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November 2013 | Vol. 2 | Issue 7 | Price ` 10

Learning from India’s experience with paid news, we need a regulating body with punitive powers, and independent of the government and the media.


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]{X{]hÀ¯\cwK¯v \ap¡p aptó \Sóhsc Cu Xeapdbv¡pw hcpw Xeapdbv¡pw ]cnNbs¸Sp¯m\pÅ Hcp {iaamWv tIcf {]kv A¡mZanbpsS sh_vsskänse Stalwarts of Journalism from Kerala (http://pressacademy.org/stalwarts) Fó hn`mKw. tIcf¯nse am[yacwKs¯ hgnIm«nIfmbhtcbpw adp\mSpIfnð ] {X{]hÀ¯\cwK¯v hyànap{Z]Xn¸n¨ aebmfnItfbpw Ct¸mgs¯ apXnÀó am[ya{]hÀ¯Itcbpw Ipdn¨pÅ hnhc§fmWv Cu hn`mK¯nð. a×dªhtcm Adp]XphbÊp ]nón«htcm Bb apXnÀó am[ya{]hÀ¯IcpsS t^mt«mbpw eLpPohNcn{X¡pdn¸pw mail@pressacademy.org Fó Csabvente¡v Ab¨p Xóv Cu kwcw`hpambn hmb\¡mÀ¡pw klIcn¡mw.


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06 Regulation of Mass Media

Paranjoy Guha Thakurta

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Students’ Corner

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tPmk^v BâWn

Ashok R Chandran J. V. Vil’anilam

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H Editor N. P. Rajendran Chairman, Kerala Press Academy Editorial Board E. P. Shajuddeen Chief News Editor, Mangalam, Kozhikode N. Rajesh News Editor, Madhyamam, Kozhikode M. P. Suryadas Chief Sub Editor, Mathrubhumi, Kozhikode P. Sujathan Political Editor, Veekshanam, Kochi T. R. Madhukumar News Editor, Deshabhimani, Kozhikode C. N. Mohanan Manager, Deshabhimani, Kochi Editorial Assistant P. Salil Design & Layout Praveen Ophelia Cover Image Courtesy WAN-IFRA Printer & Publisher V. R. Ajith Kumar Secretary, Kerala Press Academy Address 'Media' Kerala Press Academy Kakkanad, Kochi - 682 030 Phone: 0484 2422275 E-Mail: media.kpa@gmail.com Website: www.pressacademy.org Subscribe ‘Media’ Single Issue: ` 10 Annual Subscription: ` 100 Advertisement tariff Back cover: Color: ` 25,000 Inside cover: Color: ` 20,000 Inside B&W: ` 15,000

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c‑p a-eb‑m-f Z‑n-\-]{‑X‑w\-S-¯‑n-¸‑p-I‑mÀ-¡‑v P‑nÃ‑m `-c-W‑m-[‑n-I‑m-c‑n-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑v k-a‑o-]-\‑m-f‑p-I-f‑n e-`‑n-¨ t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v, k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y‑m-\´-c‑w t‑I-c-f-¯‑n- at‑ä-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-¯‑n-\‑v e-`‑n-¨ X-c-¯‑n s‑]-«-X-s‑Ã-¶‑v t‑X‑m-¶‑p¶‑p. 1847 s‑e {‑]-k‑v B-â‑v c-P‑n-t‑{‑Ì-j³ H‑m-^‑v _‑p-I‑v-k‑v B-I‑v-ä‑n-s‑e {‑]-t‑X‑y-I h-I‑p-¸‑v F-S‑p-¯‑v t‑NÀ-¯‑m-W‑v t‑XP-k‑v Z‑n-\-]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑v t‑I‑m-g‑n-t‑¡‑m-S‑v F-U‑n-F‑w \-S-]-S‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑m³ I‑mc-W‑w I‑m-W‑n-¡-W-s‑a-¶‑v I‑m-«‑n t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v A-b¨X‑v. C‑u \-S]-S‑n I-ï‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑v \-S‑n-¡‑m-t‑\‑m‑, s‑h-d‑p-s‑a‑m-c‑p t‑\‑m-«‑o-k-t‑à F-¶‑v N‑p-c‑p-¡‑n-¡‑m-«‑n A-h-K-W‑n-¡‑mt‑\‑m ]-{‑X-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-¯‑ne‑p‑w A-X‑n-\‑v B-[‑m-ca‑mb `-c-W-L-S-\-b‑n-s‑e A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑n-i‑z-k‑n-¡‑p-¶ H-c‑mÄ¡‑p‑w I-g‑n-b‑p-I-b‑nÃ. A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑yh‑p‑w ]-{‑X-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-h‑p-s‑aÃ‑m‑w \‑n-b-a-¯‑n-s‑â ]-c‑n-[‑nIÄ-¡‑v A-I-¯‑p-\‑n-¶‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-a‑m{‑X‑w A-\‑p-`-h‑n-t‑¡-ï k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-§-f‑m-W‑v. \‑n-ch-[‑n \‑n-b-a-§Ä s‑I‑m-ï‑v _-Ô‑n-X-a‑m-W‑v \-½‑p-s‑S FÃ‑m k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-§-f‑p‑w. \‑n-b-a-§-f‑p-s‑S H‑mt‑c‑m e‑wL-\‑w \-S-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mg‑p‑w \‑n-b-a-\-S-¯‑n-¸‑p-I‑mÀ A-X‑ns‑\-X‑n-s‑c \-S]-S‑n F-S‑p-t‑¡-ï-X‑pï‑v. t‑]‑m-e‑o-k‑nt‑\‑m P‑nÃ‑m `-c-W‑m-[‑n-I‑m-c‑nIÄt‑¡‑m a-t‑ä-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w Ø‑m-]-\-§Ät‑¡‑m \-S-]-S‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m‑w. \‑n-b-a-e‑w-L\-§Ä \‑o-ï I‑m-e‑w I®‑p‑w ]‑q-«‑n t‑\‑m-¡‑n \‑n-¶-hÀ s‑]«¶‑v D-d-¡-a‑p-WÀ¶‑vþ X‑m-¦Ä I‑me‑w I‑p-s‑d-b‑m-b‑n k-a‑m-[‑m-\-]-ca‑m-b P-\-P‑o-h‑n-X-¯‑n-\‑v `‑o-j-W‑nb‑mW‑v‑, A-X‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑v X‑m¦-s‑f P-b‑n-e‑n-e-S-¡‑m-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑m³ I‑mc-W‑w t‑_‑m-[‑n-¸‑n¡W‑wþ F-s‑¶‑m-c‑p t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v BÀ-s‑¡-¦‑ne‑p‑w A-b-¡‑p-I-b‑m-s‑W-¦‑n A-s‑X´‑p-a‑m{‑X‑w ]-c‑n-l‑m-k‑y-a‑m-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w‑, A-´-k‑m-c-i‑q-\‑y-a‑m-b‑n-c‑n¡‑p‑w‑! t‑XP-k‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑v I‑n«‑n-b t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v C-X‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e AÀ-°-i‑q-\‑yh‑p‑w ]-c‑n-l‑m-k‑y-h‑p-a‑m-W‑v. c‑m-P‑y-¯‑n-s‑â t‑Zi‑o-b s‑F-I‑y-s‑¯b‑p‑w X‑m-X‑v-]-c‑y-s‑¯-b‑p‑w A-X‑y-´‑w K‑p-c‑p-X-ca‑m-b c‑o-X‑n-b‑n _‑m-[‑n-¡‑p-¶ X-c-¯‑n-e‑p-Å h‑mÀ-¯-If‑p‑w F-U‑n-t‑ä‑md‑n-b-e‑p-If‑p‑w t‑e-J-\-§f‑p‑w A-¨-S‑n-¨‑p-h-c‑p-¶-X‑m-b‑n {‑i-²-b‑n s‑]-«‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p F-¶‑m-W‑v t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑n ]-d-b‑p-¶-X‑v. c‑m-P‑y-X‑m-e‑v-]-c‑y-§Ä k‑w-c-£‑n-¡‑m-\‑p‑w c‑m-P‑y-t‑{‑Z‑m-l‑n-I-s‑f H-X‑p-¡‑m\‑p‑w \‑m-«‑n \‑n-b-a-§-f‑p-ï‑v, h‑y‑m-P-h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ-s‑¡X‑n-s‑c \-S-]-S‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m-³ h‑y-h-Ø-I-f‑pï‑v‑, a-X-§Ä X-½‑n-e‑p-Å k‑u-l‑r-Z‑w X-IÀ-¡‑p-¶-hÀ-s‑¡-X‑ns‑c \-S-]-S‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m³ \‑n-b-a-§-f‑p-ï‑v. hÀK‑o-b e-l-fIÄ-¡‑v t‑{‑]-c‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-s‑c ]‑n-S‑n-I‑q-S‑m\‑p‑w c‑m-P‑y-¯‑n-s‑â i-{‑X‑p¡-s‑f k-l‑mb‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-s‑c P-b‑n-e‑n-e-S-¡‑m\‑p‑w h‑y-à‑nI-s‑f t‑X-t‑P‑mh-[‑w s‑N-¿‑p-¶h-s‑c i‑n-£‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-s‑aÃ‑m‑w \‑n-b-a-§-f‑pï‑v. C¯-c‑w H-c‑p-]‑m-s‑S‑m-c‑p-]‑m-S‑v I‑m-c‑y-§-f‑n ]-c‑m-X‑n-IÄ D-bÀ-¶‑p-h-c‑n-Ib‑p‑w I‑p-s‑d-s‑b-¦‑ne‑p‑w ]-c‑m-X‑n-I-f‑n I‑p-ä-¡‑m-s‑c-¶‑v I‑m-W‑p-Ib‑p‑w A-]‑qÀ-h-a‑m-s‑b-¦‑n-e‑p‑w i‑n-£‑n-¡-s‑¸-S‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-«‑p-Å H-c‑p a‑m-[‑y-a-¯‑n-\‑v F-X‑n-s‑c-b‑m-W‑v t‑I‑m-g‑n-t‑¡‑m-S‑v P‑nÃ‑m `-c-W-I‑q-S‑w \-S-]-S‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑mX‑n-c‑n-¡‑m³ I‑mc-W‑w I‑m-W‑n-¡-W-s‑a-¶‑v B-h-i‑y-s‑¸-«‑v t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v A-b-¨‑n-c‑p¶-X‑v F-¦‑n AX‑v \‑y‑m-b‑o-I-c‑n-¡-s‑¸-S‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. A-¯-c-s‑a‑m-c‑p t‑I-k‑v t‑]‑me‑p‑w t‑XP-k‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑v F-X‑n-s‑c D-ï‑m-b‑n-«‑nÃ. A-X‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑pX-s‑¶‑, t‑X-P-k‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑v F-X‑nc‑m-b t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v ]-{‑X-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-¯‑n-s‑â e‑wL-\‑w X-s‑¶-b‑mW‑v. t‑XP-k‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â A-[‑n-]À-¡‑v I‑n«‑n-b t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v {‑]-k‑v Bâ‑v c-P‑n-k‑v-t‑{‑Sj³ H‑m-^‑v _‑p-I‑v-k‑v B-I‑v-ä‑n-s‑e 8_‑n h‑y-h-Ø {‑]-I‑m-c-a‑m-W‑v F-¶‑v t‑I‑m-g‑nt‑¡‑m-S‑v A-U‑o-j\ P‑nÃ‑m a-P‑n-k‑v-t‑{‑S-ä‑v k-]‑v-X‑w-_À 13 \‑v t‑XP-k‑v ]-{‑X‑m-[‑n-] À-¡‑v \ÂI‑n-b t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑n ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p-ï‑v. F-«‑v _‑n h‑y-h-Ø F-´‑m-W‑v? F®-a-ä s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑n \‑n-b-a‑w ]‑qÀ-W-c‑q-]-¯‑n s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. BÀ¡‑p‑w F-f‑p-¸‑w a-\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑m-h‑p-¶ H-c‑p I‑m-c‑y‑w‑, c‑m-P‑y-¯‑n-s‑â t‑Zi‑o-b s‑FI‑y-s‑¯b‑p‑w X‑m-X‑v-]-c‑y-s‑¯b‑p‑w K‑p-c‑p-X-ca‑m-b _‑m-[‑n-¡‑p-¶ h‑n-j-b-§Ä s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N-¿‑m³ D-t‑±-i‑n-¨‑v \‑nÀ-a‑n-¨-Xà B h-I‑p-¸‑v F-¶‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v. {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-


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Ic-W‑w c-P‑n-ÌÀ s‑N-b‑v-X {‑]‑nâÀ Bâ‑v ]-»‑n-jÀ k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-a‑m-b‑n {‑]‑nâÀ Bâ‑v ]-»‑n-jÀ AÃ‑m-X‑m-h‑p-It‑b‑m c-P‑n-t‑{‑Ìj-\‑v \ÂI‑n-b h‑n-h-c-§Ä h‑y‑m-Pt‑a‑m s‑X-t‑ä‑m B-s‑W-¶‑v a-\-Ê‑n-e‑mh‑p-It‑b‑m c-P‑n-t‑{‑Ì-j³ \ÂI‑n-b A-t‑X t‑]-c‑n t‑h-s‑d {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-Ic-W‑w D-s‑ï-¶‑v A-d‑n-b‑pI-t‑b‑m t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-a‑mb I‑m-c-W-§-f‑p-s‑S t‑]-c‑n t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑v \Â-I‑m³ P‑nÃ‑m a-P‑n-k‑v-t‑{‑S-ä‑n-s‑\ A-[‑n-I‑m-c-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶-X‑m-W‑v \‑n-b-a-h‑y-hØ. t‑\‑m-«‑o-k‑n-\‑p-Å a-d‑p]-S‑n I‑n«‑n-b DSs‑\ ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â c-P‑n-k‑v-t‑{‑S-j³ d-±‑m-¡‑n-¡-f-b‑p-s‑a-¶ `-b-s‑a‑m¶‑p‑w BÀ-¡‑p-a‑nÃ. A-S‑n-b-´-c‑m-h-Ø-¡‑me-¯‑v t‑]‑me‑p‑w A-{‑X-s‑b‑m¶‑p‑w s‑N-¿‑m³ A-[‑nIa‑mc‑p‑w a‑p-X‑nÀ-¶‑n-«‑nÃ. k‑m-t‑¦X‑n-I {‑]-i‑v-\-§Ä s‑I‑m-ï‑p-t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â c-P‑n-k‑v-t‑{‑Sj³ d-±‑m-¡‑p-It‑b‑m at‑ä‑m s‑N-b‑v-X‑m {‑]-k‑v I‑u¬-k‑n \‑n-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑p-¶ A-¸e-ä‑v I‑u¬k‑n a‑p-¼‑m-s‑I A-¸‑o \Â-I‑m³ A-h-k-c‑w I‑n-«‑p‑w. A-¸e-ä‑v I‑u¬-k‑n-e‑m-W‑v A-hk‑m\ X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\-s‑a-S‑p-t‑¡-ï-X‑v. C-ã-a‑nÃ‑m-¯ ]-{‑X-§Ä-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c `‑oj-W‑n D-bÀ-¯‑m³ `-c-W-I‑q-S-¯‑n-s‑â `‑m-Ka‑m-b ]-e i-à‑n-If‑p‑w X‑p-\‑n-b‑p-¶‑p F-¶-X‑m-W‑v {‑]-i‑v\‑w. C-t‑¸‑m-g‑pï‑m-b C‑u h‑n-h‑m-Z-¯‑n-\‑v ]‑n-¶‑n a-ä‑p D-t‑±-i‑y-§-f‑p-Å‑, Z‑p-c‑p-t‑±-i-§-f‑p-Å B-s‑cÃ‑mt‑a‑m D-ï‑v F-¶‑v t‑_‑m-[‑y-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶-X‑m-W‑v t‑XPk‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑v ]-ck‑y‑w \‑n-t‑j-[‑n-¡‑p-¶ \-S-]-S‑n-b‑p‑w. ]-ck‑y‑w ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â A-h-I‑m-iaÃ‑, i-c‑nXs‑¶. ]-t‑£‑, A-X‑v kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-\‑v C-ã‑w s‑]‑m-s‑e BÀ¡‑p‑w \Â-I‑mt‑\‑m \Â-I‑m-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑mt‑\‑m A-h-I‑m-i-a‑p-Å k‑z-I‑m-c‑y-a‑p-X-e‑paÃ. A-X‑v s‑]‑m-X‑p-¸-W-a‑mW‑v. ]-e ]-{‑X-§f‑p‑w þ s‑N-d‑pI‑n-S ]-{‑X-§Ä {‑]-t‑X‑y-I‑n¨‑p‑w þ \‑n-e \‑nÂ-¡‑p-¶-X‑pX-s‑¶ ]-c-k‑y-§-f‑n-e‑q-s‑S-b‑mW‑v. t‑I‑m-S‑m-\‑pt‑I‑m-S‑n c‑q-] kÀ-¡‑mÀ ]-c-k‑y-¯‑n-\‑m-b‑n s‑N-e-h-g‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. G-X‑v {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-¯‑n-\‑v ]-ck‑y‑w \Â-I‑m‑w‑, BÀ-¡‑v \Â-I‑nà F-s‑¶Ã‑m‑w X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑n-\‑v I‑r-X‑y-a‑m-b h‑y-h-Ø-I-f‑p-ï‑v. A-[‑n-I‑r-X-c‑p-s‑S h‑n-t‑hN-\‑w C-¡‑m-c‑y-¯‑ne‑p‑w I‑p-s‑d-s‑bÃ‑m‑w A-\‑p-h-Z\‑o-b-a‑m-h‑m‑w. ]t‑£‑, C-ã-a‑p-Å-hÀ-¡‑v s‑I‑m-S‑p-¡‑p‑w‑, CÃ‑m-¯-hÀ-¡‑v H-«‑p-a‑nà F¶-X‑v H-c‑p P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-h‑y-h-Ø-b‑n A-\‑p-h-Z-\‑o-b-aÃ. h‑mÀ-¯-b‑p-s‑S D-Å-S-¡h‑p‑w ]-ck‑y‑w \Â-I‑p¶-X‑v k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨ X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\h‑p‑w X-½‑n H-c‑p _-Ôh‑p‑w ]‑m-S‑nà F-¶-X‑v P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-t‑e‑m-I‑w h‑n-«‑p-h‑o-g‑v-N-b‑nÃ‑m-s‑X ]‑m-e‑n-¡‑p-¶ X-¯‑z-a‑mW‑v. kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-\‑v A-\‑p-I‑q-e-a‑m-b‑n F-g‑p-X‑n-b‑m-t‑e ]-ck‑y‑w \Â-I‑q F-¶ \‑n-e-]‑m-S‑v H-c‑p kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-\‑pa‑p-ï‑m-I‑m³ ]-ä‑nÃ‑, k‑wØ‑m\ kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-\‑v A-¯-c-s‑a‑m-c‑p \‑n-e-]‑m-t‑S CÃ. t‑X-P-Ê‑n-\‑v ]-ck‑y‑w \‑n-t‑j-[‑n-¡‑m³ X‑p-S-§‑n-b‑n-«‑v a‑q-¶‑p-hÀ-j-¯‑n-t‑e-s‑d-b‑m-b‑n. ]-ck‑y‑w ]‑p-\‑xØ‑m-]‑n-¡‑m³ X‑o-c‑p-a‑m\-a‑m-b-X‑p-a‑m-W‑v. ]t‑£‑, ]-ck‑y‑w \Â-I‑n-b‑nÃ. ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â D-ÅS-¡‑w c‑m-P‑y-h‑n-c‑p-²-a‑m-s‑W-¦‑n A-¯-cs‑a‑m-c‑p ]{‑X‑w \‑n-e-\‑n-¶‑p-I‑qS‑m. c‑m-P‑y-h‑n-c‑p-²-a‑mt‑W‑m F¶-X‑v P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-]-ca‑m-b a‑mÀ-K-§-f‑n-e‑q-s‑S t‑h-W‑w X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¡-s‑¸S‑m³. {‑]-k‑v I‑u¬-k‑ne‑p‑w P‑p-U‑o-j‑y-d‑nb‑p‑w t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-§Ä C‑u c‑m-P‑y-¯‑pï‑v. G-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w U‑n-]‑mÀ-«‑v-s‑aâ‑n-s‑â t‑a-[‑m-h‑n-It‑f‑m C-S-¯-«‑n-s‑e D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Øt‑c‑m Aà C-¡‑m-c‑y‑w X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑n-t‑¡-ï-X‑v. A§-s‑\ X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¡-s‑¸-S‑p‑wh-s‑c a-ä‑m-t‑cb‑p‑w t‑]‑m-s‑e t‑XP-k‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n\‑p‑w {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W- k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-a‑p-ï‑m-hW‑w‑, A-h-s‑c \‑n-b-a-a‑p-]-t‑b‑m-K‑nt‑¨‑m k‑m-¼-¯‑n-I-a‑mt‑b‑m s‑R-c‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑mÃ‑m³ A-\‑p-h-Z‑n-¨‑p-I‑qS‑m. A§-s‑\ s‑N-¿‑p¶-X‑v `-c-W-L-S-\‑m-h‑n-c‑p-²-a‑mW‑v‑, P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-h‑n-c‑p-²-a‑mW‑v. tIcf {]kv A¡mZan `cW kanXn sNbÀam³: F³. ]n. cmtP{µ³ (sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan) sshkv sNbÀam³: sI. kn. cmPtKm]mð (aebmfat\mca) FIvknIyq«ohv t_mÀUv: Fw. Fkv. chn (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, tIcfIuapZn), F³. cmtPjv (\yqkvFUnäÀ, am[yaw, tImgnt¡mSv), UbdÎÀ, ]»nIv dntej³kv, sk{I«dn (^n\m³kv Un¸mÀ«vsaâv), sk{I«dn (P\dð AUvan\nt{Ìj³) P\dð Iu¬knð: Sn. BÀ. a[pIpamÀ (kvt]mÀSvkv FUnäÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), C. ]n. jmPp±o³ (No^v \yqkv FUnäÀ, awKfw, tImgnt¡mSv), Fw.]n. kqcyZmkv (No^v k_v FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), Fkv. _nPp (No^v tImÀUnt\än§v FUnäÀ, Gjyms\äv \yqkv, Xncph\´]pcw), kn. F³. taml\³ (amt\PÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), _nPp hÀ¤okv (amt\Pn§v FUnäÀ, awKfw), ]n. ]n. k®n (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, Zo]nI), sI. Fw. tdmbv (ko\nbÀ tPWenÌv), It¡mS³ apl½Zv, hn. F. kenw (sdknUâv amt\PÀ, am[yaw, FdWmIpfw), sP. Fkv. CµpIpamÀ (FIvknIyq«ohv FUnäÀ, Pbvlnµv Snhn), hn. cmPtKm]mð (ap³ sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), ]n. kpPmX³ (s]mfnän¡ð FUnäÀ, ho£Ww), t__n amXyp (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ & sshkv sNbÀam³, Poh³ Snhn), sNdpIc k®n eqt¡mkv (kvs]jð Idkvt]mïâv, tIcfiÐw) sk{I«dn: hn. BÀ. APnXv IpamÀ AknÌâ v sk{I«dn: F³. ]n. kt´mjv

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Paranjoy Guha Thakurta

Regulation of Mass Media November 16, the anniversary of the founding of the Press Council of India, is celebrated as National Press Day. Has the PCI been able to fulfil its founding objective of maintaining an independent and responsible press? In practice, the Press Council has been a failure, observes the writer, a former member of the PCI. With paid news spreading in contemporary media, he also points out the need for a strong regulatory body that is independent of the media and the government.

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T

he Press Council of India (PCI) is a quasi-judicial authority set up by an Act of Parliament but it has no statutory powers to punish. Far from putting a person behind bars, the Council cannot fine anyone. Even if it suggests to the government that it stop placing its own advertisements in a particular publication as a form of imposing a penalty, the concerned government body—the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) in the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (I&B)—is not obliged to heed the advice of the PCI. The writ of the Council does not extend beyond the print medium to television, radio, or the internet. The majority of its 30 members represent the media industry. The PCI also has no real teeth to enforce its findings or to penalise any individual or organisation for violating its journalistic code of ethics which is, at best, a set of recommendations of good practice. The Council has no mandate by which to enforce the observation of its own code of ethics, as there is no legally binding quality to it which could justify a court’s intervention. There is, consequently, little motivation for the PCI—or, for that matter, the country’s courts—to promote good journalistic practices and curb corruption in the media. This has been the experience of this writer who served as a member of the Council nominated by the University Grants Commission between January 2008 and January 2011. In April 2010, as a member of a two-member subcommittee of the PCI, I coauthored a 36,000-word report entitled Paid News: How Corruption in the Indian Media Undermines Democracy. This subcommittee was set up in July 2009, to examine the “paid news” phenomenon. After considering written and oral representations made by over a hundred people over a period of more than six months, a 71-page report running into roughly 36,000 words was presented to the Council. The report of the subcommittee mentioned scores of instances of paid news, named names, and detailed the phenomenon, before making several diverse proposals that could curb, to some extent, malpractices in the media. The intent of the report was to present circumstantial evidence and “name and shame” those apparently engaged in the practice of paid news. Among those named were some of the country’s most widely circulated daily newspapers in different languages, such as the Dainik Jagran and the Dainik Bhaskar, the first and second most widely circulated Hindi dailies, Lokmat, the most widely circulated Marathi daily, Punjab Kesari, the most widely circulated Punjabi daily, Eenadu, one of the most widely circulated Telugu dailies, besides the Times of India, the largest circulated English daily in the world and in India. All the allegations in the subcommittee’s report were attributed and opportunities were provided to those against whom allegations were levelled to exercise their right to

(7) reply. Some (including the publishers of the Times of India) chose not to exercise this right. The events that followed the submission of the PCI subcommittee’s report in April 2010 are as follows. The Council’s then Chairman Justice G.N. Ray appointed a “drafting committee” which prepared a short report (running into roughly 3,600 words or a tenth of the length of the subcommittee’s report) that, by and large, contained the concluding observations and recommendations in the report of the subcommittee. On 31 July that year, the Council decided by a show of hands of the members present and voting that the full report of the subcommittee would not be appended with the report that would be presented to the I&B ministry.

The voting process itself left much to be desired. No formal record of it was made, and no votes for or against were recorded. Twenty-four of the thirty members in the PCI (including its Chairman and Secretary) attended the 31 July meeting, making it one of the most well-attended meetings of the Council. Twelve members opposed the subcommittee’s report being attached to the final report and three abstained. Only nine members of the PCI, less than a third, voted in favour of the proposition. The result was that the 36,000-word indictment of the corrupt practices of a section of the Indian media contained in the subcommittee’s report was sought to be reduced to a footnote, as a document for “reference.” P. Sainath, rural affairs editor of The Hindu, later described the report that was submitted to the government as one that “pretends to fight (the challenge of paid news) in a flood of platitudes.” He argued that the Council’s failure to adopt the full report of its own subcommittee did “grave damage to the image and credibility of the PCI itself” and “immeasurable damage to the fight against major corruption within the Indian media.” He went even further to add that the attempt at burying the report \hw_À 2013


(8) in a footnote was reprehensible: To praise the authors of the original (as happened in its July 30 meeting) for their effort and then gut the result of that pioneering work, was hypocrisy of a high order. To then present the mangled remains as a guide to fighting paid news eclipses even that benchmark of insincerity. The public surely deserve better. (“The Empire Strikes Back—and How!,” The Hindu, 5 August 2010) Despite the best efforts of certain vested interests in the PCI, the report of the subcommittee entered the public domain because at least 30 copies of the document were in cyberspace since copies of the report had been e-mailed to all members of the Council. In fact, the report probably gained more attention than it otherwise would have if it had been made public by the PCI in the first place. Nevertheless, the report was not an “official” document and did not remain one for around 14 months, that is, till the Central Information Commission, acting on a complaint by Manu Moudgil under the Right to Information Act, ordered the Council to make the report available on its website by 10 October 2011, which it did. (Coincidentally, five days earlier, Justice Markandey Katju was appointed as the Chairman of the PCI to succeed Justice Ray.) If one is charitable towards the PCI, it could be called a toothless tiger. If one is less charitable, the Council can be described as a toothless tiger that cannot even whimper, leave alone growl—to use an analogy coined by Biraj Patnaik (who is engaged in issues relating to food security). Many, including veteran journalist Kuldip Nayar, have suggested that the PCI be headed by a senior journalist instead of a retired judge of the Supreme Court. But the extant convention continues. As far as the mass media in India (and the

\hw_À 2013

If one is charitable towards the PCI, it could be called a toothless tiger. If one is less charitable, the Council can be described as a toothless tiger that cannot even whimper, leave alone growl. Far from putting a person behind bars, the Council cannot fine anyone. The writ of the Council does not extend beyond the print medium to television, radio, or the internet.


(9)

world) are concerned, in an ideal situation, selfregulation is the best form of regulation. But the question arises as to what needs to be done to contain and curb—if not, stop altogether—the corrupt practices of the blackest of the black sheep within the media fraternity. On 6 May 2013, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Information Technology headed by Rao Inderjit Singh released a report dedicated to paid news. The 136-page report largely repeats what has been already stated by various observers of the paid news phenomenon. Nevertheless, the document is valuable and

progressive as it is a consensus document in which elected representatives, across party lines, have explicitly acknowledged the problem and urged the I&B ministry to earnestly begin working towards a solution. The Parliamentary Committee’s report on paid news recognised the concerns relating to government regulation of the media. It can be argued that regulatory intervention (or interference) by the state in the working of the media is a necessary, but not sufficient condition. This is what the Delhi High Court stated on 19 April 2013 in its judgment in the Indraprastha People v. Union of India case: ...the absence of state intervention on its own is no guarantee of a rich media environment. On the contrary: to promote a media environment characterised by pluralism and diversity, state intervention is necessary….Freedom of expression is not an absolute right and it can be restricted to protect the rights of others….Under self-regulation the media voluntarily commits to uphold a code of ethics that it itself drafts…but ethics itself is a complex and controversial subject due to society not being homogeneous….Thus, ... as we find pertaining to cinema and print media, there is no reason why the legislature does not put in place a statutory, regulatory body.... The issues related to the kind of regulatory authority that is required for the media in India have been discussed and debated for quite some time without any resolution. Various views have been expressed with no apparent consensus in sight. One issue is whether there is a need to set up separate regulatory bodies for the print and electronic media, or to have one authority. Then there are the questions of who would head such an authority and how such a person as well as other important functionaries should be appointed. One view is that

\hw_À 2013


(10) what is needed is a constitutional authority akin to the Election Commission, the Supreme Court, and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. The challenge is to create a regulating body that is truly independent of both the government and the media (even if it is funded by one or both). Regulation of the mass media is of seminal importance today because of the mass media’s enduring impact not just on our lifestyles but also on our attitudes, ideas, ideologies, views, and values. It is the media which shapes our definitions and understanding of the world around us and those who control the media, in effect, control us. Big media organisations are owned by big media houses. Should they be allowed a free hand to run it as they

\hw_À 2013

deem fit (as per the dictates of supply and demand)? Or should they be subject to certain regulations keeping in view the larger public interest? The question of regulation of the media is a sensitive matter because the mass media, going by the liberal axiom, ought to be free to perform the desired role. The question is: free of whom and what? The obvious answer is the freedom from the interference by the state, that is, the political authority. This is so because the mass media, if it is true to its calling, ought to have an antagonistic relationship with the powers-that-be. This would naturally invite retribution from the state. So freedom from the state’s control is a cardinal principle for mass media’s success in a democracy.


(11)

Justice G.N. Ray

Justice Markandey Katju

Media deserves the freedom. But it needs to act responsibly to earn the freedom. Has the media acted responsibly? A cursory look at the media in major democracies of the world tells us a different story—that many media organisations have become pliant, and have compromised on core values for a variety of reasons. This calls for media regulation, including restrictions on cross-media ownership which exist in many countries, including developed countries, across the world. If the state is ruled out of a role in it, who will then regulate it to ensure that the media institutions live up to the high ideological expectations and those who do not are exposed and penalised? The media industry’s answer is self-regulation. But when self-regulation is carried out by respective media industries, the result is, excluding rare exceptions, less than satisfactory. The challenge is to create a regulating body that is truly independent of both the government and the media, especially that section of the media which is controlled by large corporate entities. A brief outline of such a body is as follows. There is a need to create a constitutional authority and a statutory body called Media Council (hereinafter, the Council) which will have the jurisdiction over all media: print, radio, television, cinema, and the internet. The Chairman of the proposed Council should be selected by a collegium comprising the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, and the Chief Justice of India. A retired judge of the Supreme Court, an eminent jurist, or a senior journalist should be selected as the Chairman of the Council. The Chairman can be removed only by the collegium by a majority vote. The Council will have eight members. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, and the Chairman of the Media Council will select the members of the Council, who should represent different sections of society, including the media and civil society. The Council could act as an appellate authority and could, under specific circumstances, intervene suo motu on the actions taken by other self-regulatory organisations as well as statutory, quasi-judicial, or judicial regulatory bodies such as the PCI, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, the Central Board of Film Certification, and the Computer Emergency Response Team. Appeals against the decisions of the Council can be made only to the Supreme Court of India. The Council should be adequately empowered with punitive powers (unlike the PCI). The Council should be constituted even if the PCI is empowered and strengthened. Paranjoy Guha Thakurta is an independent journalist and educator in New Delhi, and a former member of the Press Council of India. His books include Media Ethics [2nd edition, 2011], published by the Oxford University Press. E-mail: paranjoy@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


(12)

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(13) s‑ka‑n\‑mÀ;- X‑rÈ‑qc‑ns‑e k‑ml‑nX‑y A¡‑mUa‑n l‑mf‑nÂ. AX‑ns‑â ka‑m]\s‑kj\‑n "`‑mj‑mk‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑y b‑p‑w a‑m²‑ya§f‑p‑w' F¶ h‑njb‑w k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑m³ £W‑n¡s‑¸«X‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p R‑m³. Ahc‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y]c‑n]‑mS‑n Iït‑¸‑mÄ {‑]`‑mjI\‑mbÃ‑, ]T‑nX‑mh‑mb‑mW‑p ]s‑¦S‑pt‑¡ ïs‑X¶‑p t‑X‑m¶‑n. A§s‑\ cï‑p Z‑nhkh‑p‑w DS\‑of‑w t‑{‑i‑mX‑mh‑mb‑n Ahc‑ps‑S NÀ¨Is‑fÃ‑m‑w t‑I«‑pIg‑nªt‑¸‑mÄ A£c‑mÀ°¯‑n F\‑n¡‑v BßÚ‑m\‑w Dï‑mb‑n; F\‑n¡‑v H¶‑p‑w Ad‑nb‑nà F¶ X‑nc‑n¨d‑nh‑v‑! Fs‑â D‑ug‑w h¶t‑¸‑mÄ R‑m³ AX‑p X‑pd¶‑p ]db‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. F\‑n¡‑pt‑hï‑n a‑m{‑X‑w Bb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. a‑m²‑ya{‑]hÀ¯I t‑K‑m{‑X¯‑n\‑v Bs‑I t‑hï‑n Bb‑nc‑p¶‑p B I‑p¼k‑mc‑w. `‑mj‑mI¼‑y‑q«‑n§‑ns‑â I‑mc‑y¯‑ne‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑ph‑ne‑pÅ `‑mj‑mk‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yb‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y¯‑ne‑p‑w a‑m²‑ya{‑]hÀ¯ Ic‑p‑w ]{‑Xa‑m²‑ya\S¯‑n¸‑pI‑mc‑p‑w (al‑m`‑qc‑n]£h‑p‑w‑) he‑nbbfh‑v AÚc‑ms‑W¶ kX‑y‑w FÃ‑mhs‑cb‑p‑w H‑mÀ½‑n¸‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑p‑w At‑¸‑mÄ F\‑n¡‑p t‑X‑m¶‑n; H¸‑w ]‑pX‑pXea‑pdb‑ps‑S Ah‑ni‑zk\‑oba‑mb C‑u `‑mj‑mk‑vt‑\l s‑¯b‑p‑w {‑]X‑n^t‑eÑ I‑qS‑ms‑X AhÀ \S¯‑p¶ A{‑i‑m´ a‑mb k¶²t‑kh\s‑¯b‑p‑w ]ä‑nb‑p‑w t‑e‑mIka£‑w cï‑p \Ãh‑ms‑¡¦‑ne‑p‑w ]dbWs‑a¶‑p‑w. Ahs‑c R‑m³ \a‑n¡‑p¶‑p.

t‑ae‑v]dª s‑{‑]‑m^jW Bhi‑y§Ä¡‑p t‑hïX‑v. AX‑n\‑v C‑w¥‑nj‑v ]{‑X§Ä s‑N¿‑p¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e FÃ‑m h‑mÀ¯b‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑mb‑n e`‑ya‑m¡‑pIb‑mW‑p t‑hïX‑v. AX‑n\‑pÅ h‑ni‑mea\k‑p a‑m{‑Xaà H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ s‑Xcbe‑n  XSb‑p¶ Xc‑w k‑mÀÆe‑uI‑nIe‑n]‑nIf‑n (Unicode fonts) Ah k¶‑nt‑hi‑n¸‑n¡‑pII‑qS‑n t‑hW‑w. t‑eJ\‑w Fg‑pX‑m³ X¿‑ms‑dS‑p¡‑pt‑¼‑mg‑mW‑v Gäh‑p‑w _‑p²‑na‑p«‑v. AX‑nh‑n]‑pea‑mb d^d³k‑v AX‑n\‑p t‑hï‑nhc‑p at‑Ã‑m. aeb‑mf¯‑n C¯c‑w h‑nhc§Ä ]eX‑p‑w s‑s‑S¸‑p s‑N¿s‑¸«‑p I¼‑y‑q«À`‑mjb‑n Fh‑ns‑Ss‑b‑ms‑¡t‑b‑m Ds‑ï ¦‑ne‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ s‑Xcbe‑n Is‑ï¯‑m\‑mI‑p¶ c‑q] ¯‑neà Ah Gs‑db‑p‑w. a‑pIf‑n¸dª I‑ps‑d s‑Nd‑p¸¡‑m c‑ps‑S A²‑z‑m\^ea‑mb‑n aeb‑mf‑w h‑n¡‑n¸‑oU‑nbb‑n k¶‑nt‑hi‑n¸‑n¡s‑¸«‑n«‑pÅ t‑a‑miaÃ‑m¯ I‑ps‑d h‑nhc§ f‑mW‑v Bs‑I d^d³k‑n\‑mb‑n Ah‑ns‑S DÅX‑v. ]{‑X§Ä ]eX‑p‑w C¶‑v Cþ]{‑X§Ä e`‑ya‑m¡‑p¶‑ps‑ï ¦‑ne‑p‑w Ahb‑ps‑St‑]‑me‑p‑w BÀs‑s‑¡h‑pIÄ I‑n«‑p¶‑nÃ. GX‑m\‑p‑w Z‑nhk¯‑n\‑v A¸‑pda‑pÅ ]{‑X§Ä \‑o¡‑ws‑N¿‑p Ib‑mW‑p ]X‑nh‑v. C{‑]I‑mc‑w s‑Nt‑¿ïX‑pt‑ï‑m F¶‑v Bt‑e‑mN‑n¡W‑w; h‑nt‑ij‑n¨‑p‑w Kt‑hjWh‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑nIÄ

a‑m²‑yc‑wKs‑¯ D]b‑pà‑nIÄ I¼‑y‑q«‑nM‑v F¶X‑p ]s‑ï‑ms‑¡ [c‑n¨‑nc‑p¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e I¼‑y‑q«À D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑pÅ IW¡‑ps‑N¿Â a‑m{‑Xaà C¶‑v. P‑oh‑nX¯‑ns‑â kak‑vXt‑aJeb‑ne‑p‑w I¼‑y‑q«d‑ns‑â {‑]t‑b‑mK‑w Hg‑n¨‑pI‑qS‑m\‑mh‑m¯ \‑neb‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. `‑mj D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑p s‑N¿‑p¶ FÃ‑m h‑y‑m]‑mc§f‑ne‑p‑w C¶‑p I¼‑y‑q«À \‑ndk‑m¶‑n²‑ya‑mW‑v. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v `‑mj‑m¡¼‑y‑q «‑nM‑v he‑ns‑b‑mc‑p t‑aJeb‑mW‑v. AX‑ns‑â GX‑mï‑p k‑n‑wl `‑mKh‑p‑w ]eh‑n[a‑mb {‑]k‑n²‑oIcWc‑wK§f‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«‑mW‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. a‑m²‑yac‑wKs‑¯ `‑mj‑mI¼‑y‑q«‑nM‑v D]b‑pà‑nIÄ a‑m{‑X‑w k‑w£‑n]‑vXa‑mb‑n ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¡‑m‑w.

BÀs‑s‑¡h‑nM‑v ]e h‑mÀ¯If‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑pt‑¼‑mÄ ]Ý‑m¯eh‑nhc§Ä t‑iJc‑nt‑¡ï‑n hc‑p‑w. aeb‑mfa‑m²‑ya§f‑n BI‑pt‑¼‑mÄ Gs‑db‑p‑w k‑wØ‑m\h‑mÀ¯IÄ BI‑p‑w. Ahb‑ps‑S h‑nhc §Ä I‑qS‑pX Dï‑mI‑pI aeb‑mf]{‑X§f‑ne‑p‑w B\‑pI‑me‑n I§f‑ne‑p‑w BW‑v. Ah a‑pg‑ph³ h‑mc‑nb‑n«‑p X‑ncb‑pIb‑mW‑v AX‑n\‑pÅ hg‑n. \à ¢‑n¸‑nM‑v s‑s‑e{‑_d‑nb‑pÅ Ø‑m]\§ f‑n I‑mc‑y‑w Ae‑v]‑wI‑qS‑n Ff‑p¸a‑mI‑p‑w F¶‑p a‑m{‑X‑w. aW‑n¡‑qd‑pIÄ ]‑mg‑mI‑p¶ H¶‑mW‑nX‑v. F¶‑mÂ‑, t‑Zi‑ob‑, k‑mÀÆt‑Zi‑ob h‑mÀ¯If‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y ¯‑n C¶‑p \‑m‑w s‑N¿‑pI CâÀs‑\ä‑n s‑Xcb‑pIb‑mW‑v. t‑hïh‑nhc‑w a‑pg‑ph³ h‑nc¯‑p¼‑n F¯‑p‑w. aeb‑mf h‑mÀ¯If‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y¯‑n ]s‑£‑, C¯c‑w Hc‑p s‑Xc¨‑ne‑n  I‑mc‑ya‑ms‑b‑m¶‑p‑w XSb‑nÃ. aeb‑mfe‑n]‑nb‑n s‑s‑S]‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑p s‑Xcª‑m hà H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ a‑m²‑ya¯‑ne‑p‑w h¶ hà I‑pd‑n¸‑p‑w I‑n«‑nb‑me‑mb‑n. C‑u Ø‑nX‑n a‑mdt‑ï? Hc‑p h‑mÀ¯‑mh‑njb¯‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb k‑w`h h‑nI‑mk§Ä Ad‑nbWs‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ s‑Xcb he‑nb k‑uIc‑ya‑mW‑v. ]s‑£‑, aeb‑mf¯‑n CX‑p‑w C¶‑p \‑nj‑v^ea‑mW‑v. k‑z´‑w ]{‑X¯‑n h¶ h‑mÀ¯If‑ps‑S Hc‑p U‑nP‑nä BÀs‑s‑¡h‑v at‑\‑mca k‑q£‑n¡‑p¶‑pï‑v. CX‑p s‑]‑mX‑pP\ §Ä¡‑p e`‑yaÃ. B ]{‑X¯‑ns‑â Bhi‑y§Ä¡‑v CX‑p k‑uIc‑y{‑]Za‑mb H¶‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w aä‑p ]{‑X§f‑n h¶ h‑mÀ¯IÄI‑qS‑n I‑n«‑p¶ ka‑m\a‑mb Hc‑p k‑wh‑n[‑m\a‑mW‑p

áp en\Ivkv aebmfw tlmwt]Pv

s‑¡‑ms‑¡ ]gb ]{‑X§Ä Bhi‑ya‑ms‑W¶‑nc‑ns‑¡. ]{‑X §f‑ps‑S H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ FU‑nj\‑pIf‑ns‑e ]gb DÅS¡ §f‑p‑w N‑ne ]{‑X§Ä C¯c¯‑n ]‑n³he‑n¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â b‑pà‑nb‑p‑w a\k‑ne‑mI‑p¶‑nÃ. aeb‑mf]{‑X§f‑ne‑p‑w B\‑pI‑me‑nI§f‑ne‑p‑w 1981\‑p t‑ij‑w h¶ 75‑,000¸c‑w aeb‑mf‑w cN\If‑ps‑S h‑nhc§Ä AS§‑p¶ Hc‑p ‑"t‑Icf C³UI‑vk‑v' t‑IcfkÀÆIe‑mi‑me X¿‑md‑m¡‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. C‑u U‑nk‑w_d‑n CX‑v H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑n  e`‑ya‑mI‑p‑w. CX\‑pkc‑n¨‑v Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w t‑eJ\‑w Hc‑mÄ CâÀs‑\ä‑n s‑Xcª‑m I‑n«‑nà F¶X‑mW‑v BÀs‑s‑¡h‑p IÄ s‑]‑mX‑pka‑ql¯‑n\‑p {‑]‑m]‑vXa‑m¡‑mX‑nc‑p¶‑me‑pÅ I‑pg¸‑w.

Hk‑nBÀ‑, s‑SI‑vÌ‑v k‑vI‑m³‑, iÐk‑mt‑¦X‑nIX ]‑nU‑nF^‑v c‑q]¯‑nt‑e‑m Ct‑aP‑v c‑q]¯‑nt‑e‑m e`‑ya‑mI‑p ¶ h‑nhc§f‑p‑w \½Ä Xs‑¶ k‑vI‑m³ s‑Nb‑vX‑v FS‑p¡‑p¶ X‑mf‑pIf‑ns‑e h‑nhc§f‑p‑w h‑oï‑p‑w s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿‑ms‑X ]IÀ¯‑ns‑bS‑p¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p¶‑nà F¶X‑mW‑p aeb‑mf a‑m²‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ A\‑p`h‑n¡‑p¶ as‑ä‑mc‑p t‑]‑mc‑mb‑va. s‑SI‑vÌ‑v k‑vI‑m³ t‑]‑ms‑e ISe‑mk‑ns‑e A£c§Ä k‑vI‑m³ \hw_À 2013


(14) s‑Nb‑vX‑p U‑nP‑nä c‑q]¯‑ne‑m¡‑n FU‑nä‑v s‑N¿‑m\‑p‑w t‑I‑m¸‑ns‑Nb‑vX‑p t‑]Ì‑ps‑N¿‑m\‑p‑w Hs‑¡ Ig‑nbW‑w. CX‑n\‑p aeb‑mf¯‑n H‑m]‑vä‑n¡Â I‑y‑mcI‑väÀ s‑d¡K‑v\‑nj³ (OCR‑) h‑nIk‑n¸‑nt‑¡ïX‑pï‑v. CX‑n\‑pÅ he‑nb ]c‑n{‑ia §Ä kÀ¡‑mt‑cP³k‑nIf‑ps‑S B`‑na‑pJ‑y¯‑ne‑p‑w k‑zX{‑´ aeb‑mf‑wI¼‑y‑q«‑n§‑ns‑â a‑p³I¿‑ne‑p‑w \S¶‑phc‑nIb‑mW‑v. AÔÀ¡‑p‑w aä‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑m³ t‑hï‑n s‑SI‑vÌ‑ns‑\ iÐa‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑m\‑p‑w k‑wk‑mc‑w t‑I«‑p s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿‑p¶X‑n\‑p ]Ic‑w iÐ‑w t‑\c‑n«‑p s‑SI‑vÌ‑v B¡‑n a‑mä‑m\‑p‑w Hs‑¡b‑pÅ k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yIf‑p‑w CX‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«X‑mW‑v. Cs‑X‑ms‑¡ b‑mY‑mÀ°‑y‑w Bb‑n¯‑ocWs‑a¦‑n [‑mc‑mf‑w IS¼If‑pï‑v. `‑mj‑m]ca‑mW‑v Chb‑n Gs‑db‑p‑w. ‑"ä‑' F¶ X‑v ‑"dd' F¶‑p‑w "ä' F¶‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑p¶X‑n\‑m Hk‑nBd‑n\‑v CX‑p I‑mW‑pt‑¼‑mÄ Bib¡‑pg¸‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w. a‑oddd‑ne‑mW‑v F¶X‑v a‑oäd‑ne‑mW‑v F¶‑mt‑W‑m a‑odä‑ne‑mW‑v F¶‑ms‑W‑m "Fsâ I¼yq«dn\v Fsâ `mj' þ Hcp kzX{´ aebmfw s{]mPÎv

\hw_À 2013

F¶d‑nb‑m³ I¼‑y‑q«d‑n\‑p I‑y‑mcI‑väÀ s‑d¡K‑v\‑nj\‑pÅ t‑ij‑n a‑m{‑X‑w t‑]‑mc‑m‑, ic‑mic‑naeb‑mf‑n¡‑pÅ t‑_‑m[\‑ne h‑mch‑p‑w `‑mj‑mb‑pà‑nIf‑p‑w I‑qS‑n t‑hï‑nhc‑p‑w‑! C¯c‑w Fs‑{‑Xs‑b{‑X kµÀ`§Ä Dï‑mI‑m‑w. B H‑mt‑c‑m k‑mlNc‑y ¯‑n\‑p‑w A\‑pkc‑n¨‑pÅ b‑pà‑nIÄ CX‑n I‑q«‑nt‑¨À¡‑pI F¶X‑v Ak‑m²‑ya‑mWt‑Ã‑m. aeb‑mf`‑mjb‑n \‑m‑w Dï‑m¡‑nh¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ Ah‑yhØIÄ I‑mcW‑w C¯c‑w {‑]i‑v\§Ä \‑nch[‑nb‑mW‑v. hfs‑c ]gb t‑cJIf‑p‑w {‑KÙ§f‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ U‑nP‑ns‑s‑äk‑v s‑N¿‑p¶ {‑]hÀ¯\‑w ]e t‑I‑mW‑ne‑p‑w \S¶‑phc‑p¶ t‑hf b‑n \‑m‑w t‑hs‑db‑p‑w `‑mj‑m{‑]i‑v\§Ä X‑nc‑n¨d‑nb‑pIb‑mW‑v; I‑qS‑pX {‑]X‑nkÔ‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑p \‑o§‑pIb‑mW‑v. X‑nc‑ph\´ ]‑pc‑w k‑vt‑ää‑v s‑k³{‑S s‑s‑e{‑_d‑nb‑n 1904 a‑pXe‑pÅ X‑nc‑ph‑nX‑m‑wI‑qÀ‑, X‑nc‑p-:s‑I‑m¨‑n‑, t‑Icf Kkä‑pIÄ U‑nP‑ns‑s‑ä k‑v s‑N¿‑p¶X‑n\‑ns‑S Is‑ï¯‑nb Hc‑p s‑Nd‑nb {‑]i‑v\¯‑n


(15) e‑qs‑S Hc‑p {‑]X‑nkÔ‑n N‑qï‑n¡‑m«‑m‑w. Ahb‑ns‑e FI‑vs‑s‑k k‑v hI‑p¸‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« h‑nhc§f‑n "IÅ‑pj‑m¸v' F¶ ]Z‑w ]X‑n\©‑p Xc¯‑ns‑e¦‑ne‑p‑w A¨S‑n¨‑n«‑pït‑{‑X‑! IÅ‑v j‑m¸‑v‑, IÅ‑vj‑m¸‑v‑, IÅ‑pj‑m¸‑v‑, IÅ‑pj‑m]‑v‑, IÅ‑vj‑m]‑v‑, IÅ‑v j‑m]‑v‑, IÅ‑p j‑m]‑v‑, IÅ‑p j‑m¸‑v‑, IÅ‑v t‑j‑m¸‑v‑, IÅ‑p t‑j‑m]‑v‑, ... C§s‑\ t‑]‑mI‑p¶‑p AX‑v. Ch‑ns‑S h‑m¡‑pIÄ¡‑nSb‑ns‑e i‑q\‑yØe‑w \½s‑f k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑nSt‑¯‑mf‑w s‑hd‑p‑w i‑q\‑yXb‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w I¼‑y‑q«d‑n\‑v AX‑n\‑pÅ ‑"h‑nhc‑w‑' CÃ. AX‑n\‑p k‑vt‑]k‑p‑w A£c‑w t‑]‑ms‑eXs‑¶ Hc‑p I‑y‑mcÎÀa‑qe‑ya‑mW‑v. C‑u U‑nP‑näÂt‑iJc¯‑nÂ\‑n¶‑v IÅ‑pj‑m¸‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« h‑nhc§Ä s‑XcbWs‑a¦‑n t‑ae‑v]dª ]X‑n\©‑p Xc¯‑ne‑p‑w s‑XcbW‑w‑! F¦‑nt‑e a‑pg‑ph³ ]c‑maÀi§f‑p‑w I‑n«‑q. F{‑Xb‑mb‑nc‑w ]Z§f‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y¯‑n C¯c‑w {‑]i‑v\‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w Fs‑¶‑m¶‑p N‑n´‑n¨‑pt‑\‑m¡‑q‑!

C‑w¥‑nj‑n ’Toddy shop’ F¶ Hä¸Zt‑ab‑pÅ‑q. Hc‑mÄ¡‑p‑w CX‑v Cã‑wt‑]‑ms‑e Fg‑pX‑m\‑mh‑nÃ. Hc‑p {‑]k‑m [I\‑p‑w k‑z´‑w s‑s‑ie‑o]‑pk‑vXI‑w h¨‑v CX‑p a‑mä‑m\‑p‑w Bh‑nÃ. aeb‑mf‑w a‑m{‑X‑w BÀ¡‑p‑w t‑X‑m¶‑nbt‑]‑ms‑e‑ms‑¡ s‑N¿‑mh‑p¶ `‑mjb‑mW‑v F¶‑p hc‑p¶X‑p \½‑ps‑S Bß‑m`‑n a‑m\a‑nÃ‑mb‑vas‑I‑mï‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v. AX‑p ]‑pt‑c‑mKa\s‑a‑m¶‑p‑w As‑ö‑v Gäh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑y‑mh‑nI‑mk‑w Xs‑¶ t‑_‑m²‑ys‑¸S‑p¯‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. C‑u Ah‑yhØIÄ \‑m‑w Fg‑p¯‑ne‑p‑w A¨S‑nb‑ne‑p‑w X‑pSÀ¶‑ps‑I‑mt‑ïb‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. F¶‑ph¨‑mÂ‑, hc‑p‑wI‑me s‑¯ ]{‑X§f‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p‑w Fs‑´¦‑ne‑p‑w Cet‑{‑Î‑mW‑nI‑v Bb‑n s‑Xcª‑p Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡Ws‑a¦‑n Ct‑X {‑]i‑v\‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w F¶‑v. Hc‑p]s‑£‑, Ah‑yhØIÄ C¶‑p iXK‑pW‑o`h‑n¨‑nc‑n ¡‑p¶‑p. Hc‑p DZ‑mlcW‑w t‑\‑m¡‑pI: ]s‑ïÃ‑m‑w "Xe‑v¡‑me‑w' Fs‑¶g‑pX‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑v C¶‑v CX‑n\‑p]‑pds‑a ‑"XX‑vI‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"XX‑v¡‑me‑w‑'‑, "XÂI‑me‑w'‑, "X¡‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"Xe‑vI‑me‑w'‑, ‑"Xe‑v¡‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"e'b‑v¡‑pI‑ot‑g "I‑'b‑p‑w ‑"¡'b‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑p¶ cï‑pc‑q]§Ä F¶‑n§s‑\s‑bÃ‑m‑w Fg‑pX‑p¶‑p. ‑"DZ‑vL‑mS\' a‑mW‑p as‑ä‑mc‑ph‑m¡‑v. "DÕh‑w‑' ‑"DX‑vkh‑'h‑p‑w ‑"DÂkh‑'h‑p‑w "De‑vkh‑'h‑p‑w hs‑c Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. "Â‑' F¶X‑v "X‑'b‑ps‑S N‑nt‑Ã‑m "e‑'b‑ps‑S N‑nt‑Ã‑m F¶‑p XÀ¡‑n¡p¶‑nS¯‑mW‑v C¶‑p \½‑ps‑S \‑ne‑v-]‑v!

a‑m\I‑oIcW‑w A\‑nh‑mc‑y‑w

Ch‑ns‑Sb‑mW‑v `‑mjb‑ps‑S a‑m\I‑oIcW‑w (standardization) {‑]kàa‑mI‑p¶X‑v. s‑s‑S]‑v s‑s‑däd‑p‑w e‑nt‑\‑m s‑s‑S¸‑v A¨S‑nb‑p‑w h¶t‑¸‑mÄ AX‑n\‑pt‑hï‑n e‑n]‑nIÄ s‑h«‑na‑pd‑n ¡‑m³ \‑m‑w \‑nÀºÔ‑nXc‑mbX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e `‑mjs‑b a‑m\I‑oI c‑n¡‑m³ \‑m‑w C¶‑p \‑nÀºÔ‑nXc‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. A\‑nh‑mc‑y a‑mb‑n¯s‑¶ B kak‑y \a‑p¡‑p a‑p¶‑n \‑n¡‑p¶‑p. AX‑ns‑\ A`‑na‑pJ‑oIc‑n¡‑m³ s‑s‑hI‑pt‑´‑md‑p‑w CX‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« {‑]X‑nkÔ‑n I‑qS‑pX c‑q£a‑mb‑nhc‑nIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p‑w. a‑m\I‑oIcWt‑¯‑mS‑p N‑nes‑c¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑nt‑b‑mP‑n¡‑p¶X‑m b‑n Iï‑n«‑pï‑v. AX‑v Ak‑m²‑ya‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w AX‑p `‑mjb‑p s‑S t‑Zi‑yt‑`Z§Ä CÃ‑mX‑m¡‑ps‑a¶‑p‑w Hs‑¡b‑mW‑v C¡‑q «À N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑Zi‑yt‑`Z§Ä k‑w`‑mjW `‑mjb‑n a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v DÅs‑X¶‑p‑w Fg‑p¯‑n kÀ¤‑mßI k‑ml‑nX‑y¯‑ns‑e k‑w`‑mjW§f‑n a‑m{‑Xt‑a AX‑p IS¶‑p hc‑p¶‑pÅ‑qs‑h¶‑p‑w _‑m¡‑nb‑pÅ AX‑nh‑n]‑pea‑mb e‑nJ‑nX c‑q]§f‑ne‑mW‑p a‑m\I‑oIcW‑w Bhi‑ya‑pÅs‑X¶‑p‑w C‑w¥‑nj‑v AS¡a‑pÅ `‑mjIf‑ns‑eÃ‑m‑w a‑m\I`‑mj Ds‑ï ¶‑p‑w AX‑p t‑Zi‑yt‑`Z§s‑f _‑m[‑n¨‑n«‑ns‑ö‑p‑w Bt‑e‑mN‑n¨‑m  C‑u `b‑w AØ‑m\¯‑ms‑W¶‑p a\k‑ne‑mI‑p‑w. `‑mj‑ma‑m\I‑oIcW‑w k‑m²‑ya‑m¡‑m³ C¶s‑¯ AhØ b‑n s‑N¿‑mh‑p¶ N‑ne I‑mc‑y§Ä Dï‑v. H¶‑maX‑mb‑n‑, ]{‑X §Ä AS¡a‑pÅ {‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§f‑p‑w ]‑pk‑vXI{‑]k‑m[I c‑p‑w k‑z´‑w {‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§f‑n CX‑p ]‑me‑n¡‑m³ X‑oc‑p a‑m\‑n¨‑m aX‑n. ]‑mT]‑pk‑vXI§f‑n CX‑p IÀi\a‑mb‑n ]‑me‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w h‑nZ‑y‑meb§f‑ns‑e `‑mj‑m]T\¯‑n CX‑p {‑]t‑X‑yI‑w D‑u¶‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑m P\I‑obs‑bg‑p¯‑pIf‑n e‑p‑w CX‑p X\‑ns‑b ]‑me‑n¡s‑¸S‑p‑w. {‑]k‑m[\‑wXs‑¶ P\I‑obhX‑v¡c‑n¡s‑¸« h‑nhch‑n¹h I‑me¯‑v s‑s‑k_Àt‑e‑mI¯‑v Fg‑pX‑p¶hÀ \‑nch[‑nb‑mW‑v. ChÀ ]Z§t‑f‑m h‑mI‑y§t‑f‑m s‑Xä‑mb‑n s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑m C‑w¥‑nj‑v s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿‑pt‑¼‑mÄ hc‑p¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e N‑ph¶ AS‑nhcs‑I‑mï‑p ]‑niI‑p N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶ k‑vs‑] s‑N¡‑p‑w {‑K‑maÀ s‑N¡‑p‑w GÀs‑¸S‑p¯‑n AX‑p‑w ]c‑nlc‑n¡‑m‑w. Ch‑ns‑S as‑ä‑mc‑p {‑]i‑v\‑w hc‑p¶X‑v a‑m\I‑oIcW‑w Bc‑p \hw_À 2013


(16) Ah‑yhØIÄ C¶‑p iXK‑pW‑o`h‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Hc‑p DZ‑mlcW‑w t‑\‑m¡‑pI: ]s‑ïÃ‑m‑w "Xe‑v¡‑me‑w' Fs‑¶g‑pX‑nb‑nc‑p¶X‑v C¶‑v CX‑n\‑p ]‑pds‑a ‑"XX‑vI‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"XX‑v¡‑me‑w‑'‑, "XÂI‑me‑w'‑, "X¡‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"Xe‑vI‑me‑w'‑, ‑"Xe‑v¡‑me‑w‑'‑, ‑"e'b‑v¡‑pI‑ot‑g "I‑'b‑p‑w ‑"¡'b‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑p¶ cï‑pc‑q]§Ä F¶‑n§s‑\s‑bÃ‑m‑w Fg‑pX‑p¶‑p. ‑"DZ‑vL‑mS\'a‑mW‑p as‑ä‑mc‑ph‑m¡‑v. "DÕh‑w‑' ‑"DX‑vkh‑'h‑p‑w ‑"DÂkh‑'h‑p‑w "De‑vkh‑'h‑p‑w hs‑c Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. "Â‑' F¶X‑v "X‑'b‑ps‑S N‑nt‑Ã‑m "e‑'b‑ps‑S N‑nt‑Ã‑m F¶‑p XÀ¡‑n¡p¶‑nS¯‑mW‑v C¶‑p \½‑ps‑S \‑ne‑v-]‑v! C‑u Ah‑yhØIÄ \‑m‑w Fg‑p¯‑ne‑p‑w A¨S‑nb‑ne‑p‑w X‑pSÀ¶‑ps‑I‑mt‑ïb‑nc‑n ¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. F¶‑ph¨‑mÂ‑, hc‑p‑wI‑mes‑¯ ]{‑X§f‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p‑w Fs‑´¦‑ne‑p‑w Cet‑{‑Î‑mW‑nI‑v Bb‑n s‑Xcª‑p Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡Ws‑a¦‑n Ct‑X {‑]i‑v\‑w Dï‑mI‑p‑w F¶‑v.

\S¯‑p‑w F¶X‑mW‑v. `‑mjb‑pa‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« I‑mc‑y§Ä Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w kÀ¡‑mÀØ‑m]\‑w k‑z´‑w \‑neb‑v¡‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m \‑nt‑¡ït‑X‑m D¯ch‑nd¡‑n \S¸‑m¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p¶t‑X‑m AÃ. AX‑p t‑h‑m«‑n\‑nt‑«‑m `‑qc‑n]£‑mS‑nØ‑m\¯‑nt‑e‑m X‑oÀ¸‑mt‑¡ïXÃ. Bt‑e‑mN‑n¨‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑nt‑¡ïX‑pXs‑¶ AÃ. X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑w t‑hï‑nhc‑p¶X‑p XÀ¡a‑pÅ I‑mc‑y§f‑n BWt‑Ã‑m. Cs‑X‑mc‑p XÀ¡h‑njbt‑a AÃt‑Ã‑m. `‑mj ka‑ql¯‑ns‑â D]b‑pà‑n F¶ \‑neb‑n AXX‑p I‑mes‑¯ k‑ma‑ql‑nILS\b‑v¡‑p‑w _ԧġ‑p‑w k‑wk‑v¡‑mc¯‑n\‑p‑w Bhi‑y§Ä¡‑p‑w D]t‑b‑mK¯‑n\‑p‑w Hs‑¡ A\‑pkc‑n¨‑p X\‑ns‑b c‑q]s‑¸S‑pIb‑p‑w h‑nIk‑n¡‑pI b‑p‑w ]c‑nWa‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w Hs‑¡ s‑N¿‑p¶ H¶‑mW‑v. AX‑ns‑e H‑mt‑c‑m ]Zh‑p‑w Hc‑p a‑qe[‑mX‑ph‑nÂ\‑n¶‑v H‑mt‑c‑m {‑]t‑X‑yI Bib‑w k‑wt‑hZ‑n¸‑n¡¯¡h‑n[‑w c‑q]s‑aS‑p¯X‑mW‑v. Ah t‑b‑ms‑S‑m¸‑w h‑n`à‑n{‑]X‑yb§Ä AS¡a‑pÅ LSI§Ä Cg‑pI‑nt‑¨À¶‑p‑w h‑nt‑ijW§f‑p‑w aä‑p‑w a‑p¶‑n t‑NÀ¶‑p‑w BJ‑yb‑p‑w BJ‑y‑mXh‑p‑w (IÀ¯‑mh‑p‑w IÀ½h‑p‑w {‑I‑nbb‑p‑w‑) Hs‑¡ ]‑qÀÆ‑m]c_Ôt‑¯‑ms‑S {‑Ia¯‑n \‑nc¶‑p‑w h‑mI‑y §Ä Dï‑mI‑p¶‑p. Chb‑n Fs‑´¦‑ne‑p‑w At‑§‑mt‑«‑m Ct‑§‑mt‑«‑m a‑md‑nb‑m³ ic‑nb‑mb Bib‑w h‑n\‑nab‑w s‑N¿ \hw_À 2013

s‑¸S‑nÃ. C‑u LSI§Ä¡‑p‑w {‑Ia§Ä¡‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w `‑mj‑mi‑m k‑v{‑X]ca‑mb‑n DÅ h‑yhØIÄ a‑n¡h‑md‑p‑w \‑m‑w Is‑ï ¯‑nb‑n«‑pÅX‑mW‑v. C¶s‑¯ `‑mj‑m{‑]t‑b‑mK¯‑n s‑]‑mX‑p s‑h Dï‑mI‑p¶ s‑s‑hIe‑y§Ä Chb\‑pkc‑n¨‑p ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n ¨‑v Ah Hg‑nh‑m¡‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ Hc‑p k‑wh‑n[‑m\a‑mW‑p \a‑p¡‑v Bhi‑y‑w. AXÃ‑ms‑X‑, k‑uIc‑y‑w‑, Øee‑m`‑w‑, {‑]t‑b‑mKk‑m[‑pX‑z‑w X‑pS§‑nbh ]c‑nKW‑n¡s‑¸S‑mt‑\ ]‑mS‑n Ã. ‑"hÀK‑w' F¶‑p aX‑nt‑b‑m "hÀ¤‑w' F¶‑p t‑ht‑W‑m‑, ‑"A[‑y‑m]I³‑' F¶‑p aX‑nt‑b‑m "A²‑y‑m]I³‑' F¶‑p t‑ht‑W‑m‑, ‑"h‑nZK‑v²‑'s‑\ "h‑nZK‑vZ't‑\‑m h‑nZK‑v[‑'t‑\‑m B¡‑m t‑a‑m Fs‑¶Ã‑ma‑pÅ XÀ¡§Ä AÀ°cl‑nXa‑mW‑v. AXX‑p ]Z§Ä F§‑ns‑\ c‑q]s‑¸t‑«‑m A§‑ns‑\ Fg‑pXW‑w. F§‑ns‑\ ]db‑pt‑¶‑m A§‑ns‑\ Fg‑pXW‑w. CX‑mb‑nc‑n¡W‑w a‑m\I‑oIcW¯‑ns‑â AS‑nØ‑m\‑w. CX‑p t‑Icf`‑mj‑m C³Ì‑nä‑y‑qt‑«‑m t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑m Za‑nt‑b‑m ]‑nBÀU‑nt‑b‑m aeb‑mf‑w kÀÆIe‑mi‑met‑b‑m aeb‑mf‑w s‑eI‑vk‑n¡¬ h‑n`‑mKt‑a‑m k‑m‑wk‑v¡‑mc‑nIhI‑pt‑¸‑m Häb‑v¡‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑nt‑¡ïXÃ. FÃ‑mhc‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑p `‑mj‑m i‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑nZK‑v²s‑c h‑nf‑n¨‑pt‑NÀ¯‑v Ahc‑ps‑S ]T\¯‑ns‑â AS‑nØ‑m\¯‑n \‑nÀ®b‑nt‑¡ïX‑mW‑v.

t‑kÀ¨‑nM‑v‑, t‑k‑mÀ«‑nM‑v‑, k‑vs‑]Âs‑NI‑v ]Z§Ä a‑m\I‑oIc‑n¨‑m a‑m{‑Xt‑a h‑nh‑n[]«‑nIIÄ AI‑mc‑mZ‑n{‑Ia¯‑n t‑k‑mÀ«‑v s‑N¿‑m\‑p‑w ]Z§Ä DÄs‑¡‑m Å‑p¶ ]c‑maÀi§Ä s‑Xcª‑pIï‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w Hs‑¡ Ig‑nb‑q. CX‑pI‑qS‑ms‑X‑, C‑w¥‑nj‑v s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿‑pt‑¼‑mgs‑¯ t‑¸‑ms‑e A£c¸‑niI‑pIÄ Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w X‑nc‑p¯‑m \‑p‑w k‑wh‑n[‑m\‑w t‑hW‑w. h‑mÀ¯t‑b‑m t‑eJ\t‑a‑m Fg‑pX‑p t‑¼‑mÄ Gäh‑p‑w t‑b‑mP‑n¨ Hc‑p h‑m¡‑p N‑net‑¸‑mÄ H‑mÀ½ h¶‑ns‑ö‑p hc‑m‑w. C‑w¥‑nj‑ne‑ms‑W¦‑n ka‑m\‑mÀ°a‑pÅ Hc‑p h‑m¡‑p s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑v AX‑ns‑â ]c‑y‑mb‑w (synonym) s‑Xcª‑m aX‑nbt‑Ã‑m. aeb‑mf¯‑ne‑p‑w AX‑p k‑m²‑ya‑mI t‑ï? C‑w¥‑nj‑v ]{‑X§f‑n t‑P‑me‑ns‑N¿‑p¶hÀ¡‑v CX‑p hfs‑c t‑bs‑d Bhi‑ya‑mW‑v. AhÀ¡‑p I‑n«‑p¶ Ak‑wk‑vI‑rX‑ hk‑vX‑p¡f‑n A[‑nIh‑p‑w aeb‑mf¯‑n Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. Ahs‑bÃ‑m‑w XÀÖa s‑N¿‑m³ Hc‑p d‑nt‑hg‑vk‑v U‑nI‑vj‑vWd‑n ]et‑¸‑mg‑p‑w t‑hï‑nhc‑p‑w. ]c‑y‑mb§f‑p‑w \‑m\‑mÀ°§f‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w DÄt‑¨À¯ Hc‑p ka{‑K]Zt‑I‑mi‑w BW‑v CX‑n\‑p t‑hïX‑v. AX‑p U‑nP‑nä c‑q]¯‑n k¶‑nt‑hi‑n¸‑n¨‑m Cs‑X‑ms‑¡ k‑m²‑ya‑mI‑p‑w.


(17) F¶‑m C‑w¥‑nj‑nt‑eX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e k‑pKaaà aeb‑mf ¯‑n CX‑v. C‑w¥‑nj‑n Häs‑b‑mä¸Z§Ä \‑nc¯‑nh¨‑mW‑p h‑mI‑y§Ä Dï‑m¡‑p¶X‑v. aeb‑mf¯‑n ]Z§f‑p‑w {‑]X‑yb §f‑p‑w ]ck‑v]c‑w Cg‑pI‑nt‑¨À¶‑p kak‑vX]Z§f‑mb‑mW‑p \‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. C‑u kak‑vX]Z§ÄXs‑¶ A\´a‑mb‑n hfc‑m‑w. ]Z‑w‑, kak‑vX]Z‑w‑, kak‑vX]Zc‑q]hX‑v¡cW‑w‑, kak‑vX]Zc‑q]hX‑v¡cW¯‑ns‑â‑,... C§s‑\ AX‑p hfÀ¶‑phfÀ¶‑p t‑]‑mI‑p‑w. At‑¸‑mÄ ‑"]Z‑w‑' F¶‑p s‑Xcª‑m  Chb‑n BZ‑ys‑¯ cs‑ï®‑w a‑m{‑Xt‑a I‑n«‑q. aä‑pÅhb‑n  ‑"]Z‑' Ft‑¶ DÅ‑q. C¯c‑w kak‑vX]Zc‑q]§s‑fÃ‑m‑w ]Zt‑iJc¯‑n DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑n¨‑mt‑e C‑u H‑mt‑c‑m kak‑vX ]Z¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w k‑vs‑]Âs‑N¡‑p‑w s‑Xcbe‑p‑w Hs‑¡ k‑m²‑ya‑m I‑q. C¯c‑w ]Zk‑wt‑b‑mK§Ä¡‑pÅ k‑m²‑yX A\´a‑m Wt‑Ã‑m. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑pXs‑¶ CX‑p a\‑pj‑yk‑m²‑yaÃ. h‑m¡‑pIÄ a‑pd‑ns‑¨g‑pX‑m‑w F¶‑p h¨‑mt‑e‑m? Z‑oÀL kak‑vX]Z‑w cï‑ph‑oX‑w t‑NÀ¶‑phc¯¡h‑n[‑w a‑pd‑n¡‑ms‑a s‑¶‑ms‑¡ N‑neÀ ]db‑p¶‑ps‑ï¦‑ne‑p‑w AX‑v AÀ°h‑yX‑y‑m k‑w hc‑p¯‑p‑w. "s‑I‑m¼\‑m\¸‑pdt‑¯d‑n \St‑¡W‑w‑' F¶X‑v ‑"s‑I‑m¼\‑m\ ]‑pdt‑¯d‑n \St‑¡W‑w‑' F¶‑mb‑mes‑¯ Ø‑nX‑n F{‑X `‑oIc‑w Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. ‑"]¯‑m‑w¢‑mk‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p ]T‑n¨‑p‑' F¶Ãt‑Ã‑m "]¯‑m‑w¢‑mk‑n \‑n¶‑p ]T‑n¨‑p‑' Fs‑¶ g‑pX‑nb‑mÂ. k‑oä‑nÃ‑mª‑nt‑«‑m A²‑y‑m]IÀ A\‑phZ‑n¡‑m ª‑nt‑«‑m a‑qe¡‑pc‑p I‑mcWt‑a‑m Cc‑n¡‑m³ Ig‑nb‑mªX‑n\‑m  \‑n¶‑mW‑p ]T‑n¨X‑v F¶Ã h‑nh£ F¶‑v F§s‑\ Ad‑nb‑p‑w? ‑"Fe‑nh‑nj‑w X‑n¶‑m t‑I‑mg‑n N‑mI‑p‑'s‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w ‑"Fe‑n h‑nj‑w X‑n¶‑m t‑I‑mg‑n N‑mI‑nÃ‑'t‑Ã‑m; Fe‑nbt‑à N‑mI‑q? At‑¸‑mĸ‑ns‑¶ F´‑mW‑p hg‑n? aeb‑mf¯‑n h‑m¡‑p IÄ kÔ‑nt‑Nc‑pIb‑p‑w ka‑mk‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑ns‑â XX‑z§Ä a‑pg‑ph³ ka‑mlc‑n¨‑v AX‑ns‑\Ã‑m‑w A\‑pkc‑n¨‑p Å I¼‑y‑q«Àk‑q{‑Xh‑mI‑y§Ä (algorithms‑) Dï‑m¡‑n \‑nLï‑ph‑n k¶‑nt‑hi‑n¸‑n¨‑m CX‑p k‑m²‑ya‑mt‑b¡‑p‑w F¶‑p N‑ne h‑nZK‑v²À A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸S‑p¶‑p. C‑u {‑]X‑nh‑n[‑n Häh‑mI‑y¯‑n ]dª‑pX‑oÀs‑¯¦‑ne‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vs‑XS‑p¡‑pI A{‑X Ff‑p¸aÃ. h‑n]‑pea‑mb ]T\h‑p‑w \‑nch[‑nt‑]c‑ps‑S A{‑i‑m´]c‑n{‑iah‑p‑w [‑mc‑mf‑w ]Ws‑¨eh‑p‑w Hs‑¡b‑pÅ I‑mc‑y§f‑mW‑v Cs‑XÃ‑m‑w. CX‑ns‑\Ã‑m‑w Bc‑p ]W‑w \ÂI‑p‑w? C¡‑mea{‑Xb‑p‑w C‑u hg‑n¡‑pÅ ic‑nb‑mb ]c‑n{‑ia§Ä \S¯‑ns‑¡‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p ¶X‑v X‑pS¡¯‑n ]c‑nNbs‑¸S‑p¯‑nb Hc‑p s‑Nd‑nb I‑q«‑w s‑Nd‑p¸¡‑mc‑mW‑v. AhÀ¡‑v C{‑X he‑nb t‑X‑mX‑nt‑e¡‑v C‑u {‑]hÀ¯\§Ä s‑I‑mï‑pt‑]‑mI‑m\‑pÅ ]‑m§‑nÃ; h‑n`h§ f‑nÃ. F¶‑mÂ‑, Ig‑nh‑p‑w a\k‑pa‑pï‑v. ChÀ¡‑p aX‑nb‑mb [\]‑n´‑pW \ÂI‑m³ \a‑p¡‑p Ig‑nbW‑w. t‑{‑ij‑vT`‑mj‑m ]Zh‑ns‑¡‑m¸‑w I‑n«‑p¶ ]W¯‑n Hc‑p]¦‑v CX‑n\‑p \‑o¡‑n hb‑v¡‑m\‑mIW‑w. AÃ‑ms‑Xb‑p‑w kÀ¡‑mÀ C‑u {‑]hÀ¯\ §Ä¡‑p ]W‑w \‑o¡‑nhb‑vt‑¡ï‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. F¶Ã‑, AX‑n\‑pÅ kab‑w s‑s‑hI‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. h‑nh‑n[ k‑m‑wk‑v¡‑m c‑nIØ‑m]\§Ä CX‑n\‑p ]‑n´‑pW \ÂIW‑w. CX‑ns‑eÃ‑ma‑p]c‑n‑, \½‑ps‑S ]{‑Xa‑m²‑ya§Ä C‑u c‑wK ¯‑p a‑pXe‑nd¡‑nt‑b aX‑nb‑mI‑q. ]{‑X§f‑ps‑S Häs‑¸« CSs‑] Se‑pIfÃ‑, I‑q«‑mb‑, Hc‑p I¬t‑k‑mÀj‑yt‑a‑m at‑ä‑m c‑q]hX‑v¡ c‑n¨‑v B \‑neb‑ne‑pÅ‑, ]¦‑mf‑n¯a‑mW‑v A`‑nI‑ma‑y‑w. AX‑n s‑â K‑pW‑w a‑m²‑yaØ‑m]\§Ä¡‑v Dï‑mI‑p‑w F¶X‑n k‑wib-a‑nÃ.

s‑s‑ie‑o]‑pk‑vXI‑w a‑pXÂa‑pS¡‑n\‑p ]‑pdt‑a ]{‑X§f‑p‑w {‑]k‑m[Ic‑p‑w s‑Nt‑¿ ï aä‑pN‑neX‑pI‑qS‑nb‑pï‑v. s‑s‑ie‑o]‑pk‑vXIh‑pa‑mb‑n _Ô s‑¸«X‑mW‑v CX‑ns‑e‑m¶‑v. ]Z§Ä‑, Bf‑pIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w Øe

§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑]c‑pIÄ X‑pS§‑nbh s‑s‑ie‑o]‑pk‑vXI¯‑n \‑n¶‑v Hg‑nh‑m¡W‑w. AX‑v FÃ‑m ]{‑X§f‑p‑w {‑]k‑m[Ic‑p‑w Hc‑pt‑]‑ms‑e Fg‑pXW‑w. F¦‑nt‑e s‑Xc¨‑ne‑p‑w A£c{‑Ia ¯‑n AS‑p¡e‑p‑w AS¡a‑pÅ ]‑pX‑nbI‑me‑mhi‑y§Ä k‑m²‑ya‑mI‑q. ‑"h‑nZ‑y‑pÑà‑n‑' F¶‑v Fg‑pXï‑m‑, ‑"s‑s‑hZ‑y‑pX‑n' F¶‑p aX‑n F¶‑p ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¡‑m‑w‑, ]s‑£‑, ‑"A²‑y‑m]I³‑' t‑hï‑m‑, ‑"A[‑y‑m]I³‑' aX‑n F¶‑p‑w ‑"s‑s‑lt‑¡‑mSX‑n‑' t‑hï‑m‑, "s‑s‑lt‑I‑mSX‑n' aX‑n Fs‑¶‑m¶‑p‑w X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¡‑m³ C\‑nb‑pÅ I‑me‑w ]{‑X§Ä¡‑v AhI‑mi‑w CÃ‑mX‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. As‑XÃ‑m‑w t‑\ct‑¯ ]dªt‑]‑ms‑e `‑mj‑m]Þ‑nXka‑ql‑w X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¡W‑w. _Ôs‑¸« kÀ¡‑mÀk‑wh‑n[‑m\‑w AX‑ns‑â N‑paXe FS‑p¡W‑w. At‑Xkab‑w‑, h‑mÀ¯b‑nt‑e¡‑p ]‑pX‑pX‑mb‑n IS¶‑p hc‑p¶ Af‑pIf‑ps‑S t‑]c‑pIf‑p‑w i‑mk‑v{‑Xk‑mt‑¦X‑nI]Z§Ä AS¡a‑pÅ ]Z§f‑p‑w aeb‑mf¯‑n F§s‑\ Fg‑pXW s‑a¶‑v A¸t‑¸‑mÄ X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¨‑p ]{‑Xa‑m²‑ya§s‑f Ad‑nb‑n ¡‑m\‑pÅ N‑paXe {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nt‑b‑m at‑äs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w Ø‑m]\t‑a‑m Gs‑äS‑p¡W‑w. As‑æ‑nÂ‑, {‑][‑m\]{‑X§f‑p s‑S {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑nIf‑ps‑S Hc‑p ka‑nX‑n H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑mt‑b‑m t‑^‑mW‑nt‑e‑m I‑qS‑nb‑mt‑e‑mN‑n¨‑p \‑nÝb‑n¡s‑«. AX‑p aä‑p

‑"hÀK‑w' F¶‑p aX‑nt‑b‑m "hÀ¤‑w' F¶‑p t‑ht‑W‑m‑, ‑"A[‑y‑m]I³‑' F¶‑p aX‑nt‑b‑m "A²‑y‑m]I³‑' F¶‑p t‑ht‑W‑m‑, ‑"h‑nZK‑v²‑'s‑\ "h‑nZK‑vZ't‑\‑m h‑nZK‑v[‑'t‑\‑m B¡‑mt‑a‑m Fs‑¶Ã‑ma‑pÅ XÀ¡ §Ä AÀ°cl‑nXa‑mW‑v. AXX‑p ]Z§Ä F§‑ns‑\ c‑q]s‑¸t‑«‑m A§‑ns‑\ Fg‑pXW‑w. F§‑ns‑\ ]db‑pt‑¶‑m A§‑ns‑\ Fg‑pXW‑w. CX‑mb‑nc‑n¡W‑w a‑m\I‑oIcW¯‑ns‑â AS‑nØ‑m\‑w. CX‑p t‑Icf`‑mj‑m C³Ì‑nä‑y‑qt‑«‑m t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nt‑b‑m ]‑nBÀU‑nt‑b‑m aeb‑mf‑w kÀÆIe‑mi‑met‑b‑m aeb‑mf‑w s‑eI‑vk‑n¡¬ h‑n`‑mKt‑a‑m k‑m‑wk‑v¡‑mc‑nIhI‑pt‑¸‑m Häb‑v¡‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑nt‑¡ïXÃ. FÃ‑mhc‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑p `‑mj‑mi‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑nZK‑v²s‑c h‑nf‑n¨‑pt‑NÀ¯‑v Ahc‑ps‑S ]T\¯‑ns‑â AS‑nØ‑m\¯‑n \‑nÀ®b‑nt‑¡ïX‑mW‑v. \hw_À 2013


(18) ]{‑X§s‑f DS³ Ad‑nb‑n¡m³ Hc‑p H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ t‑hZ‑n Dï‑m¡‑nb‑me‑p‑w aX‑n. AXX‑p`‑mjb‑ns‑e D¨‑mcWt‑¯‑mS‑p ]ca‑mh[‑n AS‑p¯‑p\‑n¡‑p¶X‑mIW‑w AX‑v. AX‑p Is‑ï¯‑m³ CâÀs‑\ä‑v b‑pK¯‑n _‑p²‑na‑p«‑nÃ. F¦‑ne‑p‑w GIc‑q]¯‑ne‑mI‑m³ t‑ae‑v]dª Hc‑p ‑"GIP‑meI‑w‑' A\‑nh‑mc‑ya‑mW‑v. h‑m¡‑pIÄ a‑pd‑n¡‑p¶X‑p k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑p‑w s‑s‑ie‑o]‑pk‑vX I‑w \‑ne]‑ms‑SS‑p¡c‑pX‑v. AX‑p‑w `‑mjb‑ps‑S hg‑n¡‑p h‑nSW‑w. h‑m¡‑pIÄ a‑pd‑ns‑¨g‑pX‑p¶ C‑w¥‑nj‑pI‑mcs‑â t‑eH‑u«‑v k‑n²‑m´‑w ISs‑aS‑p¯‑p h‑m¡‑pIÄ ]ca‑mh[‑n a‑pd‑ns‑¨g‑pX‑p ¶X‑mW‑p `‑wK‑n F¶‑p X‑oc‑pa‑m\‑n¨X‑mW‑p a‑pd‑ns‑¨g‑p¯‑p h‑y‑m]Ia‑mI‑m³ {‑][‑m\I‑mcW‑w. Hc‑mib‑w ]‑qÀ®a‑mI‑p‑w a‑p¼‑p JÞ‑nIIÄ X‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑ns‑âb‑p‑w \‑y‑mb‑w CX‑pXs‑¶. JÞ‑nIX‑nc‑n¡Â A§s‑\ \S¡s‑«. ]s‑£‑, h‑m¡‑pa‑pd‑n¡Â K‑pWIcaÃ. t‑eH‑u«‑v `‑wK‑n F´‑n\‑mW‑v? I‑mg‑vNb‑ps‑S `‑wK‑n¡‑v. I‑mg‑vN b‑ns‑e `‑wK‑nb‑mt‑W‑m h‑mb\b‑ps‑S k‑pJa‑mt‑W‑m {‑][‑m\‑w? k‑pKaa‑mb‑n h‑mb‑n¡‑m³ ]ä‑p¶X‑mW‑p h‑mb\¡‑mÀ Cã s‑¸S‑pI. A§s‑\s‑b¦‑n kak‑vX]Z‑w I‑q«‑nt‑¨À¯‑v Fg‑pX‑p¶X‑mW‑p h‑mb\b‑v¡‑p \ÃX‑v. \‑m‑w H‑mt‑c‑m A£c‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑pt‑¼‑mg‑p‑w I®‑v AX‑n\S‑p¯ GX‑m\‑p‑w A£c §ÄI‑qS‑n I‑mW‑p‑w. C‑u Ig‑nh‑mW‑p X‑pSÀ¨b‑mb h‑mb\ b‑v¡‑p kl‑mbI‑w. AI¶I¶‑p I‑nS¡‑p¶ h‑m¡‑pIf‑ps‑S X‑pSÀ¨s‑b¡‑mÄ H¶‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ h‑m¡‑pIÄ¡‑mW‑v Bibk‑wt‑hZ\£aX I‑qS‑pXÂ. I‑q«£c§f‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y¯‑ne‑mW‑v CX‑p I‑qS‑pX {‑]k bqWot¡mUv t^mïnepÅ ‑"t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑n‑' ]{‑X‑w

21 ഒക്േടാബർ

2013 തി��

à‑w. D¨c‑n¡‑p¶ A£c¯‑ns‑â heX‑phis‑¯ A©‑v A£c§f‑mW‑p I®‑n\‑p a‑p³I‑q«‑n I‑mW‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p¶X‑v F¶‑phb‑v¡‑pI. I‑q«£c§Ä Bs‑W¦‑n A©‑v A£c §f‑ps‑S Ø‑m\¯‑v Bt‑d‑m Gt‑g‑m Ft‑«‑m A£c§Ä I®‑nÂs‑¸S‑p‑w. h‑mb\b‑v¡‑v A{‑Xb‑p‑w t‑hK‑w I‑qS‑p‑w F¶À °‑w. N‑pc‑p¡¯‑nÂ‑, ]e [‑mcWIf‑p‑w \‑m‑w X‑nc‑pt‑¯ï‑n b‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. ]‑pX‑nb k‑mlNc‑y‑w AX‑v A\‑nh‑mc‑ya‑m¡‑nb‑nc‑n ¡‑p¶‑p.

േപജ് 14 വില ₹ 5.00

1189 തുലാം 5

ൈഹെടക് കൃഷിയിടം ഒരു�ാൻ യുവതലമുറ േകാ�യം: കുറചു�ല�് കൂടു തൽ വിളവും നാലിര�ി വരുമാന വും സൃഷടി�ു� ൈഹെടക് കൃ ഷിയുെട സാ�യതകൾ മനസി ലാ�ി യുവതല���ുറ ഈ േമഖ ലയിേല�് ആേവശപൂർവം ഇ റ�ു�ത് വരും വർഷ�ളിൽ സം�ാനെ� കാർഷിക േമ ഖലയിൽ വലിയ കുതിചുചാ� മു�ാ�ുെമ�് കരുതെ�ടു�ു. ഈ വർഷം 1.60 ല�ം െഹക്ടർ �ല�ാണ് ആധുനിക സേ� ത�ൾ ഉപേയാഗിച് കൃഷിയിറ �ാൻ ഉേ�ശി�ു�ത്. പര�രാഗത കൃഷി രീതിയ നുസരിച് ഒരു െഹക്ടർ (ര�ര ഏ�ർ) �ല�് നി�് ലഭി�ു � വിളവ് ൈഹെടക് കൃഷിയിലൂ െട ലഭി�ാൻ 25 െസനറ് �ലം മതിയാകുെമ�് വിദ�ർ പറയു �ു. രപിസിഷൻ ഫാമിംഗ് അഥ വാ സൂ�്മ കൃഷിയാണ് ൈഹ െടക് രീതിയിൽ. കൃഷി�് േകരള�ിൽ � ല ലഭയത കുറയുകയാണ്. ഒ�ം െതാഴിലാളി �ാമവും. കൂടുത ൽ �ല�് കൃഷി ഇറ�ാൻ കൂടുതൽ െതാഴിലാളികൾ േവ ണം. സമയവും മുതൽമുട�ും കൂടുതൽ േവണം. െവളളരി, സ്േരടാബറി, കാപ്

പര�ര ത തുടരു�ു വികസനtിെn

ൈഹെടക് കൃഷി

പ�ര��� 3 ഈ വർഷം ലയം 1.60 ലം െഹക്ടറിൽ ൈഹെടക് കൃഷി

സി�ം, ത�ാളി, രപാേദശിക പ ച�റികൾ, പൂ�ൾ എ�ിവയാ ണ് രഗീൻഹൗസിൽ കൃഷി െച യാവു�ത്. മൂ�ുമാസം െകാ�് നാല് ല�ം രൂപ വെര വിററുവര വ് ഉ�ാകാം. സംസ്ഥാന േഹാർ�ി കൾച റൽ മിഷനിൽ ഈ വർഷം ൈഹ െടക് കൃഷി�ായി അേപ�ിച വരിൽ 20 ശതമാനവും യുവാ� ളാണ്. കാർഷികേമഖലയിെല വിപണി സാ�യതകൾ തിരിച റി�് എ�ു�വരും വിേദശ �ു നി�് നാ�ിൽ തിരിെച�ി യവരും ഇ�ൂ��ിലു�്. വർഷ �ളായി കാർഷിക രംഗ�ുളള വരും സംശയ�ൾ മാററിവച് സം

�ാന�ിെനറ പല ഭാഗ�ളി ലും ൈഹെടക് രീതിയിേല�് തി രിയു�ു. ൈവററ് േകാളർ േജാലിയുെട രപേലാഭന�ിൽ പര�രാഗത കർഷകരുെട പിൻതലമുറ കൃഷി ഉേപ�ിചിരു�ു. ഇതാണ് കാ ർഷിക േമഖലയിൽ േകരളം പി േ�ാ�ുേപാകാൻ കാരണം. അ തിനു ഒരു തിരു�ൽ വരു�ാ ൻ േശഷിയുളള കൃഷി രീതിയാ ണ് ൈഹെടക് ഫാമിംഗ്. അതയാ ധുനിക ഓഫീസ് േപാെല തെ� യുളള േപാളി ഹൗസുകളിൽ കൃ ഷി�് മണണിൽ അ�വാനിേ�� തിലല. ഫല�ിൽ കൃഷിയും ൈവ ററ് േകാളർ േജാലി ആയിമാറും.

െചലവ് കുറയും, വരുമാനം കൂടും  തുട��ിൽ കൂടുതൽ മുതൽമുട�ുെ��ിലും പി�ീ ട് െചലവ് കുറയും. കൂലി, വളം, ജലേസചനം എ�ിവയ് �് മുട�ു� തുകയാണ് കുറയുക.  േരഡാ�് ഇറിേഗഷൻ (തുളളി നന) ആയതിനാൽ െവളളം വളെര കുറച് മതി. േവരുകളിേല�് േനരി�് െകാടു�ു� തിനാൽ വളവും കുറേച േവ�ൂ.  സവിചി�ാൽ െവളളവും വളവും ലഭി�ു�തിനാൽ ഒരു രഗീൻ ഹൗസിൽ ര�് േജാലി�ാർ മതിയാകും.  പര�രാഗത കൃഷി രീതിയനുസരിച് ഒരു െഹക് ടർ (ര�ര ഏ�ർ) �ല�് നി�് ലഭി�ു� വിളവ് ൈഹ െടക് കൃഷിയിലൂെട ലഭി�ാൻ 25 െസനറ് �ലം മതി.

രപകൃതിെയ വിളകൾ�് അ നുഗുണമായി നിയരിെചടു �ു� സംവിധാനമാണ് രഗീൻ ഹൗസ് അഥവാ േപാളി ഹൗ സ്. ചൂട്, മഴ, തണു�്, െവയി ൽ എ�ിവയിൽ നി�് സംര �ണം നൽകി െചടികളുെട വളർചയ്�് അനുേയാജയമായ അ�രീ�ം കൃരതിമമായി സൃ ഷ്ടി�ു�ു. സുതാരയമായ യു വി രടീററഡ് േപാളി എ�ിലിൻ ഷീററ് െകാ�് കൃഷി�ലം പൂ ർണമാേയാ, ഭാഗികമാേയാ മറ യ്�ു�ു. ജലേസചനം, വളമി ടൽ, അ�രീ��ിതി നിയ രണം തുട�ിയവ ശാസ്രതീ യമായി നട�ും. രഗീൻ ഹൗ സുകൾ ര�ു തരം. പൂർണമാ േയാ, ഭാഗികമാേയാ ക�യൂ� ൈറസ് െചയ്ത കാലാവ�ാ നിയരിത സംവിധാനമുളള താണ് ഒ�്. താപനില നിയ രി�ാൻ െനററുകൾ �ാപി ച് വായു രപവാഹെ� ആരശ യി�ു� ഓ�ൺ െവനറിേലററ ഡ് രഗീൻഹൗസാണ് ര�ാമ േ�ത്. ഗൾഫ് മടുtു, നനtി ൽ കാർഷി ക വിpവം –േപജ് 7

മരുഭൂമിയിെല ഒരുൈഹെടക് കൃഷിയിടം

മരുഭൂമിയിൽ വിള� കാർഷികെ�രുമ

േകരള�ിെനറ പകുതിേയാളം മാരതം വിസതീർണമുളള രാജയ

മാണ് ഇരസേയൽ. ഭൂഭാഗ�ിൽ പാതിയിേലെറയും മണലാര ണയം. മഴ വലലേ�ാഴും. 20 ശതമാനം ഭൂമി മാരതമാണ് കൃഷിേയാ ഗയം. െത�ിേ�ാേക� �ിതി. പേ�, അറിവും സർഗാ�കതയും നി�യദാർഢയവും മൂലധന�ളാ�ി ഇരസേയലി ജനത പരു�ൻ ഭൂരപകൃതി േയാടും അതിലും പരു�ൻ കാലാവ�േയാടും മലലിടാൻ മുതിർ�ു. പര�രാഗതകൃഷിരീതികൾ പാെട ഉേപ�ിചുെകാ�്, ആധുനികസാേ�തികവിദയയും രപാേയാഗികബു�ിയും സ മാസമം േചർ�ായിരു�ു പുതിയ കൃഷിമുറ. ഫലേമാ, ഇരസേയലിന് ആവശയമായ ഭ�യവസതു�ളി ൽ 95 ശതമാനവും സവ�മായി ഉത്പാദി�ി�ു�ു. 130 േകാടി േഡാളറാണ് (7969 േകാടി രൂപ) കാർഷിേകാത്പ��ൾ കയ ററുമതിയിൽ െചയു�തിലൂെട ഇരസേയൽ േനടു�ത്. ൈഹ െട�് കൃഷി�് ആവശയമായ സാമരഗികളുെട കയററുമതിയി ലൂെടയും േനടു�ു ശതേകാടികൾ. ല��ൾ കാർഷികവയ വസായ രംഗവുമായി ബ�െ��് പണിെയടു�ു�ു. 7219 േഷ കലാണ് (1.26 ല�ം രൂപ) ശരാശരി രപതിമാസേവതനം. ഏററ വു കുറ� രപതിമാസ േവതനം 4300 േഷകൽ (74579 രൂപ).

b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v s‑]‑mc‑p¯‑w

േവണെമ�ിൽ ചk േവരിലും കാyും േപജ് - 6

പിടിയിലായ ക�ലിന് മലയാളി ��ം ഡീസലടിkാൻ പണം നൽകിയ മലയാളി നിരീണtിൽ രപഭുവാരയർ െകാചി: തൂ�ു�ുടി തുറമുഖ �് പിടിയിലായ അേമരി�ൻ ക �ലിൽ ഡീസൽ നിറയ്�ാൻ പ ണം നൽകിയതു െകാചി സവേദ ശി ചാേ�ാ േതാമസ് ആെണ�് േക സേനവഷി�ു� തമി ഴ്നാട് രകൂരബാ�ിന് വിവരം ലഭിചു.ഇ യാൾ കയൂ രബാ�ിെനറ നിരീ� ണ�ിലാണ്. ക�ലിൽ ഇ�നം എ�ിച അ�ുേപെര ഇ�െല രാവിെല കയൂ രബാ�് അറസററ് െച�ിരു�ു.

ഇവെര തൂ�ു�ുടി മജിസ്േരട�് േകാടതി 14 ദിവസേ��് റിമാ ൻഡ് െച�ു. അേമരി�ൻ േഡാളർ ഇ�യ ൻ രൂപയാ�ി മാററി നൽകിയത് ചാേ�ാ േതാമസാെണ�ാണ് വിവരം. കഴി� ദിവസം അറസററി ലായ മ�യെ�ാഴിലാളി മരിയ ൻ ആനറണി വിജയെനറ അ�ൗ �ിേല�് െകാചിയിെല നയൂജന േറഷൻ ബാ�് വഴി ചാേ�ാ േതാ മസ് പണം അയെച�ാണ് സൂ ചന. കൂടുതൽ വിവര�ൾ കയൂ രബാ�് പുറ�ുവി�ി�ിലല. ക�

ലിൽ അനധികൃതമായി സൂ�ി ച 1500 ലിററർ ഡീസൽ കയൂ രബാ �് കെ��ിയിരു�ു. ഇ�യൻ തീരേ��് അതി രകമിചു കയറിയെത�ിന്, അന ധികൃതമായി ഡീസൽ അടി�ാ

ൻ സൗകരയം നൽകിയതാര്, ക� ലിെല ആയുധ�ൾ എവിെട നി �് കയററി, ആർ�ുേവ�ി തുട �ിയ ഒേ�െറ കാരയ�ളിൽ ദുരൂ ഹതയുളള സാഹചരയ�ിലാണ് കയൂരബാ�് അേനവഷണം ശ�

മാ�ിയത്. ചര�ുക�ലുകൾ�് സുര�ാ ഉേദയാഗ�െരയും ആ യുധ�ളും വിതരണം െചയു� ക�ലാണ് ഇെത�ാണ് കയാപ്ട ൻ വിശദീകരിചത്.ആഗസററ് 28നാ ണ് േകാസററ്ഗാർഡ് െകാചിയിൽ ക �ൽ പരിേശാധിചത്. അ�് ക� ലിൽ ആയുധ�ൾ കെ��ിയി രു�ിലല. പി�ീട് ക�ൽ ഷാർജയി ൽ എ�ിയതായി �ിരീകരിചി �ു�്. ഈ സാഹചരയ�ിൽ എ വിെട വചാണ് ആയുധ�ൾ ക യററിയെത�ും ആർ�ുേവ�ി യാണ് െകാ�ുവ�െത�ുമാണ്

കയൂരബാ�് അേനവഷി�ു�ത്. അേമരി�യിെല െവർജീനീ യ യിെല അഡവനറ് േഫാർ�് ക� നിയുേടതാണ് എം.വി സീമാൻ ഗാർഡ് എ� ക�ൽ.ഒറീസ തീ ര�ടിച ചുഴലി െകാടു�ാററ് ഭയ �് അ�ാരാഷ്രട ക�ൽചാലിൽ നി�് ഇ�യൻ തീരേ��് അടു �ിെച�ാണ് ക�ൽ അധികൃതരു െട വിശദീകരണം. ക�ലിെല ജീ വന�ാരുെട െമാഴികളിൽ ൈവ രു�യമുളളതിനാൽ ക�ൽ േരഖ കളും കയൂ രബാ�് വിശദമായി പ രിേശാധി�ു�ു�്.

തുലാവർഷം നാെള മുതൽ

നവതിയുെട െനെ�ടു�്: െതാണണൂറ് വയസുതി ക� രപതി പ� േനതാവ് വി.എസ്. അചയുതാന�ൻ കേനറാൺെമനറ്ഹൗസിൽ കുടുംബാംഗ�േളാെടാ�മുളള ഉചയൂണ് കഴി�േശഷം പുറേ��് വരു�ു. േഫാേ�ാ: ജിേതഷ് ദാേമാദർ

കാലാവs 29.7 - 22.2 23,000 സ�ർ�ം 18gm gm 2875 വിനിമയ നിരk് o

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വിവരാവകാശ നിയമം രാഷ്രടീയ പാർ�ികൾ�ും ബാധകമാ�ണെമ�് െച�ി�ല

എ�ാൽ ന�ൾ വിവരമറിയും !

തി രു വ ന � പു രം : സം �ാ ന �് തു ലാ വ ർ ഷം നാെള ആരം ഭി �ു െമ �് കാ ലാവ�ാ നിരീ �ണേകരം അറിയിചു. കാലവർഷം പിൻവാ�ു� തിനും തുലാവർഷം ആരംഭി �ു�തിനുമുളള സാഹച രയം രൂപെ��് വരികയാെണ �് കാലാവ�ാ നിരീ� ണേകരം ഡയറകടർ െക. സേ�ാഷ് പറ�ു. തുലാവർഷം ആരംഭി� ണെമ�ിൽ കാലവർഷം ആ

രാ തീര�് നി �ു പിൻവാ� ണം. കി ഴ � ൻ കാ ററി െനറ േവ ഗ ത വർ�ി�ുക യും ത മി ഴ് നാ �ി ൽ ശ�മായ മഴ ലഭി�ുക യും േവണം. ഈ സാഹച രയ�െളലലാം അനുകൂലമാ യിരി�ുകയാണ്. ഇടവ�ാ തിേയാട് സമാനമായ രീതി യിൽ കഴി� ര�ു ദിവസ മായി െപയു� മഴ ബംഗാൾ ഉൾ�ടലിൽ രൂപെ�� നയൂ നമർ�ം മൂലമാെണ�ും അ േ�ഹം പറ�ു.

കസതൂരിരംഗൻ റിേ�ാർ�് : ഉ�താധികാര സമിതി�് രൂപം നൽകും

എതിർ�് തളളി, േകരം മുേ�ാ�്

നയൂഡൽഹി: കസതൂരിരംഗൻ റി േ�ാർ�് രപകാരം പ�ിമഘ��ി െല 60,000 ചതുരരശ കിേലാമീററ ർ രപേദശം പരി�ിതി ദുർബല രപേദശമായി രപഖയാപി�ു�തി െനതിെര േകരളമട�മുളള സം �ാന�ളുെട എതിർ�് നില നിൽെ� റിേ�ാർ�് സമയ ബ �ിതമായി നട�ാ�ാൻ േകര വനം പരി�ിതി മരാലയം തീ രുമാനിചു. ഇതിനായി മരാലയം െസ രക�റി അ�യ�നായി ഉ�താ ധി കാ ര സ മി തി �് രൂ പം ന ൽ കും. അടു� മാസം 12ന് േചരു � േയാഗ�ിൽ സമിതിയിെല അംഗ�െള തീരുമാനി�ുെമ� റിയു�ു. പ�ിമഘ��ിെല 37 ശത മാനം രപേദശമാണ് പരി�ിതി ദുർബല േമഖലയായി രപഖയാപി �ു�ത്. പ�ിമഘ� േമഖലെയ മൂ�് ത�ുകളായി തിരിച് മു���ുവ ൻ രപേദശ�ും നിയരണ�

\hw_À 2013

പ�ിമഘ�tിെല 37 ശ തമാനം �േദശം പരിsി തി ദുർബല േമഖലയായി �ഖയാപിkും

സം�ാന�് സർവക�ി േയാഗം ��് –േപജ് 5

ൾ െകാ�ുവരാനായിരു�ു ഗാ ഡ്ഗിൽ ക�ിററി നിർേ�ശിചിരു �ത്. എ�ാൽ 60 ശതമാനം രപ േദശ�് ജനസാരതയും കൃഷി യും ഉെ��് ചൂ�ി�ാ�ി ഭാഗി കമായ നിയരണ�ിനാണ് ക

സതൂരിരംഗൻ ശുപാർശ െച�ത്. ഇതാണ് േകരം അംഗീകരിചത്. ഇ തി നി െട ക സതൂ രി രം ഗ ൻ റിേ�ാർ�് െവളളം േചർ�താ െണ �ും അ ത് അം ഗീ ക രി ചാ ൽ േകാടതിെയ സമീപി�ുെമ �ും ചില പരി�ിതി സംഘട ന കൾ രപ ഖയാ പി ചു ക ഴി �ു. റി േ�ാ ർ �ി െല ശു പാ ർ ശ ക ൾ ന ട �ാ �ു � തി െന തി െര േക രള�ിൽ രപതിേഷധം തുടരു കയാണ്. ഈ സാഹചരയ�ി ലാണ് റിേ�ാർ�ിെല നിർേ�ശ �ൾ നട�ാ�ാൻ േകരം ഒരു �ു�ത്.

CMYK

CMYK

എം.വി. ഹരീരനാഥ് പി.ബി. ബാലു

aeb‑mf‑w A¨S‑nb‑ps‑S c‑wKs‑¯ Gäh‑p‑w {‑][‑m\{‑]i‑v\‑w b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v s‑]‑mc‑p¯‑w (Unicode compatibiltiy) BW‑v. \‑m‑w C¶‑v A¨S‑n¡‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶ A£c§Ä b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v t‑^‑mï‑pIfÃ. AX‑p ]gb Bk‑vI‑n (ASCII At‑ac‑n¡³ Ì‑m³t‑UÀU‑v t‑I‑mU‑v t‑^‑mÀ C³^Àt‑aj³ CâÀs‑Nb‑vR‑vP‑v) k{‑¼Z‑mb¯‑ne‑pÅX‑mW‑v. k‑nU‑m¡‑ns‑â "s‑FFk‑vF‑w P‑nÌ‑v‑' AS¡a‑pÅ t‑^‑mï‑v s‑kä‑pIÄ C‑u C\a‑mW‑v. C‑u t‑^‑mï‑pIf‑n s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑Nb‑vX h‑nhc§Ä CâÀs‑\ä‑n C«‑mt‑e‑m BÀs‑¡¦‑ne‑p‑w C-s‑ab‑n s‑Nb‑vX‑m t‑e‑m AX‑p I‑n«‑p¶ Bf‑ps‑S I¼‑y‑q«d‑n C‑u t‑^‑mï‑v Ds‑ï¦‑nt‑e h‑mb‑n¡‑mt‑\‑m FU‑nä‑v s‑N¿‑mt‑\‑m Hs‑¡ Ig‑nb‑q. Hc‑p I¼‑y‑q«d‑n C‑u t‑^‑mï‑n s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿Ws‑a¦‑n ¯s‑¶ t‑\‑m«‑v ]‑mt‑U‑m t‑ht‑U‑m HH s‑s‑dät‑d‑m e‑ms‑St‑¡‑m (LaTex‑) X‑pd¶‑ph¨‑v C‑w¥‑nj‑v s‑N¿‑p¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e hd‑ps‑X A§‑p s‑N¿‑m\‑mh‑nÃ. AX‑n\‑v s‑FFk‑vF‑w t‑]‑ms‑e Hc‑p CS\‑net‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbÀ (language engine) I‑qS‑n t‑hW‑w. A¨S‑n t‑]‑me‑pÅ s‑{‑]‑m^jW Bhi‑y§Ä¡‑mb‑n {‑]t‑X‑yI‑w C³k‑vt‑ä‑mÄ s‑N¿‑p¶ C¯c‑w t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑p IÄ aä‑pÅhÀ C³k‑vt‑ä‑mÄ s‑N¿‑md‑nÃ‑mb‑nc‑p¶X‑n\‑me‑mW‑v


(19)

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k‑m[‑mcW I¼‑y‑q«d‑p]t‑`‑mà‑m¡Ä¡‑v AS‑p¯I‑me‑w hs‑c aeb‑mf‑w s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑N¿‑m³ Ig‑nb‑mX‑nc‑p¶X‑v. AYh‑m‑, AX‑y‑m hi‑y¡‑mÀ aeb‑mf‑w C‑w¥‑nj‑n s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑nc‑p¶X‑v. AS‑p¯I‑me¯‑v H‑m¸t‑dä‑nM‑v k‑ņf‑p‑w C-s‑ab‑n t‑kh\Z‑mX‑m¡f‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑paeb‑mf‑w F‑ws‑_U‑v s‑Nb‑vXt‑ija‑mW‑p \a‑p¡‑o k‑u`‑mK‑y‑w s‑s‑Ih¶X‑v. At‑X‑ms‑S H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑n aeb‑mf¯‑ns‑â Hc‑p ]‑q¡‑me‑wXs‑¶ h‑nc‑nª‑p F¶X‑pI‑qS‑n H‑mÀ¡‑pI. h‑n¡‑n]‑oU‑nbb‑n C‑w¥‑nj‑v Ig‑nª‑m DÅS¡¯‑ne‑p‑w s‑Xcbe‑ne‑p‑w {‑I‑nb‑mßIXb‑ne‑p‑w Gäh‑p‑w kP‑oha‑mb (page depth DÅ‑) t‑e‑mI`‑mj F¶ Ah‑ni‑zk\‑ob]Zh‑n b‑nt‑e¡‑p \½‑ps‑S a‑mX‑r`‑mj h‑nce‑ns‑e®‑mh‑p¶ hÀj§Ä s‑I‑mï‑v DbÀ¶X‑v CX‑p k‑m²‑ya‑mbX‑phg‑n BW‑v. C¡‑me a{‑Xb‑p‑w \s‑½ Xf¨‑n« B ]gb k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZ‑yb‑n \‑n¶‑p t‑a‑mN\‑w t‑\S‑m³ ]s‑£‑, \½‑ps‑S A¨S‑n¡‑p‑w {‑]k‑m[IÀ¡‑p‑w ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p‑w Ig‑nª‑n«‑nÃ. Ig‑nª‑n«‑nà F¶Ã ]dt‑bïX‑v‑, DÕ‑ml‑n¨‑n«‑nà F¶‑mW‑v. ‑"t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑n‑' ]{‑X‑w a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v CX‑n\I‑w b‑qW‑n t‑¡‑mU‑v t‑^‑mï‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑nbX‑v. X‑pS¡¯‑n Ht‑«s‑d {‑] i‑v\§Ä Dï‑mb‑nc‑ps‑¶¦‑ne‑p‑w As‑XÃ‑m‑w XcW‑ws‑Nb‑vX‑p a‑pt‑¶d‑nb B [‑oca‑mb B N‑phS‑phb‑v]‑n\‑v Ahs‑c F{‑X A`‑n\µ‑n¨‑me‑p‑w aX‑nb‑mh‑nÃ. C¶s‑¯ \‑neb‑n ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p h‑mÀ¯ ]{‑X¡‑pd‑n¸‑m b‑p‑w aä‑p‑w e`‑ya‑m¡Ws‑a¦‑n ]»‑nI‑vd‑nt‑ej³k‑v hI‑p¸‑p‑w GP³k‑nIf‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑n h‑nh‑n[Xc‑w (ML, ML-TT, Sree, etc‑) t‑^‑mï‑pIf‑n s‑s‑S¸‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑p \ÂI‑pIb‑mW‑v. t‑]P‑vt‑a¡À D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m¯ C‑w¥‑nj‑v ]{‑X§Ä AS¡a‑pÅ ]{‑X§Ä CX‑n\‑mb‑na‑m{‑X‑w t‑]P‑v t‑a¡À h‑m§‑n C³k‑vt‑ä‑mÄ s‑Nt‑¿ï Ø‑nX‑nb‑mW‑v. Bc‑p‑w AX‑p s‑N¿‑m¯X‑n\‑m h‑mÀ¯‑m¡‑pd‑n¸‑pIÄ ]‑nU‑nF^‑v

I‑qS‑nb‑m¡‑n \Ât‑¡ï‑nhc‑p¶‑p. CX‑ns‑\Ã‑m‑w ]‑pds‑a b‑qW‑n t‑¡‑mU‑v t‑^‑mï‑ne‑p‑w. Bk‑vI‑n t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ t‑hU‑v ^be‑n Â\‑n¶‑p t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑nt‑e¡‑p t‑I‑m¸‑n s‑Nb‑vX‑m N‑ne A£c§Ä I‑mW‑mX‑mI‑p‑w. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑v‑, aeb‑mf‑w ]{‑X ¡‑pd‑n¸‑pIÄ t‑hU‑v ^be‑mb‑n \ÂI‑p¶X‑p ]eÀ¡‑p‑w k‑z‑oI‑mc‑yaÃ. At‑¸‑mÄ‑, ]‑n BÀ GP³k‑nIf‑p‑w ]‑n BÀ U‑nb‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w t‑]P‑vt‑a¡À C‑u Bhi‑y¯‑n\‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑n D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m³ \‑nÀºÔ‑nXc‑mI‑p¶‑p. As‑X‑, {‑]i‑v\§Ä ]eX‑mW‑v. a‑ps‑¼Ã‑m‑w DÅS¡¯‑ns‑â _‑m²‑yX ]{‑X‑w A¨S‑n¡‑p ¶‑nS¯‑p X‑oc‑pa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C¶‑p‑w ]e ]{‑XØ‑m]\§f‑p‑w B at‑\‑m`‑mh¯‑n Bs‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w I‑mc‑y§Ä AX‑n\¸‑pd ¯‑mW‑v. a‑n¡ ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ FU‑nj\‑pIt‑f‑m Cþ]{‑X§t‑f‑m Hs‑¡ Bb‑n¡g‑nª‑p. Chs‑b‑ms‑I t‑e‑mIs‑a¼‑mS‑pa‑pÅ P\§Ä¡‑p I‑mWWs‑a¦‑n AX‑n\‑p ]ä‑p¶ t‑^‑mï‑n t‑hW‑w Ah A]‑vt‑e‑mU‑v s‑N¿‑m³. a‑ps‑¼Ã‑m‑w AX‑n\‑mb‑n t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ I‑qS‑n F‑ws‑_U‑v s‑N¿‑pIt‑b‑m U‑u¬t‑e‑mU‑v s‑N¿‑m³ ]‑mI¯‑n AXX‑p s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑n e`‑ya‑m¡‑pIt‑b‑m BW‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑nc‑p¶X‑v. F¶‑m b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v aeb‑mf‑w h¶t‑X‑ms‑S C‑u {‑]X‑nkÔ‑n a‑md‑n¡‑n«‑n. Bk‑vI‑n (ASCII‑) t‑^‑mï‑pIf‑n A¨S‑n¡‑p¶ ]{‑X§f‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ FU‑nj\‑pIf‑n b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v t‑^‑mï‑mW‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. aeb‑mfat‑\‑mca a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v C\‑nb‑p‑w b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑ms‑X Aht‑ij‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. AhÀ¡‑p‑w s‑s‑hI‑ms‑X a‑mt‑dï‑nhc‑p‑w. As‑æ‑nÂ‑, B s‑s‑kä‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p h‑nhc§Ä aä‑v D]t‑b‑mà‑m¡Ä¡‑p ]IÀ¯‑mt‑\‑m a‑mä‑w hc‑p¯‑n ]‑p\c‑p]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑ms‑\‑m Hs‑¡ _‑p²‑na‑p«‑mI‑p‑w. C¶‑p ]{‑XØ‑m]\§Ä s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ FU‑nj\‑n CS‑m\‑mb‑n ]{‑X¯‑ns‑e H‑mt‑c‑m h‑mÀ¯b‑p‑w \hw_À 2013


(20) s‑s‑S¸‑nt‑ä‑m (Typeit‑) AX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e k‑z´a‑mb‑n h‑nIk‑n¸‑n¨ t‑X‑m Bb Hc‑p t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbÀ D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑p b‑qW‑n t‑¡‑mU‑v t‑^‑mï‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑mä‑pIb‑mW‑v. XÕab‑w A]‑vt‑Uä‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ FU‑nj\‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p ]‑pX‑nb h‑mÀ¯IÄ ]{‑X¯‑nt‑e¡‑v FS‑p¡Ws‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w Ct‑X I¬t‑hÀj³h‑y‑mb‑ma‑w s‑N¿W‑w. he‑ns‑b‑mc‑p A²‑z‑m\a‑mW‑nX‑v. A¨S‑nI‑qS‑n b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑n b‑mt‑e C‑u {‑]i‑v\¯‑n\‑p ]c‑nl‑mca‑mI‑q.

a‑md‑m¯ h‑mÀ¯‑mh‑n\‑yk\‑w A¨S‑n b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑p¶X‑n\‑pÅ XSÊ‑w ]{‑X§Ä t‑eH‑u«‑n\‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶ t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑ns‑â ]c‑na‑nX‑nb‑mW‑v. A\‑y`‑mj‑m]{‑X§s‑f‑ms‑¡ I‑z‑mÀI‑v FI‑vk‑v {‑]k‑p‑w C³U‑ns‑s‑k\‑p‑w s‑S¡‑p‑w e‑ms‑S¡‑p‑w t‑I‑ms‑ïI‑vÌ‑p‑w Hs‑¡b‑mb‑n I‑me¯‑ns‑\‑m¯‑p a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑p t‑]‑mbt‑¸‑mg‑p‑w \½‑ps‑S ]{‑X§f‑n al‑m`‑qc‑n]£h‑p‑w t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑n \‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑ns‑â \‑nÀ½‑mX‑m¡f‑mb At‑U‑m_‑pXs‑¶ C³U‑ns‑s‑k³ AhXc‑n¸‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w AX‑ns‑â ]e ]X‑n¸‑pIÄ Cd¡‑pIb‑p‑w Hs‑¡ s‑Nb‑vX‑n«‑p‑w \½‑ps‑S A¨S‑ns‑b As‑X‑m¶‑p‑w k‑z‑m[‑o\‑n¨‑nÃ‑! \½‑ps‑S U‑nä‑n]‑nIf‑n 99.99 iXa‑m\h‑p‑w t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑n e‑mW‑v. ]‑pk‑vXI{‑]k‑m[Ic‑p‑w t‑]P‑vt‑a¡À b‑pK¯‑n ¯s‑¶. s‑S¡‑p‑w e‑ms‑S¡‑p‑w t‑I‑ms‑ïI‑vÌ‑p‑w AS¡‑w A¡‑mZa‑nI{‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§Ä¡S¡‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑mh‑p ¶‑, k‑pKaa‑mb Ia‑m³U‑v c‑oX‑nIf‑pÅ‑, k‑zX{‑´t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑pIÄ e`‑ya‑mb‑n«‑p‑w AX‑nt‑\‑ms‑S‑m¶‑p‑w B`‑na‑pJ‑y‑w I‑m«‑m³ I‑p¯It‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑pIf‑ps‑S XShdb‑n Ig‑nb‑p¶ \a‑p¡‑p Ig‑nb‑p¶‑nà F¶X‑p t‑hs‑d NÀ¨s‑Nt‑¿ ï h‑njba‑mW‑v. t‑I‑w{‑_‑nU‑vP‑v t‑PÀWe‑pIÄ‑, t‑\¨À ]»‑nj‑nM‑v {‑K‑q¸‑v‑, C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v ^‑nk‑nI‑vk‑v X‑pS§‑n t‑e‑mIs‑¯ Gäh‑p‑w {‑]a‑pJc‑mb A¡‑mZa‑nI{‑]k‑m[Ic‑ps‑S {‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§ f‑n ]eX‑p‑w X‑nc‑ph\´]‑pc¯‑p s‑\¿‑mÀ U‑ma‑n\S‑p¯‑pÅ d‑nhÀ h‑me‑n s‑SI‑vt‑\‑mfP‑ok‑v F¶ Ø]\a‑mW‑p s‑s‑S¸‑v s‑kä‑ps‑Nb‑vX‑p c‑q]Ie‑v]\ s‑N¿‑p¶s‑X¶‑v F{‑Xt‑]À¡‑v Ad‑nb‑m‑w. AhÀ k‑zX{‑´t‑k‑m^‑vävshbd‑pIÄ a‑m{‑X‑w D] t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑mW‑p t‑e‑mt‑I‑m¯c\‑neh‑mc¯‑n C‑u {‑]h‑r¯‑n

IÄ s‑N¿‑p-¶X‑v. ]{‑X§f‑n a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑nb‑p‑w a‑wKfh‑p‑w Z‑o]‑nIb‑p‑w I‑z‑mÀ¡‑v FI‑vk‑v{‑]k‑nt‑e¡‑p‑w at‑\‑mcab‑p‑w a‑m²‑yah‑p‑w t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑nb‑p‑w C³U‑ns‑s‑k\‑nt‑e¡‑p‑w a‑md‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. t‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n‑, N{‑µ‑nI‑, P·`‑qa‑n‑, h‑o£W‑w‑, P\b‑pK‑w F¶‑p X‑pS§‑n _‑m¡‑nb‑pÅ FÃ‑m aeb‑mf]{‑X§f‑p‑w t‑]P‑vt‑a¡ d‑mW‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑n a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v C³U‑n s‑s‑k\‑ns‑â Gäh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb ]X‑n¸‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. k‑nFk‑v3 ]X‑n¸‑mW‑p aä‑nS§f‑nÂ. P·`‑qa‑n C³U‑ns‑s‑k \‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑m\‑pÅ Bt‑e‑mN\ I‑mc‑ya‑mb‑n \S¯‑p¶‑pï‑v. at‑\‑mcab‑p‑w s‑s‑hI‑ms‑X a‑md‑p‑w. AhÀ CX‑n\‑mb‑n ]‑pX‑nb t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ h‑nIk‑n¸‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ {‑iah‑p‑w Bc‑w`‑n¨‑n«‑ps‑ï ¶‑v Ad‑nb‑p¶‑p. H‑m¸¬ s‑s‑S¸‑v a‑m\Ia\‑pkc‑n¨‑p I‑päaä aeb‑mf‑w N‑n{‑X‑oIcW‑w k‑m²‑ya‑m¡‑m³ {‑ia‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑p k‑zX{‑´aeb‑mf‑wI¼‑y‑q«‑nM‑v {‑]hÀ¯IÀ. h‑n³t‑U‑mk‑ns‑e b‑pW‑nk‑vs‑{‑s‑I_‑v N‑n{‑X‑oIcW k‑wh‑n[‑m\‑w‑, B³t‑{‑U‑mb‑n U‑v t‑^‑mW‑pIf‑ns‑eb‑p‑w e‑n\I‑vk‑ns‑eb‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ l‑mÀ^‑v _Ê‑v‑, At‑U‑m_‑v C³U‑ns‑s‑ks‑â N‑n{‑X‑oIcWk‑wh‑n[‑m\‑w F¶‑nhb‑ns‑e‑ms‑¡ {‑]i‑v\a‑nÃ‑ms‑X {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶ t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ ChÀ ]‑pd¯‑nd¡‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. C‑u t‑^‑mï‑p If‑ne‑mW‑nt‑¸‑mÄ t‑ae‑v]dªhb‑ps‑Ss‑bÃ‑m‑w s‑SÌ‑nM‑v \S¡‑p¶X‑v. at‑\‑mca Ahc‑ps‑S H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ ]X‑n¸‑pIÄ b‑pW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑m¡‑m³ At‑U‑m_‑pa‑mb‑n aÄ«‑na‑ne‑y³ t‑U‑mfÀ Ic‑ms‑d‑m¸‑n«‑n«‑ps‑ï¦‑ne‑p‑w A¯c‑w Ic‑ms‑d‑m¶‑pa‑nÃ‑ms‑X aä‑p]{‑X§Ä D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑pX‑pS§‑nbX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e C‑u t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑pX‑pS§‑m³ AhÀ¡‑v Bb‑n«‑nÃ. (I‑mc‑y§Ä C§s‑\s‑b¦‑n h‑nt‑Zis‑¯ h³I‑nS¡¼ \‑nIÄ¡‑p s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶ t‑I‑mS‑nIÄ¡‑p ]Ic‑w AX‑ne‑p‑w X‑pÑa‑mb X‑pI k‑zX{‑´aeb‑mf‑wI¼‑y‑q«‑n§‑ns‑â k¶² {‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑p \ÂI‑nb‑m AhÀ Cs‑XÃ‑m‑w \½‑ps‑S ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑ps‑I‑mS‑p¡‑nt‑à F¶‑ms‑Ws‑â k‑wib‑w. AhÀ Bs‑I¡‑qS‑n _‑p²‑na‑p«‑p¶X‑p ]W¯‑ns‑â I‑mc‑y¯‑n e‑mW‑v.‑) k‑zX{‑´ t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v- s‑hbd‑pIf‑n s‑SI‑v (Tex‑)‑, e‑ms‑SI‑v (LaTex)‑, t‑I‑ms‑ïI‑vÌ‑v (ConText‑)‑, k‑vs‑{‑s‑I_k‑v (scribus‑) X‑pS§‑nbhs‑b‑ms‑¡ aeb‑mf‑w b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑n\‑v A\‑p]‑qcI‑w B¡‑nb‑n«‑pï‑v. h‑n³t‑U‑mk‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p ¶ s‑{‑]‑ms‑^jW t‑eH‑u«‑v t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑pIf‑n C³U‑ns‑s‑k\‑ns‑â ‑"k‑nFk‑v6‑' ]X‑n¸‑mW‑v BZ‑ya‑mb‑n b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v aeb‑mf‑w DÄs‑¡‑mï‑nd§‑nbX‑v. CX‑n ]s‑£‑, I‑pt‑d {‑]i‑v\§Ä Dï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C‑u {‑]i‑v\§t‑f‑m s‑Sb‑mW‑v t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑n AX‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑nbX‑v. Ct‑¸‑mÄ B XIc‑md‑pIÄ ]c‑nlc‑n¨‑mW‑p "k‑nk‑n 7' ]X‑n¸‑p ]‑pd¯‑nd¡‑n b‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. t‑IcfI‑ua‑pZ‑n AX‑p k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑v A¨S‑n s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑n. C‑u ]‑pX‑nb t‑k‑m^‑vä‑v s‑hbd‑pIÄ he‑nb h‑neb‑pÅh b‑mW‑v. h‑neb‑v¡‑ph‑m§‑nbÃ‑ms‑X Ah D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w Bh‑nÃ. AX‑ps‑I‑mï‑mW‑v U‑nä‑n]‑n t‑I{‑µ§Ä t‑]P‑vt‑a¡d‑n  X‑pSc‑p¶X‑v. ChÀs‑¡Ã‑m‑w Gäh‑p‑w A\‑pt‑b‑mP‑ya‑mW‑v ‑"t‑I‑ms‑ïI‑vÌ‑v' F¶ k‑zX{‑´‑, k‑uP\‑y t‑k‑m^‑vä‑vs‑hbÀ. ChÀ B hg‑n¡‑p \‑o§‑m¯X‑v A£´h‑ya‑mb s‑Xä‑ms‑W ¶‑p ]dt‑bï‑nhc‑p¶X‑n t‑JZa‑pï‑v. B hg‑n¡‑p N‑n´‑n¨‑n s‑æ‑n N‑net‑¸‑mÄ s‑s‑hI‑ms‑X C‑u t‑aJe he‑nb {‑]X‑n kÔ‑nb‑n s‑]S‑m\‑pÅ k‑m²‑yXb‑pï‑v. ]{‑X§Ä¡‑p‑w {‑]k‑m[IÀ¡‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w C‑u "k‑zX{‑´‑'hg‑n Xs‑¶b‑mI‑p‑w K‑pWIcs‑a¶‑p‑w t‑X‑m¶‑p¶‑p.

e‑n]‑nb‑p‑w e‑m`h‑p‑w Cs‑XÃ‑ma‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸« as‑ä‑mc‑p {‑][‑m\I‑mc‑ya‑mW‑p \hw_À 2013


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e‑n]‑n. b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v h¶t‑X‑ms‑S‑, e‑n]‑nIs‑f DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑p¶ I‑y‑mcÎÀ t‑I‑mU‑pIf‑ps‑S F®¯‑n\‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ ]c‑na‑nX‑n CÃ‑mX‑mb‑n. a‑p¼‑v GX‑p ]c‑na‑nX‑n I‑mcWa‑mt‑W‑m A£c§ Ä s‑h«‑na‑pd‑n¨ e‑n]‑n]c‑nj‑v¡cW¯‑n\‑p \‑m‑w \‑nÀºÔ‑nX c‑mbX‑v‑, AX‑v CÃ‑mX‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p F¶À°‑w. aeb‑mf‑w A¨S‑n I‑mc‑ya‑mb‑n X‑pS§‑nbX‑pa‑pX \‑ne\‑n¶ X\X‑v A¨S‑ne‑n]‑n (]c‑nj‑v¡cW¯‑n\‑pt‑ij‑w ]gbe‑n]‑n F¶‑p h‑nf‑n¨‑pt‑]‑mc‑p¶ e‑n]‑n‑) a‑pg‑ph³ C¶‑p I¼‑y‑q«d‑n\‑v DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑m³ Ig‑nb‑p‑w. B k‑uIc‑y‑w h¶t‑X‑ms‑S De‑v] X‑nj‑vW‑p¡f‑mb Hc‑pI‑q«‑w Bf‑pIf‑ps‑S DÕ‑ml¯‑n B e‑n]‑nIÄ ]‑p\‑xk‑rã‑n¡s‑¸S‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n«‑pï‑v. "cN\‑'b‑p‑w ‑"a‑oc'b‑ps‑aÃ‑m‑w A¯c‑w t‑^‑mï‑pIf‑mW‑v. AX‑n s‑s‑__‑vÄ‑, A²‑y‑mßc‑ma‑mbW‑w‑, NX‑pÀt‑hZ‑w‑, Zt‑i‑m]\‑njX‑v‑, F¶‑nhbS¡‑w Cc‑p\‑qt‑d‑mf‑w _‑rlZ‑v{‑KÙ §Ä A¨S‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑n C¶‑p \‑m‑w I‑mW‑p¶X‑v B e‑n]‑nb‑mW‑v. at‑\‑mca Hg‑ns‑Ib‑pÅ FÃ‑m ]{‑X§f‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑m¨‑m\e‑p If‑ps‑S s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑p‑w aä\h[‑n \‑y‑qk‑v t‑]‑mÀ«e‑pIf‑p‑w t‑»‑mK‑pIf‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w B e‑n]‑nb‑ne‑mW‑p t‑e‑mIs‑a¼‑mS‑pa‑pÅ Zie£¡W¡‑n\‑p aeb‑mf‑nIÄ h‑mb‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. s‑Fä‑n@ k‑v¡‑qf‑ns‑â aeb‑mf‑w I¼‑y‑q«‑nM‑v e£¡W¡‑n\‑p I‑p«‑nIÄ ]T‑n¡‑p¶X‑p‑w B X\X‑pe‑n]‑nb‑n Xs‑¶. AhÀs‑¡Ã‑m‑w Cãh‑p‑w B e‑n]‑nb‑ms‑W¶‑mW‑p ]e {‑]X‑nIcW§f‑p‑w

h‑yàa‑m¡‑p¶X‑v. kÀ¡‑mÀhI‑p¸‑pIf‑p‑w A\‑p_ÔØ‑m] \§f‑p‑w I¯‑pIf‑p‑w aä‑p h‑nhc§f‑p‑w X¿‑md‑m¡‑p¶X‑p‑w s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIÄ \‑nÀ½‑n¡‑p¶X‑p‑w b‑qW‑nt‑¡‑mU‑v aeb‑mf‑w t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Bb‑nc‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑p \‑nj‑v¡Àj‑n¡‑p¶ h‑nhck‑mt‑¦X‑nIhI‑p¸‑ns‑â 2008 H‑mKÌ‑v 21s‑e P‑nH (F‑wFk‑v‑) \‑w: 31/2008/ h‑n.h.k. \¼À D¯c h‑p‑w 2009 P‑qs‑s‑e 30s‑e 2826/_‑n1/09/h‑n.h.k. \¼À kÀ¡‑ped‑p‑w kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑â ]X‑n\‑mb‑nc¡W¡‑n\‑p I¼‑y‑q« d‑pIf‑ne‑p‑w s‑s‑kä‑pIf‑ne‑p‑w X\X‑pe‑n]‑n k‑m²‑ya‑m¡‑nb‑nc‑n ¡‑p¶‑p. h‑mb‑n¡‑m³ Ff‑p¸a‑pÅ‑, Øee‑m`a‑pÅ‑, I‑mW‑m³ `‑wK‑nb‑pÅ‑, ct‑ï‑ma‑qt‑¶‑m hÀj¯‑n\I‑w A¨S‑nb‑n k‑mÀÆ{‑X‑nIa‑mI‑m³t‑]‑mI‑p¶ C‑u e‑n]‑n KW‑ya‑mb Øe e‑m`‑w Dï‑m¡‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑p‑w ]c‑o£W§f‑n s‑Xf‑nª‑n«‑p ï‑v. ]¯‑piXa‑m\‑w hs‑c BWt‑{‑X Øee‑m`‑w. Cc‑p]X‑p t‑]P‑pÅ ]{‑X¯‑n cï‑pt‑]P‑v e‑m`‑w‑! \‑qd‑p t‑]P‑pÅ ]‑pk‑vXI¯‑n ]¯‑pt‑]P‑v e‑m`‑w‑! ]{‑X§Ä¡‑ms‑W¦‑n A{‑Xb‑p‑w Øe¯‑pI‑qS‑n ]ck‑y‑w t‑NÀ¡‑m³ Ig‑nª‑m F{‑Xt‑I‑mS‑n c‑q] e‑m`‑w‑! A{‑Xb‑p‑w t‑]P‑pIÄ t‑hs‑ï¶‑p h¨‑m F{‑X‑mb‑nc‑w ac§Ä H‑mt‑c‑m hÀjh‑p‑w c£s‑¸S‑p‑w. Øee‑m`t‑a‑m s‑s‑S¸‑n§‑ns‑e kabe‑m`t‑a‑m I‑mg‑vNb‑ns‑e `‑wK‑nt‑b‑m h‑mb\b‑ps‑S k‑pKaXt‑b‑m CÃ‑m¯ C¶s‑¯ s‑h«‑na‑pd‑n¨ e‑n]‑nIÄXs‑¶ D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡Ws‑a¶‑v Ct‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Bs‑c¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑mi‑n]‑nS‑n¡‑p¶‑ps‑ï¦‑n AX‑ns‑â \‑y‑mb‑w Fs‑´¶‑v AhÀ h‑yàa‑m¡W‑w. `‑mj‑mNc‑n{‑X¯‑ns‑e £W‑nIa‑m{‑Xb‑mb t‑Ihe‑w a‑q¶‑pa‑q¶c ]X‑nä‑mï‑pa‑m{‑Xt‑a X\X‑pe‑n]‑n¡‑p a‑md‑n\‑nÂt‑¡ï‑nh¶‑n«‑pÅ‑q. A¡‑me¯‑p ] c‑nj‑v¡c‑n¨ e‑n]‑nb‑n A¨S‑n¨ ]‑pk‑vXI§f‑n AX‑n P‑oh\t‑ij‑nb‑pÅh a‑pg‑ph³ \‑ms‑f X\X‑pe‑n]‑nb‑n ]‑p\‑x{‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡s‑¸S‑p‑w. As‑XÃ‑m‑w ]c‑nKW‑n¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ‑, ]c‑nj‑v¡c‑n¨ e‑n]‑nIs‑f ]‑n´Å‑n AX‑niàa‑mb‑n X‑nc‑n¨‑p h¶ X\X‑pe‑n]‑nb‑nt‑e¡‑v F{‑Xb‑p‑w t‑hK‑w a‑md‑m³ X¿‑md‑mI‑m¯hÀ¡‑pXs‑¶ Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w AX‑ns‑â \ã‑w. C‑u e‑n]‑n h‑y‑m]Ia‑mb‑n {‑]N‑mc¯‑n hc‑p¶X‑n\‑v C¶‑pÅ {‑][‑m\XSÊ‑w t‑hï{‑X t‑^‑mï‑pIÄ CÃ‑m¯ X‑mW‑v. I‑p¯‑p‑w I‑p\‑n¸‑p‑w AS¡‑w Ad‑p\‑qt‑d‑mf‑w I‑y‑mcÎd‑p IÄ c‑q]Ie‑v]\ s‑N¿W‑w. Ct‑¸‑mÄ \‑me‑p t‑^‑mï‑pIt‑f DÅ‑q. H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ Bhi‑y§Ä¡‑v CX‑p aX‑n. ]s‑£‑, U‑ns‑s‑k\‑n§‑n\‑v AX‑pt‑]‑mc. `‑wK‑nb‑pÅ ]eXc‑w t‑^‑mï‑p IÄ t‑hW‑w. Ah c‑q]Ie‑v]\ s‑N¿‑n¡‑m³ [‑mc‑mf‑w ]W‑w t‑hW‑w. CX‑n\‑v Hä¯hWs‑¯ a‑pXÂa‑pS¡‑p aX‑n. AX‑n\‑p Å ]W‑w {‑]k‑m[Ic‑p‑w A¨S‑nh‑yhk‑mb¯‑ns‑e {‑]a‑pJc‑p‑w ]{‑XØ‑m]\§f‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w t‑NÀ¶‑p ka‑mlc‑n¡W‑w. t‑\ct‑¯ ]dªX‑pt‑]‑ms‑e t‑{‑ij‑vT`‑mj‑m]Zh‑nb‑ps‑S `‑mK a‑mb‑n e`‑n¡‑p¶ ]W¯‑nÂ\‑n¶‑p‑w Hc‑p]¦‑p \‑o¡‑nhb‑v¡‑m‑w. aeb‑mf‑w kÀÆIe‑mi‑me‑, t‑Icf`‑mj‑m C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v‑, {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n‑, kÀ¡‑mÀ {‑]k‑v‑, k‑ml‑nX‑y A¡‑mZa‑n X‑pS§‑nb K‑pWt‑`‑mà‑m¡s‑fÃ‑m‑w CX‑n\‑mb‑n ]W‑w a‑pS¡‑pIb‑p‑w a‑p³s‑s‑I FS‑p¡‑pIb‑p‑w t‑hW‑w. t‑ae‑v]dª {‑]i‑v\§s‑fÃ‑m‑w F{‑Xb‑p‑wt‑hK‑w ]c‑nlc‑n t‑¡ïX‑v aeb‑mf¯‑ns‑â `‑mh‑nhfÀ¨b‑v¡‑p‑w ]{‑X‑, {‑]k‑m [\‑, A¨S‑n h‑yhk‑mb§f‑ps‑S h‑nI‑mk¯‑n\‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w AX‑y´‑mt‑]£‑nXa‑mW‑v. \‑ndt‑`Z§f‑p‑w a‑ue‑nIX‑mh‑mZ §f‑p‑w \‑n£‑n]‑vXX‑me‑v]c‑y§f‑p‑w a‑q¸‑nfa¯À¡h‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w a‑mä‑nh¨‑v CX‑ns‑â {‑]t‑b‑mà‑m¡f‑p‑w K‑pWt‑`‑mà‑m¡f‑p‑w GIa\t‑k‑ms‑S c‑wK¯‑nd§‑pI F¶X‑p I‑meL«¯‑ns‑â Bhi‑ya‑mW‑v. AX‑n\‑p X¿‑md‑mb‑ns‑æ‑n hc‑p‑wXea‑pd \t‑½ ]g‑n¡‑p‑w Ft‑¶‑mÀ-¡‑pI. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: puthiavila@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


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Pn. BÀ. C-µp-tKm-]³-

]p-Xn-b- d-jy-bnð- 300 ]-{X-{]-hÀ-¯I - ÀF-§-s\- A-{]-Xy-£-cm-bn-?temd-jybp-sS- Hu-tZym-Kn-I-B-tKm-f-Nm-\Â- d-jy- Sp-tU-bpw- hmÀ-¯m-G-P³-knBÀ-sF-F- \yq-kpw- k-µÀ-in-¨- ti-jw- d-jy³- ]-{X-{]-hÀ-¯-I-bq-Wn-b³`m-c-hm-ln-Ifp-am-bn- kw-km-cn-¨-- - te-J-Isâ Ip-dn-¸v.

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-j‑w-‑, R-§-f‑p-s‑S- b‑m-{‑X- \‑n-b-{‑´‑n-¡‑p-¶- k‑p-µ-c‑nb‑m-b- A-\-k‑vt‑X-j‑y- ]-d-ª‑p:- \‑m-s‑f- \-½f‑p-s‑Sb‑m-{‑X‑,-- d-j‑y-b‑n-s‑e- t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑vä‑v b‑q-W‑n-b³- B-¸‑o-k‑n-t‑e-b‑v¡v... C-´‑yþd-j‑y- k‑m‑w-k‑vI‑m-c‑n-I-h‑n-\‑n-a-b‑w- ]-c‑n-]‑m-S‑n-b‑p-s‑S`‑m-K-a‑m-b‑n‑, C-´‑y-b‑n-s‑e- ]-e- a-Þ-e-§-f‑nÂ- \‑n-¶‑p-Å- F-«‑pt‑]-c‑p-s‑S- k‑w-L-¯‑n DÄ-s‑¸-«‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p- R‑m³- d-j‑y- k-µÀi‑n-¨-X‑v. C-¡-g‑n-ª-- H‑m-K-k‑vä‑v A-h-k‑m-\‑w. kÀ-¡‑m-c‑n-s‑â X-s‑¶- k-µÀ-i-I-]-«‑n-I-b‑nÂ- b‑q-W‑n-b³- H‑m-^‑o-k‑v s‑]-S‑p-¶-X‑v A-k‑m-[‑m-c-W-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. X‑n-c‑p-h-\-´-]‑p-c-s‑¯- {‑]-k‑v ¢_-‑n-s‑\-¡‑mÄ- AÂ-]‑wI‑q-S‑n- h‑n-]‑p-e-a‑m-b- s‑I-«‑n-S‑w. d-j‑y³- ]-{‑X-b‑q-W‑n-b-s‑â s‑N-bÀa‑m³- s‑_‑m-K‑vU‑m-t‑\‑m-h‑v. H-¸‑w- b‑q-t‑d‑m-]‑y³- b‑q-W‑n-b³- H‑m-^‑v hÀ-¡‑n-M‑v t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑vä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S- s‑s‑h-k‑v {‑]-k‑n-U-â‑v I‑q-S‑n-b‑mb- d-j‑y-¡‑m-c‑n- \-t‑S--i-‑, d-j‑y³- ]-{‑X-b‑q-W‑n-b-s‑â c‑m-P‑y‑m-´-ch‑n-`‑m-K‑w- X-e-h-³- S‑n-a‑qÀ- j‑m-^‑nÀ- F-¶‑n-hÀ. s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³-‑, R-§-s‑f-Ã‑m‑w- ]-{‑X-¡‑m-s‑c-¶- a-«‑n-e‑m-W‑v k‑wk‑m-c‑n-¨‑p- X‑p-S-§‑n-b-X‑v. H-c‑p- t‑{‑_‑m-jÀ- X-¶‑p þ d-j‑y³- PÀW-e‑n-k‑vä‑v b‑q-W‑n-b-s‑\- I‑p-d‑n-¨‑p-Å- ]‑p-k‑vX-I‑w. H‑m-S‑n-¨‑p- t‑\‑m¡‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ- s‑R-«‑n. t‑k‑m--h‑n-b-ä‑v b‑q-W‑n-b-³- N‑n-X-d‑n-b-X‑n-\‑v t‑i-j‑w- 200 ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑m-W-t‑{‑X- d-j‑y-b‑nÂ- s‑I‑m-Ã-s‑¸-«X‑v. A-X‑v t‑N‑m-Z‑n-¨-t‑¸‑mÄ- s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³- \‑n-Ê‑m-c-a‑m-b‑n- X‑n-c‑p-¯‑n:C-t‑¸‑m-s‑g‑m-c‑p- a‑p-¶‑q-d‑m-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑m-I‑p‑w. C--X‑v B-d‑p- s‑I‑m-Ã‑w- a‑p-¼‑nd-§‑n-b- ]‑p-k‑vX-I-a‑m-W‑v. s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³ ]-d-ª‑p:a-c‑n-¨‑p- t‑]‑m-b-h-c‑p-s‑S- I‑p-«‑n-IÄ-¡‑m-b‑n- b‑q-W‑n-b\‑v- {‑]-t‑X‑yI- ¢-_‑v D-ï‑v. 300 t‑]-c‑p-s‑S- I‑p-«‑n-IÄ. h-e‑n-b- ¢-_‑v. t‑N‑m-Z‑n-¨‑p:- kÀ-¡‑m-c‑n-s‑â \‑n-e-]‑m-s‑S-´‑m-W‑v? C‑u- s‑I‑m-eb‑v¡‑p- ]‑n-¶‑n-e‑p-Å-h-s‑c- ]‑n-S‑n-¡‑m-d‑pt‑ï‑m?s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³- ]-d-ª‑p:- \‑n-c‑m-i‑m-P-\-I‑w. H-c‑p- ]-{‑X -{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-s‑\-¶- \‑n-e-b‑nÂ- \‑n-§-f‑p-s‑S- G-X‑p- d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«‑m-W‑v {‑]-t‑I‑m-]-\a‑m-b-s‑X-¶‑v F-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w- A-d‑n-b-W-s‑a-¶‑n-Ã. A-Y-h‑mA-X‑n-t‑·-e‑p-Å- s‑X-f‑n-h‑p-IÄ- I-s‑ï-¯‑m-\‑p‑w- F-f‑p-¸-a-Ã. s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³‑, B- h‑n-j-b-¯‑nÂ- NÀ-¨- X‑p-S-c‑m³- B-{‑K-l‑n¨‑n-Ã. A-t‑±-l‑w- t‑N‑m-Z‑n-¨‑p:k‑m-l‑n-X‑y-a‑m-k‑n-I-I-f‑n-Â- t‑P‑m-e‑n-s‑N-¿‑p-¶-hÀ-- t‑PÀ-W-e‑nk‑vä‑p-I-f-t‑Ã‑, \‑n-§-f‑p-s‑S- \‑m-«‑nÂ. a-d‑p-]-S‑n- ]-d-ª‑p:- I‑p-t‑d-s‑b‑m-s‑¡. k‑m-l‑n-X‑y-k-`-I-f‑n-Â\‑n-¶‑p‑w‑, k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-k-a-c-§-f‑nÂ- \‑n-¶‑p‑w- h-e‑n-b- ]{‑X-§f‑pï‑m-b- N-c‑n-{‑X‑w‑, R§Ä-¡‑p-ï‑v. \hw_À 2013

A-§-s‑\- t‑h-W‑w. d-j‑y³- t‑P-À-We‑n-k¯‑n-s‑â X‑p-S-¡‑w‑, A-X‑n-s‑â k‑w-k‑vI‑m-c‑w- H-s‑¡- \‑nÀ-Wb‑n-¨X‑v k‑m‑w-k‑vI‑m-c‑n-I {‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑p-s‑S- C-S-s‑]-S-e‑m-W‑v. \-½Ä- A-X-X‑v Z‑n-h-k-¯‑ns‑â I-Y-]-d-¨‑n-e‑p-I‑mÀ- a‑m-{‑X-a-Ã‑, k‑w-k‑vI‑m-c-s‑¯- X-s‑¶\‑n-b-{‑´‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-c‑m-I-W‑w.F-g‑p-¯‑p-I‑m-s‑c-b‑p‑w- {‑I‑n-b‑m-ß-Ia‑m-b‑n- N‑n-´‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-s‑c-b‑p‑w- ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑\‑m-¸‑w- \‑nÀ-¯-W‑w:-A-t‑±-l‑w- ]-d-ª‑p. d-j‑y³- ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-b‑q-W‑n-b\‑v I‑r-X‑y-a‑m-b- \-bt‑c-J-IÄ- Dï‑m-b-X‑n-s‑â \‑q-d‑m‑w- h‑mÀ-j‑n-Ia‑m-W‑v 2013. - d-j‑y³t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑vä‑p-If‑p-s‑S- B-Z‑y-k-t‑½-f-\¯‑nÂ- s‑e-\‑n-\‑p‑wt‑{‑S‑m-S‑vk‑vI‑n-b‑p‑w- s‑N-bÀ-t‑]-g‑vk¬-a‑m-c‑m-b‑n- X‑n-c-s‑ª-S‑p-¡s‑¸-«‑p. X‑p-SÀ-¶‑v `-c-W-¯‑n-s‑â k‑w-c-£-I-c‑m-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑m³]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-IÀ- \‑nÀ-_-Ô‑n-X-c‑m-h‑p-I-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. I-‑p-t‑dC-t‑¸‑m-g‑p-a‑p-ï‑v. ]-t‑£- t‑h-K-¯‑nÂ- k‑z-X-{‑´-c‑m-b‑n-s‑¡‑m-ï‑n-c‑n¡‑p-I-b‑p-a‑m-W‑v:- s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³- ]-d-ª‑p. X‑n-c‑n-s‑I- h-c‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ- \‑o-ï- H-c‑p- C-S-\‑m-g‑n-.- C-c‑p-h-i-¯‑p‑wH-c‑p- i‑va-i‑m-\-¯‑n-s‑e-¶- h‑n-[‑w- ]-¯‑p- a‑p-¶‑q-d‑v »‑m-¡‑v B³-U‑v s‑s‑h-ä‑v N‑n-{‑X-§Ä. s‑N--bÀ-a‑m³- ]-d-ª‑p:- s‑I‑m-Ãs‑¸-«- ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-IÀ‑!*** d-j‑y-b‑p-s‑S- kÀ¡‑mÀ- N‑m-\-e‑m-b‑, d-j‑y- S‑p-t‑U- A-Y-h‑mBÀ-S‑n-. I-‑q-ä³- s‑I-«‑n-S‑w. ]-¨- U‑n-s‑s‑k³. N‑o-^‑v F-U‑n-äÀa‑mÀ-K-d‑o-ä- s‑h-d‑p‑w- 33 I‑m-c‑n-b‑m-W‑v. R-§-f‑p-s‑S- b‑m-{‑X‑m]‑p-k‑vX-I-¯‑nÂ- I-fÀ-]-S‑w. AÀ-t‑a-\‑n-b³- c-I‑vX-a‑p-Åd-j‑y³- k‑p-µ-c‑n. ]-e-h-«‑w- I--g‑n-h‑p- s‑X-f‑n-b‑n-¨‑p. h‑mÀ-¯-IÄXÂ-k-a-b‑w- b‑p-S‑y‑q-_‑nÂ- C-«‑v - 100 t‑I‑m-S‑n- P-\s‑¯- I‑m-W‑n-¨‑v t‑e‑m-I- s‑d-t‑¡‑mÀ-U‑n-«‑p. k‑n-F³-F-¶‑n-\‑p‑w- _‑n-_‑n-k‑n--¡‑p‑wC-X‑p- h-s‑c- I-g‑n-ª‑n-«‑n-Ã. 2011Â- b‑p.F-k‑nÂ- G-ä-h‑p‑wI‑q-S‑p-XÂ- B-f‑p-IÄ- I-ï- h‑n-t‑Z-i- h‑mÀ-¯‑m s‑S-e‑n-h‑n-j³- N‑m-\Â- d-j‑y S‑p-t‑U-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. i-{‑X‑p- F-´‑p- ]-d-b‑p-¶‑ps‑h-¶‑v A-d‑n-b-W-a-t‑Ã‑m. ]-S‑n-ª‑m-d³- a‑m[‑y-a-§Ä‑, d-j‑y-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c- I-Å-¯-c‑wh‑n-f‑n-¨‑p-]-d-ª-t‑¸‑mÄ-‑, c‑m-P‑y-¯‑n-\‑v t‑X‑m-¶‑nb-X‑m-W‑v:- C-X‑n-s‑\s‑N-d‑p-¡-W‑w. h-e‑n-s‑b‑m-c‑p- t‑X-b‑n-e-¡-¼-\‑n-b‑p-s‑S- H-g‑n-ª`‑m-K‑w- h‑m-S-I-s‑¡-S‑p-¯‑p- (C-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w- A-¸‑p-d-¯‑v t‑X-b‑n-ek‑w-k‑vI-c-W‑w‑, C-¸‑p-d‑w- h‑mÀ-¯‑m-k‑w-k‑vI-c-W‑w-‑) N‑m\Â- X‑p-S-§‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ- B-s‑c- X-e-¸-¯‑p- h-b‑v¡‑p-s‑a-¶‑v ]‑p-S‑n³- kÀ-¡‑mÀ- B-t‑e‑m-N‑n-¨‑p. t‑k‑m-h‑n-b-ä‑v I‑m-e-s‑¯- ]-gb- I‑n-S‑n-e‑w- a‑q-¸‑n-e‑m-·‑mc‑p-ï‑v. ]-t‑£- H-c‑p-]‑m-S‑v l‑n-k‑vä-d‑n- X-e-


(23)

d-j‑y³- t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑vä‑v b‑q-W‑n-b³- H‑m-^‑n-k‑n-s‑e- C-S-\‑m-g‑n-b‑p-s‑S- C-c‑ph-i-¯‑p‑w- s‑I‑mÃ-s‑¸-«- ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑p-s‑S- H‑mÀ-a-¨‑n-{‑X-§Ä.

s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m-^‑v C-´‑y-b‑p-s‑S- I‑mi‑va‑oÀ- t‑e-JI\‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶- c¬-Z‑o-]‑v, b‑q-t‑d‑m-]‑y³- b‑q-W‑n-b³- H‑m-^‑v hÀ-¡‑n-M‑v t‑PÀ-W-e‑n-k‑v-ä‑p-If‑p-s‑Ss‑s‑h-k‑v {‑]-k‑n-U-â‑v \-t‑S-i-‑, d-j‑y³- ]-{‑X-b‑q-W‑n-b-s‑â s‑N-bÀ-a‑m³s‑_‑m-K‑vU‑m-t‑\‑m-h‑v, d-j‑y³- ]{‑X-b‑q-W‑n-b-s‑â c‑m-P‑y‑m-´-c-h‑n-`‑m-K‑wX-e-h-³- S‑n-a‑qÀ- j‑m-^‑nÀ- F-¶‑n-hÀ.

d-j‑y³- H‑u-t‑Z‑y‑m-K‑n-I -h‑mÀ-¯‑m-h‑n-X-c-W- G-P³-k‑n- BÀ-s‑F-F\‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑â H‑m-^‑n-k‑nÂ- t‑e-J-I³.

b‑n-e‑p-ï‑v. {‑]-X‑y-b-i‑m-k‑v{‑X- I¬-^‑y‑q-j³- t‑h-s‑d. \‑y‑q- P-\-t‑dj³- a‑m-[‑y-a-¯‑n-\‑v C-s‑X‑m-¶‑p‑w- t‑h-ï. H-c‑p- I‑p-ª‑p- ]-{‑X-¯‑n-\‑p- t‑h-ï‑n‑, t‑P‑mÀ-P‑n-b- b‑p-²‑w‑, b‑p-²-c‑w-K-¯‑v t‑\-c‑n-«‑v \‑n-¶‑v d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«‑v s‑N-b‑vX‑, s‑s‑[-c‑y-h-X‑nb‑m-b- a‑mÀ-K-d‑o-ä-s‑b- h‑n-f‑n-¨‑p. A-t‑¸‑mÄ- {‑]‑m-b‑w- 25. H-¶‑m´-c‑w- X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑w. 31‑þm‑w- h-bk‑nÂ‑, 100 c‑m-P‑y-§-f‑nÂ- 55 t‑I‑m-S‑n- P-\-§-f‑n-t‑e-b‑v¡‑v BÀ-S‑n- F-¯‑n-¨‑p‑, a‑n-S‑p-¡‑n‑!]-t‑£- R-§-Ä-¡‑v a‑mÀ-K-d‑o-ä-s‑b- I‑m-W‑m³- `‑m-K‑y-a‑p-ï‑m -b‑n-Ã. s‑X‑m-«‑p- X‑m-s‑g k‑vY‑m-\-¯‑p-Å- F-U‑n-äÀ- £-a- ]-d-ª‑p:d-j‑y³- t‑^‑m-d‑n³- a‑n-\‑n-k‑väÀ-‑, A-t‑a-c‑n-¡³- \‑n-e-]‑m-S‑n-s‑\X‑n-s‑c‑, t‑a‑m-k‑vt‑I‑m-b‑nÂ- D-S³- ]-{‑X-k-t‑½-f-\‑w- \-S-¯‑m³t‑]‑m-h‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v. A-X‑v h-e‑n-b- N-c‑n-{‑X-a‑m-I‑m³- t‑]‑m-I‑p-¶‑p. k‑v]‑m-\‑n-j‑v, A-d-_‑n-I‑v DÄ-s‑¸-s‑S \‑m-e‑p- `‑m-j-I-f‑n-e‑p-ÅUk‑vI‑p-IÄ. \‑y‑q-k‑v d‑q-a‑p-IÄ. k‑vä‑p-U‑n-t‑b‑m-IÄ. A-h- I-ï‑p. t‑a-[‑m-h‑n-I-t‑f‑m-S‑v N‑p-½‑m- t‑N‑m-Z‑n¨‑p:- l‑n-µ‑n-b‑nÂ- F-´‑ps‑I‑m-ï‑v d-j‑y- S‑p-t‑U- h-c‑p-¶‑n-Ã. a-d‑p-]-S‑n:- \-½Ä- k‑p-l‑r-¯‑p-¡-f-t‑Ã. k‑p-l‑r-¯‑p-¡-f‑p-s‑SI‑m-c‑y‑w- A-d‑n-b‑m³- BÀ-¡‑v X‑mÂ-]-c‑y‑w?- a‑m-{‑X-a-Ã‑, C-´‑yC-¯-c-¯‑n-s‑e‑m-c‑p- K-h. N‑m-\-Â- X‑p-S-§‑m\‑p-Å- B-t‑e‑m-N-\b���n-e‑p-a‑m-W-t‑Ã‑m. \-½-f-d‑n-ª‑n-Ã. A-hÀ- A-d‑n-ª‑p‑!*** A-h‑n-S‑p-¶‑v d-j‑y³- h‑mÀ-¯‑m- G-P³-k‑n-b‑m-b- BÀ-s‑F-F\‑y‑q-k‑nÂ.- \‑y‑q-k‑v d‑q-a‑n-s‑e- I‑q-ä³- k‑v{‑I‑o-\‑nÂ-- d-j‑y-³ h‑n-t‑Z-ia-{‑´‑n-b‑p-s‑S- XÂ-k-a-b- k‑w-t‑{‑]-j-W‑w. A-t‑±-l‑w- ]-db‑p-¶‑p:-k‑n-d‑n-bb‑nÂ- A-t‑a-c‑n-¡³- D-½‑m-¡‑n- t‑h-ï. F-U‑n-t‑ä‑m-d‑n-bÂ- N‑p-a-X-e- s‑N-d‑p-¸-¡‑m-c-\‑m-b- ^-k‑vä‑v U-]‑y‑q-«‑n- N‑o-^‑v F-U‑n-äÀ- a‑m-I‑vk‑n‑w- P‑n. ^‑n-e‑n-a‑n-t‑\‑m-h‑n-\‑m-W‑v. X‑n-c-¡‑n-\‑n-S-b‑ne‑p‑w- A-t‑±-l‑w- R-§Ä-¡‑p- -k‑u-I-c‑y-s‑a‑m-c‑p¡‑n-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. BÀ-s‑F-F-b‑v¡‑v C-´‑y- DÄ-s‑¸-s‑S- t‑e‑m-I-¯‑v ]-e-b‑n-S-¯‑p-a‑m-b‑n- 80 _‑y‑q-t‑d‑m- D-ï‑v. t‑]--g‑vk‑y³‑, P‑m-¸-\‑o-k‑v, A-d-_‑n-I‑v DÄ-s‑¸-s‑S-b‑p-Å- b‑q-t‑d‑m-]‑y³- `‑m-j-I-f‑nÂ- \‑m¸-¯-©‑n-t‑e--s‑d- c‑m-P‑y-§-f‑nÂ- h‑mÀ-¯‑m-h‑n-X-c-W-a‑p-ï‑v. G-j‑y³- U-k‑vI‑n (A-X‑p- X-s‑¶- ]-¯¼-X‑v F-U‑n-äÀa‑m-c‑p-s‑S- h‑n-`‑m-K‑w-‑)- s‑N-¶-t‑¸‑mÄ- C-´‑y-b‑nÂ- \‑n-¶‑p-Åt‑e-J-IÀ- F-¯‑n-¨- A-]‑qÀ-h-b‑n-\‑w- k‑m-[-\-§Ä. B-{‑^‑n-¡³- U-k‑vI‑nÂ- h-e‑n-b- I-S-e‑m-a-t‑¯‑m-S‑v, B-Z‑n-h‑m-k‑nI-e-IÄ- X‑p-S-§‑n-b-h. BÀ-s‑F-F- \‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑â H-c‑p- {‑]-t‑X‑y-I-X- H-c‑p- F-aÀ-P-k‑n\‑y‑q-k‑v d‑q-a‑m-W‑v. sa-b‑n³- U-k‑vI‑p-a‑m-b‑n- L-S‑n-¸‑n-¨- {‑]-t‑X‑y-IH-c‑p- \‑n-e. C-hÀ-¡‑v N‑p-ä‑n-¸-ä‑n- \‑nÂ-¡‑m‑w. \‑y‑q-k‑v t‑{‑_-¡‑p-ï‑mb‑mÂ- i-S-]-t‑S-¶‑v h‑n-\‑y-k‑n-¡‑p‑w. \‑y‑q-k‑v d‑q-a‑n-s‑â I‑m-c‑y-¯‑nÂ- \-½-f‑m-W‑v t‑`-Z‑w. \-a‑p-¡‑v I‑y‑q-_‑n-¡‑n-f‑p‑w- k‑z-´-a‑m-b‑n- H-c‑p- t‑a-i-s‑b-¦‑n-e‑p-a‑p-ï‑v. A-h‑n-s‑S_‑m-K‑p‑w- B-l‑m-c-h‑p-s‑a-Ã‑m‑w- t‑a-i-¸‑p-d-¯‑p- X-s‑¶. h‑mÀ-¯‑m-h‑mb-\-¡‑m-c‑n‑, h‑mÀ-¯- h‑m-b-\-b‑p-s‑S- C-S-t‑h-f-b‑nÂ- t‑]‑m-e‑p‑w- Bl‑m-c‑w- I-g‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. R-§-f‑p-s‑S- I‑q-«-¯‑n-s‑e‑m-c‑mÄ- ]-c‑n-k-c-s‑¯- s‑_-k‑vä‑v _‑mÀ- G-X‑m-W‑v F-¶- t‑N‑m-Z‑y-a‑p-¶-b‑n-¨-t‑¸‑m-g‑m-W‑v F-Ã‑m-b‑nS-¯‑p‑w- ]-{‑X-¡‑mÀ- H-c‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e- X-s‑¶-s‑b-¶‑v h‑y-I‑vX-a‑m-b-X‑v. B-W‑p-§-f‑p‑w- s‑]-®‑p-§-f‑p-a‑m-b‑n- X‑mÂ-]-c‑y-a‑n-Ã‑m-X‑n-c‑p-¶-hÀI‑q-«‑w- I‑q-S‑n- h-¶‑p. NÀ-¨-b‑m-b‑n. C-¶- _‑m-d‑m-W‑v \-Ã-X‑v, A-X-Ã- a-t‑ä-X‑m-W‑v \-Ã-s‑X-¶ t‑]-c‑nÂ. H-S‑p-h‑nÂ- s‑a-¨-s‑¸-«c-t‑ï‑m- a‑q-t‑¶‑m- _‑m-d‑p-IÄ- h-g‑n-k-l‑n-X‑w- ]-d-ª‑p- X-¶‑p. t‑i-j‑w- k‑z-k‑vY-X-t‑b‑m-s‑S-‑, N‑m-c‑n-X‑mÀ-Y‑y-t‑¯‑m-s‑S- A-h-c-h-c‑ps‑S- k‑o-ä‑p-I-f‑n-t‑e-b‑v¡‑v a-S-§‑n. a-e-bm-f- a-t\m-c-a-bnð No-^v k-_v F-Un-ä-dm-Wv te-JI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: grindugopan@yahoo.com \hw_À 2013


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Fw.sI. Ir-jv-W-Ip-amÀ

]-{‑X-§Ä D-Z‑n-¡‑p-ó Z‑n-¡‑p-IÄ Print: Thriving in the age of Digital F-¶ h‑n-j-b-¯‑n CâÀ-\‑m-j-W \‑y‑q-k‑v a‑o-U‑n-b A-t‑k‑m-k‑n-t‑b-j³ (INMA‑) \‑y‑q-UÂ-l‑n-b‑n kwLSn¸n¨ ku¯v Gjy³ s‑k-a‑n-\‑mdnsâ dnt¸mÀ«v

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-¨-S‑n a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S Ø‑n-X‑n k‑q-c‑y-s‑\-t‑¸‑m-s‑eb‑m-W‑v; I‑n-g-¡‑v D-Z‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑p‑w ]-S‑n-ª‑m-d‑v A-k‑vX-a‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑p‑w s‑N-¿‑p-¶‑p''. C-´‑y DÄ-s‑¸-S‑p-¶ Z-£‑n-t‑W-j‑y³ c‑m-P‑y-§-f‑n A-¨-S‑na‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä a‑p-t‑¶-ä‑w X‑p-S-c‑p-¶-X‑n-s‑\-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑p-Å H-c‑p s‑k-a‑n\‑m-d‑n t‑I-«-X‑m-W‑v C‑u X‑m-c-X-a‑y‑w. Print: Thriving in the age of Digital F-¶ h‑n-j-b¯‑n CâÀ-\‑m-j-W \‑y‑q-k‑v a‑o-U‑n-b A-t‑k‑m-k‑n-t‑b-j³ (INMA‑) B-W‑v B-K-k‑v-X‑v H-S‑p-h‑n \‑y‑q-UÂ-l‑n-b‑n s‑k-a‑n\‑mÀ \-S-¯‑n-b-X‑v. Z-£‑n-t‑W-j‑y³ c‑m-P‑y-§-f‑n A-¨-S‑n-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä {‑]-N‑mc-¯‑n-e‑p‑w ]-c-k‑y-h-c‑p-a‑m-\-¯‑n-e‑p‑w a‑p-t‑¶-d‑p-¶‑p F-¶‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑n-s‑â s‑]‑m-X‑p D-Å-S-¡‑w. C-X‑v k-aÀ-°‑n-¡‑m³ A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¨ I-W-¡‑p-I-f‑n-s‑e‑m-¶‑v C-§-s‑\: 2007 a‑p-X 2011 h-s‑c‑, Z‑n-\-]-{‑X-§-f‑p-s‑S {‑]-N‑m-c-hÀ-[-\ (i-X-a‑m-\-¯‑nÂ‑). A-t‑a-c‑n-¡: þ12.5 (s‑s‑a-\-k‑v 12.5‑) I‑m-\-U: þ18 {‑^‑m³-k‑v: þ7 PÀ-a-\‑n: þ10 C‑w-¥-ï‑v: þ13 s‑s‑N-\: 45 (¹-k‑v 45‑) C-´‑y: 11 C³-t‑U‑m-t‑\-j‑y: 81 a-t‑e-j‑y: 13 (Source: World press Trends, 2012)

t‑Ì‑m-¸‑v {‑]-Ê‑v? ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-s‑â t‑P‑m-e‑n X‑p-S-§‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ C‑u t‑e-J-Is‑â a-\-Ê‑n-e‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶-X‑v, C-t‑¸‑m-g-s‑¯ ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n-I-f‑nÂ-t‑¸‑m-e‑p‑w D-ï‑m-I‑m-\‑n-S-b‑n-Ã. X‑q-e‑n-I-s‑I‑mï‑v F-Ã‑m-a-§‑v a‑m-ä‑n-¡-f-b‑m‑w F-¶‑v t‑X‑m-¶‑n-b-I‑m-e‑w. C-¶‑v A-s‑X‑m-c‑p X-a‑m-i-b‑m-W‑v. s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑n A-X‑p‑w t‑IÄ-¡‑m\‑n-S-b‑p-ï‑m-b‑n. ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-\‑p‑w s‑s‑Z-h-h‑p‑w X-½‑n-e‑p-Å h‑y-X‑y‑m-k-s‑a-´‑v F-¶‑v t‑N‑m-Z‑y‑w. D-¯-c‑w: ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I³ h‑n-N‑m-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p‑, X‑m³ s‑s‑Z-h-a‑m-s‑W-¶‑v. F-¶‑m s‑s‑Z-h‑w H-c‑n-¡-e‑p‑w A-§-s‑\ h‑n-N‑m-c‑n-¡‑m-d‑n-à (s‑s‑Z-h-t‑¯-¡‑mÄ h-e‑nb-h-\‑m-s‑W-¶‑v h‑n-N‑m-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p F-¶‑p-]-d-ª‑m-e‑p‑w s‑s‑Z-h‑w XÀ-¡-¯‑n-\‑v h-c‑n-Ã‑). I‑m-e‑w-a‑m-d‑n-b-X‑v A-X‑n-t‑h-K-a‑m-W‑v. N‑m-\-e‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S a-es‑h-Å-¸‑m-¨‑n-e‑n i‑z‑m-k‑w-I‑n-«‑m-¯-X‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e. A-t‑¸‑mÄ N‑p-ä‑p‑w-t‑I-«-X‑v a-s‑ä‑m-¶‑m-W‑v, ]-{‑X-§-f‑p-s‑S I‑m-e‑w I-g‑n-b‑p-¶‑p; ]-{‑X-§-f‑p-s‑S ¥‑m-aÀ I‑p-d-b‑p-¶‑p. C-\‑n-s‑b-Ã‑m‑w h‑mÀ-¯‑m-N‑m-\e‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S I-¿‑nÂ. 24‑x7 h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ H-g‑p-I‑n-h-c‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ c‑m\hw_À 2013

h‑n-s‑e h‑o-«‑p-a‑p-ä-¯‑v h-¶‑p-h‑o-g‑p-¶ h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ F-´‑n-s‑\-¶‑v P-\‑w k‑w-i-b‑n-¡‑p-t‑a‑m F-¶‑v `-b‑w-t‑X‑m-¶‑n. ]-S‑n-ª‑m-d³ \‑m-S‑p-I-f‑n ]-{‑X-Ø‑m-]-\-§Ä ]‑q-«‑n-t‑¸‑mI‑p-¶-X‑n-s‑â I-W-¡‑p-IÄ C-X‑n-s‑\-Ã‑m‑w B-¡‑w-I‑q-«‑n. A-X‑v C-h‑n-s‑S-b‑p‑w B-hÀ-¯‑n-¡‑p-s‑a-¶‑v "t‑Z‑m-s‑s‑j-I-Z‑r-¡‑p-IÄ‑' ]-d-ª‑p-]-c-¯‑n. -CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑v, s‑h-_‑v-t‑]‑mÀ-«Â‑, H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ N‑m-\ X‑pS-§‑n-b h‑m-¡‑p-IÄ ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I P‑o-h‑n-X-¯‑n-s‑â A-hk‑m-\‑w H‑mÀ-a‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶ h‑m-¡‑p-I-f‑m-s‑W-¶‑v t‑X‑m-¶‑n. ]-{‑X-kt‑½-f-\-§-f‑nÂ‑, A-`‑n-a‑p-J-§-f‑n-s‑e-Ã‑m‑w ]-X‑n-s‑b a‑m-ä-§Ä {‑]-X‑n-^-e‑n-¡‑m³ X‑p-S-§‑n. "]-{‑X-t‑e-J-I-t‑c‑m-S‑v ]-d-ª‑p' F-¶-X‑v "a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-t‑c‑m-S‑v ]-d-ª‑p‑' F-¶‑v a‑m-ä‑n-s‑bg‑p-t‑X-ï‑n-h-¶‑p. {‑]-k‑v-¢-º‑p-I-f‑n N‑m-\ s‑s‑a-¡‑p-I-f‑p‑w I‑ma-d-I-f‑p‑w h-¶‑p-I-b-d‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ A-k‑z-Ø-X t‑X‑m-¶‑n. N‑m-\ I‑m-a-d-IÄ F-¯‑n-b‑n-s‑Ã-¦‑n ]-{‑X-k-t‑½-f-\‑w X‑p-S-§‑m³ c‑m-{‑ã‑o-b-t‑\-X‑m-¡Ä I‑m-¯‑p-\‑nÂ-¡‑p-¶‑p. ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑e a‑p-g‑p-h³-t‑]-P‑v I-fÀ ]-c-k‑y-§Ä-¡‑v C-S‑w I‑n-«‑m³ I‑m-¯‑p-\‑nÂ-¡‑m-d‑p-Å Ø‑m-]-\-§-s‑f I‑m-W‑m-X‑m-b‑n. h‑mÀ-¯‑m-h-c‑n-IÄ-¡‑v a‑p-I-f‑n-e‑p‑w X‑m-t‑g-b‑p‑w A-h-b‑v-¡‑n-S-b‑n-e‑p‑w N‑n-e-t‑¸‑m-s‑g‑m-s‑¡ A-h-b‑v-s‑¡‑m-¸-h‑p‑w ]-c-k‑y-§Ä X-e-\‑o«‑m³ X‑p-S-§‑n.

I-W-¡‑n-e‑p-t‑ï‑m I‑m-c‑y-§Ä... ]-s‑£‑, C-t‑¸‑mÄ ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p. C-h‑n-s‑S A-¨-S‑n-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä¡‑v H-c-]-I-S-h‑p‑w k‑w-`-h‑n-¡‑m³ t‑]‑m-I‑p-¶‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑v. A-X‑n-\‑p-a‑pï‑v ]-d-b‑m³ N‑n-e I-W-¡‑p-IÄ‑, A-X‑n-s‑e‑m-¶‑m-W‑v X‑p-S¡-¯‑n ]-d-ª World press Trends‑s‑â h‑n-h-c-§Ä. s‑s‑N-\-b‑n-e‑p‑w C-´‑y-b‑n-e‑p‑w C-t‑´‑m-t‑\-j‑y-b‑n-e‑p-s‑a-Ã‑m‑w A-¨S‑n-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä h-f-c‑p-I-b‑m-W-s‑{‑X. A-X‑n-s‑â I‑m-c-W-§Ä ]-e X-e-§-f‑n-e‑m-b‑n I‑m-W‑m-h‑p-¶X‑m-W‑v. s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑n ]-e-c‑p‑w ]-e-c‑o-X‑n-b‑n ]-d-ª‑p-s‑h-¦‑ne‑p‑w I‑m-X ]-g-b-X‑p-X-s‑¶-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p þ-h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X. h‑mÀ¯-b‑n h‑m-b-\-¡‑m-c-\‑p-Å h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X a‑m-{‑X-a-Ã‑, ]-c-k‑y‑w \Â-I‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑p-Å h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X-I‑q-S‑n-b‑m-W‑v A-X‑v. B-s‑c-¦‑n-e‑p‑w H-c‑p-Z‑n-h-k‑w-s‑I‑m-ï‑v s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-¶-X-Ã‑, ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X. ]‑qÀ-h‑n-I-c‑m-b ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-IÀ a‑p-d‑p-s‑I-¸‑n-S‑n-¨ B-ZÀ-i-§-f‑p-s‑S ^-e-a‑m-W‑v A-X‑v. (]-{‑X-§-f‑p-s‑S a-Õ-c-§-f‑nÂ‑, k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-X-b‑p-s‑S h-fÀ-¨b‑nÂ‑, F-U‑n-j-\‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S hÀ-[-\-b‑n A-X‑v F-{‑X-a‑m-{‑X‑w s‑s‑I-t‑a‑m-i‑w-h-c‑m-s‑X t‑i-j‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p-t‑h‑m‑, A-{‑X-b‑p-a‑p-ï‑v C-t‑¸‑mÄ h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X-b‑p-s‑S i-à‑n F-t‑¶ ]-d-b‑m-\‑m-I‑q‑) -]-{‑X-¯‑n I-f-t‑h‑m ]‑m-X‑n I-f-t‑h‑m F-g‑p-X‑m³ a-S‑n-b‑p-ÅhÀ-¡‑p-t‑]‑m-e‑p‑w Z‑r-i‑y-a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑n-e‑p‑w H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ s‑s‑k-ä‑p-


(25) I-f‑n-e‑p‑w A-§-s‑\-s‑N-¿‑m³ a-S‑n-b‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑m-t‑W‑m A-X‑n-\À-Y‑w? C-t‑X-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑v A-t‑\-I‑w h‑m-Z-§-f‑p-ï‑v. A-X‑n-s‑e‑m-¶‑v C-\‑n-]-db‑p-¶-X‑m-W‑v. {‑]-a‑p-J-]-{‑X-§Ä a‑n-¡-X‑p‑w h-fÀ-¶‑v h‑n-I-k‑n-¨-X‑n-\‑p-t‑ij-a‑m-W‑v ]-c-k‑v-]-c-a‑p-Å a-Õ-c-§-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑v F-¯‑n-b-X‑v. B k-a-b-¯‑m-W‑v A-h-b‑p-s‑S h‑m-W‑n-P‑y-a‑p-J‑w i-à‑n-t‑\-S‑n-bX‑v. F-¶‑m \-h a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä a-s‑ä‑m-c‑p k‑w-k‑v-I‑m-c-`‑q-a‑n-Ib‑n \‑n-¶‑m-W‑v c‑q-]‑w s‑I‑m-ï-X‑v. Z‑r-i‑y-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä t‑\-s‑c a-Õ-c-¨‑q-S‑n-t‑e-¡‑v h-c‑p-I-b‑p‑w A-X‑n X‑p-S-c‑p-I-b‑p‑w-s‑N-b‑v-X‑p. h‑mÀ-¯-I-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X-t‑b-¡‑mÄ A-h-b‑p-s‑S t‑h-K-a‑m-W‑v B-h-i‑y‑w F-¶ \‑n-e-h-¶‑p N‑n-e-t‑¸‑m-s‑g-¦‑n-e‑p‑w. A-X‑n-s‑â \‑n-d¸-I‑n-«‑p-IÄ I‑m-W‑n-I-s‑f-s‑b-¶-t‑]‑m-s‑e a‑m-[‑y-a {‑]-hÀ-¯-I-t‑cb‑p‑w l-c‑w-]‑n-S‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p. "\‑m-s‑f k‑v-I‑q-f‑n-\‑v A-h-[‑n-b‑m-s‑W-¶‑v N‑m-\-e‑n I-ï‑p‑, i-c‑n-b‑m-t‑W‑m F-¶-d‑n-b‑m³ h‑n-f‑n-¨-X‑m..‑' F-s‑¶‑m-c‑p t‑^‑m¬ C-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w ]-{‑X‑w H‑m-^‑o-k‑p-I-f‑n h-c‑p-¶‑p-ï‑v. 29 s‑S-e‑n-h‑n-j³ N‑m-\-e‑p-IÄ D-Å t‑I-c-f-¯‑nÂ‑, 2008þ12

h‑mÀ-¯-I-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-i‑z‑m-k‑y-X-t‑b-¡‑mÄ A-h-b‑p-s‑S t‑h-K-a‑m-W‑v B-h-i‑y‑w F-¶ \‑n-e-h-¶‑p N‑n-e-t‑¸‑ms‑g-¦‑n-e‑p‑w. A-X‑n-s‑â \‑n-d-¸-I‑n-«‑p-IÄ I‑m-W‑n-I-s‑fs‑b-¶-t‑]‑m-s‑e a‑m-[‑y-a {‑]-hÀ-¯-I-t‑c-b‑p‑w l-c‑w-]‑n-S‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p.

I‑m-e-¯‑n c-ï‑v a‑p³-\‑n-c-]-{‑X-§-f‑p-s‑S a‑m-{‑X‑w {‑]-N‑m-c‑w hÀ[‑n-¨-X‑v 6.60 e-£-a‑m-W‑v. 2012þ13e‑p‑w A-X‑v hÀ-[‑n-¨-t‑X‑m-X‑n X‑p-S-c‑p-¶‑p.

`-{‑Z-a-Ã‑m-X‑m-I‑p-¶ `‑m-h‑n C‑u I-W-¡‑p-IÄ-s‑I‑m-ï‑v a‑m-{‑X‑w ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S `‑mh‑n `-{‑Z-a‑m-s‑W-¶‑v {‑]-h-N‑n-¡‑m-\‑m-I‑p-t‑a‑m? Z-£‑n-t‑W-j‑y-b‑n-s‑e I‑m-c‑y‑w h‑n-S‑p-I. C-´‑y-b‑n-s‑e-X-s‑¶ hÀ-¯-a‑m-\‑w N‑n-e k‑w-ib-§-f‑p-t‑S-X‑m-W‑v. t‑]-s‑aâ‑v \‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑â `‑q-X-s‑¯ C-\‑n-b‑p‑w I‑p-S-¯‑n-e-S-b‑v¡‑m-\‑m-b‑n-«‑n-à F-¶‑v H‑mÀ-¡‑p-I. I-S‑p-¯ c‑m-{‑ã‑o-b ]-£-]‑m-X§Ä e-Ö-b‑n-Ã‑m-s‑X {‑]-ZÀ-i‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v N‑n-e-X‑v. h‑m-W‑n-P‑y-þ-h‑y-h-k‑m-b k‑w-L-§-f‑p-s‑S X‑m-X‑v-]-c‑y-§Ä-¡‑v I‑p-S]‑n-S‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p N‑n-e ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä. C-h X-§-f‑p-s‑S k‑m-a‑q-l‑nI [À-a-¯‑n \‑n-¶‑v A-X‑n-t‑h-K‑w h‑y-X‑n-N-e‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p-s‑h-¶‑m-W‑v h‑m-b-\-¡‑m-c‑p-s‑S ]-c‑m-X‑n. A-§-s‑\ A-h k‑z-´‑w t‑h-c‑p-IÄ-Xs‑¶ ]‑n-g‑p-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑p-¶‑p. A-t‑¸‑mÄ F-§-s‑\-b‑m-W‑v ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S `‑m-h‑n k‑pc-£‑n-X-a‑m-s‑W-¶‑v ]-d-b‑m-\‑m-I‑p-I? k-a‑q-l-¯‑n-s‑â a‑p-t‑¶-ä-¯‑nÂ‑, h‑n-]-c‑o-X-i-à‑n-I-s‑f X-fb‑v-¡‑p-¶-X‑nÂ‑, `-c-W-I‑q-S-§-s‑f X‑n-c‑p-¯‑p-¶-X‑n C-¶‑v A-hb‑v-¡‑v ]-g-b {‑]-X‑m-]-a‑p-s‑ï-¶‑v h‑n-i‑z-k‑n-¡‑m³ h-¿.

]-c-k‑y-§Ä h‑nÂ-¡‑m³ -A-¨-S‑n-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä-¡‑v C-\‑n-b‑p‑w ]-c-k‑y-§Ä \-¶‑m-b‑n h‑nÂ-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-t‑a‑m F-¶-X‑v ]‑p-X‑n-b I‑m-e-¯‑n-s‑â h-e‑n-b D-X‑v-I-W‑vT-b‑m-W‑v. "C³-a' s‑k-a‑n-\‑m-d‑n-s‑â A-t‑\‑z-j-W-h‑p‑w A-X‑n D‑u-¶‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Newspapers considered by

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F-¶‑m-W‑v B-i‑z‑m-k‑w \‑n-d-ª I-s‑ï-¯Â. -{‑]‑m-t‑Z-i‑n-I hÀ-¯-a‑m-\-§Ä A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑n C-´‑y³ ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä a‑n-S‑p-¡‑v I‑m-W‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p-ï‑v. h‑n-I-k\-s‑a-¯‑m-¯ {‑K‑m-a‑o-W-t‑a-J-e-I-f‑nÂ-t‑]‑m-e‑p‑w A-h I-S-¶‑p-s‑NÃ‑p-¶‑p. Z‑r-i‑y-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä-¡‑v C-\‑n-b‑p‑w k‑m-[‑y-a‑m-b‑n-«‑n-Ã‑m-¯ C‑u C-S-a‑m-W‑v ]-c-k‑y-h‑nÂ-¸-\-s‑b B-IÀ-j‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. ]-S‑nª‑m-d³ a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä-¡‑v k‑z-]‑v-\‑w I‑m-W‑m-\‑m-h‑m-¯-X‑m-W‑v C-X‑v. -t‑I-c-f-¯‑n-e‑m-s‑W-¦‑nÂ‑, N-c-a-h‑p‑w h‑n-h‑m-l-h‑p‑w C-¶-s‑¯ ]-c‑n-]‑m-S‑n-b‑p‑w DÄ-¸-s‑S-b‑p-Å h‑n-h-c-§Ä h‑mÀ-¯-I-f‑m-¡‑n \‑n-e-\‑nÀ-¯‑p-¶-X‑n h-e‑n-b t‑\-«-a‑m-W‑v ]-{‑X-a‑m-[‑y-a-§Ä I‑m-W‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. h‑n-]‑p-e-a‑m-b G-P³-k‑n i‑r‑w-J-e‑, {‑]‑m-t‑Z-i‑n-I t‑e-J-IÀ X‑p-S-§‑n-b-h C-h-b‑v-¡‑v ]‑n-´‑p-W \Â-I‑p-¶‑p. -P‑n-Ã-t‑X‑m-d‑p‑w F-U‑n-j-\‑p-IÄ F-¶ Ø‑n-X‑n D-ï‑m-I‑p¶-t‑X‑m-s‑S‑, I‑r-X‑y‑w e-£‑y-¯‑n-t‑e-¡‑v ]-c-k‑y-s‑a-¯‑n-¡‑m³ A-h-k-c-a‑p-ï‑m-I‑p-I-b‑p‑w s‑N-¿‑p-¶‑p. I‑q-S‑p-X {‑]-N‑m-c‑w I‑q-S‑pX ]-c-k‑y-s‑¯-b‑p‑w I‑q-S‑p-X ]-c-k‑y-h-c‑p-a‑m-\‑w I‑q-S‑p-X {‑]-N‑m-c-s‑¯-b‑p‑w s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-c‑p-¶‑p F-¶-X‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑v A-¨-S‑n-a‑m[‑y-a-§Ä-¡‑v X-X‑v-I‑m-e‑w `‑o-j-W‑n-b‑n-à F-¶‑m-W‑v h‑n-]-W-\ h‑n-Z-K‑v-[-c‑p-s‑S h‑n-e-b‑n-c‑p-¯Â. -A-¨-S‑n-a‑m-[‑y-a‑w t‑h-t‑W‑m U‑n-P‑n-ä a‑m-[‑y-a‑w t‑h-t‑W‑m F-¶ t‑N‑m-Z‑y‑w A-{‑]-k-à-a‑m-s‑W-¶‑p‑w c-ï‑p‑w t‑NÀ-¶‑v D-]t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v t‑h-ï-s‑X-¶‑p‑w A-hÀ A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b-s‑¸-S‑p¶‑p. D-Å-S-¡-a‑m-W‑v ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â I-c‑p-¯‑v. a‑n-I-¨ h‑mÀ-¯IÄ X-s‑¶-b‑m-W‑v h‑n-]-W-\-a‑q-e‑y‑w. C-X‑v \‑n-e-\‑nÀ-¯‑n-b‑m-t‑e ]-{‑X-¯‑n-e‑q-s‑S ]-c-k‑y‑w h‑nÂ-¡‑m-\‑m-h‑q F-¶‑p‑w X‑n-c‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑p¶‑p. a‑m-X‑r-`‑q-a‑n \‑y‑q-k‑v F-U‑n-ä-d‑m-W‑v t‑e-JI³. t‑e-JI-s‑â Cþs‑a-b‑vð: kishortcr@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


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¡‑,‑v Xs‑¶¡‑pd‑n¨‑v N‑ne B t‑c‑m]W§Ä t‑I-«t‑Ã‑m? R‑m³ Cc‑p]X‑phbÊ‑pI‑mc³ Fs‑â AX‑na‑nS‑p¡\‑mb b‑phk‑vt‑\l‑n X³ B-\µ‑nt‑\‑mS‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. Bg‑v¨b‑n  a‑q¶‑p‑w \‑me‑p‑w aeb‑mf‑w k‑n\‑naIÄ Cd§‑p¶ I‑mea‑mW‑v. Ahs‑bÃ‑m‑w I‑mW‑m³ F\‑n¡‑p kaba‑nÃ. ]‑ns‑¶ N‑m\e‑pIÄ Xc‑p¶ ]¯‑nc‑p\‑qd‑p l‑nµ‑n Xa‑ng‑v C‑w¥‑oj‑v ]S§f‑p‑w. R‑m³ Bg‑v¨b‑n \‑mt‑e‑m At‑©‑m ]S‑w a‑n¡X‑p‑w k‑nU‑n C«‑v Fs‑â Hg‑nh‑p kab‑w t‑\‑m¡‑n h‑o«‑ne‑nc‑p¶‑v I‑mW‑p‑w. AX‑n\‑pÅ s‑keI‑vj\‑v kl‑mb‑n¡‑p ¶X‑v B\µ‑mW‑v. B\µ‑v FÃ‑m k‑n\‑n ab‑p‑w I‑mW‑md‑nÃ. ]s‑£ I‑q«‑pI‑mc‑ps‑S A`‑n{‑]‑mb‑w‑, Fs‑â t‑SÌ‑v‑, Fs‑´¦‑n e‑p‑w \‑qX\a‑mb‑n Dï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑pI Ch s‑bÃ‑m‑w t‑\‑m¡‑n ]dª‑p Xc‑p‑w. ic‑n ¡‑p‑w Fs‑â C‑u c‑wKs‑¯ K‑pc‑p. B\µ‑v N‑nc‑n¨‑p s‑I‑mï‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p. Bc‑m ]dªX‑v? F´‑m Bt‑c‑m]W‑w F¶Ã‑, Bc‑m Bt‑c‑m]W‑w \S¯‑nbX‑v F¶‑mW‑v ad‑p]S‑n¡‑p ]Ic‑w B\-µ‑ns‑â ad‑p t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w. F\‑n¡‑v AZ‑v`‑pXs‑¯¡‑mÄ h‑njaa‑mW‑v Dï‑mbX‑v. B\t‑µ‑, Bc‑ms‑W¶d‑nª‑n«‑v F´‑m I‑mc‑y‑w? F´‑m‑, Bt‑c‑m]W‑w F¶d‑n-t‑bt‑ï? F´‑n\‑m Ad‑nª‑n«‑v? Bc‑ms‑W¶ d‑nª‑m Ah\‑ns‑«‑mc‑p ]W‑n s‑I‑mS‑p ¡‑m³ ]ä‑p‑w. Ahs‑â Bt‑c‑m]W‑w t‑Ì‑m¸‑v Bb‑nt‑¡‑mf‑p‑w. ]W‑n-t‑b‑m‑, AS‑nb‑nS‑m\‑mt‑W‑m? AS‑nt‑b‑m? As‑X‑ms‑¡ ]gb s‑s‑Ìe‑m‑, hÀ½b¦‑nt‑f. Bf‑mc‑mW‑v \hw_À 2013

F¶d‑nª‑m aX‑n‑, Ahs‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v s‑_Ì‑v Bt‑c‑m]W‑w At‑§‑m«‑p s‑I‑mS‑p ¡‑p‑w. Ah³ ]‑ns‑¶ a‑nï‑nÃ. A¦‑nÄ F¶‑p‑w c‑m{‑X‑n I‑mW‑md‑pÅ S‑n h‑n \‑y‑qk‑v N‑m\e‑pIÄ t‑\‑m¡‑nb‑m aX‑n. CSb‑v¡‑v AX‑n t‑]‑mb‑n H‑mt‑c‑m¶‑p ]db‑md‑pa‑nt‑Ã‑, AX‑ns‑â t‑]‑m¸‑pe‑mc‑nä‑n F´‑m? k‑q£‑n¨‑m a\Ê‑ne‑mI‑p‑w. Bt‑c‑m]W‑w. I‑qS‑pX Bt‑c‑m]W‑w I‑qS‑pX t‑]‑m¸‑peÀ. At‑Ã? A¦‑nt‑f‑, FÃ‑mÀ¡‑p‑w clk‑y‑w I‑mW‑p‑w. Bt‑c‑m ]W‑w ]db‑p¶h\‑p‑w X‑oÀ¨b‑mb‑p‑w I‑mW‑p‑w. ]s‑£ C‑u clk‑y‑w F§‑ns‑\ Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑p‑w? A¦‑nt‑f‑, C‑u CâÀs‑\ä‑v ]‑ns‑¶ F´‑n\‑m? R‑mt‑\‑mÀ¯‑p. I¼‑y‑q«d‑p‑w s‑k t‑^‑mW‑p‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶ BÀ¡‑p‑w Hc‑p clk‑yh‑p‑w Hf‑n¡‑m³ ]ä‑nÃ. Ahc‑ps‑S H‑mt‑c‑m s‑Nb‑vX‑nb‑p‑w Gt‑X‑m l‑mÀU‑v U‑nk‑v¡‑ns‑â A´c‑mß‑mh‑n N‑ncR‑vP‑oh‑nb‑mb‑n I‑n-S-¸‑pï‑v. AX‑v Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ Ic‑p¯‑p‑w a‑nS‑p¡‑p‑w I‑uieh‑p‑w aX‑n. I¼‑y‑q«d‑ns‑â I‑mc Whc‑mb s‑s‑at‑{‑I‑mt‑k‑m^‑vä‑ns‑â _‑n t‑Kä‑vk‑ns‑\b‑p‑w I‑q«‑pI‑ms‑cb‑p‑w ]ï‑v k‑v¡‑qf‑n \‑n¶‑v ]‑pd¯‑m¡‑n. I‑mcW‑w k‑v¡‑qf‑n h‑mSIb‑v¡‑v FS‑p¯‑nc‑p¶ A¶s‑¯ BZ‑yI‑me {‑]‑mI‑rX I¼‑y‑q«d‑ns‑e clk‑y‑w t‑N‑mÀ¯‑p¶ h‑nZ‑y AhÀ Iï‑p]‑nS‑n¨X‑n\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. At‑¸‑mÄ Bt‑c‑m]Ws‑¯ t‑\c‑n S‑m³ As‑X´‑ms‑W¶d‑n-t‑bï‑, Bc‑v Bt‑c‑m]‑n¨‑p F¶d‑nª‑m aX‑n. Ahc‑ps‑S clk‑y‑w Iï‑p ]‑nS‑n¡‑m‑w. k‑w`h‑w Bt‑e‑mN‑n¨‑pt‑\‑m¡‑nb

t‑¸‑mÄ ic‑nb‑mW‑v. h‑n¡‑oe‑oI‑vk‑ns‑â Bk‑m‑ws‑Kb‑ps‑S Bt‑c‑m]W§s‑f At‑ac‑n¡ FX‑nÀ¯X‑v Bt‑c‑m]W ¯‑ns‑â ic‑ns‑Xä‑p t‑\‑m¡‑nbÃ‑, Ak‑m‑w s‑Ks‑¡X‑nc‑mb‑n s‑]®‑ns‑\s‑¡‑mï‑v ]‑oU\t‑¡k‑p s‑I‑mS‑p¸‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ s‑Xf‑nh‑v I¼‑y‑q«À hg‑n t‑iJc‑n¨‑mW‑v. h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S c‑q]‑w a‑md‑pIb‑mW‑v. Bt‑c‑m]Wa‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯. h‑m¡‑pIÄ Bt‑c‑m]W¯‑ns‑â kl‑mb‑n F¶ \‑neb‑nt‑e¡‑v X‑mg‑v¶‑p. al‑m`‑mcX¯‑ns‑e Hc‑p IYb‑mW‑v. c‑wK‑w C{‑µ{‑]Ø‑w. I‑me‑w Z‑z‑m]c b‑pK‑w. Pc‑mkÔs‑\ h[‑n¨‑p Ig‑nª‑p. C\‑n Bc‑p‑w Xs‑¶ FX‑nÀ¡‑m\‑nÃ. X‑m\‑mW‑v `‑mcX¯‑ns‑â GIi‑mkI s‑\¶‑p {‑]J‑y‑m]‑n¡‑m\‑p-Å kµÀ`‑w CX‑p Xs‑¶s‑b¶‑v ]‑mW‑vUhc‑ns‑e a‑q¯h\‑mb b‑p[‑nj‑vT‑nc³ X‑oÀ¨s‑¸S‑p ¯‑n. Xs‑¶ [À½]‑p{‑XÀ F¶‑p {‑]P IÄ h‑mg‑v¯W‑w. t‑N‑mcb‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w b‑p²¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w FÃ‑m H‑mÀ½If‑p‑w AhÀ ad¡W‑w. [À½]‑p{‑XÀ \S¯‑p¶ c‑mPk‑qb a‑mW‑v. FÃ‑m c‑mP‑m¡·‑mc‑p‑w h‑nt‑[bX‑z‑w {‑]IS‑n¸‑n¡‑m³ c‑mPk‑qb¯‑ns‑\¯ W‑w. FÃ‑mhs‑cb‑p‑w £W‑n¨‑p. FÃ‑m hc‑p‑w F¯‑n. FÃ‑mhc‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑\‑m«‑w [À½]‑p{‑XÀ X§Ä¡‑p GX‑v Cc‑n¸S a‑mW‑v \ÂI‑p¶s‑X¶‑v F¶X‑ne‑mb‑n c‑p¶‑p. \‑m‑w I‑mW‑md‑nt‑Ã‑, C¶‑p‑w Gä h‑p‑w D¶X\‑mb t‑\X‑mh‑nt‑\‑mS‑v s‑X‑m«‑v t‑NÀ¶‑nc‑p¶‑v I‑y‑mad‑mb‑ps‑S s‑{‑^b‑na‑n  hc‑m\‑pÅ X‑nc¡‑v. AS‑p¯‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ h³ I‑qS‑pX _eh‑m³ F¶‑v ]db‑m s‑X Xs‑¶ P\‑w a\Ê‑ne‑m¡‑p‑w. [À½ ]‑p{‑Xc‑ps‑S k‑n‑wl‑mk\¯‑n\‑v Gäh‑p‑w AS‑p¯‑pÅ It‑kc BÀ¡‑mW‑v \ÂI‑p¶X‑v? X{‑´Ú\‑mb [À½ ]‑p{‑XÀ CX‑n CSs‑]«‑nÃ. FÃ‑m‑w


(27) `‑oj‑va]‑nX‑mals‑\ G¸‑n¨‑p. Ah‑ns‑Sb‑mW‑v A]IS‑w k‑w`h‑n¨X‑v. i‑ni‑p]‑me³ t‑NZ‑nc‑mP‑ys‑¯ c‑mP‑m h‑mW‑v. aä‑p c‑mP‑m¡·‑ms‑ct‑¸‑ms‑e k‑m[‑mcW a\‑pj‑y\Ã. ]‑mc¼c‑ya‑mW‑v a‑pX¡‑q«‑v. `c‑n¡‑m\‑mb‑v P\‑n¨h³. [À½]‑p{‑Xs‑c¡‑mf‑p‑w `‑mcXN{‑IhÀ ¯‑nb‑mI‑m³ X\‑n¡‑mW‑v Ig‑nh‑p‑w ]‑mc ¼c‑yh‑ps‑a¶‑v h‑ni‑zk‑n¡‑p¶h³. ]s‑£ X¡‑me‑w \‑nhÀ¯‑nb‑nÃ‑m¯ X‑ps‑I‑mï‑v h¶‑ps‑ht‑¶b‑pÅ‑p. IS‑p¯ ]‑mc¼c‑ya‑mW‑v i‑ni‑p]‑me s‑â a‑pXe‑v. s‑s‑hI‑pW‑vT¯‑n al‑m h‑nj‑vW‑ph‑ns‑â Z‑z‑mc]‑meI\‑mb‑nc‑p¶ Pb\‑v k\Ia‑p\‑nb‑ps‑S i‑m]‑w a‑qe‑w a‑q¶‑p P·‑w Ak‑pct‑b‑m\‑nb‑n ]‑nd t‑¡ï‑nh¶‑p. I‑rXb‑pK¯‑n l‑nc

 cs‑ï®‑w CÃ‑mX‑mI‑p‑w. `‑qX¯‑ns‑â \‑mh‑v ]‑ng¨‑nÃ. k‑w`h‑w kX‑ya‑mb‑n. AZ‑v`‑pX_‑mes‑\ I‑mW‑m³ c‑mP‑m¡·‑ms‑cÃ‑m‑w H¶‑n\‑p ]‑nds‑I H¶‑mb‑n h¶‑p. ]¿s‑â ]‑nX‑m h‑v t‑NZ‑nc‑mP‑y‑m[‑n]³ Zat‑L‑mj³ _‑p²‑ni‑me‑nb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. hc‑p¶hc‑ps‑S s‑bÃ‑m‑w aS‑nb‑n I‑pª‑ns‑\ e‑mf‑n¡‑m ³ s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑p. Xs‑â kt‑l‑mZcs‑â aI\‑mb {‑i‑oI‑rj‑vW³ h¶t‑¸‑mÄ I‑pª‑ns‑â A-½ {‑i‑pX{‑ihÊ‑n\‑v ka‑m[‑m\a‑mb‑n. ]s‑£ I‑pª‑ns‑\ {‑i‑oI‑rj‑vW³ aS‑nb‑n h¨ \‑na‑nj‑w Ahs‑â a‑q¶‑m‑w I®‑p‑w cï‑p s‑s‑II f‑p‑w A{‑]X‑y£a‑mb‑n. Ah³ AX‑nk‑pµc\‑mb‑n a‑md‑n. `‑qX‑w ]dª IY Ad‑nb‑mh‑p¶ FÃ‑mhÀ¡‑p‑w X‑oÀ¨b‑m b‑n. C‑u I‑rj‑vWs‑â s‑s‑IIf‑me‑mb‑nc‑n

in-ip-]m-eh[w: H-cp s]-bvân§v

W‑y‑m£\‑mb‑n P·s‑aS‑p¯‑p. AS‑p¯ t‑{‑XX‑mb‑pK¯‑n c‑mhW³. Ct‑¸‑mÄ Z‑z‑m]cb‑pK¯‑n i‑ni‑p]‑me\‑pa‑mb‑n. P\‑n¨t‑¸‑mt‑g i‑ni‑p]‑me³ AZ‑v`‑pX _‑me\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. a‑q¶‑p I®‑pIÄ. \‑me‑p s‑s‑IIÄ. Ig‑pXb‑ps‑S i_‑vZ‑w. C‑u s‑s‑hI‑rX‑w Iï‑v I‑pª‑ns‑\ Dt‑] £‑n¡‑m³ a‑mX‑m]‑nX‑m¡·‑mÀ X‑oc‑pa‑m \‑n¨‑p. DSs‑\ Hc‑p `‑qX‑w Ah‑ns‑S {‑]X‑y £s‑¸«‑v ]dª‑p. AÃt‑b‑m c‑mP‑mt‑h‑, \‑n§f‑ps‑S C‑u ]‑p{‑X³ Gäh‑p‑w _e h‑m\‑mb c‑mP‑mh‑mb‑n¯‑oc‑p‑w. Chs‑\ h[‑n¡‑m³ Hc‑mÄ¡‑p a‑m{‑Xt‑a ià‑n b‑pÅ‑p. Ab‑mÄ `‑qa‑nb‑n P\‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v. Ahs‑\ Iï‑m Chs‑â a‑q¶‑m‑w I®‑p \j‑vSs‑¸S‑p‑w. Ahs‑â aS‑nb‑n Cc‑p¯‑nb‑m Chs‑â \‑me‑p s‑s‑IIf‑n

¡‑p‑w i‑ni‑p]‑mes‑â A´‑y‑w. {‑i‑pX {‑ihÊ‑v s‑]‑m«‑n¡cª‑p. I‑rj‑vW³ ka‑m[‑m\‑n¸‑n¨‑p‑, "A½‑mb‑n‑, ka‑m[‑m\ a‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑q. Ch³ \‑qd‑p I‑pä‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑m e‑p‑w R‑m³ £a‑n¡‑p‑w' i‑ni‑p]‑me³ c‑mP‑mh‑mbt‑¸‑mÄ C‑u IYs‑bÃ‑m‑w ad¶‑p. H‑mÀ½‑n¸‑n¡‑m³ Bc‑p‑w s‑s‑[c‑ys‑¸«‑pa‑nÃ. H‑mÀ½‑n¸‑n¡‑p ¶hs‑\ s‑I‑mÃ‑m\‑p‑w i‑ni‑p]‑me\‑v aS‑nb‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑nÃ. s‑I‑me BZ‑y‑w h‑m¡‑p s‑I‑mï‑mb‑n c‑n¡‑p‑w. ]‑ns‑¶ h‑mf‑p s‑I‑mï‑p‑w. cï‑ne‑p‑w i‑ni‑p]‑me³ kaÀ° \‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. B i‑ni‑p]‑me³ c‑mPk‑qbt‑hZ‑n b‑ns‑e¯‑n. Hc‑p k‑wibh‑pa‑nÃ. X\‑n ¡‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w a‑pJ‑y‑mX‑nY‑n Ø‑m\‑w

F¶ ]‑qÀ®h‑ni‑z‑mkt‑¯‑ms‑S Cc‑n¸S‑w t‑XS‑n. CX‑m‑, I‑nS¡‑p¶‑p. H¶‑m‑w Ø‑m\¯‑v {‑i‑oI‑rj‑vW³. aª¸«‑p‑w D¯c‑obh‑p‑w ]‑p©‑nc‑nb‑pa‑mb‑n. t‑Zj‑y‑w AS¡‑m³ ]ä‑nb‑nÃ. D¨¯‑n Bt‑{‑I‑m i‑n¨‑p. Bc‑mW‑nX‑v s‑Nb‑vXX‑v? Fs‑¶ AhKW‑n¨‑v Hc‑p I‑me‑ns‑b t‑ab‑v¡‑p¶ IÅs‑\ H¶‑m‑w Ø‑m\¯‑nc‑p¯‑nbX‑v? `‑oj‑va]‑nX‑mal³ ]dª‑p. Ø‑m\‑w e`‑n¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â a‑m\ ZW‑vU‑w s‑hd‑p‑w s‑s‑]X‑rI‑w a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, Ad‑nh‑p‑w t‑ij‑nb‑p‑w P\{‑]‑oX‑nb‑p‑w A§‑ns‑\ A\h[‑n Ig‑nh‑pIf‑p‑w Ah b‑vs‑¡Ã‑m‑w A‑wK‑oI‑mch‑p‑w e`‑n¡‑pt‑¼‑m g‑mW‑v. i‑ni‑p]‑me³ h‑nd s‑I‑mï‑p. `‑oj‑vac‑ps‑S t‑\s‑c h‑nc N‑qï‑n. At‑¸‑mÄ X‑m\‑m CX‑v s‑Nb‑vXX‑v? `‑oj‑vas‑c t‑\‑m¡‑n kZÊ‑ms‑I t‑IÄ¡‑p¶ k‑zc¯‑n i‑ni‑p]‑me³ h‑nf‑n¨‑p ]dª‑p. jW‑vU³. `‑mcX‑ob ]‑pc‑mW¯‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w {‑]ik‑vXa‑mb \‑mh‑p ]‑ngh‑ns‑â IY b‑mW‑nX‑v. `‑oj‑vaÀ a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, t‑I«‑p\‑n¶ FÃ‑mhc‑p‑w C‑u \‑mh‑p ]‑ng F¡‑me h‑p‑w H‑mÀ¯‑p. i‑ni‑p]‑me³ C‑u \‑mh‑p ]‑ngb‑ps‑S t‑]c‑n A\‑p`h‑nt‑¡ï‑n h¶ Z‑pt‑c‑y‑mK§Ä FÃ‑m‑w \i‑n¨‑v s‑Nt‑¦‑me‑p‑w a\È‑m´‑nb‑p‑w XIÀ¶ Bf‑pIÄt‑¡ a\Ê‑ne‑mI‑pIb‑pÅ‑p. \‑mh‑v ]‑ngh‑v. \‑m¡‑n\‑v a\‑pj‑yic‑oc¯‑ns‑e a‑n¡ h‑md‑p‑w FÃ‑m Ahbh§s‑fb‑p‑w t‑]‑ms‑e cï‑p {‑]hÀ¯\§Ä¡‑v Ig‑n h‑pï‑v. c‑pN‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w H¨ hc‑p¯‑m\‑p‑w. cï‑p‑w ]‑ng¡‑ms‑X t‑\‑mt‑¡ï X‑mW‑v. ]‑mg‑vc‑pN‑n hbd‑nfI‑pt‑¼‑mÄ X‑oc‑p‑w. h‑m¡‑pIÄ F¶‑p‑w \‑ne \‑n¡‑p‑w. Bt‑c‑m]Wh‑p‑w {‑]X‑y‑mt‑c‑m]Wh‑p‑w F¶‑p‑w \‑ne \‑n¡‑p‑w. a‑m²‑ya‑w Z‑ri‑yc‑q]¯‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑n hc‑ps‑¶¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯IÄ Bt‑c‑m] W¯‑n P\‑n¡‑p¶X‑p I‑mcW‑w Ah b‑v¡‑p acWa‑pï‑mI‑nÃ. Al½Z‑v ]t‑« e‑ns‑\ Ae‑pa‑n\‑ob‑w ]t‑«Â F¶‑p h‑nf‑n¨ \½‑ps‑S a‑nS‑p¡\‑mb t‑\X‑mh‑v a‑pcf‑o[c\‑p‑w‑, Bk‑vt‑{‑Xe‑nb³ B³{‑U‑q k‑na³U‑vk‑ns‑\ a¦‑n F¶‑p h‑nf‑n¨ \½‑ps‑S lÀ`P\‑p‑w‑, ]es‑cb‑p‑w ]e t‑]c‑p‑w h‑nf‑n¨ \½‑ps‑S l‑mk‑y t‑I‑mfa‑nÌ‑pIf‑p‑w Hs‑¡ C‑u kX‑y¯‑n s‑â Z‑pc´‑w A\‑p`h‑n¡‑p¶hc‑mW‑v. t\mhenÌpw ho£Ww ap³ No^v FUnädpamWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: varma.klmohana@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


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]{X{]hÀ¯Isâ XqenIbv¡v, Iymad¡®n\v temIs¯ amän adn¡m\pÅ Ignhpïv. hmÀ¯bpsS temI¯v AÛpX§Ä krãn¨ temIam[yacwKs¯ A¯cw AXpeycmb {]Xn`Isf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pó ]wàn.

Im

À«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va ¬ ]W‑vU‑nä‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑ns‑\ hc-¨-t‑¸‑mÄ K‑mÔ‑n-s‑¯‑m¸‑n Dt‑]£‑n-¨‑p. ]ec‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n-Ì‑n-t‑\‑mS‑v I‑mc‑y‑w X‑nc-¡‑n. a‑pS‑n-\‑m-c‑n-g-b‑n-Ã‑m¯ i‑nck‑v s‑X‑m¸‑n-b‑n HX‑p-§‑n-b‑n-c‑n¡‑p¶ s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑ns‑\ I‑mW‑m-\‑mW‑v t‑Ne‑v. s‑X‑m¸‑n-b‑n-Ã‑m¯ s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑n\‑v I‑mc‑y-a‑m-s‑bt‑´‑m I‑pd-h‑p-ÅX‑p t‑]‑ms‑e t‑X‑m¶‑p‑w; t‑^‑mt‑«‑m-b‑n-e‑m-b‑me‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑qW‑n-e‑m-b‑m-e‑p‑w. ]t‑£ e£‑va¬ B t‑]‑mc‑m-b‑va-b‑n-e‑mW‑v D‑u¶‑n-b-X‑v. K‑mÔ‑ns‑¯‑m¸‑n [c‑n-¡‑m¯ s‑\l‑vd‑p. I‑pf‑n-a‑pd‑n-b‑n \‑n¶‑v Cd-§‑n-h-c‑p-¶-X‑p-t‑]‑ms‑e {‑^j‑v IY‑m-]‑m-{‑X‑w. AX‑n-s‑e´‑p ^e‑nX-s‑a-¶t‑Ã? {‑][‑m-\-a{‑´‑n s‑\l‑vd‑p Xs‑¶ I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v e£‑va-t‑W‑mS‑v a‑p‑ws‑s‑_b‑n Hc‑p NS-§‑n AS‑p¯‑p Iït‑¸‑mÄ t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p: ""X‑m¦Ä F´‑mW‑v X‑pSÀ¨-b‑mb‑n Fs‑¶ s‑X‑m¸‑n-b‑n-Ã‑ms‑X hc-b‑v¡‑p-¶X‑v?‑'' At‑¸‑mÄ a‑m{‑X‑w -I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v B clk‑y‑w ]‑pd-¯‑p-h‑n«‑p. ""{‑][‑m-\-a-{‑´‑n‑, X‑m¦-f‑ps‑S k‑z`‑mh-§Ä¡‑v B K‑mÔ‑n-s‑¯‑m¸‑n X‑os‑c CW-§‑p-¶‑n-Ã. AX‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑mW‑v Fs‑â N‑n{‑X-§-f‑n R‑m\X‑v Hg‑n-h‑m-¡‑p-¶-X‑v.‑'' ad‑p-]S‑n t‑I«‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p s‑]‑m«‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¨‑p. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v `c-W-h‑y-h-Ø-b‑ps‑S {‑]t‑WX‑mh‑p‑w DÅ‑n Hc‑p t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑nÌ‑p‑w X‑nIª k‑uµ-c‑y‑m-c‑m-[-I-\‑p-a‑mb Ph-lÀe‑m s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑ns‑â k‑z`‑m-h\hw_À 2013

§Ä¡‑v K‑mÔ‑nk‑w X‑os‑c CW-§‑p¶‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑mW‑v e£‑va¬ AÀ°-a‑m¡‑n-b-X‑v. AX‑v ic‑n-b‑m-s‑W¶‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p A‑wK‑o-I-c‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. ]‑ns‑¶´‑n\‑v BP‑o-h-\‑m´‑w ]W‑vU‑nä‑vP‑n K‑mÔ‑n-s‑¯‑m¸‑n AW‑nª‑p? A¶s‑¯ s‑]‑mX‑p-c‑m-j‑v{‑S‑ob k‑wk‑v¡‑mc‑w AX‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. F¶‑m ]c-a-a‑mb kX‑y‑w AX-s‑ö‑v D¶-X-\‑mb Hc‑p I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑n\‑v t‑hK‑w X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m³ ]ä‑p‑w. BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va¬ F¶ Ie‑m-I‑mc\‑v I‑mÀ«‑q¬ Ae-k-a‑mb‑n N‑nc‑n¨‑p XÅ‑m-\‑pÅ Hc‑p ^e‑n-X-a-Ã. Nc‑n-{‑X¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w k‑wk‑v¡‑m-c-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w ]Ý‑m-¯-e-¯‑n s‑Xf‑n-ª‑p-h-c‑p¶ b‑mY‑mÀ°‑y-§-f‑m-W‑v. AX‑n Bt‑£]-l‑m-k‑y-a‑p-ï‑v. a‑qÀ¨-t‑b-d‑nb h‑naÀi\-a‑p-ï‑v. I‑mes‑¯ ad‑n-I-S-¡‑p¶ k‑uµ-c‑y-a‑p-ï‑v. hk‑vX‑pX s‑hf‑n-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑m-\‑pÅ {‑ia-a‑p-ï‑v. A[‑n-I‑m-c-¸-S-h‑ne‑n-c‑p¶‑v Al-¦-c‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑I‑ma‑m-f‑n-Is‑f AS‑n-s‑¨‑m-X‑p-¡‑m-\‑pÅ Bt‑h-i-h‑p-a‑pï‑v. A§s‑\ a‑nI¨ I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Ht‑c kab‑w {‑kj‑vS‑mh‑p‑w k‑wl‑m-cI\‑p‑w Bs‑W¶‑v ]d-b‑m‑w. BÀ.-s‑I.e-£‑va¬ Ac-\‑q-ä‑m-ï‑n-t‑e-s‑d-¡‑me‑w C´‑y³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob k‑ma‑q-l‑nI c‑wK¯‑v s‑Nb‑vX \‑nk‑vX‑p-e-a‑mb t‑kh\‑w AX‑mW‑v. Hc‑p a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w kµÀi‑n¨‑p aS§‑p¶ t‑I{‑µ k‑m‑wk‑v¡‑m-c‑nI a{‑´‑n Ah‑ns‑S l‑mf‑n {‑]ZÀi‑n-¸‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶

al‑m-ß‑m-K‑m-Ô‑n-b‑ps‑S N‑n{‑X-¯‑n-\-S‑nb‑n-s‑e-g‑p-X‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑]c‑v h‑mb‑n¨‑v Bs‑f X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m³ {‑ia‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ s‑k{‑I-«d‑n H‑mS‑n-s‑¨¶‑v ""K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n‑, kÀ‑'' F¶‑v H‑mÀ½-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n kl‑mb‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. \‑m¸X‑p hÀj‑w a‑p¼‑v e£‑va¬ hc¨ Hc‑p l‑mk‑y-N‑n-{‑X-a‑mW‑n-X‑v. K‑mÔ‑nP‑n k‑ma‑m-\‑y-P-\-§Ä¡‑nS-b‑n I‑qS‑p-X {‑]i-k‑vX-\‑m-I‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ `c-W-IÀ¯‑m-¡Ä At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â c‑q]‑w t‑]‑me‑p‑w Iï‑m X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m-¯h-c‑m-s‑W¶‑v I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v l‑mk‑y‑m-ßI-a‑mb‑n ]d-b‑p-¶‑p. k‑zX{‑´ C´‑y-b‑n K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑ps‑S a‑qe‑y-§Ä¡‑p-ï‑m-I‑p¶ ]X-\s‑¯ C§s‑\ \‑nc-h[‑n I‑mÀ«‑qW‑p-I-f‑n e£‑va¬ h‑nj-b-a‑m-¡‑nb‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. Xe-b‑n s‑I‑mg‑p-¸‑p-a‑p-ä‑nb t‑I‑ma‑m-f‑n-I-f‑mW‑v \s‑½ `c‑n-¡‑m³ hc‑p-¶-s‑X¶‑v H‑mt‑c‑m l‑mk‑y-N‑n-{‑X-¯‑ne‑q-s‑Sb‑p‑w D¶-X-\‑mb C‑u Ie‑m-I‑m-c³ Bk‑z‑m-Z-Is‑c H‑mÀ½‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑n-c‑p¶‑p. "b‑p s‑kU‑v Cä‑v.‑' \‑me‑p Zi‑m-_‑vZt‑¯‑mf‑w e£‑va¬ hc¨ t‑_‑mI‑vk‑v I‑mÀ«‑q¬. AX‑n ]X‑n-h‑mb‑n {‑]X‑y£-s‑¸-S‑p¶ "t‑I‑ma¬ a‑m³‑' AYh‑m k‑m[‑m-c-W-¡‑m-c³ H¶‑p‑w k‑wk‑m-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑n-Ã. FÃ‑m-¯‑n\‑p‑w k‑m£‑n-b‑m-I‑p¶ Ab‑mÄ¡‑v t‑]c‑n-Ã. al‑m-\-K-c-¯‑ns‑e \‑ni-_‑vZ-\‑mb a\‑p-j‑y³. a‑p‑ws‑s‑_ \K-c-`-c-W-I‑qS‑w s‑Nb‑vX-X‑ne‑p‑w Gs‑d t‑kh\‑w C‑u I‑mÀ«‑q¬ IY‑m-]‑m{‑X‑w \K-c-¯‑n-\‑p-t‑hï‑n A\‑p-j‑vT‑n-¨‑n«‑p-s‑ï¶‑v C‑ub‑ns‑S C‑u k‑m[‑m-cW-¡‑m-cs‑â ]‑qÀ®-I‑mb {‑]X‑na Ø‑m]‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑hf-b‑n t‑\X‑m-¡Ä aÕ-c‑n¨‑p h‑ne-b‑n-c‑p-¯‑p-¶X‑v e£‑va¬


(29) Hc‑p a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w kµÀi‑n¨‑p aS-§‑p¶ t‑I{‑µ k‑m‑wk‑v¡‑m-c‑nI a{‑´‑n Ah‑ns‑S l‑mf‑n {‑]ZÀi‑n-¸‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶ al‑m-ß‑m-K‑m-Ô‑n-b‑ps‑S N‑n{‑X-¯‑n\-S‑n-b‑n-s‑e-g‑p-X‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑]c‑v h‑mb‑n¨‑v Bs‑f X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m³ {‑ia‑n¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ s‑k{‑I-«d‑n H‑mS‑n-s‑¨¶‑v ""K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n‑, kÀ‑'' F¶‑v H‑mÀ½s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n kl‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. \‑m¸X‑p hÀj‑w a‑p¼‑v e£‑va¬ hc¨ Hc‑p l‑mk‑y-N‑n-{‑X-a‑m-W‑n-X‑v. K‑mÔ‑nP‑n k‑ma‑m-\‑y-P-\-§Ä¡‑n-S-b‑n I‑qS‑p-X {‑]i-k‑vX-\‑m-I‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ `c-W-IÀ¯‑m-¡Ä At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â c‑q]‑w t‑]‑me‑p‑w Iï‑m X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑n-b‑m-¯-h-c‑m-s‑W¶‑v I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v l‑mk‑y‑m-ß-I-a‑mb‑n ]d-b‑p-¶‑p. k‑zX{‑´ C´‑y-b‑n K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑ps‑S a‑qe‑y-§Ä¡‑p-ï‑m-I‑p¶ ]X-\s‑¯ C§s‑\ \‑nc-h[‑n I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑pI-f‑n e£‑va¬ h‑nj-b-a‑m-¡‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. Xe-b‑n s‑I‑mg‑p-¸‑p-a‑p-ä‑nb t‑I‑ma‑m-f‑n-I-f‑mW‑v \s‑½ `c‑n-¡‑m³ hc‑p-¶-s‑X¶‑v H‑mt‑c‑m l‑mk‑y-N‑n-{‑X¯‑n-e‑q-s‑Sb‑p‑w D¶-X-\‑mb C‑u Ie‑m-I‑m-c³ Bk‑z‑m-Z-Is‑c H‑mÀ½‑n-¸‑n¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑n-c‑p-¶‑p.

\‑ni-_‑vZ-\‑mb‑n t‑I«‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. b‑mN-IÀ [\-X-X‑z-i‑mk‑v{‑X‑w NÀ¨ s‑N¿‑p-¶X‑p Iï‑v "k‑m[‑m-c-W-¡‑m-c³' N‑nc‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. At‑[‑m-t‑e‑mI {‑]hÀ¯-Is‑c s‑]‑m¡‑m\‑n-d-§‑nb s‑]‑me‑ok‑v t‑Nc‑n-b‑ns‑e I‑qä³ I‑pg-e‑n Ib-d‑p¶ Hc‑p-hs‑\ ]‑nS‑nI‑qS‑n t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p-¶‑p. ""F´‑n-\‑mW‑v \‑o R§s‑f Iï‑v s‑s‑]¸‑n Ibd‑n Hf‑n-¨X‑v?‑'' F¶‑v s‑]‑me‑ok‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n-¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ ""R‑m\-h‑ns‑S Hf‑n-¨-XÃ; Ah‑ns‑S-b‑mW‑v R‑m³ P‑oh‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v‑'' F¶‑v Ab‑mÄ ad‑p-]S‑n ]d-b‑p-¶‑p. al‑m-\-K-c¯‑ns‑e ]‑mÀ¸‑nS Z‑mc‑n-{‑Z‑ys‑¯ ]c‑n-lk‑n-¡‑p¶ DÖ‑z-e-a‑mb Hc‑p I‑mÀ«‑q¬ cN-\. Cµ‑n-c‑m-K‑mÔ‑n Z‑mc‑n{‑Z‑y \‑nÀ½‑mÀÖ\‑mÀ°‑w "Kc‑o_‑n lT‑mt‑h‑m‑' ]c‑n-]‑mS‑n {‑]J‑y‑m-]‑n-¨‑p. s‑Xc‑p-h‑n-e‑n-c‑p¶‑p h‑ni¶‑p Ic-b‑p¶ \‑mt‑S‑mS‑n I‑p«‑n-b‑ps‑S `‑n£‑m]‑m-{‑X-¯‑n kÀ¡‑mÀ {‑]J‑y‑m-]-\¯‑ns‑â h‑mÀ¯ A¨-S‑n¨ ]{‑X‑w C«‑ps‑I‑m-S‑p-¯-t‑ij‑w {‑]‑nh‑n-t‑]g‑vk‑v h‑m§‑n ]gb \‑m«‑p-c‑m-P‑mh‑v \S¶‑p t‑]‑mI‑p-¶‑p. k‑m[‑m-c-W-¡‑m-c³ B I‑p«‑ns‑b s‑s‑Z\‑ya‑mb‑n t‑\‑m¡‑p-¶‑p. Hc‑p-]t‑£ C‑u I‑mÀ«‑q¬ Iï-t‑i-j-a‑m-IW‑w Cµ‑n-c‑mK‑mÔ‑n \‑m«‑p-c‑m-P‑m-¡-·‑m-c‑ps‑S {‑]‑nh‑n-t‑] g‑vk‑v B\‑p-I‑qe‑y \‑nd‑p-¯-e‑m-¡‑m³ X‑oc‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¨-X‑v. e£‑va¬ ]d-b‑p¶‑p: ""Cµ‑n-c‑m-K‑m-Ô‑n¡‑v HS‑p-h‑n-s‑e‑m-S‑p-h‑n Ft‑¶‑mS‑v IS‑p¯ ]I-b‑m-b‑n. R‑m\‑p‑w hI-h-¨‑n-Ã. Hc‑p ab-h‑p-a‑n-Ã‑ms‑X hc¨‑p. Hc‑p c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob t‑\X‑m-h‑n-s‑\b‑p‑w k‑pJ‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m³ Fs‑â {‑_j‑v Hc‑p-¡-a‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑n-Ã. F¶‑n«‑p‑w F\‑n¡‑v ]ß‑m Ah‑mÀU‑v e`‑n-¨‑p.‑'' I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑ns‑â AS‑n-Ø‑m-\-X-X‑z§s‑f e£‑va¬ a‑m\‑n-¨‑n-Ã. bY‑mXYa‑mW‑v At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â s‑s‑ie‑n. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob t‑\X‑m-h‑ns‑â Gs‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w `‑mh-c‑q]‑w I‑qS‑p-X {‑]I-S-a‑m¡‑n hc¨‑v l‑mk‑y-a‑p-ï‑m-t‑¡ï Bhi‑y‑w e£‑va¬ Iï‑n-Ã. I‑mc‑n-t‑¡-¨-d‑pIÄ Gs‑d-¡‑ps‑d bY‑m c‑q]-¯‑n-e‑mW‑v At‑±l‑w hc-¨-X‑v. e£‑va¬ ]d-b‑p¶‑p: ""]gb {‑]a‑m-W-a-\‑p-k-c‑n¨‑v k‑vs‑]j‑y ^‑ot‑¨g‑vk‑v ]Àh-X‑o-I-c‑n¨‑v hc-b‑v¡W‑w. F¶‑m C¶s‑¯ t‑\X‑m-¡Ä¡‑v AX‑ns‑â Bh-i‑y-a‑n-Ã. Ah-c‑ps‑S t‑Nj‑vS-IÄ A¸S‑n hc-¨‑me‑p‑w P\-§Ä ck‑n¨‑p t‑]‑mI‑p‑w. A{‑Xb‑v¡‑v l‑mk‑y-c‑q]-§-ft‑à \½‑ps‑S H‑mt‑c‑m t‑\X‑m-h‑p‑w.‑'' h‑n{‑i‑p-X-\‑mb {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v I‑mÀ«‑qW‑nÌ‑v t‑Uh‑nU‑v t‑e‑m Bb‑n-c‑p¶‑p BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va¬ s‑Nd‑p-¸-¯‑n Bc‑m-[-\-t‑b‑m-s‑Sb ]‑n´‑p-SÀ¶ he‑nb Ie‑m-I‑m-c³. l‑nµ‑p Z‑n\-]-{‑X¯‑n t‑e‑m hc¨ I‑mÀ«‑q¬ c‑q]-§Ä e£‑va¬ ]IÀ¯‑n ]c‑n-i‑o-e‑n-¨‑p. t‑e‑m I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n H¸‑p-h-¨‑n-c‑p-¶X‑v \hw_À 2013


(30) BZ‑y-s‑a‑ms‑¡ e£‑va¬ ]i‑p (cow) F¶‑mW‑v h‑mb‑n-¨-X‑v. AX‑v I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑ns‑â X‑qe‑n-I‑m-\‑m-a-a‑m-I‑p-s‑a¶‑v Ic‑p-X‑n. t‑Uh‑nU‑v t‑e‑m BW‑v B I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑p-If‑ps‑S cN-b‑n-X‑m-s‑h¶‑v a\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑nb t‑ij‑w t‑P‑yj‑vT³ BÀ.-s‑I.-\‑m-c‑m-b¬ hg‑n l‑nµ‑p-h‑n \‑n¶‑v t‑aÂh‑n-e‑mk‑w Xc-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n. t‑e‑mb‑ps‑S D]-t‑Zi‑w t‑XS‑n Is‑¯-g‑pX‑n k‑ul‑rZ‑w Ø‑m]‑n¨‑p. 1952  t‑e‑mb‑p‑w `‑mc‑yb‑p‑w aIs‑f I‑mW‑m³ t‑l‑mt‑¦‑m-§‑n t‑]‑mI‑p‑w hg‑n a‑p‑ws‑_-b‑n-e‑n-d-§‑n. e£‑va¬ A§s‑\ Xs‑â Bc‑m-[-\‑m-]‑m-{‑Xs‑¯ BZ‑y-a‑mb‑n Iï‑p. e£‑va¬ Fg‑p-X‑p¶‑p: ""I\¯ ]‑pc‑n-I-§Ä‑, X‑nf-§‑p¶ I®‑p-IÄ‑, Ijï‑n Ib-d‑nb Xe‑, N‑pc‑p«‑p Nh-¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑p \‑n¡‑p¶ t‑e‑m. ad-¡‑m-\‑m-h‑p¶‑nà B c‑q]h‑p‑w i_‑vZ-h‑p‑w.‑'' cï‑phÀj‑w Ig‑nª‑v e£‑va¬ eï-\‑n s‑N¶‑v kÀ t‑Uh‑nU‑v t‑e‑ms‑b h‑oï‑p‑w

c‑n-¨‑p. N‑n{‑X-Ie ]T‑n-¡‑m³ t‑]‑mb‑nc‑p-s‑¶-¦‑n e£‑va¬ I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Bs‑b¶‑p hc‑n-Ã. t‑e‑mI {‑]ik‑vX‑n t‑\S‑nb Hc‑p C´‑y³ I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v BI‑m³ Hc‑p N‑n{‑X-Ie‑m k‑vI‑qf‑ne‑p‑w ] T‑n-t‑¡-ï-X‑n-s‑ö‑v e£‑va¬ s‑Xf‑n-b‑n¨‑p. s‑s‑\kÀ¤‑n-Ih‑p‑w k‑z‑m`‑m-h‑n-Ih‑p‑w A\‑m-b‑m-kh‑p‑w ef‑nX at‑\‑m-l-c-h‑pa‑mb Hc‑p cN\‑m s‑s‑ie‑n e£‑vaW t‑cJ-I-f‑n-e‑qs‑S ]‑pd-¯‑p-h-¶‑p. c‑mP‑y¯‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑p‑w e£‑va¬ At‑\ I‑w A\‑p-IÀ¯‑m-¡-s‑fb‑p‑w k‑rj‑vS‑n-¨‑p. FÃ‑m I‑p«‑n-I-s‑fb‑p‑w t‑]‑ms‑e `‑n¯‑n-b‑ne‑p‑w IX-I‑ne‑p‑w P‑me-I-¸-S‑nb‑ne‑p‑w hc-¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑mW‑v e£‑va¬ s‑Nd‑p-¸-¯‑n a‑pX‑nÀ¶-h-c‑ps‑S {‑i²b‑m-IÀj‑n-¨-X‑v. k‑vI‑qf‑n kb³k‑v A[‑y‑m-]-Is‑\ Ce-If‑p‑w ]‑q¡f‑p‑w ]c‑o-£-t‑W‑m-]-I-c-W-§f‑p‑w hc¨‑v kl‑m-b‑n-¨‑p. A§s‑\ kl-]‑m-T‑n-

cm-{ã]-Xn F.]n.sP. A-ÐpÄ-I-em-an \n¶pw ]-Zv-a-hn-`q-j³ ]p-c-kv-Im-cw kzo-I-cn-¡p¶p

Iï‑p. N‑n{‑X-Ie D]-N‑m-c-]‑qÀÆ‑w e£‑va¬ ]T‑n-¨‑n-«‑n-Ã. B{‑K-l-a‑n-Ã‑m-ª‑n-«-Ã. ] T‑n-¡‑m³ Ah-k-c-a‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-Ã. k‑vI‑qÄ ]T\‑w Ig‑nª‑v a‑p‑ws‑s‑_-b‑ns‑e s‑P.s‑P.-BÀ«‑v k‑vI‑qf‑n t‑Nc‑m³ At‑]£ Ab-s‑¨-¦‑ne‑p‑w e£‑va-W‑n\‑v AhÀ {‑] t‑h-i\‑w \‑nt‑j-[‑n-¨‑p. At‑]-£-t‑b‑ms‑S‑m¸‑w h¨‑n-c‑p¶ t‑cJ‑m-N‑n-{‑X-§-f‑ps‑S \‑ne-h‑mc‑w e£‑va-W‑n\‑v {‑]t‑h-i\‑w \ÂI‑m³ ]c‑y‑m-]‑vX-a-s‑ö‑v k‑vI‑qÄ U‑o³ ad‑p-]S‑n Ab-¨‑p. A§s‑\ s‑s‑ak‑qÀ al‑m-c‑m-P‑mk‑v t‑I‑mt‑f-P‑n e£‑va¬ _‑n.F ¢‑mÊ‑n t‑NÀ¶‑p. k‑zX-{‑´-a‑mb‑n N‑n{‑X-Ie‑m {‑]hÀ¯\h‑p‑w H¸‑w X‑pSÀ¶‑p. "k‑zc‑mP‑y‑' a‑mk‑nI-b‑n hÃ-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑q¬ hc-¨‑p. \‑mc-Zs‑\ IY‑m-]‑m-{‑X-a‑m¡‑n \‑nÀ½‑n¨ k‑n\‑n-a-b‑ne‑p‑w A¡‑m-e¯‑v kl-I\hw_À 2013

IÄ¡‑n-S-b‑n Hc‑p Ie‑m-I‑m-c-s‑\¶ t‑] c‑v e`‑n¨ e£‑va¬ Xs‑â P‑oh‑n-X -hg‑n N‑n{‑X-I-e-b‑m-s‑W¶‑v k‑zb‑w h‑ni‑z-k‑n¡‑m³ X‑pS-§‑n. t‑P‑yj‑vT³ Fg‑p-X‑p¶ IY-IÄ¡‑v e£‑va¬ N‑n{‑X‑w hc-¨‑p. FÃ‑m‑w {‑]a‑pJ ]{‑X-a‑m-k‑n-I-I-f‑n {‑] k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n¨‑p h¶‑p. "ka-b-X‑p-c‑wK‑w' F¶ Bß-I-Y-b‑n e£‑va¬ Fg‑pX‑p¶‑p: ""{‑]I‑r-X‑ns‑b k‑q£‑va-a‑mb‑n R‑m³ {‑i²‑n-¡‑m³ X‑pS-§‑n. Fs‑â a‑pd‑n-b‑ps‑S P‑me-I-¯‑n-e‑qs‑S ]‑pd¯‑p Iï-X‑n-s‑\-s‑bÃ‑m‑w s‑]³k‑n s‑I‑mï‑v t‑]¸-d‑n ]IÀ¯‑n. A®‑m³‑, H‑m´‑v‑, ac-§Ä‑, hÅ‑n-¸-SÀ¸‑p-IÄ‑, t‑P‑me‑n¡‑mÀ‑, ac‑w a‑pd‑n-¡‑p¶ Z‑ri‑y-§Ä‑, k‑v{‑X‑oIÄ a‑pä-a-S‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v F¶‑p-t‑hï N‑pä‑p‑w Iï-s‑XÃ‑m‑w R‑m³ hc-¨‑p. I‑q«-¯‑n Fs‑¶ Gs‑d BIÀj‑n¨X‑v I‑m¡-I-f‑m-W‑v. I‑m¡ _‑p²‑n-b‑pÅ

]d-h-b‑m-s‑W¶‑v \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¨-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑X‑m¶‑n. AX‑ns‑â At‑\I `‑mh-§Ä‑, I‑ui-e-§Ä‑, k‑wL‑w-t‑N-cÂ‑, Bib-h‑n-\‑n-a-b-c‑o-X‑n‑, Cc-t‑X-S³ FÃ‑m‑w I‑uX‑p-I-I-c-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Gäh‑p‑w {‑] [‑m-\-ab‑n Fs‑¶ BIÀj‑n-¨X‑v I‑m¡b‑ps‑S kh‑n-t‑i-j-a‑mb \‑nd-a‑m-W‑v. F´‑v Ag-I‑mW‑v B Id‑p-¸‑n\‑v‑!‑'' I‑m¡s‑b \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑p‑w hcb‑v¡‑p-¶X‑p‑w I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v e£‑va¬ Cj‑vS-h‑n-t‑\‑m-Z-a‑mb‑n hfÀ¯‑n. 1972  Pl‑m‑w-K‑oÀ BÀS‑v K‑y‑me-d‑n-b‑nÂ‑, e£‑va¬ AX‑p-hs‑c hc¨ I‑m¡I-f‑ps‑S k‑vs‑I¨‑p-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑v s‑Xcs‑ª-S‑p-¯h t‑NÀ¯‑v Hc‑p {‑]ZÀi\‑w \S-¯‑n. he‑nb k‑z‑oI‑m-c‑y-X-b‑mW‑v Ie‑m-t‑{‑]-a‑n-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑v I‑n«‑n-b-X‑v. BZ‑y-Z‑n-hk‑w Xs‑¶ 25 k‑vs‑I¨‑p-IÄ h‑nä‑p-t‑]‑m-b‑n. Hc‑p e£‑va¬ I‑m¡b‑v¡‑v 500 c‑q] h‑ne \ÂI‑n h‑m§‑m³ At‑\I‑w t‑]À X‑n¡‑n-¯‑n-c-¡‑n. A§s‑\ t‑]‑mf-ï‑v, k‑z‑oU³‑, C‑w¥-ï‑v, U³a‑mÀ¡‑v‑, PÀ½-\‑n‑, C{‑k‑m-t‑bÂ‑, P¸‑m³ X‑pS§‑n At‑\I‑w h‑nt‑Zi c‑mP‑y-§-f‑ns‑e `h-\-§-f‑n e£‑va¬ I‑m¡-IÄ Ø‑m\‑w ]‑nS‑n-¨‑p. t‑Zi‑ob ]£‑n-b‑mb ab‑n _‑p²‑n-i‑q-\‑y\‑p‑w h‑r¯‑n-s‑I-«-h-\‑p-a‑ms‑W¶‑v e£‑va¬ h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. ]©-hÀ®-a‑pÅ X¯s‑b X\‑n¡‑v s‑hd‑p-¸‑m-s‑W-¶‑mW‑v At‑±l‑w ] d-b‑p-¶-X‑v. a\‑p-j‑ys‑â N‑ne k‑z`‑mh K‑pW-§Ä I‑m¡-IÄ¡‑p-s‑ï¶‑v e£‑va¬ \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. D¨-a-b-¡‑w‑, I‑rX‑y-k-a-b¯‑v I‑pf‑n‑, {‑]i‑v\-§Ä Dï‑m-I‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ H¯‑p-t‑N-c FÃ‑m‑w I‑m¡-b‑n \‑n¶‑v a\‑p-j‑y³ ]T‑n-¨t‑X‑m a\‑p-j‑y-\‑n \‑n¶‑v I‑m¡ ]T‑n-¨t‑X‑m F¶‑v k‑wi-b‑w. X{‑´-§f‑p‑w \À½t‑_‑m-[-h‑p-a‑pÅ I‑m¡-b‑ps‑S Gg-gI‑v I‑mÀ«‑q¬ hc-b‑v¡‑m³ D]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑p¶ Id‑p¯ aj‑n¡‑p X‑pe‑y‑w. At‑a-c‑n-¡b‑ns‑e k‑va‑nX‑vt‑k‑mW‑n-b³ C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q-«‑n \S-¯‑nb Hc‑p ]c‑o-£W‑w I‑m¡-IÄ¡‑v F®‑w hi-a‑p-s‑ï¶‑v s‑Xf‑n-b‑n-¨‑p. Gg‑p-hs‑c I‑rX‑y-a‑mb‑n F®‑m³ GX‑p I‑m¡b‑v¡‑p‑w Ig‑n-b‑p-at‑{‑X. H‑mt‑c‑m Øe¯‑p‑w I‑m¡ H‑mt‑c‑m h‑n[-a‑m-W‑v. I‑mi‑va‑o-c‑ns‑e I‑m¡ Icb‑n-Ã. k‑n¦-¸‑q-c‑n I‑m¡-b‑n-s‑ö‑p ] d-b‑p-¶‑p. I‑qc‑n-c‑p-«‑ns‑â I‑nS‑m-¯‑nb‑p‑w k‑qc‑y-{‑]-I‑m-i-¯‑ns‑â Dä-t‑X‑m-g‑n-b‑p-a‑mb I‑m¡-s‑b-¡‑p-d‑n¨‑v Fs‑´Ã‑m‑w IY-If‑p-ï‑v. \‑oï P‑md‑n \‑n¶‑v s‑hÅ‑w DbÀ¯‑n-s‑¡‑m-ï‑p-h-c‑m³ H‑mt‑c‑mt‑c‑m IÃ‑n« I‑ui-e-¡‑m-c‑n. BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va¬ I‑m¡s‑b k‑vt‑\ l‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑p s‑hd‑p-s‑X-b-Ã. \‑m¸X‑p hÀjs‑¯ I‑mÀ«‑q¬ cN-\-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y-b‑ps‑S 150-þ‑m‑w


(31) h‑mÀj‑n-I-¯‑n\‑v e£‑va¬ s‑Xc-s‑ªS‑p¯ Xs‑â k‑rj‑vS‑n-IÄ "Z‑n Ce-I‑zâ‑v {‑_j' F¶ t‑]c‑n {‑KÙ-c‑q-]-¯‑n {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p. C‑w¥‑oj‑v A£-ca‑meIÄ X‑nc‑n¨‑p‑w ad‑n-¨‑p-a‑n«‑v {‑_‑mb‑v¡ä‑ne‑p‑w {‑_‑mb‑v¡-ä‑ns‑â {‑_‑mb‑v¡-ä‑ne‑p‑w F a‑pX CkU‑v hs‑cb‑pÅ A£c-§Ä X‑nc‑pI‑n XX‑zZ‑o£b‑n-Ã‑m¯ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¸‑mÀ«‑n-I-f‑p-ï‑m¡‑n If‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑hX‑m-f-§s‑f hc¨‑p s‑I‑mÃ‑p-I-b‑mW‑v Xs‑â P‑oh‑nX Z‑uX‑y-s‑a¶‑v C‑u I‑mÀ«‑qW‑nÌ‑v h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. k‑oa-b‑n-Ã‑m¯ k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y-a‑mW‑v hc-b‑v¡‑m³ Xs‑â ]

hch‑p‑w t‑]‑m¡‑p‑w Dï‑mb \‑oï-I‑m-e‑w. Pb-{‑]-I‑mi‑v \‑mc‑m-b-Ws‑â k¼‑qÀ® h‑n¹-h-I‑m-e‑w. 1984 s‑e t‑Zi‑ob Z‑p‑xJ§f‑p‑w Z‑pc-´-§-f‑p‑w. e£‑va¬ ] d-b‑p¶‑p: ""Cµ‑n-c‑m-K‑m-Ô‑n¡‑p t‑ij‑w aI³ c‑mP‑oh‑v K‑mÔ‑n Z‑qc-ZÀi³ hg‑n c‑mP‑y¯‑v Hc‑p a‑nÌÀ ¢‑o³ Ct‑aP‑v Dï‑m-¡‑m³ {‑ia‑n-¨‑p. R‑m³ A¼-c¶‑p t‑]‑mb‑n. k‑m‑w ]‑nt‑{‑X‑m-Ub‑p‑w kX‑oj‑v iÀ½b‑p‑w I¼‑y‑q-«d‑p‑w s‑Se‑n-t‑^‑mW‑p‑w FÃ‑m‑w t‑NÀ¶‑v c‑mP‑y¯‑v t‑X\‑p‑w ]‑me‑p‑w Hg‑p-¡‑n-¡-f-b‑pt‑a‑m? F¶‑m I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n-Ì‑ns‑â Iª‑n a‑pS-§‑n-bX‑p

§Ä t‑XS‑n. \À¯-I‑nb‑p‑w Ne-¨‑n{‑X \S‑n-b‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ Ia-es‑b e£‑va¬ h‑nh‑ml‑w Ig‑n-s‑¨-¦‑ne‑p‑w B Z‑m¼X‑y‑w Gs‑d \‑oï‑p-\‑n-¶‑n-Ã. h‑nh‑m-l-t‑a‑m-N\-¯‑n-\‑p-t‑ij‑w Iae F¶‑p Xs‑¶ t‑]c‑pÅ Xs‑â _Ô‑ph‑p‑w _‑me-k‑ml‑n-X‑y-I‑m-c‑n-b‑p-a‑mb k‑v{‑X‑os‑b `‑mc‑yb‑mb‑n k‑z‑oI-c‑n-¨‑p. F¦‑ne‑p‑w BZ‑ys‑¯ Ia-es‑b e£‑va¬ X‑ns‑c ad-¶‑p-I-fª‑n-Ã. H¶‑p-a-s‑Ã-¦‑ne‑p‑w AhÀ Ad‑n-bs‑¸-S‑p¶ Hc‑p \S‑n-b-s‑Ã. ^‑ne‑n‑w s‑^bd‑ns‑e t‑I‑mf-¯‑n "Z H‑m¬e‑n Ì‑mÀ s‑F s‑aä‑v‑' F¶ t‑]c‑n ]‑n¡‑m-e¯‑v

Xs‑¶. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w \¶‑m-b‑m \‑mS‑p \¶‑m-I‑p‑w. ]‑ns‑¶ s‑]‑mf‑n-ä‑n-¡Â I‑mÀ«‑q¬ Bh-i‑y-a‑n-Ã. FX‑n-c‑m-f‑n-b‑nÃ‑m¯ t‑]‑mc‑m-f‑n-s‑b-t‑¸‑ms‑e R‑m³ N‑pä‑p‑w t‑\‑m¡‑n. k‑ma‑q-l‑nI h‑naÀi\‑w \S-¯‑m‑w. k‑n\‑n-a-¡‑ms‑c If‑n-b‑m-¡‑m‑w. _‑mÀ ]‑q«‑n s‑Fk‑v{‑I‑o‑w ]‑mÀe-d‑n Ib-d‑nb A\‑p-`-h‑w.‑'' Bb‑ns‑S ^‑ne‑n‑w s‑^bÀ a‑mK-k‑n-\‑n "Z Ì‑mÀ s‑F s‑\ hÀ s‑aä‑v‑' F¶ ]‑wà‑n hc¨‑p X‑pS§‑nb e£‑va¬ N‑nc‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w N‑n´‑n¡‑m\‑p‑w hc-b‑p-s‑S ]‑pX‑nb t‑a¨‑n ]‑pd-

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(32) \‑mb Xs‑â ]‑nX‑m-h‑n\‑v Bh-i‑y-a‑mb ] c‑n-N-c-W-§Ä Hc‑p-¡‑n-s‑¡‑m-S‑p-¡‑p-¶‑p. 91-þ‑m‑w P·-Z‑n-\-¯‑n\‑v e£‑va¬ t‑I¡‑p a‑pd‑n¨‑v AX‑n-Y‑n-IÄ¡‑p‑w h‑o«‑n-s‑e¯‑nb Bc‑m-[-IÀ¡‑p‑w I‑pS‑p‑w-_‑m‑w-K§Ä¡‑p‑w \ÂI‑n. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¡‑ms‑c Bs‑cb‑p‑w Xs‑â k‑zI‑mc‑y h‑nt‑i-j§Ä¡‑v £W‑n-¡-c‑p-s‑X¶‑v aI-t‑\‑mS‑v At‑±l‑w IÀi-\-a‑mb‑n \‑nÀt‑±-i‑n-¨‑n-«‑pï‑v. C‑w¥‑o-j‑n e£‑va¬ Fg‑p-X‑nb Bß-IY (Z SW H‑m^‑v s‑s‑S‑w‑) ad‑m¯‑n `‑mj-b‑n ]c‑n-`‑m-j-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n "e£‑vaW t‑cJ' F¶ t‑]c‑n {‑] k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨-X‑ns‑â BZ‑y-{‑]X‑n Hc‑p ]‑nd-¶‑mÄ k½‑m-\-a‑mb‑n s‑s‑I¸-ä‑n. I‑mÀ«‑q¬ ka‑m-l‑m-c-§Ä AS¡‑w ] X‑n-s‑\‑m¶‑v {‑KÙ-§-f‑mW‑v e£‑va¬ ] e I‑me-§-f‑n-e‑mb‑n {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑n-«‑pÅ-X‑v. t‑l‑m«Â d‑ns‑s‑h-d‑m‑, Z s‑ak-©À F¶‑o t‑\‑mh-e‑p-If‑p‑w {‑_j‑n‑wK‑v A]‑v Z‑n Ct‑bg‑vk‑v F¶ Nc‑n-{‑X-I‑r-X‑nb‑p‑w (s‑]³K‑z‑n³ _‑pI‑vk‑v) AX‑nÂs‑¸S‑p‑w. b‑p s‑kU‑v Cä‑v F¶ I‑mÀ«‑q¬ At‑\I‑w ]X‑n-¸‑p-IÄ ]c-¼-c-b‑mb‑n ]‑pk‑vXI c‑q]-¯‑n-e‑n-d-§‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. AS‑n-Ø‑m-\-]-c-a‑mb‑n X‑ms‑\‑mc‑p t‑Z‑ms‑s‑j-I-Z‑r¡‑p‑w Ai‑p-`‑m]‑vX‑n h‑ni‑z‑m-k‑n-b‑p-a‑m-s‑W¶‑v Gä‑p-]-d-b‑p¶ e£‑va¬ BÀ¡‑p‑w a‑mX‑r-I-b‑mI‑m³ Cj‑vS-s‑¸-S‑p-¶‑n-Ã. Ac-\‑q-ä‑mï‑v a‑p‑ws‑s‑_-b‑ns‑e s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y s‑I«‑n-S-¯‑ns‑â a‑q¶‑m‑w \‑ne-b‑ns‑e s‑Nd‑nb a‑pd‑n-b‑n-e‑n-c‑p¶‑v t‑e‑mI-KX‑n \‑nc‑o-£‑n¨ e£‑va¬ Hc‑n-¡e‑p‑w kab-a-d‑n-b‑m³ Hc‑p h‑m¨‑v AW‑n-ª‑n-Ã. ""N‑pä‑p-a‑pÅ FÃ‑m-hÀ¡‑p‑w h‑m¨‑v DÅt‑¸‑mÄ F\‑n-¡-X‑ns‑â Bh-i‑y-a‑n-s‑ö‑p t‑X‑m¶‑n. ]X‑nh‑v I‑mÀ«‑q¬ \Ât‑Iï kab‑w Fs‑â h‑m¨‑va‑m³ h¶‑v I‑rX‑ya‑mb‑n [c‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. s‑s‑hI‑p-t‑¶c‑w \‑me‑p aW‑n-b‑m-I‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ F\‑n¡‑v H‑m^‑ok‑v h‑n«‑p-t‑]‑m-I‑m-s‑a¶‑p‑w Ab‑mÄ H‑mÀ½‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p‑w. ]‑ns‑¶-´‑n\‑v Hc‑p h‑m¨‑v?'' þ CX‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p e£‑va¬ At‑X¸ä‑n ]d-ª-X‑v. I‑me-¯‑ns‑â A\‑p-k‑y‑q-X-a‑mb Hg‑p¡‑v Hc‑p b{‑´¯‑ns‑â kl‑m-b-a‑n-Ã‑ms‑X X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑nb‑m\‑p‑w kab‑w k‑vX‑w`‑n¨‑p t‑]‑mI‑p¶ IT‑n\ l‑mk‑y‑w Na-b‑v¡‑m\‑p‑w i‑oe-a‑m¡‑nb Hc‑m-s‑f¶ \‑ne-b‑n e£‑va¬ l‑rZb LS‑n-I‑mc‑w s‑I‑mï‑mW‑v Nc‑n-{‑Xs‑¯ \‑nÀ®-b‑n-¨-X‑v. AX‑ns‑â k‑qN‑n-IÄ X\‑n-¡‑n-j‑vS-a‑pÅ c‑oX‑n-b‑n e£‑va¬ a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑p‑w ]‑nt‑¶‑m«‑p‑w X‑nc‑n¨‑p. C´‑y-b‑ns‑e {‑K‑ma-§-f‑n a‑md‑m¯ AÔ-h‑n-i‑z‑m-k-§-f‑n I‑pS‑p-§‑n-t‑¸‑mb a\‑p-j‑y-c‑p-ï‑v. \K-c-§-f‑n _l‑p-`‑qc‑n-]£‑w hc‑p¶ k‑m[‑m-c-W-a-\‑p-j‑yÀ \‑nc‑m-e‑w-_c‑p‑w \‑nÊ-l‑m-b-c‑p-a‑m-W‑v. `c-W-b{‑´‑w X‑nc‑n-¡‑p-¶-ht‑c‑m h‑yh\hw_À 2013

e-£v-a-Wn-sâ {]-i-kv-Xam-b Im-¡ Nn-{X§-fn H¶v

Ø‑m-]‑nX c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob Ah-X‑m-c-§t‑f‑m ]‑mh-s‑¸« a\‑p-j‑y-c‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nX‑w I‑mW‑m³ I‑q«‑m-¡‑p-¶‑n-Ã. \‑mS‑ns‑â h‑nI-k-\-s‑¯-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑pÅ s‑]‑m§¨‑w ]d-¨‑n a‑m{‑Xt‑a Z‑n\-]-{‑X-§-f‑n h‑mb‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å‑q. C´‑y Hc‑p A\‑mY i‑ni‑p-h‑n-s‑\-t‑¸‑ms‑e s‑X‑m«‑n-e‑n I‑nS¶‑v I‑me‑n-«-S‑n¨‑p \‑ne-h‑n-f‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. AX‑n\‑v h‑ni-¡‑p-¶‑p. s‑]‑m§-¨-¡‑m-c‑nb‑mb A½ I‑pª‑ns‑\ {‑i²‑n-¡‑ms‑X "s‑s‑NÂU‑v s‑IbÀ' F¶ ]‑pk‑vXI‑w \‑nhÀ¯‑n-¸‑n-S‑n¨‑v s‑X‑m«-S‑p-¯‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. B A½-b‑ps‑S a‑pJ‑w Cµ‑n-c‑m-K‑m-Ô‑n-b‑pt‑S-X‑m-bX‑v I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v e£‑va-W‑ns‑â I‑pä-a-Ã-t‑Ã‑m. aX-Ø‑m-]-\-§Ä¡‑p‑w s‑s‑Zh-§Ä¡‑p‑w k‑m[‑m-c-W-a-\‑p-j‑ys‑c t‑hï. Ij‑vS-s‑¸-S‑p¶ P\-§s‑f aZÀ s‑Xt‑c-kb‑v¡‑p‑w _‑m_ A‑ws‑Xb‑v¡‑p‑w‑, t‑aY ]Y‑v¡À¡‑p‑w h‑n«‑p-s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯‑n«‑v [\‑n-I-c‑ps‑S k¡‑m-c-¸-´-e‑n X‑n¡‑n-¯‑n-c-¡‑p-I-b‑mW‑v C´‑y³ `c-WhÀ¤‑w. h¯‑n-¡‑m-\‑n a‑mÀ]‑m-¸s‑b I‑mW‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ e£‑va¬ BZ‑y-a‑mb‑n B t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w t‑\c‑n-«‑p. t‑]‑m¸‑v t‑N‑mZ‑n¨‑p: ""X‑m¦Ä s‑s‑Zh-¯‑n h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑p¶‑pt‑ï‑m?'' e£‑va¬ ad‑p-]-S‑n-b‑mb‑n Hc‑p ad‑p-t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w s‑X‑mS‑p-¯‑p. ""s‑s‑Zh‑w a\‑p-j‑y-\‑n h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑p-¶‑pt‑ï‑m?'' k‑m[‑m-cW a\‑p-j‑yÀ¡‑p-t‑hï‑n AÀ°h-¯‑mb‑n N‑n´‑n¨ Ie‑m-I‑m-c-s‑\¶ \‑ne-b‑n 1984  ca¬ aK‑vk‑ms‑k Ah‑mÀU‑v BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va¬ F¶ I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n-Ì‑ns‑\ t‑XS‑n-s‑b-¯‑n. Hc‑p Ø‑m]-\h‑p‑w {‑]Ø‑m-\h‑p‑w CÃ‑ms‑X hcs‑b h{‑P‑m-b‑p-[-a‑m-¡‑n-b-X‑n\‑p e`‑n¨ A‑wK‑o-I‑m-c‑w. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob t‑\X‑m-¡s‑f \‑nc-´c‑w t‑hX‑m-f-§-s‑f¶‑v h‑nf‑n-

¡‑p¶ C‑u I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n-Ì‑n\‑v C´‑y‑m Kh¬s‑aâ‑v ]ß-h‑n-`‑q-j³ \ÂI‑n _l‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¨‑p. k‑n‑w_-t‑b‑m-k‑nk‑v A´‑m-c‑mj‑v{‑S kÀh-I-e‑m-i‑m-e-b‑n BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va¬ s‑NbÀ Dï‑v. "]‑q\ ]W‑vU‑nä‑v‑' Ah‑mÀU‑v AS¡‑w t‑hs‑db‑p‑w \‑nc-h[‑n A‑wK‑o-I‑m-c-§Ä At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â s‑s‑II-f‑n-e‑p-ï‑v. t‑Zi‑ob k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y-¸‑p-e-c‑n-b‑n Hc‑p _‑nc‑p-Z-kÀ«‑n-^‑n-¡ä‑p‑w hc-b‑v¡‑m\‑pÅ h‑mk\‑m _eh‑p‑w a\Ê‑p \‑nds‑b Bi-b-§-f‑p-a‑mb‑n s‑Ns‑s‑¶ hg‑n a‑p‑ws‑_-b‑n-s‑e-¯‑nb e£‑va¬ F¶ 26 I‑mc\‑v {‑^‑o {‑]Ê‑v t‑PÀW ]{‑X-¯‑n Ì‑m^‑v I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑n-Ì‑mb‑n ] W‑n-I‑n-«‑n. cï‑p-hÀj‑w Ig‑nª‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y-b‑n-t‑e¡‑v a‑md‑n. Ac \‑qä‑mï‑p-I‑me‑w ]‑ns‑¶ t‑hs‑d§‑p‑w t‑P‑me‑n t‑Xt‑Sï‑n h¶‑n-Ã. a‑q¯ kt‑l‑m-Z-c³ BÀ.-s‑I.-\‑m-c‑m-b-W³ s‑s‑ak‑q-d‑ns‑e P·-{‑K‑m-as‑¯ "a‑mÂK‑pU‑n‑' F¶ CX‑nl‑mk {‑]t‑Z-i-a‑mb‑n `‑mh\ s‑N¿‑pt‑¼‑mÄ e£‑va¬ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob k‑ma‑ql‑nI b‑mY‑mÀ°‑y-§-f‑ps‑S s‑]‑mÅ‑p¶ Nc‑n{‑X‑w Id‑p¯ hc-I-f‑n Xf-¨‑n-S‑p-Ib‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. "h‑mt‑¥ I‑m Z‑p\‑nb‑' F¶ t‑]c‑n Z‑qc-ZÀi³ e£‑va¬ F¶ K‑uc-h-¡‑m-c-\‑mb Xa‑m-i-¡‑m-cs‑â IY ]c-¼-c-b‑m-¡‑n. "BÀ.-s‑I.-e-£‑va-W‑ns‑â t‑e‑mI‑w‑' F¶‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p \‑nÀ½‑m-X‑mh‑v {‑I‑nÌ‑n\‑m t‑J‑m« ]c-¼-cb‑v¡‑p \ ÂI‑nb t‑]c‑v. e£‑va¬ CS-s‑]«‑v AX‑p X‑nc‑p-¯‑n. Z‑qc-ZÀi³ ]c-¼-c-b‑n Hc‑p t‑I‑ma‑m-f‑n-b‑m-I‑m³ X‑m³ Hc‑p-¡-a-s‑ö‑v At‑±l‑w iT‑n-¨‑p. A§s‑\ \S‑o-\-S·‑ms‑c h¨‑v AhÀ e£‑va¬ F¶ hcb‑ps‑S CX‑n-l‑m-k-¯‑ns‑â IY ]d-ª‑p. 2012  s‑X‑m®‑q-s‑ä‑m¶‑m‑w ]‑nd-¶‑m-f‑n \‑v e£‑va¬ k‑z‑oI-c‑n¨ Bi‑w-k-IÄ ¡‑n-S-b‑n {‑^‑o {‑]Ê‑ns‑e ]gb kl{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ _‑mÂX‑m-¡-s‑d -b‑ps‑S kt‑µ-i-a‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Cs‑¡‑m Ã‑w HI‑vt‑S‑m-_-d‑n Bi‑wk t‑\c‑m³ X‑m¡s‑d CÃ. t‑\ch‑p‑w I‑meh‑p‑w t‑\‑m¡‑ms‑X _e‑n-I‑m-¡-IÄ N{‑I-h‑mf k‑oa-b‑n \‑n¶‑v i‑y‑ma-¨‑n-d-I‑p-IÄ h‑oi‑n ]d-¶‑n-d-§‑p-¶‑p. I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v e£‑va¬ FÃ‑m I‑m¡-I-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w Dä t‑X‑mg-\‑m-W‑v. B a‑m{‑´‑nI h‑nc-e‑p-I-f‑n  \‑n¶‑v C\‑n-s‑b‑mc‑p I‑m¡ h‑nc‑nª‑p ]d-¡‑n-s‑ö‑p hc‑m‑w. F¦‑ne‑p‑w ]‑q\-b‑n s‑e At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â \‑nÈ_‑vZ k‑m¶‑n [‑y‑w t‑]‑me‑p‑w Hc‑m-i‑z‑m-k-a‑m-s‑W-¶‑v Bc‑m ]d-ªX‑v? Bc‑p‑w ]d-ª‑ns‑Ã? ]d-ª‑p‑, b‑p s‑kU‑v Cä‑v. teJI³ ho£Ww ]{X¯nse s]mfnän¡ð FUnädmWv. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: sujaathan@gmail.com


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-X‑n-t‑\-g‑v hÀ-jh‑p‑w B-d‑p-a‑m-k-h‑p‑w 23 Z‑n-h-kh‑p‑w \‑n-e-\‑n-¶ BÄ«-h‑n-k‑vX (AltaVista) F-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n³‑, D-bÀ-¨X‑m-g‑v-¨-I-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w I‑n-S-a-Õ-c-§-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w I-e‑p-j‑n-Xa‑m-b N-c‑n{‑X‑w _‑m-¡‑n-s‑h-¨‑v 2013 P‑q-e‑m-b‑v F-«‑n-\‑v h‑n-S-h‑m§‑n. ]-¯‑p-hÀ-j‑w-a‑p-¼‑v X-§Ä k‑z-´-a‑m¡‑n-b BÄ-«-h‑nk‑v-X ]‑q-«‑p-¶-h‑nhc‑w b‑m-l‑q I¼-\‑n- {‑]-J‑y‑m]‑n¨‑p. 1990 I-f‑p-s‑S at‑[‑y CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑v D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶ ]-g-b X-ea‑p-d H-s‑«‑mc‑p K‑r-l‑m-X‑p-c-X‑z-t‑¯‑m-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v B {‑]-J‑y‑m]\‑w t‑I-«X‑v. ‑"Z‑n s‑kÀ¨‑v‑' F-¶ {‑K-Ù-¯‑n- 1990 I-f‑ns‑e s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑â N-c‑n{‑X‑w h‑n-h-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑nS-¯‑v t‑P‑m¬ _‑m-ä‑n- BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑vX-s‑b h‑n-t‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p¶X‑v "A¶-s‑¯ K‑q-K‑nÄ' F-¶‑m-W‑v. s‑kÀ¨‑n C-t‑¸‑mÄ K‑q-K‑nÄ F´‑m-t‑W‑m‑, s‑X‑m-®‑q-d‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S at‑[‑y A-X‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p BÄ-«-h‑nk‑v-X. B \‑n-e-b‑v-¡‑v I-g‑n-ª P‑q-e‑m-b‑v F-«‑n\‑v h‑n-S-h‑m-§‑nbX‑v "A¶-

s‑¯ K‑q-K‑n-f‑m‑'W‑v. h-f-c‑p-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v _‑n-k‑n-\-k‑n-e‑p‑w a‑p-d‑p-I‑p-¶ a-Õ-c-¯‑ne‑p‑w ]‑n-S‑n-¨‑p-\‑n¡‑m-\‑m-h‑m-s‑X BÄ-«-h‑nk‑v-X A-h-k‑m\‑n-¡‑p-¶ k-a-b¯‑v‑, b-Y‑mÀ-Y K‑q-K‑nÄ X-§-f‑p-s‑S B-h-\‑m-g‑n-b‑n-s‑e B-b‑p[-§Ä-¡‑v a‑qÀ-¨-I‑q-«‑p-I-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-¨‑n-\‑v C-\‑n "l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_ÀU‑n's‑â N‑n-d-I-S‑n-b‑m-W‑pï‑m-h‑p-I-s‑b-¶‑v 2013 k-]‑v-X‑w-_À 26 \‑v {‑]-J‑y‑m-]‑n-¡s‑¸«‑p. K‑q-K‑nÄ D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑p-¶ ]-c‑nj‑v-¡-c‑n-¨ s‑kÀ-¨‑v BÂ-K-c‑n-X-¯‑n-s‑â t‑]-c‑mW‑v "l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_ÀU‑v‑'. \‑n-e-h‑n a‑p-¶‑q-d‑v t‑I‑m-S‑n-b‑n-t‑e-s‑d A-t‑\‑z-j-W-§Ä-¡‑v (s‑I‑z-d‑n-IÄ¡‑v‑) K‑q-K‑nÄ Z‑n-h-kh‑p‑w a-d‑p]-S‑n \-ÂI‑p-¶‑p F-¶‑m-W‑v I-W-¡‑v. C-X‑ph-s‑c ]‑n-´‑pSÀ-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v h‑n-Z‑y-b‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v h‑y-X‑yk‑v-X-a‑mb‑n‑, D-]-t‑b‑m-à‑m-h‑n-s‑â A-t‑\‑zj-W-§-Ä-¡‑v _‑p-²‑n-]‑qÀ-Æ‑w D¯-c‑w \Â-I‑m³ t‑i-j‑n-b‑p-Å-X‑m-b‑n-c‑n¡‑p‑w ]‑pX‑n-b K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-¨‑v. s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑p-

I-f‑n i-Ð-\‑nÀ-t‑±-i-§Ä k‑z‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑v {‑]-hÀ-¯‑n-¡‑m³ I‑q-S‑n C-t‑X‑m-s‑S K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-¨‑v ]‑m-I-a‑m-h‑p-I-b‑mW‑v. s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ b‑p-K-‑w a‑p-t‑¶‑m-«‑p-s‑h-b‑v¡‑p-¶ B-h-i‑y-§Ä-¡‑q-S‑n \‑n-d-t‑h-ä‑m³ ]‑m-I-¯‑n-e‑p-Å-X‑m--W‑v ]‑p-X‑n-b s‑kÀs‑¨-¶‑v A-h-I‑m-i-s‑¸-S‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ‑, K‑q-K‑nÄ ]-d-b‑m-s‑X ]-d-b‑p-¶ Hc‑p k‑w-K-X‑n--b‑p-ï‑v þ s‑F-t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e k‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-Å a-d‑p-]-S‑nb‑m-W‑v ‑"l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_À-U‑n'e‑q-s‑S X-§Ä \ÂI‑p-¶X‑v. 2011 H-t‑Î‑m-_À A-h-k‑m-\-a‑mW‑v "U‑n-P‑n-ä t‑]-g‑v-k-W k-l‑m-b‑n‑' F-¶‑v h‑n-t‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-¡-s‑¸-S‑p-¶ k‑n-c‑n (Siri‑) s‑F-t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e¯‑nbX‑v. i-c‑n¡‑p-Å k-l‑m-b‑n-t‑b‑m-S‑v h‑n-h-c-§Ä t���X-S‑p¶X‑p-t‑]‑ms‑e‑, s‑F-t‑^‑m¬ D-]t‑b‑m-à‑m-h‑n\‑v k‑nc‑n-t‑b‑m-S‑v I‑m-c‑y-§Ä t‑N‑m-Z‑n-¨‑v a-\-k‑n-e‑m-¡‑m‑w. \‑nÀ-a‑n-X-_‑p²‑n (BÀ-«‑n-^‑n-j‑y Câ-e‑n-P³-k‑v ‑) b‑n A-[‑n-j‑vT‑n-Xa‑mb B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j\‑m-W‑v k‑n-c‑n. k‑n-c‑n-b‑p-s‑S h-c-t‑h‑ms‑S s‑kÀ-¨‑v c‑wK-¯‑v B-¸‑nÄ H-ä-b-S‑n-¡‑v A-©‑p-hÀ-j‑w a‑p-¶‑n-s‑e-¯‑n-s‑b-¶‑v ]-e h‑n-Z-K‑v-[c‑p‑w h‑n-e-b‑n-c‑p¯‑n. k‑n-c‑n `‑ojW‑n-b‑ms‑W-¶‑v K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â D-¶-Xc‑p‑w k-½-X‑n-¨‑p. B `‑o-j-W‑n-¡‑p-Å a-d‑p-]-S‑n-b‑m-W‑v ]‑pX‑nb K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ¨‑v. F-¶‑p-s‑h\hw_À 2013


(34) ¨‑mÂ‑, I‑m-e-{‑]-h‑m-l-¯‑n ]‑n-S‑n-¨‑p\‑nÂ-¡‑m-\‑m-h‑m-s‑X BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑v-X h‑n-S-h‑m-§‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ‑, K‑q-K‑nÄ ]‑pX‑n-b D-b-c-§Ä t‑X-S‑n N‑n-d-I-S‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑mW‑v. s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-¶ {‑]-h‑r-¯‑ns‑b s‑h-º‑v _‑n-k‑n-\-k‑ns‑â \-s‑«Ã‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑n-b K‑qK‑nÄ‑, X-§Ä-¡‑v I‑m-e-l-c-W-s‑¸-S‑m³ a-\-k‑nà F-¶‑v B-ß-h‑n-i‑z‑m-k-t‑¯‑m-s‑S {‑]-J‑y‑m-]‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v ‑"l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_ÀU‑n'e‑q-s‑S‑! e‑n-¦‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S a‑m-{‑´‑n-I-X X-e-b‑v-¡‑p]‑n-S‑n-¨ c-ï‑v k‑v-ä‑m³^-U‑v h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑nI-f‑p-s‑S þe‑m-d‑n t‑]P‑v‑, s‑kÀ-P‑n {‑_‑n³ F-¶‑n-h-c‑p-s‑S þ H-S‑p-§‑m-¯ XÀ-¡-

t‑U‑m-I‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑p-I-Ä ]-c-k‑v]-c‑w _-Ô‑n¸‑n-¡-s‑¸-«‑n-c‑p-¶‑nÃ. t‑U‑m-I‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑n-s‑â t‑]c‑v‑, A-X‑v k‑q-£‑n-¨‑n-«‑p-Å I-¼‑y‑q-«À t‑\‑m-U‑v H-s‑¡ I‑r-X‑y-a‑mb‑n A-d‑n-b‑n-s‑æ‑n H-c‑p h‑n-h-c-h‑p‑w CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑n t‑XS‑n-¸‑n-S‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑m-¯ ‑"i‑n-e‑m-b‑p-K‑'a‑mb‑n-c‑p¶‑p A-X‑v. B ‑"i‑ne‑mb‑p-K'¯‑n-s‑â A-h-k‑m\-L-«-¯‑n-e‑m-W‑v CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑n B-Z‑y s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n³ F¯‑p-¶-X‑v. 1990  {‑]-X‑y-£-s‑¸« "BÀ¨‑n‑' (Archie) B-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p AX‑v; a‑m-I‑v-K‑n kÀ-h-Ie‑m-i‑m-e-b‑n-s‑e h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n A-e³ C‑w-t‑SP‑v c‑q-]‑w-\Â-I‑n-bX‑v.

§-f‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑m-W‑v K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â N-c‑n{‑X‑w X‑p-S-§‑p-¶X‑v. ]-t‑£‑, CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑n s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑â N-c‑n-{‑X‑w A-X‑n\‑p‑wa‑p-¼‑v B-c‑w-`‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶‑p.

CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑n s‑]‑m-X‑p-e-`‑y-X-b‑ne‑pÅ I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑p-I-f‑n k‑q-£‑n-¨‑n-«‑p-Å {‑]-_-Ô-§Ä I-ï‑p-]‑n-S‑n-¡‑m³ A-¡‑mZ-a‑n-I‑v c‑w-K-¯‑p-Åh-s‑c k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-I F¶X‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p BÀ-¨‑n-b‑p-s‑S e-£‑y‑w. A¯-c‑w t‑U‑m-I‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S C³s‑U-I‑v-k‑v X-¿‑m-d‑m-¡‑n-b‑m-W‑v BÀ-¨‑n {‑]-hÀ-¯‑n-¨-X‑v. CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑ns‑â ‑"^-b {‑S‑m³-k‑v-^À t‑{‑]‑m-t‑«‑m-t‑¡‑mÄ‑' (FTP‑) k‑v-ä‑m³-t‑UÀ-U‑v A-S‑n-Ø‑m-\a‑m-¡‑n-b‑pÅ BÀ-¨‑n ]t‑£‑, A-{‑X b‑q-kÀ-{‑^-ï‑v-e‑n B-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑nà F-¶‑v {‑]-t‑X‑y-I‑w ]-d-t‑bï-X‑nÃ-t‑Ã‑m. s‑X‑m-®‑q-d‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S B-c‑w-`-¯‑n s‑hº‑v B-h‑nÀ-`-h‑n-¨-t‑X‑ms‑S‑, BÀ-¨‑n-b‑p-s‑S ]-c‑n-a‑n-X‑n t‑_‑m-[‑y-a‑m-b‑n. A-s‑X-¯‑p-SÀ¶‑v 1993  s‑\t‑h-Z kÀ-h-I-e‑m-i‑m-e-

B-Z‑n-b‑n s‑kÀ-¨‑v D-ï‑mbX‑v s‑h-t‑º‑m {‑_‑u-k-d‑p-It‑f‑m s‑kÀt‑¨‑m CÃ‑m-X‑n-c‑p¶ H-c‑p I‑m-e-s‑¯-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑v k-¦Â-¸‑n¨‑p-t‑\‑m¡‑q. A-¡‑mc‑y‑w k-¦Â¸‑n-¡‑m³ t‑]‑me‑p‑w ]-ec‑p‑w C-ã-s‑¸-S‑nÃ. C-ã-s‑¸-«‑me‑p‑w C-s‑Ã-¦‑ne‑p‑w CâÀ-s‑\ä‑n-\‑v A-§s‑\-s‑b‑m-c‑p I‑m-e-a‑p-ï‑m-b‑nc‑p-¶‑p. I‑p-s‑d I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑p-I-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w s‑\-ä‑v-hÀ-¡‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S-b‑p‑w P‑o-h-\‑nÃ‑m¯ i‑r‑w-J-e a‑m-{‑X-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A¶s‑¯ CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑v. s‑s‑l-¸À-e‑n-¦‑p-IÄ h-g‑n \hw_À 2013

b‑n-s‑e h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n-IÄ c‑q-]‑w-\ÂI‑n-b s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑mW‑v ‑"s‑h-t‑d‑m-\‑n-¡' (Veronica). BÀ-¨‑n t‑]‑m-s‑e X-s‑¶-b‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-X‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w {‑]-hÀ-¯\‑w. F^‑v.S‑n.]‑n-¡‑v ]-Ic‑w‑, P-\-{‑]‑n-b "t‑K‑m^À‑' (Gopher) Ì‑m³-t‑UÀ-U‑v D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑p F-¶- h‑y-X‑y‑m-k‑w a‑m-{‑X‑w. A-t‑\‑z-j‑n-¡‑p¶ t‑U‑m-I‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑n-s‑â X-e-s‑¡-«‑v a‑m-{‑X-t‑a C³-s‑U-I‑v-k‑v s‑N¿‑q‑, D-ÅS-¡‑w C³-s‑U-I‑v-k‑v s‑N-¿‑nà F-¶-X‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p BÀ-¨‑n-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w s‑h-t‑d‑m-\‑n-¡-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w {‑]-i‑v\‑w. t‑U‑mI‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑v X-¸‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m³ b-Y‑mÀ-Y Xe-s‑¡-«‑v X-s‑¶ \Â-t‑I-ï‑n-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. a‑n-¶Â-t‑¸‑m-s‑e-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p t‑hÄ-U‑v s‑s‑h-U‑v s‑h-º‑n-s‑â h-fÀ-¨. CâÀ-s‑\ä‑n s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S F®‑w 1993  s‑h-d‑p‑w 130 B-b‑n-c‑p-¶-X‑v, 1996 F-¯‑n-b-t‑¸‑m-t‑g¡‑p‑w B-d‑p-e-£-a‑mb‑n. a-\‑p-j‑y-s‑â ]-c‑n-[‑n-¡-¸‑p-d-t‑¯-¡‑v s‑hº‑v h-f-c‑p¶-X‑v {‑i-²-t‑b‑ms‑S \‑n-c‑o-£‑n-¨h-c‑n H-c‑m-f‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p A-t‑a-c‑n-¡-b‑n a-k‑m-¨‑y‑q-s‑k-ä‑v-k‑v C³-k‑v-ä‑n-«‑y‑q-«‑v H‑m-^‑v s‑SI‑v-t‑\‑mfP‑n (F‑w.s‑F.S‑n‑) b‑n-s‑e K-t‑h-j-I³ a‑mX‑y‑p t‑{‑K. A-t‑±-l‑w c‑q]‑w-\Â-I‑n-b‑X‑mW‑v WWW Wanderer F-¶ s‑h-º‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v. s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑p-s‑S C³-s‑U-I‑vk‑v H‑m-t‑«‑m-a‑m-ä‑n-¡‑m-b‑n k‑r-ã‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-h‑p-Å H-c‑p t‑d‑m-t‑_‑m-«‑v t‑{‑]‑m-{‑K‑m-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-X‑v. B s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-s‑â {‑]-X‑m-] h‑p‑w A-[‑n-I‑w \‑o-ï‑p-\‑n-¶‑nÃ. I‑q-S‑p-X a‑n-I-h‑mÀ-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v kÀ-h‑o-k‑p-IÄ c‑w-K-{‑]-t‑h-i‑w s‑N-b‑vX‑p. "s‑h-º‑v-{‑I‑m-fÀ‑' (WebCrawler ‑) B-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-X‑n G-äh‑p‑w {‑i-t‑²-b‑w. h‑m-j‑n-M‑v-S¬ kÀh-I-e‑m-i‑m-e-b‑n- K-t‑h-j-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶ {‑_‑n³ ]‑n³-s‑IÀ-«³ 1994 G-{‑]‑n-e‑n H‑m¬-s‑s‑e-\‑n-s‑e-¯‑n¨ B kÀ-h‑o-k‑ns‑â {‑]-t‑X‑yI-X‑, s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑pI-s‑f C³-s‑U-I‑v-k‑v s‑N-¿‑m³ Hc‑p {‑I‑m-fÀ A-X‑n D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑p- F-¶-X‑mW‑v. s‑h-º‑v t‑U‑m-I‑y‑p-s‑aâ‑p-I-f‑ns‑e a‑p-g‑p-h³ s‑S-I‑v-k‑vä‑p‑w C³-s‑U-I‑v-k‑v s‑N-¿‑m³ t‑ij‑n-b‑p-Å B-Z‑y-s‑¯ s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-X‑v. ]‑p-d-¯‑nd-§‑n G-g‑p-a‑mk‑w-s‑I‑m-ï‑v ]-¯‑pe-£‑w s‑kÀ-¨‑p-IÄ s‑h-º‑v-{‑I‑m-fÀ h-g‑n-b‑p-ï‑m-b‑n. 1995 P‑q-W‑n G-X‑m-ï‑v ]-¯‑pe-£‑w t‑U‑mf-d‑n-\‑v A-t‑a-c‑n-¡ H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ (AOL) s‑h-º‑v-{‑I‑m-f-d‑ns‑\ k‑z-´-a‑m¡‑n. F-¶‑mÂ‑, s‑h-º‑n H-c‑p b-Y‑mÀY s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n³ F-¯‑p-¶-X‑v 1995 U‑n-k‑w-_À 15 \‑m-W‑v þ ‑"BÄ-«-h‑nk‑vX' (AltaVista) F-¶ t‑]-c‑nÂ. U‑n-P‑n-ä F-I‑y‑p-]‑v-s‑aâ‑v t‑I‑mÀ-¸t‑dj-\‑v I‑o-g‑n-s‑e s‑\-ä‑v-hÀ-¡‑v k‑n-Ì‑w-k‑v e-t‑_‑m-d-ä‑n-b‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w s‑h-k‑v-t‑ä¬ d‑nkÀ-¨‑v e-t‑_‑m-d-«-d‑n-b‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w K-t‑h-j-Ic‑m-W‑v BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑vX (AltaVista‑) b‑v¡‑v


(35) c‑q-]‑w-\Â-I‑n-bX‑v. e‑q-b‑n-k‑v t‑a‑m-\‑nbÀ‑, t‑]‑mÄ ^‑v-f‑m-lÀ«‑n‑, s‑s‑a-¡Â _-t‑d‑m-k‑v F-¶‑n-h-c‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p A-X‑n a‑p-J‑y-i‑ne‑v-]‑nIÄ. "1996  H-c‑p]s‑£ s‑h-º‑ns‑e G-äh‑p‑w C-ã- {‑_‑m³-U‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑v-X. C¶-s‑¯ I-W-¡‑n\‑v‑, A¶-s‑¯ ‑"K‑q-K‑nÄ‑'' þ t‑P‑m¬ _‑m-ä‑n t‑c-J-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p¶‑p. {‑]-t‑X‑y-I‑n-¨‑v {‑]-J‑y‑m]-\-s‑a‑m-¶‑p-a‑nÃ‑ms‑X-b‑m-W‑v X‑p-S-§‑n-b-s‑X-¦‑n-e‑p‑w‑, B-Z‑yZ‑nh-k‑w Xs‑¶ a‑q-¶‑p-e-£‑w-t‑]À BÄ-«-

h‑n-k‑v-X k-µÀ-i‑n¨‑p. H-c‑p-hÀ-j-¯‑n-\-I‑w 400 t‑I‑m-S‑n s‑kÀ-¨‑p-IÄ. Z‑n-\‑w-{‑]-X‑n 250 e-£‑w s‑kÀ-¨‑p-I-f‑p-a‑mb‑n 1997 B-bt‑¸‑m-t‑g-¡‑p‑w BÄ-«-h‑nk‑v-X s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑e c‑m-P‑m-h‑mb‑n. k‑v-t‑]‑m¬-kÀ-a‑m-c‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v 500 e-£‑w t‑U‑m-fÀ h-c‑p-a‑m\‑w. b‑m-l‑qh‑n\‑p‑w F-.H-.FÃ‑n\‑p-s‑a‑m-¸‑w s‑h-º‑n G-ä-h‑p-a-[‑n-I‑w k-µÀ-i-I-c‑p-Å s‑s‑k-ä‑v þ C-X‑m-b‑n BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑v-X. K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑\-t‑¸‑ms‑e H-c‑p s‑h-º‑v-t‑]-P‑nt‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑p-Is‑f‑, B s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â

{‑]k-à‑n a-\-k‑n-e‑m-¡‑m³ {‑]-t‑b‑m-P-\s‑¸-S‑p¯‑nb B-Z‑y s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n³ 1994 c‑w-K-s‑¯¯‑nb s‑s‑e-¡k‑v (Lycos‑) B-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. I‑mÀ\-P‑o s‑a-t‑e‑m¬ kÀ-h-I-e‑m-i‑m-e-b‑n-s‑e t‑U‑m.s‑s‑a-¡Â a‑uÄ-U‑n³ c‑q-]‑w-\ ÂI‑nb B s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑n KW‑n-X BÂ-K-c‑n-X-a‑m-W‑v D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n¡-s‑¸-«-X‑v. 1999 H-c‑p s‑N-d‑p-I‑m-e-b-fh‑nÂ‑, t‑e‑m-I-¯‑v G-ä-h‑p-a-[‑nI‑w t‑]À k-µÀ-i‑n-¡‑p¶ s‑s‑k-ä‑m-b‑n s‑s‑e¡-k‑v

C-t‑¸‑mÄ A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¨‑n-«‑p-Å "l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_À-U‑v' BÂ-K-c‑n-X‑w h‑y-X‑y-k‑v-X-a‑m-W‑v. k-¦‑oÀ-Wa‑m-b t‑N‑m-Z‑y-§Ä-¡‑v D¯-c‑w \Â-I‑m³ ]‑m-I-¯‑n-e‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v ]‑pX‑n-b s‑kÀ-¨‑v BÂ-K-c‑n-X-s‑a-¶‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p. K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑k-À-¨‑n-s‑â a‑m-ä‑w G-X‑v X-c-¯‑n- {‑]-X-‑n-^-e‑n-¡‑p-s‑a-¶‑v K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑e A-a‑n-X‑v k‑n‑w-L‑m h‑n-h-c‑n¨-X‑v C§s‑\: "s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑â {‑]‑m-Y-a‑n-I [À-a‑w "D¯-c‑w \Â-I‑p-I‑, k‑w-k‑m-c-¯‑n-\‑v a-d‑p]-S‑n ]db‑pI‑, I‑m-c‑y§Ä D‑u-l‑n-s‑¨-S‑p-¡‑p-I' F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑v-¡‑v a‑m-ä‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v l-½‑n-M‑v-t‑_À-U‑v s‑N-¿‑pI'. a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, H-c‑p I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑n-t‑\‑m-S‑v \‑n-§-t‑f‑m-S‑v k‑w-k‑m-c‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-¶ X-c-¯‑n k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-h‑n-Z‑y ]-c‑n-W-a‑n-¡‑p-I-I‑q-S‑n-b‑m-W‑v C-X‑n-e‑q-s‑S. C-X‑ph-s‑c X‑p-SÀ-¶‑p-h-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v k-a‑o-]-\-¯‑n-\‑v ]-Ic‑w‑, AÀY§f‑p‑w _Ô§f‑p‑w h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ c‑oX‑nb‑mW‑v ]‑pX‑nb s‑kÀ¨‑n K‑q-K‑nÄ k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ-X‑v. A-an-Xv knw-Lm "l-½n-§v t_À-Un-'s\ ]-cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-¯p¶p

\hw_À 2013


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s‑kÀ-P‑n {‑_‑n¶‑p‑w e‑m-d‑n t‑]P‑p‑w

a‑m-d‑n. 2000  t‑U‑m«‑v-t‑I‑m‑w I‑p-a‑n-f-b‑p-s‑S ]‑m-c-a‑y-¯‑n k‑v-]‑m-\‑n-j‑v s‑S-e-t‑I‑m‑w `‑o-a\‑m-b s‑S-d (Terra) s‑s‑e-¡-k‑n-s‑\ k‑z-´-a‑m¡‑n. \‑m-e‑p-hÀ-j-¯‑n-\‑v t‑i-j‑w s‑S-d‑, A-X‑v Z-£‑n-W-s‑I‑m-d‑n-b³ I-¼\‑n-¡‑v 10 t‑I‑m-S‑n t‑U‑m-fd-‑n-\‑v s‑s‑I-a‑m-d‑n. K‑q-K‑nÄ i-à‑n-{‑]‑m-]‑n-¨-t‑X‑ms‑S‑, BÄ-«h‑n-k‑v-X-s‑b-t‑¸‑m-s‑e s‑s‑e-¡-k‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w {‑]-X‑m-]-I‑m-e‑w A-k‑v-X-a‑n-¨‑p. 1990 I-f‑n {‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y‑w t‑\S‑n-b as‑ä‑m-c‑p s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p "FI‑vs‑s‑kä‑v‑' (Exite) þ 1994 Ì‑m³^-U‑v kÀ-h-I-e‑m-i‑m-e-b‑n-s‑e B-d‑v ]‑qÀ-Æ-h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n-IÄ t‑NÀ-¶‑v c‑q-]‑w-\Â-I‑n-b-X‑v. Ì‑m³-^-U‑n-s‑e X-s‑¶ c-ï‑v h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n-If‑m-b s‑P-d‑n b‑mM‑v‑, t‑U-h‑n-U‑n ^‑nt‑e‑m F-¶‑n-hÀ t‑NÀ-¶‑v 1994 P-\-hc‑nb‑n k‑r-ã‑n-¨ ‑"s‑P-d‑n B³-U‑v t‑U-h‑nU‑v-k‑v s‑s‑K-U‑v S‑p Z‑n t‑hÄ-U‑v s‑s‑hU‑v s‑h-º‑v' F-¶ s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑mW‑v‑, G-X‑m\‑p‑w a‑m-k‑w I-g‑n-ª‑v t‑]-c‑p-a‑mä‑n ‑"b‑ml‑q' (Yahoo!‑) B-b-X‑v. s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑kä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S {‑]‑m-[‑m\‑y-{‑I-a‑w A-\‑p-k-c‑n-¨‑v c‑q-]-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n-b H-c‑p U-b-d-Î-d‑n- B-b‑n«‑m-W‑v b‑m-l‑q X‑p-S-§‑n-b-X‑v. s‑kÀ-¨‑v AS-¡-a‑p-Å kÀ-h‑o-k‑p-IÄ e-`‑y-a‑m-¡‑p-¶ Hc‑p s‑h-º‑v t‑]‑mÀ-«-e‑m--b‑n ]‑n-¶‑oS-X‑v \hw_À 2013

]-c‑n-W-a‑n-¨‑p.

K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â D-Zb‑w 1990 I-f‑p-s‑S c-ï‑m‑w-]-I‑p-X‑n-b‑n BÄ-«-h‑n-k‑v-Xb‑p‑w s‑s‑e-¡k‑p-s‑a‑m-s‑¡ X-c‑w-K-§Ä k‑r-ã‑n-¡‑p-¶ t‑h-f-b‑n-e‑mW‑v s‑kÀ-P‑n {‑_‑n¶‑p‑w e‑m-d‑n t‑]P‑p‑w Ì‑m³-^-U‑n I-¼‑y‑q-«À k-b³-k‑n ]‑n.F-¨‑v.U‑n-¡‑v t‑N-c‑p-¶-X‑v. Hc‑p XÀ-¡¯‑n-\‑n-s‑S 1995 C-c‑p-h-c‑p‑w ]-c‑n-N-b-s‑¸«‑p. c-ï‑p-t‑]c‑p‑w XÀ¡‑w X‑p-SÀ-¶‑p. A-hk‑m-\-a‑nÃ‑m-¯ B XÀ-¡-§-f‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ ]‑n-d¶‑p. I-¼‑y‑q-«À k-b³-k‑v s‑{‑]‑m-^-kÀ c‑m-P‑o-h‑v t‑a‑m-«‑v-h‑m-\‑n-¡‑v I‑o-g‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p s‑kÀ-P‑n-b‑p-s‑S K-t‑h-jW‑w. h‑nj-b‑w t‑Uä s‑s‑a-\‑n-M‑v. a-s‑ä‑m-c‑p I-¼‑y‑q-«À k-b³-k‑v s‑{‑]‑m-^-kd‑m-b s‑S-d‑n F. h‑nt‑\‑m-{‑K‑m-U‑n-s‑\- e‑m-d‑n X-s‑â D-]-t‑Z-ã‑mh‑m-b‑n k‑z‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p. CâÀ-s‑\-ä‑n-s‑e I-¼‑y‑q-«À t‑\‑m-U‑pI-f‑p‑w‑, t‑hÄ-U‑v s‑s‑h-U‑v s‑h-º‑n-s‑e e‑n-¦‑p-I-f‑p-a‑m-W‑v e‑m-d‑n-s‑b h‑y‑m-t‑a‑m-l‑n-¸‑n¨X‑v. e‑n-¦‑p-I-s‑f h‑n-i-Ie-\‑w s‑N-¿‑m³ a‑p-g‑p-h³ s‑hº‑p‑w H-c‑p k‑v-ä‑m³^-U‑v I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑n-t‑e-¡‑v U‑u¬-t‑e‑m-U‑v s‑N¿‑m³ B h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n X‑o-c‑p-a‑m-\‑n-¨‑p. B

{‑]-hÀ-¯-\-¯‑n-\‑n-s‑S-b‑mW‑v‑, A-¡‑m-Z-a‑nI‑v {‑]-_-Ô-§-f‑ps‑S s‑s‑k-t‑ä-j-\‑p-If‑p‑w H-c‑p s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑pIÄ¡‑p‑w X-½‑n i-c‑n¡‑p‑w k-a‑m-´c-a‑n-t‑à F-¶ k‑wi-b‑w e‑m-d‑n-b‑p-s‑S a-\-k‑n D-b-c‑p-¶-X‑v. I‑q-S‑p-X s‑s‑k-t‑ä-j-\‑p-I-Ä e-`‑n¡‑p-¶ {‑]_-Ô‑w X‑oÀ-¨-b‑m-b‑p‑w I‑q-S‑pX k‑z‑o-I‑m-c‑y-Xb‑p‑w A‑w-K‑o-I‑m-c-h‑pa‑p-Å-X‑m-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. AX‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e H-c‑p s‑s‑k-ä‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑p-I-f‑p‑w‑, e‑n-¦‑p-If‑p-s‑S D-Û-h-Ø‑m-\a‑mb s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑nt‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑p-If‑p‑w H-c‑p s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â P-\-{‑]‑n-b-X-s‑bb‑p‑w k‑z‑o-I‑m-c‑y-X-s‑b-b‑pat‑à I‑p-d‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. C‑u Bi-b‑w s‑kÀP‑n-s‑bb‑p‑w B-t‑h-i-`-c‑n-X-\‑m-¡‑n. A-§-s‑\-s‑b-¦‑nÂ‑, Hc‑p s‑s‑kä‑v s‑h-º‑n- {‑]-[‑m-\-s‑¸-«X‑mt‑W‑m F-¶‑v a-\-k‑n-e‑m-¡‑m-\‑pÅ a‑mÀ-Ka-t‑à C-X‑v. C‑u-s‑b‑m-c‑p I‑m-g‑v-¨¸‑m-t‑S‑m-s‑S H-c‑p s‑kÀ¨‑v F-©‑n³ c‑q-]-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n-b‑mÂ‑, A-t‑\‑zj-W-§Ä-¡‑v I‑q-S‑p-X {‑]-k-à-a‑m-b a-d‑p]-S‑n I‑n«‑nt‑Ã. C-c‑p-hc‑p‑w A-¡‑m-Z-a‑nI‑v t‑P‑m-e‑n-IÄ \‑nÀ-¯‑n-s‑h-¨‑v, B {‑]-i‑v\-¯‑n a‑p-g‑p-I‑n. e‑n-¦‑pI-s‑f h‑n-i-Ie-\‑w s‑N-¿‑p-I h-g‑n H-c‑p s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â {‑]-[‑m\‑y‑w a-\-k‑n-


(37) ^-e-§Ä \Â-I‑p-¶-h-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. {‑]-k-àh‑p‑w A-{‑]-k-à-h‑pa‑m-b ^-e§Ä I‑q-S‑n-¡‑p-g-ª \‑n-e-b‑v-¡‑p-Å ^-ea‑m-W‑v I‑n-«‑n-b‑n-c‑p-¶X‑v. F-¶‑mÂ‑, s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-¿‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑v G-äh‑p‑w {‑]-k-àa‑m-b s‑kÀ-¨‑v-^-e-§Ä BZ‑y‑w I‑n-«‑p-s‑a-¶-X‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â {‑]-t‑X‑yI-X. e‑n-¦‑pI-s‑fb‑p‑w H-c‑p s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â P-\-{‑]‑n-b-Xs‑b-b‑p‑w "t‑]-P‑v-d‑m¦‑v‑' h-g‑n h‑n-i-Ie-\‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑m-W‑v A-X‑v k‑m-[‑y-a‑m-¡‑n-bX‑v. s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑\ k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨‑n-S-t‑¯‑m-f‑w A-s‑X‑m-c‑p h‑n-¹-h-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-\‑v t‑i-j‑w H-c‑n-¡-e‑p‑w s‑kÀ-¨‑v ]-g-bX‑pt‑]‑m-s‑e B-b‑nÃ. X-§-Ä c‑q-]-s‑¸S‑p¯‑nb B k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-h‑n-Z‑y-b‑v-¡‑v t‑e‑mI-s‑¯ a‑m-ä‑n-a-d‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-h‑p-s‑ï¶‑v e‑m-d‑n¡‑p‑w s‑kÀ-P‑n¡‑p‑w t‑_‑m-[‑y-a‑pï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. k‑z‑m-`‑m-h‑n-I-a‑m-b‑p‑w K‑q-K‑nÄ Hc‑p I-¼-\‑n-b‑m-b‑n‑, t‑I‑m-S‑n-¡-W-¡‑n-\‑mf‑p-IÄ-¡‑v {‑]-t‑b‑m-P-\-s‑¸-S‑p-¶‑, B-b‑n-c¡-W-¡‑n-\‑v _‑n-k‑n\-k‑v k‑w-c‑w-`-IÀ¡‑p‑w a-ä‑v t‑a-J-e-b‑n-e‑p-Å-hÀ¡‑p‑w A-\‑p-{‑K-la‑m-I‑p-¶ X-c-¯‑n K‑q-K‑nÄ h-fÀ-¶‑p. K‑q-K‑n-f‑ns‑â C‑u-s‑a-b‑n kÀ-h‑o-k‑v a‑p-X `‑q-]-S- kÀ-h‑ok‑p‑w ]-c-k‑y-§f‑p‑w h-s‑c C-¶‑v {‑]-hÀ-¯‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-h‑n-Z‑y-b‑p-s‑S A-S‑n-Ø‑m-\-¯‑ne‑mW‑v. t‑e‑m-I-¯‑n-s‑â K-X‑n-a‑m-ä‑p-¶-X‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-s‑¨-¶‑v k‑m-c‑w. X‑n-c-b AY-h‑m s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-¶ {‑]-h‑r¯‑n-¡‑v A-X‑nÀ-¯‑n-I-f‑n-s‑Ã-¶‑m-W‑v K‑q-K‑nf‑n-s‑â N-c‑n-{‑X‑w s‑X-f‑n-b‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v. e‑m-¡‑m³ k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑p¶ BÂ-K-c‑n-X‑w c‑q-]-s‑¸-S‑p-¯-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p B-Z‑y-]S‑n. K-W‑n-X-{‑]-X‑n-`-s‑b-¶‑v A-X‑n\-I‑w J‑y‑m-X‑nt‑\-S‑n-b‑n-c‑p-¶ s‑kÀ-P‑n A-X‑n D‑u-f‑nb‑n«‑p. A-§-s‑\-b‑m-W‑v, e‑m-d‑n-b‑p-s‑S t‑]-c‑ne-d‑n-b-s‑¸-S‑p-¶‑, K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â X‑p-d‑p-¸‑p-i‑o«‑m-b‑n-a‑md‑nb "t‑]-P‑v-d‑m¦‑v‑' (PageRank) F-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v BÂ-K-c‑n-X-¯‑n-s‑â ]‑n-d-h‑n. t‑]-P‑v-d‑m-¦‑v BÂ-K-c‑n-X‑w D-]-t‑b‑mK‑n-¨‑p-Å s‑kÀ-¨‑v-F-©‑n-s‑â B-Z‑y-t‑] c‑v "_‑m-¡‑vdº‑v‑' (BackRub) F-¶‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p. k‑v-ä‑m³-^-U‑v h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ-Y‑n-If‑p‑w A[‑y‑m-]-I-c‑p-‑w BZ‑y‑w D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨ A-X‑ns‑â t‑]-c‑v ]‑n-¶‑oS‑v ‑"K‑q-K‑nÄ‑' F-¶‑m-b‑n. a-s‑ä‑m-c‑p t‑]c‑p‑w e‑m-d‑n-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w s‑kÀP‑n-b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w ]-c‑n-K-W-\-b‑n-e‑p-ï‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p-s‑h-¶‑v s‑I³ H‑u-t‑e-ä ]-d-b‑p¶‑p. "h‑m«‑v-t‑_‑m-I‑vk‑v' (Whatbox) F-¶‑m-b‑nc‑p-¶‑p AX‑v. ]t‑£‑, What box F¶-X‑v Wetbox B-b‑n t‑IÄ-¡‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑v t‑X‑m¶‑n-t‑b-¡‑m‑w‑, A-s‑X‑m-c‑p A-Ç‑o-e-s‑s‑k-ä‑mb‑n I-c‑p-X-s‑¸S‑m‑w F-¶ `-b‑w a‑q-e‑w B {‑i-a‑w D-t‑]-£‑n¨‑p. A-X‑ph-s‑c c‑w-K-s‑¯¯‑n-b s‑kÀ-¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑p-I-s‑f‑m-s‑¡ s‑h-d‑p‑w ‑"I‑o-t‑hÀU‑p‑'I-s‑f a‑m{‑X‑w B-{‑i-b‑n-¨‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v

l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_À-U‑v F-¯‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ K‑q-K‑n-f‑ns‑â s‑kÀ-¨‑n G-äh‑p‑w {‑i-t‑²-ba‑m-b a‑m-ä‑w {‑]-J‑y‑m-]‑n-¡-s‑¸«-X‑v 2009 B-K-k‑v-X‑n-e‑mW‑v. K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â s‑kÀ-¨‑v BÂ-K-c‑n-X-¯‑ns‑â ‑"I-^‑o³‑' (Caffeine) s‑hÀ-j³ A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¡s‑¸«‑p. s‑^-b‑v-k‑v-_‑p¡‑v‑, S‑z‑n-äÀ X‑p-S§‑nb t‑k‑m-j kÀ-h‑o-k‑p-I-f‑ne‑p‑w aä‑p‑w \‑na‑n-j‑w-{‑]-X‑n A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑v s‑N-¿-s‑¸-S‑p-¶ h‑n-h-c-§Ä-¡‑q-S‑n s‑kÀ-¨‑v ^-e-¯‑n {‑]-X‑n-^-e‑n-¡-‑m³ ]‑m-I-¯‑n-e‑p-Å-X‑m-b‑nc‑p-¶‑p B A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑v. a‑nI¨ c‑oX‑nb‑n h‑nhc§Ä t‑XS‑m³ (AYh‑m C³s‑UI‑v-k‑v s‑N¿‑m³‑) K‑qK‑nf‑ns‑\ kl‑mb‑n¡‑pI F¶X‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p a‑pJ‑ya‑m-b‑p‑w I-^‑o-s‑â D-t‑±i‑w. s‑s‑at‑{‑I‑m-t‑k‑m-^‑v-ä‑v A-X‑n-s‑â _‑n‑w-K‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F-©‑n-\‑n h-c‑p¯‑n-b ]-c‑n-j‑v-¡-cW-¯‑n-\‑p-Å a-d‑p-]-S‑n- I‑qS‑nb‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p K‑q-K‑n-f‑ns‑â ‑"I-^‑o³‑' F-¶‑v N‑n-e \‑n-c‑o£-IÀ h‑n-e-b‑n-c‑p-¯‑p¶‑p. F-¶‑mÂ‑, C-t‑¸‑mÄ A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n¨‑n-«‑p-Å "l-½‑n-M‑v t‑_À-U‑v' BÂ-K-c‑nX‑w h‑y-X‑y-k‑v-X-a‑m-W‑v. k-¦‑oÀ-Wa‑m-b t‑N‑m-Z‑y-§Ä-¡‑v D¯-c‑w \Â-I‑m³ ]‑m-I-¯‑n-e‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v ]‑pX‑n-b s‑kÀ-¨‑v

BÂ-K-c‑n-X-s‑a-¶‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ ]-d-b‑p-¶‑p. K‑qK‑nÄ s‑k-À-¨‑n-s‑â a‑m-ä‑w G-X‑v X-c-¯‑n- {‑]-X-‑n-^-e‑n-¡‑p-s‑a-¶‑v K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑e A-a‑nX‑v k‑n‑w-L‑m h‑n-h-c‑n¨-X‑v C§s‑\ : "s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑â {‑]‑m-Y-a‑n-I [À-a‑w "D¯-c‑w \Â-I‑p-I‑, k‑w-k‑m-c-¯‑n-\‑v a-d‑p]-S‑n ] db‑pI‑, I‑m-c‑y§Ä D‑u-l‑n-s‑¨-S‑p-¡‑p-I' F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑v-¡‑v a‑m-ä‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v l-½‑n-M‑vt‑_À-U‑v s‑N-¿‑pI'. a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, H-c‑p I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑n-t‑\‑m-S‑v \‑n-§-t‑f‑m-S‑v k‑w-k‑m-c‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-¶ X-c-¯‑n k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-h‑n-Z‑y ]-c‑n-W-a‑n¡‑p-I-I‑q-S‑n-b‑m-W‑v C-X‑n-e‑q-s‑S. C-X‑ph-s‑c X‑p-SÀ-¶‑p-h-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v k-a‑o-]-\-¯‑n-\‑v ]-Ic‑w‑, AÀY§f‑p‑w _Ô§f‑p‑w h‑ni Ie\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ c‑oX‑nb‑mW‑v ]‑pX‑nb s‑kÀ¨‑n K‑q-K‑nÄ k‑z‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pÅ-X‑v. K‑qK‑nf‑ns‑â \s‑«Ã‑mb‑nc‑p¶ "t‑]P‑vd‑m¦‑v‑' l½‑nM‑v-t‑_ÀU‑nÂ\‑n¶‑v Hg‑nh‑m ¡‑nb‑n«‑nÃ. e‑n-¦‑pI-s‑f h‑n-i-I-e-\‑ws‑N-b‑vX‑v t‑]P‑ns‑â {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w \‑nÝb‑n ¡‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ t‑]P‑v-d‑m¦‑v C\‑na‑pX l½‑nM‑v-t‑_ÀU‑ns‑â Cc‑p¶‑qd‑nt‑ed a‑pJ‑yt‑Nc‑phIf‑n H¶‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑ps‑a¶‑v "s‑kÀ¨‑v F©‑n³ e‑m³-U‑v' F-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v \‑n-c‑o-£-W t‑»‑m-K‑v d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«‑v s‑N-b‑vX‑p. h‑m¡‑pIĸd‑p¯‑v {‑]t‑b‑mK§f‑p s‑Sb‑p‑w _Ô§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w AÀY‑w a\k‑ne‑m¡‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v l½‑nM‑v-t‑_ÀU‑v BÂKc‑nX‑w s‑N¿‑pI. Ig‑nª hÀj‑w K‑qK‑nÄ AhXc‑n¸‑n¨ ‑ "t‑\‑mt‑fP‑v {‑K‑m^‑n' (Knowledge Graph‑) s‑â X‑pSÀ¨b‑mW‑v HcÀY¯‑n  ]‑pX‑nb s‑kÀ¨‑v BÂKc‑nX‑w. a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, iÐ\‑nÀt‑Zi§Ä a\k‑ne‑m ¡‑n h‑niIe\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑v D¯c‑w \ÂI‑m\‑p‑w AX‑n\‑v Ig‑nh‑p-ï‑v. s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ b‑p-K-¯‑n-\‑v t‑N-c‑p‑w-h‑n[‑w K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-¨‑v a‑m-d‑p-¶‑p F-¶ÀY‑w. a-s‑ä‑m-c‑p BÄ-«‑m-h‑n-k‑v-X-b‑m-I‑m³ X-§Ä H-c‑p-¡-a-s‑Ã-¶ {‑]-J‑y‑m-]-\-a‑mW‑v H-cÀ-Y-¯‑n K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-s‑â ]‑pX‑n-b \‑o¡‑w. amXr`qan Hm¬sse\nð No^v k_v FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: jamboori@gmail.com

A-h-ew-_w : 1. Googled (2009), by Ken Auletta (Virgin Books, London); 2. The Search (2005), John Battelle (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London); 3. Google Tweaks Search to Challenge Apple’s Siri, by Tom Simonite, Technology Review (website) September 26, 2013

\hw_À 2013


(38) Lighthouse

Ashok R Chandran

Shaken and Stirred

A column that throws light on studies about Kerala media, and explores the problems and possibilities of studying Kerala media

S

hiju Sam Varughese is a young academic at the Central University in Gujarat in Gandhinagar. Most of his works examine the relations between science and society. Among them is a study showing the role played by the Kerala media in shaping public attitudes to science. The work I am referring to is a peer-reviewed article published in Spontaneous Generations, an online academic journal from graduate students of the University of Toronto1. In that article, Varughese analysed the role of Malayalam newspapers in “initiating and maintaining a public controversy.”

Aftershocks in the Media

Selecting the controversy about microearthquakes, Varughese studied at least ten months’ coverage in five major Malayalam newspapers from December 2000 (when an earthquake of magnitude five struck Kerala). During that period, there were other similar developments, notably lowerintensity tremors and well collapses in Kerala, and a massive earthquake in Gujarat. Those of us interested in journalism studies would be curious to know how newspapers responded in such a terrain, and \hw_À 2013

what the response tells us about the role of the media. Varughese says that the media challenged scientists from the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Thiruvananthapuram, and contributed to society’s “loss of trust in experts.” According to him, the newspapers “carefully constructed” a “catastrophe discourse” to voice public fear against the scientists’ views that the seismic developments were harmless and the Kerala region was not very vulnerable. The newspapers did this by “mixing up science with ‘nonscience’” and publishing “nonscientific and fringe theories.” Varughese uses examples of news reports and other items as evidence. He contends that the Letters to the Editor space “provided the newspapers with an opportunity to experiment with several alternative hypotheses and explanations” and mount a direct attack on scientists’ expertise. He also notes “a conscious effort on the part of the press to report similar incidents of earthquakes from various parts of the world,” as “they passionately reported even very small episodes of vibrations and related phenomena from every nook and corner of the state” and “gave great importance

to...earthquakes in El Salvador and Guatemala that claimed the lives of hundreds of people.” Varughese observes that experts from scientific institutions, including the regionally reputed CESS, came to enjoy little authority in the deliberations. This also got translated on the ground—during site visits by scientists’ teams, “in several instances, the local public entered into heated arguments with experts, challenging the explanations being offered.” Varughese describes the collapse of wells, the contrasting reasons offered by scientists’ teams, and the resulting formation of alliances of experts, led on the one side by CESS, and on the other by the Kerala government’s groundwater department. He believes that the controversy was resolved by a “proactive media” which largely supported the latter alliance. One newspaper even set up its own research team of two nationally reputed scientists from outside the state, for a second opinion and helped in closure of the controversy, says Varughese. Yet, he does not feel that “the media distort scientific explanations and confuse the public during disasters.” Rather, he sees it as the media “disclosing the internal tensions and ambivalences” of science. Further, he believes that the media debate was useful to scientists too, as they had to “engage with


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Shiju Sam Varughese

a wide range of experts and nonscientists.” He sees the media creating a “trading zone” which blurs the boundaries of science and nonscience. He concludes that such “controversies staged by the media,” “initiate democratisation” of science, as the self-image of science gets corrected, from being authoritarian to socially embedded.

For the Journalism Scholar

Like most scholarship on Kerala media, Varughese’s study is qualitative, or at least apparently so. Hence, it is not clear how he concluded that the public largely supported one particular alliance of scientists, or even that newspaper coverage actually shaped public opinion. But instead of simply quibbling over such gaps, we would be better off asking how to utilise such studies. Viewed thus, how does the study become a good starting point for Kerala journalism researchers? Varghese’s approach from a science–society perspective led him towards showing how science was affected; a journalism studies scholar can follow her own disciplinary trail and explore how journalism was affected. For

Varughese describes the collapse of wells, the contrasting reasons offered by scientists’ teams, and the resulting formation of alliances of experts, led on the one side by CESS, and on the other by the Kerala government’s groundwater department. He believes that the controversy was resolved by a “proactive media” which largely supported the latter alliance. One newspaper even set up its own research team of two nationally reputed scientists from outside the state, for a second opinion and helped in closure of the controversy, says Varughese. Yet, he does not feel that “the media distort scientific explanations and confuse the public during disasters.” Rather, he sees it as the media “disclosing the internal tensions and ambivalences” of science. Further, he believes that the media debate was useful to scientists too, as they had to “engage with a wide range of experts and nonscientists.” example, why and how did the newspapers give more weightage to one side in a scientific debate? Can the tendency of journalists to put scientists on the defensive be explained in terms of personal (political) behaviour or systemic (economic) behaviour? Do media outlets continue to use the same regional experts who were perceived to have failed, and if so, on what basis? Do controversies lead to better or worse science journalism? Questions can also be posed by shifting from the journalist’s end to the reader’s end, and by moving from qualitative to quantitative methods. For example, journalism researchers can assess the impact of media on people’s attitude to science, which too often seems to be taken for granted. Similarly, do public controversies on science lead to greater demand for science news? Varughese’s study also reminds us that even before the era of TV news journalism in Kerala, there existed a tendency in print media to create a “catastrophe discourse.” Hence, if any student wishes to delineate the impact of TV channels on print journalism, he can consider a comparative study of the quake controversy of 2000–2001 and the

Mullaperiyar Dam controversy of 2011. My point, put more generally, is that Kerala journalism scholars would do well to take advantage of Kerala studies. Consider a journalism scholar who has to identify a topic for research. It is tempting to pluck a topic that simply suits one’s own taste. But if he were to pause for a while, look at existing studies on Kerala (especially in other disciplines), and then zero in on a topic that suits his taste, he would be doubly enriching the field of Kerala studies—first by increasing the cultivated area of Kerala journalism studies, and second, by extending the reasonably large patch of Kerala studies. It is by such extension of scholarship that society will eventually enjoy a kaleidoscopic view of any social problem. Ashok R. Chandran is an independent researcher in Palakkad, Kerala. He can be reached at studykeralamedia@gmail.com 1. Shiju Sam Varughese (2011), “Media and Science in Disaster Contexts: Deliberations on Earthquakes in the Regional Press in Kerala, India,” Spontaneous Generations, 5 (1): 36–43. \hw_À 2013


(40) Students’ Corner

J. V. Vil’anilam

More about Communication and Mass Communication The primary aim of mass communication is to influence the users either economically or politically.

C

ommunication is as old as humanity itself. It is the basis of human society. As the MacBride Commission of the UNESCO said in 1980: Communication maintains and animates life. It is also the motor and expression of social action and civilisation; it leads people and peoples from instinct to inspiration through various processes and systems of enquiry, command. and control. … Communication integrates knowledge, organisation, and power and runs a thread linking the earliest memory of humans to their noblest aspirations through constant striving for a better life. As the world has advanced, the task of communication has become even more complex and subtle—to contribute to the liberation of humankind from want, oppression, and fear and to unite it in community and communion, solidarity and understanding. However, unless some basic structural changes are introduced, the potential benefits of technological and communication development will hardly be put at the disposal of humankind. (Sean MacBride et al., Many Voices, One World, Paris: UNESCO, 1980, pp 3-4) \hw_À 2013

Structural changes such as micro-credit for the rural poor, job creation in village and rural industries, land reforms, rural infrastructural development involving mass transit, rural water supply, drainage, energy sources, and socioeconomic liberation of the people are essential. In all this, communication plays a major role. Can the mass media with emphasis on entertainment bring about the essential structural changes? Can they promote communitarianism and bring about fundamental social change? Or do they only reinforce existing inequalities and injustices and merely promote consumerism through entertainment? The fundamental differences between communication (C) and mass communication (MC) should be understood by all students of journalism and mass communication. 1. MC is communication of messages, as stated earlier, produced by the combined efforts of a group of trained personnel working for a huge organisation that assigns them specific tasks. These trained persons work in a professional manner most of the time, according to certain norms and practices established in their profession—locally, nationally, and even internationally. 2. MC is of recent origin. C has existed from time immemorial.

Although MC is global in structure, it is closely related to the socioeconomic, political, and cultural environments in which it is produced for global consumption. 3. All messages produced globally need not be culturally relevant or acceptable to all communities who receive them, but powerful producers try to impose their influence on the less powerful and technologically weak. Some messages could be manipulative and intended to preserve or promote certain economic systems which need not necessarily be beneficial to local communities. 4. MC stays in business mainly because of the support it gets from product manufacturers who advertise them through the media. 5. Both the manufacturers and the mass media are huge business concerns and they are profitoriented. The media businesses are huge empires involving billions of dollars, and they are worldwide. 6. MC is the product of modern science and technology, which themselves expanded because of worldwide market systems, and political and economic activities including colonialism. 7. MC is essentially an urban phenomenon, although its reach and influence can go beyond urban enclaves. Production and transmission centres are in the big


(41) cities of specific countries of the world. Decision-makers are also in the mega metropolises of the world. 8. Most of the time, MC carries messages of the elite, produced by the elite, and for the elite living in urban and rural areas; they trickle down to the lower levels of both urban and rural areas. 9. MC is mostly limited in its reach despite its technological capacity to reach all. It is produced with a certain purpose in keeping with the demands of the power systems enveloping it. 10. The primary aim of MC is to influence the users either economically or politically. Cultural products are used to reach these aims. Communication scholars such as Herbert Schiller believed that the media carried “messages that intentionally created a false sense of reality and produced a consciousness that could not comprehend the conditions of life, personal or social, that exist in the recipient countries or wilfully reject them. In such circumstances, messages become manipulative.” (See H. I. Schiller, The Mind Managers, Boston: Beacon Press, 1973). Schiller cites Paulo Freire to stress that the manipulation of human minds is “an instrument of conquest” and that it is one of the means by which “the dominant elites try to conform the masses to their objectives.” George Gerbner looks upon mass communication as a process that is entirely different from the process of communication. He draws our attention to the rise of the industrialised and centrally managed discharge of massive symbol systems into the “mainstream of common consciousness.” To Gerbner, mass public communication is carried on through messages that are largely mass produced and/or distributed by complex industrial structures. Selected private perspectives are transformed into broad public perspectives to bring mass publics

into existence. These publics are maintained through continued publication. News, information, entertainment, etc are made public for public access. The public is “an amorphous social aggregate whose members share a community of interests.” The public’s access to the media depends on the public’s economic status, education, and social position, and therefore what we find in countries with a very large number of poor, uneducated, and even illiterate people, is a highly imbalanced media use. The effect of this

The mass media have become as important as, if not more important than, religious, business, and educational institutions in public acculturation, socialisation, and the conduct of public affairs. However, the access to the media is very low in poor countries, especially for those who live in the rural areas, although they too may receive some messages occasionally from the elite orally. MC is a society-wide process; its main users, of course, are a minority in poor countries.

Communication maintains and animates life. It is also the motor and expression of social action and civilisation; it leads people and peoples from instinct to inspiration through various processes and systems of enquiry, command. and control. imbalance in media contents, goals, and purposes is not given any serious attention. The media are of the highest importance in the modern world because they are the means of selecting, composing, recording, and sharing stories, symbols, and images. “They are the cultural arms of the industrial order from which they spring,” says Gerbner. “The key to the cultural transformation which mass communication signifies is the mass production of messages, forming message systems characteristic of their technological and industrial bases.”

However, it is powerful since the rich minority consists of the major decision-makers in those countries. Despite the status as a society-wide process, technically capable of reaching every section of the population, MC is communication from the few to the few whose interests are identical. It conveys to the few those messages specially meant to protect and maintain the social order which unfortunately may not be conducive to the very large majority who are poor with different basic needs and priorities (different from the needs and priorities of the rich \hw_À 2013


(42) minority). Communication, in contradistinction to MC, therefore, needs more attention, especially in countries with millions of illiterate and uneducated people. The use of the mass media in educating millions or eradicating illiteracy has not been proved conclusively in any country. Conventional schooling cannot be conquered by any technical means employed in systems of mass communication. Social transformation occurred in rich countries, not through MC but through education and such other interpersonal, face-to-face communication systems which led to structural transformation. As stated at the commencement of our series, C encompasses sharing and distributive justice—the basis of a healthy social organisation. If it does not serve the noble goal of engendering commonality of perception about socioeconomic priorities and values, but subjects itself to technological imperatives, it cannot extricate itself from the mammoth media edifices controlled by small but powerful segments of society. Undoubtedly, these small segments have enough power to steer the course of religion, education, employment, economic philosophy, production technology, and distribution of systems—the fountain-springs of culture in any society. Literacy, education, technical infrastructure, family background, and upbringing affect it, although these factors play a major role in shaping the thinking that goes into the contents and organisation of MC and interpersonal communication.

The Mass Communication Process

The term “MC” emerged in the late 1930s but before that the popular press and the cinema were labelled mass press and mass film industry, respectively, in the West, particularly in the United States. In India, the term \hw_À 2013

is of more recent origin, say from the 1980s, or more visibly in the late 1990s following liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation. The actual process of communication via the mass media is unidirectional and impersonal. It originates in centralised, professional, bureaucratic organisations far removed from the target audience or receivers/recipients who are anonymous, heterogeneous, and amorphous, and hence mass—an unidentified, undefined group of people belonging to all strata of society, but mostly those who have receiving sets and can afford the extra expenses. The products of this process have to appeal to the largest number of people or media users if the producing organisation has to stay long in business, and if the business operations have to be profitable. In this sense, the messages are “manufactured” in a mass production mode to reduce the cost of production. The products of mass media are those from assembly-line manufacturing units; they are standardised, and fitting the largest number of users. There are no custom-made, ideologically-oriented messages (although in a certain sense, all intellectual productions are ideological). The distance between the sender and the receiver of messages is almost unbridgeable when they are at different levels of education and general knowledge. Although the masses receive the messages, they are not members of any one group. The receivers are “mass” only in name. Each receiver is single, and he or she alters the message in his or her own way, even if he or she belongs to a big group of likeminded people. Each receiver is responsible for his or her conditions of reception. Each one receives it with either full or partial attention. The message delivery may determine the reception too.

The style of delivery may be in a boring, monotonous, sing-song, or sometimes squeaky manner, sometimes very slow, and at other times very quick and almost unintelligible at non-stop, highspeed mode. In some radio and TV reports, the reporter/speaker delivers the message without any logical pauses. To make messages shocking, attention-grabbing, and capable of waking up the listener, the message producer and the message reader render the message as extraordinary, or even sensational, as possible. Entertainment programmes such as serials are full of shouting matches between husbands and wives, lovers and in-laws, relatives, and even strangers meeting for the first time. Nobody seems to talk in a normal, peaceful fashion. Are producers and directors thinking that normal dealings are not attentiongrabbers?! Do Malayalees always talk so belligerently and impatiently? Have they lost the art of gentleness in communication and action? News—and even ads—are delivered with peculiar poses and gestures by otherwise good-looking men and women who spoil their image on TV by artificial gesticulation and voice modulation. They forget that the audience is hypercritical mainly because the news presenter is a regular “guest” at home, and like all guests she or he should not irritate the host by repetitive and sing-song tone or head-shaking images of a jarring nature! See you later, communicator! Professor Dr. J. V. Vil’anilam was Vice-Chancellor (1992-1996) and Head of the Department of Communication & Journalism (19821992) at the University of Kerala. As Professor Emeritus of the UGC he has taught at Berhampur, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Calicut, Dharwar, and Mangalore universities from 1996 onwards. Visit his website www.vilanilam.com.


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h‑nU‑v t‑{‑I‑mN‑y‑p‑, h‑ne‑y‑w s‑l‑mb‑v\k‑v F¶‑nhÀ t‑NÀs‑¶g‑pX‑nb Media/Society (2003‑) F¶ {‑KÙ‑w A¡‑mZa‑nI‑, CSX‑p]£‑, k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑X\‑nj‑vT‑, a‑m[‑ya]T\ ¯‑ns‑â a‑nI¨ a‑mX‑rIIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v. A©‑p`‑mK§f‑mb‑n {‑Ia‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pff C‑u ]T\‑w At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑yac‑wK‑w t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¨‑v‑, Bt‑K‑mf a‑m[‑yac‑wK s‑¯ _l‑pc‑m{‑ãI‑p¯IIf‑ps‑S k¼Z‑vLS\ a‑pX \ha‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑y \‑nÀ½‑nX‑nhs‑cb‑pff \‑nch[‑n t‑aJeIÄ NÀ¨s‑¡S‑p¡‑p¶‑p. Cc‑p] s‑¯‑m¶‑m‑w \‑qä‑mï‑ns‑â X‑pS¡¯‑n t‑e‑mIa‑m[‑yac‑wK‑w F¯‑n\‑n¡‑p¶ k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI kµÀ`§f‑ps‑S h‑niI e\s‑a¶\‑neb‑n ‑"a‑m[‑yaka‑ql‑w‑', B[‑p\‑nI‑m\´ca‑m[‑ya ]T\c‑wK¯‑p ï‑mb {‑it‑²ba‑mb Hc‑p k‑wc‑w`‑w Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v. ‑"a‑m[‑ya‑w/ ka‑ql‑w' F¶ H¶‑m‑w `‑mK‑w A¨S‑n‑, Z‑ri‑y‑, {‑i‑mh‑y‑, \h a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w Ah c‑q]‑ws‑I‑mS‑p¯ ka‑ql{‑Ia§f‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pff _Ô‑w k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑nÚ‑m\‑ob¯‑ns‑â ]Ý‑m¯e¯‑n h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p ¶‑p. (‑"k‑ma‑ql‑yt‑e‑mI‑w‑' (Social World) F¶ k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑X k‑wÚ C‑u {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑e X‑mt‑¡‑m h‑m¡‑pIf‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v‑) "a‑m[‑yah‑yhk‑m bh‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑yt‑e‑mI{‑Iah‑p‑w‑' F¶

cï‑m‑w`‑mK‑w a‑m[‑yak¼Z‑vLS\b‑p‑w _l‑pc‑m{‑ãI‑p¯IIÄ h‑mÀ¯ a‑pX ]ck‑y‑whs‑cb‑pff aÞe§ f‑n ]‑peÀ¯‑p¶ B[‑n]X‑yh‑p‑w NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S t‑ae‑p ff c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑z‑m[‑o\-h‑p‑w‑, `cWI‑qS \‑nb{‑´W§f‑p‑w CXc a‑m[‑ya\‑nba §f‑p‑w‑, a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§f‑p‑w Media Society David Croteau, William Hoynes Pine Forge Press

s‑{‑]‑m^jWe‑pIf‑p‑w F¶‑o h‑njb §f‑p‑w C‑u `‑mK¯‑p h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡ s‑¸S‑p¶‑pï‑v. a‑q¶‑m‑w `‑mKa‑mb "a‑m[‑ya {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\§f‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑y{‑Iah‑p‑w‑' a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑p‑w‑, a‑m[‑ya{‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\‑w F¶ cï‑v a‑pJ‑yh‑njb§f‑ps‑S A]{‑KY\a‑mW‑v. k‑wK‑oX‑w a‑pX ]ck‑y‑whs‑cb‑p‑w h‑wi‑obX a‑pX s‑s‑e‑wK‑nIXhs‑cb‑p‑w ]T‑n¡s‑¸S‑p¶‑p‑, Ch‑ns‑S. \‑me‑m‑w`‑mK‑w "t‑{‑]£Is‑c‑'¡‑pd‑n¨‑mW‑v. h‑nh‑n[ _l‑pP\a‑m[‑ya§Ä k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ k‑ma‑ql‑y{‑]X‑oX‑nIÄ¡‑p ]‑n¶‑n a‑m[‑ya D]t‑`‑mà‑m¡Ä¡‑pff {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w At‑\‑zj‑n¡‑p¶ {‑KÙI‑mc ·‑mÀ‑, h‑mÀ¯ a‑pX P\{‑]‑nbt‑\‑mh Âhs‑cb‑p‑w B\µ‑m\‑p`h‑w a‑pX {‑]X‑nt‑c‑m[c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w hs‑cb‑p‑w C‑u I‑mg‑vN¸‑mS‑n ]T‑n¡‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑ya k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑pff Hc‑p NÀ¨b‑p‑w C‑u `‑mK¯‑pï‑v. A©‑m‑w `‑mK‑w‑, ‑"Bt‑K‑mfh��¡cWh‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya `‑mh‑nb‑p‑w‑' F¶X‑mW‑v. k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI k‑m{‑a‑mP‑y¯¯‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑qNI §s‑f¶ \‑neb‑n Bt‑K‑mfa‑m[‑ya h‑yhk‑mb‑w a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑phb‑v¡‑p¶ LSI§f‑mW‑v C‑u `‑mKs‑¯ a‑pJ‑y h‑niIe\h‑njb‑w. A¨S‑n‑, Z‑ri‑y‑, {‑i‑mh‑y‑, \ha‑m[‑ya §Ä k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI{‑]`‑m h§s‑f k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑XZ‑rã‑nb‑n ka‑o]‑n¡‑p¶ C‑u ]T\{‑KÙ‑w‑, Nc‑n{‑X‑mßIs‑a¶t‑]‑ms‑eXs‑¶ k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑p‑w k‑m¼¯‑nI \hw_À 2013


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* am[y-a-߃ kaq-l*-Ø {]`mmWvm‑w`‑?mKa‑mb a‑m[‑yah‑yhk‑mb a‑m[‑n¬ y-a-hsNep-fÀ¨b‑Ø p‑w c‑mp∂ {‑ã‑o-b -{‑]-{‑Ih ‑n- -sa-¥cï‑

s‑a¶t‑]‑ms‑eXs‑¶ {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X] ch‑pa‑mb h‑niIe\]²X‑nIf‑mW‑v DS\‑of‑w ]‑n´‑pSc‑p¶X‑v. a‑m[‑ya§t‑f‑m S‑p _Ôs‑¸S‑p¯‑n s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h NÀ¨ s‑N¿‑md‑pff {‑][‑m\ k¦e‑v]\§f‑p‑w ]c‑nIe‑v]\If‑p‑w Bg¯‑n ]T‑n¡ s‑¸S‑p¶‑pï‑v C‑u {‑KÙ¯‑nÂ. k¼Z‑v LS\‑, `cWI‑qS\‑nb{‑´W‑w‑, k‑mt‑¦ X‑nIX‑, t‑{‑]£IÀ‑, DffS¡‑w‑, k‑ma‑q l‑nIX F¶‑nh \‑nÀWb‑n¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑yak‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nIXb‑ps‑S h‑niI e\s‑a¶ \‑neb‑n \‑ni‑nXa‑mb c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑z`‑mh‑w DS\‑of‑w ]‑me‑n¡‑p ¶ a‑m[‑ya]T\a‑mb‑n a‑md‑p¶‑p‑, ‑"a‑m[‑ya ka‑ql‑w‑'. "s‑X‑mg‑ne‑mf‑n‑, a[‑yhÀK§ f‑p‑w CSX‑p]£h‑p‑w' t‑]‑me‑pff {‑KÙ §s‑fg‑pX‑nb t‑{‑I‑mN‑y‑ph‑p‑w "s‑Se‑nh‑nj \‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑paÞeh‑p‑w' t‑]‑me‑pff {‑KÙ§s‑fg‑pX‑nb s‑l‑mb‑v\k‑p‑w H¶‑n ¨‑v cN‑n¨ CXc {‑KÙ§s‑ft‑¸‑ms‑e (c‑m{‑ã‑obk‑wh‑mZ§f‑ps‑S ]c‑na‑nX‑n a‑m[‑ya§f‑nÂ(1994‑)‑, _l‑pc‑m{‑ã a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w _l‑pP\X‑mÂ]c‑y§ f‑p‑w (2001‑)‑) Xs‑¶‑, k‑q£‑vaa‑mb k‑ma‑ql‑nI‑mht‑_‑m[h‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑ob [‑mcWb‑p‑w {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X_²Xb‑p‑w ]‑n´‑pSc‑p¶‑pï‑v C‑u ]T\h‑p‑w.

bb‑p‑w X½‑n-e‑pÅ _Ô-s‑a-´‑mW‑v? * a‑m[‑y-a-§Ä ka‑q-l-¯‑n s‑Ne‑p¯‑p¶ {‑]`‑m-h-s‑a-´‑mW‑v ? * a‑m[‑y-a-§s‑f P\-§Ä D]-t‑b‑mK‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑p‑w h‑y‑mJ‑y‑m-\‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑p-s‑a-§s‑\-b‑mW‑v? * \h-a‑m-[‑y-a-k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I-X-IÄ h‑nI-k‑n-¨-s‑X-§-s‑\‑, Ah-b‑ps‑S {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y-s‑a´‑v? * a‑m[‑y-a-§-f‑ps‑S Bt‑K‑m-f-h¡c-W-¯‑ns‑â kh‑n-t‑i-j-{‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-s‑a´‑mW‑v? C‑u t‑N‑mZ‑y§Ä¡‑pff D¯c‑w t‑XSt‑e‑m {‑]i‑v\§f‑ps‑S h‑y‑mJ‑y‑m\t‑a‑m BW‑v C‑u ]T\{‑KÙ‑w F¶‑pXs‑¶ ]db‑m‑w. ka‑o]I‑me¯‑v c‑q]‑ws‑I‑mï‑n «‑pff {‑it‑²b§f‑mb a‑m[‑ya]T\ §Ä a‑n¡X‑p‑w h‑nc N‑qï‑p¶X‑p‑w C¯c‑w t‑aJeIf‑nt‑e¡‑mW‑v F¶‑p‑w H‑mÀ¡‑pI. 1950þ60 I‑me¯‑p\S¶ At‑ac‑n¡³ ]‑uc‑mhI‑mi {‑]t‑£‑m` §f‑n a‑m[‑ya§Ä hl‑n¨ ]¦‑v‑, Hc‑p a‑mX‑rIs‑b¶ \‑neb‑n C‑u `‑mK¯‑v {‑KÙI‑mc·‑mÀ AhXc‑n¸‑n¨‑p h‑niZ‑o Ic‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S De‑v]‑mZ\‑w‑, Dff S¡‑w‑, D]t‑`‑mK‑w F¶‑nhs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑p ff NÀ¨b‑mW‑v Häh‑mI‑y¯‑n ]d ª‑m X‑pSÀ¶‑pff a‑q¶‑p `‑mK§Ä þ AYh‑m {‑KÙ¯‑ns‑â I‑mXÂ. AX‑n\‑p t‑hï‑n X‑ms‑gsImSp¯ncn¡p¶ c‑oX‑n b‑ne‑pff Hc‑p ]T\ka‑o]\]²X‑n {‑KÙI‑mc·‑mÀ k‑qN‑n¸‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w AX‑v {‑KÙ-¯‑ne‑pS\‑of‑w ]‑n´‑pSc‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p.

¯‑n k¼Z‑vLS\b‑p‑w `cWI‑qS\‑nb {‑´W§f‑p‑w DÄs‑¸S‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑ya kt‑µi§Ä/De‑v]¶§Ä NÀ¨ s‑N¿s‑¸S‑p¶ a‑q¶‑m‑w `‑mK¯‑v a‑m[‑ya §f‑p‑w {‑]X‑yb i‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑p‑w‑, a‑m[‑ya{‑] X‑n\‑n[‑m\§f‑p‑w ka‑qlh‑p‑w F¶‑o h‑njb§f‑mW‑pffX‑v. \‑me‑m‑w`‑mK¯‑v t‑{‑]£Is‑c t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¨‑v a‑m[‑ya§ f‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑y{‑]`‑mh¯‑ns‑â h‑niIe \‑w \S¡‑p¶‑p. k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXb‑ps‑S NÀ¨b‑p‑w C‑u `‑mK¯‑v DÄs‑¡‑mff‑n¨‑n c‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Ahk‑m\`‑mKa‑mIs‑« Bt‑K‑mfhÂI‑rXI‑me¯‑v C‑u a‑m[‑ya §Ä¡‑p s‑s‑Ihc‑p¶ ]‑pX‑nb k‑ma‑ql‑y {‑]kà‑nb‑ps‑S `‑mh‑ns‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v N‑ne \‑nc‑o£W§Ä AhXc‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶‑p. "a‑m[‑yah‑yhk‑mb‑'s‑a¶ cï‑m‑w `‑mK¯‑v k‑ma‑ql‑yià‑nIÄ‑, k‑m¼ ¯‑nIià‑nIÄ‑, c‑m{‑ã‑ob\‑nb{‑´W §Ä F¶‑n§s‑\ a‑q¶‑p Xe§f‑ne‑p ff CSs‑]Se‑pIf‑p‑w k‑z‑m[‑o\h‑pa‑mW‑v a‑m[‑yah‑yhk‑mb¯‑ns‑â LS\ \‑nÀ Wb‑n¡‑p¶X‑v F¶‑p N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n ¡‑p¶‑p. "De‑v]‑mZ\'aÞes‑a¶ \‑ne b‑n t‑ae‑v]dª LS\b‑v¡‑pff‑n \‑ne\‑n¡‑p¶ \‑nch[‑nb‑mb _Ô §f‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑yi‑mk‑v{‑X‑w Ag‑ns‑¨S‑p ¡‑p¶‑p {‑KÙIÀ¯‑m¡Ä. Bt‑K‑mf a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯‑, h‑nt‑ij‑n¨‑p‑w At‑ac‑n ¡³ \‑nb{‑´W¯‑ne‑pff _l‑pc‑m{‑ã a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯ k‑m¼¯‑nIþk‑mt‑¦ X‑nIþDffS¡ I‑p¯Is‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v \‑nch[‑n]T\§Ä a‑p³]‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑p h¶‑n«‑pï‑v. t‑\‑m‑wt‑N‑m‑wk‑vI‑nb‑p‑w FU‑z‑mÀU‑v Fk‑v s‑lÀa\‑p‑w s‑_³

* am[y-a-ßsf P\-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xpw hymJym-\n-°p-∂-Xp-sa-ß-s\-bmWv? * \h-am-[y-a-km-t¶-Xn-I-X-Iƒ hnI-kn-®-sX-ß-s\, Ah-bpsS {]m[m-\y-sa¥v? * am[y-a-ß-fpsS BtKm-f-h¬°-c-W-Øns‚ khn-ti-j-{]m-[m-\y-sa-¥mWv?

Cu tNmZy߃°pff DØcwtXStem {]iv\ßfpsS hymJym\tam BWv Cu ]T\

F∂pXs∂ ]dbmw. kao]ImeØv cq]wsIm≠n´pff {it≤bßfmb am[ya]T\߃ a

hnc¬ Nq≠p∂Xpw CØcw taJeIfnte°mWv F∂pw Hm¿°pI. 1950˛60 ImeØ

Atacn°≥ ]ucmhImi {]t£m`ßfn¬ am[ya߃ hln® ]¶v, Hcp amXrIsb∂ \n Cu `mKØv {KŸImc∑m¿ AhXcn∏n®p hniZoIcn°pIbpw sNøp∂p.

am[yaßfpsS Dev]mZ\w, DffS°w, D]t`mKw F∂nhsb°pdn®pff N¿®

“The media surround us..... They are like the air we breathe, ever present yet rarely considered” F¶ JÞ‑nIb‑ne‑mc‑w`‑n¡‑p¶

H‰hmIyØn¬ ]d™m¬ XpS¿∂pff aq∂p `mK߃ ˛ AYhm {KŸØns‚ ImX¬. A

th≠n Xmsg∏dbp∂ coXnbnepff Hcp ]T\kao]\]≤Xn {KŸImc∑m¿ kqNn∏n°

H¶‑m‑w`‑mK¯‑v t‑{‑I‑mN‑y‑ph‑p‑w s‑l‑mb‑v\ k‑p‑w ]{‑X‑w‑, a‑mk‑nIIÄ‑, k‑n\‑na‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³‑, \ha‑m[‑ya §Ä F¶‑n§s‑\ _l‑pP\a‑m[‑ya s‑a¶‑p Ic‑pX‑nt‑¸‑mc‑p¶ Bd‑v {‑]a‑pJ aÞe§f‑ps‑S DÛh‑, h‑nI‑mkNc‑n{‑X h‑p‑w ka‑qlLS\b‑n Ahb‑v¡‑pff {‑]`‑mhh‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑ya‑mä§f‑n Ah hl‑n¨ ]¦‑p‑w aä‑p‑w k‑w£‑n]‑vXa‑mb‑n h‑nhc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. C‑u ]T\{‑KÙ¯‑ns‑â c‑oX‑ni‑mk‑v{‑Xs‑a¶ \‑neb‑n k‑ma‑ql‑y i‑mk‑v{‑X (Sociology‑) \‑nj‑vTa‑mb a‑m[‑ya h‑niIe\¯‑ns‑â `‑qa‑nI I‑qS‑n t‑cJs‑¸S‑p¯‑p¶‑pï‑v C‑u `‑mK‑w. AX‑n s‑â s‑hf‑n¨¯‑n kaI‑me a‑m[‑ya] T\§Ä D¶b‑nt‑¡ï AS‑nØ‑m\] ca‑mb N‑ne t‑N‑mZ‑y§Ä/{‑]i‑v\§Ä ChÀ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. * a‑m[‑y-a§-f‑ps‑S DS-a-I-f‑m-c‑mW‑v? * a‑m[‑y-a-k‑r-j‑vS‑n-IÄ/]‑mT-§Ä c‑q]-s‑¸-S‑p-¶-s‑X-§-s‑\-b‑mW‑v? * a‑m[‑y-a-§Ä¡‑p-t‑a `c-W-I‑q-S¯‑n-\‑pÅ \‑nb-{‑´-t‑W‑m-]‑m-[‑n-I-t‑f-s‑X‑ms‑¡-b‑mW‑v? * a‑m[‑y-a-§-f‑n F´‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑mW‑v N‑ne k‑wK-X‑n-IÄ {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w t‑\S‑p¶X‑p‑w aä‑p N‑neh {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w t‑\S‑m¯X‑p‑w?

AXv {KŸØneqS\ofw ]n¥pScpIbpw sNøp∂p

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am[ya D]t`m‡m°ƒ

am[yaktμiw/ Dev]∂w

kmaqlytemIw

am[yahyhkmbw

kmt¶XnIX


(45) t‑{‑]£Is‑c/ D]t‑`‑mKs‑¯ t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ \‑me‑m‑w `‑mK¯‑v {‑][‑m\a‑mb‑p‑w a‑q¶‑p h‑njb§f‑ps‑S NÀ¨b‑mW‑pffX‑v. c‑m{‑ã‑ob c‑wK¯‑v a‑m[‑ya§Ä s‑Ne‑p¯‑p¶ {‑]`‑mhh‑p‑w hc‑p¯‑nb a‑mä§f‑p‑w \S¯‑ns‑¡‑mt‑ïb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ CSs‑]Se‑pIf‑pa‑mW‑v BZ‑yt‑¯X‑v. AS‑p¯h‑njb‑w‑, \‑nk‑wK (passive‑) t‑{‑]£Ic‑n \‑n¶‑p `‑n¶a‑mb‑n {‑I‑nb‑mßI (active‑) t‑{‑]£IÀ a‑m[‑yakt‑µi§Ä¡‑p‑w ]‑mT§Ä¡‑p‑w \ÂI‑p¶ AÀY\‑nÀa‑nX‑nb‑ps‑S c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mW‑v. "a‑m[‑yak‑mt‑¦X‑nIXb‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑ya‑mäh‑p‑w‑' F¶ a‑q¶‑mas‑¯ h‑njb‑w‑, A¨S‑n a‑pX CâÀs‑\ä‑v hs‑cb‑pff k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXIÄ a‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mcs‑¯b‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑nIXs‑bb‑p‑w \‑nÀhN‑n¡‑p¶X‑n s‑â c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXs‑b \‑nb{‑´‑n¨‑v DffS¡s‑¯ \‑nb{‑´‑n¡‑m\‑pff t‑I‑mÀ¸t‑dä‑v X{‑´§f‑ps‑S ad\‑o¡e‑pa‑pï‑v C‑ub[‑y‑mb¯‑nÂ. _‑mK‑vU‑nI‑nb\‑p‑w t‑d‑m_À«‑v aI‑vs‑N k‑v\‑nb‑p‑w aä‑p‑w Häb‑v¡‑p‑w I‑q«‑mb‑p‑w Fg‑pX‑nb {‑]ik‑vX§f‑mb a‑m[‑ya]T \§Ä ]eX‑p‑w NÀ¨ s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v C‑u h‑njba‑mW‑v. Manufacturing

Consent, Global Media, The Media Monopoly X‑pS§‑nb {‑KÙ§Ä DZ‑m

lcW‑w. C‑u ]T\§f‑ne‑pffX‑ns‑\ ¡‑mÄ h‑niZ‑m‑wi§Ä \ÂI‑ns‑¡‑m ï‑mW‑v t‑{‑I‑mN‑y‑ph‑p‑w s‑l‑mb‑v\k‑p‑w At‑ac‑n¡³ ]{‑X‑w‑, a‑mk‑nI‑, ]‑pk‑vX I‑w‑, k‑n\‑na‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³‑, k‑wK‑oX‑w‑, aÄ«‑na‑oU‑nb X‑pS§‑nb c‑wK§f‑ps‑S k¼Z‑vLS\ h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. \‑m\‑mc‑wK§f‑n C‑u I‑p¯Ih¡ cW‑w k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ {‑]`‑mh‑w NÀ¨s‑N ¿‑p¶ {‑KÙ‑w "]ck‑y'§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pff h‑niZa‑mb ]T\h‑p‑w C‑u `‑mK¯‑p \S ¯‑p¶‑p. a‑m[‑yak¼Z‑vLS\b‑ps‑S AS‑n¯db‑mb‑n a‑md‑n¡g‑nª‑n«‑pff as‑ä‑mc‑p k-a‑m´c a‑m[‑yat‑aJe Xs‑¶ b‑mb ]ck‑yaÞe‑w k‑rã‑n¡‑p¶ k‑ma‑ql‑y{‑]`‑mh§f‑ps‑S k‑pZ‑oÀL a‑mb h‑ni-Ie\‑w Xs‑¶b‑mW‑nX‑v. ka‑m\a‑mW‑v‑, c‑m{‑ã‑obc‑wK‑w a‑m[‑ya §Ä¡‑pt‑a GÀs‑¸S‑p¯‑p¶ \‑nb{‑´ W§f‑ps‑S NÀ¨\S¡‑p¶ AS‑p¯ `‑mKh‑p‑w. DSaØX‑, DffS¡‑w‑, h‑nXc W‑w‑, ]ck‑y‑w F¶‑o \‑me‑p c‑wK§s‑f t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¨‑mW‑v C‑u h‑niIe\‑w \S ¡‑p¶X‑v. a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S s‑{‑]‑m^jW  \‑ne]‑mS‑pIf‑ps‑S NÀ¨ \S¡‑p¶ C‑u `‑mKs‑¯ Ahk‑m\ A[‑y‑mb‑w‑, a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w ka‑qlh‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pff _Ô¯‑ns‑â k‑q£‑vah‑p‑w \b]ch‑p a‑mb h‑niIe\h‑pa‑mW‑v. a‑m[‑ya[Àa §Ä F¶‑p s‑]‑mX‑ps‑h Ic‑pXs‑¸S‑p ¶ LSI§Ä \S¸‑m¡s‑¸S‑p¶X‑ns‑â k‑m[‑yXIf‑p‑w ]c‑na‑nX‑nIf‑p‑w h‑naÀi \‑mßIa‑mb‑n N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡s‑¸S‑p¶‑p Ch‑ns‑S. a‑q¶‑m‑w`‑mK‑w a‑m[‑ya DffS¡s‑¯ ¡‑pd‑n¨‑mW‑v. {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X‑w‑, {‑]X‑n \‑n[‑m\‑w F¶ cï‑p ]c‑nIe‑v]\If‑n

e‑q¶‑n a‑m[‑ya DffS¡¯‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑o b‑w Aht‑e‑mI\‑w s‑N¿s‑¸S‑p¶‑p‑, C‑u `‑mK¯‑v. AS‑nØ‑m\]ca‑mb‑n {‑KÙI À¯‑m¡Ä ]‑peÀ¯‑p¶ a‑m[‑y-a]T\ ka‑o]\¯‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w Xs‑¶b‑m W‑v Ch‑ns‑S {‑]ISa‑mI‑p¶X‑v. "A[‑oi {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑Xh‑p‑w k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI s‑s‑hc‑p[‑y§f‑p‑w' F¶ h‑o£W‑w a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑ph¨‑v "k‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI-b‑p²' §s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pff t‑Uh‑nU‑vlïd‑ps‑S b‑p‑w aä‑p‑w \‑nc‑o£W§Ä B[‑mca‑m ¡‑n a‑pt‑¶d‑p¶‑p‑, BZ‑yL«‑w. X‑pSÀ¶‑v a‑mÀI‑vk‑nb³ {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X NÀ¨ If‑ps‑S t‑{‑I‑mU‑oIcWh‑p‑w h‑nbä‑v\‑m‑w k‑n\‑naIÄ‑, d‑m]‑vk‑wK‑oX‑w‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj ³h‑mÀ¯‑, ]ck‑y§Ä‑, Bt‑K‑mfh ¡cW‑w X‑pS§‑nb c‑wK§Ä a‑p³\‑nÀ ¯‑nb‑pff h‑niIe\h‑p‑w. h‑n]W‑n aÕch‑p‑w t‑aÂt‑¡‑mb‑va¡‑mb‑pff {‑ia §f‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya§s‑f Ahb‑ps‑S Dff S¡¯‑n s‑hff‑w t‑NÀ¡‑m³ \‑nÀ ºÔ‑n¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â k‑q£‑vah‑niIe\ a‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑Sb‑pffX‑v. "k‑ma‑ql‑y AkaX‑z§f‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya{‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\ §f‑p‑w‑' F¶ h‑njb¯‑ns‑â NÀ¨b‑ne‑mIs‑« h‑mÀ¯‑m‑, h‑nt‑\‑mZ a‑m[‑ya§Ä a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑nb‑pff‑, I‑ps‑d ¡‑qS‑n hk‑vX‑pX‑m]ca‑mb ka‑o]\a‑m W‑pffX‑v. At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑ya§f‑ns‑e h‑wi‑ob h‑nt‑hN\¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w e‑n‑wK h‑nt‑hN\¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w hÀKh‑nt‑hN\ ¯‑ns‑âb‑p‑w k‑q£‑vah‑niIe\§Ä‑, s‑s‑e‑wK‑nI \‑y‑q\]£§f‑ps‑S a‑m[‑ya {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\‑w F¶‑n§s‑\ \‑me‑ph‑nj b§f‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑S AhXc‑n¸‑n¡s‑¸S‑p ¶X‑v. t‑{‑]£Is‑c/ D]t‑`‑mKs‑¯ t‑I{‑µ‑o Ic‑n¡‑p¶ \‑me‑m‑w `‑mK¯‑v {‑][‑m\a‑m b‑p‑w a‑q¶‑p h‑njb§f‑ps‑S NÀ¨b‑mW‑p ffX‑v. c‑m{‑ã‑obc‑wK¯‑v a‑m[‑ya§Ä s‑Ne‑p¯‑p¶ {‑]`‑mhh‑p‑w hc‑p¯‑nb a‑mä§f‑p‑w \S¯‑ns‑¡‑mt‑ïb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶ CSs‑]Se‑pIf‑pa‑mW‑v BZ‑yt‑¯X‑v. s‑Xcs‑ªS‑p¸‑p c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mW‑v Ch‑ns‑S

k‑z‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ ]T\kµÀ`h‑p‑w a‑mX‑rIb‑p‑w. a¡‑mÀ¯‑nL«‑w a‑pX ¢‑n⬠C‑w]‑o¨‑vs‑aâ‑v hs‑c-b‑pffh DZ‑mlc‑n¨‑mW‑v C‑u NÀ¨ \S¡‑p¶X‑v. h‑mÀ¯‑m‑, h‑nt‑\‑mZ a‑m[‑ya§Ä \‑nÀ½‑n¡‑p¶ c‑m{‑ã‑obaÞe¯‑ns‑â {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\§f‑p‑w {‑]X‑ybi‑mk‑v{‑X h‑p‑w Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v C‑u NÀ¨b‑ne‑pÄs‑¸ S‑p¶X‑v. AS‑p¯h‑njb‑w‑, \‑nk‑wK (passive‑) t‑{‑]£Ic‑n \‑n¶‑p `‑n¶ a‑mb‑n {‑I‑nb‑mßI (active‑) t‑{‑]£IÀ a‑m[‑yakt‑µi§Ä¡‑p‑w ]‑mT§Ä¡‑p‑w \ÂI‑p¶ AÀY\‑nÀa‑nX‑nb‑ps‑S c‑m{‑ã‑oba‑mW‑v. t‑Uh‑nU‑v t‑a‑mÀe‑n a‑pX Ì‑phÀ«‑v l‑mÄ hs‑cb‑pffhÀ AhXc‑n¸‑n¨ `‑n¶ ka‑o]\§Ä Ch‑ns‑S {‑KÙIÀ¯‑m¡Ä NÀ¨¡‑p ]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. H¸‑w P‑m\‑nk‑v d‑mU‑vt‑h (P\{‑]‑nbt‑\‑mh h‑mb\b‑p‑w k‑v{‑X‑ob‑p‑w‑) Cb‑m³ B‑wK‑v (s‑Se‑nh‑nj ³]c¼c‑) X‑pS§‑nbhc‑ps‑S {‑]J‑y‑mX ]T\§f‑ps‑S k‑w{‑Klh‑p‑w \ÂI‑p¶‑p. ‑"a‑m[‑yak‑mt‑¦X‑nIXb‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑y a‑mäh‑p‑w‑' F¶ a‑q¶‑mas‑¯ h‑njb‑w‑, A¨S‑n a‑pX CâÀs‑\ä‑v hs‑cb‑pff k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXIÄ a‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc s‑¯b‑p‑w k‑ma‑ql‑nIXs‑bb‑p‑w \‑nÀhN‑n ¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑ob‑w NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p ¶‑p. aI‑ve‑qls‑âb‑p‑w aä‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑n I\‑nÀWbh‑mZ‑w a‑pX dkÂ\‑y‑qa‑m s‑âb‑p‑w aä‑p‑w \ha‑m[‑ya k‑mt‑¦X‑nI X‑mNÀ¨IÄ hs‑cb‑pffh AhXc‑n¸‑n ¡s‑¸S‑p¶‑p‑, Ch‑ns‑S. k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXs‑b \‑nb{‑´‑n¨‑v DffS¡s‑¯ \‑nb{‑´‑n¡‑m \‑pff t‑I‑mÀ¸t‑dä‑v X{‑´§f‑ps‑S ad\‑o¡e‑pa‑pï‑v C‑ub[‑y‑mb¯‑nÂ. Ahk‑m\`‑mK‑w‑, "Bt‑K‑mfh¡ cWh‑p‑w `‑mh‑nb‑p‑w' F¶X‑mW‑v. Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW‑w‑, Bt‑K‑mfa‑m[‑ya §Ä‑, Ahb‑ps‑S DffS¡‑w‑, k‑m‑wk‑vI‑m c‑nI k‑m{‑a‑mP‑y¯‑w‑, h‑nhc{‑]h‑ml‑w‑, {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑nIþ{‑]X‑nt‑c‑m[ a‑m[‑ya k‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w F¶‑n§s‑\b‑pff h‑njb §f‑mW‑v C‑u `‑mK¯‑p NÀ¨s‑N¿s‑¸S‑p ¶X‑v. a‑m[‑ya]T\§f‑mb‑n s‑]‑mX‑ph‑n \S¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑yaDffS¡¯‑ns‑â a‑m{‑X NÀ¨IÄ‑, a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑nI {‑]`‑mh‑w a\Ê‑ne‑m¡‑m³ kl‑mbIa‑m h‑nà F¶ \‑ne]‑mS‑mW‑v {‑KÙIÀ¯‑m ¡Ä BZ‑y´‑w a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑phb‑v¡‑p¶X‑v. a‑m[‑yah‑yhk‑mb‑w‑, k‑mt‑¦X‑nIX‑, kt‑µi§Ä‑, t‑{‑]£IÀ X‑pS§‑nb LSI§f‑ps‑Ss‑b‑ms‑¡ h‑niIe\¯‑n e‑qs‑St‑b AX‑pk‑m[‑ya‑mI‑q F¶‑v C‑u {‑KÙ‑w k‑m£‑ys‑¸S‑p¯‑p¶‑p. {ioi¦c kÀÆIemimebnð aebmfw A[ym]I\mWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: shajijacob67@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


(46) Bookshelf New Books @ Academy Library

The Underwater Photographer

Martin Edge Focal Press 408 Pages; Price Rs. 2661.00 A superb hand-on manual containing a wealth of underwater tips, hints and advice - all beautifully illustrated with brand new, full colour images. Martin Edge, a leading authority on underwater photography, will help you capture stunning effects using his popular ‘think and consider’ system - offering a heightened awareness and understanding of the subject matter, lighting and environment to take the perfect picture. Practical examples take you step-by-step through the basic techniaques from photographing shipwrecks, divers, marine life and abstract images to taking photographs at night and ‘dual lighting’. In 1999 the late Jim Church, guru of underwater photography, said: ‘As a member of the new generation of underwater photography writers, [Martin has] set a standard that will only be surpassed when [he writes] a third edition.’ Here it is, we hope you enjoy it. \hw_À 2013

History in the Digital Age

Marketing Public Relations

The digital age is affecting all aspects of historical study, but much of the existing literature about history in the digital age can be alienating to the traditional historian who does not necessarily value or wish to embrace digital resources. The printed copy, the traditional archive, and analogue research remain key constitute parts for most historians and for many will remain precious and esteemed over digital copies, but there is a real need for historians and students of history to seriously consider some of the conceptual and methodological challenges facing the field of historical enquiry as we enter the twenty-first century. Including international contributors from a variety of disciplines - History, English, Information Studies and Archivists – this book does not seek either to applaud or condemn digital technologies, but takes a more conceptual view of how the field of history is being changed by the digital age. Essential reading for all historians.

The first text to teach public relations through the lens of marketing. Marketing Public Relations breaks from the norm by presenting public relations using a marketing, rather than a communications studies or journalism, approach. This text recognizes the similarities between PR, word-of-mouth, and social networking media and creates a framework for constructing marketing strategies that incorporate these highly credible and cost-effective tools. Students will first learn the theory and then how to apply it in order to “do Marketing Public Relations” in the real world. Although designed as a textbook, the wide range of case studies and real-life examples of public relations done right and wrong abound in this book, making it useful for the PR layperson. While intended for college students, business owners and professionals new to any facet of marketing can use this as an easy-to-read launch pad to better public relations

Editor: Toni Weller Routledge 212 Pages; Price: Rs. 2505.00

Gaetan T Giannini Pearson Education India 544 Pages; Price: Rs. 625.00


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C.]n.jmPpZo³

\yqkv s\äv

BtKmf am[yacwKs¯ ]pXnb {]hWXIfpw hmÀ¯Ifpw a\Ênem¡m\pXIpó anI¨ aoUnb sh_vsskäpIsf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbmWv Cu ]wàn. am[yacwK¯v {]hÀ¯n¡póhÀ¡pw am[yahnZymÀ°nIÄ¡pw Hcpt]mse {]tbmP\{]Zambncn¡pw Cu sskäpIfnð \nópw e`n¡pó hnhc§Ä.

\‑y‑qk‑vt‑]¸À s‑U¯‑v h‑m¨‑v

t‑PWe‑nk‑w \‑u

t‑]c‑p k‑qN‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶X‑p t‑]‑ms‑e \‑nÀ¯e‑m¡‑p¶ ]{‑X§s‑f ]ä‑nb‑pÅ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v- C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â {‑][‑m\ DÅS¡‑w. H¸‑w‑, ]‑pX‑pX‑mb‑n X‑pS§‑p¶ ]{‑X§s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pÅ h‑nhc§f‑p‑w s‑s‑kä‑ne‑pï‑v. h‑ne‑mk‑w: http://newspaperdeathwatch.com/.

k‑mt‑¦X‑nIi‑mk‑v{‑X ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯ \¯‑n 25 hÀjs‑¯ ]c‑nNbk¼ ¯‑pÅ t‑]‑mÄ K‑nÃ‑n³ BW‑v- C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â ]‑n¶‑nÂ. 17 hÀj‑w A¨S‑n a‑m[‑ya¯‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¨ t‑ij‑w t‑]‑mÄ H‑m¬s‑s‑e³ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ ¯‑nt‑e¡‑p X‑nc‑nª‑p. C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑e cï‑p {‑][‑m\ h‑n`‑mK§Ä BÀ.s‑F.]‑n b‑p‑w U»‑y‑p.s‑F.]‑nb‑pa‑mW‑v-. 2007 a‑mÀ¨‑v A©‑n\‑p t‑]‑mÄ s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑v X‑pS§‑nbt‑ij‑w At‑ac‑n¡b‑n ]‑q«‑nt‑¸‑mb ]{‑X§s‑fb‑mW‑v-

BÀ.s‑F.]‑nb‑n DÄs‑]S‑p¯‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p ¶X‑v. \‑neh‑n CX‑n 12 ]{‑X§f‑p ï‑v. U»‑y‑p.s‑F.]‑n. F¶‑mÂ‑, hÀI‑vk‑v C³ s‑{‑]‑m{‑Kk‑v. ]‑nS‑n¨‑p \‑n¡‑m\‑mb‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIcWZ‑n\§f‑ps‑S F®‑w I‑pdb‑v¡‑pIt‑b‑m s‑hº‑nt‑e¡‑p X‑nc‑nb‑p It‑b‑m s‑Nb‑vX ]{‑X§f‑mW‑v- CX‑n DÄs‑]S‑p¶X‑v. FÃ‑mZ‑nhkh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb h‑nhc§Ä t‑NÀ¡‑p¶ s‑s‑käà CX‑v. F¶‑mÂ‑, ]‑pX‑pX‑mb‑n Hc‑p ]{‑X‑w ]‑q«‑nb‑m s‑s‑kä‑v DWc‑p‑w. As‑æ‑n Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w ]{‑X‑w X‑mg‑nS‑p¶X‑n \‑n¶‑p c£s‑¸«‑me‑p‑w CX‑n\‑p h‑mÀ¯ b‑mW‑v-. Ct‑¸‑mÄ \ÂI‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑n cï‑p {‑][‑m\ h‑mÀ¯IÄ C‑u K-W¯‑nÂs‑]S‑p¶-h-b‑m-W‑v þ t‑e‑mI¯‑n C¶‑p ]‑pd¯‑nd§‑p¶X‑n Gäh‑p‑w ]gb Z‑n\]{‑X‑w A¨S‑n \‑nÀ¯‑n s‑h_‑nt‑e¡‑p a‑md‑p¶X‑p‑w \‑y‑ph‑mÀ¡‑ns‑e Ì‑mÀ s‑eU‑vPÀ ]‑q«e‑n \‑n¶‑p c£s‑¸«X‑p‑w.

a‑m[‑yac‑wK‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨ Gäh‑p‑w ]‑pX‑nb h‑nhc§Ä DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑p¶ s‑s‑kä‑mW‑v- http://www.journalism -now.co.uk/. \‑y‑qk‑v‑, a‑mKk‑n³ t‑PWe‑nk‑w‑, t‑Uä‑m t‑PWe‑nk‑w‑, S‑nh‑n \‑y‑qk‑v‑, t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m‑, t‑k‑mj‑y a‑oU‑nb‑, a‑m[‑ya \‑nba§Ä F¶‑nh k‑w_Ô‑n ¨ I‑mc‑y§f‑mW‑v- CX‑n ]db‑p¶X‑v. I‑qS‑pXe‑p‑w t‑eJ\§f‑mW‑v- CX‑n DÄs‑]S‑p¯‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. {‑_‑n«\‑ns‑e s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w Bt‑K‑mfa‑mb‑n {‑]t‑b‑mP\{‑]Za‑mW‑v- C‑u h‑nhc§Ä. s‑ka‑n\‑md‑pIf‑ns‑e t‑]¸d‑pIÄ‑, t‑PW e‑nk‑w A[‑y‑m]\¯‑n\‑pÅ ]‑mT§Ä F¶‑nhs‑b‑ms‑¡ s‑s‑kä‑n I‑n«‑p¶‑p. CX‑ns‑e l‑uS‑p s‑s‑KU‑vk‑v F¶ h‑n`‑m Ka‑mW‑v- Gäh‑p‑w {‑]t‑b‑mP\Ica‑mb‑n t‑X‑m¶‑nbX‑v. l‑y‑qa³ s‑s‑dä‑vk‑v, ^‑nt‑e‑m k^‑n‑, t‑^‑mt‑«‑m t‑PWe‑nk‑w‑, Ì‑pUâ‑v a‑oU‑nb‑, s‑{‑Sb‑v\‑n‑wK‑v‑, t‑PWe‑nk‑w t‑I‑mg‑vkk‑v F¶‑nhb‑mW‑v- aä‑p h‑n`‑mK §Ä. a‑n¡X‑ne‑p‑w t‑hs‑d s‑s‑kä‑pIf‑n t‑e¡‑pÅ e‑n¦‑pIÄ \ÂI‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p ¶‑p. {‑]‑m[‑m\‑ya‑pÅ N‑ne e‑n¦‑pIf‑mI s‑« {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶‑pa‑nÃ.

F³.b‑p.s‑P {‑_‑n«\‑ns‑e ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑S k‑wLS\b‑mb \‑mjW b‑qW‑nb³ H‑m^‑v t‑PWe‑nÌ‑vk‑ns‑â H‑ut‑Z‑y‑mK‑nI s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑mW‑v- http://www.nuj. org.uk/home/. t‑{‑SU‑v b‑qW‑nb³ k‑wLS\b‑ps‑S s‑s‑kä‑ms‑W¦‑ne‑p‑w ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨ h‑nh‑n[ h‑nhc§Ä CX‑n DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑n¨‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. {‑_‑n«\‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya t‑aJe k‑w_Ô‑n¨ ]‑pX‑nb h‑mÀ¯IÄ CX‑n I‑mW‑m‑w.

t‑{‑SU‑v b‑qW‑nb³ h‑mÀ¯IÄ [‑mc‑mf a‑pï‑v. Hc‑p h‑nt‑Zic‑mP‑ys‑¯ ]{‑X {‑]hÀ¯Ik‑wLS\ F§s‑\ {‑]hÀ ¯‑n¡‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v C‑u s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p a\k‑ne‑m¡‑mh‑p¶X‑mW‑v-. 1907- c‑q] hÂIc‑n¨ F³.b‑p.s‑P. t‑e‑mIs‑¯ Xs‑¶ Gäh‑p‑w he‑nb ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I t‑{‑S-U‑v b‑qW‑nb\‑mW‑v-. ]{‑X§Ä‑, h‑mÀ¯‑m GP³k‑nIÄ‑, {‑^‑oe‑m³k‑v‑, a‑mKk‑n³‑, t‑{‑_‑mU‑vI‑mÌ‑v‑, ]‑n.BÀ.‑, ]‑pk‑vXI{‑]k‑n²‑oIcW‑w F¶‑n§s‑\ a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ns‑â h‑nh‑n[ t‑aJeIf‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶hÀ C‑u k‑wLS\b‑n A‑wK§f‑mW‑v-. A‑wK §Ä¡‑v h‑nh‑n[ Xc‑w ]c‑ni‑oe\‑w s‑s‑kä‑v hg‑n \ÂI‑p¶‑p. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯ \‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑p‑w t‑{‑SU‑v b‑qW‑nb³ {‑]hÀ¯\‑w k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑pa‑pÅ ]c‑n i‑oe\a‑mW‑v- \ÂI‑p¶X‑v. ]{‑X]hÀ ¯Ic‑ps‑S AhI‑mi§Ä‑, Fh‑ns‑S‑m

s‑¡ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v h‑nh‑n[ t‑kh\§Ä e`‑ya‑mW‑v-‑, F³.b‑p.s‑P. F§s‑\ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p¶‑p F¶ h‑nhc §f‑p‑w s‑s‑kä‑n \ÂI‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. F³.b‑p.s‑P. A‑wK§Ä ]‑me‑nt‑¡ ï ]{‑´ï‑n\ s‑]c‑pa‑mäk‑wl‑nX s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â t‑l‑m‑w t‑]P‑n \‑n¶‑p Xs‑¶ I‑n«‑p‑w. t‑e‑mIs‑¯h‑ns‑Sb‑p‑w ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯IÀ ]‑me‑nt‑¡ï s‑]c‑pa‑m䨫a‑mW‑ns‑X¶‑p ]db‑m‑w. b‑qW‑nbs‑â a‑p-J]{‑Xa‑mb Z‑n t‑PWe‑nÌ‑v CX‑n \‑n¶‑p ]‑n.U‑n. F^‑v Bb‑n h‑mb‑n¡‑m³ k‑m[‑n¡‑p‑w. CX‑ns‑\‑m¸‑w h‑nh‑n[ t‑PWe‑nk‑w {‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§f‑p‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑m³ Ahkca‑pï‑v. awKfw Zn\]{X¯nsâ No^v \yqkv FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: epshajudeen@gmail.com \hw_À 2013


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A¡mZan hmÀ¯IÄ

-c‑ ‑mP‑p d‑mt‑^ð C³-Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³ UbdÎÀ {‑]ik‑vX ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯I\‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya ]c‑ni‑oeI\‑pa‑mb c‑mP‑p d‑mt‑^ t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ps‑S C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³ UbdÎd‑mb‑n N‑paXet‑bä‑p. ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑ne‑p‑w a‑m[‑ya ]c‑ni‑oe\¯‑ne‑p‑w cï‑v ]X‑nä‑mï‑nt‑et‑d I‑mes‑¯ {‑]hÀ¯\ ]c‑nNba‑pï‑v c‑mP‑p d‑mt‑^e‑n\‑v. eï\‑ns‑e t‑d‑mb‑n«d‑ns‑â C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\¯‑n ]c‑ni‑oe\‑w t‑\S‑nb t‑ij‑w t‑l‑mfï‑ns‑e t‑dU‑nt‑b‑m s‑\XÀe‑mâ‑v-k‑ns‑â ]c‑ni‑oe\ t‑I{‑µ¯‑n a‑m[‑ya ]c‑ni‑oeI\‑mh‑m\‑pÅ ]c‑ni‑oe\h‑p‑w ]‑qÀ¯‑nb‑m¡‑n. Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑v

\‑y‑qk‑ns‑â Ø‑m]I ]{‑X‑m[‑n] ka‑nX‑n A‑wKa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. 16 hÀjs‑¯ t‑kh\¯‑n\‑p t‑ij‑w k‑o\‑nbÀ \‑y‑qk‑v FU‑näd‑mb‑nc‑nt‑¡ Gj‑y‑m s‑\ä‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w k‑zb‑w h‑nca‑n¨‑p. ]‑n¶‑oS‑v Ie‑mI‑ua‑pZ‑nb‑n d‑oP‑nbW FU‑näd‑mb‑p‑w t‑kh\a\‑pj‑vT‑n¨‑p. 2000  s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ ¯‑n\‑pÅ s‑^t‑Ã‑mj‑n¸‑v t‑\S‑n. 2010  ]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯\ a‑nIh‑n\‑v s‑\XÀ e‑mâ‑v-k‑v kÀ¡‑md‑ns‑â t‑Zi‑ob s‑^t‑Ã‑mj‑n¸‑p‑w t‑\S‑n. Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑n t‑Nc‑p¶X‑n\‑v a‑p³]‑v a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑nb‑ne‑p‑w C´‑y³ I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡äd‑ne‑p‑w {‑]hÀ¯‑n¨‑p. X‑rÈ‑qÀ At‑©c‑n k‑zt‑Zi‑nb‑mW‑v.

{‑]Ê‑v A¡‑mZa‑n-b‑nð ]‑qÀÆ h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ°‑n k‑wKa‑w \Só‑p t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ns‑e 2011-þ12 _‑m¨‑ns‑e h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ°‑nIf‑ps‑S k‑wKa‑w {‑]ik‑vX Fg‑p¯‑p-I‑mc³ k‑p`‑mj‑v N-{‑µ³ \‑nÀÆl‑n¨‑p. h‑n-Z‑y‑mÀ°‑nIf‑ps‑S c-N-\§Ä AS§‑nb K‑pÂ-t‑a‑mlÀ F¶ a‑mKk‑n\‑p‑w N-S-§‑n {‑]I‑mi\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. s‑I. k‑n. h‑n-]‑n³ A[‑y£X hl‑n¨‑p. A¡‑mZa‑n s‑k{‑I«d‑n h‑n.BÀ. AP‑nX‑v I‑p-a‑mÀ‑, C³-Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v U-bdÎÀ F‑w.c‑ma-N-{‑µ³‑, e-I‑v-NdÀ t‑la t‑a-t‑\‑m³‑, ^‑m¡Âä‑n A‑wK§f‑mb lc‑nI‑r-j‑vW³‑, BâW‑n‑, t‑hW‑pt‑K‑m]‑mÂ‑, c‑mP‑p‑, s‑s‑j\k‑v F-¶‑nhÀ k‑wk‑mc‑n¨‑p. k‑mKÀ k‑z‑mKXh‑p‑w S‑n. BÀ. h‑mk‑p-t‑Zh³ \µ‑nb‑p‑w ]dª‑p.

aeb‑mf‑w I‑w]‑y‑q«‑n‑wK‑v hÀ¡‑v t‑j‑m¸‑v A¡‑mZa‑n-b‑n aeb‑mf‑w I‑w]‑y‑q«‑n‑wK‑v GIZ‑n\ hÀ¡‑v-t‑j‑m¸‑v \S¶‑p. h‑n¡‑n I‑q«‑mb‑vab‑ps‑S t‑\X‑rX‑z-¯‑n \S-¶ hÀ¡‑v-t‑j‑m¸‑n s‑k-_‑n³ F{‑_l‑m‑w t‑P‑mk^‑v ¢‑ms‑ÊS‑p¯‑p. I¼yq«n§ntâbpw CâÀs\än tâbpw temI¯nð aebmf`mj¡p ïmbns¡mïncn¡pó ]ptcmKXn sb¡pdn¨v hÀ¡vtjm¸nð NÀ¨ sNbvXp. ]pXnb aebmfw I¼yq«n§v kt¦X§Ä ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbpw A¡mZan t]mepÅ Øm]\§Ä¡v Cu cwK¯v \ðImhpó kw`mh\ Isf¸än hniZoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. \hw_À 2013

K‑mÔ‑n Pb´‑n Bt‑L‑mj‑n¨‑p.

K‑mÔ‑n Pb´‑n Bt‑L‑mj¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑n h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑n If‑p‑w P‑oh\¡‑mc‑p‑w A²‑y‑m]Ic‑p‑w t‑NÀ¶‑v i‑pN‑oIcW {‑]hÀ¯\§Ä \S¯‑n. eI‑v-NdÀ t‑la t‑at‑\‑m³ t‑\X‑rX‑z‑w \e‑vI‑n.


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k‑uZ‑n a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯I³ {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n kµÀi‑n¨‑p

{‑]a‑pJ Ad_‑v Z‑n\ ]{‑Xa‑mb Ad_‑v\‑y‑qk‑ns‑â aeb‑mf‑w‑, Dd‑pZ‑p ]X‑n¸‑p If‑ps‑S FU‑n-äÀ -C³ -N‑o^‑v X‑mt‑cJ‑v a‑nj‑v-I‑mk‑v t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑nIf‑pa‑mb‑n k‑whZ‑n¨‑p. Ad_‑v -\‑y‑qk‑ns‑â aeb‑mf‑w ]X‑n¸‑v‑, aeb‑mf‑w \‑y‑qk‑ns‑â \‑y‑qk‑v FU‑näÀ lʳ t‑I‑mb‑, d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«À CI‑v_‑m X‑pS§‑nbhc‑p‑w ]c‑n]‑mS‑nb‑n k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑p. cï‑v aW‑n¡‑qÀ \‑oï t‑N‑mt‑Z‑y‑m ¯ct‑hfb‑n \‑nX‑mJ¯‑v AS¡a‑pÅ h‑njb§f‑n NÀ¨ \S¶‑p. \‑nX‑mJ¯‑v \S¸‑ne‑m¡‑pI hg‑n s‑X‑mg‑n t‑aJes‑b \‑nba¯‑ns‑â

\‑nb{‑´W¯‑n s‑I‑mï‑phc‑pI F¶‑mW‑v Dt‑±i‑n¡‑p¶s‑X¶‑p‑w‑, CX‑v C´‑y AS¡a‑pÅ c‑mP‑y§f‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya§f‑n s‑Xä‑mb‑n h‑y‑mJ‑y‑m\‑n¡s‑¸S‑pIb‑pa‑mW‑v s‑Nb‑vXs‑X¶‑p‑w At‑±l‑w ]dª‑p. C´‑yb‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\‑w A`‑na‑pJ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ {‑][‑m\ {‑]i‑v-\‑w A\h[‑m\Xb‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w‑, \‑nX‑mJ¯‑v h‑njb‑w t‑Icf¯‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya§Ä he‑nb s‑Xä‑n[‑mcWIÄ Dï‑m¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑v-X‑n«‑ps‑ï¶‑v lk³ t‑I‑mbb‑p‑w A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\s‑¯ k‑w_Ô‑n¨ t‑N‑mZ‑y¯‑n\‑v‑, C´‑yb‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya

c‑wK‑w s‑k³t‑kjWe‑nk¯‑ns‑â ]‑nS‑nb‑ne‑ms‑W¶‑v At‑±l‑w A`‑n{‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. Ad_‑v a‑m[‑ya§Ä AX‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w h‑na‑pàa‑ms‑W¶‑p‑w ]dª‑p. {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n UbdÎÀ c‑mP‑p d‑mt‑^ NS§‑n\‑v A²‑y£X hl‑n¨‑p. A¡‑mZa‑n k‑o\‑nbÀ ^‑m¡Âä‑n A‑wK‑w t‑laeX. s‑I. k‑z‑mKXh‑p‑w‑, Ak‑nÌâ‑v s‑k{‑I«d‑n F³. ]‑n. kt‑´‑mj‑v \µ‑nb‑p‑w ]dª‑p. A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ns‑e ]‑qÀÆ h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑nIf‑mb aeb‑mf‑w \‑y‑qk‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«Àa‑mc‑p‑w ]s‑¦S‑p¯‑p.

t‑U‑m.k‑n.Fk‑v.s‑h¦‑nt‑Si‑zc³ DZ‑vL‑mS\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. I‑y‑m¼‑v UbdÎd‑p‑w k‑n\‑na‑m \‑nc‑q]I\‑pa‑mb s‑F.j×‑pJZ‑mk‑v A²‑y£\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n s‑k{‑I«d‑n h‑n.BÀ.AP‑nX‑v I‑pa‑mÀ‑, C³Ì‑nä‑nb‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³

UbdÎÀ c‑mP‑p d‑mt‑^Â‑, s‑I.AP‑nX‑v‑, s‑I.t‑laeX‑, Bi‑m{‑]` X‑pS§‑nbhÀ k¶‑nl‑nXc‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. \‑me‑v Z‑nhks‑¯ ]TI‑y‑m¼‑n A´Àt‑Zi‑ob k‑n\‑naIf‑ps‑S {‑]ZÀi\h‑pa‑p-ï‑mb‑n.

k‑n\‑na‑m Bk‑z‑mZ\ I‑y‑m¼‑vt‑U‑m.k‑n.Fk‑v.s‑h¦‑nt‑Si‑zc³ DZ‑vL‑mS\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p

t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n C³Ì‑nä‑nb‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j\‑ns‑e h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑nIÄ¡‑mb‑n Ht‑Î‑m_À Gg‑v a‑pX 10 hs‑c A¡‑mZa‑n H‑mU‑nt‑ä‑md‑nb¯‑n k‑wLS‑n¸‑n¨ k‑n\‑na‑m Bk‑z‑mZ\ I‑y‑m¼‑v Fg‑p¯‑p I‑mc\‑p‑w k‑n\‑na‑m \‑nc‑q]I\‑pa‑mb

\hw_À 2013


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temIw Iï hc A´Àt±iob am²yacwKs¯ {]ikvXamb ImÀ«qWpIsf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbmWv Cu ]wànbnð. amXr`qan ImÀ«qWnÌv Bb tKm]oIrjvW\mWv Ch XncsªSp¯v AhXcn¸n¡póXv.

BZw ssk¥nkv  H_mabpsS slð¯v sIbÀ ]²Xnsb¯pSÀóv Atacn¡bnepïmb {]XnkÔn sb¡pdn¨v {]ikvX ImÀ«qWnÌmb BZw ssk¥nkv hc¨ ImÀ«qWmWnXv. Xsâ XncsªSp¸p {]NcW hmKvZm\§Ä thïhn[w \S¸nem¡m³ {]knUân\mIpón‑ sñó hnaÀi\amWv CXnð. \yqtbmÀ¡v knänbnse _^mtembnð \nóv {]kn²oIcn¡pó _^mtem \yqkn‑ sâ Ìm^v FUntämdnbð ImÀ«qWnÌmWv BZw. Ct±l¯nsâ ImÀ«qWpIÄ tIKnÄ ImÀ«q¬kv temIsa¼mSpw knïnt¡äv sN¿pópapïv. A§s\ \yqtbmÀ¡v ssSwkv, hmjn§vS¬ t]mÌv, bp.Fkv.F. SpsU, temkv Gôekv ssSwkv, Zn ho¡v, ssSw XpS§nb \nch[n {]apJ am[ya§fnð BZw hc¨ ImÀ«qWpIÄ {]Xy£s¸Spóp. _^mtem kztZinbmb BZw Im\oknbkv tImtfPnse ]T\tijw, 2004ð t\cn«v _^mtem \yqknð tNcpIbmbncpóp. ]T\Ime¯v tImtfPv ]{Xamb {Kn^n\nð ImÀ«qWpIÄ hc¨ncpóp. AtkmkntbäUv tImtfPnbäv {]kv, bqWnthgvkð {]kv knïnt¡äv AhmÀUpIÄ t\Snbn«pÅ BZw cïph«w \mjWð slUvsse\À AhmÀUv ]«nIbnð aqómw Øm\s¯¯nbn«pïv. tKm]oIrjvWsâ Cþsabvð: cartoonistgopikrishnan@gmail.com Printed and Published by V. R. Ajith Kumar, Secretary, On behalf of the Kerala Press Academy, Published from Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi – 682 030; Printed at Sterling Print House Pvt Ltd, Edappally; Editor: N. P. Rajendran.


Media Monthly | November 2013 | ` 10/- | RNI Reg No. KERBIL/2000/1676


2013 october media file for mail