other capacity please visit our website: https://www.lambdachi.org/alumni/ or send an email to Associate Director of Chapter Services George Taylor at gtaylor@lambdachi.org.

The alumni volunteer certification process is an on-line process that each alumnus volunteer must complete if he wishes to volunteer with a local chapter. The first step in the process is to complete the Alumni Volunteer Affirmation, which is a tutorial designed to ensure that the alumnus volunteer is current with what Lambda Chi Alpha is doing today, and is also aware of the policies, Mandatory Resolutions in the Constitution and Statutory Code, harm reduction processes, and the educational curriculum components that are available to the chapter.



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An Examination of Secrecy Historian Mike Raymond looks at the work of Michael Pearce, PhD, an expert in ritual and secrecy. By Mike Raymond (Miami-OH)

thank Dr. Pearce for his permission to re-print his paper in the Cross & Crescent. Secrecy has been problematic for such college secret societies as Lambda Chi Alpha from the very beginning of the social fraternity movement in 1776. Phi Beta Kappa was originally a secret society until 1831, when its Harvard chapter disclosed the fraternity’s secrets during the anti-Masonic period of American history. Phi Beta Kappa has since become a very prestigious and successful honorary society. Can college fraternities survive without secrets? Founded in 1834 in opposition to secret societies, Delta Upsilon is the only non-secret international fraternity in existence today. Its Greek letters stand for the motto Dikaia Upotheke which means Justice, Our Foundation. Delta Upsilon’s ritual and all of the fraternity’s symbols are carefully explained on their official website. Wherever you stand on this issue, Dr. Pearce makes a convincing case for secrecy in fraternal societies. Let us know what you think about fraternity secrecy.

1. The Problem with Secrecy

The following article, “The Function of Secrecy in the Work of Freemasonry” originally appeared in the Spring 2010 issue of Philalethes, The Journal of Masonic Research and Letters. The Philalethes Society, founded in 1928, is the oldest Masonic research group in North America. Michael Pearce, PhD, a member of the Art Department at California Lutheran University in Thousand Oaks, California, is the author of this paper. We would like to www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent

Secrecy is viewed with negativity in contemporary Western culture. Secrets are dangerous, the territory of extremists and terrorists, of frightening clandestine agencies who have the authority to kick down doors and search homes without cause. Secret government activity targeting the people is the antithesis of democracy, although historically its manifestation has always been excused as a necessary expediency during the prelude to tyranny. In everyday relationships secrecy may divide people and cause enmity, particularly if the keeper of a secret makes his knowledge of what is hidden known. Spiteful children use this effect with hateful results, crying “I’ve


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got a secret…” to taunt their peers. A secret organization naturally attracts the criticism of outsiders who view clandestine behavior as a danger to civilized society. The adult continuation of the fears of children left out of “the club” is found in paranoid conspiracy theories about Freemasonry (and other secretive organizations), however noble its cause may be. Despite these negative connotations, secret societies such as the Freemasons have worked to produce extraordinary benefits to mankind in science, politics, philosophy, philanthropy and personal morality. Why does fraternal secrecy encourage men to join organizations like ours, when one might expect the opposite to be true? In this paper we will explore the nature of secrecy in secret societies and why secrecy is desirable to them.

2. Rites of Passage

To understand the nature of a secret society we should first learn about the means by which members are made, when secrecy is a fundamental necessity in the transformation of an initiate from an ordinary member of society to a member of a select group. Rites of passage are typically concealed from outsiders, as secrecy lends them their potency. In some primitive cultures these practices are held to be so emphatically secret that intruders are killed, a practice alluded to in the “bloody oaths” found in the catechisms of the three craft degrees. (1) Arnold van Gennep coined the term ‘rites de passage’ in 1909 to describe certain types of customary liminal (2) events, which focus on transformative moments in an individual’s progress through life.(3) The anthropologist Victor Turner enlarged upon Van Gennep’s consideration of rites of passage by noting an additional two types of ritual events that mark the seasonal changes of the environment concluding that in addition to Van Gennep’s rites of birth, puberty, marriage and death there are also: Rites that accompany the passage of a person from one social status to another in the course of his or her life, and

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Rites that mark recognized points in the passage of time (new year, new moon, solstice, or equinox). (4) Building upon the work of Van Gennep and Turner, Mercia Eliade added still further to the mix with his study of three further kinds of initiatory rites, now including rites of shamanic initiation and (of particular interest to us) the rites performed when a candidate joins a secret society. Eliade wrote several seminal works about religious practice, now widely regarded as classics in the field of the History of Religion. As a phenomenologist historian, particularly concerned with the underlying structures of religious behavior, he compared traditional practices from all over the world in order to come to his conclusions about ritual practice, summarizing the characteristics of tribal initiations thus: Period of seclusion in the bush (symbol of the beyond) and larval existence, like that of the dead; Prohibitions imposed on the candidates by the fact that they are assimilated to the dead (a dead man cannot eat certain dishes, or cannot use his fingers, etc); Face and body daubed with ashes or certain calcareous substances, to obtain the pallid hue of ghosts; funerary masks; Symbolic burial in the temple or fetish house; Symbolic descent to the underworld; Hypnotic sleep; Drinks that make the candidate unconscious; Difficult ordeals: beatings, feet held close to a fire, suspension in the air, amputation of fingers, and various other cruelties. All these rituals and ordeals are designed to make the candidate forget his past life… during their stay in the bush the rest of the community considers the candidates dead and buried, or devoured by a monster or a god, and upon their return to the village regards them as ghosts. (5) Later in his life Eliade added to his note of the “period of seclusion in the bush… like that of the dead” with: “In the majority of traditional societies, initiatory rites

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HISTORY at puberty essentially involve a ceremony of symbolic death and rebirth for the initiate. The “death” is signified by tortures and initiatory mutilations, or by a ritual interment… also by isolation in the bush or in a solitary hut, which is to say, segregation in Shadows.” (6) Freemasons will note striking similarities in Eliade’s description to the performances of the Blue Lodge and Scottish Rite degrees, drawing attention to the antiquity of the ideas expressed in these rituals. (7) Freemasonry is an initiatic order, whose choice to practice liminal initiation is deeply rooted in historic and prehistoric phenomena found across all cultures. But why do modern men submit themselves to liminal rites in order to enter a group that is ostensibly secret to them, and therefore should be unknowable?

3. Secrecy within Initiatory Groups

A search on the Internet will reveal that secret societies are exciting, shadowy groups of conspirators hatching plots to overthrow governments and rule the world. Some websites say groups like the masons are populated with secret lizard men, concealed in human form, waiting for their day to overthrow mankind and take over (8). In reality the history of secret organizations in the Western Esoteric Tradition is well known, and can be traced through time from a point at least as early as the Ancient Egyptian mysteries through to our own Post-Modern period following a trail that leads to the practices of the Pythagoreans, Neo-Platonic groups, the Orphic mysteries, the Gnostics, early Christians, Hermeticists, Historical Druids, the Dionysian Rites, Roman mystery cults, Arab mystics including the Sufi, the Assassins, Witches, Alchemists, Magicians, Sorcerers, historical and modern Rosicrucians, the Golden Dawn, the different contemporary Templar revivals, Qabalists, Magicians, Medieval Craft Guilds and Chivalric orders, the Martinists, the Carbonari, the Compagnonnage, and a multitude of Masonry-inspired fellow travelers and Neopagans. We cannot visit all these groups here, but will be content to draw from the traditions in order to find the theme and the value of secrecy within their practices. A little over a century ago the Sociologist Georg Simmel published his The Sociology of Secrecy and of Secret Societies characterizing the effects of secrecy upon www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent

human interaction and the attributes of the secrecy of Secret Societies. His observations are as true now as they were in the beginning of the Twentieth Century and we will see them making their appearance in the following pages. In brief, Simmel described some of the characteristics of secret societies that relate to our topic thus:

• In secret societies that which is withheld from

outsiders may gain special value, creating a feeling of personal possession among their members. • People who know a secret take pride in their attainment of an exceptional social position, leading members to share the (sometimes fallacious) belief that the secret they possess is essential and significant. • The revelation of a secret to initiates provides a release of tension; secrecy sets barriers before men but simultaneously offers the “seductive temptation” of giving the secret away. • The “apartness” of the secret society provides a sense of freedom to its members, particularly when the society is formed in an oppressive time. (9) A critical observer might ask why organizations like the Freemasons or the Rosicrucians are so well known if they are so secretive. The answer is that there is a difference between the existence of a secret order and the preservation of the secrets of the initiatory practices of that order. (10)


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HISTORY Masonry is not unusual in its determined preservation of ritual in the face of centuries of repeated exposure; to all initiatory orders an emphasis upon the secrecy of the initiatory process is the mainstay of their survival. Secrecy is essential for effective rites of passage. Initiates must be transformed by passing through the ritual, so they must be unaware of what to expect. However, although Secret Societies may wish to maintain an aura of mystique about them by appearing inaccessible, ultimately they exist in order to create new members: their performance of rites of passage is their reason of being. Without initiates there can be no rites, consequently even the most elitist or notorious secret societies require some public exposure that enables access by appropriately qualified members of society. (11) Making access difficult makes the group more attractive to new members, who see it as an elite organization: if members cannot be identified by prospective candidates in search of the benefits of membership there will be no new members. Gaining the approval of existing members is essential to prospective members, who must fit the profile of the group to which they wish to belong. The existence of the group is not the secret; the big secret of all initiatory orders is the method by which its new members are initiated, not the existence of - nor membership in - the orders in their own right. Simmel’s point that the secret of the organization in itself may not be of great importance, leading those in its possession to “enhance it by phantasy” (12) is well made and this phenomenon may be observed in certain “societies with secrets” whose members may wish to enhance their status by adding to the mystery of their esoteric knowledge. Popular contemporary texts like The Hiram Key (13) and Second Messiah (14) and those similar to them illustrate this tendency.

4. Early Christians

It is ironic that the loudest voices raised against Masonry in the United States should come from a group of people whose spiritual forbears, in order to protect themselves from persecution two thousand years ago, practiced their own beliefs secretly. The early Christians organized themselves as secret societies and were banned as such by Pliny the Younger when he served as the governor of Pontus / Bithynia under the Emperor Trajan in 111 or 112 AD. In a letter to Trajan, Pliny says he interrogated www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent

and tortured Christians up to three times, hoping for their apostate return to the imperial sacrifices and ordering the execution of those who refused to recant their Christianity. Many of those turned in by informers denied being Christian: “They asserted, however, that the sum and substance of their fault or error had been that they were accustomed to meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing responsively a hymn to Christ as to a god, and to bind themselves by oath, not to some crime, but not to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, not falsify their trust, nor to refuse to return a trust when called upon to do so. When this was over, it was their custom to depart and to assemble again to partake of food--but ordinary and innocent food. Even this, they affirmed, they had ceased to do after my edict by which, in accordance with your instructions, I had forbidden secret societies.” (15) This could almost be a summary of part of the master mason’s obligation! Minucius Felix reinforces this impression of early Christianity as a secret society: “And now, as wickeder things advance more fruitfully, and abandoned manners creep on day by day, those abominable shrines of an impious assembly are maturing themselves throughout the whole world. Assuredly this confederacy ought to be rooted out and execrated. They know one another by secret marks and insignia, and they love one another almost before they know one another. (16) As the new religion became accepted and was ultimately adopted as the state religion the need for secrecy was removed, putting the boot firmly on the other foot for the diminished pagan faiths, who in their turn clothed themselves in secrecy as they braced for the onslaught of Christian-sponsored persecutions. Simmel was aware of this shifting need for secrecy as groups succeed or fail in achieving their goals: “As a general proposition, the secret society emerges everywhere as correlate of despotism and of police control. It acts as protection alike of defense and of offense against the violent pressure of central powers.” (17)


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Simmel notes that secrecy can be either the tool of progressive or reactionary groups seeking to protect themselves from the establishment, and that a successful agenda diminishes the need for this protection. If the objectives of secret societies are achieved, there is no longer any need for the secret societies. Present day masonry has suffered from a decline in membership. Perhaps there is no need for Simmel’s “apartness” in a democratic republic based on the fundamentally Masonic ideals of individual liberty, religious freedom, the pursuit of happiness and justice for all, in which case the success of Masonic idealism in the United States may ultimately lead to our downfall. Thankfully we are recently experiencing a renewal of interest in the order led by men who are particularly inspired by the esoteric nature of the craft, for which there is a need for secrecy and may offer hope for the future of our order.

5. Esoterica, Enlightenment, and Hubris Secrecy has its effect on adult human relationships, as people in possession of a secret obviously maintain a concealed knowledge that is not shared with the majority of other people with whom they may be in contact; the possessor of the secret is made different to other people. “Secrecy secures, so to speak, the possibility of a second world alongside the obvious world, and the latter is most strenuously affected by the former. Every relationship between two individuals or two groups will be characterized by the ratio of secrecy that is involved in it. Even when one of the parties does not notice the secret factor, yet the attitude of the concealer, and consequently the whole relationship, will be modified by it.” (18) This means that those who possess a secret are inevitably changed by it, and may fall into a sense of superiority to their fellow men: their status shifts because they know the secret. Indeed, secret societies are attractive to men whose employment keeps them in positions that are held in low regard in general society, suggesting that some members may find within the organization the social respect they lack in their ordinary interactions. Regardless www.lambdachi.org/cross-crescent

of their membership’s position in the social strata, secret societies are elitist since only those considered worthy of knowing its secrets are allowed to become members. In perhaps the most enlightened exegesis of the Tarot ever written, the Christian author of Meditations on the Tarot (19) succinctly interprets the meanings of each card. In his explanation of the Chariot he expands upon the dangers of what he describes as “mystical megalomania”, the tendency he noted in people who aspire to a higher, broader and deeper plane of existence to become “haughty”, “more important”, or in other words, “inflated”, or overly egotistical. (20) In this context practicing secrecy may help the student esotericist avoid hubris and egomania as he passes among his fellow men. In order to overcome the tendency to megalomania various initiatory groups have in common the tradition of gradually revealing their mysteries to the initiate by progression through a series of degrees, each concealing new moral teachings or access to concealed knowledge. By his gradual progression the candidate gains not only knowledge of the order, but his understanding that there are more degrees to come prevents his becoming overly full of himself. Additionally, as he accumulates degrees, with the attendant wisdom that goes with the study of the arcana within them, he gains the increased trust and admiration of his fellow initiates until he may ultimately become one of the elders, in a position of power and oversight. It is hoped that as a benefit of his learning that at the height of his authority the master has also gained the spiritual balance to be able to use his power with acumen. Tomberg proposed that the only real safeguard against spiritual megalomania or over-inflation was to worship God, because this act of abasement before Him reminds us that whatever we learn, however broad our understanding of the world, however high we soar in the winds of enlightenment, and however deeply we delve into the sub-currents of human experience, we remain insignificantly small before Him. This article will conclude in the November issue of the Cross & Crescent. For more information about the article that was cited in this story, visit The Philalethes Society’s website: http://www.freemasonry.org/.


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Endnotes 1. Although Eliade was critical of the initiatory practices

of many modern esoteric groups, noting that they have reduced initiation to the simple reading of a book, he exempted Freemasonry from his criticism as: “the only secret movement that exhibits a certain ideological consistency, that already has a history, and that enjoys social and political prestige…” Eliade 1958, 133 2. Liminal events are those pertaining to crossing a threshold, Latin root Limen. The candidate passes through a doorway through which there is no return. 3. See Van Gennep 1960 4. Turner 2003, 1 5. Eliade 1964, 64. 6. Eliade, 1985, 7 (Both of course appear in the Masonic rites) 7. For reasons that should be obvious I will not go into detail of the ritual of craft or Scottish Rite degrees here, leaving masons to draw their own conclusions. 8. No, really. In addition to his website activities author David Icke has published “The Reptilian Agenda” and “Children of the Matrix” in which he describes the conspiracy. 9. Simmel, 1906 10. See Simmel 1906, 480 - 481 11. The original Rosicrucian Order was so secretive that to this day nobody knows if it truly existed or not! 12. Ibid.465 13. Knight and Lomas, 1998 14. Knight and Lomas, 2000 15. Letters of Pliny the Younger, 10. 96-97. Accessed online on 29th July 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/ halsall/source/pliny1.html 16. Minucius Felix, Ch. IX. 17. Simmel, 1904, 472 18. Simmel, 1906, 462 19. Originally anonymous, but now known to have been written by the Anthroposophist Valentin Tomberg 20. Anonymous 2002, 152 - 160



Cross & Crescent October 2013

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October 2013 Cross & Crescent  

October 2013 Cross & Crescent