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July 2013 | Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Price ` 10

Democracy is impossible without a free press. Free and responsible, of course.


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Gtgmfw Zn\-¸-{X-§-fnð Im¼n-tÈcn Icp-Wm-I-c³ tPmen sNbvXp. Xe-Øm\ \K-c¯nse km[m-cW dnt¸mÀ«À apXð No^v FUn-äÀ ]Zhn hsc \ofpó ssZ\w-Zn\ ]{X-hr-¯n-bpsS Fñm ]S-hp-I-fnepw Ccpó Im¼n-tÈcn A\ym-Zr-iy-amb hen-sbmcp amXr-I-bmWv ae-bmf am[y-a-N-cn-{X-¯nð Fgp-Xn-t¨À¯-Xv. Iayq-WnÌv ]mÀ«n-bpsS (kn.-]n.-sF) apJ-]-{X-amb P\-bp-K-¯n-emWv Im¼n-tÈcn Icp-Wm-I-c³ Imð\q-ämtïmfw tPmen sNbvX-Xv. Hcp cmjv{So-b-¸mÀ«n-bpsS {]Nm-cW Pnlzsb Fñm P\hn-`m-K-§Ä¡pw kzoIm-cy-ambn¯ocm-hpó Xc-¯nð hn`-h-kw-hn-[m-\-§-fn-eq-sSbpw sshhn-[y-§-fn-eq-sSbpw Hcp-¡n-sb-Sp¯v hnP-b-I-c-ambn aptóm«p sImïp-t]mb AÛp-XamWv Im¼n-tÈ-cn-bpsS henb kw`m-h-\. AXn\p apt¼m ]nóotSm A¯-c-samcp A\p`hw ae-bmf ]{X-{]-hÀ¯-\-¯nð Cñ.

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Im¼ntÈcn, Imew Im¯ph¨ ]{Xm[n]À hne ` 75


Pqsse 2013 $ ]pkvXIw 2 $ e¡w 3 $ hne ` 10

06 Press for Reforms

Sebastian Paul

10 Free Speech in a Free Market Vinod Sharma

FUntämdnbð 14

Media Ethics: Some Basic Principles J. V. Vil’anilam

Lighthouse

4 18

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25

Ashok R Chandran

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20

Emergence of Social Media as Fifth Estate

Sreeja Sasidharan

]n. kpPm-X³

35

Why True-Crime shows are so popular? Crime Does Pay!

tPmk^v BâWn

Dr. Shoma A. Chatterji

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ap³t] ]dóhÀ

31

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38

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42

Bookshelf

46 47

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A¡mZan hmÀ¯IÄ 48 temIw Iï hc 50


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FUntämdnbð

-"h‑nk‑nð h‑n-f‑n-'¡‑m³ C-h‑n-s‑S B-c‑p-a‑nt‑ñ?

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Editor N. P. Rajendran Chairman, Kerala Press Academy Editorial Board E. P. Shajuddeen Chief News Editor, Mangalam, Kozhikode N. Rajesh News Editor, Madhyamam, Kozhikode M. P. Suryadas Chief Sub Editor, Mathrubhumi, Kozhikode P. Sujathan Political Editor, Veekshanam, Kochi T. R. Madhukumar News Editor, Deshabhimani, Kozhikode C. N. Mohanan Manager, Deshabhimani, Kochi Editorial Assistant P. Salil Design & Layout Praveen Ophelia Cover Image Courtesy WAN-IFRA Printer & Publisher V. R. Ajith Kumar Secretary, Kerala Press Academy Address 'Media' Kerala Press Academy Kakkanad, Kochi - 682 030 Phone: 0484 2422275 E-Mail: media.kpa@gmail.com Website: www.pressacademy.org Subscribe ‘Media’ Single Issue: ` 10 Annual Subscription: ` 100 Advertisement tariff Back cover: Color: ` 25,000 Inside cover: Color: ` 20,000 Inside B&W: ` 15,000

Pqsse 2013

-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑mÀ t‑e‑m-I-{‑i-²-b‑m-IÀ-j‑n-¨‑p-h-c‑n-I-b‑mW‑v. I‑p-d-¨‑p-I‑m-e‑w a‑p-¼‑ph-s‑c t‑I-«‑p-t‑IÄ-h‑n CÃ‑m-¯ H-c‑p {‑]-X‑n-`‑m-k-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p C-X‑v. k‑z-´‑w Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑n-s‑ât‑b‑m U‑n-]‑mÀ-S‑v-s‑aâ‑n-s‑ât‑b‑m t‑a-e‑p-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Ø-s‑ât‑b‑m \‑n-b-a-h‑n-c‑p-² {‑]-hÀ¯-\‑w `-c-W-I‑q-S-¯‑n-s‑ât‑b‑m P-\-§-f‑p-s‑St‑b‑m {‑i-²-b‑n s‑]-S‑p-¯‑n A-X‑v X-S-b‑p-¶-h-s‑c-b‑m-W‑v h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ F-¶‑v h‑n-f‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. If‑n-b‑n ^‑uÄ I‑m-W‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ d^-d‑n a‑p-g-¡‑p-¶ h‑n-k‑n B-h‑m‑w C‑u t‑]-c‑n-s‑â B-[‑mc‑w. a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S c-l-k‑y-t‑k‑m-g‑v-k‑p-I-f‑m-b‑n a-d-b-¯‑p-\‑n-¶‑n-c‑p-¶‑p a‑p³I‑m-e h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑mÀ. {‑]-k‑n-U-â‑v d‑n-¨‑mÀ-U‑v \‑n-I‑v-k¬ {‑]-k‑nUâ‑v Ø‑m-\t‑¯¡‑v h‑oï‑p‑w a-Õ-c‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ X-s‑â d‑n-¸-»‑n-¡³ ]‑mÀ-«‑n-b‑p-s‑S F-X‑nc‑m-f‑n-If‑m-b U-t‑a‑m-{‑I‑m-ä‑n-I‑v ]‑m-À-«‑n-b‑p-s‑S B-Ø‑m\-¯‑v \-S¯‑n-b c-lk‑y‑w t‑N‑mÀ-¯Â s‑h-f‑n¨-¯‑v s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h¶-X‑v s‑^-U-d _‑y‑qt‑d‑m H‑m-^‑v C³-s‑hÌ‑n-t‑K-js‑â (F^‑v._‑n.s‑F.‑) c-ï‑ma³ Bb‑nc‑p¶ a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«¬ BW‑v. h‑mÀ¯ s‑I‑mS‑p¯ a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑^«\‑v h‑mj‑n‑wK‑vS¬ t‑]‑mÌ‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯ clk‑yt‑¸c‑v ‑"U‑o¸‑v t‑{‑X‑m«‑v' F-¶‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. a‑mÀ-¡‑v s‑^Â-«¬ A-S‑p-¯ I‑m-e‑w h-s‑c c-l-k‑y-a-d-b‑v-¡‑v ]‑n-¶‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. t‑e‑m-I-N-c‑n-{‑X-¯‑n C-¯-c-¯‑n G-s‑d k‑w-`-h-§-f‑p-ï‑v. a-d-b-¯‑n-c‑p-¶‑v h‑n-k‑n h‑n-f‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-c‑p‑w b-Y‑mÀ-° h‑n-k‑n t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑m-c‑p-a‑m-b‑n H-c‑p h‑y-X‑y‑m-k-a‑pÅ-X‑v b-Y‑mÀ-° h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑mÀ A\‑oX‑n‑, A-{‑I-a‑w A-s‑Ã-¦‑n \‑n-b-a-e‑wL-\‑w s‑h-f‑n-¨-¯‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-c‑m\‑p‑w A-X‑ns‑\ s‑N-d‑p-¡‑m\‑p‑w P‑o-h³-X-s‑¶ s‑h-S‑n-b‑m³ k-¶-²-c‑m-W‑v F-¶-X‑mW‑v. a-t‑ä-¡‑q«À-¡‑v k‑m-a‑q-l‑y-{‑]-X‑n_-²-X B-h-W-s‑a-¶‑nà {‑]-t‑N‑m-Z\‑w. X-t‑¶‑m-S‑p-I‑m«‑n-b F-s‑´-¦‑ne‑p‑w A-\‑o-X‑n-t‑b‑m-S‑p-Å {‑]-X‑n-I‑m-c-]-ca‑m-b {‑]-X‑n-Ic-W‑w a‑m-{‑X-a‑m-h‑m‑w Ah-s‑c c-lk‑y‑w s‑h-f‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑m³ t‑{‑]-c‑n-¸‑n-¨-¡‑p¶X‑v. F-¶‑m k-X‑y-k-Ôa‑m-W‑v s‑h-f‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯Â F-¦‑n c-ï‑p-X-ch‑p‑w k‑m-a‑q-l‑y-a‑m-b‑n {‑]-t‑b‑m-P-\-{‑]Zh‑p‑w k‑z‑o-I‑m-c‑y-h‑p-a‑m-W‑v. h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-b‑n-M‑v A-]‑m-b-I-ca‑m-b H-c‑p \-S-]-S‑n-b‑mW‑v. C-´‑y-b‑n I‑pd-¨‑v a‑p-¼‑p-ï‑m-bX‑v s‑R-«‑n-¡‑p-¶ k‑w-`-h-a‑m-W‑v. 1400 I‑n-t‑e‑m-a‑o-äÀ s‑s‑ZÀ-L‑y-a‑pÅ {‑K‑m³-U‑v {‑S-¦‑v t‑d‑m-U‑v \‑n-À-a‑m-W-¯‑n-s‑e A-g‑na-X‑n {‑]-[‑m-\-a-{‑´‑n-s‑b A-d‑n-b‑n-¨ _‑n-l‑m-d‑p-I‑m-c\‑m-b b‑p-h F³-P‑n-\‑o-bÀ k-t‑X‑y-{‑µ Z‑p-s‑_-b‑v-¡‑v X-s‑â c‑m-P‑yk‑v-t‑\-l-¯‑n-\‑v P‑o-h-³h‑n-e \Â-t‑I-ï‑n-h¶‑p. t‑I‑m¬-{‑S‑m-I‑v-ä‑v a‑m-^‑n-b-b‑p-s‑S s‑I‑m-e-¡-¯‑n-b‑nÂ-\‑n¶‑v Z‑p-s‑_-s‑b c-£‑n-¡‑m³ {‑]-[‑m-\-a-{‑´‑n-¡‑p-t‑]‑me‑p‑w Ig‑n-ª‑nÃ. C-s‑X‑m-c‑p H-ä-s‑¸-« k‑w-`-h-aÃ. d‑m-©‑n-b‑n {‑K‑ma‑o-W s‑X‑m-g‑nÂZ‑m-\ ]-²-X‑n-b‑n-s‑e A-g‑n-a-X‑n ]‑p-d-¯‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-¶ s‑]‑m-X‑p-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I\‑m-b ef‑n-X‑v t‑a-¯-b‑v¡‑p‑w C-t‑X K-X‑n D-ï‑mb‑n. C-´‑y-s‑b-¼‑mS‑p‑w h‑n-h-c‑m-h-I‑m-i-\‑nb-a‑w A-g‑n-a-X‑n-s‑¡-X‑nc‑m-b B-b‑p-[-a‑m-b‑n D-]-t‑b‑m-K-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n-b F-{‑X-s‑b-{‑X t‑]-s‑cb‑m-W‑v A-g‑n-a-X‑n-¡‑mc‑p‑w `‑q-a‑m-^‑n-b-¡‑mc‑p‑w s‑I‑m-¶X‑v. d‑p]À-«‑v a‑pÀ-t‑U‑m-¡‑n-s‑â \‑y‑qk‑v H‑m-^‑v Z t‑hÄ-U‑v Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑n-s‑â t‑^‑m¬ l‑m-¡‑n-§‑v DÄ-s‑¸-s‑S-b‑p-Å \‑n-b-a-e‑w-L-\-§Ä ]‑p-d-¯‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-¶ \‑y‑q-k‑v H‑m-^‑v Z t‑hÄ-U‑v _‑n-k‑n\-k‑v d‑n-t‑¸‑mÀ-«À k‑o³ t‑l‑m-s‑cb‑p‑w Z‑p-c‑q-l-k‑m-l-N-c‑y-¯‑n-e‑m-W‑v a-c‑n-¨X‑v. A-t‑a-c‑n-¡³ c-l-k‑y‑m-t‑\‑z-j-W G-P³-k‑n-I-f‑p-s‑S a-\‑p-j‑y‑m-hI‑m-i e‑w-L\-§Ä-s‑¡-X‑n-s‑c h‑n-k‑n a‑p-g¡‑n-b c-ï‑p-t‑]À t‑e‑m-I-{‑i-²-b‑m-IÀ-j‑n-¨‑n-c‑p¶‑p. P‑p-e‑n-b³ A-k‑m³-s‑P B-W‑v B-Z‑y-s‑¯ BÄ. b-Y‑m-À-Y-¯‑n A-k‑m³-s‑P h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ \‑nÀ-h-N-\-¯‑n h-c‑p-¶‑nÃ. A-t‑±-l‑w F-U‑n-ä-d‑p‑w {‑]-t‑£‑m`-I‑m-c‑nb‑m-b s‑]‑m-X‑p-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-\‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. A-t‑a-c‑n-¡³ \-bX{‑´ H‑m^‑o-k‑p-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑p-Å F-®-a-ä t‑c-J-IÄ t‑e‑m-I-¯‑p-S-\‑o-f‑w h‑m-c‑n-h‑n-Xd‑n-b A-k‑m³-s‑P- a‑m-[‑y-a-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y-¯‑n\‑p‑w a-\‑p-j‑y‑m-h-I‑m-i-¯‑n-\‑p‑w- t‑h-ï‑n-b‑p-Å H-c‑p {‑]-Ø‑m-\-a‑m-b‑m-W‑v X-s‑â t‑c-J-t‑N‑mÀ-¯-e‑ns‑\ I‑m-W‑p-¶X‑v. F-®-a-ä h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑m-c‑p-s‑S ]‑n³-_-e-t‑¯‑m-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v A-t‑±-l‑w t‑c-J-IÄ k‑w-`-c‑n¨X‑v. A-k‑m³-s‑P C-¶‑v P-b‑nÂh‑mk-X‑p-e‑y-a‑m-b A-h-Ø-b‑n e-ï-\‑n-s‑e CI‑z-t‑U‑mÀ \-b-X-{‑´-I‑m-c‑y-e-b-¯‑n I-g‑n-ª‑p-I‑q-S‑p-I-b‑mW‑v. ]‑p-d¯‑n-d-§‑n-b‑m ]‑n-S‑n-¡‑m³ t‑]‑m-e‑o-k‑v I‑m-h-e‑p-ï‑v. G-äh‑p‑w H-S‑p-h‑n b‑p.Fk‑v. c-l-k‑y-h‑n-`‑m-K‑w D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Ø-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶ F-U‑v-t‑h-U‑v k‑v-t‑\‑m-U³ B-W‑v b-Y‑mÀ-Y-¯‑n-e‑p-Å Hc‑p h-¼³ h‑n-k‑nÂ-h‑n-f‑n k‑w-c‑w-`-¯‑n-t‑eÀ-s‑¸-«‑v t‑e‑m-I-{‑i-²-b‑m-IÀ-j‑n-¨X‑v. A-t‑ac‑n¡³ c-l-k‑y‑m-t‑\‑z-j-W G-P³-k‑n-b‑n D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Ø-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑i-J-


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c‑n-¨ c-l-k‑y- h‑n-h-c-§-f‑m-W‑v A-t‑±-l‑w s‑h-f‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n-b-X‑v. a‑p-g‑p-h³ ]‑u-c-·‑m-c‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w k‑z-I‑m-c‑y-h‑n-h-c-§Ä t‑i-J-c‑n-¡‑m-\‑pÅ b‑p.F-k‑v kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-s‑â c-l-k‑y‑m-t‑\‑z-j-W k‑w-c‑w-`-s‑¯ X-I‑n-S‑w-a-d‑n-¨ s‑h-f‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯Â k‑v-t‑\‑m-U-s‑â P‑o-h\‑p‑w A-]-I-S-¯‑ne‑m-¡‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v. X-\‑n-¡‑v D-]-P‑o-h-\-a‑mÀ-K‑w \Â-I‑p¶ Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑n-s‑â c-l-k‑y-§f‑p‑w s‑]‑m-X‑p-X‑m-e‑v-]-c‑y‑mÀ-°‑w s‑h-f‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑m‑w. A§s‑\ s‑N¿‑p¶-X‑v i-c‑nb‑p‑w \‑y‑m-b-h‑p‑w k‑w-c£-W‑w AÀ-l‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑pa‑m-b \-S-]-S‑n-b‑m-W‑v F-¶ X-¯‑z‑w P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y a‑q-e‑y-§-f‑ps‑S a‑p-J‑y-L-S-I-a‑m-b‑n- h-fÀ-¶‑p-h-c‑n-I-b‑mW‑v. C‑u X¯‑z‑w k‑z‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑m-W‑v C-´‑y- DÄ-s‑¸-s‑S-b‑p-Å \‑n-ch-[‑n c‑m-P‑y-§Ä h‑n-k‑n t‑»‑m-hÀ s‑{‑]‑m-«-£³ \‑n-b-a-§Ä-¡‑v c‑q-]‑w \-Â-I‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ-a‑mÀ-¡‑v k‑w-c£-W‑w \-e‑v-I‑p-¶X‑n-\‑p-Å \-½‑p-s‑S \‑n-ba‑w (Public Interest Disclosure and Protection to Persons Making the Disclosure Bill, 2010) C-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w {‑]‑m-_-e‑y-¯‑n h¶‑n-«‑nÃ. a‑q-¶‑p-hÀ-j‑w a‑p-¼‑v X‑p-S-§‑n-b-X‑m-W‑v C-X‑n-\‑p-Å {‑i-a-§Ä. ]-e A-]‑m-I-§-f‑p-‑w ]-c‑n-a‑n-X‑nI-f‑p‑w DÅ H-c‑p \‑n-b-a-a‑m-s‑W-¦‑ne‑p‑w i-c‑n-b‑m-b X¯‑z‑w \‑n-b-a-]-c-a‑m-b‑n D-d-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶ \‑nb-a‑w F-¶ \‑n-e-b‑n C-X‑v k‑z‑mK-X‑w s‑N¿-s‑¸-«‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. C-t‑¸‑mÄ c‑m-P‑y-k-`-b‑p-s‑S ]-c‑nK-W-\ I‑m-¯‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ \‑nb-a‑w t‑I-{‑µ-kÀ-¡‑mÀ Ø‑m-]-\§-s‑f a‑m-{‑X‑w _‑m-[‑n¡‑p-¶ H-¶‑mW‑v. k‑z-I‑m-c‑y-t‑a-J-e-s‑b-b‑p‑w k‑w-Ø‑m-\-kÀ-¡‑mÀ Ø‑m-]-\-§-s‑fb‑p‑w \‑n-b-a-¯‑n-s‑â ]-c‑n-[‑n-b‑n DÄ-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑nb‑n-«‑nÃ. s‑F.S‑n.B-I‑v-ä‑v t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å ]-e k‑p-{‑][‑m-\ \‑n-b-a-\‑nÀ-a‑m-W-§Ä-¡‑p-a‑pï‑m-b K-X‑n-t‑IS‑v C‑u \‑n-b-a-¯‑n\‑p‑w ]‑mÀ-e-s‑aâ‑ne‑p-ï‑mb‑n. H-c‑p NÀ-¨b‑p‑w I‑q-S‑m-s‑X Gt‑X‑m _-l-f-¯‑n-\‑n-S-b‑n t‑e‑m-I‑v-k-`-b‑n _‑n ]‑m-Ê‑m-¡-s‑¸«‑p. c‑m-P‑y-k-`-b‑n C-X‑v A-h-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¡-s‑¸-«‑n-«‑p-t‑]‑m-e‑p-a‑n-Ã. h‑n-k‑n t‑»‑m-h‑n-§‑v F¶-X‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-\-h‑pa‑m-b _-Ô-a‑p-Å H-c‑p {‑]-hÀ-¯-\-a‑m-W‑v. ]-t‑£‑, C-t‑¸‑mÄ ]-c‑n-K-W-\b‑n-e‑p-Å \‑nb-a‑w B h-i‑w ]-c‑m-aÀ-i‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p-X-s‑¶-b‑nÃ. kÀ-¡‑m-d‑n-s‑\ A-g‑naX‑nh‑nh-c‑w A-d‑n-b‑n-¨-hÀ-¡‑v a‑m{‑X‑w \Â-I‑n-b‑mÂt‑]‑m-c k‑w-c-£W‑w. a‑m-[‑ya-§-s‑fb‑p‑w C-X‑n-s‑â `‑m-K-a‑m-t‑¡-ï-X‑p-ï‑v. \‑nÀ-`‑m-K‑y-h-i‑m C-X‑p-k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨‑v H-c‑p NÀ-¨-b‑p‑w D-ï‑m-b‑n-«‑nÃ. ]-X‑n-h‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e \‑m‑w þ t‑I-c-f‑o-bc‑p‑w a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑p‑w þ C¯-c‑w ]‑p-t‑c‑m-K-a-\-]-ca‑m-b \‑o-¡-§-t‑f‑m-S‑v X‑n-I-ª \‑nk‑w-K-X-b‑m-W‑v ]‑p-e-À-¯‑p-¶X‑v. h‑n-h-c‑m-h-I‑m-i‑w t‑K‑m-hb‑p‑w X-a‑n-g‑v-\‑mS‑p‑w K‑p-P-d‑m¯‑p‑w t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å k‑w-Ø‑m-\-§Ä \‑n-b-a-a‑m-¡‑nb-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑Ic-f‑w B `‑m-K-t‑¯-¡‑v t‑\‑m¡‑p-I t‑]‑me‑p‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑nÃ. t‑I-{‑µ‑w C-X‑p-k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨ A-X‑y-´‑w ]‑p-t‑c‑mK-a-\]-ca‑m-b \‑n-b-a-a‑p-ï‑m-¡‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ A-X‑v D-]-t‑b‑m-K-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶-X‑n hf-s‑c ]‑n-d-I‑n \‑nÂ-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v t‑I-c-f-¯‑n-s‑e a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ¯IÀ. BÀ.S‑n.s‑F.{‑]-hÀ-¯-IÀ-¡‑p-t‑]‑me‑p‑w h-g‑n-I‑m-«‑n-I-f‑m-t‑h-ï-h-c‑m-W‑v a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯IÀ. ]-t‑£‑, h‑n-h-c‑m-h-I‑m-i-{‑]-hÀ¯-IÀ t‑i-J-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ h‑nh-c‑w h‑mÀ-¯-b‑m-¡‑n t‑a-\‑n \-S‑n-¡‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v \‑m‑w ]-e-t‑¸‑m-g‑p‑w. h‑n-k‑n t‑»‑m-b‑n-§‑v k‑w-c-£-W-\‑n-b-as‑¯-b‑p‑w I‑m-¯‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v C¯-c‑w H-c‑p K-X‑n-t‑I-S‑m-h-c‑p-X‑v. hÃ-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w s‑Nd‑n-b h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-IÀ-¡‑v kÀ-¡‑mÀ t‑k‑m-g‑v-k‑p-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑v I‑n-«‑p-¶‑nà F¶Ã. F-¶‑mÂ‑, I-£‑n c‑m-j‑v-{‑S‑o-b-¯‑n-s‑â-b‑p‑w k‑w-L-S\‑m c‑m-{‑ã‑o-b-¯‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w X‑m-X‑v-]-c‑y-§-f‑m-W‑v t‑I-c-f-¯‑n FÃ‑m-X-«‑n-e‑p-a‑p-Å kÀ-¡‑mÀ D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Øs‑c \-b‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. ]-ec‑p‑w h‑mÀ-¯- \Â-I‑p-¶-X‑v `-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ I-£‑n-s‑bt‑b‑m a‑p-¼‑v `-c‑n-¨ I-£‑n-s‑b-t‑b‑m X‑p-d-¶‑p-I‑m«‑m³‑, A-s‑Ã-¦‑n F-X‑nÀ-k‑w-L-S-\-¡‑m-c-s‑\t‑b‑m h‑n-t‑c‑m-[-a‑p-Å B-s‑c-s‑b-¦‑n-e‑pt‑a‑m I‑p-g-¸-¯‑nÂ-N‑m-S‑n-¡‑m³. C-X‑n-s‑\‑m-s‑¡ t‑h-ï‑n-bÃ‑ms‑X \‑q-d‑p-i-X-a‑m-\‑w k-a‑q-l-X‑m-e‑v-]c‑y‑w a‑p-¶‑nÂ-s‑h-¨‑v F-{‑X h‑n-k‑nÂ-h‑n-f‑n-IÄ D-ï‑m-b‑n-«‑p-Å C‑u t‑I-c-f-¯‑nÂ? t‑e‑mI-¯‑v ]-t‑e-S¯‑p‑w ]-{‑X-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I k-t‑½-f-\-§-f‑p-s‑S `‑m-K-a‑m-b‑n¯-s‑¶ h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-hÀ k-t‑½-f-\-§Ä \-S-¡‑p-¶‑pï‑v C-t‑¸‑mÄ. {‑_‑n-«‑o-j‑v I‑m-e-L-«-¯‑n-s‑e IÀ-¡-i- kÀ-h‑o-k‑v \‑n-b-a-§-f‑p-s‑S X-S-h‑n I-g‑n-b‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v \-½‑p-s‑S D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-ØhÀK‑w. D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-س I-h‑n-X-b‑n hà A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-bh‑p‑w ]-d-ª‑n-«‑p-s‑ï-¦‑n A-X‑p-I-s‑ï¯‑n A-b‑m-s‑f i‑n-£‑n-¡‑m³ h-g‑nt‑X-S‑p-I-b‑m-W‑v A-`‑n-{‑]‑m-b-k‑z‑m-X-{‑´‑y‑w s‑I‑m-ï‑p-a‑m{‑X‑w D-]-P‑oh-\‑w I-g‑n-¡‑p-¶ a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ¯Ic‑p‑w. c‑m-j‑v{‑S‑o-b-¡‑m-s‑c-¡‑mÄ t‑a‑m-ia‑m-b c‑o-X‑n-b‑n P-\-§-f‑ps‑S t‑a A-[‑n-I‑m-c-KÀ-h‑v {‑]-I-S‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p b‑p-h‑m-¡f‑p‑w kÀ-h‑o-k‑v k‑w-L-S-\‑m-{‑]-hÀ-¯-Ic‑pa‑m-b D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-ØÀ t‑]‑m-e‑p‑w. P-\‑m-[‑n-]-X‑y-]-ca‑m-b B-g-¯‑n-e‑p-Å a‑m-ä‑w FÃ‑m-h-c‑ne‑p‑w D-ï‑m-t‑I-ï-X‑pï‑v. D-t‑Z‑y‑m-K-Ø-c‑mhs‑« ^‑m-I‑vä-d‑n s‑X‑m-g‑n-e‑m-f‑n-I-f‑n-I-f‑mI-s‑« a‑m-[‑y-a-{‑]-hÀ-¯-I-c‑m-Is‑«‑, B-X‑y-´‑n-I-a‑m-b‑n k-a‑q-l-a‑m-W‑v Ah-\‑v A-¶‑w X-c‑p-¶X‑v. \‑nb-a-\ D-¯-ch‑p‑w i-¼-f _‑nÃ‑p‑w H-¸‑n-S‑p-¶-h-cà s‑s‑Z-h§Ä. k-a‑q-l-a‑m-W‑v, P-\-§-f‑m-W‑v a-\‑p-j‑y\‑m-W‑v h-e‑p-X‑v F-¶-X‑m-W‑v h‑n-k‑nÂ-t‑»‑m-b‑n-§‑n-s‑â B-Z‑y-s‑¯b‑p‑w A-h-k‑m-\-s‑¯b‑p‑w k-t‑µi‑w.

tIcf {]kv A¡mZan `cW kanXn sNbÀam³: F³. ]n. cmtP{µ³ (sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan) sshkv sNbÀam³: sI. kn. cmPtKm]mð (aebmfat\mca, {]knUâv, sI.bp.U»yp.sP.) FIvknIyq«ohv t_mÀUv: Fw. Fkv. chn (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, tIcfIuapZn), F³. cmtPjv (\yqkvFUnäÀ, am[yaw, tImgnt¡mSv), UbdÎÀ, ]»nIv dntej³kv, sk{I«dn (^n\m³kv Un¸mÀ«vsaâv), sk{I«dn (P\dð AUvan\nt{Ìj³) P\dð Iu¬knð: Sn. BÀ. a[pIpamÀ (kvt]mÀSvkv FUnäÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), C. ]n. jmPp±o³ (No^v \yqkv FUnäÀ, awKfw, tImgnt¡mSv), Fw.]n. kqcyZmkv (No^v k_v FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), Fkv. _nPp (No^v tImÀUnt\än§v FUnäÀ, Gjyms\äv \yqkv, Xncph\´]pcw), kn. F³. taml\³ (amt\PÀ, tZim`nam\n, sIm¨n), _nPp hÀ¤okv (amt\Pn§v FUnäÀ, awKfw), ]n. ]n. k®n (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ, Zo]nI), sI. Fw. tdmbv (ko\nbÀ tPWenÌv), It¡mS³ apl½Zv, hn. F. kenw (sdknUâv amt\PÀ, am[yaw, FdWmIpfw), sP. Fkv. CµpIpamÀ (FIvknIyq«ohv FUnäÀ, Pbvlnµv Snhn), hn. cmPtKm]mð (ap³ sU]yq«n FUnäÀ, amXr`qan, tImgnt¡mSv), ]n. kpPmX³ (s]mfnän¡ð FUnäÀ, ho£Ww), t__n amXyp (amt\Pn§v UbdÎÀ & sshkv sNbÀam³, Poh³ Snhn), sNdpIc k®n eqt¡mkv (kvs]jð Idkvt]mïâv, tIcfiÐw) sk{I«dn: hn. BÀ. APnXv IpamÀ AknÌâ v sk{I«dn: F³. ]n. kt´mjv

G{]nð Pqsse þ sabv 20132013


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Sebastian Paul

Press for Reforms As freedom of expression erodes in India, “contour ploughing” is required to protect press freedom.

A

19th-century law regulates the Indian press, which enjoys restricted freedom under a 20thcentury Constitution. Apart from the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867, there are about or above two dozen Central Acts which together constitute laws relating to the press. But these are insufficient to make the media responsible and responsive to an ever-expanding democratic society. If a democracy is, by definition, the constant search for truth and liberty, then free speech must be an essential ingredient for it to thrive. Free speech is everyone’s right, and freedom of the press is exercised in protecting every citizen’s right to know what his government is doing. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and expression to every citizen. But this freedom is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by the state relating to defamation, contempt of court, decency or morality, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, incitement to an offence, public order, and maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India. When legislative privileges are added to this long list, the gamut is complete. In this shrinking atmosphere, we have to do some sort of contour ploughing in order to minimize further erosion. If freedom of expression is not absolute, then neither is freedom of the press. Of all the restraints put upon the freedom of the press, perhaps the greatest is defamation. A marked increase is evident in the institution of defamation cases against the Pqsse 2013

press by public men, politicians in particular. On a silly charge, ostensibly a case of inadvertence, raised by a former judge of the Supreme Court, a television channel recently was asked to pay Rs 100 crore as damages. In the complaints being lodged against the press for alleged violation of norms of journalistic conduct, about 60 per cent carry the charge of defamation. Although libel actions in India are not in terms of statistics as numerous as in the United States or the United Kingdom, the number of matters brought before the Press Council is fairly large. The recommendations of the Council, particularly those relating to innocent dissemination of news, unintentional defamation, partial justification, fair comment, and reports of certain proceedings to which qualified privilege is attached, deserve serious consideration by the government while enacting a suitable legislation in line with the [English] Defamation Act1. Such a legislation to replace the present uncodified position on the subject is highly necessary for removing a number of anomalies and liberalizing the law, keeping in view the constitutional rights regarding freedom of speech and expression and the reasonable restrictions that can be placed on it. A journalist may encounter the law of Parliament in various ways including violation of the privileges of Parliament, for example, relating to publication of its proceedings or undermining the dignity of the House. The undefined boundary of parliamentary


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Image Courtesy: WAN-IFRA Pqsse 2013


(8) privileges, which Justice Subba Rao described as “nebulous,” has been a cause of chronic uneasiness for the press. In the absence of a precise and unambiguous code, parliamentary correspondents and commentators are scared of treading, albeit unwillingly, on what is often described as “privileged corns.” In order to get insulated from this latent danger, they may try to tone down their comments that are detriment to the genuine interests of both the press and the legislature. As a member of the Committee of Privileges of the 14th Lok Sabha, I made a fervent appeal to get parliamentary privileges codified. Recommending against codification, the committee noted that during a period of over half a century, the penal powers of the Houses of Parliament were used very sparingly. But that is not the case with many state legislatures. Of all the risks a journalist faces in the day-today presentation of news and views, the one about which he or she is likely to exercise most care is contempt of court. The punishment for publishing contempt can be swift and severe; grave contempt can result in the imprisonment of the editor or journalist, and there are numerous examples of the courts imposing fine for lesser contempt. The Contempt of Courts Act was amended in 2006, allowing “justification by truth” as a valid defence in proceedings for contempt if it is in the public interest. Yet quite a lot remains to be done. We can emulate the United States and the United Kingdom in this regard by shedding the rigid doctrinaire approach. In the United States, the judges ask the question: Is there a clear and present danger that

the administration of justice will be affected? Since a “clear and present danger” cannot really be shown in a large number of cases, the law of contempt does not really act as a check on comments made by the press. The US courts do not depend on contempt of court to ensure a fair trial of issues. The US procedure allows other methods and techniques in order to secure a fair trial, and US judges are not unduly perturbed by adverse newspaper comments. In England too, the relevant test for contempt is: Is there a substantial risk of serious prejudice? The courts have made it clear that it is a double test —the risk must be substantial and the likely prejudice has to be serious. Protecting and defending the source—an integral part of good investigative journalism—is the greatest dilemma a good journalist will ever face. The Law Commission has recommended that while an absolute privilege need not be given to reporters in respect of sources of information obtained by them in confidence, the court should (by amending the Evidence Act) be vested with the discretion not to compel a reporter to make such disclosure in the circumstances of the case. In exercising the discretion, the court will obviously be expected to weigh the demands of discovery of truth against the demands of professional ethics by which a journalist is bound. The most misused legal provision threatening freedom of expression is Section 66A of the Information Technology Act (IT Act). There is no respite, despite the searching questions raised by the Supreme Court, from the police across the country

The most misused legal provision threatening freedom of expression is Section 66A of the Information Technology Act (IT Act). There is no respite, despite the searching questions raised by the Supreme Court, from the police across the country arresting people for offences involving social media communication and the magistracy routinely remanding them to custody. While allegations published in the mainstream media attract notice of defamation, identical or similar allegations published in social media lead to immediate arrest and remand. This conflicting interpretation of free speech in the era of the internet is discriminatory and violative of fundamental rights.

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arresting people for offences involving social media communication and the magistracy routinely remanding them to custody. While allegations published in the mainstream media attract notice of defamation, identical or similar allegations published in social media lead to immediate arrest and remand. This conflicting interpretation of free speech in the era of the internet is discriminatory and violative of fundamental rights. The many instances of abuse of Section 66A of the IT Act confirm that it does little to enhance the rule of law and must be removed from the statute book. Democracy is impossible without a free press. Free and responsible, of course.

Sebastian Paul is a former Member of Parliament and former Member, Press Council of India. He is the author of Forbidden Zones: Law and the Media (2010). 1. The law relating to defamation is contained in Sections 499 and 500 of the Indian Penal Code. The exceptions to Section 499 have not proved as useful or protective to Indian journalists as have the US precedents to the American press. The attempt made by the Rajiv Gandhi government in 1988 to codify the defamation law was foiled as it was clearly aimed at muzzling the criticism of the government and preventing investigative reporting, especially where governmental corruption was concerned.

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Vinod Sharma

Free Speech in a Free Market Keep the media on a tight leash so that business interests do not override duties towards readers and viewers.

I

am very glad to be in your midst. It is always a pleasure talking to young people, who are inspirational and have stars in their eyes. It is like coming face to face with innocence and aspiration that I think are God’s gifts to humankind. I have been told to speak on “Media, Politics, and Society.” The subject is vast. One can produce a book on it. But I will constrict it to about 40–45 minutes of my presentation and thereafter I would expect you to ask questions because I want to take away some knowledge, some fresh perspectives from this interaction. It was said in the beginning that it’s your good luck that I’m here. But I must tell you that it is as much my good luck that I am in your midst. I am no stranger to Malayalam journalism. I have cut my teeth in political reporting at the feet of people like Thomas Jacob, T. V. R. Shenoy, and Gopalakrishnan, who later became the editor of Mathrubhumi. The current editor of Mathrubhumi, Kesava Menon, and I were posted together in Pakistan in the early 1990s. Kesav used to report for The Hindu and I used to report for The Hindustan Times. I take great pride in the fact that I was the first non-Malayali—a Punjabi-speaking person— to be hired by Manorama for The Week. This was in 1982, shortly before the Asian Games. So in a nutshell, I’m as much a product of Malayalam journalism as you people are going to be. I see a great connect between myself and all of you. Now let us come to the subject. A statutory warning while you listen to me is that when I talk about the downsides of present-day journalism, you should not get discouraged. I will be dishonest if I do not tell you truthfully the state of Pqsse 2013

affairs in this profession in the times that we live. I will compare today’s state of play with the times we were growing in order to present to you a contrast— and at the same time perhaps a roadmap for the future. Long years ago, when I was very young, a very acclaimed and celebrated journalist of India, Arun Shourie, who took pride in insisting that he was not a journalist, wrote a series of investigative pieces in The Indian Express. The headline of one of those pieces I remember was “Indira Gandhi as Commerce.” The story was about the Indira Gandhi Pratibha Pratishthaan, which the then chief minister of Maharashtra A. R. Antulay had set up to raise funds in the name of the Pratishthaan. He committed in the process a whole lot of illegalities. So at the very outset let us discuss journalism as Commerce. Journalism is about free speech actually. The freedom of the press is a freedom derived from the freedom of speech we have under the Constitution of India. A free press is essential because information is power and honest dissemination of information builds an empowered public opinion that is a must for making democracy robust. If you are well-informed, you will go to the polling station as a conscientious citizen of India. You would not be a run-of-the-mill voter. You will be a thinking voter, a reflective voter, and a wise voter. It is presumed that while exercising your wisdom through the ballot, you will back the best candidate. That is the premise on which a free press is considered essential for any democracy. It brings one to the manner in which we are practising that freedom. Let me start with the business models of


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Long years ago, when I was very young, a very acclaimed and celebrated journalist of India, Arun Shourie, who took pride in insisting that he was not a journalist, wrote a series of investigative pieces in The Indian Express. The headline of one of those pieces I remember was “Indira Gandhi as Commerce.” The story was about the Indira Gandhi Pratibha Pratishthaan, which the then chief minister of Maharashtra A. R. Antulay had set up to raise funds in the name of the Pratishthaan. He committed in the process a whole lot of illegalities.

Arun Shourie

newspapers to help you understand where the flaw is—where the danger is lurking. While I dilate on the dark side, it does not mean that we are not doing anything positive. We are doing a lot of good things as well. But you should be forewarned about the pitfalls. You have the wisdom, merit, and tenacity to play on a level field. But to play on a field that is not level requires some degree of caution, a kind of guerrilla tactic where you strike (as a journalist) with a clear line of retreat! Journalism is not about martyrdom. It is about surviving in a pernicious environment to fight another battle another day. The cover price of the newspaper that comes to your doorstep is about five rupees. Nowhere in the world, including South Asia, is a newspaper sold for five rupees. Go to Sri Lanka, go to Pakistan, go to Maldives, go to Bhutan—newspapers are sold for the equivalent of Rs 15 to Rs 20. But in our country, there is a big gap between the cover price and the production cost of a newspaper. So, every morning, the copy of newspaper that you get causes a loss of 10–12 rupees to the publisher, depending on whom we are talking about. Big circulations obviously mean big losses. And without big circulations we cannot attract high-end advertisements. In the process, individual economies of newspapers are mortgaged to big advertisers. There are (honourable) exceptions to this rule. But the trend is deeply disconcerting. A newspaper’s near-total dependence on big advertisements (released by big business) is selfdefeating in a free-market economy where the wrongs can often be traced to cash-rich corporate https:\\graphicanthropology.wordpress.com entities. The financial viability that most newspapers

and TV channels have comes at the cost of the freedom given to us for the exalted cause of strengthening democracy. That, in my view, makes free-market economy somewhat incompatible with free speech. The dangers are hidden. It is not like a terrorist pointing a gun at you. It is about somebody quietly altering your value system without which you are not entitled to the freedom you enjoy as media organisations. Let us now consider as to what happens when economies of newspapers are mortgaged to big advertisers. I am told that each time the Malayala Manorama comes with an advertisement jacket, the readers are upset, bombarding the newspaper’s higher editorial team with embarrassing questions. I think that is the right thing to do. That is what distinguishes the readership constituency in Kerala from the rest of the country where the viewers and readers are not adequately alert. Literacy counts. It bestows upon the readers of Kerala a level of consciousness that makes them catch the collar of editorial managements each time they send the newspaper in an advertisement jacket. In contrast, most readers in north India have gotten used to it, like they have gotten used to pollution, crime, graft, and a lack of civic sense. I hope that you will, through your higher level of consciousness, keep the media on a tight leash so that its business interests do not override its duties towards its readers and viewers. In the light of a very pernicious business model that the media is practising, you can influence the way the media behaves. You must decide your needs for information and the way the media caters to Pqsse 2013


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The advertisers are used to demanding the readership’s socio-economic profile to ascertain whether it suits their business interests. And to build that profile, the newspapers do the worst of discrimination between readership categories. For example, if there is a murder in a posh south Delhi locality, it will be on page one. But if there is a murder in east Delhi, which is relatively downmarket, it will be on page three. Putting a price tag on death—that is what certain big newspapers do to build a readership that allures and entices big advertisers. Extend this paradigm that has become the norm to leading TV channels, and you have a scenario that is even worse. Between elections, people who occupy the news space or air waves are people who do not require MLAs and MPs for getting their work done. They are otherwise well-off and influential; they are the people who can manipulate the system. them. Unilateralism cannot work here. It is a twoway street and must remain that way. You must treat the media the way you treat the politician. Vote them out if they are not up to your expectations. That is the only way you can keep the media from going astray. Today, you have choices. Today, you are not entirely dependent on newspapers or TV channels for information. When you get up in the morning, you want the newspaper with your cup of tea or coffee. Then you start getting ready for office, or for school, or for college. Your medium of information then switches to the radio. When you reach your workplace, you can either switch on the TV or your computer. There you are in an altogether different world. There is so much of choice because there is so much of competition; a perfect situation for the consumer to emerge the winner. So never suffer a sense of loss and never fear questioning the newspaper of your choice for doing things you do not approve. That alone will keep the relationship equal and balanced. Let us dilate more on the readers’ intervention. The advertisers are very particular about knowing whether the newspaper’s readership had the capacity (measured by their socio-economic profile) to purchase the product sought to be propagated Pqsse 2013

through a high-ended advertisement. This consideration directly impacts the selection of news and its display, making the content elitist when it should be eclectic to cater to all sections of readers. The advertisers are used to demanding the readership’s socio-economic profile to ascertain whether it suits their business interests. And to build that profile, the newspapers do the worst of discrimination between readership categories. For example, if there is a murder in a posh south Delhi locality, it will be on page one. But if there is a murder in east Delhi, which is relatively downmarket, it will be on page three. Putting a price tag on death—that is what certain big newspapers do to build a readership that allures and entices big advertisers. Extend this paradigm that has become the norm to leading TV channels, and you have a scenario that is even worse. Between elections, people who occupy the news space or air waves are people who do not require MLAs and MPs for getting their work done. They are otherwise well-off and influential; they are the people who can manipulate the system. The voice of the needy and the helpless is hardly heard until it is election time. The newspapers in Kerala are relatively more rooted than the media in cosmopolitan centres. Why? The answer is simple:


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you are a demanding audience unwilling to take balderdash in the name of a free press. If the newspaper you read or the TV channels you watch commit mistakes, you make them conscious of their faults. The topmost editors from the topmost newspapers in the state are compelled and obligated to explain to you. That I think sets up a great engagement between a news medium and its constituents. Having worked for Manorama in the 1980s, I remember the Gulf War, when its Delhi office became a veritable post office, taking messages from the stranded people in West Asia to their families and vice versa. It was my first experience with interactive journalism that is a norm these days with most newspapers and TV channels. Newspapers in Kerala have been an exception to the rule even when it came to spending money on news gathering. Most national newspapers spend just a fraction of their revenues on collection of information. I was on the subject of readers and viewers who lack a voice or are not influential. It took this country a long time to know that farmers were committing suicide to escape the repayment of debt. We in the media fully woke up to the tragedy only when the agriculture minister spoke on the magnitude of the

agrarian crisis in Parliament. Why? Was it because farmers’ suicides are of little interest to readers and viewers with disposable incomes? This elitist approach has crept into the system. A manifestation of that is the emphasis on cinema, crime, and cricket. Mercifully we have also started focusing on corruption and the follies of the political class. Corruption becoming a major issue is indeed a redeeming journalistic effort. A couple of years back, Vice President Hamid Ansari said that a greater responsibility devolved on the media because out of the four pillars of the state, it was the only one with profit motive. The need today is to rework our business models in consonance with the vice president’s note of caution. Chomsky had said that the tendency of Capital is to get decisions taking outside the periphery of institutions linked to the people. A genuinely free press has to be above such influences to let democracy prosper the way we have willed it to ourselves. Parliamentarians who return on the strength of popular mandate need to be persistently scrutinized, not vilified en bloc, as it is often done these days by a section of the media driven by the lure of Capital. As debate in this country has ceased to be eclectic in terms of participation, there is a grave and present danger of thought being standardized on key issues. I will give you one example. Rather, two. Take for instance the discourse that happens after every terrorist incident. In no time, some Muslim organisation or individuals are accused by the police or intelligence organisations of being behind the attack. The claims are lapped up by the competitive media without any kind of cross-checking or sense of enquiry. The cycle has repeated viciously, tainting in the process an entire community that is as much Indian as any other community. The approach of a section of the media is the same when it comes to China and Pakistan. The coverage is guided by crass jingoism, warmongering, and rhetoric. At the end of it, the already informed reader or viewer is frustrated, and the ignorant deeply agitated. This kind of bastardisation of the public discourse may attract eyeballs. But it is antithetical to the very purpose of having free and vibrant media. It does not make democracy robust; it makes it weak and effete. Vinod Sharma is Political Editor of The Hindustan Times. This is a speech he gave on 4 May 2013 in Kozhikode, while inaugurating a state-level study camp on ‘Journalism of the Future’, organised by the Kerala Press Academy.

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J. V. Vil’anilam

Media Ethics Some Basic Principles Certain principles of ethics are essential for all professionals—doctors, engineers, teachers, priests, preachers, and mediapersons.

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edia practice and profession, like teaching, medicine, and other services, have to take extreme caution in maintaining the highest moral principles so that they do not harm society. This is why professional bodies of newspaper publishers and broadcasting institutions voluntarily follow certain principles. Despite good intentions, some of the media organisations and professionals sometimes make mistakes, either by accident or carelessness, or deliberately, while pursuing the objectives of reaping enormous profits or political power. The media are, or ought to be, the searchlights that help citizens to discover their own faults and foibles, and understand decisions taken (or not taken) by government for the welfare of society. They throw light on what is happening in the immediate surroundings and in the far off world, explain difficult concepts that are of consequence to people’s lives, transmit cultural heritage from one generation to the next, and mobilise people against undesirable activities harmful to society. The media ought to highlight the good deeds done by people— citizens and those who are in authority, for the betterment of social, economic, political, and cultural life. Many young journalists have unfortunately formed the wrong impression that journalism is a term confined to print journalism, or printed newspapers and magazines. It is necessary to correct this impression. There are several kinds of journalism—print, electronic, web, and digital. Occasionally we use the terms film journalism, TV journalism, radio journalism, broadcast journalism, and video journalism. Journalism is popularly defined as a “report of things as they appear at the moment of writing, not a definitive study of a situation,” as pointed out by Agee and others.1 For authentic and documented treatises, one has to depend on well-written books and journal articles, not daily newspapers which are usually produced in a hurry within a few hours. However, newspaper reporters, feature writers, and Pqsse 2013

editors try their best to make their writing authentic, true, comprehensive, and intelligible to ordinary readers. The most important thing to remember is that journalists have to meet their deadlines and that they have to provide citizens with a dependable account of the available information about events and issues of socio-economic, political, and cultural importance that happened in the past 24 hours. Outstanding personalities and their doings are also of primary importance to be reported or featured in the day’s newspaper or TV news bulletin. A famous Harvard professor, Harold Lasswell, pointed out long ago that journalists of all varieties invariably do the following: surveillance of the environment; correlation of the parts of society through interpretation of events, and issues that are observed and reported; and socialisation and transmission of cultural heritage from generation to generation.2 Later on, other communication experts added a few more functions. For example, Charles Wright added entertainment as a function of mass communication/journalism and Denis McQuail stressed the mobilisation of people through journalism and mass communication, especially for politically and socio-economically successful practice of participative democracy. Wright and others spoke about dysfunctions such as “status conferral” on certain undesirable elements in society.3 Other dysfunctions are “ethicisation” or dictation of social norms through the media; “narcotisation” through repetition of negative news and eventual desensitisation of the public; misinformation; and even indiscriminate use of “breaking news” for agitating viewers! While doing all this, the journalist attached to a particular medium has to maintain certain ethical principle. Some media proprietors with the active collaboration of their workers have resorted in recent years to the unacceptable and morally reprehensible practice of publishing “paid” and “manipulated” or “manufactured” news! To arrest this trend of media degeneration that is happening right now in


(15) many parts of the world, strict adherence to ethical principles by all media professionals including publishers and owners has become most essential. Ethics is, briefly, moral philosophy; it guides and protects the moral environment of performance in any field of human endeavour in order to make the performance morally acceptable to the members of a particular society or social group. Most professions have standard practices meant for the good of society. Almost all democratic societies in the world have the right to the freedom of expression and speech by citizens. This right is constitutionally protected in a number of countries. But exercising absolute freedom without any moral responsibility of resorting to reasonable restrictions is deleterious to social harmony. Therefore, all societies have certain ethical principles that control absolute freedom. Nobody has a right to shout “Fire” in a crowded cinema hall; the resultant stampede will kill many if a citizen’s “right to speech” is sought to be protected at the cost of danger to the spectators’ safety! Twenty-two years ago, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in its resolution on promotion of Press Freedom in the World underlined that a free, independent, and pluralistic press was an essential component of any democratic society. This sacred principle is upheld in most democratic societies. This is particularly essential for a pluralistic society that we have in India, with such diversity in culture, language, food habits, faiths, and practices. The right to dissent and hold views contrary to general

or majority views and opinions is to be honoured in India at all times if India has to progress as a democratic and secular polity. Communal violence—as at the time of partition of British India and also later in several parts particularly in Gujarat, even as recently as February 2002, for example—has to be eschewed for peaceful life in India. If the press is muzzled, the wrongdoings of those in power are likely to be hidden from society and degeneration becomes uncontrollable. The abuse of power, incompetence of authorities, oppression of the weak by the powerful (including exploitation of women, children, and the voiceless and the weak), and the extravaganza and wastage in public life will proceed unhindered in all societies that suppress the media. The media can bring out the defects in society to the attention of the citizens if only they have the freedom to do so in a responsible manner.4 In 1978, the UNESCO adopted the Declaration of the Fundamental Principles Concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War. But for weak sociological and strong political reasons this Declaration remained in cold storage and it was rejuvenated in 1991, teaching all of us a valuable lesson: freedom declared does not mean freedom practised, or freedom gained. Later events have proved that several societies, including some that swear by democratic principles and media freedom, have shown tendencies to suppress the media

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(16) or even prevent media workers, through police force, from bringing out truths unpalatable to the ruling class. Truth is of the utmost importance in all discussions on media ethics. Factors that contribute to truth—comprehensive coverage, accuracy, attribution, and presentation of historical background to a particular event or issue—are also of primary importance when we discuss media ethics. Despite several codes of ethics adopted globally, either by the UN agencies or journalists’ and broadcasters’ associations, media ethics is observed more in the breach than in actual practice and therefore, eternal vigilance is absolutely essential at all times to preserve freedom of speech and expression, which is the citizen’s rather than the media owner’s prerogative. Media owners and professionals have to render a service to people. The very raison d’être of the media in society is service to the people, or service to society. Media institutions, unlike ordinary business institutions, have special responsibilities to uphold the rights of the individuals in society rather than the monetary accumulation by business corporations that try to make media institutions part of their empires. These facts were presented with vigour at the 2002 Salzburg Declaration of Journalists from 32 countries, entitled “In Defence of Journalism as a Public Trust.” A topic discussed with special emphasis at this conference in Austria was that market pressures were undermining the quality of journalism, specifically, as news organisations preserve high profit levels by reducing the newsgathering expenses and neglecting journalism’s core ethical principles: public interest, the responsibility to inform and empower citizens, and enable citizens to make proper decisions that uphold the welfare of society. A free, independent, and responsible press is essential to human liberty. It is most essential to bring out the hidden aspects of the social mechanism which sometimes works against the interests of the majority but works for the monetary advantages of a privileged few, whether it is the unethical selling of natural resources such as water, or ignoring the fundamental rights of the poor and the underprivileged. Information is manipulated either deliberately or on account of organisational inefficiency so that the poor, the landless, and the diseased, malnourished majority are fed falsehood that fattens the well-informed and the advantaged who control key aspects of governance. The average citizens are not only poor and heavily deprived in India but forced into silence by powerful vested interests. For a fuller understanding of the problem, we have to admit the historical truth that mass communication and digitalised communication through the internet, blogs, and Twitter, are of very recent origin. Although mass and interpersonal Pqsse 2013

communications have revolutionised the phenomenon of communication in all parts of the world, nobody can deny that human beings by nature value certain common characteristics despite the transient glitter and glamour of wealth and ostentation. Communication is natural as it is the motor and expression of social action and civilisation. It helps human beings to integrate knowledge and reach the highest pinnacles of achievement in all fields of endeavour. In a world that has advanced, communication tasks have become quite complex and subtle, and sometimes media of mass communication do not help in liberating humankind from want, oppression, and fear. Unless those who are in the field of mass communication endorse structural changes, the potential benefits of science and technology that have led to instant interpersonal communication will hardly benefit humankind; they

In 1978, the UNESCO adopted the Declaration of the Fundamental Principles Concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War. But for weak sociological and strong political reasons this Declaration remained in cold storage and it was rejuvenated in 1991, teaching all of us a valuable lesson: freedom declared does not mean freedom practised, or freedom gained. will serve only in amassing wealth and power in certain quarters, and that is likely to be dangerous to the world. Thus we are faced with micro and macro issues of ethical problems. The micro ones deal with the mechanical aspects of production, comprehensive gathering of information, and easily understandable and simple but effective presentation of ideas of great importance, to a large section of educated, well-informed, and well-to-do people. The freedom to express one’s ideas is certainly a first freedom for all human beings and it has to be protected at all costs; at the same time we cannot ignore that there are many issues before the world which do not get the media’s full attention. Despite tremendous achievements in many fields of human endeavour—in space travel, splitting of the atom, and understanding the mysteries of the universe—poverty still remains the number one problem in the world, and of course, the attendant miseries of hunger, ill-health, malnutrition, imbalances in human relations, especially gender relations, and the oppression of the weak. As


(17) mentioned, mass communication is of recent origin, comparatively speaking. Although it is global, it is related to the socio-economic, political, and cultural environments in which it is produced for global consumption. All messages produced and disseminated globally need not be culturally relevant to all communities. Messages of mass communication may blow liberally from all corners but particular societies need not be uprooted under their influence, a fact that has to be given special consideration by all communities, especially in the so-called developing countries. One developing country which I am familiar with and in which I have spent most of my life started with the noblest of ideas and a new Constitution, but I am not sure if we have found solutions to disturbing historical problems that stare us in the face even now in this advanced 21st century— problems of caste and falsely religious feuds, hunger, deprivation, gender discrimination, road

safety, and basic need fulfilment issues such as shortages of various kinds (water supply, drainage schemes, toilets, housing, and even personal safety) especially for 50 per cent of the population. All communication activities—whether mass or interpersonal—should be directed towards the fulfilment of the basic objective: the fundamental goal of finding quick solutions to these problems. There is no doubt that all the latest developments, especially in interpersonal communication, achieved through Twitter, Facebook, etc are revolutionising communication but all these are mainly occurring in urban conclaves. Production and transmission facilities are in the big cities, although they have shown considerable influence in political developments in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and other countries. However, the world has not seen any unmixed blessing through these revolutionary developments and it is too early to conclude that the sole or prime reason for political changes was mobilisation resulting from the application of the latest technologies of communication. While giving credit to mass and interpersonal

communication for socio-economic, political, and cultural changes in human society, we have to give some consideration to the opinions of Herbert I. Schiller, a North American communication scholar who was of the firm view that mass-produced messages are sometimes manipulative, influencing people to think in a certain way, forgetting the actual realities. Mass-mediated messages and mass dissemination of personal messages through blogs, can create a false sense of reality and produce a consciousness that cannot comprehend the actual conditions of life. Personal or social realities are not reflected in either interpersonal or mass-produced messages. In other words, falsities are disseminated through modern devices and realities are wilfully submerged. Recently in the tribal areas of Kerala, starvation deaths were reported as if these were something new or recent. Actually, the very same areas reported such deaths and ill-health at least five decades ago, when some journalism students from Kerala had visited the same hill areas. The media have links with the industrial and political structures that want to propagate that many developments are totally new and they have no history behind them. Paulo Freire, the Brazilian sociologist had pointed out almost the same thing much before Schiller.5 Freire said that the dominant elites in all societies try to conform the masses to their points of view through the mass media. Interpersonal devices in those days had not assumed the importance they achieved in recent years. George Gerbner, former dean of the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, put it in another way in the 1980s: “Mass (and interpersonal) systems of production and dissemination of messages transform selected private perspectives into public perspectives and brings mass publics into existence.” J. V. Vil’anilam, former Vice-Chancellor (1992–1996) of the University of Kerala, is a media educator. He headed the Department of Communication & Journalism (1982–1992) in the same university. A UGC Professor Emeritus in Communication, he has lectured in many universities in India and the United States. Visit his website www.vilanilam.com. 1. Warren Agee, P. H. Ault, and E. Emery. 1979. Introduction to Mass Communications. London: Harper & Row. 2. Harold Lasswell. 1948. “The Structure and Function of Communication in Society,” in L. Bryson (ed.), The Communication of Ideas. New York: Harper. 3. Charles Wright. 1959. Mass Communication: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Random House. 4.Feodor Starčević. 1996. “Freedom of the Press and Global Ethics,” Times of India, 3 May. 5.Paulo Freire. 1971. Pedagogy of the Oppresssed. New York: Herder & Herder.

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(18) Lighthouse

Ashok R Chandran

Media’s Monsoon Fever

Column—‘Lighthouse’—that lucidly informs readers about studies on Kerala media. It will also explore new research ideas, acquaint us with media scholars, and discuss the problems and possibilities of studying Kerala media.

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ast month, when the rains began in Kerala, the newspapers reported on the incidence of dengue fever and the shortage of staff in government hospitals to tackle it. The prominent coverage reflected two strands in the scholarship on Kerala media. The first line of thinking, popularised by the Nobel-Prize winning economist Amartya Sen, is familiar to many. According to Sen, a noteworthy feature of Kerala society is “public action”— vigilant people voicing their demands—which puts pressure on the government to respond with reasonably good services.1 Scholars say that Kerala’s achievements in health in the 20th century are partly because of such public action, arising from widespread literacy, mass media, and political consciousness. Cynical Malayalis, irritated with hartals and similar unattractive forms of public action, might dismiss such sensibilities as scholarly, theoretical, and historical. Let us replay the sequence of recent events. Pqsse 2013

On 1–2 June 2013, dengue fever reports were prominent on page 1 of leading Malayalam dailies. Two days later, there were news reports of the government allocating Rs 7 lakh for each district to tackle illnesses in the rainy season. On 3 June, the health minister reviewed government measures. On 5 June, the state cabinet decided to allot Rs 7 crore. Public action via mass media thus seems to have forced the government to attend seriously to the health challenge during the rainy season. Sen and others appear to be right. Yet, one of the weaknesses of most public action studies so far has been their tendency to rush to conclusions without in-depth case studies. In this instance, for example, a mere narration of the sequence is insufficient to conclude that it was media coverage that triggered the government’s allocation of funds or meetings. Consider the following. First, even before the monsoon had hit Kerala, the newspaper presses had begun rolling with a page 1 story of dengue fever; the source of that news report was the health

department (the government itself!), and not the famously vigilant people of Kerala. The newspapers seem to have been a tool of the government to reach out to the public than a channel for the public to convey their demand. Second, when was the decision taken to allocate Rs 7 lakh to each district—was it taken before (or after) the news reports appeared in June? Due to bad reporting across newspapers, this is unclear from the news stories. Similarly, when was the Rs 7 crore proposal drafted for the cabinet— before or after the earliest media reports? Noticeably, newspapers that invariably rush to take credit for “story impact” did not claim that their coverage had led to infusion of funds by the government. Third, for some years now, the monsoon and the dengue fever have been visiting Kerala every June. So, well before June 1, doesn’t the government anticipate and gear up by allotting funds or ensuring availability of drugs and personnel? Questions like these have to be asked by the case-study method. Unlike global scholars, their Kerala cousins are favourably located to conduct such studies that will lead not only to a better understanding of the media’s role and effectiveness in public action, but also to a better public health care system in


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The Second Strand

Another strand of scholarship sees the media in less positive terms, and is also less known. I have in mind the work of Mathew George, who is at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai. In an article in 2011 in the journal Contributions to Indian Sociology—one of the leading journals from the country—he wrote about fever epidemics in Kerala.2 While chronicling the story of fever’s journey in Kerala, from being a disease “symptom” to becoming a “disease,” he touched upon the role of the Kerala media. George tells us that between 2002 and 2004, when Kerala witnessed outbreaks of dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and leptospirosis, the government intervened by funding vector control measures, distributing diagnostic kits, framing a Protocol for the Syndrome of Fever, setting up district-level crisis management committees, and establishing “fever clinics” or “monitoring cells” at all levels— from primary health centres to medical colleges. George writes, “While the government records suggest a calm and methodical response to the epidemic, the tone of media reports was the opposite. The media spotlighted the fever cases and criticised the government, pointing out problems such as the paucity of doctors, the lack of adequate treatment at the hospitals, and poor hospital waste management as directly or indirectly responsible for the epidemic.” And then he adds, “Since the 1990s, local newspapers published a column on panimaranangal (deaths due to fever) during and immediately after the monsoons. Television channels as well as local magazines highlighted the risks of fever and the precautions to be taken. This coverage deepened the public sense of fevers as an epidemic to be feared.”

Amartya Sen

Based on interviews with doctors, George points out that diagnosis is difficult when fever is a symptom and can be caused by a range of diseases. But “without explaining the medical complexity of the issue, media reportage repeated medical terms such as ‘suspected’ and ‘clinical signs’ to convey the expert and authoritative character of these diagnoses, and in the process, suggested a medicallysanctioned scenario of dramatic death and disease. In the absence of adequate evidence, media columns like ‘panimaranangal’ aggravated public perceptions of the threat from fevers.” George’s article mentions the media in another context too— the conflict between allopathic and homeopathic doctors, about the usefulness of the latter’s medicines in treating dengue fever. George writes, “In this controversy, the state and the media unquestioningly sided with the dominant allopathic system... [and] by doing so, they also sidelined the possibility of arriving at alternative, more effective therapies based on other medical systems....The uncritical acceptance of biomedicine by the government and the media not only determines the availability

of medical services but also influences people’s decisions about using alternative therapies. With the institutional weight of the state and the authority of the media supporting biomedicine... even those people who are getting relief through alternative systems can become more doubtful and anxious.” Like Sen and others, George associates media reports with public demand, and believes that “fever talk” prompted the government to respond, for example, by establishing fever clinics. But unlike public action scholars, George also draws attention to the not-so-glorious side of Kerala journalism, and the long-run effects of such coverage. Media is not the focus of George’s article; in fact, it is just one of the many bricks in the analysis. That probably explains why he does not present detailed, verifiable data on the tone of media reports or the scale of inaccurate reporting. Nevertheless, these studies reveal that thought-provoking articles on the nature and impact of Kerala journalism emerge from economists, sociologists, and other social scientists too, not just media scholars. Has media coverage of monsoon fevers changed from what it was 10 years ago? What are some good practices to follow while reporting fevers in the next rainy season? Studies in this direction will serve journalists and society. Ashok R. Chandran is an independent researcher in Palakkad, Kerala. He can be reached at studykeralamedia@gmail.com 1. Amartya Sen. 1991. “Public Action to Remedy Hunger,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 16 (4), 324–36. 2. Mathew George. 2011. “Fever Epidemics and Fever Clinics: Institutionalising Disease and Cure in Contemporary Kerala,” Contributions to Indian Sociology, 45 (3), 373–97.

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(20) Discussion

Sreeja Sasidharan

Emergence of Social Media as Fifth Estate Based on the civil society movements of 2011, the author argues that social media significantly extends individual freedoms and should be recognised as a Fifth Estate. The article is part of our ongoing discussion on social media.

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ith the advent of information and communication technologies, social networking sites have been growing at an amazing pace, and catalysing civil society movements, and bringing in political changes in various parts of the globe. This has become a challenge to the socalled mainstream media. The social media played a creative role in movements like the Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street, and India Against Corruption.

The Fourth and fifth Estates

According to Wikipedia, the “Fourth Estate” is a societal or political force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized. In his book On Heroes and Hero Worship, Thomas Carlyle attributed the origin of the term to Edmund Burke, who used it in a parliamentary debate in Great Britain in 1787, on the opening up of press reporting of the House of Commons. The other three estates were The Lord Spiritual, The Lord Temporal, and The Commons. Oscar Wilde wrote, “[A]t the present moment it is the only estate. It has eaten up the other three.”1 In current use, the term is applied to news media, especially print journalism or the Press. Today, journalism and media industry are dominated by the media mogul Rupert Murdoch. We live in a world in which both journalism and politics are business. It is the vested interests which determine the agenda of the media, be it newspaper, radio, or television.We had an editors’ community which upheld the moral and ethical principles of the profession. But today it is controlled by marketoriented managing directors. Now these newspapers rarely share the interests and anxieties of democratic society or civil society, when they—the “watchdog

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of democracy”—fill up their front pages and prime time with their own, self-created agenda. According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, the Fifth Estate is a class or group existing in addition to the traditional four. The definition given by Roy Peter Clark is more suitable: “The Fifth Estate includes the Fourth Estate, the idea and value of a professional press corps as a way of informing and engaging the populace, and holding the powerful accountable. This vision of a Fifth Estate sees the Fourth Estate as necessary but insufficient for democratic life.”2 William Dutton has argued that the Fifth Estate is not simply the blogging community, nor an extension of the media, but “networked individuals” enabled by the internet in ways that can hold the other estates accountable.3

Civil Society Movements

The collective of people who gather together for a cause other than family, state, or market can be called the civil society movement. Arab Spring: The self-immolation of Muhammad Bousid of Tunisia on 18 December 2010 prompted the people to fight for their denied rights and end 23 years of tyranny. Unemployment, corruption, and denial of political and individual rights had led them to protest. The Tunisian protest flagged off mass protests in other countries in 2011. Arab Spring dethroned governments in countries like Egypt, Yemen and Libya. It became the cause of demonstration in Algeria, Israel, and Iraq. Minor impact was there even in Saudi Arabia. The king of Saudi Arabia declared the right to vote for women in the 2015 general elections. Around 19 countries were fully or partially affected by the Arab Spring.


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American Spring: Aroused by the spirit of Arab Spring, another movement—Occupy Wall Street (OWS)—was initiated by Kalle Lasn and Micah White of Adbusters, a Canadian anti-consumerist publication, who conceived of a September 17 occupation in lower Manhattan. Adbusters initiated the protest, which also led to other “occupy” protests and movements around the world. The main issues were social and economic inequalities, greed, corruption, and the undue corporate influence (lobbying) on government, particularly from the financial services sector. The OWS slogan “We Are the 99%” addressed the growing income inequality and wealth distribution in the United States, between the wealthiest 1 per cent and the rest of the population. To achieve their goals, the

protesters acted on consensus-based decisions made in general assemblies which emphasized direct action over petitioning authorities for redress. Indian Edition: India witnessed a major civil society movement under the leadership of Anna Hazare, against corruption in the country. The team’s effort was to introduce a Jan Lokpal bill (in the Indian Parliament) that would bring the prime minister and the members of parliament within the ambit of the People’s Ombudsman. The news reports of corruption in Commonwealth Games, 2G spectrum, and Adarsh Flats were the key factors that prompted the Hazare team to work for passing the Jan Lokpal bill. Interestingly, it did not create any movement in rural India, but the Indian diaspora in various parts of the world held sit-ins and meetings. Pqsse 2013


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Arab Spring

Social media in the movements

In the era of Facebook and Twitter, the civil society movements of 2011 strongly countered the traditional media’s self-created agenda and neglect. Social media became an innovative tool in the hands of the leaders of the civil society movements. The social networks helped the activists to get national and international attention for their movements. Analyzing the videos, tweets, and posts in detail, academic Philip M. Howard opined that the social media had played a key role in formulating the discussions on Arab Spring.4 The Tunisian movement became stronger when netizens watched on YouTube, the selfimmolation of the street vendor. You Tube has more than 200 videos in this regard. When Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi assumed power (by expelling President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali), Facebook pages voiced protest against him too. Through Facebook pages and tweets they conveyed to the world the cruelties of the police and street wars; they also made social media a tool to attract more people to the protest. The demonstrations in Egypt against President Hosni Mubarak started when visuals and news from social media were exhibited in public places. The protesters passed updates about mass movements and on how to resist police actions. On a Facebook page which asked the Egyptians to join in the movement against poverty, unemployment, and corruption, 90,000 people signed up on a single day (25 January 2011). The major opposition party, Muslim Brotherhood, officially declared that they would not support the movement, but many of its members took part in the protests. The following

Pqsse 2013

Occupy Wall Street

day Mubarak took measures to curb the internet as social media was the protesters’ crucial messenger. The internet and mobile was brought fully under control. Then the protests became worse and the streets were filled with protestors. The New York Times concluded that Mubarak was afraid of social media. In Libya, the internet was fully under government control; political change came here through military action. In Syria, mobile phones and cameras were used by protestors to capture pictures, and these were uploaded to YouTube and Facebook. President Bashar al-Assad started a campaign saying that all were fake visuals and that there were thousands who were his loyal supporters; notably, he responded through his website. Even though only 15 per cent of the population used the internet, the government blamed the online media for this movement. The internet was successful in bringing people together. In Saudi Arabia, women organized themselves through social media. Their campaign was titled “women to drive.” After conceiving the idea of OWS, Lasn registered the OccupyWallStreet.org web address on 9 June 2011. That same month, Adbusters emailed its subscribers saying “America needs its own Tahrir.” The reception of the idea snowballed from there. In a post on 13 July, Adbusters proposed a peaceful occupation of Wall Street to protest corporate influence on democracy, the lack of legal consequences for those who brought about the global crisis of monetary insolvency, and an increasing disparity in wealth. The protest was promoted with an image featuring a dancer atop Wall Street’s iconic Charging Bull statue. They


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Anna Hazare movement

held a protest on 17 September against corporate interests which dominate government institutions and policies. They started a Facebook page on the same day, and uploaded videos of the agitation and minutes of the meetings. By mid-October 2011 there were more than 125 pages on Facebook on OWS. Images, cartoons, and posters were shared. Various organizations, non-governmental organisations, and teacher–student groups expressed their solidarity through “Likes.” Tweets and retweets accelerated the pace of discussion. YouTube and Facebook became the tools of protest against corporate interests. The uniqueness of this protest was its origin; its labour room was cyberspace. In India, non-violent means of protest were adopted, and the group communicated their ideas also through cyberspace, incorporating various tools like social networking (Facebook), video sharing (YouTube), micro blogging (Twitter), blogs, and websites. This civil society movement also had a website and social network page for its products to be branded (www.iacbranding.org). The Indian youth were attracted by this. When Anna Hazare was on strike, there was a huge flow of SMS to mobile phones, inviting people to participate in the strike. They had four different pages on Facebook and two websites. While Anna Hazare wrote a blog, Kiran Bedi and Arvind Kejriwal focused on tweeting. Videos and cartoons were prominent in their Facebook activities. The movement was more attractive to the Indian middle class and concentrated in metropolitan cities (than rural India). More than the mainstream or industrialized media, it was due to the influence of social media. Also, the movement was stronger among students. Studies show that internet usage is more among the

age group of 18–24.

Social Media as Fifth Estate

Various means of communication like text, pictures, drawings, videos, and hypertext are made available for communication in social networks. Likes, Comments and Shares are the salient features of social media. The following factors differentiate social media from the Fourth Estate: • The Fourth Estate is limited to its structured ideology whereas social media is decentralised and incorporates different points at the same time. • Social media can be accessed inexpensively, compared to the Fourth Estate, which has to be paid, whether it is in the public or private sector. • Fourth Estate searches for trained and skilful professionals, while social media can be used by any common man. • There are time limits on the Fourth Estate, whereas social media can be accessed any time. • Unlike in Fourth Estate media, correction and editing are possible at any time in social media. • In social media, the users can select the topic of their choice for discussion and sharing. They can formulate their own agenda. In the Fourth Estate, this is based on the agenda of the management.

Conclusion

Facebook was launched in 2004, and by the age of eight, it was a major platform of interaction. In June 2012, it had 955 million active members, and would have formed the third largest “country” if its membership was considered a population. It has entered the social platform not only through computers but also mobile phones and tablets (like iPad). Fifty per cent of the users access social media Pqsse 2013


(24) Social Media Guidelines-Links Social Media Guidelines for AP Employees http://www.ap.org/Images/Social-MediaGuidelines-7-24-2012_tcm28-8378.pdf Social Media Guidelines for BBC Staff http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/ editorialguidelines/page/guidance-blogspersonal-summary Social Media Guidelines for L A Times Staff http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/readers/ 2009/11/updated-social-media-guidelines.html Social Media Guidelines for N P R Staff http://ethics.npr.org/tag/social-media/ Social Media Guidelines for RTDNA (Radio Television Digital News Association) Staff https://www.rtdna.org/article/social_media_ blogging_guidelines Social Media Guidelines for Washington Post Staff http://paidcontent.org/2009/09/27/419-wapossocial-media-guidelines-paint-staff-into-virtualcorner/ through mobile phones. The social media played a key role in the civil society movements of 2011. It was decisive in public opinion formation. It also helped the citizen to be a writer, announcer, or presenter himself, rather than being only the audience. As it gives freedom to individuals, social media can be considered the Fifth Estate. Sreeja Sasidharan is a research scholar at the AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Sreeja’s E-Mail: sreejanalumakkal@gmail.com References: 1. Oscar Wilde. 1891. “The Soul of Man under Socialism,” Fortnightly Review, 290, 292–319.Roy Peter Clark. 2009. “Who is the Fifth Estate and What is Its Role in Journalism’s Future?,” Poynter, 28 April. Available at http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/top-stories/95483/ who-is-the-fifth-estate-and-what-is-its-role-in-journalismsfuture/ . 2. William H. Dutton. 2009. “The Emergence of Fifth Estate through the Network of Networks.” Available at http:// ssrn.com/abstract=1134502. 3. Philip Howard and Musamail Hussain. 2011. “The Role of Digital Media,” Journal of Democracy, 22 (3), 34–48. 4. Social media websites, editorsweblog.org, occupytogether.org and other websites were used while researching for this article. Pqsse 2013

An appeal to well-wishers of ‘Media’ ‘Media’ is the flagship publication of Kerala Press Academy, the pioneer institution in Communication studies in Kerala. The bi-lingual publication is unique in character, because this is the only magazine published from Kerala covering the media. Kerala Press Academy, as you may be aware, is a joint venture of the Government of Kerala, Kerala Union of Working Journalists (KUWJ) and Indian Newspaper Society (INS). It was established in 1979 and is located in Kochi, Kerala. And, the architects of the magazine are the top most media personalities from Kerala and outside. Since there are several journalism and communications institutes and colleges having graduate and post graduate courses in Kerala, a large number of media students will be benefited by this publication. Besides this, the magazine will be circulated among the decision makers and peers of the larger community. This is not going to be run for profit. We need financial support from persons and institutions with a larger heart and a concern for the well-being of the society. We seek co operation of all persons and institutions in the form of advertise ments. The Publication is consisting of 52 pages published in English and Malayalam. Size: Demy 1/4

The tariff is as follows Back cover: Color: Rs 25,000 Inside cover: Color: Rs 20,000 Inside full page: B&W: Rs 15,000 (Discounts On 6 issue, 12 issue packeges) Your order may please be sent to

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CâÀs‑\-ä‑nð h‑nhc‑w t‑XS‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ 4

_‑n. Fk‑v. _‑n-a‑n-\‑nX‑v

\‑y‑q-k‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v

C¶‑v a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯Is‑â {‑][‑m\ h‑nhct‑iJct‑W‑m]‑m[‑nIf‑n s‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v CâÀs‑\ä‑v. FÃ‑m h‑nhc§f‑p‑w e`‑ya‑mb Øe‑w F¶ K‑pW¯‑ns‑\‑m¸‑w [‑mc‑mf‑w A\‑mhi‑yh‑nhc§f‑p‑w s‑Xä‑mb h‑nhc§f‑p‑w DÅ CS‑w I‑qS‑nb‑ms‑W¶ A]ISh‑p‑w Ch‑ns‑Sb‑pï‑v. {‑i²‑n¨‑ns‑æ‑n A_²¡Se‑ne‑mh‑p‑w s‑N¶‑ph‑og‑pI. CâÀs‑\ä‑n h‑nhc§Ä t‑XS‑nb‑pÅ s‑kÀ¨‑v F§s‑\ Ff‑p¸h‑p‑w I‑rX‑yh‑p a‑m¡‑m‑w F¶ h‑nhc§f‑mW‑v C‑u t‑eJ\¯‑nÂ. t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n AS‑p¯‑pXs‑¶ {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ ]‑pk‑vXI¯‑n \‑n¶‑pÅ Hc‑p `‑mKa‑mW‑nX‑v.

Zr

i‑y A¨S‑n a‑m[‑ya§s‑f At‑] £‑n¨‑v `‑qa‑ni‑mk‑v{‑X]ch‑p‑w c‑m{‑ã‑obh‑pa‑mb AX‑nÀhc¼‑pIf‑n s‑öX‑pXs‑¶b‑mW‑v CâÀs‑\ä‑ns‑\ h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S he‑nb t‑{‑k‑mXÊ‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑p¶X‑v. ]c¼c‑mKX a‑m[‑ya§t‑f t‑]‑ms‑e kabh‑p‑w Øeh‑ps‑a‑m¶‑p‑w s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIs‑f _‑m[‑n¡‑p¶ I‑mc‑y aÃ. `cWI‑q-S-¯‑n\‑p‑w X-Â-¸-c I-£‑nIÄ¡‑p‑w A-X‑n CSs‑]S‑p¶X‑n ] c‑na‑nX‑nb‑pa‑pï‑v. t‑e‑mIs‑¯ FÃ‑m t‑I‑mW‑n \‑n¶‑pa‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯IÄ Hc‑p I‑pS¡‑og‑ns‑e¯‑nbX‑v h‑mÀ¯IÄ¡‑p t‑hï‑n a‑m{‑Xa‑pÅ s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑p If‑ps‑S hct‑h‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v. F¶‑m s‑kÀ¨‑v k‑wh‑n[‑m\§Ä a‑m{‑Xaà CâÀs‑\-ä‑n-s‑e h‑m-À-¯IÄ A¸t‑¸‑mÄ Ad‑nb‑m\‑pÅ k‑wh‑n[‑m\§Ä. ]{‑X‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj \‑n h‑mÀ¯ I‑mW‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e h‑mÀ¯‑m s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIÄ Ø‑nca‑mb‑n kµÀi‑n¡‑p¶X‑v i‑oe a‑m¡‑nbhc‑mW‑v \½f‑n ]ec‑p‑w. F¶‑m a‑m[‑ya¯‑ns‑â t‑]c‑n\Ã‑, h‑mÀ¯¡‑mW‑v I‑qS‑pX {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y‑w s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑p¶s‑X¦‑nÂ‑, A¯c¡‑mÀ kµÀi‑n¡‑m\‑nãs‑¸S‑pI \‑y‑qk‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIt‑fb‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w.

C‑u cï‑v c‑oX‑nb‑ne‑paÃ‑ms‑X \‑y‑qk‑v ^‑oU‑pIÄ‑, \‑y‑qk‑v S‑n¡d‑pIÄ‑, Cs‑ab‑nÂ/Fk‑vF‑wFk‑v AeÀ«‑pIÄ X‑pS§‑nb k‑wh‑n[‑m\§f‑p]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p ¶hc‑p‑w \‑nch[‑n. Hc‑p k‑m[‑mcW h‑mb\¡‑mcs‑\ kl‑mb‑n¡‑m³ C¯c¯‑n Hc‑p]‑mS‑v k‑wh‑n[‑m\§f‑pï‑v. F¶‑m \‑na‑nj‑w t‑X‑md‑p‑w h¶‑p \‑ndb‑p¶ h‑mÀ¯If‑p s‑S al‑m t‑iJc¯‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w I‑qS‑pX  Bg¯‑ne‑pÅ X‑nc¨‑ne‑n\‑v ]‑pX‑nb X{‑´§f‑ps‑S kl‑mb‑w I‑qS‑nt‑b X‑oc‑q. s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIÄ k‑z´‑w _‑p²‑n b‑p]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v Bhi‑ya‑pÅh t‑hï {‑]‑m[‑m\‑yt‑¯‑ms‑S AS‑p¡‑ns‑h¨‑p Xc‑p ¶‑ps‑ï¦‑ne‑p‑w Hc‑p a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯I t‑\t‑b‑m Kt‑hjIt‑\t‑b‑m k‑w_Ô‑n ¨‑nSt‑¯‑mf‑w A¯c‑w AS‑p¡‑ns‑h¡e‑n s‑\ a‑m{‑X‑w B{‑ib‑n¨‑m aX‑nb‑mh‑nÃ. AX‑n\‑v I‑qS‑pX h‑niZa‑mb s‑kÀ¨‑v c‑oX‑nIf‑p‑w aä‑p a‑mÀ¤§f‑p‑w k‑z‑oIc‑n t‑¡ïnhc‑p‑w. t‑XS‑n¸‑nS‑n¡‑p¶X‑pa‑m{‑X aà X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡‑p¶X‑n\‑p a‑p¼‑v AX‑v h‑ni‑zk\‑oba‑ms‑W¶‑v Dd¸‑phc‑p¯‑p Ib‑p‑w t‑hW‑w.

\‑y‑qk‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIÄ X§f‑pt‑SX‑mb h‑mÀ¯IÄ {‑]k‑n

²‑oIc‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v \‑y‑qk‑v s‑h_‑v s‑s‑kä‑pIf‑ps‑S t‑P‑me‑ns‑b¦‑n aä‑pÅ s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑n {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑p ¶ h‑mÀ¯IÄ Xc‑wX‑nc‑n¨‑p \ÂI‑pI b‑p‑w X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡‑m\‑pÅ k‑wh‑n[‑m\ a‑pï‑m¡‑pIb‑pa‑mW‑v \‑y‑qk‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIÄ s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. \‑y‑qk‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIÄ Xs‑¶ cï‑v h‑n[a‑pï‑v. b‑ml‑p \‑y‑qk‑p‑w (‑news. yahoo.com) k‑n^‑n \‑y‑qk‑p‑w (sify. com) s‑dU‑n^‑v \‑y‑qk‑p‑w (‑rediff.com) k‑z´a‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯ \ÂI‑pIb‑p‑w H¸‑w aä‑v h‑mÀ¯‑m s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑ns‑e h‑nhc§Ä s‑kÀ¨‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑v Iï‑p]‑nS‑n ¡‑m³ Ahkc‑w \ÂI‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p ¶hb‑mW‑v. F¶‑m K‑qK‑nÄ (‑news. google.com‑)‑, _‑nM‑v (bing.com/ news‑‑) Bk‑vI‑v (ask.com/news‑‑) X‑pS§‑nb A´‑mc‑m{‑ã Xe¯‑ne‑pÅ s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIf‑ps‑S h‑mÀ¯‑m s‑kÀ¨‑v h‑n`‑mK§Ä aä‑pÅ \‑y‑qk‑v s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑ns‑e h‑nhc§Ä {‑]‑m[‑m\‑y{‑Ia¯‑n \ÂI‑pIb‑p‑w H¸‑w Bg¯‑ne‑pÅ s‑kÀ¨‑n\‑v Ahkc‑w \ ÂI‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. s‑dU‑n^‑v‑, k‑n^‑n X‑pS§‑nbh t‑Zi‑ob‑mS‑nØ‑m\¯‑n {‑]hÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶hb‑mW‑v. b‑ml‑ph‑n\‑v C´‑y³ FU‑nj\‑pï‑v (in.news. yahoo.com). K‑qK‑nf‑n\‑v C-´‑y-¡‑pt‑h-ï‑n-b‑p-Å-XS¡‑w (‑news.google. co.in.) F-g‑p-]-X‑n ]-c‑w F-U‑n-j-\‑p-If‑pï‑v. ]e s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑ne‑mb‑n h‑y‑m]‑n¨‑p I‑nS¡‑p¶ DÅS¡§f‑ps‑S cX‑v\¨‑pc‑p¡‑w Hc‑p {‑]t‑X‑yI Øe¯‑v {‑]ZÀi‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶ k‑wh‑n[‑m-\-§-f‑mW‑v A{‑Kt‑Käd‑pIÄ (aggregator). \‑y‑qk‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑pIs‑fÃ‑m‑w \‑y‑qk‑v A{‑Kt‑Käd‑pIf‑mW‑v. Ahb‑ps‑S s‑h_‑v t‑{‑I‑mfd‑pIÄ CâÀs‑\ä‑n ]c-X‑n Pqsse 2013


(26) C-S-¡‑ns‑S Ahc‑ps‑S U‑mä‑ms‑_b‑vk‑v A]‑vt‑Uä‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑ps‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. t‑Zi‑ob‑w‑, A´Àt‑Zi‑ob‑w‑, {‑]‑mt‑Zi‑n I‑w‑, k‑vt‑]‑mÀS‑vk‑v, _‑nk‑n\k‑v... X‑pS§‑n h‑mÀ¯IÄ Xc‑wX‑nc‑n¨‑v {‑]ZÀi‑n¸‑n¨‑p s‑I‑mï‑nc‑n¡‑pIb‑p‑w s‑N¿‑p‑w. H‑mt‑c‑m s‑kÀ¨‑v F³P‑n\‑p‑w {‑][‑m\s‑a¶‑p t‑X‑m¶‑p¶ h‑mÀ¯IÄ t‑l‑m‑wt‑]P‑n {‑]ZÀi‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶X‑ps‑I‑mï‑p Xs‑¶ Hc‑p \‑y‑qk‑v s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑ns‑â K‑pW‑w s‑N¿‑p¶hb‑mW‑v Ch.

K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑v t‑hKXb‑ne‑p‑w h‑ni‑z‑mk‑yXb‑ne‑p‑w a‑p¼³ K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑v Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v. {‑]‑m[‑m\‑ya‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯IÄ Iï‑p]‑nS‑n ¨‑v t‑hï h‑n[¯‑n s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑m\‑pÅ K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑ns‑â k‑mt‑¦ X‑nI a‑nIh‑v k‑m[‑mcW¡‑mÀ¡‑nSb‑ne‑p‑w s‑{‑]‑m^jWe‑pIÄ¡‑nSb‑ne‑p‑w AX‑n\‑v \à Ø‑m\‑w t‑\S‑ns‑¡‑mS‑p¯‑n«‑pï‑v. 2002e‑mW‑v K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑ns‑â _‑oä‑m ]X‑n¸‑v c‑wK¯‑nd¡‑nbX‑v. K‑qK‑nf‑ns‑e C´‑y³ i‑mk‑v{‑XÚ\‑mb I‑rj‑vW `cX‑ns‑â _‑p²‑nb‑n ]‑nd¶ K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑v 2006  a‑pg‑ph\‑mb‑p‑w {‑]hÀ ¯\‑w X‑pS§‑n. a‑pg‑ph\‑mb‑p‑w K‑qK‑nÄ h‑nIk‑n¸‑n¨ AÂt‑K‑mc‑nX¯‑nt‑âb‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nI h‑nZ‑yb‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w ]‑n³_et‑¯‑ms‑S a\‑pj‑ys‑â t‑\c‑n«‑pÅ CSs‑]Se‑nÃ‑m s‑Xb‑mW‑v K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑ns‑â {‑] hÀ¯\‑w. C‑w¥‑oj‑n a‑m{‑X‑w 4500 s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑p‑w Bs‑I 25000Â]c‑w s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯IÄ¡‑mb‑n K‑qK‑nÄ B{‑ib‑n¡‑p¶‑p. aeb‑mf‑w‑, Xa‑ng‑v‑, s‑Xe‑p¦‑v‑, l‑nµ‑n `‑mjIfS¡‑w 28 `‑mjIf‑n (2012 a‑mÀ¨‑v hs‑cb‑pÅ IW¡\‑pkc‑n¨‑v‑) K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑v t‑kh\‑w e`‑ya‑mW‑v. X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡‑p¶ `‑mjb‑ns‑e s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑n {‑]k‑n ²‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ h‑mÀ¯IÄ¡‑pt‑hï‑n a‑m{‑Xa‑pÅ ]X‑n¸‑pIf‑mW‑v CX‑v. s‑kÀ¨‑v t‑_‑mI‑vk‑n\‑p X‑ms‑g Xs‑¶ \a‑p¡‑v t‑hï `‑mj X‑ncs‑ªS‑p¡‑m \‑pÅ _«W‑pIf‑pï‑v. CS-X‑p `‑mK-¯‑v G-X‑v c‑m-P‑y-s‑¯ F-U‑n-j-\‑m-W‑v t‑h-ïs‑X-¶‑p‑w \-a‑p-¡‑v \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑m‑w. k‑m-[‑mc-W-b‑mb‑n C-´‑y-b‑n e-`‑n-¡‑p-¶ t‑]P‑p-I-f‑n C-´‑y³ F-U‑n-j³ F-¶‑p t‑NÀ-¯‑n-«‑p-ï‑m-I‑p‑w. k‑m[‑mcWb‑mb‑n 30 Z‑nhk¯‑n\‑p Å‑n {‑]k‑n²s‑¸S‑p¯‑nb h‑mÀ¯I f‑mW‑v K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑n e`‑n¡‑pI. BÀt‑¡h‑vk‑v t‑kh\‑w D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v 200 Z‑nhk‑w hs‑cb‑pÅ h‑mÀ¯IÄ Is‑ïS‑p¡‑m‑w. s‑kÀ¨‑v t‑]P‑n h‑mÀ¯b‑ps‑S Xes‑¡«‑p‑w {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n ¨ s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑p‑w F{‑Xt‑\c‑w a‑p¼‑mW‑v {‑]k‑n²s‑¸S‑p¯‑nbs‑X¶‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯b‑p Pqsse 2013

K‑qK‑nÄ \yqkv s‑kÀ¨‑v

s‑S BZ‑y `‑mKh‑p‑w DÄs‑¸S‑p¯‑p‑w. I‑qS‑p Xe‑pÅ h‑mb\¡‑v Xes‑¡«‑n ¢‑n¡‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑m AX‑mX‑v s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑pIf‑n t‑e¡‑v t‑]‑mI‑m‑w. CSX‑v `‑mK¯‑v {‑]‑mt‑Z i‑nI‑w‑, t‑Zi‑ob‑w‑, A´‑mc‑m{‑ã‑w‑, k‑vt‑]‑mÀS‑vk‑v F¶‑n§s‑\ h‑nh‑n[ h‑n`‑m K§f‑ps‑S e‑n¦‑pIÄ I‑mW‑m‑w. Chb‑n ¢‑n¡‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑m {‑]t‑X‑yI h‑n`‑mK ¯‑n s‑]« h‑mÀ¯IÄ a‑m{‑Xt‑a e`‑n¡‑q. K‑qK‑nÄ \‑y‑qk‑ns‑â a‑m{‑Xaà H«‑pa‑n¡ \‑y‑qk‑v A{‑Kt‑Käd‑pIf‑pt‑Sb‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑p LS\ C§s‑\b‑mW‑v. D-]-t‑b‑m-à‑m-¡-f‑p-a‑m-b‑n K‑q-K‑n-Ä \‑y‑qk‑v G-äh‑p‑w A-S‑p-¸‑w I‑m-W‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v c-ï‑v X-c-¯‑n-e‑mW‑v. H-¶‑v a-ä‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-§-f‑n-e‑p-ÅX‑p-t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å A-U‑z‑m³-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m\‑w. C-h‑n-s‑S \-a‑p-¡‑v B-h-i‑y-a‑p-Å ^-e‑w a‑m{‑X‑w e-`‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å ^‑nÂ-«-d‑p-I-f‑pï‑v. c-ï‑m-at‑¯-X‑v t‑]-g‑vk-W-s‑s‑e-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v. A-X‑mb-X‑v \-a‑p-¡‑m-h-i‑y-a‑p-Å h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ I‑n-«‑p-¶ X-c-¯‑n K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑\ ]-c‑p-h-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n-s‑bS‑p-¡‑m-\‑p-Å h‑n-Z‑y-b‑m-W‑nX‑v.

A-U‑z‑m³-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑â s‑kÀ-¨‑v _‑m-d‑n\‑v h-e-X‑p-`‑m-K-¯‑p-Å U‑u¬ Bt‑c‑m N‑n-Ó-¯‑n-\‑p-t‑a ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑m A-U‑z‑m³-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑n-s‑â H-c‑p t‑{‑U‑m]‑v U‑u¬ s‑a-\‑p X‑m-t‑g-¡‑p-h-c‑p‑w. K‑q-K‑nf‑n-s‑â a-ä‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-§-f‑p-a‑mb‑n k‑m-a‑y-a‑p-Å A-U‑z‑m³-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑a-\‑p X-s‑¶-b‑m-W‑v C-X‑p‑w. k‑m-[‑m-cW t‑]‑m-s‑e FÃ‑m I‑o-t‑hU‑p-If‑p‑w D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑p-Å s‑kÀ-¨‑n-\‑p-

Å-X‑m-W‑v B-Z‑ys‑¯ H‑m-]‑v-j³. I‑r-X‑y a‑m-b h‑mt‑¡‑m h‑mN-It‑a‑m s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N¿‑m-\‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v c-ï‑m-as‑¯ H‑m-]‑v-j³. AY-h‑m s‑kÀ-¨‑v _‑m-d‑n U-_‑n-Ä I‑zt‑«-j-\‑n-«‑v "India Against Corruption'' F-¶‑p s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-¿‑p-¶-X‑n-\‑p k-a‑m-\a‑m-b‑p-Å H‑m-]‑v-j-\‑m-W‑n-X‑v. \Â-I‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶ G-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w H-c‑p h‑m-¡‑p-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑p-Å s‑kÀ-¨‑n-\‑p-Å H‑m-]‑v-j-\‑m-W‑v a‑q-¶‑m-a-t‑¯-X‑v. s‑kÀ-¨‑v ^-e-¯‑n H-g‑n-h‑m-t‑¡-ï h‑mt‑¡‑m h‑m¡‑p-It‑f‑m t‑NÀ-¡‑m-\‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v B-Z‑ys‑¯ \‑m-s‑e-®-¯‑n H-S‑p-h‑n-e-t‑¯-X‑v. t‑\-c‑n-«‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v t‑_‑m-I‑v-k‑n s‑s‑a\k‑v N‑n-Ó-a‑p-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n¨‑v - kejriwal F-¶‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-¿‑p-¶-X‑n-\‑v k-a‑m-\a‑mb H‑m]‑v-j-\‑m-W‑nX‑v. s‑X‑m-«‑p X‑m-s‑g-b‑pÅX‑v C‑u I‑o-t‑hU‑p-IÄ \-½-f‑p-t‑±-i‑n-¡‑p-¶ s‑kÀ-¨‑v ^-e-¯‑n-s‑â F-h‑n-s‑S-s‑b-¦‑ne‑p‑w h-¶‑m  aX‑nt‑b‑m AÃ‑, X-e-s‑¡«‑n-t‑e‑m‑, t‑_‑m-U‑nb‑n-t‑e‑m‑, e‑n¦‑nt‑e‑m(URL‑) F-¶‑v \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑n-\‑p-Å-X‑m-W‑v. t‑\-c‑n-«‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v t‑_‑m-I‑vk‑nemsW¦nð c‑m-l‑p K‑m-Ô‑n F¶ I‑o-t‑h-U‑v X-e-s‑¡-«‑n-e‑p-Å ^-e-§Ä¡‑m-bn allintitle: rahul gandhi F¶‑p‑w t‑_‑m-U‑n-b‑n-e‑m-s‑W-¦‑n allintext: rahul gandhi F-¶‑p‑w URL  B-W‑v t‑h-ï-s‑X-¦‑n allinurl: rahul gandhi F-¶‑p‑w \Â-I‑n-b‑m aX‑n. F-t‑¸‑mÄ {‑]-k‑n-²-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑n-b h‑mÀ¯-b‑m-W‑v t‑hï-X‑v F-¶‑p \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑m\‑m-W‑v A-S‑p-¯X‑v. F-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑h-W-s‑a¦‑ne‑p‑w {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n¨-X‑v F-¶ H‑m-]‑v-j ³ a‑p-X H-c‑p a-W‑n-¡‑q-d‑n-\‑p-Å‑nÂ‑, H-c‑p


(27) Å‑p-¶‑) ^-e-¯‑n-\‑p t‑h-ï‑n allintext:

rahul gandhi Congress source:”new york times” location:US F-¶‑n§-s‑\

s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑m aX‑n. D-Z‑m-l-c-W§Ä t‑\‑m-¡‑n F-h‑n-s‑S-s‑b‑m-s‑¡-b‑m-W‑v k‑v-t‑]-k‑v D-Å-s‑X¶‑p‑w CÃ‑m-¯-s‑X¶‑p‑w {‑]-t‑X‑y-I‑w a-\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡W‑w. A-U‑z‑m³k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-¯‑n k‑v-t‑]k‑n-\‑v {‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-a‑p-s‑ï-¶ I‑mc‑y‑w a-d¡-c‑pX‑v.

s‑kÀ-¨‑v h‑y-à‑n-]-c-a‑m¡‑m‑w

Z‑n-h-k-¯-‑n\‑p-Å‑nÂ‑, H-c‑m-g‑v-N-¡‑p-Å‑nÂ... F-¶‑n§-s‑\ c-ï‑p {‑]-t‑X‑y-I Z‑n-h-k-§ Ä-¡‑p-Å‑n-e‑p‑w‑, BÀ-t‑¡-h‑v-k‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑m\pw \‑nÀ-t‑±-i‑w \Â-I‑m-\‑m-I‑p‑w. 200 Z‑n-h-k-¯‑n-\‑p-Å‑n-e‑pÅ h‑n-h-c-§Äh-s‑c C§-s‑\ e-`‑n-¡‑p-‑w. G-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w {‑]-t‑X‑y-I t‑{‑k‑m-X-Ê‑n \‑n-¶‑m-W‑v t‑h-ï-s‑X-¦‑n A-X‑p t‑NÀ¡‑m-\‑p‑w k‑u-I-c‑y-a‑pï‑v. t‑k‑m-g‑v-k‑v F-s‑¶-g‑pX‑n-b `‑mK¯‑v CNN, BBC, NDTV, Mathrubhumi F-¶‑n§-s‑\ \-a‑p-¡‑m-h-i‑y-a‑p-Å a‑m-[‑y-a-Ø‑m-]-\-¯‑ns‑â/s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â t‑]-c‑p \Â-I‑m‑w. t‑\-c‑n-«‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v t‑_‑m-I‑v-k‑n I‑ot‑h-U‑n-\‑p t‑i-j‑w C-§-s‑\ kejriwal source:cnn.com F-s‑¶-g‑p-X‑nb‑p‑w s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-¿‑m‑w. C-\‑n G-X‑v c‑m-P‑y-¯‑p-\‑n-¶‑p-Å s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n- {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨ ^-ea‑m-W‑v t‑h-ï-s‑X-¶‑p \‑n-Ý‑n-¡‑m³ s‑e‑mt‑¡-j³ F-s‑¶-g‑pX‑n-b `‑mK-¯‑v B-hi‑y-a‑p-Å c‑m-P‑y-¯‑n-s‑â t‑]-c‑v s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑m a-X‑n. t‑\-c‑n-«‑m-s‑W¦‑n rahul gandhi F-¶ I‑o-t‑h-U‑n\‑p t‑ij‑w location:US F-s‑¶-g‑pX‑n C§-s‑\ ‑rahul gandhi location:US s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑me‑p‑w a-X‑n-b‑m-I‑p‑w. H¶‑p a‑m-{‑X-aà H-¶‑n-e-[‑nI‑w H‑m-]‑v-j\‑p-IÄ A-U‑z‑m³-k‑v-U‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑n t‑]‑mI‑m-s‑X t‑\-c‑n-«‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v t‑_‑m-I‑v-k‑n s‑s‑S-¸‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑p s‑N-¿‑p-I-b‑p-a‑mI‑m‑w. c‑m-l‑p K‑m-Ô‑n F-¶ I‑o-t‑h-U‑v t‑I‑m¬-{‑K-k‑v F-¶ h‑m-¡‑pÄ-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑ms‑X b‑p.F-k‑n \‑n-¶‑v {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨ \‑y‑q-t‑b‑mÀ-¡‑v s‑s‑S‑w-k‑n-s‑e h‑mÀ-¯-If‑p-s‑S (t‑_‑m-U‑n-b‑n a‑m-{‑X-a‑pÄ-s‑¡‑m-

\-a‑p-¡‑v B-h-i‑y-a‑p-Å \‑y‑qk‑v s‑h_‑vs‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑v C-ã-a‑p-Å h‑n-`‑m-K¯‑n-e‑p-Å h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ-¡‑v {‑]‑m-[‑m\‑y‑w \Â-I‑n X‑oÀ¯‑p‑w h‑y-à‑n-]-c-a‑m-b‑n s‑k-ä‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑p-s‑h-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-s‑a¶-X‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑\ I‑q-S‑p-X P-\-{‑]‑n-ba‑m¡‑n. \-½‑p-s‑S k‑z-´‑w K‑q-K‑nÄ/P‑n-s‑ab‑n A-¡‑u-ï‑n I-b-d‑n-b‑m H-c‑n¡Â -X-¿‑m-d‑m-¡‑n-s‑h¨ A-t‑X-c‑o-X‑n-b‑n ]‑n-¶‑o-S‑v a‑m-ä‑w h-c‑p-¯‑p-¶-X‑ph-s‑c h‑mÀ¯-IÄ I‑n-«‑n-s‑¡‑m-ï‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑n ]c-X‑n \-S-¡‑m-s‑X B-h-i‑y-a‑pÅh U-I‑v-k‑v t‑S‑m-¸‑n e-`‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å F-f‑p-¸-h-g‑n-. he-¯‑v a‑p-I-f‑n I‑m-W‑p-¶ s‑k-ä‑nM‑v-k‑v _-«-W‑n \‑n-¶‑p‑w ‑personalize your news  ¢‑n-¡‑p s‑N-b‑v-X‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑n-s‑\ \-½‑p-s‑S C-ã-¯‑n-\-\‑p-k-c‑n¨‑v a‑m-ä‑n-s‑b-S‑p-¡‑m‑w. B-Z‑y-t‑¯-X‑v G-s‑X‑m-s‑¡ h‑n-`‑m-K¯‑nÂ-s‑]-« h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ G-X‑p {‑I-a¯‑n t‑h-W-s‑a-¶‑v \‑n-Ý‑n-b‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-a‑m-W‑v. h‑n-t‑Z-i-a‑m-W‑v B-Z‑y‑w t‑h-ï-s‑X-¦‑n A-X‑n ¢‑n-¡‑p-s‑N-b‑vX‑p ]‑n-S‑n-¨‑v h-e‑n¨‑v ({‑U‑m-K‑v s‑N-b‑vX‑v) a‑p-I-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-a‑m-ä‑m‑w. H‑mt‑c‑m h‑n-`‑m-K-¯‑ne‑p-a‑p-Å _-«¬ C-S-t‑¯‑m«‑p‑w h-et‑¯‑m«‑p‑w \‑o-¡‑n A-h-b‑p-s‑S {‑]‑m-[‑m\‑y‑w \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑m‑w. C-\‑n G-s‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑n-`‑m-K-¯‑n s‑]-«-h t‑h-s‑ï-¦‑n s‑X‑m-«-S‑p-¯‑p I‑mW‑p-¶ {‑S‑m-j‑v _-«-W‑n-t‑e-¡‑v h-e‑n-¨‑n-«‑v U‑n-e‑o-ä‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑p I-f-b‑m‑w. ]‑p-X‑n-b-h t‑h-W-s‑a-¦‑n X‑m-s‑g s‑s‑S-¸‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v ¹-k‑v _-«¬ ¢‑n-¡‑p s‑N-b‑v-X‑v B-U‑v s‑N-¿‑m‑w. (A-¡‑u-ï‑n s‑s‑k³ C³ s‑N-¿‑m-s‑X X-s‑¶ C-h e-`‑n¡‑p‑w‑) K‑q-K‑nÄ A-¡‑u-ï‑n I-b-d‑n-b‑m G-s‑X‑m-s‑¡ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑pÅ h‑mÀ-¯-I-f‑m-W‑v t‑h-ï-s‑X¶‑p‑w A-h-b‑p-s‑S {‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-h‑p‑w \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑m\‑p-Å Adjust Sources‑ k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-h‑p‑w s‑X‑m-«‑p X‑m-s‑g-b‑p-ï‑v. t‑»‑m-K‑p-If‑p‑w {‑]-k‑v d‑n-e‑o-k‑p‑w e-`‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v \‑n-b-{‑´‑n¡‑m³ s‑X‑m-«‑p-X‑m-s‑g-b‑p-Å s‑k-ä‑n-M‑v-k‑n  s‑N-¶‑m a-X‑n. s‑X‑m-«-S‑p-¯‑v I‑m-W‑p-¶ A-U‑z‑m³-k‑vU‑v s‑k-ä‑n-M‑v-k‑n s‑N-¶‑m t‑l‑m‑w-t‑]-

P‑n-s‑e s‑kÀ-¨‑v d‑n-kÄ-«‑n t‑NÀ-¡‑m-\‑pÅ h‑nh‑n-[ D] h‑n-`‑m-K-§-f‑p‑w (t‑k‑mj‑y s‑\-ä‑v-hÀ-¡‑nM‑v‑, t‑k‑m-f‑mÀ ]hÀ‑, h‑oU‑nt‑b‑m s‑K-b‑n‑w-k‑v...) e-`‑n-¡‑p‑w. CSX‑p `‑mK-¯‑v C-´‑y³ F-U‑n-j\‑mt‑W‑m b‑p.F-k‑v F-U‑n-j\‑mt‑W‑m At‑X‑m FÃ‑m F-U‑n-j\‑p‑w {‑]‑m-[‑m\‑y‑w \Â-I‑p¶ h‑mÀ-¯-IÄ t‑ht‑W‑m F-¶‑v \‑n-Ýb‑n-¡‑m‑w. {‑]‑m-t‑Z-i‑n-I-a‑m-b‑n e-`‑n-t‑¡-ï h‑mÀ¯-IÄ¡‑v Add local section  t‑h-ï Ø-e‑w add s‑N-b‑v-X‑m aX‑n. kozhikode F-¶‑p s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯‑m BØ-e-¯‑n-\‑p {‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-a‑p-Å h‑mÀ-¯IÄ {‑]-t‑X‑y-I h‑n-`‑m-K-a‑m-b‑n K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑v t‑l‑m‑w-t‑]-P‑n I‑n-«‑p‑w. C-\‑n C§-s‑\ t‑]-g‑vk-W-s‑s‑e-k‑v s‑Nb‑v-X K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑kÀ¨‑v t‑hs‑ï-¦‑n t‑]-P‑n-s‑â G-äh‑p‑w X‑m-s‑g‑, C-´‑y-b‑n-e‑m-s‑W-¦‑n Standard India Edition F-¶‑p I‑mW‑m‑w A-X‑n ¢‑n¡‑p s‑N-b‑v-X‑m aX‑n. C-\‑n t‑]-g‑vk-Ws‑s‑e-k‑v s‑N-b‑v-X F-U‑n-j-\‑m-W‑v t‑h-ïs‑X-¦‑n s‑X‑m-«-S‑p-¯‑pÅ Personalised India Edition  ¢‑n-¡‑p-s‑N-¿‑pI.

s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ ]-X‑n-¸‑pIÄ B³-t‑{‑U‑m-b‑vU‑v, s‑F-t‑^‑m¬ X‑p-S§‑n-b- k‑v-a‑mÀ-«‑v t‑^‑m-W‑p-I-f‑n \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v F³-P‑n-\‑p-If‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w {‑][‑m-\ \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w a‑m-[‑ya-§-f‑p-t‑Sb‑p‑w s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ ]-X‑n-¸‑p-IÄ I‑n-«‑p‑w. B³-t‑{‑U‑m-b‑v-U‑v, s‑F-t‑^‑m¬ D-]-t‑b‑m-à‑m-¡Ä-¡‑v A-X‑m-X‑v B-¹‑nt‑¡-j³ a‑mÀ-¡-ä‑p-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w N‑n-e k‑zX-{‑´ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w U‑u¬-t‑e‑m-U‑p s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑m‑w.

BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑o-U‑p-IÄ h‑mÀ-¯‑, t‑»‑m-K‑pIÄ‑, k‑w-K‑o-X‑w X‑pS-§‑n G-X‑p-h‑n-j-b‑w s‑s‑I-I‑mc‑y‑w s‑N-¿‑p-¶ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑m-b‑m-e‑p‑w A-hc-‑p-s‑S ]‑pX‑n-b A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑p-IÄ D-]-t‑b‑mà‑m-¡-f‑n-t‑e-s‑¡-¯‑n-¡‑m-\‑p-Å F-f‑p-¸ h-g‑n-If‑n-s‑e‑m-¶‑mW‑v BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑o-U‑pIÄ (s‑h-_‑v ^‑oU‑v‑)-. d‑n-¨‑v s‑s‑k-ä‑v k-½-d‑n-b‑p-s‑S N‑p-c‑p-¡-t‑¸-c‑m-W‑v BÀF-k‑vFk‑v. X-e-s‑¡«‑p‑w N‑p-c‑p§‑n-b h‑m-¡‑n- A-X‑n-t‑\-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑p-Å h‑n-h-cWh‑p‑w {‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑ns‑â t‑]-c‑v ka-b‑w X‑p-S-§‑n-b-h-b‑pa‑m-W‑v BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑o-U‑n-e‑q-s‑S e-`‑n¡‑pI. s‑h-_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑o-U‑p-IÄ \Â-I‑p-¶ e‑n-¦‑v {]-k‑n-² -s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑m-I‑p‑w. C-h‑n-s‑S \‑n¶‑p‑w F-I‑v-k‑vF‑wF ^-b-e‑m-b‑n U‑u¬t‑e‑mU‑v s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑m‑w. ^‑o-U‑v A-{‑K -t‑K-ä-d‑p-If‑n-Â/d‑o-U-d‑p-I-f‑n- C-h t‑NÀPqsse 2013


(28) ]-X‑n-¸‑pI-s‑f H-¶‑n-¨‑v e‑n-Ì‑p s‑N-¿‑p-I b‑p‑w t‑h-ï-h F-f‑p-¸-¯‑n X‑n-c-s‑ªS‑p-¡‑m³ k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑N¿‑pó k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-a‑m-W‑nX‑v. ]‑qÀ-Wa‑m-b AÀ°-¯‑n \‑y‑q-k‑v ^‑o-U‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v t‑^‑m¬ ]-X‑n-¸‑p-I-s‑f-¶‑v C-X‑n-s‑\ h‑nt‑i-j‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m‑w. K‑q-K‑nÄ d‑o-U-d‑pÄ-s‑¸-s‑S h‑nh‑n-[ BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑o-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑pIÄ A-X‑m-X‑v k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m-W‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S B-¸‑v t‑Ì‑m-d‑p-I-f‑n I‑n-«‑p‑w.

S‑n-¡-d‑p-IÄ‑, C-s‑a-b‑n A-t‑eÀ«‑v-

I‑rj‑vW `cXv

¯‑p-I-g‑n-ª‑m s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n-s‑e A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑p-IÄ A-¸-t‑¸‑mÄ \-a‑p-¡‑v e-`‑n-¡‑p‑w. ^‑o-U‑v A-{‑K-t‑K-ä-d‑p-IÄ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â c‑q-]-¯‑ne‑p‑w AÃ‑ms‑X I-¼‑y‑q-«-d‑n D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑m-h‑p-¶ t‑{‑]‑m-{‑K‑m-a‑p-I-f‑mb‑p‑w e-`‑n-¡‑p‑w. k‑z-´-a‑m-b‑n t‑»‑m-K‑p-Å-hÀ¡‑p‑w s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-d-d‑p-Å-hÀ-¡‑p‑w N‑n-e ^‑o-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑p-I-f‑ne‑p‑w F-I‑v-k‑vF‑wF ^-be‑p-IÄ B-U‑v s‑N-t‑¿-ï‑n-h-c‑p‑w. F-I‑v-k‑vF‑w-F ^-b-e‑p-IÄ U‑u¬-t‑e‑m-U‑p s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑m-s‑X Xs‑¶ H‑m-t‑c‑m s‑s‑kä‑ne‑p‑w s‑N-¶‑v BÀF-k‑vF-k‑v ^‑oU‑v F-¶ e‑n-¦‑n s‑N-¶‑m B-h-i‑y-a‑p-Å d‑o-U-d‑n-t‑e-¡‑v ^‑o-U‑p-IÄ t‑\-c‑n-«‑v t‑NÀ¡‑m-\‑m-I‑p‑w. K‑q-K‑nÄ d‑oUÀ(address‑‑)‑, s‑s‑a b‑m-l‑q‑, h‑n³-t‑U‑m-k‑v s‑s‑eh‑v‑, \‑y‑q-k‑v K-«À X-S-§‑nb-h-s‑b‑m-s‑¡ H‑m¬s‑s‑e-\‑n k‑u-P-\‑y-a‑m-b‑n e-`‑n-¡‑p¶ ^‑o-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑p-I-f‑m-W‑v. \-a‑p-¡‑v t‑h-ï ^‑o-U‑p-IÄ s‑k-ä‑ps‑N-b‑v-X‑v H-t‑«-s‑d s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-h-c-§Ä H-c‑p Øe-¯‑v e-`‑y-a‑m-¡‑m³ C¯-c‑w A-{‑K-t‑K-ä-d‑p-IÄ-¡‑v I-g‑n-b‑p‑w. K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑v {‑]-h-À-¯-n¡‑p-¶X‑p-t‑]‑mPqsse 2013

s‑e h‑n-h-c-§Ä A-¸-t‑¸‑mÄ \-½‑p-s‑S d‑o-U-d‑n A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑p s‑N-b‑v-X‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑nc‑n-¡‑p‑w. \-½Ä Ø‑n-c-a‑m-b‑n k-µÀ-i‑n-¡‑p-¶ s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑p-s‑S-s‑bÃ‑m‑w (N‑n-et‑¸‑mÄ {‑]-t‑X‑y-I h‑n-`‑m-K-§-f‑ps‑S‑) ^‑oU‑p-IÄ H-¶‑n-¨‑v H-c‑p ^‑o-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑n k-_‑v-k‑v-s‑s‑{‑I-_‑v s‑N-¿‑p-¶-X‑n-e‑q-s‑S ]‑pX‑n-b h‑n-h-c-§-s‑fÃ‑m‑w H-c‑p I‑p-S-¡‑og‑n e-`‑n-¡‑p-s‑a-¶‑v a‑m-{‑X-aÃ‑, k‑w-£‑n ]‑v-X h‑n-hc-W‑w h‑m-b‑n-¨ t‑i-j‑w t‑h-Ws‑a-¦‑n a‑m{‑X‑w A-h‑n-s‑S ¢‑n-¡‑p-s‑N-b‑v-X‑v s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-d-d‑n-s‑e b-Y‑mÀ-° t‑]-P‑n-t‑e¡‑v t‑]‑m-b‑m a-X‑n. (K‑q-K‑nÄ \‑y‑q-k‑n\‑p‑w BÀF-k‑vFk‑v ^‑o-U‑v e-`‑n-¡‑p‑w. t‑]-P‑ns‑â X‑m-s‑g C-X‑n-\‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑pï‑v‑)

K‑q-K‑nÄ I-dâ‑v-k‑v K‑q-K‑n-f‑ns‑â B³-t‑{‑U‑m-b‑vU‑v, B-¸‑nf‑ns‑â s‑F-HF-k‑v F-¶‑o k‑v-a‑mÀ-«‑v t‑^‑m¬ H‑m-¸-t‑d-ä‑n-M‑v k‑n-Ì-§f‑n D-] -t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑m-h‑p-¶ t‑k‑m-j‑y a‑m-K-k‑n³ B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j-\‑m-W‑v K‑q-K‑nÄ I-dâ‑v-k‑v. k‑v-a‑mÀ-«‑v t‑^‑m-W‑p-IÄ-¡‑p-t‑h-ï‑n X-¿‑md‑m¡‑n-b h‑mÀ-¯‑m/a‑m-K-k‑n-\‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S

\‑y‑q-k‑v A-{‑K-t‑K-ä-d‑p-IÄ {‑]-N‑m-c¯‑n-e‑m-I‑p-¶-X‑n-\‑p a‑p-¼‑p X-s‑¶ A]‑v-t‑U-ä‑p-IÄ {‑]-N-c‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m³ \‑y‑q-k‑v S‑n-¡-d‑p-I-f‑p‑w C-s‑a-b‑n A-t‑eÀ-«‑p-If‑p‑w D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑p t‑]‑m¶‑p. h‑mÀ-¯‑m s‑h_‑vs‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑nt‑eb‑p‑w aä‑p‑w {‑]-[‑m-\-h‑mÀ¯-IÄ A-¸-t‑¸‑mÄ s‑U-k‑v-t‑Î‑m-¸‑n-s‑e¯‑n-¡‑p-¶ s‑Nd‑n-b t‑{‑]‑m-{‑K‑m-a‑p-I-f‑m-W‑v \‑y‑q-k‑v S‑n-¡-d‑pIÄ. {‑]a‑p-J \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n \‑n-¶‑v A-h-c-h-c‑ps‑S S‑n-¡-d‑p-IÄ U‑u¬-t‑e‑m-U‑v s‑N-b‑vs‑X-S‑p-¡‑m‑w. s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-f‑n-s‑e C-s‑ab‑n A-t‑eÀ-«‑v e‑n-¦‑n s‑N-¶‑v \-½‑p-s‑S C-s‑a-b‑n A-{‑U-k‑v s‑I‑m-S‑p-¯‑v c-P‑n-k‑väÀ s‑N-b‑v-X‑m \-½Ä \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑p-¶ C-S-t‑h-f-I-f‑n A-]‑v-t‑U-ä‑p-IÄ \-½‑p-s‑S C-s‑a-b‑n C³-t‑_‑m-I‑v-k‑n h-c‑p‑w. {‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-{‑I-a‑w a-W‑n-¡‑qd‑pIt‑f‑m Z‑n-hk¯‑n-s‑e‑mt‑¶‑m B-g‑v-Nb‑n-s‑e‑mt‑¶‑m F-¶‑n§-s‑\ G-X‑p X-c-¯‑n t‑h-W-s‑a¶‑v \‑n-Ý-b‑n-¡‑m‑w. k‑m-[‑m-c-W \‑y‑q-k‑v s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-I-t‑f-¡‑mÄ s‑s‑S‑w a‑m-Kk‑n³ t‑]‑m-e‑p-Å A-´‑m-c‑m-{‑ã {‑]-k‑n-²‑oI-c-W-§f‑p‑w k‑m-t‑¦-X‑n-I‑w‑, B-t‑c‑mK‑y‑w X‑p-S§‑n-b {‑]-t‑X‑y-I t‑a-J-e-b‑n-e‑p-Å s‑h_‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑p‑w k-µÀ-i‑n-¡‑p-¶-hc‑m-W‑v C-s‑a-b‑n A-t‑eÀ-«‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\‑w I‑q-S‑p-X-e‑mb‑p‑w D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑pI. K‑q-K‑nÄ s‑kÀ-¨‑n A-X‑p-h-s‑c-b‑pï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶ ^-e-§Ä a‑m-{‑X-aà X‑p-SÀ¶‑p‑w e‑n-Ì‑v s‑N-¿-s‑¸-S‑p-¶-h \-a‑p-¡‑v F-¯‑n-¨‑p-X-c‑m³ K‑q-K‑nÄ C-s‑a-b‑n A-t‑eÀ-«‑v k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\‑w GÀ-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑nb‑n-«‑pï‑v. www.google.com/alerts‑  t‑\-c‑n-«‑v s‑N-¶‑v I‑m-c‑y-§Ä a-\-Ê‑n-e‑m¡‑m‑w. s‑kÀ-¨‑v ^-e-¯‑n-s‑â A-h-k‑m\‑w k‑m-[‑m-c-W-b‑m-b‑n C-X‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑v {‑]-ZÀ-i‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m-d‑pï‑v. k-a‑m-\a‑m-b b‑m-l‑p-h‑n-s‑â k‑w-h‑n-[‑m-\-a‑mW‑v alerts. yahoo.com.

(A-hkm\n¨p.‑) amXr`qanbnð k_v FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: biminith@gmail.com


(29)

{^w hÀ½mPn, hn¯v eu

sI. Fð. taml\hÀ½

‑P‑mX‑nb‑p‑w B¸‑nf‑p‑w

am[ya§Ä \ðIpóXp XsóbmtWm P\§Ä¡p thïXv? hmb\¡mcpsS, t{]£Isâ ]£¯p \nóv \½psS ssZ\wZn\ am[yatemI¯neqsS ISópt]mhpIbmWv Cu ]wànbneqsS teJI³.

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a‑y‑qW‑nÌ‑v s‑s‑N\b‑ps‑S ]‑pX‑nb t‑\X‑mh‑v k‑n P‑n‑w]‑n³K‑n‑ws‑â {‑]i‑v\‑w t‑\‑m¡‑q. Zi t‑I‑mS‑n¡W¡‑n\‑v s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v P\Xs‑b Z‑mc‑n{‑Z‑y¯‑n \‑n¶‑v t‑a‑mN‑n¸‑n¨‑v s‑s‑N\s‑b t‑e‑mI¯‑n s‑e H¶‑mas‑¯ k‑m¼¯‑nIià‑n b‑m¡‑m\‑pÅ FÃ‑m AS‑nØ‑m\i‑ne If‑p‑w Dd¸‑n¨ kt‑´‑mjt‑¯‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v Xs‑â a‑p³K‑ma‑n e‑oUÀ l‑p P‑nb‑mt‑´‑m `cW‑w s‑s‑Ia‑md‑n-bX‑v. s‑s‑N\ \½s‑ft‑¸‑mebÃ. Ch‑ns‑S kÀ¡‑mÀ t‑P‑me‑nb‑nt‑e d‑n«bÀs‑aâ‑v DÅ‑q. AX‑ne‑p‑w h‑nZ‑z‑m·‑mc‑mb D¶X Dt‑Z‑y‑mKØÀ ]e t‑]c‑p‑w ]dª‑v D]t‑ZiIc‑p‑w a²‑yØc‑p‑w aä‑pa‑mb‑n h‑mÀ²I‑y‑w d‑n«bÀs‑aâ‑n\‑p a‑p¼‑pÅ X‑ns‑\¡‑mÄ ckIca‑mb‑n \½‑ps‑S N‑neh‑n Bk‑zZ‑n¡‑p‑w. s‑s‑N\b‑n ]s‑£ A§‑ns‑\bÃ. Ah‑ns‑S P\‑m[‑n]X‑ya‑nÃ. {‑]k‑v I‑u¬k‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ a‑mÀ¡W‑vt‑Ub I‑mS‑vP‑p C´‑y³ P\‑m[‑n-]X‑y‑w {‑]‑mt‑b‑mK‑nIa‑mb‑n c‑q] s‑¸«t‑¸‑mÄ s‑s‑Ihc‑n¨ s‑s‑ie‑ns‑b¡‑p d‑n¨‑v ]dªX‑v {‑it‑²ba‑mW‑v. At‑±l‑w ]dª‑p. 90 iXa‑m\‑w C´‑y³ ]‑uc·‑mc‑p‑w t‑h‑m«‑p s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v Ø‑m\‑mÀ°‑nb‑ps‑S P‑mX‑n t‑\‑m¡‑nb‑mW‑v. Xs‑¶ `c‑nt‑¡ïb‑mf‑ps‑S kX‑ykÔX Hc‑p

{‑]i‑v\t‑a BI‑p¶‑nÃ. CX‑v ]{‑X‑w h‑mb‑n¡‑m¯ \‑nc£cc‑ps‑S I‑mc‑yaÃ. Gäh‑p‑w D¶X h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk‑w e`‑n¨ kZ‑v-`cW‑w F´‑ms‑W¶‑v h‑yàa‑mb t‑_‑m[a‑pÅ BÄ¡‑mc‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w I‑mc‑ya‑mW‑v. P‑mX‑nb‑n {‑]‑mb¯‑n\‑p‑w k‑o\‑nt‑b‑md‑nä‑n¡‑p‑w a‑p³KW\b‑pï‑v. h‑nZ‑y‑m `‑y‑mkt‑a‑m‑, Ig‑nt‑h‑m‑, i‑mc‑oc‑nI{‑]‑m]‑vX‑n t‑b‑m H¶‑p‑w Hc‑p a‑m\ZW‑vUaÃ. I‑mcWh·‑mÀ ac‑n¡‑p¶X‑phs‑c Xdh‑mS‑v `c‑n¡‑p‑w. C¯c‑w s‑s‑hXcW‑n CÃ‑m¯X‑p I‑mcWa‑mb‑nc‑n¡W‑w‑, s‑s‑N\b‑v¡‑v kÀ¡‑mÀ t‑P‑me‑nb‑n a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob¯‑ne‑p‑w h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mkh‑p‑w d‑n«bÀs‑aâ‑v hbÊ‑p‑w IÀi\a‑m¡‑m³ Ig‑nª‑p. Ah‑ns‑Sb‑p‑w P\-t‑\X‑rX‑z ¯‑n\‑pÅ h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk‑w ]s‑ï‑ms‑¡ \½‑ps‑S I‑q«‑v `‑mjb‑p‑w IW¡‑p‑w Nc‑n{‑Xh‑p‑w ]‑ns‑¶ h¡‑o¸W‑n¡‑p t‑hï \‑nba]T\h‑p‑w a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. ]c‑o£ ]‑mk‑mb‑ns‑æ‑ne‑p‑w k‑mca‑nÃ‑, \½‑ps‑S Ct‑¸‑mg‑pa‑p-Å c‑oX‑nb‑n t‑I‑mg‑vk‑v I‑w¹‑oä‑p s‑N¿W‑w. h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑n c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob¯‑n kP‑oha‑mb‑nc‑n¡W‑w. aX‑n. ]s‑£ IĨd d-he‑y‑qj\‑p‑w S‑nb‑m\³ k‑vI‑zbÀ X‑o¸‑pIb‑p‑w Hs‑¡¡‑qS‑n s‑s‑N\b‑v¡‑v Hc‑p ]‑pX‑nb I‑mg‑v¨¸‑mS‑v

A\‑nh‑mc‑ya‑m¡‑n. F³P‑n\‑obd·‑mc‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nIh‑nZK‑v²c‑p‑w a‑mt‑\P‑vs‑aâ‑v _‑nc‑pZ¡‑mc‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob¯‑n kP‑oha‑mb‑n. Gj‑y³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob ¯‑ns‑â I‑mXe‑mb I‑pS‑w_h‑mg‑v¨ Ig‑nb‑p¶{‑X I‑pd¨‑p. D¯c s‑I‑md‑nbb‑ps‑S ]¡‑m Ia‑y‑qW‑nk¯‑n s‑e ]‑qÀ® I‑pS‑p‑w_h‑mg‑v¨ Iï‑ns‑à ¶‑p \S‑n¨‑p. s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑nb‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑âb‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob t‑\X‑rX‑z‑w B[‑p\‑nI k‑mt‑¦X‑nI h‑nZ‑y‑m`‑y‑mk‑w t‑\S‑nbhc‑ps‑S s‑s‑Ib‑ne‑mb‑n. H¸‑w t‑hs‑db‑p‑w A]IS‑w Ct‑X‑ms‑S‑m¸‑w h¶‑p. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob¡‑mÀ¡‑v d‑n«bÀs‑aâ‑v hbÊ‑v IÀi\a‑m¡‑n. AX‑p I‑mcW‑w l‑p P‑nb‑mt‑´‑mh‑n\‑v t‑\X‑rX‑z‑w h‑n«‑p s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑mX‑nc‑n¡‑m³ \‑nhÀ¯‑n CÃ‑ms‑X h¶‑p. At‑±l‑w AX‑v kkt‑´‑mja‑mt‑W‑m F¶d‑nb‑nÃ‑, `‑wK‑nb‑mb‑n s‑Nb‑vX‑p. At‑±l¯‑ns‑â `cW¯‑n³ I‑og‑n s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v P\Xb‑ps‑S P‑oh‑nX\‑ne h‑mc‑w DbÀ¶‑nc‑p¶‑p. t‑e‑mIk‑m¼ ¯‑nIc‑wKs‑¯ hfÀ¨b‑p‑w XIÀ¨ b‑p‑w _‑m[‑n¡‑ms‑X IÀi\a‑mb‑n ]‑nS‑n ¨‑p \‑nÀ¯‑nb‑nc‑p¶ s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v k‑m¼¯‑nI`{‑ZXs‑b aä‑p c‑mj‑v{‑S§ f‑ps‑S s‑s‑ie‑nb‑n t‑U‑mfÀ b‑qt‑d‑m I‑q«‑ps‑I«‑pa‑mb‑n _Ô‑n¸‑n¨‑v At‑±l‑w k‑mÀht‑Zi‑ob k‑m¼¯‑nIa‑mµ‑y‑w X§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w `‑mKa‑m¡‑n. j‑m‑wK‑vl‑mb‑v t‑Ì‑m¡‑v FI‑vk‑v-t‑N©‑v h‑y‑m]‑mc¯‑n At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑pXe‑mf‑n¯ k‑n‑w_e‑mb h‑mÄk‑v{‑S‑oä‑n\S‑ps‑¯¯‑n. H¸‑w Pqsse 2013


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k‑z‑m`‑mh‑nIa‑mb‑p‑w Hc‑p ]‑pX‑nb ht‑cW‑y ka‑ql‑w s‑s‑N\b‑n Dï‑mb‑n. Ig‑nª ]¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑n\‑nSb‑n ]‑pX‑nb 27 e£‑w t‑I‑mS‑oi‑zcc‑p‑w 250 t‑es‑d kl{‑kt‑I‑mS‑oi‑zcc‑p‑w s‑s‑N\ b‑n Dï‑mb‑n. k‑w`h‑n¨X‑v A¶‑p hs‑c X§Ä F{‑Xt‑¯‑mf‑w Zc‑n{‑Zc‑ms‑W-¶ I‑rX‑y a‑mb h‑nhc‑w s‑s‑N\¡‑mÀ¡‑nÃ‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p F¶X‑mW‑v. Ct‑¸‑mÄ a\Ê‑ne‑mb‑n. I‑mcW‑w Ct‑¸‑mÄ Ahc‑ps‑S s‑s‑IIf‑n B¸‑nf‑p‑w »‑m¡‑vs‑_d‑nb‑p‑w F¯‑n. B¸‑nÄ ]t‑ï A]ISI‑mc‑nb‑mb‑n c‑p¶‑p. BZ‑ma‑p‑w lÆ‑mb‑p‑w a‑pX \a‑p¡d‑nb‑m‑w. B¸‑nf‑ns‑â k‑z‑mZ‑v I‑m«‑n b‑mW‑v k‑m¯‑m³ a\‑pj‑yc‑mi‑ns‑b lÆ‑m hg‑n C‑u \‑neb‑ne‑m¡‑nbX‑v. »‑m¡‑v s‑_d‑n AX‑p t‑]‑ms‑e c‑pN‑nb‑p Å ]ga‑mW‑v. ]s‑£ AX‑ne‑p‑w k‑m¯‑m³ I‑pS‑nb‑nc‑n¸‑ps‑ï¶‑mW‑v {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v \‑mt‑S‑mS‑n¡YIÄ ]db‑p¶X‑v. FÃ‑m hÀjh‑p‑w HI‑vt‑S‑m_À 10 Ig‑nª‑m I‑ps‑d \‑mÄ »‑m¡‑v s‑_d‑n k‑m¯‑ms‑âb‑mWs‑{‑X. ]s‑£ s‑s‑N\s‑b B{‑Ia‑n¨‑v I‑og‑vs‑¸S‑p¯‑nb B¸‑nf‑p‑w »‑m¡‑v s‑_d‑nb‑p‑w ]gaÃ. ]gs‑¯¡‑mÄ c‑pN‑nb‑pÅ BIÀjIa‑mb FÃ‑mhs‑c b‑p‑w t‑a‑ml‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶ s‑SI‑vt‑\‑mfP‑nb‑p s‑S c‑q]a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. Pqsse 2013

B¸‑nf‑p‑w »‑m¡‑vs‑_d‑nb‑p‑w s‑hd‑p‑w `£Wa‑mb‑nc‑p¶ \à I‑me¯‑v P‑o-h‑nX‑w F{‑X ef‑nXa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. A¡‑me‑w C\‑n hc‑pt‑a‑m? t‑N‑mZ‑y‑w \½‑pt‑SXÃ. t‑e‑mI¯‑ns‑e iàc‑mb `cW‑m[‑nI‑mc‑nIf‑pt‑SX‑m-W‑v. t‑ai¸‑pd¯‑p\‑n¶‑p‑w k‑w`h‑w s‑kÂt‑^‑mW‑ns‑â c‑q]¯‑n \‑mh‑n\‑p ]Ic‑w I®‑n\‑p‑w I‑mX‑n\‑p‑w Xet‑¨‑md‑n \‑p‑w c‑pN‑nb‑pÅ `£Wa‑mb‑n a‑md‑nb t‑¸‑mÄ Bs‑I I‑pg-§‑n. c‑mj‑v{‑S¯eh·‑mÀ a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, I‑pg§‑nbX‑v. h‑mW‑nP‑yh‑yhk‑mb t‑aJe a‑pX Ie‑mk‑mk‑wk‑v¡‑mc‑nI t‑aJe hs‑c FÃ‑mb‑nS¯‑p‑w CX‑v {‑]ISa‑mb‑n. a‑mä§s‑f DÄs‑¡‑mÅ‑pI a‑m{‑Xaà C\‑nb‑pÅ I‑me‑w e‑oUÀj‑n¸‑v. k‑pX‑mc‑ya‑mb Ad‑nh‑pIf‑ps‑S I‑q¼‑mc‑w h‑nc¯‑p¼‑pIf‑n F¯‑nt‑¨À¶ IÌt‑ag‑vk‑mW‑v FÃ‑m DX‑v]¶§f‑p‑w t‑kh-\h‑p‑w N‑n´If‑p‑w C¶‑v s‑s‑II‑mc‑y‑w s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. Ahc‑ps‑S {‑]X‑nIcW‑w C‑u s‑SI‑vt‑\‑mfP‑n \b‑n¡‑p¶ a\Ê‑pIf‑ne‑qs‑S a‑md‑n¡g‑n ª‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Hc‑p Xa‑mi¡Yb‑pï‑v. Ig‑nª At‑ac‑n¡³ {‑]k‑nUâ‑p s‑Xcs‑ªS‑p¸‑ns‑e d‑n¸_‑v-f‑n¡³ Ø‑m\‑mÀ°‑n a‑nä‑v t‑d‑m‑w\‑n C‑u t‑h‑m«d ·‑mÀ F¶ D]t‑`‑mà‑m¡f‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y‑w ]dª‑v ]‑pe‑nh‑m ]‑nS‑n¨ h‑mÀ¯

\‑m‑w t‑I«‑p. ^‑vt‑f‑md‑nU‑mb‑n Hc‑p t‑¹ä‑n \‑v 25 e£‑w c‑q]‑m h‑neb‑n«‑v \S¯‑nb Hc‑p ]W¸‑nc‑nh‑v U‑n¶d‑n At‑±l‑w kZk‑yt‑c‑mS‑v ]db‑pIb‑pï‑mb‑n. 47% At‑ac‑n¡³ ]‑uc·‑mc‑p‑w S‑mI‑vk‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¡‑ms‑X kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑â kl‑mb‑w F¶ DX‑v¸¶‑w h‑m§‑p¶ D] t‑`‑mà‑m¡f‑mW‑v. Ahs‑c¡‑pd‑n¨‑v R‑m³ h‑y‑mI‑pes‑¸S‑p¶‑pa‑nÃ‑, F¶‑v. B Z‑ri‑y¯‑ns‑â clk‑y h‑oU‑nt‑b‑m t‑S¸‑v HäbS‑n¡‑v At‑±l¯‑ns‑â h‑nPbk‑m²‑yX A©‑p iXa‑m\‑w I‑pd¨s‑{‑X. {‑]k‑v I‑u¬k‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ I‑mS‑vP‑pP‑ns‑b R‑m³ C¯c‑pW¯‑n D²c‑n¡‑pIb‑mW‑v. C´‑y Hc‑p ^‑y‑qU ka‑ql¯‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w ]‑pdt‑¯¡‑p hc‑p¶X‑n\‑v Bib§Ä BÄ¡‑mc‑ps‑S a\Ê‑n s‑e¯‑n¡‑pI F¶X‑mW‑v Ht‑cs‑b‑mc‑p a‑mÀ¤‑w. AX‑v a‑m²‑ya§f‑ps‑S ISa b‑mW‑v. ISe‑mk‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑p‑w I¼‑y‑q«d‑p‑w a‑m{‑XaÃ‑, B¸‑nf‑p‑w »‑m¡‑v s‑_d‑nb‑p‑w kl‑mb¯‑n\‑pï‑v. t\mhenÌpw ho£Ww ap³ No^v FUnädpamWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: varma.klmohana@gmail.com


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l‑m-ß-P‑n-s‑b-t‑¸‑ms‑e ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯\‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob {‑]hÀ¯\-a‑m-s‑W¶‑v FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¨‑p. D¸‑p-k-X‑y‑m{‑Kl t‑hf-b‑n K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑ps‑S "b‑wK‑v C´‑y‑'b‑ne‑mW‑v FS-¯« Fg‑p-X‑n-¯‑p-S-§‑n-b-X‑v. {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v k‑m{‑a‑m-P‑yX‑z‑w Ah-k‑m-\‑n¸‑n-t‑¡-ïX‑v Xs‑â I‑qS‑n _‑m[‑y-X-b‑ms‑W¶‑v At‑±l‑w Ic‑p-X‑n. Hc‑p Ih‑n-f‑n AS‑n-¨‑m ad‑p-I-h‑nÄ I‑m«‑n-s‑¡‑m-S‑p¡-W-s‑a¶ kl\ k‑n²‑m-´-t‑¯‑mS‑v FS-¯« t‑b‑mP‑n-¨‑n-Ã. F¦‑ne‑p‑w K‑mÔ‑nP‑ns‑b At‑±-l-¯‑n\‑v Cj‑vS-a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. \‑nd-t‑X‑m-¡‑n\‑p a‑p¶‑n s‑\©‑p-h‑n-c‑n¨‑v Hc‑p t‑]‑mc‑m-f‑n-s‑b-t‑¸‑ms‑e s‑N¶‑p h‑og‑ms‑X t‑X‑m¡‑n-t‑\-¡‑mÄ a‑mc-I-{‑]l-c-t‑i-j‑n-b‑pÅ h‑m¡‑p-IÄ s‑I‑mï‑v FÃ‑m-¯c‑w AS‑n-¨-aÀ¯-e‑n-s‑\b‑p‑w FS-¯« t‑\c‑n-«‑p. A§s‑\ At‑±l‑w h‑m¡‑p-I-f‑ps‑S h‑oc-\‑mb Hc‑p `S-\‑m-b‑n¯‑oÀ¶‑p. ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑n-\‑n-S-b‑n {‑_‑n«‑oj‑p-I‑mÀ C´‑y h‑nS-W-s‑a¶ ka-cs‑¯ (I‑z‑nä‑v C´‑y‑) t‑{‑]‑mP‑z-e‑n¸‑n¡‑p¶ eL‑pt‑e-J-IÄ Fg‑pX‑n {‑]N-c‑n-¸‑n¨ FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-Ws‑\ {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v s‑]‑me‑ok‑v ]‑nS‑nI‑q-S‑n. UÂl‑n s‑Nt‑¦‑m-«-b‑ns‑e `‑qKÀ` Ad-b‑n I‑mä‑p‑w s‑hf‑n-¨h‑p‑w X-«‑ms‑X F¬]X‑p Z‑nhk‑w Xf-¨‑n-«‑p. Xs‑â P‑oh‑nX‑w Ah‑ns‑S Ak‑vX-a‑n¨‑p F¶‑v Gd-¡‑ps‑d At‑±l‑w X‑oÀ¨-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑n. a‑ms‑¸-g‑p-X‑n-b‑m ]‑pd-¯‑p-t‑]‑m-c‑m-a‑m-b‑n-

c‑p-¶‑p. Fg‑p-¯‑ne‑p‑w P‑oh‑n-X-¯‑ne‑p‑w Cc« k‑z`‑mh‑w hi-a‑n-Ã‑m-¯-X‑n-\‑m FS-¯« {‑]t‑e‑m-`-\-§f‑p‑w `‑oj-W‑nIf‑p‑w h‑ot‑d‑ms‑S s‑Nd‑p¯‑p \‑n¶‑p. I‑mcW‑w At‑±-l-¯‑n-t‑âX‑v Xe-t‑È-c‑nb‑ps‑S t‑N‑mc-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. k‑z`‑m-h-¯‑n\‑v IS-¯-\‑m-S³ h‑oc‑yh‑p‑w Dï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. acW‑w a‑p¶‑n Iï‑v Ig‑nª FS¯-«s‑b Cc‑p-«-d-b‑n \‑n¶‑v t‑a‑mN‑n¸‑n¨‑v ^‑nt‑d‑mk‑v]‑qÀ Pb‑n-e‑n-t‑e¡‑p a‑mä‑n. h‑nN‑m-c-W-¯-S-h‑p-I‑m-c-\‑mb‑n Hc‑p s‑I‑mÃ-¯‑n-t‑e-s‑d-¡‑me‑w Pb‑n-e‑n Ig‑n-ª‑p. k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y-k-ac `S-·‑ms‑c s‑Xc‑p-h‑n-e‑n«‑v XÃ‑n-¨-X-b‑v¡‑p¶ {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v s‑]‑me‑o-k‑n\‑v FS-¯«s‑bt‑¸‑m-e‑p-Åh-c‑ps‑S Fg‑p¯‑v Ah-k‑m-\‑n-¸‑n-¡‑m³ t‑hs‑d a‑mÀ¤-a‑n-Ã‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. \h-P‑o-h³‑, lc‑n-P³‑, b‑wK‑v C´‑y F¶‑o {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-§-f‑n-e‑qs‑S K‑mÔ‑nP‑n C´‑y³ t‑PÀW-e‑n-k-¯‑n\‑v \ÂI‑nb al-¯‑mb Hc‑p a‑mX‑r-Ib‑p-ï‑v. k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y ka-c-¯‑n\‑p‑w t‑Zi-t‑{‑]-a-¯‑n\‑p‑w P‑z‑me ]I-c‑p¶ Bi-b-§Äs‑¡‑m¸‑w K‑mÔ‑nP‑n Xs‑â P‑oh‑nX h‑o£-W-§Ä P\-§-f‑ps‑S a‑p¶‑n Ah-X-c‑n-¸‑n-¨X‑v C‑u ]{‑X-§f‑n-e‑q-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v. h‑mb-\-¡‑m-c‑p-a‑m-b‑pÅ k‑wh‑mZ‑w Hc‑p ]‑wà‑n-b‑mb‑n s‑I‑mï‑p-h¶X‑v K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑ps‑S ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\ a‑mX‑r-I-b‑m-W‑v. ]c-k‑y-§Ä k‑z‑oIc‑n-¡‑ms‑X ]{‑X‑w \S¯‑n h‑mb-\-¡‑mt‑c‑mS‑v \‑qd‑p-i-X-a‑m\‑w I‑qd‑p-]‑p-eÀ¯‑nb

GI ]{‑X‑m-[‑n-]c‑p‑w K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑m-W‑v. F¶‑m kX‑y‑m-{‑K-lh‑p‑w \‑nÊ-l-IcW ka-ch‑p‑w hg‑n P\-§Ä¡‑n-S-b‑n s‑]‑mc‑pX‑n P‑oh‑n¨ K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n¡‑v ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯\‑w Hc‑p s‑X‑mg‑n Bb‑n-c‑p-¶‑n-Ã. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob h‑r¯‑nb‑p‑w s‑X‑mg‑ne‑p‑w Bb‑n ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\s‑¯ ka-c-k-s‑¸-S‑p¯‑nb BZ‑ys‑¯ {‑]a‑pJ h‑yà‑n-If‑n Hc‑m-f‑m-b‑n-«‑mW‑v C´‑y FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-Ws‑\ I‑mW‑p-¶-X‑v. t‑]‑m¯³ t‑P‑mk-^‑ns‑â ka-I‑m-e‑n-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p FS-¯-«. k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y {‑]Ø‑m-\-¯‑ns‑â X‑o¨‑q-f-b‑n-e‑mW‑v At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â IÀ½ P‑oh‑nX‑w c‑q]‑w s‑I‑mï-X‑v. k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y‑m\-´c‑w C´‑y³ ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\‑w ]‑pX‑nb Z‑ni‑m-t‑_‑m[‑w s‑s‑Ih-c‑n-¡‑pt‑¼‑mÄ k‑ma‑q-l‑nI {‑]X‑n-_-²X Hc‑p Z‑uX‑y-a‑mb‑n DbÀ¯‑n-¸‑n-S‑n¨ N‑pc‑p¡‑w t‑]c‑n Hc‑mÄ FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ Bb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. A½‑m-h-\‑mb C.-]‑n. t‑at‑\‑ms‑â t‑{‑]c-W-b‑n FS-¯« UÂl‑n-b‑ns‑e l‑nµ‑p-Ø‑m³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑n F¯‑n. t‑]‑m¯³ t‑P‑mk-^‑ns‑â kl-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p-¶-X‑ns‑â a[‑pc‑w s‑s‑S‑wk‑n At‑±l‑w Bk‑zZ‑n-¨‑p. t‑]‑m¯³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑v h‑n«-t‑¸‑mÄ FS-¯-«b‑p‑w I‑qs‑S c‑mP‑n-h-¨‑n-d-§‑n. eJ‑vt‑\‑mh‑ns‑e "]b-\‑n-bÀ' ]{‑X-¯‑n Cc‑p-hc‑p‑w kl-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-c‑mb‑n X‑pSÀ¶‑p. Ah‑n-s‑S-h¨‑v t‑]‑m¯s‑â I‑q«‑v Dt‑]-£‑n¨‑v FS-¯« l‑nµ‑p-Ø‑m³ s‑s‑S‑wk‑n-t‑e¡‑v aS-§‑n. I‑z‑nä‑v C´‑y‑m ka-c-I‑m-e¯‑v s‑s‑S‑wk‑n {‑][‑m-\-s‑¸« Ø‑m\‑w hl‑n-¡‑p-t‑¼‑m-g‑mW‑v At‑±l‑w Pb‑n-e‑n-e‑m-b-X‑v. t‑I‑m¬{‑K-k‑ns‑e t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑nÌ‑v t‑Nc‑n-t‑b‑mS‑v B`‑n-a‑pJ‑y‑w ]‑peÀ¯‑nb FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ t‑e‑mI-K-X‑n-IÄ k‑q£‑va-a‑mb‑n {‑i²‑n-¨‑p. Pqsse 2013


(32) cï‑m‑w t‑e‑mI-b‑p-²‑m-\-´c‑w a\‑pj‑y at‑\‑m-`‑m-h-¯‑n k‑w`-h‑n-¡‑p¶ a‑mä§Ä At‑±l‑w \‑nc‑o-£‑n-¨‑p. t‑k‑mh‑nbä‑v b‑qW‑n-bs‑â DbÀ¨-b‑n \‑n¶‑v C´‑y³ ka‑q-l-¯‑n\‑v he‑nb ]‑mT§Ä DÄs‑¡‑m-Å‑m-\‑p-s‑ï¶‑v FS-¯« Ic‑p-X‑n. t‑I‑m¬{‑K-k‑n he‑n-s‑b‑mc‑p h‑n`‑mK‑w b‑mY‑m-Ø‑n-X‑n-Ic‑m-s‑W¶‑v X‑nc‑n-¨-d‑nª At‑±l‑w Ph-lÀe‑m s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑n-s‑\-t‑¸‑m-e‑pÅ ]‑pt‑c‑m-Ka\ h‑mZ‑n-I-f‑n {‑]X‑o£ AÀ¸‑n-¨‑p. t‑I‑mf-\‑n-IÄ CÃ‑m-X‑m-I‑p-¶‑p. k‑m{‑a‑mP‑yX‑z‑w Xf-c‑p-¶‑p. {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v B[‑n]-X‑y-¯‑ns‑â k‑qc‑y³ Ak‑vX-a‑n-¨‑p. F¦‑ne‑p‑w a\‑pj‑y hfÀ¨s‑b XS-b‑p¶ Hc‑p h‑yhØ ]‑pX‑nb ]Ã‑p‑w \Jh‑p‑w k‑z‑oI-c‑n¨‑v ià‑n {‑]‑m]‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v De‑v]X‑n-j‑vW‑p-h‑mb FS-¯« a\-Ê‑n-e‑m-¡‑n. {‑_‑n«‑oj‑v t‑aÂt‑¡‑m-b‑va t‑]‑ms‑b-¦‑ne‑p‑w a‑pX-e‑m-f‑n¯‑w At‑a-c‑n-¡-b‑n-e‑qs‑S a\‑pj‑y-h‑w-is‑¯ h‑ng‑p-§‑m³ hc‑p-¶X‑v

]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑n t‑NÀ¶‑p. t‑{‑I‑mk‑v t‑d‑mU‑v F¶ ]‑mÀ«‑n {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-¯‑ns‑â FU‑n-ä‑n‑w-K‑v, eL‑p-t‑e-J-I-f‑ps‑S cN\ F¶‑n-§-s‑\-b‑pÅ t‑P‑me‑n-I-f‑n a‑pg‑pI‑n hc‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ C´‑y³ Ia‑y‑qW‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑n A]-c‑n-l‑m-c‑y-a‑mb Bib k‑wLÀj‑w DS-s‑e-S‑p-¯‑p. s‑s‑N\þ t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v ]£-]‑m-X‑n-I-f‑ps‑S t‑Nc‑n-X‑n-c‑nh‑v ià‑n-s‑¸-«‑p. t‑I‑m¬{‑K-k‑nt‑\‑m-S‑pÅ Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ka‑o-]-\-¯‑ns‑e `‑n¶X ad-\‑o¡‑n ]‑pd-¯‑p-h-¶‑p. P\‑m[‑n-]X‑y h‑yh-Ø-t‑b‑mS‑v F§s‑\ ka-c-k-s‑¸-S-W-s‑a¶ I‑mc‑y-¯‑n s‑]‑mc‑p-¯-t‑¡-S‑p-ï‑m-b‑n. C´‑yb‑v¡‑v k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y‑w e`‑n-s‑¨¶‑p‑w Cs‑Ã-¶‑p-a‑pÅ XÀ¡‑w hf-c‑p-Ib‑p‑w H¶‑m‑w t‑Zi‑ob s‑Xc-s‑ª-S‑p-¸‑n ]c‑o-£-W‑mÀ°‑w aÕ-c‑n¨ Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n A{‑]-X‑o£‑n-X-a‑mb‑n t‑e‑mI‑vk-`-b‑n {‑][‑m\ {‑] X‑n-]£ ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑m-I‑p-Ib‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. a\‑p-j‑ys‑â a‑ue‑n-I‑m-h-I‑m-i-§Ä‑,

H.-]‑n. i¦À e‑n¦‑n Fg‑p-X‑nb t‑eJ\‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Bib t‑e‑mI¯‑v he‑nb h‑nk‑vt‑^‑m-S\‑w Dï‑m-¡‑n. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑nb³ s‑s‑N\‑m AX‑nÀ¯‑n-b‑n \‑pgª‑p Ib-d‑n-bX‑p‑w s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v ]«‑m-fs‑¯ s‑hS‑n-h-¨X‑p‑w AXne‑q-s‑S-b‑mW‑v t‑e‑mI‑w Ad‑n-ª-X‑v. C´‑y-b‑ns‑e t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v A‑w_‑m-k-UÀ e‑n¦‑v h‑mb‑n¨‑v FS-¯-«s‑b t‑XS‑n-s‑b-¯‑n. H.-]‑n i¦-d‑ps‑S ]¡Â s‑Xf‑n-h‑p-IÄ Dï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Ia‑y‑qW‑nÌ‑v c‑mP‑y‑w as‑ä‑mc‑p Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v kt‑l‑m-Zc c‑mP‑ys‑¯ B{‑Ia‑n¨‑p F¶ hk‑vX‑pX t‑e‑mI-¯‑n\‑v h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑m³ {‑]b‑m-k-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p. e‑n¦‑ns‑e t‑eJ\‑w i{‑X‑p-¡f‑p‑w a‑n{‑X-§f‑p‑w ]IÀ¯‑n ]‑p\‑x-{‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p. Hc‑p B\‑p-I‑m-e‑nI {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-s‑a¶ \‑ne-b‑n e‑n¦‑ns‑â {‑]k-à‑nb‑p‑w {‑]i-k‑vX‑nb‑p‑w hÀ²‑n-¨‑p. FS-¯-«b‑v¡‑p I‑mW‑m-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. t‑Zi-t‑{‑]a‑w s‑I‑mï‑p-a‑m{‑X‑w ]‑pX‑nb i{‑X‑p-h‑ns‑\ t‑\c‑n-S‑m-\‑m-h‑n-Ã. t‑]{‑S‑nt‑b‑m-«‑nk‑w Bh-i‑y-a‑m-W‑v. F¶‑m AX‑n-t‑\-¡‑mÄ {‑][‑m\‑w I‑q«‑m-b‑va-b‑mW‑v. ka‑m-[‑m-\-]-c-a‑mb kl-hÀ-¯‑nX‑z‑w. AX‑n\‑v t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-b-\‑pa‑mb‑n C´‑y s‑s‑It‑I‑mÀ¡-W-s‑a¶‑v FS-¯« h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¨‑p. Pb-{‑]-I‑mi‑v \‑mc‑m-b-W³ t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n¡‑v c‑q]‑w \ÂI‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ FS-¯« AX‑n ]¦‑m-f‑n-b‑m-b‑n. ]t‑£ 1948¯s‑¶ Ac‑pW Ak^‑v Ae‑nb‑p‑w FS-¯«b‑p‑w t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑p-a‑m-b‑pÅ _Ô‑w h‑n«‑p. BÀ.-]‑n. Z¯-t‑b‑m-s‑S‑m¸‑w Cc‑p-hc‑p‑w t‑a‑mk‑vt‑¡‑m kµÀi‑n-¨‑p. C´‑y³ t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑n-Ì‑p-IÄ t‑I‑m¬{‑Kk‑ns‑â t‑aÂt‑¡‑mb‑va XIÀ¡‑m³ a‑m{‑X‑w s‑I¸‑p-Å-h-c-s‑ö‑p‑w Ia‑y‑qW‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-¡‑mW‑v B Z‑uX‑y‑w ^e-{‑]-Z-a‑mb‑n \‑nÀh-l‑n-¡‑m³ Ig‑n-b‑p¶-s‑X¶‑p‑w FS-¯-«b‑v¡‑p t‑X‑m¶‑n. t‑a‑mk‑vt‑I‑m-b‑n \‑n¶‑p aS§‑n h¶ Ac‑p-Wb‑p‑w FS-¯-«b‑p‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Pqsse 2013

P\‑m-[‑n-]X‑y k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y‑w‑, A`‑n-{‑]‑mb k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y‑w‑, k‑zX{‑´ h‑nN‑m-c‑w‑, kÀ¤h‑y‑m-]‑mc‑w X‑pS-§‑nb AS‑n-Ø‑m\ {‑] i‑v\-§-f‑n Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v t‑\X‑rX‑z‑w `‑oI-c-a‑mb Bi-b-¡‑p-g-¸-¯‑n h‑oW‑p. s‑X‑mg‑n-e‑mf‑n hÀ¤-¯‑n\‑v a‑m{‑Xt‑a Ah-I‑m-i-§-f‑p-Å‑q. As‑Ã-¦‑n FÃ‑m P‑oh‑nX-h‑r-¯‑nb‑p‑w s‑X‑mg‑n a‑m{‑X-a‑mW‑v. t‑Ic-f-¯‑n \‑n¶‑v k‑n.-]‑n. c‑ma-N{‑µ-s‑\-t‑¸‑m-e‑pÅ b‑ph ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯Ic‑p‑w UÂl‑nb‑n F¯‑n t‑{‑I‑mU‑v t‑d‑mU‑n t‑Nt‑¡-d‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. "\‑y‑q FP' F¶‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-cW‑w t‑] c‑p-a‑mä‑n c‑q]h‑p‑w DÅ-S-¡h‑p‑w ]c‑n-j‑v¡c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. F¶‑m t‑\X‑r-X‑z-¯‑n he‑nb Bib k‑wL-«\‑w \S-¡‑p-¶‑p. Ì‑me‑ns‑â ac-W-t‑ij‑w \‑nI‑n-X-{‑I‑qj‑vt‑¨h‑v At‑±-ls‑¯ XÅ‑n-¸-d-ªt‑¸‑mÄ FS-¯-«b‑p‑w Ac‑pW Ak^‑v Ae‑nb‑p‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n h‑n«‑p. {‑^‑o {‑]k‑v t‑PÀW-e‑n t‑NÀ¶ FS-¯« Xs‑â ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\ a‑mX‑rI Ah‑ns‑S {‑]t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑m³ kl-{‑]-hÀ¯-Ic‑ps‑S ]‑n´‑pW I‑n«‑ms‑X h‑nj-a‑n-¨‑p.

]{‑X‑m-[‑n-]-·‑m-c‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w P‑oh-\-¡‑m-c‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑b‑mK‑w h‑nf‑n¨‑v I‑q«‑n At‑±l‑w C§s‑\ ]dª‑p: "FU‑n-ä-d‑ps‑S A`‑n{‑]‑m-b-a‑mW‑v ]{‑X-¯‑ns‑e Ah-k‑m\ h‑m¡‑v‑' Xs‑â \‑ne-]‑m-S‑p-I-t‑f‑mS‑p‑w A`‑n{‑]‑m-b-§-t‑f‑mS‑p‑w h‑n«‑p-h‑og‑vN s‑N¿‑m-\‑mh‑ms‑X B {‑]k‑w-K-t‑¯‑ms‑S FS-¯« {‑^‑o {‑]Ê‑n \‑n¶‑v Cd-§‑n-t‑¸‑m-¶‑p. {‑_‑n«‑o-j‑p-I‑mÀ Nh¨‑p X‑p¸‑nb Ic‑n-¼‑n³Nï‑n t‑]‑me‑pÅ C´‑ys‑b {‑Z‑pX-h‑n-I-k-\-¯‑n-e‑qs‑S DbÀ¯‑n-s‑¡‑mï‑p-h-c‑m³ {‑][‑m-\-a{‑´‑n s‑\l‑vd‑p B{‑K-l‑n-¨‑p. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-bs‑â k]‑vX-h-Õc ]²X‑n a‑mX‑r-I-b‑n ]©-hÕc ]²-X‑n-IÄ Bk‑q-{‑XW‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. ]²-X‑n-b‑ps‑S IcS‑v t‑cJ-b‑pa‑mb‑n ka‑o-]‑n¨ k‑m¼-¯‑nI i‑mk‑v{‑XÚ³ t‑U‑m. s‑I.-F³. c‑mP‑n-t‑\‑mS‑v {‑] [‑m-\-a{‑´‑n Ak-´‑pj‑vS‑n {‑]I-S‑n-¸‑n¨‑p.- t‑k‑m-h‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-bs‑\t‑¸‑ms‑e C´‑yb‑p‑w t‑hK-¯‑n ]‑pt‑c‑m-KX‑n {‑]‑m]‑n-¡-W‑w. AX‑n\‑v t‑hï a‑mä-§Ä Bk‑q-{‑XW t‑cJ-b‑n s‑I‑mï‑p-hc‑m³ s‑\l‑vd‑p \‑nÀt‑±-i‑n-¨‑p. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-b-\‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w C´‑y-b‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b‑m-´-c‑o£‑w h‑yX‑y-k‑vX-a‑ms‑W¶‑v N‑qï‑n-¡‑m«‑n t‑U‑m. c‑mP‑v Xs‑â Bk‑q-{‑XW t‑cJ a‑mä‑m³ h‑nk-½-X‑n¨‑p. FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-Ws‑â A`‑n{‑]‑mb‑w D²-c‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑mï‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p {‑Z‑pX-h‑n-I-k\ AP-ï-b‑n Dd¨‑p \‑n¶-t‑¸‑mÄ t‑U‑m. c‑mP‑v k‑ua‑y-\‑mb‑n t‑N‑mZ‑n-¨‑p. "kÀ‑, A§b‑v¡‑v P\‑m[‑n-]X‑y‑w t‑ht‑W‑m‑, {‑Z‑pX h‑nI-k\‑w t‑ht‑W‑m?‑' t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-b³ CÃ‑m-X‑m-bX‑p‑w C´‑y³ P\‑m-[‑n-]X‑y‑w `‑wK-a‑n-Ã‑ms‑X \‑ne-\‑n¡‑p-¶-X‑p-a‑mb k‑ml-N-c‑y-¯‑n B k‑w`‑m-j-W¯‑ns‑â N‑mc‑pX Af-h-ä-X‑m-W‑v. ]Þ‑nä‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p-h‑n\‑v hfs‑c {‑]‑nb-s‑¸« ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³. CS-¡‑me Kh¬s‑aâ‑n t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑nÌ‑v t‑Nc‑ns‑b A\‑p-\-b‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-h-c‑m\‑p‑w Pb-{‑]I‑mi‑v \‑mc‑m-bWs‑\ a{‑´‑n-k-`-b‑n-s‑e-S‑p¡‑m\‑p‑w s‑\l‑vd‑p B{‑K-l‑n-¨‑p. as‑ä‑mc‑p \‑mc‑m-b-W-\‑mb FS-¯-«-s‑b-b‑mW‑v s‑\l‑vd‑p h‑ni‑zk‑vX a²‑y-Ø-\‑mb‑n AX‑n\‑v Iï-X‑v. ]t‑£ B Z‑uX‑y‑w B{‑K-l‑n-¨-X‑p-t‑]‑ms‑e h‑nP-b‑n-¨‑n-Ã. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v b‑qW‑n-b³ l¦d‑n B{‑I-a‑n-¨X‑p‑w Ì‑me‑ns‑â ac-W-t‑ij‑w b‑pFk‑vFk‑vBd‑n Dï‑mb a‑mä§f‑p‑w C´‑y-b‑ns‑e Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑pI‑mc‑n N‑n´‑m-¡‑p-g¸‑w k‑rj‑vS‑n-¨‑p. FS-¯«b‑p‑w Ac‑pW Ak^‑v Ae‑nb‑p‑w "\‑y‑q GP‑n' X‑pS-c‑m-\‑m-I‑ms‑X a‑m\-k‑nI {‑]X‑n-k-Ô‑n-b‑n-e‑m-b‑n. t‑I‑mW‑m«‑v s‑¹b‑vk‑ns‑e Hc‑p kt‑¦-X-¯‑n FS¯« UÂl‑n-b‑ns‑e ka‑m-\-l‑r-Z-b-


(33)

FS-¯-«

c‑ps‑S s‑Nd‑nb Hc‑p t‑b‑mK‑w h‑nf‑n-¨‑p. h‑n.-s‑I. I‑rj‑vW-t‑a-t‑\‑m³ Bb‑n-c‑p¶‑p B t‑b‑mK-¯‑ns‑â A[‑y-£³. 1958  e‑n¦‑v a‑mk‑nI P\‑n-¡‑m³ CS-b‑mbX‑v Ah‑ns‑S h¨‑m-W‑v. FS-¯-«b‑p‑w Ac‑p-Wb‑p‑w h‑mc‑n-I-b‑ps‑S N‑pa-X-et‑b-ä‑p. {‑i‑o]Z‑v Aa‑rX U‑ms‑¦ e‑n¦‑v l‑uk‑ns‑e ]X‑nh‑p kµÀi-I-\‑m-b‑n. CS-X‑p-]£ _‑p²‑nP‑oh‑n-I-f‑ps‑S X‑mhf-a‑mb‑n e‑n¦‑v a‑md‑n-bX‑v k‑z‑m`‑m-h‑n-I‑w. t‑Ic-f-¯‑n \‑n¶‑v ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\ t‑a‑ml-h‑p-a‑mb‑n UÂl‑n-b‑n F¯‑n-bhc‑p‑w e‑n¦‑n \¦‑q-c-a‑n-«‑p. _‑n.-BÀ.-]‑n.

IS¸m-Sv: am-Xr-`q-an sse-{_dn

`‑mk‑v¡À‑, t‑K‑m]‑n-\‑mY‑v t‑l‑mt‑¦‑m-§‑v, H.-h‑n. h‑nP-b³‑, h‑n.-s‑I.-F³‑, k‑n. c‑m[‑mI‑r-j‑vW³‑, F‑w.-]‑n. \‑mc‑m-b-W-]‑nÅ X‑pS§‑n Ht‑«s‑d Fg‑p-¯‑p-I‑mc‑p‑w ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-Ic‑p‑w e‑n¦‑v l‑uk‑ns‑e A`-b‑mÀ°‑n-I-f‑nÂs‑]-S‑p-¶‑p. D¯À{‑]t‑Z-i‑ns‑e Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Ø‑m]-I-t‑\-X‑mh‑v H‑m‑w{‑]-I‑mi‑v i¦À e‑n-¦‑p-a‑mb‑n AS‑p-¸¯‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. a‑mÀI‑vk‑ns‑â a‑qe-[\‑w l‑nµ‑n-b‑n ]c‑n-`‑m-j-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑nb H.-]‑n. i¦À e‑n¦‑n Fg‑p-X‑nb t‑eJ\‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Bib t‑e‑mI¯‑v he‑nb h‑nk‑vt‑^‑m-S\‑w Dï‑m-¡‑n. t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v

b‑qW‑n-b³ s‑s‑N\‑m AX‑nÀ¯‑n-b‑n \‑pgª‑p Ib-d‑n-bX‑p‑w s‑s‑N\‑ok‑v ]«‑m-fs‑¯ s‑hS‑n-h-¨X‑p‑w i¦-d‑ps‑S s‑hf‑n-s‑¸-S‑p-¯-e‑n-e‑q-s‑S-b‑mW‑v t‑e‑mI‑w Ad‑n-ª-X‑v. C´‑y-b‑ns‑e t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v \b-X-{‑´-I‑m-c‑y‑m-eb‑w A¼-c-¶‑p-t‑]‑mb‑n. A‑w_‑m-k-UÀ e‑n¦‑v h‑mb‑n¨‑v FS¯-«s‑b t‑XS‑n-s‑b-¯‑n. H.-]‑n i¦-d‑ps‑S ]¡Â s‑Xf‑n-h‑p-IÄ Dï‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Ia‑y‑qW‑nÌ‑v c‑mP‑y‑w as‑ä‑mc‑p Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v kt‑l‑m-Zc c‑mP‑ys‑¯ B{‑I-a‑n¨‑p F¶ hk‑vX‑pX t‑e‑mI-¯‑n\‑v h‑ni‑z-k‑n-¡‑m³ {‑]b‑m-k-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. e‑n¦‑ns‑e t‑eJ\‑w i{‑X‑p-¡f‑p‑w a‑n{‑X-§f‑p‑w ]IÀ¯‑n ]‑p\‑x-{‑]-k‑n-²‑o-I-c‑n-¨‑p. Hc‑p B\‑p-I‑me‑nI {‑]k‑n-²‑o-I-c-W-s‑a¶ \‑ne-b‑n e‑n¦‑ns‑â {‑]k-à‑nb‑p‑w {‑]i-k‑vX‑nb‑p‑w hÀ²‑n-¨‑p. AX‑n-e‑p-]c‑n Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Bi-b-t‑e‑m-I¯‑v Dc‑p-ï‑p-I‑q-S‑nb Ah‑yà-X-b‑ps‑S I‑mÀt‑aL‑w CS‑n-a‑n-¶e‑p‑w t‑]a‑m-c‑n-b‑p-a‑mb‑n h‑og‑m³ X‑pS-§‑n. CSX‑p heX‑p t‑`Z-s‑at‑\‑y _‑p²‑n-P‑o-h‑nIÄ C‑u k‑w`h‑w he‑n-s‑b‑mc‑p NÀ¨‑mh‑n-j-b-a‑m¡‑n X‑pSÀ¶‑p-s‑I‑m-ï‑p-t‑]‑m-b‑n. e‑n¦‑v Hc‑p Z‑n\-¸-{‑X-a‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑p-¶-X‑ns‑\-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑pÅ N‑n´-b‑n-e‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³. s‑e^‑vä‑v _‑p¡‑v s‑kâÀ F¶ Bi-bh‑p‑w At‑±l‑w X‑mt‑e‑m-e‑n-¨‑p. Ne-]-X‑n-d‑m-h‑p‑, CÃ‑n-¡‑pf¯‑p i¦-c-¸‑nÅ (I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v i¦À‑) X‑pS-§‑nb ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-I-c‑p-a‑mb‑n FS-¯« \‑nc-´c‑w NÀ¨ \S-¯‑n. s‑] À-s‑^-£-\‑nÌ‑v Bb FS¯«b‑v¡‑v ]{‑X‑w Bc‑w-`‑n-¡‑m-\‑pÅ ka-b-a‑ms‑b¶‑v Ad‑n-b‑m-s‑a-¦‑ne‑p‑w Ì‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v {‑S_‑nÄ Ie-i-e‑mb‑n A\‑p-`-h-s‑¸-«‑p. {‑][‑m-\-a{‑´‑n s‑\l‑vd‑p‑, Cµ‑n-c‑m-K‑mÔ‑n‑, s‑a‑md‑mÀP‑n t‑Zi‑m-b‑n‑, h‑n.-s‑I. I‑rj‑vW-t‑a-t‑\‑m³ F¶‑n-h-c‑p-a‑mb‑n FS¯« NÀ¨ X‑pSÀ¶‑p. c‑m‑w at‑\‑m-lÀ t‑e‑ml‑y‑, F‑w.-F³. t‑d‑mb‑v‑, At‑i‑m-It‑a-¯‑, a‑n\‑p-a-k‑m\‑n X‑pS-§‑nb a‑n{‑X§-f‑p-a‑mb‑n Bi-b-h‑n-\‑n-ab‑w \S-¯‑n. C.F‑w.-FÊ‑p‑w Fk‑v.-F.-U‑m-s‑¦b‑p‑w t‑{‑]‑mÕ‑m-l‑n-¸‑n-¨‑p. F¦‑ne‑p‑w e‑n¦‑ns‑\ Z‑n\-¸-{‑X-a‑m-¡‑m³ FS-¯-«b‑v¡‑p s‑s‑[c‑y‑w h¶‑n-Ã. A§s‑\ A©‑phÀj‑w IS-¶‑p-t‑]‑m-b‑n. 1962 s‑s‑N\ C´‑ys‑b B{‑I-a‑n-¨‑p. {‑]X‑n-t‑c‑m[ a{‑´‑n I‑rj‑vW-t‑a-t‑\‑ms‑\ {‑I‑qi‑n-¡‑m³ D¯t‑c-´‑y³ t‑e‑m_‑n {‑ia‑w X‑pS-§‑n. kÀht‑e‑mI k‑mt‑l‑m-Zc‑y‑w {‑]t‑b‑m-KXe¯‑n Hc‑p a‑nY‑yb‑m-b‑n-¯‑o-c‑p-¶X‑v FS-¯« Iï‑p. t‑e‑mI Ia‑y‑q-W‑nk‑w CÃ‑m-X‑m-I‑p-¶‑p. {‑]‑mt‑Z-i‑n-I-Xb‑p‑w t‑Zi‑ob-Xb‑p‑w {‑]kà‑n s‑s‑Ih-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑p. Xa‑n-g‑v\‑m-«‑n t‑I‑m¬{‑K-k‑n-s‑\-X‑ns‑c U‑n.-F‑w.-s‑I. hfÀ¶‑p-h-c‑p-¶‑p. k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y-k-ac t‑]‑mc‑mf‑nb‑mb‑n-c‑p¶ FS-¯«-b‑n t‑Zi-t‑{‑]a‑w h‑oï‑p‑w t‑{‑]‑mP‑zPqsse 2013


(34) e-a‑m-b‑n. I‑pc‑n-i‑n-t‑ed‑n \‑n¡‑p¶ I‑rj‑vW-t‑a-t‑\‑m-s‑â- \‑m-h‑n \‑n¶‑v FS-¯« t‑]{‑S‑n-t‑b‑m-«‑nk‑w F¶ ] Z‑w BhÀ¯‑n¨‑p h‑og‑p-¶X‑v t‑I«‑p. As‑X t‑]{‑S‑n-b-«‑v. FS-¯-«b‑v¡‑v Xs‑â Z‑n\-¸-{‑X-¯‑n\‑v as‑ä‑mc‑p t‑]c‑v Bt‑e‑mN‑n-t‑¡ï‑n h¶‑n-Ã. 1963 t‑I‑mW‑m«‑v s‑¹b‑n-k‑ns‑e e‑n¦‑v l‑uk‑n \‑n¶‑v FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ N‑o^‑v FU‑n-äÀ Bb‑n t‑]{‑S‑n-b«‑v Z‑n\-¸{‑X‑w ]‑pd-¯‑p-h¶‑p. A¶‑v k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y-Z‑n-\-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. X‑nc-¡‑p-IÄ¡‑n-S-b‑ne‑p‑w {‑][‑m-\-a{‑´‑n s‑\l‑vd‑ph‑p‑w h‑n.-s‑I. I‑rj‑vW-t‑at‑\‑m\‑p‑w e‑n¦‑v l‑uk‑n F¯‑n Bi‑wk-IÄ t‑\À¶‑p. t‑]{‑S‑n-b«‑p‑w e‑n¦‑p‑w h‑nI-k‑zc c‑mP‑y-a‑mb C´‑y-b‑ps‑S t‑hd‑n« i_‑vZ-a‑mb‑n ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯\ c‑wK¯‑v

FS-¯-«-b‑ps‑S i‑oe-§Ä Iï-d‑n-ª‑p. h‑mÕe‑y‑w DÅ‑nÂh¨‑v b‑ph ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-I-c‑ps‑S h‑og‑vN-Is‑f At‑±l‑w \‑ni‑nXa‑mb‑p‑w IÀ¡-i-a‑mb‑p‑w t‑\c‑n-«‑p. _l‑p-a‑m\‑w IeÀ¶ Hc‑p `b‑w s‑Nd‑p¸-¡‑mÀ¡‑n-S-b‑n FS-¯« Ad‑n-b‑ms‑X hfÀ¶‑p. F¦‑ne‑p‑w At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â a‑m\‑p-j‑nI \·-Is‑f Ghc‑p‑w BZ-c‑n-¨‑p. t‑]{‑S‑n-b-«‑n I‑ps‑d ae-b‑m-f‑n-IÄ Dï‑mb‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Bs‑cb‑p‑w Ah‑ns‑S ae-b‑mf‑w k‑wk‑m-c‑n-¡‑m³ FS-¯« A\‑p-h-Z‑n¨‑n-Ã. C‑w¥‑oj‑p‑w l‑nµ‑nb‑p‑w k‑wk‑mc‑n-¡‑m‑w. ae-b‑mf‑w X‑mak Øe-¯‑ph-¨‑n-c‑p-¶‑m aX‑n. t‑]{‑S‑n-b-«‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w e‑n¦‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w FÃ‑m P‑oh-\-¡‑mÀ¡‑p‑w i¼f‑w s‑I‑mS‑p-¯‑n«‑v Ah-k‑m\‑w a‑m{‑Xt‑a FS-¯« Xs‑â t‑hX\‑w

FS¯-« (C-S-t¯-b-äw) kp-lr-¯p-¡Ä-s¡m¸w

\‑ne-b‑p-d-¸‑n-¨‑p. t‑I‑m¬{‑K-k‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w t‑k‑mj‑ye‑nÌ‑v {‑K‑q¸‑p-I-f‑n-s‑eb‑p‑w bY‑mÀ° ]‑pt‑c‑m-K-a\ h‑mZ‑n-IÄ¡‑v H¸‑w \‑n¡‑m³ FS-¯«b‑ps‑S ]{‑X‑w {‑i²‑n¨‑p. At‑a-c‑n¡\‑nk-¯‑ns‑â {‑]t‑WX‑m-¡s‑f ]c-a-]‑p-Ñ-t‑¯‑ms‑S At‑±l‑w B{‑I-a‑n-¨‑p. Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v ]‑mÀ«‑n-b‑ns‑e ]‑nfÀ¸‑n-\‑p-t‑ij‑w t‑k‑mh‑n-bä‑v t‑Nc‑ns‑b A\‑p-I‑q-e‑n-¨‑p-s‑I‑mï‑v k‑n]‑n-s‑F-t‑b‑mS‑v N‑mb‑vh‑p ]‑peÀ¯‑n-b‑mW‑v FS-¯« a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑v t‑]‑mb-X‑v. F¦‑ne‑p‑w U‑ms‑¦ Dĸs‑S FÃ‑m t‑\X‑m-¡-f‑p-a‑mb‑n \‑nc-´c‑w At‑±l‑w Ie-l‑n-¨‑p. e‑n¦‑v l‑uk‑ns‑â a‑pI-f‑ns‑e a‑pd‑n-b‑n-e‑m-b‑nc‑p¶‑p FS-¯-«-b‑ps‑S X‑mh-f‑w. Ah‑ns‑S h¶‑p-t‑]‑m-I‑m¯ t‑\X‑m-¡f‑p‑w Fg‑p-¯‑pI‑mc‑p‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯Ic‑p‑w CÃ. 1953 `‑mc‑y a‑m[-h‑n- I‑p-d‑p-¸‑ns‑â AI‑me h‑nt‑b‑m-Ks‑¯ X‑pSÀ¶‑v c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-bh‑p‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\h‑p‑w GI‑m-´-X-b‑n \‑n¶‑pÅ c£‑ma‑mÀ¤‑w I‑qS‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p FS-¯-«-b‑v¡‑v. I‑pª‑n-c‑m-a³ F¶ k´X kl-N‑mc‑n t‑Zj‑y-{‑]-I‑r-X‑n-b‑mb Pqsse 2013

k‑z‑oI-c‑n-¨‑n-c‑p-¶‑p-Å‑q. t‑\s‑c ad‑n-¨‑mb‑n-c‑p¶‑p it‑¦g‑vk‑v h‑o¡‑n-e‑n-b‑ns‑e Ø‑nX‑n. s‑s‑]k h¶‑m BZ‑y‑w i¦À FS‑p-¡‑p‑w. ]‑ns‑¶ aä‑p-Å-hÀ. i¦À Däa‑n-{‑X-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-s‑¶-¦‑ne‑p‑w FS-¯-«b‑v¡‑v At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑p-I-t‑f‑mS‑v H«‑p‑w aX‑n-¸‑n-Ã‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. H.-h‑n. h‑nP-bs‑â I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑p-I-t‑f‑m-S‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p FS-¯«b‑v¡‑p I¼‑w. h‑nP-bs‑â cN-\-IÄ [‑mc‑m-f-a‑mb‑n t‑]{‑S‑n-b-«‑n A¨-S‑n-¨‑p. Ia‑y‑q-W‑nÌ‑v Bi-b-§s‑f h[‑n-¡‑m\‑p‑w FS-¯« I‑mÀ«‑q-W‑nÌ‑v h‑nP-b\‑v k‑z‑mX{‑´‑y‑w \ÂI‑n. cN-\‑m-]-c-a‑mb k‑z‑mX-{‑´‑y-¯‑ns‑â ]‑q¡‑m-e-a‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p e‑n¦‑v t‑]{‑S‑n-b«‑v P‑oh‑n-X-I‑m-e-s‑a¶‑v Ct‑¸‑mÄ s‑I‑m¨‑n-b‑n Ig‑n-b‑p¶ (t‑l‑mt‑¦‑m-M‑v) t‑K‑m]‑n-\‑mY‑v H‑mÀ¡‑p-¶‑p. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-bh‑p‑w ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\h‑p‑w FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-Ws‑â cï‑p elc‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. Gs‑X-¦‑ne‑p‑w H¶‑p aX‑n-b‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶‑p At‑±-l-¯‑n-s‑\¶‑v k‑pl‑r-¯‑p-¡Ä¡‑v t‑X‑m¶‑n-b‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. F¦‑n Ah‑ns‑S At‑±l‑w I‑qS‑p-X t‑{‑]‑mP‑z-e-a‑mb‑n \‑ne-\‑n¡‑p-a‑m-b‑n-c‑p-

¶‑p. {‑]P‑m t‑k‑mj‑y-e‑n-k-s‑¯-¸-ä‑nb‑pÅ FS-¯-«-b‑ps‑S ]‑pk‑vXI‑w Xs‑¶ At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑e Cc« h‑yà‑n-X‑z-¯‑ns‑â t‑cJ-b‑m-W‑v. c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-b-¯‑n\‑v XX‑zi‑mk‑v{‑X‑w Na-b‑v¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ ]{‑X-{‑]hÀ¯-\-¯‑ns‑â {‑I‑nb‑m‑wi‑w At‑±l‑w ad-¶‑p-t‑]‑m-b‑n. ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑n ]‑qÀ®-a‑mb‑n a‑pg‑p-I‑m-\‑m-h‑ms‑X X¶‑ns‑e c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob h‑y‑mt‑a‑m-l‑n-b‑ps‑S ]‑nS‑n-b‑n k‑zb‑w h‑oW‑p. A§s‑\ FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ t‑Ic-f-¯‑ns‑e k‑n.-]‑n. {‑i‑o[-cs‑â B‑wK-t‑eb t‑Zi‑ob ]X‑n¸‑mb‑n a‑md‑n-bX‑v Nc‑n-{‑X‑w Fs‑¶-¦‑ne‑p‑w I‑mW‑m-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑n-Ã. Xe-t‑È-c‑n-b‑ns‑e X‑nc‑p-h-§‑ms‑« I¸\ I®³ t‑at‑\‑m-s‑âb‑p‑w s‑I‑mf-t‑ic‑n-b‑ns‑e FS-¯« c‑pÜ‑nW‑n t‑Zh‑n A½b‑p-s‑Sb‑p‑w aI-\‑mb‑n 1907 U‑nk‑w-_À F«‑n\‑v P\‑n¨ \‑mc‑m-b-W³ _‑me‑y I‑ua‑m-c-§Ä ]‑n¶‑n-«X‑v DZ‑p-a t‑]«‑ne‑m-b‑n-c‑p-¶‑p. I¸\ I®³ t‑at‑\‑m³ {‑][‑m\ A[‑y‑m-]-I-\‑m-b‑n-c‑p¶ DZ‑p-a t‑]«‑v s‑s‑lk‑vI‑q-f‑n-e‑mW‑v \‑mc‑m-bW³ ]T‑n¨X‑v. ]{‑´ï‑m‑w hb-k‑n A½-b‑ps‑S acW‑w X‑m§‑m\‑m-h‑m¯ Z‑p‑xJ-a‑mb‑n \‑mc‑m-b-W-\‑v. CâÀ a‑oU‑nbä‑v Ig‑nª‑v a{‑Z‑mk‑v {‑]k‑n-U³k‑n t‑I‑mf-P‑n C‑w¥‑oj‑v k‑ml‑nX‑y‑w ] T‑n-¡‑m³ U‑n{‑K‑n¡‑p t‑NÀ¶‑p. s‑s‑ka¬ I½‑o-js‑\-X‑ns‑c t‑I‑mfP‑v Ih‑m-S-¯‑n ]X‑mI s‑I«‑n {‑]X‑n-t‑j-[‑n¨ \‑mc‑m-bWs‑\ t‑I‑mf-P‑n \‑n¶‑v U‑nk‑va‑nk‑v s‑Nb‑vX‑p. kaÀ°-\‑mb h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ°‑n-b‑mb-X‑p-s‑I‑mï‑v X‑nc‑p-h-\-´-]‑pc‑w al‑m-c‑mP‑mk‑v t‑I‑mf-P‑n (C-¶s‑¯ b‑qW‑n-t‑hg‑vk‑nä‑n t‑I‑mf-P‑v) ]T\‑w X‑pS-c‑m-s‑a¶‑v h‑mK‑vZ‑m\‑w h¶‑p F¦‑ne‑p‑w FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W³ hg-§‑n-b‑n-Ã. t‑I‑mfP‑v a‑mK-k‑n-\‑ns‑e Gäh‑p‑w {‑it‑²-b-a‑mb cN-\-IÄ FS-¯« \‑mc‑m-b-W-t‑â-X‑mb‑n-c‑p¶‑p F¶‑v kl-]‑m-T‑nb‑p‑w k‑pl‑r¯‑p-a‑mb Ne-]-X‑n-d‑mh‑p H‑mÀ¡‑p-¶‑p. 23-þ‑m‑w hb-k‑n K‑mÔ‑n-P‑n-b‑ps‑S "b‑wK‑v C´‑y'b‑n Fg‑pX‑n Xs‑â `‑mh‑n {‑] hÀ¯-\-§-f‑ps‑S ]‑mX s‑Xf‑n¨ FS¯« ]{‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\-¯‑n\‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob-¯‑n\‑p‑w s‑s‑k²‑m-´‑nI ka-h‑mI‑y‑w cN‑n-¡‑m³ P‑oh‑nX‑w kaÀ¸‑n-¨‑p. 1978  A´-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑p-hs‑c c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o-bh‑p‑w ] {‑X-{‑]-hÀ¯-\h‑p‑w e‑n¦‑v s‑N¿‑p¶ ]‑mea‑mb‑n FS-¯« P‑oh‑n-¨‑p. t‑Zi-k‑vt‑\ l‑n F¶‑v k‑z´‑w ]{‑X-¯‑n\‑v t‑]c‑p k‑z‑oI-c‑n¨ [‑oc-\‑mb At‑±-l-¯‑ns‑â P·-i-X‑m_‑vZ‑n 2007  IS¶‑p t‑]‑mbX‑v \½-f‑mc‑p‑w H‑mÀ¯-X‑p-t‑]‑m-e‑p-a‑n-Ã. F{‑X I‑qc-a‑mb \µ‑n-t‑IS‑v‑! teJI³ ho£Ww ]{X¯nse s]mfnän¡ð FUnädmWv. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: sujaathan@gmail.com


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Dr. Shoma A. Chatterji

Why True-Crime shows are so popular? Crime Does Pay! Crime Patrol was first premiered on May 9, 2003 hosted by Diwakar Pundur who was later replaced by Shakti Anand. But its popularity was not remotely close to the popularity it enjoys today. The second season, revamped completely and anchored jointly by Anoop Soni and Saakshi Tanwar, commenced in January 2010 and though Saakshi is no longer on the show, its popularity is very high. Today, it enjoys high TRPs among the top 10 in terms of viewership.

F

or those not interested in watching the tugof-war in family politics between and among zardozi-clad, heavily made-up ladies and sherwanisporting men, some with handle-bar moustaches trying to rule over the women, you can be sure what these couch potatoes are hooked on – true-crime stories aired across Indian television channels. The tremendous popularity of Crime Patrol aired on SET on weekends is an example of how fans are ready to postpone their bedtime just to watch the new episodes. The series tries to create awareness amongst masses by reconstructing and representing in dramatized form, heinous crimes that are committed in society around us. Anchored by Anoop Soni, the show has a different punch and appeal and Anoop is now a television star of noted renown. His act is extremely convincing because it is honest and has an emotional appeal though the objectivity factor is not compromised. Crime Patrol was first premiered on May 9, 2003 hosted by Diwakar Pundur who was later replaced by Shakti Anand. But its popularity was not remotely close to the popularity it enjoys today. The second season, revamped completely and anchored jointly by Anoop Soni and Saakshi Tanwar, commenced in January 2010 and though Saakshi is no longer on the show, its popularity is very high. Today, it enjoys high TRPs among the top 10 in terms

of viewership. “Crime dramas have been popular, crime novels have been popular in every culture everywhere in the world,” said Rene Balcer, Law and Order’s executive producer.” The second story ever told was a murder mystery - you know, the first story ever told was Adam and Eve, a love story. The second story, Cain and Abel.” “Murder is the ultimate catalyst for a good story, because the stakes are the highest,” said CSI’s creator, Anthony Zuiker. “There is no higher stake than human life. We have done shows where there is an art heist. They failed miserably. But America understands the person next door was brutally murdered and she had a whole life ahead of her.” CSI has a real forensic laboratory set up inside a studio and the actors claim the programme’s producers, have trained in some of the forensic techniques which add that touch of authenticity to the show. On 10th December 2012 in Subhanpur Village, District Hoshiyarpur, Punjab at around 8 pm near Bhagora crossing, Jyoti had met with an accident. She was lying unconscious on the road. Soniya’s Parents file a missing complaint in Mahilpur Police station located in Punjab. Punjab Police succeed in finding Jyoti Singh’s dead body and also recovers her Scooty. Punjab Police tries to collect more information about Soniya. The Inspector learns Pqsse 2013


(36) about Manish and Jyoti’s affair. Who killed Jyoti? What happened? This was the story in one episode of Crime Patrol. This article does not include fictional thriller shows like CID and Adalat because they are not based on true stories. But this is not the only true-story serial on Indian television. Other channels have joined the bandwagon and most of them are doing well. Savdhaan India on Life OK wonderfully anchored by actor Sushant Singh along with others. It touts itself as a campaign against violence and crime targeted at the mass audience with a galloping TRP since it introduced a specially designed programme that added the phrase – 100 episodes, 100 stories. “It is well timed and much needed initiative and it is shocking, while at the same time it drives the message home,” says Kiran Bedi, former Indian Police Service officer, says. “Through initiatives like these, the TV channels can showcase a variety of situations, solutions and alternatives for people when dealing with crime,” she adds. Bedi feels communities can come together and assist in reporting and handling crime by being more sensitive and aware of what goes on around them. “We are not trying to glorify crime, we analyse it and make viewers aware”, says Singh, the best among his peers that includes Gaurav Chopra, Om Puri, Mohnish Behl, Manoj Bajpai, Smriti Malhotra and Sachin Pilgaonkar. “We believe our families are everything and without them there’s no fun in life. The best gift we can give to our viewers is to equip them with knowledge on how to safeguard oneself. The gift of family is what we want to share,” said Ajit Thakur, general manager, Life OK channel. “From the perspective of people in other countries, America is an extremely violent culture,” said Professor David Schmid of the State University of New York at Buffalo. “When people watch CSI in other countries, they treat it pretty much as a documentary in a lot of cases, because it just dovetails so neatly with what they already think of as being America.” Australian-born Shane Brennan, who’s in charge of both NCIS and NCIS: Los Angeles, does not think that Americans are more into crime shows than people from other countries. These men will surely change their opinion about violence in India if they watch just a single episode of any of our true-life based crime shows on television. “If you look at the popularity of these genres since 9/11, there’s something significant there,” says NYU’s Aurora Wallace. “It is as if we are giving an answer to a failure of intelligence and a failure of technology.” The crime shows made in America, Canada and UK are more sophisticated not because of production values but because of the intensive research the stories are backed by, zeroing on the medical history of a criminal in Law and Order – Criminal Intent to such precise detail and doublechecking would bring out the credibility of the research. A 2009 Purdue University Study found Pqsse 2013

that some people who watch a LOT of crime shows think the world is a scarier place than it is. They tend to “overestimate the frequency of serious crimes”, like murder. Colours is presenting Shaitan – The Criminal Mind on Saturdays and Sundays but the telecasting is erratic and though the show is very well-presented by Sharad Kelkar. It is noted for its honesty in narrating real-life famous crime stories such as the famous badminton player Syed Modi murder case. It explores the socio-psychological roots of the criminal and focusses more on the criminal than on the crime whereas the former two programmes zero in on the crime and the social causes that led to it in the first place. The suffix “Dastak” meaning “Knock” (on the door) added later to Crime Patrol points out how vulnerable victims of crime are prone to be who do not hear the ‘knock’ before opening the door. Many a time, they become victims either because they are


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ignorant or because they are not careful enough. Sharad Kelkar’s anchoring is objective, straightfrom-the-shoulder and smart. His macho looks add to the USP of the show. Shaitaan – A Criminal Mind portrays crimes in which the criminal’s mindset is so cold-blooded that he/she has no regrets about the acts he/she has committed. They are mental cases true but that does not absolve them of the label of being criminal. For example, one episode portrayed the gruesome killing of the father, step-mother and step-brother of Sajal Barui of Kolkata relocated in another city in the television episode. Though Sajal said that this was in revenge of having suffered a tortured childhood, his latter-day criminal record – several jail breaks to commit more crimes, has disproved his statement. Considering that he was just a teenager in 1995, this is shocking. Gumrah aired on Channel V and Star Plus mainly deals with teenagers and very young people who

get sucked into criminal acts either through force of circumstance, or through their peer group or for individual reasons. But its host, television actor Karan Kundra is not able to deliver the goods and his narrating act lacks both energy and appeal. He peppers his talk with a lot of English and on a Hindi channel, this puts off the viewers so the show’s TRPs are probably quite thin. Besides, many of the episodes appear to be fictional which dilutes the honesty of the show. The interviews with youngsters and other teenagers are thoroughly unconvincing. “Gumrah is not a crime reporting show. It explores the psyche behind the reason for committing the crime,” says Karan. Why do we love watching reality-based crime shows on television? One is that it is wonderful to watch a criminal getting caught. It reinforces and consoles our sense of innate human justice. Another reason is the element of thrill and suspense – will the killer get caught? How and when will the police catch him? It somehow redeems our failing faith in the police force, more corrupt than honest. Thirdly, we find a comfort level with the stories though this sounds a bit sadistic in retrospect to state that we enjoy watching others being brutalized, oppressed, insulted and killed. But this is also true. Fourthly, we learn how to cope with situations we cannot find easy explanations to. Such as, verifying the sources of a stranger who might be a confidence trickster we tend to believe in because of his smooth-talking ways. We learn to look through the magic eye before opening the door. Last but never the least, we learn to resolve our fears of the unknown, the anonymous and the faceless person hiding out there, ready to attach in subtle and direct ways. It seems to be a combination of we trying to satisfy our sense of justice, our desire to feel good about ourselves and our urge to have thorough knowledge of someone else’s intentions that makes us addicted to crime shows. Combine this with good marketing and skilled actors and you have a success formula that has worked and will continue to work for years and years and years. Dirty deeds and clean resolutions presented through the ugliest murders, sometimes with the most beautiful people dishing up justice in under an hour, and in a uniquely satisfying way is very attractive both as entertainment and as adding to the viewer’s knowledge quotient. NYU Professor Aurora Wallace likens them to macaroni and cheese: “They are enormously comforting. This is the comfort food of television,” she says. The writer is a freelance journalist, author and film scholar based in Kolkata. She has authored 17 books and contributed to many edited compilations on cinema, family and gender. E-Mail: shoma.chatterji@gmail.com

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-ï-\‑v 200 I‑n-t‑e‑m-a‑o-äÀ ]-S‑n-ª‑md‑p-Å s‑N-d‑p-]-«-W-a‑m-W‑v t‑a‑m¬a‑u¯‑v. G-X‑m-ï‑v 9000  X‑m-s‑g a‑m{‑X‑w P-\-k‑w-J‑y-b‑p-Å ]-«-W-‑w. B-b‑n-c‑w hÀ-j‑w-a‑p-¼‑pÅ t‑d‑m-a³ t‑I‑m-«b‑m-b ‑"s‑»-k‑v-ä‑n-b‑w‑' B-W‑v C-h‑n-S‑p-s‑¯ {‑] [‑m-\ B-IÀ-jW‑w. t‑h-s‑db‑p‑w N‑n-e N-c‑n-{‑X-k‑v-a‑m-c-I-§Ä C-h‑ns‑Sb‑pï‑v. F-¶‑mÂ‑, N-c‑n-{‑X-{‑]‑m-[‑m-\‑y-a‑p-Å 445‑,000 s‑I-«‑nS-§f‑p‑w a-[‑y-I‑m-e-L-«-¯‑n-s‑e 12‑,000 t‑Z-h‑m-e-b-§-f‑p‑w A-d‑n-b-s‑¸-S‑p-¶ B-d‑pe-£‑w ]‑p-c‑m-h-k‑v-X‑p-k-t‑¦-X-§-f‑pa‑p-Å {‑_‑n-«-s‑\ k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨‑n-S-t‑¯‑m-f‑w k‑m-a‑m-\‑ya‑m-b AÀ-Y-¯‑n t‑a‑m¬-a‑u¯‑n-s‑e N-c‑n-{‑X-k‑v-a‑m-c-I-§Ä-¡‑v A-{‑X {‑]‑m-[‑m\‑y-s‑a‑m-¶‑p-a‑nÃ. ]t‑£‑, I-g‑n-ª hÀ-j-t‑¯‑m-s‑S Ø‑n-X‑n a‑md‑n. t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑ns‑e N-c‑n-{‑Xk‑v-a‑m-c-I-§Ä-¡‑v a-s‑ä-h‑n-s‑S-b‑p-a‑nÃ‑m-¯ H-c‑p k-h‑n-t‑i-j-X s‑s‑I-h¶‑p. B k‑va‑m-cI-§-t‑f‑m-t‑c‑m¶‑p‑w h‑n-¡‑n-]‑oU‑n-b F-¶ H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ h‑n-Ú‑m-\-t‑I‑m-i-h‑pa‑mb‑n ‑"e‑n-¦‑v' s‑N-b‑v-X‑p F-¶-X‑m-W‑v B k-h‑n-t‑ij-X. A-X‑ph-g‑n t‑e‑mI-s‑¯ BZ‑y "h‑n-¡‑n-]‑oU‑n-b ]-«-W‑w' (Wikipedia Town) F-¶‑m-b‑n t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑ns‑â ]-Zh‑n. C-X‑v t‑IÄ¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ k‑wi-b‑w t‑X‑m-¶‑m‑w. t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑n-s‑â s‑hº‑vs‑s‑k-ä‑nÂ-\‑n-¶t‑à h‑n-¡‑n-]‑o-U‑n-bb‑n-t‑e¡‑v ‑"e‑n¦‑v‑' s‑I‑m-S‑p-¡‑m-\‑m-I‑q. ]-«-W-¯‑n-s‑e b-Y‑mÀ-Y k‑v-a‑m-c-I§-s‑f F-§-s‑\-b‑m-W‑v h‑n-¡‑n-]‑o-U‑n-b-b‑n-t‑e¡‑v "e‑n¦‑v‑' s‑N-¿‑p-I? A-h‑n-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â c‑w-K-{‑]-t‑hi‑w. I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ h-g‑n-b‑m-W‑v t‑a‑m¬-a‑u¯‑n-s‑e k‑v-a‑m-c-I§Ä h‑n-¡‑n-]‑o-U‑n-bb‑p-a‑m-b‑n e‑n-¦‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v! t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑v k-µÀ-i‑n-¡‑p¶ H-c‑mÄ¡‑v‑, G-X‑v k‑v-a‑m-c-I-¯‑n-\‑v a‑p¶‑n-s‑e-¯‑n-b‑me‑p‑w A-h‑ns‑Ss‑b‑m-c‑p ^-e-I‑w (plaque) Ø‑m-]‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶X‑v I‑m-W‑m‑w. k‑v-a‑m-c-I-¯‑n-s‑â t‑] Pqsse 2013

c‑p‑w h‑n-¡‑n-]‑o-U‑n-b-b‑ps‑S s‑F-¡W‑p‑w ]‑ns‑¶- I-d‑p¸‑p‑w s‑h-f‑p¸‑p‑w I-Å‑n-I-f‑pÅ H-c‑p N-X‑p-c-h‑p-a‑m-W‑v ^-e-I-¯‑n B-t‑eJ-\‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-I. B N-X‑pc-a‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v. k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑ms‑W-S‑p-¯‑v A-X‑n-s‑e I‑y‑p.BÀ.d‑o-UÀ B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j-\‑n H-¶‑p h‑n-c-e-aÀ¯‑n-b t‑ij‑w‑, B N-X‑p-c-¯‑n\‑v t‑\-s‑c ]‑n-S‑n-

tam¬au¯nse Hcp ^eIw

¡‑pI-t‑b t‑hï‑q‑, B k‑v-a‑m-cI-s‑¯ k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨ h‑n-¡‑n-]‑oU‑n-b t‑]-P‑n-t‑e¡‑v t‑]‑m-I‑m-\‑p-Å h-g‑n-b‑mb‑n. h‑n-¡‑n]‑oU‑n-b t‑]-P‑v h‑m-b‑n-¨‑v a-\-k‑n-e‑m¡‑n-b t‑i-j‑w k‑v-a‑mc-I‑w I-ï‑m k-µÀi\‑w I‑q-S‑p-X ^-e-h-¯‑m-I‑p‑w. ‑"t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑v-]‑oU‑n-b' (Monmouthpedia) F-¶ ]²-X‑n h-g‑n-b‑mW‑v‑, C‑u ]«-W‑w t‑e‑mI-s‑¯ B-Z‑y h‑n-¡‑n-]‑oU‑n-b ]-«-W-a‑m-bX‑v. c-ï‑p-Xc-¯‑n-e‑p-Å H-c‑p-¡-§Ä A-X‑n-\‑v t‑hï‑n-h¶‑p. t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑n-s‑e k‑v-a‑m-c-I§-s‑fb‑p‑w Ø‑m-]-\-§-s‑fb‑p‑w I‑p-d‑n-¨‑v 25 `‑m-j-I-f‑n-e‑m-b‑n 500 ]‑pX‑n-b t‑e-J-\§Ä h‑n-¡‑n-]‑o-U‑n-b-b‑n t‑NÀt‑¡-ï‑n-


(39) h-¶‑p. H-¸‑w _-Ô-s‑¸-« h‑n-¡‑n-]‑oU‑n-b t‑]-P‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S e‑n-¦‑v \Â-I‑p-¶ B-b‑n-c¯‑n-t‑e-s‑d I‑y‑q.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ ^-e-I§-f‑n-e‑m-¡‑n ]-«-W-¯‑n Ø‑m-]‑n-t‑¡ï‑nb‑p‑w h-¶‑p. A-§s‑\‑, H-c‑p ]-«W-s‑¯ s‑hÀN‑z t‑e‑m-I-h‑p-a‑m-b‑n t‑\-c‑n«‑v _-Ô‑n-¸‑n¡‑m³ k‑m-[‑n-¨‑p. I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑m-W‑v A-X‑n\‑v hg‑n-s‑b‑m-c‑p-¡‑n-b-X‑v. I‑z‑n-¡‑v s‑dk‑v-t‑]‑m¬-k‑v t‑I‑m-U‑v AY-h‑m I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v a‑p-t‑¶‑m-«‑p-s‑hb‑v-¡‑p-¶ A\´ k‑m-[‑y-X-I-f‑n- H¶‑p a‑m-{‑X-a‑m-W‑v t‑a‑m¬-a‑u-¯‑n-s‑e AÛ‑p-X N-X‑p-c-§Ä. _‑n-k‑n-\k‑p‑w ]-c-k‑yh‑p‑w t‑_‑m-[-h-X‑v-¡-c-Wh‑p‑w h‑n-Z‑y‑m-`‑y‑m-kh‑p‑w h‑n-h-c-h‑n-\‑n-a-bh‑p‑w Dĸ-s‑S H-t‑«-s‑d t‑a-J-e-IÄ-¡‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-Ä X‑pd-¶‑p X-c‑p-¶ k‑m[‑y-X ]-d-ª‑m X‑o-c‑nÃ. C-X‑v ]-d-b‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ F-´‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v F-¶ k‑wi-b‑w N‑n-eÀs‑¡-¦‑ne‑p‑w D-ï‑m-t‑b-¡‑m‑w. I¬-k‑y‑q-aÀ D-X‑v-]-¶-§Ä-¡‑v ]‑pd-¯‑v I‑m-W-s‑¸S‑p¶ s‑h-Åb‑p‑w I-d‑p-¸‑w h-c-I-f‑p-Å _‑mÀ-t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ a‑n-¡-hÀ¡‑p‑w ]-c‑n-N‑nX-a‑m-W‑v. 1974  b‑p.F-k‑n Hl‑m-t‑b‑mh‑n-s‑e H-c‑p k‑q-¸À-a‑mÀ-¡-ä‑n N‑q-b‑n-M‑w ]‑m-¡-ä‑n-\‑v t‑a BZ‑y‑w {‑]-X‑y-£-s‑¸-« t‑ij‑w _‑mÀ-t‑I‑m-U‑v \½-s‑f H-g‑n-ª‑p t‑]‑m-b‑n-«‑nÃ. _‑mÀ-t‑I‑m-U‑n \‑n-¶‑v h‑y-X‑y-k‑v-X-a‑mW‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑v. I-d‑p-¸‑p‑w-s‑h-f‑p¸‑p‑w I‑p-¯‑p-IÄ \‑n-d-ª N-X‑p-c-t‑I‑m-U‑p-If‑m-W‑v A-h. {‑]-t‑X‑y-I- c‑o-X‑n-b‑n-e‑p-Å Z‑z‑na‑m-\ a‑m-{‑S‑n-I‑v-k‑v t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ. _‑mÀt‑I‑m-U‑ns‑\ A-t‑]-£‑n-¨‑v G-s‑d h‑n-h-c§Ä I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n DÄ-s‑¡‑m-Å‑n¡‑m-\‑m-I‑p‑w. H-c‑p s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑â b‑p. BÀ.FÂ‑, A-s‑Ã-¦‑n H-c‑m-f‑p-s‑S h‑n-e‑mk‑w‑, h‑oU‑nt‑b‑m e‑n-¦‑pIÄ‑, ]-c-k‑y-h‑mI‑y§Ä‑, h‑n-i-Z‑o-I-c-W-§Ä A§-s‑\ s‑s‑h-h‑n-[‑y-a‑mÀ-¶ h‑n-h-c-§Ä I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n DÄ-s‑¡‑m-Å‑n-¡‑m‑w. I‑y‑q. BÀ.d‑o-UÀ B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j³ C³-Ì‑mÄ s‑Nb‑v-X k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m¬ D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â N‑n-{‑X-s‑a-S‑p-¯‑m aX‑n‑, A-X‑n-e‑p-Å h‑n-h-c-§Ä A-\‑m-b‑mk‑w t‑^‑m-W‑n-t‑e-s‑¡-¯‑p‑w. _‑mÀ-t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ c‑q-]-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑p-¶X‑v 1950 I-f‑p-s‑S X‑p-S-¡-¯‑n-e‑mW‑v. ] t‑£‑, A-X‑n\‑v B-Z‑y-a‑m-b‑n D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑w I-s‑ï-¯‑p¶X‑v 1974 e‑p‑w. H-cÀ-Y-¯‑n B N-c‑n-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â X-\‑n-b‑m-hÀ-¯-\‑w X-s‑¶-b‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑âb‑p‑w. 1994 e‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ h‑nI-k‑n-¸‑n-¡‑p-¶-X‑v. A-X‑v {‑]-N‑m-c-¯‑n-s‑e¯‑p-¶-t‑X‑m‑, k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m¬ b‑p-K‑w B-c‑w-`‑n-¨-X‑n-\‑v t‑i-j-h‑p‑w. P-¸‑m-\‑n-e‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â B-h‑nÀ-`‑mh‑w. h‑m-l-\-\‑nÀ-a‑m-X‑m-¡f‑mb

s‑S‑m-t‑b‑m-«-b‑p-s‑S I‑o-g‑n-e‑p-Å s‑U³t‑k‑m t‑h-h‑n-Â‑, h‑m-l-\-`‑m-K-§Ä I‑r-X‑y-a‑mb‑n {‑S‑m-¡‑v s‑N-¿‑m-\‑m-b‑n h‑n-I-k‑n-¸‑n-¨ k-t‑¦-X-a‑m-W‑nX‑v. s‑U³t‑k‑m t‑h-h‑n-\‑v X-s‑¶-b‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â t‑] äâ‑v F-¦‑n-e‑p‑w‑, A-hc-X‑v FÃ‑m¯-c‑w s‑s‑ek³-k‑n-M‑nÂ-\‑n¶‑p‑w a‑p-à-a‑m-¡‑n k‑u-P-\‑y-a‑m-b‑n t‑e‑m-I-¯‑n-\‑v \Â-I‑n. s‑F.F-k‑v.H. k‑v-ä‑m³-t‑UÀ-U‑v A-\‑p-k-c‑n¨‑m-W‑v A-X‑v ]‑p-d-¯‑n-d-¡‑n-b-X‑v. I‑y‑q.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v k‑r-ã‑n¡‑m-t‑\‑m‑, I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v h‑m-b‑n-s‑¨-S‑p¡‑mt‑\‑m {‑]-t‑X‑y-I‑n-¨‑v s‑N-e-s‑h‑m¶‑p‑w CÃ. K‑qK‑n-f‑n s‑N-¶‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-s‑U-¶‑v s‑kÀ-¨‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑m B t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ k‑r-ã‑n-¨‑p X-c‑p-¶ H-t‑«-s‑d s‑s‑k-ä‑p-IÄ a‑p-¶‑n-s‑e-¯‑p‑w. I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n DÄ-s‑¡‑m-Å‑n-t‑¡-ï h‑n-h-c-§-s‑f-´‑ms‑W-¶‑v A¯-c‑w s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑e t‑]-P‑n \Â-I‑n-b‑m s‑k-¡³-U‑p-IÄ-¡-I‑w I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v s‑dU‑n‑! A-X‑v {‑]‑nâ‑v

t‑]-P‑p-IÄ s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑n _‑p-¡‑v-a‑mÀ¡‑v s‑N-¿‑m³ I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S k-l‑m-b‑w t‑X-S‑p¶‑p. hf-s‑c \‑o-f-a‑pÅ b‑p.BÀ.FÃ‑p-IÄ s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑n s‑s‑S-¸‑v s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¡‑p-I _‑p-²‑n-a‑p-«‑mI‑p‑w. F-¶‑mÂ‑, B t‑]P‑n-s‑e‑m-c‑p I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-s‑ï-¦‑n s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑p-]t‑b‑m-K‑n-¨‑v H-c‑p t‑^‑m-t‑«‑m-s‑b-S‑p-¯‑m aX‑n‑, b‑p.BÀ.FÂ.t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e-¯‑p‑w. H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ a‑m-[‑y-a-§-f‑p-s‑S Gäh‑p‑w he‑n-b {‑]-t‑X‑y-I-X-If‑n-s‑e‑m-¶‑mb‑n I-W-¡‑m-¡-s‑¸-S‑p-¶ k‑w-K-X‑n-b‑mW‑v "s‑s‑l-¸À-s‑S-I‑v-Ì‑n‑'s‑â D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑w.1965  s‑S-U‑v s‑\Â-k¬ ‑"s‑s‑l-¸À-s‑S-I‑vs‑Ì‑'¶‑v t‑]-c‑v \ÂI‑n-b B k‑m-[‑y-X‑, s‑h-º‑v-t‑]-P‑p-I-s‑fb‑p‑w N‑n-{‑X-§-s‑fb‑p‑w h‑n-h-c-§-s‑fb‑p‑w ]-c-k‑v]-c‑w _-Ô‑n¸‑n-¡‑m³ (e‑n-¦‑v s‑N¿‑m³‑) k-l‑m-b‑n¡‑p¶‑p. H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ t‑]-P‑n H-c‑p I‑m-c‑y-s‑¯-¡‑p-d‑n-¨‑v \-½Ä h‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑n-\‑n-S-b‑nÂ‑, A-X‑p-a‑m-b‑n _-Ô-s‑¸-« I‑q-

Iyp.BÀ. tImUv kvIm\n§v

s‑N-b‑v-s‑X-S‑p-¯‑m a-X‑n‑, k‑wK-X‑n F-f‑p¸‑w (hf-s‑c P-\-{‑]‑n-ba‑m-b H-c‑p F.]‑n.s‑F K‑q-K‑n-f‑n-\‑pï‑v; I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑v k‑r-ã‑n-¡‑m³‑). AX‑p-t‑]‑m-s‑e X-s‑¶-b‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S-b‑p‑w Ø‑nX‑n. {‑]a‑p-J s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ ¹‑mä‑v-t‑^‑m-a‑p-If‑ns‑e‑m-s‑¡ I‑y‑p.BÀ.d‑o-U-À B-¹‑n-t‑¡j-\‑p-IÄ k‑u-P-\‑y-a‑m-b‑n e-`‑n-¡‑p‑w. B³-t‑{‑U‑m-b‑v-U‑v t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑\b‑p‑w s‑F-t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑\b‑p-s‑a‑m-s‑¡ F-f‑p-¸¯‑n I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v d‑o-U-d‑p-I-f‑m-¡‑n a‑m-ä‑m‑w. ]-c-k‑y-]-e-I-IÄ a‑p-X h‑n-k‑n-ä‑n-M‑v I‑mÀ-U‑p-IÄ h-s‑c C-¶‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑pIÄ-s‑I‑m-ï‑v X-¿‑m-d‑m-¡-s‑¸-S‑p-¶‑p. ]‑m-Ý‑m-X‑y-\-K-c-§-f‑ne‑p‑w P-¸‑m-\‑ne‑p‑w I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ kÀ-h-h‑y‑m-]‑n-b‑mW‑v. ]-e s‑hº‑v-s‑s‑k-ä‑p-If‑p‑w A-h-c‑p-s‑S

S‑p-X h‑n-h-c-§-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑v ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v t‑]‑m-I‑m³ s‑s‑l-¸À-s‑S-I‑v-Ì‑v A-hkc-s‑a‑m-c‑p-¡‑p-¶‑p. A¨-S‑n a‑m-[‑y-a-¯‑n-\‑v k‑m-[‑n-¡‑m-¯ H-¶‑mW‑v C‑u k‑m-[‑y-X. H-c‑p ]-{‑X-¯‑n-s‑â H-¶‑m‑w-t‑]-P‑n \‑n-¶‑v ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v A-©‑m‑w-t‑]-P‑n-t‑e-¡‑v t‑]‑mh‑p-I k‑m-[‑y-aÃ-t‑Ã‑m‑! C-¡‑mc‑y‑w i-c‑n-Xs‑¶. ]t‑£‑, C-§s‑\-s‑b‑m-c‑p k‑m-l-Nc‑y‑w k-¦Â¸‑n-¡‑p-I : \‑n-§Ä ]{‑X‑w h‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑mW‑v. a‑q-¶‑m‑w-t‑]-P‑n H-c‑p s‑d-U‑n-s‑ab‑v-U‑v t‑j‑m-¸‑n-s‑â ]-c-k‑y‑w. C§-s‑\ I‑m-W‑p-¶‑p : "R-§-f‑p-s‑S s‑^-b‑v-k‑v_‑p-¡‑v t‑]-P‑v s‑s‑e-¡‑v s‑N-¿‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑v h-¼‑n-¨ H‑m-^À. 40 i-X-a‑m-\‑w h‑n-e-I‑pdh‑v‑'. AX‑n-s‑\‑m-¸‑w H-c‑p I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑p‑w \Â-I‑n-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. AX‑p-s‑I‑mÅ‑ma-s‑Ã‑m F-¶‑v a-\-k‑n I-c‑pX‑n‑, \‑n-§Ä k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m¬ s‑s‑I-b‑n-s‑ePqsse 2013


(40) S‑p-¯‑v B I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v I‑y‑m-a-d-b‑ne‑m-¡‑n-b-X‑p‑w‑, I-S-b‑p-s‑S s‑^-b‑v-k‑v-_‑p-¡‑v t‑]-P‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑v t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e-¯‑n. B t‑]-P‑n IS¶‑v H-c‑p s‑s‑e-¡‑v s‑I‑mS‑p¯‑p. \‑n-a‑n-j-§Ä¡-I‑w \‑n-§Ä-¡‑v t‑j‑m-¸‑ns‑â s‑a-t‑k-P‑v t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e¯‑n‑, C-¶ X‑obX‑nh-s‑c C-h‑n-s‑S-s‑b-¯‑n 40 i-X-a‑m\‑w h‑n-e-I‑pd-¨‑v ]À-t‑¨-k‑n-M‑v \-S-¯‑m‑w‑, k‑z‑mK-X‑w‑! H‑mÀ-¡‑p-I‑, \‑n-§Ä A-¨-S‑n-¨ Hc‑p ]-{‑X-¯‑m-f‑nÂ-\‑n-¶‑m-W‑v I-S-b‑p-s‑S s‑^-b‑v-k‑v-_‑p-¡‑v t‑]-P‑n-t‑e-¡‑v t‑]‑m-bX‑v. A-X‑n-\‑v I‑m-c-W-a‑m-bt‑X‑m I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑p‑w‑! \‑n-§Ä-¡‑v H-c‑p ]-{‑X-¯‑m-f‑nÂ\‑n-¶‑v ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v a-s‑ä‑m-c‑n-S-t‑¯-¡‑v t‑]‑m-I‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑nÃ‑m-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑m‑w. ]t‑£‑, G-X‑m-ï‑v A-X‑n-\‑v k-a‑m-\a‑m-b H-c‑p k‑wK-X‑n X-s‑¶b-t‑à I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑v H-c‑p-¡‑n-¯-c‑p-¶X‑v. {‑]‑nâ‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑p‑w X-½‑n-e‑p-Å ]‑m-e-a‑m-b‑n I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑\ a‑m-ä‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p‑w F-¶ÀY‑w. ‑"s‑s‑l-¸À-s‑S-I‑v-Ì' F-¶ B-i-b¯‑n-\‑v ]‑pX‑n-b t‑h-Z‑n-IÄ X‑p-d-¶‑n-S‑p-Ib‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v. t‑aÂ-¸-d-ª t‑j‑m-¸‑ns‑â ]-ck‑y‑w \-a‑p-¡‑v H-¶‑p-I‑q-S‑n ]-c‑n-K-W‑n-¡‑m‑w. dntbm Un P\ntdm

Pqsse 2013

A¯-c-s‑a‑m-c‑p ]-ck‑y‑w \‑n-§Ä t‑]‑mI‑p-¶ h-g‑n-¡‑v H-c‑p he‑nb t‑_‑mÀ-U‑ne‑m-W‑v F-g‑p-X‑n-s‑h-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-s‑X-¶‑v I-c‑p-X‑p-I. ‑"R-§-f‑p-s‑S s‑^-b‑v-k‑v-_‑p-¡‑v t‑]-P‑v s‑s‑e-¡‑v s‑N-¿‑p-I‑, h-¼‑n-¨ H‑m-^À t‑\S‑p-I‑'. A-X‑n I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n\‑v ]-I-c‑w s‑^-b‑v-k‑v-_‑p-¡‑v t‑]-P‑n-s‑â b‑p. BÀ.FÂ.B-W‑v \Â-I-b‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v. B t‑_‑mÀ-U‑n-\‑v a‑p-¶‑n \‑n-¶‑v s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑n B b‑p.BÀ.FÂ.s‑s‑S¸‑v s‑N-b‑v-X‑v s‑s‑k-ä‑n-s‑e-¯‑n s‑s‑e-¡‑v s‑N-¿‑m³ \‑n-§Ä a‑p-X‑nc‑p-t‑a‑m‑! A-[‑n-Ia‑mc‑p‑w A-X‑n-\‑v X-¿‑m-d‑m-I‑p-s‑a-¶‑v t‑X‑m¶‑p-¶‑nÃ. F-¶‑mÂ‑, C-t‑X k‑m[‑y-X C-c‑n-¡‑p-¶‑nS-¯‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â c‑q-]-¯‑n-s‑e-¯‑n-b-t‑¸‑mÄ \‑n-§Ä c-ï‑ma-s‑X‑m-¶‑v B-t‑e‑m-N‑n-¨‑nÃ. A-X‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â a‑m{‑´‑nI-X. t‑]-c‑v t‑]‑m-s‑e A-X‑v ‑"I‑z‑n-¡‑v s‑dk‑v-t‑]‑m¬k‑v‑' k‑r-ã‑n-¡‑p¶‑p. k‑m-a‑o]‑y‑w‑, k‑u-I-c‑y‑w‑, {‑]‑m]‑yX þC‑u a‑q-¶‑v L-S-I-§-f‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑\ C-{‑X-t‑b-s‑d B-IÀ-j-W‑o-b-a‑m-¡‑p-¶X‑v. H-¸‑w A-X‑n-s‑e-´‑m-W‑p-Å-s‑X-¶‑v A-d‑nb‑m-\‑p-Å I‑u-X‑p-I-h‑p‑w‑! I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑pIÄ \-½‑p-s‑S \‑m-

«‑n A-{‑X h‑y‑m-]-I-a‑m-b‑n-«‑nÃ. A-X‑n-\‑v I‑m-c-W-a‑p-ï‑v. C-´‑y-b‑ns‑e s‑a‑m-¯‑w s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ D-]-t‑b‑m-à‑m-¡-f‑n C-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w s‑Nd‑n-s‑b‑m-c‑p i-X-a‑m-\t‑a k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m¬ D-]-t‑b‑m-K‑n-¡‑p-¶‑pÅ‑q. k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m-W‑p-a‑m-b‑n _-Ô-s‑¸-«‑mW‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v {‑]-hÀ¯-\‑w F-¶X‑ps‑I‑m-ï‑v, I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v \-½‑p-s‑S `‑mh‑n-b‑n-t‑e-¡‑v X‑p-d-¡‑p-¶ k‑m-[‑y-X-b‑m-W‑v. F-¶‑mÂ‑, k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m-W‑p-IÄ kÀ-h-h‑y‑m-]‑nb‑m-b \‑m-S‑p-I-f‑n H‑mt‑c‑m Z‑n-h-kh‑p‑w I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-\‑v ]‑pX‑n-b D-]-t‑b‑m-K§Ä c‑w-K-s‑¯¯‑pI-b‑mW‑v. D-Z‑m-l-c-W-¯‑n\‑v‑, {‑_-k‑o-e‑n-s‑e {‑]k‑n-² \-K-ca‑m-b d‑nt‑b‑m U‑n P\‑o-t‑d‑mb‑n I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ Ø‑m-\‑w]‑n-S‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p¶-X‑v \-S-¸‑m-X-I-f‑n-e‑mW‑v. S‑q-d‑n-Ì‑pI-s‑f k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑m-\‑m-W‑v B \-S-]-S‑n. _-Ô-s‑¸-« S‑q-d‑n-k‑w s‑s‑k-ä‑pI-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑p-I-f‑m-W‑v B I‑y‑q. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑n-e‑p-ÅX‑v. a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, a‑m¸‑p-I-f‑n-t‑e-¡‑p-Å e‑n-¦‑p-I-f‑p-a‑pï‑v. t‑]‑mÀ¨‑p-K-e‑n-s‑e e‑n-k‑v-_¬ \-K-c-¯‑n S‑q-d‑n-k‑v-ä‑p-IÄ-¡‑m-b‑n I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑pIÄ Ø‑m-]‑n-¨-X‑n-\‑v ]‑n-¶‑m-s‑e-b‑m-W‑v d‑n-t‑b‑m-b‑p‑w A-X‑v ]‑n-´‑p-SÀ-¶-X‑v. t‑_‑mÀ-U‑p-I-f‑n F-g‑p-X‑n {‑]-ZÀ-i‑n¸‑n-¨‑n-«‑p-ÅX‑v h‑m-b‑n-¡‑m³ a‑n-\-s‑¡-S‑m¯hÀ-t‑]‑me‑p‑w \-S-¸‑m-X-I-f‑n C¯-c‑w t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ I-ï‑mÂ‑, I‑u-X‑pI‑w-s‑I‑mï‑v A-X‑n-s‑â t‑^‑mt‑«‑m s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑n F-S‑p-s‑¯-¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w‑! A-s‑X‑m-¶‑v h‑mb‑n¨‑p-t‑\‑m-¡‑n-s‑b-¶‑n-c‑n-¡‑p‑w. P‑o-h‑n-¨‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶-h-c‑p-s‑S t‑e‑mI-¯‑v a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, ]-t‑c-X-c‑p-s‑S C-S-b‑ne‑p‑w I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ-¡‑v Ø‑m-\‑w I-s‑ï¯‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-s‑a-¶‑v I‑y‑m-\-U-b‑nÂ-\‑n¶‑p-Å H-c‑p h‑mÀ-¯ h‑y-à-a‑m-¡‑p-¶‑p. I‑y‑m-\-U-b‑n s‑_‑m-s‑UÂ-h‑y‑m-U-\‑n-s‑e s‑kâ‑v a‑mÀ-{‑K-ä‑v t‑Z-h‑m-e-b s‑k-a‑n-t‑¯c‑n-b‑n-e‑mW‑v‑, ]-t‑c-X-c‑p-s‑S h‑n-h-c-§Ä I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑n t‑c-J-s‑¸-S‑p-¯‑nbX‑v. H-¶‑m‑w-t‑e‑m-I a-l‑m-b‑p-²-¯‑n a-c‑n-¨ F¬-]-X‑n-t‑e-s‑d s‑s‑k-\‑n-I-c‑p-s‑S a‑r-X-t‑Z-l-§Ä B s‑k-a‑n-t‑¯-c‑n-b‑n AS-¡‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-«‑p-ï‑v. s‑s‑k-\‑n-I-c‑p-s‑S i-h-I‑p-S‑o-c-§-f‑n-e‑mW‑v‑, Ah-s‑c k‑w-_Ô‑n¨‑p‑w A-hÀ ]-s‑¦-S‑p¯ s‑s‑k\‑n-I \-S]-S‑n k‑w-_-Ô‑n-¨‑p-a‑p-Å h‑n-h-c-§Ä I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑n B-t‑eJ\‑w s‑N-b‑v-X‑n-c‑n-¡‑p-¶X‑v. s‑k-a‑n-t‑¯-c‑n k-µÀ-i‑n-¡‑p-¶-hÀ-¡‑v B t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑ps‑S N‑n-{‑X‑w k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e-S‑p-¯‑v h‑n-h-c-§-f-d‑n-b‑m‑w. I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-IÄ k‑r-ã‑n-¡‑pIb‑p‑w h‑m-b‑n-¡‑p-Ib‑p‑w a‑m-{‑XaÃ‑, I‑y‑p. BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v A-[‑n-j‑vT‑n-Xa‑m-b ]‑pX‑n-b kÀ-h‑o-k‑p-If‑p‑w s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_ t‑e‑mI-¯‑v {‑]-X‑y-£-s‑¸-S‑p-s‑a-¶-X‑n-s‑â k‑q-N-\b‑mW‑v‑, A-S‑p-¯‑n-b‑n-s‑S ‑"]Ä-k‑vF‑w‑'


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(apIfnð) temI¯nse Gähpw henb Iyp. BÀ. tImUv. Im\Ubnse {Imbv ^manenbpsS tNmft¯m«w. Gtg¡tdmfw hcpó Cu tImUv BImi¯p\nóv kvIm³ sNbvXmð ^mw sh_vskänse¯mw. (Xmsg) hnhn[ Xe§fnð D]tbmKn¨ncn¡pó Iyp.BÀ. tImUpIÄ

(‑pulsM‑) I¼-\‑n ]‑p-d-¯‑n-d‑n¡‑n-b B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j³. D-]-t‑`‑m-à‑m-¡-f‑p-s‑S {‑]-X‑n-Ic-W‑w A-d‑n-b‑m³ A-hk-c-s‑a‑m-c‑p¡‑p-¶ H-¶‑mW‑v C‑u B-¹‑n-t‑¡j³. H‑m¬-s‑s‑e³ t‑^‑m-d-§Ä ]‑q-c‑n¸‑n-¡‑p-I‑, I-Ì-aÀ kÀ-s‑Æ \-S¯‑p-I a‑p-Xe‑m-b s‑]‑mÃ‑m-¸‑p-I-s‑f‑m-¶‑p-a‑nÃ‑m-s‑X I-Ì-a-d‑p-s‑S a-\-k‑n-e‑n-c‑n-¸‑v A-d‑n-b‑m³ ]‑p-X‑n-b B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j³ k-l‑m-b‑n-¡‑p‑w. {‑]-t‑X‑y-I-a‑m-b‑n c‑q-]-IÂ-¸-\ s‑Nb‑v-X H-c‑p I‑y‑q.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑n-s‑â t‑^‑m-t‑«‑m k‑v-a‑mÀ«‑v-t‑^‑m-W‑n-s‑e-S‑p-¡‑p-t‑¼‑mÄ‑, t‑^‑mW‑ns‑e ‑"]Ä-k‑vF‑w‑' B-¹‑n-t‑¡-j³ {‑]-hÀ-¯-\-£-a-a‑m-I‑p‑w. {‑]-X‑n-Ic-W‑w t‑^‑mW‑n-t‑\‑m-S‑v ]-d-ª‑m a-X‑n. AX‑v F-t‑¯-ï‑nS-¯‑v F-¯‑n-s‑¡‑m-Å‑p‑w. D-Z‑m-l-c-W-¯‑n-\‑v H-c‑p s‑d-k‑v-t‑ä‑m-d-ï‑n I-b-d‑n. `£-W‑w A-{‑X \-¶Ã. ] Ä-k‑v-F‑w h-g‑n A-¡‑mc‑y‑w ]-d-ª‑m D-S-aØ-s‑â a‑p-¶‑n \‑n-§-f‑p-s‑S {‑]-X‑nI-c-W-s‑a-¯‑p‑w. A-Z‑r-i‑y I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S k-l‑m-b-t‑¯‑m-s‑S {‑]-a‑m-W-§f‑p‑w I-d³k‑n t‑\‑m-«‑p-If‑p‑w h‑y‑m-P-a‑m-b‑n \‑nÀ-a‑n¡‑p¶-X‑v X-S-b‑m-\‑p-Å K-t‑h-j-W-a‑mW‑v‑, I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S k‑m[‑y-X t‑X-S‑p-¶ a-s‑ä‑m-c‑p t‑aJ-e. C-§-s‑\ F-®‑nb‑m-s‑e‑m-S‑p-§‑m-¯ k‑m-[‑y-X-I-f‑nt‑e-¡‑m-W‑v I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v h-g‑n t‑e‑mI‑w N‑p-h-S‑p-s‑h-b‑v-¡‑p-¶X‑v. ]t‑£‑, A-t‑¸‑mg‑p‑w H‑mÀ-¡‑p-I. C-X‑v \Ã-I‑m-c‑y-§Ä-¡‑v a‑m-{‑X-aà D-]-t‑b‑mK‑n-¡‑m³ I-g‑n-b‑p-I. I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑m-U‑v I-ï‑m A-X‑n-s‑â t‑^‑m-t‑«‑m-s‑b-S‑p-¯‑p t‑\‑m-¡‑p-¶ B-f‑p-I-f‑p-s‑S k‑z-`‑m-h‑w a‑p-X-e‑m-¡‑m³ B-s‑c-¦‑ne‑p‑w c‑w-K-s‑¯¯‑n-¡‑q-s‑S-¶‑nÃ. I‑p-_‑p-²‑n-IÄ-¡‑v CX‑p-s‑a‑m-c‑p e‑m-`-s‑¡‑m-b‑v-¯‑m-¡‑n a‑m-ä‑m‑w. \‑n-§-f‑p-s‑S s‑a‑m-s‑s‑_-e‑n-s‑e ]‑m-k‑v-t‑hU‑p-If‑p‑w _‑m-¦‑v-A-¡‑u-ï‑v h‑n-h-c-§f‑p‑w t‑N‑mÀ-¯‑m-\‑p-Å H-c‑p Z‑pã-t‑{‑]‑m-{‑K‑ma‑n-s‑â e‑n-¦‑v C¯-c-s‑a‑m-c‑p t‑I‑m-U‑n A-\‑m-b‑m-k‑w DÄ-s‑¡‑m-Å‑n-¡‑m-h‑p-¶-s‑Xb‑p-Å‑q. I‑m-W‑p-¶ e‑n-¦‑p-If‑n-s‑e‑m-s‑¡ N‑m-S‑nt‑¡-d‑n ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-¿-c‑p-X‑v F-¶‑v ]-d-b‑p‑wt‑]‑ms‑e‑, I‑m-W‑p-¶ I‑y‑p.BÀ.t‑I‑mU‑ns‑e‑m-s‑¡ A-s‑X-h‑n-s‑S-b‑m-W‑v, F-´‑m-W‑v F-¶‑v t‑\‑m-¡‑m-s‑X ¢‑n-¡‑v s‑N-¿-c‑p-X‑v! amXr`qan Hm¬sse\nð No^v k_v FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: jamboori@gmail.com A-h-e‑w_‑w‑, I-S-¸‑m-S‑v :

qrcodestickers.org; Wikimedia blog on Monmouthpedia; h‑nh‑n-[ h‑mÀ-¯‑mG-P³-k‑nIÄ

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hmb-\

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h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑ns‑e C´‑y

C´‑yb‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ t‑Zi‑obXs‑b \‑nÀ½‑n¡‑p¶ h‑ni‑p² {‑X‑nX‑za‑mW‑v ]ck‑y‑w‑, {‑I‑n¡ä‑v‑, c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w F¶‑nh þ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ e‑pIs‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pï‑mb Hc‑p t‑U‑mI‑vSd X‑ok‑nk‑v.

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eb‑mf¯‑n h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³ Hc‑p ZiI‑w ]‑n¶‑nS‑pIb‑mW‑v. 2003 P‑qs‑s‑e 14 \‑mW‑v C´‑y‑mh‑nj³ BZ‑y aeb‑mf h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑mb‑n k‑wt‑{‑]jWa‑mc‑w`‑n¨X‑v. 1998 a‑pX Ì‑mÀ\‑y‑qk‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑mb‑n c‑wK ¯‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¦‑ne‑p‑w BZ‑y C´‑y³ C‑w¥‑oj‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑mb‑n F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑n 24 ‑x 7 k‑wt‑{‑]jWa‑mc‑w `‑n¡‑p¶X‑p‑w 2003ÂXs‑¶b‑mW‑v. s‑X‑m«‑pa‑p³]‑v k‑o‑, BP‑vX¡‑v F¶‑o l‑nµ‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ \‑neh‑n h¶‑nc‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\Âc‑wKs‑¯ aeb‑mf¯‑ns‑â C‑u t‑aÂs‑s‑¡ D] {‑KlN‑m\ c‑wK¯‑p‑w {‑]ISa‑mb‑nc‑p ¶‑p. 1992 C´‑yb‑n BZ‑y‑w \‑neh‑n  h¶ cï‑v D]{‑KlN‑m\e‑pIf‑n H¶‑v aeb‑mf¯‑ns‑e Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑mb‑n c‑p¶‑p. F´‑mb‑me‑p‑w A¨S‑na‑m[‑yac‑wK s‑¯¶ t‑]‑ms‑e Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑yac‑wK¯‑p‑w aeb‑mf‑w C´‑y³ `‑mjIf‑n Gs‑d a‑p¶‑n Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v. s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ N‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑{‑]£Ic‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w F®¯‑ne‑p‑w ]c k‑yhc‑pa‑m\¯‑ne‑p‑w ]s‑£ l‑nµ‑n‑, Xa‑ng‑v‑, s‑Xe‑pK‑p‑, I¶S `‑mjIf‑mW‑v a‑p¶‑n þ P\k‑wJ‑y‑m]ca‑mb‑p‑w AX §s‑\b‑mWt‑Ã‑m. k‑n\‑nab‑ps‑S I‑mc‑y h‑p‑w C§s‑\ Xs‑¶b‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. C´‑y b‑ns‑e s‑a‑m¯‑w X‑obäd‑pIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w k‑n\‑naIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑{‑]£Ic‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w

Pqsse 2013

F®¯‑n GX‑mï‑v Ad‑p]X‑piXa‑m \‑w \‑me‑p Z£‑nt‑W´‑y³ k‑wØ‑m\ §f‑n a‑m{‑Xa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p. F´‑mb‑me‑p‑w C´‑yb‑n h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³ H¶c ZiI‑w ]‑n¶‑nS‑p¶ k‑mlNc‑y¯‑n C‑u t‑aJes‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑pï‑mb Hc‑p t‑U‑mI‑vSd X‑ok‑nk‑v {‑it‑²ba‑mb Hc‑p]‑mS‑v hk‑vX‑pXIf‑p‑w \‑nc‑o£W§f‑p‑w a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑ph¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑v \½‑ps‑S h‑mÀ¯‑m-N‑m\ k‑wk‑vI‑mc¯‑ns‑â K‑uchXca‑mb ]T\‑w \‑nÀhl‑n¡‑p ¶‑pï‑v. (\f‑n³ t‑a¯b‑ps‑S C‑u {‑KÙ s‑¯¡‑pd‑n¨‑v a‑p³]‑v s‑Nd‑nb Hcht‑e‑m I\‑w C‑u t‑eJI³ {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¨‑n «‑pï‑v F¶‑p k‑qN‑n¸‑n-¡s‑«.‑) C´‑yb‑n s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v [‑mc‑mf‑w ]T\§f‑pï‑mI‑p¶‑pï‑v. Ch b‑n Gäh‑p‑w {‑it‑²ba‑mbh C‑w¥‑oj‑n e‑ms‑Wg‑pXs‑¸S‑p¶X‑v. a‑m[‑ya]T‑nX‑m ¡f‑mIs‑« a‑n¡hc‑p‑w C-´‑y¡‑p s‑hf‑n b‑ne‑pffhc‑pa‑mW‑v. D]{‑Klk‑mt‑¦X‑n IX k‑rj‑vS‑n¨ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ h‑n¹h‑w (t‑Uh‑nU‑v t‑]P‑v‑, h‑ne‑y‑w t‑{‑I‑mf‑n‑)‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑pÄs‑¸s‑Sb‑pff a‑m[‑ya h‑yhk‑mb‑w (h\‑nX‑mt‑I‑ml‑ve‑n J‑mW‑vt‑U¡À‑)‑, k‑ma‑ql‑y a‑m[‑yas‑a¶ \‑neb‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ (t‑d‑m_‑n³ P{‑^‑n‑, H¸‑w ii‑nI‑pa‑md‑ns‑â t‑eJ\ §f‑p‑w‑)‑, _l‑pP\ a‑m[‑yas‑a¶ \‑neb‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ (t‑kh´‑n

s‑s‑\\‑m³‑)‑, ]c¼cIÄ a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑nb‑p ff s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w (Ach‑nµ‑v c‑mPt‑K‑m]‑mÂ‑, ]‑qÀW‑na at‑¦¡À‑) F¶‑n§s‑\ \‑nch[‑n h‑njbt‑aJe If‑n t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶ ]T\§Ä DZ‑mlcWa‑mW‑v. \f‑n³ t‑a¯b‑ps‑S {‑KÙ‑w h‑yX‑yk‑vXa‑mI‑p¶X‑v C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIs‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑pff k‑q£‑vah‑p‑w kh‑nt‑ijh‑pa‑mb Kt‑hjW]T\a‑mW‑v CX‑v F¶X‑p s‑I‑mï‑mW‑v. H‑mk‑vt‑{‑Se‑nbb‑ns‑e e‑mþt‑{‑S‑m_‑v kÀhIe‑mi‑meb‑n t‑d‑m_‑n³ P{‑^‑nb‑ps‑S a‑mÀK\‑nÀt‑±i ¯‑n \S¯‑nb Kt‑hjWa‑mW‑v \f‑ns‑â C‑u {‑KÙ‑w. h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³ Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya c‑wK¯‑p k‑rj‑vS‑n¨ h‑n¹h‑w‑, ]{‑X‑w B[‑p\‑nIXb‑n k‑rj‑vS‑n¨ h‑mÀ¯‑m h‑n¹h¯‑n\‑p ka‑m\a‑mW‑v. \‑nÝba‑m b‑p‑w AX‑ns‑\¡‑mÄ {‑]ISh‑p‑w P\ {‑]‑nbh‑p‑w h‑y‑m]Ih‑p‑w. t‑Zic‑mj‑v{‑S§ f‑ps‑S c‑q]‑oIcWh‑p‑w P\‑m[‑n]X‑y‑, s‑]‑mX‑paW‑vUe§f‑ps‑S Bh‑nÀ`hh‑p‑w `‑mj‑mt‑Zi‑obXIf‑ps‑S h‑y‑m]\h‑p‑w aä‑p a‑mb‑n _Ôs‑¸«‑mW‑v ]{‑X¯‑ns‑â {‑] N‑mch‑p‑w k‑wk‑vI‑mch‑p‑w H‑mt‑c‑m ka‑ql ¯‑ne‑p‑w k‑w`h‑n¨‑n«‑pffX‑v. B[‑p\‑nIX b‑ps‑S A´‑ys‑a¶X‑pt‑]‑ms‑e t‑Zi c‑mj‑v{‑S§f‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w `‑mj‑mt‑Zi‑obXIf‑p s‑Sb‑p‑w s‑]‑mX‑paW‑vUe¯‑ns‑â Xs‑¶ b‑p‑w A´‑ya‑mb‑n I‑mW‑mh‑p¶ _l‑p c‑mj‑v{‑S a‑pXe‑mf‑n¯¯‑ns‑â h‑mÀ¯‑m P‑nl‑zb‑mb‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³ \‑neh‑n h¶‑n«‑pffX‑v. h‑nt‑ij‑n¨‑p‑w cï‑m‑wt‑e‑mI¯‑ns‑â Ak‑vXab¯‑n


(43) s‑â ]Ý‑m¯e¯‑nÂ. a‑pXe‑mf‑n¯ h‑n]W‑n‑, a‑p³]‑pXs‑¶ i‑nY‑ne‑oIc‑n¨‑p Ifª s‑]‑mX‑paW‑vUe¯‑ns‑â ]‑p\À\‑nÀ½‑nX‑n k‑m[‑ya‑m¡‑n‑, h‑mÀ¯‑m s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ Fs‑¶‑mc‑p h‑o£Wh‑p‑w CÃ‑mX‑nÃ. F´‑mb‑me‑p‑w C´‑y³‑, t‑Zi‑ob‑, c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑, k‑ma‑ql‑nI Nc‑n{‑X ¯‑n B[‑p\‑nIXb‑ps‑S h‑nt‑ÑZ‑w k‑m[‑ya‑m¡‑nb Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW ¯‑ns‑â Gäh‑p‑w a‑qÀ¯a‑mb ^e§f‑n s‑e‑m¶‑mb‑mW‑v 1998 Bt‑K‑mf a‑m[‑ya I‑p¯Ib‑mb \‑y‑qk‑v t‑I‑mÀ¸t‑dj³ Ì‑mÀ\‑y‑qk‑v F¶t‑]c‑n b‑mY‑mÀY‑y India On Television Nalin Mehta Harper Collins, 2008

a‑m¡‑nb BZ‑y 24 x 7 h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑n s‑\ I‑mt‑WïX‑v. A©‑phÀjs‑¯ k‑wt‑{‑]jW¯‑n\‑pt‑ij‑w Ì‑mÀ\‑y‑qk‑v ]‑n³h‑m§‑n; C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑p IÄ \‑neh‑n h¶‑p. 1959þ91 I‑mes‑¯ Z‑qcZÀi³ {‑]`‑mhh‑p‑w 1992þa‑pXe‑pff k‑zI‑mc‑y‑, D]{‑Kl s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ {‑]`‑mh h‑p‑w 1998 a‑pXe‑pff h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj ³ {‑]`‑mhh‑pa‑mW‑v \‑mf‑nX‑phs‑cb‑pff C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ Nc‑n{‑X¯‑ns‑e a‑q¶‑pL«§Ä. CX‑n a‑q¶‑m‑wL« ¯‑ns‑â BZ‑y Hc‑p ZiI¯‑ns‑â ]T\ a‑mb‑mW‑v \f‑n³t‑a¯ Xs‑â Kt‑hj

W‑w Bk‑q{‑XW‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. k‑o‑, F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑n‑, C´‑y‑m S‑ps‑U X‑pS §‑nb a‑m[‑yaØ‑m]\§f‑n t‑P‑me‑n s‑Nb‑vX‑n«‑pa‑pï‑v t‑a¯. 1959þ91 I‑mes‑¯ C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑n j³ k‑wk‑vI‑mca‑mW‑v H¶‑ma[‑y‑mb¯‑n s‑e NÀ¨‑mh‑njb‑w. C´‑y³ t‑Zi‑obX b‑ps‑S Cµ‑nc‑mþc‑mP‑oh‑v b‑pK¯‑ns‑â c‑q]Is‑a¶ \‑neb‑n `cWI‑qSa‑m[‑ya a‑mb‑n t‑dU‑nt‑b‑mb‑vs‑¡‑m¸‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj \‑p‑w \‑ne\‑n¶ I‑me‑w. {‑i‑mh‑y‑, Z‑ri‑y a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S t‑Zik‑m¡cWah k‑m\‑n¨‑p X‑pS§‑p¶X‑v AS‑nb´c‑m hØ¡‑pt‑ij‑w _‑n.P‑n. hÀK‑ok‑ns‑â t‑\X‑rX‑z¯‑ne‑pï‑mb ka‑nX‑n BI‑mi h‑mW‑n¡‑p‑w Z‑qcZÀi\‑p‑w k‑zb‑w`cW‑w \‑nÀt‑±i‑n¡‑p¶t‑X‑ms‑Sb‑mW‑v. F¦‑ne‑p‑w c‑mP‑oh‑vK‑mÔ‑nb‑mW‑v C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑n js‑â Nc‑n{‑X‑w hg‑nX‑nc‑n¨‑ph‑n«X‑v. c‑ma‑mbW‑w‑, al‑m`‑mcX‑w ]c¼cIf‑n e‑qs‑S F¬]X‑pIf‑ps‑S HS‑ph‑n s‑Se‑n h‑nj³ C´‑y³ P\Xb‑ps‑S h‑nt‑\‑mZ a‑m[‑yaa‑mb‑n a‑md‑pIb‑p‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW‑w X‑pSÀ¶‑pff a‑mä§f‑ps‑S KX‑n \‑nÀ®b‑n¨‑p. 1959 a‑pXe‑pff Hc‑p ZiI¯‑n C´‑yb‑n Cc‑p]¯¿‑mb‑nc‑w S‑n.h‑n. s‑kä‑pIf‑mW‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶s‑X¦‑n 1982 BI‑pt‑¼‑mt‑g¡‑p‑w AX‑v Cc‑p]X‑p e£a‑mb‑n. Gj‑y³ s‑Kb‑n‑wk‑v‑, {‑I‑n¡ä‑v t‑hÄU‑v I¸‑v h‑nPb‑w F¶‑nh C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â h‑n[‑n a‑mä‑nhc¨‑p. cï‑p hÀj‑w s‑I‑mï‑v s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â F®‑w ]¯‑pe£‑w hÀ[‑n¨‑p. ]‑n¶‑os‑S‑m c‑p ZiI‑ws‑I‑mï‑v Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW ¯‑n\‑p‑w D]{‑Kls‑Se‑nh‑nj³ k‑mt‑¦ X‑nIh‑nZ‑y¡‑p‑w X‑pS¡a‑nS‑pt‑¼‑mt‑g¡‑p‑w C´‑yb‑ns‑e S‑n.h‑n.s‑kä‑pIf‑ps‑S F®‑w a‑q¶‑pt‑I‑mS‑nb‑mb‑n hfÀ¶‑nc‑p¶‑p. ]s‑£ At‑¸‑mg‑p‑w Hs‑c‑mä s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ N‑m\t‑e C´‑yb‑ne‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑pff‑q. cï‑p]X‑nä‑mï‑n\‑pff‑n Fg‑p\‑qd‑ne [‑nI‑w N‑m\e‑pIÄ C´‑yb‑n k‑wt‑{‑] jWa‑mc‑w`‑n¨‑p. ic‑mic‑n Bg‑vNb‑n Hc‑p ]‑pX‑nb N‑m\ F¶\‑neb‑nÂ. S‑n.h‑n.s‑kä‑pIf‑ps‑S F®a‑mIs‑« GX‑m ï‑v Cc‑p]X‑pt‑I‑mS‑nb‑mb‑p‑w hÀ[‑n¨‑p. Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW‑w‑, k‑mt‑¦X‑nI h‑nZ‑y F¶‑o LSI§Ä a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³c‑wK‑w s‑]‑mX‑ph‑ne‑p‑w h‑mÀ ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³c‑wK‑w h‑nt‑ij‑n¨‑p‑w s‑s‑Ihc‑n¨ a‑mä§f‑ps‑S h‑n]W‑n k¼Z‑vi‑mk‑v{‑Xa‑mW‑v cï‑ma[‑y‑mb¯‑n  t‑a¯ NÀ¨s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. 1991 a‑pX  2007 hs‑cb‑pff h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ k‑wk‑vI‑mc¯‑ns‑â k‑m¼¯‑nIi‑m k‑v{‑X‑w. k‑n.F³.F³. t‑]‑me‑pff _l‑pc‑mj‑v{‑S I‑p¯IIÄ X‑pS¡a‑n« s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ h‑mÀ¯‑mk‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w‑, Ì‑mÀ C´‑yb‑n \S¸‑m¡‑nb 24 x 7 Pqsse 2013


(44) h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj³k‑wk‑vI‑mc‑w‑, h³t‑X‑mX‑n hÀ[‑n¨ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ D]t‑`‑mK‑w‑, s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n c‑q]‑ws‑I‑mï ]ck‑yh‑yhk‑mb‑w‑, k‑o‑, Gj‑y‑ms‑\ä‑v‑, BP‑vX¡‑v F¶‑o N‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S h‑niZa‑mb Nc‑n{‑X‑w‑, Z‑qcZÀis‑â ]c‑na‑nX‑nIf‑p‑w k‑m[‑yXIf‑p‑w F¶‑n§s‑\ \‑nch[‑n h‑njb§f‑p‑w hk‑vX‑pXIf‑p‑w C‑ub[‑y‑mb‑w h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶‑p. `cWI‑qS‑w‑, a‑m[‑ya\‑nba§Ä‑, _l‑pc‑mj‑v{‑S a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S IS¶‑p hch‑p‑w t‑hc‑pd¸‑n¡e‑p‑w‑, C´‑y³ a‑m[‑ya§t‑f‑mt‑c‑m¶‑p‑w _l‑pc‑mj‑v{‑S I‑p¯IIf‑pa‑mb‑n Ic‑md‑pï‑m¡‑nb AhØ X‑pS§‑nb I‑mc‑y§f‑mW‑v a‑q¶‑ma[‑y‑mb¯‑ns‑e ]T\h‑njb‑w. C´‑y³‑, C‑w¥‑oj‑v h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj s‑â Gäh‑p‑w a‑ue‑nIa‑mb k‑z`‑mh§f‑n s‑e‑m¶‑mW‑v Bt‑K‑mf_l‑pc‑mj‑v{‑S a‑pXe‑mf‑n¯¯‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n a‑m{‑Xt‑a

¨‑mW‑v C‑u ]T\‑w ]‑pt‑c‑mKa‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. 2005Â‑, Hc‑p l‑nµ‑n k‑n\‑nab‑ps‑S d‑ne‑ok‑n‑wK‑n\‑p Xt‑e¶‑v B k‑n\‑na b‑ns‑e \‑mb‑nI‑m\‑mbI·‑mc‑mb d‑mW‑n a‑pJÀP‑nb‑p‑w A`‑nt‑jI‑v_¨\‑p‑w X§ f‑ps‑S IY‑m]‑m{‑X§f‑mb‑n F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑n b‑n h‑mÀ¯ AhXc‑n¸‑n¨ kµÀ`‑w a‑pXÂ‑, ]ck‑yh‑n]W‑n C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑n \S¯‑p¶ \‑m\‑mXc‑w A[‑n\‑nt‑hi§f‑ps‑S h‑n]‑pea‑mb NÀ¨b‑mW‑v \‑me‑ma[‑y‑mb ¯‑ns‑â DffS¡‑w. h‑mÀ¯¡‑v ]ck‑y §f‑n \‑n¶‑v \‑mfX‑phs‑cb‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p ¶ h‑yX‑y‑mk§Ä H‑mt‑c‑m¶‑mb‑n \j‑vS a‑mI‑p¶ I‑mea‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑p If‑pt‑SX‑v. a‑m[‑ya§Ä h³ h‑yhk‑mb Ø‑m]\§f‑ps‑S `‑mKa‑mb‑n a‑m{‑X‑w \‑ne\‑n¡‑p¶ AhØ k‑wP‑mXa‑m bX‑p‑w AS‑p¯I‑me¯‑mW‑v. Bt‑K‑mf a‑m[‑ya I‑p¯IIs‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑v t‑N‑m‑wk‑vI‑nb‑p‑w s‑lÀa\‑p‑w aI‑vs‑Nk‑v\‑n

h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ kaI‑me C´‑ys‑b \‑nÀ½‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â Hc‑p ‑"t‑Ik‑v ÌU‑n‑' F¶ \‑neb‑n 2002s‑e K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]¯‑ns‑â s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w "t‑a‑mZ‑n B³U‑v Z I‑mad‑' F¶ A[‑y‑mb¯‑n \f‑n³ h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. k‑nJ‑v I‑q«s‑¡‑meb‑vt‑¡‑m _‑m_d‑nak‑vP‑nZ‑v XIÀ¡e‑nt‑\‑m e`‑n¡‑m¯ "s‑s‑eh‑v Iht‑dP‑v‑' K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]¯‑n\‑p e`‑n¨‑p. \t‑c{‑µt‑a‑mZ‑n t‑e‑mI¯‑n\‑p a‑p¶‑n I‑päh‑mf‑nb‑mb‑n a‑md‑nbX‑v a‑pJ‑ya‑mb‑p‑w CX‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑mW‑v. X‑pS¡¯‑nÂ‑, ]{‑X§f‑ps‑S c‑oX‑nb‑n aX§f‑ps‑S t‑]c‑ps‑hf‑ns‑¸S‑p¯‑ms‑X t‑K‑m{‑[I‑me]‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑Nb‑vX N‑m\e‑pIÄ ]‑n¶‑oS‑v B c‑oX‑n a‑mä‑n. F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑n‑, a‑pÉ‑n§Ä K‑pPd‑m¯‑n t‑h«b‑mSs‑¸S‑pIb‑mW‑v F¶‑pXs‑¶ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑p. "AX‑mb‑nc‑p¶t‑Ã‑m h‑mÀ¯'‑, _À¡ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Ahb¡‑p \‑ne\‑n¡‑m\‑mI‑q F¶X‑v. C‑w¥‑oj‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S C‑u {‑]i‑v\‑w ]s‑£ l‑nµ‑n DÄs‑¸s‑Sb‑pff ]e C´‑y³ `‑mjIÄ¡‑pa‑nÃ. \‑me‑pa‑pX Gg‑phs‑cb‑pff A[‑y‑mb§f‑n C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑m N‑m\e‑pIÄ {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\‑w s‑N¿‑p¶ C´‑ys‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑v t‑a¯ AhXc‑n¸‑n¡‑p ¶ \‑nc‑o£W§f‑mW‑pffX‑v. ]{‑Xh‑p‑w t‑Zi‑obXb‑p‑w X½‑ne‑pff _Ô‑w Bt‑K‑mfXe¯‑n Xs‑¶ h‑n]‑pea‑m b‑n ]T‑n¡s‑¸«‑n«‑pff h‑njba‑mW‑v. AX‑ns‑â X‑pSÀ¨b‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑n h‑nj³ \‑nÀ½‑n¡‑p¶ t‑Zic‑mj‑v{‑S k‑zc‑q]¯‑ns‑â h‑niIe\a‑mb‑n a‑md‑p ¶‑p t‑a¯b‑ps‑S Kt‑hjW‑w. ]ck‑yh‑n]W‑nb‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑n h‑nj\‑p‑w‑, {‑I‑n¡ä‑p‑w h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑p If‑p‑w‑, N‑m\ k‑wh‑mZ§f‑p‑w C´‑y³ P\‑m[‑n]X‑yh‑p‑w‑, 2002s‑e K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]h‑p‑w s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑obh‑p‑w F¶‑o \‑me‑paW‑vUe§Ä t‑I{‑µ‑oIc‑n Pqsse 2013

b‑p‑w _‑mK‑vU‑nI‑nb\‑ps‑a‑ms‑¡ \S¯‑n b ]T\§Ä k‑qN‑n¸‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑v C´‑y³ a‑m[‑yac‑wKs‑¯ I‑p¯Ih ¡cW¯‑ns‑âI‑qS‑n I‑mea‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ I‑mes‑¯ t‑a¯ h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. 1980If‑n C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑ne‑pï‑mb ]ck‑yh‑n¹h‑w C´‑y³ h‑n]W‑ns‑b a‑mä‑nad‑n¨X‑ns‑â Nc‑n{‑X‑w ]ec‑ps‑ag‑pX‑nb‑n«‑pffX‑mW‑v. \f‑n³ Ah‑ns‑S\‑n¶‑p a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑pt‑]‑mb‑n Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW I‑mes‑¯ C´‑y³ a‑m[‑yaþh‑n]W‑n kJ‑y¯‑ns‑â AI‑w ]‑pd§Ä s‑hf‑ns‑¸S‑p¯‑p¶‑p. 1990 t‑]‑me‑p‑w Bs‑I ]ck‑yhc‑pa‑m\¯‑ns‑â Fg‑p] X‑piXa‑m\h‑p‑w A¨S‑na‑m[‑ya §Ä¡‑mW‑p e`‑n¨‑nc‑p¶s‑X¦‑n 2005 BI‑pt‑¼‑mt‑g¡‑p‑w CX‑v \‑me‑v] t‑¯g‑piXa‑m\a‑mb‑n I‑pdb‑p-¶‑p. 1990 ]X‑n\‑md‑v iXa‑m\a‑mb‑nc‑p¶ s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â ]ck‑yh‑nl‑nX‑w 2005 \‑me‑v]¯‑ncï‑v iXa‑m\a‑mb‑n hÀ[‑n

¡‑p¶‑p. C‑u IW¡‑pIf‑ps‑S k‑ma‑ql‑y i‑mk‑v{‑X‑w \f‑n³ ]T‑n¡‑p¶‑p. ‑"t‑dä‑n‑wK‑v‑' F¶ a{‑´‑w s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â k¼Z‑v LS\s‑b AS‑na‑pS‑n \‑nb{‑´‑n¡‑p¶X‑n s‑â ]Ý‑m¯e¯‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ e‑pIÄ X§f‑ps‑S \‑ne\‑n¸‑n\‑mb‑n h‑n]W‑ns‑b Gs‑XÃ‑m‑wXc¯‑n B{‑ib‑n¡‑p¶‑ps‑h¶X‑ns‑â h‑niIe\ a‑mb‑n C‑u `‑mK‑w a‑md‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯IÄ Xs‑¶b‑p‑w h‑nt‑\‑mZh‑p‑w h‑n]W‑n X{‑´ h‑pa‑mb‑n a‑md‑p¶X‑ns‑â Gäh‑p‑w I‑p{‑] k‑n²a‑mb DZ‑mlcWa‑mb‑n 2004 k‑o S‑n.h‑n \S¯‑nb K‑pU‑nb‑m t‑Ik‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑p‑w X‑pSÀ\‑mSI§f‑p‑w \f‑n³ h‑nhc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. C´‑yb‑ps‑S cï‑m‑w t‑Zi‑obX F¶‑p h‑nf‑nt‑¸c‑p h‑oW {‑I‑n-¡ä‑v‑, h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S AS‑nØ‑m\ kah‑mI‑y§f‑ns‑e‑m¶‑mb‑n a‑md‑p¶X‑n s‑â h‑niIe\a‑mW‑v A©‑ma[‑y‑mb‑w. {‑I‑n¡ä‑v‑, k‑n\‑na‑, s‑s‑{‑I‑w F¶ a‑q¶‑p t‑aJeIf‑mW‑v C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑â P‑oh\‑mU‑nIs‑f¶X‑v {‑]k‑n²a‑mb Hc‑p \‑nc‑o£Wa‑mW‑v. C´‑yb‑n {‑I‑n¡ä‑v Hc‑p If‑nb‑p‑w h‑yhk‑mbh‑p‑w aXh‑p‑w c‑mj‑v{‑S‑obh‑p‑w as‑äs‑´¦‑ne‑p s‑a‑ms‑¡b‑pa‑mW‑v. t‑P‑y‑mX‑n_k‑ph‑p‑w _‑p²t‑Zh‑v `«‑mN‑mc‑yb‑p‑w X½‑n \‑ne \‑n¶ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob s‑s‑hc‑mK‑y¯‑n\‑p ]‑n¶‑ns‑e a‑pJ‑yLSI‑wt‑]‑me‑p‑w _‑wK‑mÄ {‑I‑n¡ä‑v At‑k‑mk‑nt‑bjs‑â \‑nb{‑´Wa‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v \f‑n³ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶‑p. _k‑ph‑ns‑â Bf‑mb‑nc‑p¶ PK‑vt‑a‑ml³ U‑mÂa‑nb s‑¡X‑ns‑c `«‑mN‑mc‑y s‑I‑m¡¯b‑ns‑e t‑]‑me‑ok‑v I½‑ojWs‑d c‑wK¯‑nd¡‑n. C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S "{‑I‑n¡s‑s‑ät‑kjs‑\' \f‑n³ I‑mW‑p¶ X‑v Ahb‑ps‑S `‑mcX‑obh¡cW¯‑n s‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑mW‑v. _‑n._‑n.k‑n.s‑b a‑mX‑rIb‑m¡‑nb‑mW‑v C´‑yb‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ h‑mÀ ¯‑m_‑pffä‑ns‑â Ahk‑m\ t‑É‑m«‑v k‑vt‑]‑mÀS‑vk‑n\‑p \‑o¡‑nh¨‑pX‑pS§‑nbX‑v. {‑It‑aW {‑I‑n¡ä‑v C´‑y³ s‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑n  h‑nt‑ij‑n¨‑v h‑mÀ¯‑ms‑Se‑nh‑nj\‑n \‑nÀ®‑mbIa‑mb DffS¡a‑mb‑n a‑md‑n. l‑nµ‑pX‑zt‑¯‑mS‑p‑w C´‑yt‑b‑mS‑pXs‑¶ b‑p‑w ka‑oIc‑n¡s‑¸« Hc‑p t‑Zi‑ob k‑zX‑z‑w {‑I‑n¡ä‑n\‑p hfs‑ct‑hK‑w s‑s‑I h¶‑p. AYh‑m h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ A¯cs‑a‑mc‑p k‑zX‑z\‑nÀ½‑nX‑n X§f‑p s‑S APïXs‑¶b‑m¡‑n a‑mä‑n. H³]X‑p h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ {‑I‑n¡ä‑n\‑p \ I‑nb {‑]‑mX‑n\‑n[‑y¯‑ns‑â k‑q£‑va h‑ni Ie\¯‑ne‑qs‑S \f‑n³ C‑u Bib‑w Ø‑m]‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑p¶‑p. X§Ä¡‑pt‑hï‑n {‑I‑n¡ä‑v aÕc§Ä d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑N¿‑m t‑\‑m h‑niIe\‑w s‑N¿‑mt‑\‑m h³X‑pI {‑]X‑n^e‑w \ÂI‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pI


(45) Ä {‑]a‑pJ If‑n¡‑mc‑pa‑mb‑n Ic‑md‑pï‑m ¡‑n. k‑vt‑]‑mÀS‑vk‑v N‑m\e‑pIt‑f‑mS‑p aÕc‑n¨‑v t‑{‑]£Is‑c X§Äs‑¡‑m¸‑w \‑nÀ¯‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p C‑u X{‑´¯‑n s‑â e£‑y‑w. 2005þ06 hÀj‑w C´‑y³ S‑oa‑ns‑â t‑I‑m¨‑v F¶ \‑neb‑n s‑{‑KK‑v N‑m¸e‑n\‑p e`‑n¨X‑ns‑\¡‑mÄ hc‑pa‑m\‑w F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑nb‑pa‑mb‑pï‑m¡‑nb "Iaâd‑n Ic‑md‑n‑' \‑n¶‑v k‑n±‑ph‑n\‑p e`‑n¨‑p. t‑_‑mf‑nh‑pU‑ns‑\t‑¸‑me‑p‑w ad‑n IS¶ P\{‑]‑nb a‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mca‑mb‑n a‑md‑n {‑I‑n¡ä‑v. {‑]‑m[‑m\‑ya‑pff c‑mj‑v{‑S‑o b h‑mÀ¯IÄ Ig‑nª‑m h‑mÀ¯‑m N‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S ]c‑nKW\ e`‑n¨X‑v {‑I‑n¡ä‑n\‑mW‑v. (s‑F.]‑n.FÂ. h‑nh‑mZ s‑¯¯‑pSÀ¶‑v C‑u hÀj‑w s‑ab‑v 16 a‑pX P‑q¬ A©‑n\‑v C‑u t‑eJ\‑w X¿‑md‑m¡‑p¶ Z‑nhk‑whs‑cb‑p‑w C‑w¥‑o j‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ {‑I‑n¡ä‑v AÃ‑m s‑X as‑ä‑mc‑p h‑njbh‑p‑w NÀ¨s‑Nb‑vX‑n «‑nà F¶‑v H‑mÀ½‑n¡‑pI‑) ]ck‑y§Ä ¡‑p‑w t‑{‑]£IÀ¡‑p‑w Gäh‑pa[‑nI‑w CW§‑p¶ If‑ns‑b¶\‑neb‑n C´‑y b‑n {‑I‑n¡ä‑v k‑wk‑vI‑mcs‑¯ s‑Se‑nh‑n j³ a‑mä‑n ad‑n¨X‑ns‑\¡‑pd‑n¨‑v AÀP‑p³ A¸‑mZ‑ps‑c DÄs‑¸s‑Sb‑pffhc‑p¶b‑n¨ \‑nc‑o£W§Ä \f‑n³ B[‑mca‑m¡‑p ¶‑p. Bd‑ma[‑y‑mb‑w C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑m N‑m\e‑pIf‑ns‑e c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob k‑wh‑mZ§ s‑f¡‑pd‑n¨‑mW‑v. s‑]‑mX‑paW‑vUe‑w‑, P\‑m [‑n]X‑y‑w‑, k‑wh‑mZ‑mßIX X‑pS§‑nb k¦e‑v]\§s‑f s‑Se‑nh‑njt‑\‑mS‑nW ¡‑n NÀ¨ s‑N¿‑mh‑p¶ GI aW‑vUe s‑a¶\‑neb‑n N‑m\e‑pIf‑ns‑e h‑mÀ¯‑mNÀ¨Is‑f I‑mW‑m‑w. "X‑mÀ¡‑nI\‑mb C´‑y¡‑mc³' (The Argumentative Indian‑) F¶ AaÀX‑y‑ms‑k¶‑ns‑â h‑nJ‑y‑mXa‑mb k‑ma‑ql‑y Nc‑n{‑X]T\‑w a‑mX‑rIb‑m¡‑n‑, C´‑y³ X‑mÀ¡‑nI]‑mc¼c‑y¯‑ns‑â s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ I‑mes‑¯ c‑q]a‑mb‑n \f‑n ³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ k‑wh‑mZ§s‑f ka‑o]‑n¡‑p¶‑p. At‑Xkab‑wXs‑¶ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑, P\‑m[‑n]X‑y aW‑vUe§f‑n  s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ k‑wh‑mZ§Ä kh‑nt‑i ja‑mb‑n Bk‑q{‑XW‑w s‑N¿s‑¸S‑p¶X‑n s‑âb‑p‑w APïIÄ s‑kä‑ps‑N¿‑p¶X‑n s‑âb‑p‑w Ahb‑ne‑qs‑S \Kc‑, a[‑yhÀK‑, a‑m[‑yak‑wk‑vI‑mc¯‑n\‑p t‑aÂt‑¡‑mb‑va s‑s‑Ihc‑p¶X‑ns‑âb‑p‑w I‑mg‑vNIÄ \f‑n³ I‑mW‑ms‑X t‑]‑mI‑p¶‑pa‑nÃ. t‑P‑m¬ FÃ‑nk‑v s‑Se‑nh‑njs‑\ h‑nf‑n ¡‑p¶X‑pXs‑¶ "t‑Zic‑mj‑v{‑S¯‑ns‑â k‑zI‑mc‑yP‑oh‑nX‑w' (The private life of the Nation State) F¶‑mW‑v. C´‑y³ P\‑m[‑n]X‑y¯‑ns‑â t‑hc‑p IÄ AaÀX‑y‑ms‑k³ Is‑ï¯‑p¶X‑v t‑ae‑v]dª X‑mÀ¡‑nIXb‑ne‑ms‑W ¶‑p‑w‑, k‑pZ‑oÀLh‑p‑w P\I‑obh‑pa‑mb

\f‑n³ t‑a¯

B ]‑mc¼c‑ys‑¯ Gs‑äS‑p¡‑p¶X‑phg‑n b‑mW‑v h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ k‑wh‑mZ§Ä C´‑yb‑n P\‑m[‑n]X‑y c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob {‑Ias‑¯ kP‑oha‑m¡‑n \‑nÀ¯‑p¶s‑X ¶‑p‑w \f‑n³ h‑mZ‑n¡‑p¶‑p. h‑mÀ¯‑m _‑pffä‑n\‑pIf‑n a‑m{‑Xaà t‑S‑mI‑v t‑j‑m If‑nÂ‑, A`‑na‑pJ§f‑nÂ‑, Ì‑pU‑nt‑b‑m b‑ne‑p‑w ]‑pd¯‑pa‑pff NÀ¨-If‑n þ Hs‑¡ \‑nc´ca‑mhÀ¯‑n¡‑p¶X‑v C‑u k‑wh‑mZ]cXb‑mW‑v. ]‑pX‑nb Hc‑p s‑]‑mX‑paW‑vUe‑wXs‑¶ k‑rj‑vS‑n¡‑p¶‑p h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ. ka‑qls‑¯ k‑w_Ô‑n¡‑p¶ GX‑p h‑njbh‑p‑w X‑pd ¶‑p NÀ¨s‑N¿‑m\‑pff Hc‑p t‑hZ‑nb‑mb‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\ a‑md‑p¶‑p. "a‑m[‑ya‑w Xs‑¶b‑mW‑v kt‑µi‑w‑' F¶ aI‑ve‑ql s‑â h‑m¡‑pIÄ C{‑Xt‑a ic‑nhb‑v¡‑p ¶ as‑ä‑mc‑p a‑m[‑ya aW‑vUea‑nà F¶‑p \f‑n³. C´‑yb‑n \S¶ \‑nch[‑n s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ ]T\§Ä N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n ¨‑v Xs‑â \‑nc‑o£W§Ä kaÀY‑n¡‑m ³ \f‑n\‑p Ig‑nb‑p¶‑p. Ac‑p¬ Pb‑vä‑ve‑n s‑bt‑¸‑me‑pff s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob ¡‑mc‑ps‑S Hc‑p Xea‑pds‑b a‑p³\‑nÀ¯‑n h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑ps‑S as‑ä‑mc‑p CSs‑] S t‑aJeb‑p‑w \f‑n³ h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¡‑p ¶‑pï‑v. h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIÄ kaI‑me C´‑ys‑b \‑nÀ½‑ns‑¨S‑p¡‑p¶X‑ns‑â Hc‑p ‑"t‑Ik‑v ÌU‑n‑' F¶ \‑neb‑n 2002s‑e K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]¯‑ns‑â s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w "t‑a‑mZ‑n B³U‑v Z I‑mad‑' F¶ A[‑y‑mb¯‑n \f‑n³ h‑niZ‑o Ic‑n¡‑p¶‑p. _‑m_d‑nak‑vP‑nZ‑v XIÀ¡ s‑¸«‑v Hc‑p ZiI‑w ]‑n¶‑nS‑p¶ kµÀ` ¯‑ne‑mW‑v K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]‑w \S¶X‑v. Ì‑mÀ\‑y‑qk‑v a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v C‑w¥‑oj‑v h‑mÀ ¯‑mN‑m\e‑mb‑n \‑neh‑ne‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ X‑v. k‑o‑, BP‑vX¡‑v F¶‑o l‑nµ‑n h‑mÀ ¯‑mN‑m\e‑pIf‑p‑w. F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑nb‑ps‑S _À¡‑mZ¯‑v‑, c‑mP‑vZ‑o]‑v kÀt‑Zi‑mb‑n

F¶‑nhc‑mW‑v a‑pJ‑ya‑mb‑p‑w K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]‑w t‑e‑mI¯‑n\‑p a‑p¶‑ns‑e¯‑n¨ Z‑ri‑ya‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ. k‑nJ‑v I‑q« s‑¡‑meb‑vt‑¡‑m _‑m_d‑nak‑vP‑nZ‑v XI À¡e‑nt‑\‑m e`‑n¡‑m¯ "s‑s‑eh‑v Ih t‑dP‑v‑' K‑pPd‑m¯‑v Ie‑m]¯‑n\‑p e`‑n ¨‑p. \t‑c{‑µt‑a‑mZ‑n t‑e‑mI¯‑n\‑p a‑p¶‑n  I‑päh‑mf‑nb‑mb‑n a‑md‑nbX‑v a‑pJ‑ya‑m b‑p‑w CX‑ne‑qs‑Sb‑mW‑v. 1950s‑e At‑ac‑n ¡³ ]‑uc‑mhI‑mi {‑]t‑£‑m`§Ä¡‑p e`‑n¨ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑m\h‑pa‑m b‑n X‑mcXa‑y‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑v \f‑n³ C‑u h‑njb‑w ]T‑n¡‑p¶‑p. X‑pS¡¯‑nÂ‑, ] {‑X§f‑ps‑S c‑oX‑nb‑n aX§f‑ps‑S t‑] c‑ps‑hf‑ns‑¸S‑p¯‑ms‑X t‑K‑m{‑[I‑em]‑w d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑Nb‑vX N‑m\e‑pIÄ ]‑n¶‑o S‑v B c‑oX‑n a‑mä‑n. F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑n‑, a‑pÉ‑n§Ä K‑pPd‑m¯‑n t‑h«b‑mSs‑¸S‑p Ib‑mW‑v F¶‑pXs‑¶ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑Nb‑vX‑p. "AX‑mb‑nc‑p¶t‑Ã‑m h‑mÀ¯'‑, _À¡ N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p¶‑p. BP‑v X¡‑v N‑m\ ]s‑£ ‑"a‑pÉ‑n‑w‑' F¶ h‑m¡‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨t‑Xb‑nÃ. t‑I{‑µ\‑nb aa{‑´‑n Ac‑p¬ Pb‑vä‑ve‑n a‑pX \t‑c{‑µt‑a‑mZ‑n hs‑cb‑pffhÀ F³.U‑n. S‑n.h‑ns‑¡X‑ns‑c X‑nc‑nª‑p. a‑mÀ¨‑v cï‑n\‑v K‑pPd‑m¯‑v kÀ¡‑mÀ k‑wØ‑m \¯‑v F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑nb‑ps‑S k‑wt‑{‑]j W‑w XSª‑p. Ie‑m]‑w ]Sc‑p¶X‑n\‑p a‑pJ‑yI‑mcW‑w Ahs‑b¡‑pd‑n¨‑pff s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ Z‑ri‑y§f‑ms‑W¶‑v kÀ ¡‑mÀ h‑mZ‑n¨‑p. 9/11 k‑w`h‑w At‑ac‑n¡ ³ N‑m\e‑pIÄ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑p s‑Nb‑vX c‑oX‑n a‑mX‑rIb‑m¡‑m³ t‑I{‑µ B`‑y´c a{‑´‑n AZ‑z‑m\‑n F³.U‑n.S‑n.h‑ns‑b D]t‑Z i‑n¨‑p. F¶‑m s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ DÄs‑¸s‑S b‑pff a‑m[‑ya§Ä K‑pPd‑m¯‑n \S ¡‑p¶X‑v a‑pÉ‑n‑w h‑wilX‑yb‑ms‑W¶‑v X‑pd¶S‑n¨X‑ps‑I‑mï‑p a‑m{‑Xa‑mW‑v l‑nµ‑pX‑zià‑nIÄ Ahc‑ps‑S \ct‑h« Ahk‑m\‑n¸‑n¨s‑X¶‑v N‑qï‑n¡‑mW‑n¡‑p ¶‑p‑, k‑n²‑mÀY‑v hcZc‑mP³. t‑d‑mU‑v\‑n I‑n‑wK‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v DZ‑mlc‑n¨‑v c‑mP‑vZ‑o]‑p‑w Ct‑X h‑mZ‑w D¶b‑n¡‑p¶‑p. 2004s‑e s‑]‑mX‑ps‑Xcs‑ªS‑p¸‑n _‑n.s‑P.]‑n.¡‑v t‑I{‑µ¯‑n `cW‑w \j‑vSa‑mb‑n. N‑pc‑p¡¯‑nÂ‑, Bt‑K‑mfh¡cW I‑mes‑¯ C´‑y³ h‑mÀ¯‑mN‑m\e‑p If‑ps‑S \‑ne\‑n¸‑p k‑m[‑ya‑m¡‑p¶ h‑ni‑p²{‑X‑nX‑za‑mb‑n ]ck‑y‑w‑, {‑I‑n¡ä‑v‑, c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob‑w F¶‑nh a‑pt‑¶‑m«‑p hb‑v¡‑p Ib‑p‑w AX‑phg‑n \‑nÀ½‑n¡s‑¸S‑p¶ s‑Se‑nh‑nj³ t‑Zi‑obXb‑ps‑S C´‑y³ a‑pJ‑w A\‑mhcW‑w s‑N¿‑pIb‑pa‑mW‑v C‑u ]T\‑w. {ioi¦c kÀÆIemimebnð aebmfw A[ym]I\mWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: shajijacob67@gmail.com Pqsse 2013


(46) Bookshelf New Books @ Academy Library

Television: Critical Methods and Applications

Jeremy G. Butle Routledge 511 pages; Price: Rs. 4000

Written in clear and lively prose, Television explains how television programs and commercials are made, and how they function as producers of meaning. Author Jeremy Butler demonstrates the ways in which cinematography and videography, acting, lighting, set design, editing, and sound combine to produce meanings that viewers take away from their television experience. This popular text provides essential critical and historical context, lucidly explaining how different critical methods have been applied to the medium, such as genre study, ideological criticism, and cultural studies. Hundreds of illustrations from television programs introduce the reader to the varied ways in which television goes about telling stories, presenting news, and selling products, and a companion Web site (www.TVcrit. com) supplements the text with color frame grabs and illustrative video clips. Pqsse 2013

Digital Photo Art

Television Handbook

Go beyond the boundaries of the simple digital photograph with these exciting mixed-media art techniques that employ both computer software and traditional hands-on materials. This unique blend of the classic and the new results in eye-catching images that incorporate painting, printmaking, photography, and digital art. Every magnificent page displays exciting and groundbreaking ways to utilize today’s digital tools. Use programs such as nik Color Efex Pro! and Adobe Photoshop to reproduce the effects of an old bromoil print or a watercolor painting. With Lazertran inkjet paper, varnish, and turpentine, create a pseudo Polaroid transfer that looks just like an original. Hand color photographs with pastel pencils, or try encaustic wax for an otherworldly effect. With these time-honored artist’s tools and modern computer effects, the sky’s the limit on creativity.

Updated to include information and discussion on new technologies and new critical ideas, Jonathon Bignell and Jeremy Orlebar present this excellent critical introduction to the practice and theory of television, which relates media studies theories and critical approaches to practical television programme making. Featuring advice on many aspects of programme making, from initial ideas to post-production processes, and includes profiles to give insight into how people in the industry, from graduates to executives, think about their work. With debates on what is meant by quality television, key discussions include: the state of television today, how television in made and how production is organized, how new technology and the changing structure of the television industry will lead the medium in new directions, and how drama, sport and music television can be understood.

Theresa Airey Pixiq 256 pages; Price: Rs. 1099

Jeremy Orlebar, Jonathan Bignell Routledge 336 pages; Price: Rs. 2221


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BtKmf am[yacwKs¯ ]pXnb {]hWXIfpw hmÀ¯Ifpw a\Ênem¡m\pXIpó anI¨ aoUnb sh_vsskäpIsf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbmWv Cu ]wàn. am[yacwK¯v {]hÀ¯n¡póhÀ¡pw am[yahnZymÀ°nIÄ¡pw Hcpt]mse {]tbmP\{]Zambncn¡pw Cu sskäpIfnð \nópw e`n¡pó hnhc§Ä.

B¡‑pdk‑n C³ a‑oU‑nb

At‑ac‑n¡b‑ns‑e a‑m[‑ya \‑nc‑o£I Ø‑m]\a‑mb B¡‑pdk‑n C³ a‑oU‑nb b‑ps‑S s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑mW‑v- ‑www.aim. org. a‑m[‑ya§Ä ]£‑w ]‑nS‑n¡‑p¶X‑v ]‑pd¯‑p s‑I‑mï‑phc‑nIs‑b¶X‑mW‑vX§f‑ps‑S Z‑uX‑ys‑a¶‑v X‑pd¶‑p ] dª‑p s‑I‑mï‑mW‑v- k‑wLS\b‑ps‑S {‑]hÀ¯\‑w. d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑ns‑e I‑rX‑yX‑, X‑pe‑yX‑, \‑oX‑nt‑_‑m[‑w X‑pS§‑nbh Dd¸‑phc‑p¯‑m³ t‑hï {‑]hÀ¯\§f‑mW‑v- k‑wLS\ s‑N¿‑p¶X‑v. CX‑v s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p h‑yàa‑mW‑v-. At‑ac‑n¡³ a‑m[‑ya§f‑n ]£‑w ]‑nS‑n¨‑pÅ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v h‑y‑m]Ia‑mI‑p¶X‑n a\‑w aS‑p¯‑v Hc‑p k‑wL‑w BÎ‑nh‑nÌ‑pIÄ 1969- X‑pS¡a‑n« k‑wLS\b‑mW‑nX‑v. a‑m[‑ya§s‑f K‑ucht‑¯‑ms‑S \‑nc‑o£‑n¡‑p¶hÀ¡‑v hfs‑c kl‑mbIa‑mb s‑s‑kä‑mW‑nX‑v. CX‑ns‑â BÀ«‑n¡‑nÄ h‑n`‑mK¯‑n Ø‑nc‑w ]‑wà‑nIÄ d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ‑, k‑vs‑]j d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑pIÄ‑, KÌ‑v t‑I‑mf§Ä F¶‑o `‑mK§f‑ne‑mb‑n At‑\I‑w t‑eJ\§f‑p‑w aä‑p‑w \e‑vI‑nb‑nc‑n¡‑p¶‑p. Fb‑va‑ns‑â s‑NbÀa‑m³ t‑U‑m¬ CÀh‑ns‑â t‑»‑mK‑p‑w k‑wLS\b‑ps‑S H‑m¬ S‑mÀPä‑v F¶ t‑»‑mK‑p‑w C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑â t‑l‑m‑w t‑]P‑n \‑n¶‑p Is‑ï¯‑m‑w. hfs‑c P\{‑]‑oX‑nb‑pÅ t‑»‑mK‑mW‑vt‑U‑m¬ CÀh‑nt‑âX‑v. CX‑ns‑e

t‑eJ\§Ä N‑net‑¸‑mÄ A¸‑ms‑S aä‑p a‑pJ‑y[‑mc‑m {‑]k‑n²‑oIcW§Ä ]‑p\ {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑md‑pï‑v. \‑nch[‑n t‑]‑mU‑v-I‑m-Ì‑pIÄ‑, h‑oU‑nt‑b‑mIÄ F¶‑nhb‑p‑w s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p Is‑ï¯‑m\‑mI‑p‑w. s‑s‑kä‑n cP‑nÌÀ s‑Nb‑vX‑m ]‑pX‑nb h‑nhc§Ä Ad‑nb‑n¨‑ps‑I‑mï‑pÅ Cs‑ab‑n Z‑nht‑k\ I‑n«‑p‑w.

`‑mjb‑ne‑p‑w Ht‑ct‑]‑ms‑e BbX‑n\‑m hfs‑c {‑]t‑b‑mP\{‑]Za‑mW‑v- CX‑ns‑e ]‑mT§Ä. {‑]‑q^‑v h‑mb‑nt‑¡ï c‑oX‑n‑, Ø‑nc‑w hc‑p¯‑p¶ N‑ne s‑Xä‑pIÄ X‑pS§‑nbhb‑p‑w D]I‑mc{‑]Za‑mb h‑n`‑mK§f‑mW‑v-.

t‑PWe‑nk‑w S‑n]‑vk‑v

s‑s‑dt‑äg‑vk‑v l‑m³U‑v _‑p¡‑v

At‑ac‑n¡b‑ns‑e h‑nk‑vI‑m³k³ kÀhIe‑mi‑meb‑ns‑e h‑nZ‑y‑mÀY‑nIs‑f C‑w¥‑oj‑ns‑e {‑I‑nt‑bä‑oh‑v s‑s‑dä‑n‑wK‑v ]T‑n¸‑n¡‑m³ Dï‑m¡‑nb s‑s‑dä‑n‑wK‑v s‑kâd‑ns‑â s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑ns‑e Hc‑p h‑n`‑mKa‑mW‑v- Z‑v s‑s‑dt‑äg‑vk‑v l‑m³U‑v _‑p¡‑v (http://writing. wisc.edu/Handbook/tSyle.html‑). C‑w¥‑oj‑ns‑e Fg‑p¯‑v s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ \‑nch[‑n \‑nÀt‑Zi§Ä C‑u s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p Is‑ï¯‑m‑w. Fg‑p¯‑v s‑s‑ie‑n s‑a¨s‑¸S‑p¯‑pI‑, Fg‑p¯‑ns‑â h‑nh‑n[ L«§Ä a\k‑ne‑m¡‑pI‑, h‑y‑mIcWh‑p‑w N‑nÓ§f‑ps‑S D]-t‑b‑mKh‑p‑w a\k‑ne‑m¡‑pI X‑pS§‑nb I‑mc‑y§Ä CX‑n \‑n¶‑p ]T‑n¡‑m\‑mI‑p‑w. Fg‑pX‑p¶X‑ns‑\‑m¸a‑pÅ h‑nh‑n[ N‑n D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑p¶X‑n ] c‑nNbk¼¶c‑mb Fg‑p¯‑pI‑mÀ t‑]‑me‑p‑w s‑Xä‑p hc‑p¯‑md‑pï‑v. C¯c‑w N‑nÓ§f‑ps‑S D]t‑b‑mK§Ä FÃ‑m

]{‑X{‑]hÀ¯IÀ¡‑v B[‑p\‑nI k‑mt‑¦X‑nI h‑nZ‑yIs‑f a\k‑ne‑m¡‑m³ kl‑mb‑n¡‑p¶ s‑h_‑vs‑s‑kä‑mW‑vwww.facsnet.org. {‑][‑m\a‑mb‑p‑w H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑n Fg‑pX‑n ]W‑w Dï‑m¡‑p¶s‑X§s‑\ F¶X‑mW‑v- C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ns‑e DÅS¡‑w. B¸‑nÄ s‑F S‑y‑qW‑n C _‑p¡‑v {‑] k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v F§s‑\‑, C_‑p¡‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¨‑v F§s‑\ e‑m`a‑pï‑m¡‑m‑w‑, C_‑p¡‑v {‑]k‑n²‑oIc‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ a‑mÀK§Ä‑, t‑PWe‑nÌ‑pIÄ¡‑v F§s‑\ CâÀs‑\ä‑v D]t‑b‑mK‑n¡‑m‑w X‑pS§‑nb h‑nhc§Ä Ct‑¸‑mÄ C‑u s‑s‑kä‑ne‑pÅ DÅS¡§f‑n \‑n¶‑p a\k‑ne‑m¡‑m‑w. FÃ‑m t‑eJ\§f‑p‑w h‑oU‑nt‑b‑mb‑ps‑S kl‑mb¯‑m h‑niZ‑oIc‑n¨‑n«‑pa‑pï‑v. awKfw Zn\]{X¯nsâ No^v \yqkv FUnädmWv teJI³. teJIsâ Cþsabvð: epshajudeen@gmail.com

Pqsse 2013


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A¡mZan hmÀ¯IÄ

a‑m[‑yac‑wK¯‑v _Zð CSs‑]Se‑pIf‑pï‑mIW‑w

P\‑m[‑n]X‑y¯‑n h¶ a‑qe‑yN‑y‑pX‑n s‑¡‑m¸‑w a‑m[‑ya§f‑p‑w Z‑nia‑md‑n k© c‑n¡‑p¶X‑mW‑v hÀ¯a‑m\I‑me A\‑p `hs‑a¶‑v ]‑n.c‑mP‑oh‑v F‑w.]‑n. ]dª‑p. I‑m¡\‑mS‑v {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑n k‑wLS‑n¸‑n¨ a¯‑mb‑n a‑mª‑qc‑m³ A\‑pk‑vacW ]c‑n]‑mS‑nt‑b‑mS\‑p_Ô‑n ¨‑v ‑"hÀ¯a‑m\I‑me P\‑m[‑n]X‑yh‑p‑w a‑m[‑yah‑p‑w‑' F¶ h‑njb¯‑n {‑]`‑m jW‑w \S¯‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l‑w. s‑^Ud h‑yhØ‑nX‑nb‑ns‑e C´‑y¡‑v \‑ne\‑n¡‑m\‑mI‑q F¶

Dd¨ [‑mcWb‑pï‑mb‑nc‑p¶ a¯‑mb‑n a‑mª‑qc‑m³ I‑me¯‑n\‑p a‑p³t‑] \S ¶ h‑nÚ‑m\‑nb‑mb c‑mj‑v{‑S‑ob {‑]hÀ ¯I\‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑ps‑h¶‑v A\‑pk‑vacW {‑]`‑mjW‑w \S¯‑nb a‑pX‑nÀ¶ a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯I³ s‑I.F‑w.t‑d‑mb‑v ]dª‑p. A¡‑mZa‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ F³.]‑n.c‑m t‑P{‑µ³ A²‑y£X hl‑n¨ NS§‑n A¡‑mZa‑n s‑k{‑I«d‑n h‑n.BÀ.AP‑nX‑v I‑pa‑mÀ‑, Ak‑n.s‑k{‑I«d‑n F³.]‑n. kt‑´‑mj‑v F¶‑nhÀ k‑wk‑mc‑n¨‑p.

NÀ¨‑mt‑hZ‑n DZ‑vL‑mS\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p

Ie‑mk‑m‑wk‑vI‑mc‑nI {‑]hÀ¯\§ f‑p‑w kP‑oha‑mb NÀ¨If‑p‑w e£‑ya‑m ¡‑n t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ps‑S B`‑n a‑pJ‑y¯‑n c‑q]hX‑v¡c‑n¨ NÀ¨‑m t‑hZ‑n P‑nÃ‑m IfI‑vSÀ ]‑n.s‑F.s‑jb‑vI‑v ]c‑oX‑v DZ‑vL‑mS\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. t‑b‑mK ¯‑n A¡‑mZa‑n s‑k{‑I«d‑n h‑n.BÀ. AP‑nX‑v I‑pa‑mÀ A²‑y£X hl‑n¨‑p. Ak‑n.s‑k{‑I«d‑n F³.]‑n.kt‑´‑mj‑v‑, C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³ UbdI‑vSÀ F‑w.c‑maN{‑µ³‑, eI‑vNdÀ t‑laeX‑mt‑at‑\‑m³‑, NÀ¨‑mt‑hZ‑n I¬ h‑o\À t‑{‑]‑wI‑pa‑mÀ P‑n‑, t‑P‑mb‑nâ‑v I¬ h‑o\À X³h‑oÀ F‑w.F F¶‑nhÀ k‑wk‑mc‑n¨‑p. X‑pSÀ¶‑v k‑wØ‑m\ kÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑â 2011þs‑e a‑nI¨ t‑U‑mI‑y‑ps‑aâd‑n¡‑pÅ Ah‑mÀU‑v t‑\S‑nb ‑"a‑u\¯‑ns‑â \‑ne h‑nf‑n‑' {‑]ZÀi‑n¸‑n¨‑p. eU‑m¡‑v A´‑m c‑mj‑v{‑St‑af‑, t‑Z‑mlþAÂPk‑od s‑^Ì‑ns‑he‑pIf‑n ]s‑¦S‑p¯ k‑wh‑n [‑mbI³ kt‑´‑mj‑v ]‑n.U‑n. a‑pJ‑ma‑pJ ¯‑n ]s‑¦S‑p¯‑p. FÃ‑m h‑y‑mg‑mg‑vN b‑p‑w s‑s‑hI‑o«‑v \‑me‑n\‑v {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n Pqsse 2013

H‑mU‑nt‑ä‑md‑nb¯‑n \S¡‑p¶ NÀ¨‑m t‑hZ‑n ]c‑n]‑mS‑nIÄ A¡‑mZa‑n h‑nZ‑y‑mÀ °‑nIÄ¡‑p ]‑pds‑a s‑]‑mX‑pP\§Ä ¡‑p‑w ]s‑¦S‑p¡‑m‑w.

A\‑pk‑vac‑n¨‑p a\‑pj‑y a\Ê‑ns‑â k¦‑oÀ®XIf‑nt‑e ¡‑v Bg‑v¶‑nd§‑n A\‑ph‑mNIs‑c _‑u ²‑oIh‑p‑w s‑s‑hI‑mc‑nIh‑pa‑mb A\‑p`‑q X‑nIf‑nt‑eb‑v¡‑v I‑q«‑ns‑¡‑mï‑pt‑]‑mI‑m³ {‑]t‑X‑yI s‑s‑h`ha‑pÅ Ne¨‑n{‑XI‑mc \‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p A´c‑n¨ h‑nJ‑y‑mX C´‑y ³ Ne¨‑n{‑X k‑wh‑n[‑mbI\‑p‑w \S\‑p a‑mb EX‑p]Àt‑W‑mt‑L‑mj‑v F¶‑v {‑] ik‑vX X‑nc¡Y‑mI‑r¯‑v t‑P‑m¬ t‑]‑mÄ A\‑pk‑vac‑n¨‑p. t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n NÀ¨‑mt‑hZ‑nb‑ps‑S B`‑na‑pJ‑y¯‑n A¡‑mZa‑n H‑mU‑nt‑ä‑md‑nb¯‑n \S¶ EX‑p]Àt‑W‑mt‑L‑mj‑v A\‑pk‑vacW ] c‑n]‑mS‑nb‑n k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l‑w. A\‑pk‑vacW ]c‑n]‑mS‑nt‑b‑m S\‑p_Ô‑n¨‑v EX‑p]ÀWt‑L‑mj‑v k‑wh‑n [‑m\‑w s‑Nb‑vX N‑n{‑X‑m‑wKZ‑, t‑N‑m¡À _‑me‑n F¶ k‑n-\‑n-aIÄ {‑]-ZÀ-i‑n-¸‑n¨‑p.

k‑zt‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n- t‑Ikc‑n ]‑pck‑vI - m‑ c‑w h‑n.]‑n. Bdn\v a‑m[‑yat‑aJeb‑v¡‑v \ÂI‑nb ka{‑K k‑w`‑mh\b‑v¡‑v k‑wØ‑m\ kÀ¡‑mÀ GÀs‑¸S‑p¯‑nb k‑zt‑Zi‑m`‑na‑m\‑n-t‑Ik c‑n ]‑pck‑v-I‑mc¯‑n\‑v {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n a‑p³ s‑NbÀa‑m\‑p‑w a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑n a‑p³ ] {‑X‑m[‑n]c‑pa‑mb h‑n.]‑n. c‑maN{‑µ³ AÀ l\‑mb‑n. t‑Icf‑m {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑n BZ‑y‑w t‑I‑mg‑v-k‑v UbdÎd‑mb‑p‑w ]‑n¶‑oS‑v cï‑v t‑S‑w s‑NbÀa‑m³ Bb‑p‑w {‑]hÀ ¯‑n¨‑v A¡‑mZa‑ns‑b ]‑pt‑c‑mKX‑nb‑nt‑e ¡‑v \b‑n¡‑p¶X‑n h‑net‑bd‑nb k‑w`‑m h\IÄ s‑Nb‑vX‑n«‑pï‑v. Hc‑p e£‑w c‑q]b‑p‑w ^eIh‑p‑w AS§‑p¶X‑mW‑v Ah‑mÀU‑v. t‑Icf¯‑ne‑p‑w C´‑y¡I¯‑v aä‑nS §f‑ne‑p‑w C´‑y¡‑v ]‑pd¯‑pa‑mb‑n Ac \‑qä‑mï‑pI‑me‑w {‑]ik‑vXa‑mb \‑neb‑n  a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯\‑w \S¯‑nb h‑n.]‑n.BÀ F¶d‑nbs‑¸S‑p¶ s‑h«¯‑v ]‑p¯³h‑o«‑n c‑maN{‑µ³ ]‑mÀes‑aâ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑nM‑v‑, h‑nt‑Zi d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v‑, At‑\‑zjW‑mßI d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n‑wK‑v F¶‑n hb‑n X\X‑mb ]‑mX X‑pd¶ h‑yà‑n b‑mW‑v. At‑k‑mk‑nt‑bäU‑v {‑]k‑v (F.]‑n.‑) ]‑ps‑\ H‑m^‑ok‑ne‑p‑w X‑pSÀ¶‑v {‑]k‑v {‑SÌ‑v H‑m^‑v C´‑y (]‑n.S‑n.s‑F‑)‑, b‑p.F³.s‑F. F¶‑nhb‑ne‑p‑w {‑]hÀ¯‑n ¨‑n«‑pï‑v. 1924 X‑ri‑qc‑ns‑e hS¡‑mt‑©c‑n b‑n P\‑n¨ c‑maN{‑µ³ 1964 b‑p. F³.s‑Fb‑ps‑S UÂl‑n _‑y‑qt‑d‑m N‑o^‑v Bb‑n. b‑p.F³.s‑F. U]‑y‑q«‑n P\d a‑mt‑\PÀ Ø‑m\‑w hs‑c hl‑n¨‑p. b‑p. F³.s‑F. h‑n« h‑n.]‑n.BÀ. 1978 a‑mX‑r`‑qa‑nb‑nse¯n. 1984  a‑mX‑r `‑qa‑n h‑n« t‑ij‑w X‑ri‑qÀ FI‑v-k‑v{‑]k‑n  a‑mt‑\P‑n‑wK‑v FU‑näd‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p.

A¡‑mZa‑n lc‑nX I‑m¼k‑mI‑pó‑p I‑m¡\‑mS‑v {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n I‑m¼k‑v Ct‑¡‑m {‑^ï‑v-e‑n I‑m¼k‑v B¡‑p¶ X‑ns‑â `‑mKa‑mb‑n‑, I‑m¼k‑n \‑qd‑nt‑e s‑d t‑X¡‑n³ s‑s‑XIÄ \«‑p. A¡‑mZa‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ F³. ]‑n. c‑mt‑P{‑µ³ DZ‑v L‑mS\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑p. k‑wØ‑m\ h\‑w hI‑p¸‑mW‑v s‑s‑XIÄ \e‑vI‑nbX‑v. I‑m¼ k‑n H¶ce£‑w e‑näÀ s‑hÅ‑w t‑iJ c‑n¡‑mh‑p¶ ags‑hÅ k‑w`cW‑nb‑p‑w _t‑b‑mK‑y‑mk‑v ¹‑mâ‑p‑w t‑\ct‑¯ Ø‑m ]‑n¨‑nc‑p¶‑p. ]‑pÂXI‑nS‑pIf‑p‑w H‑uj[ s‑NS‑nIf‑p‑w h¨‑p]‑nS‑n¸‑n¨‑n«‑pï‑v. h‑n. F^‑v. ]‑n. k‑n. s‑I b‑pa‑mb‑n t‑NÀ¶‑v ]¨¡d‑n I‑rj‑nb‑p‑w X‑pS§‑m³ A¡‑mZa‑n e£‑ya‑nS‑p¶‑p. -


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s‑]‑mX‑pKZ‑y`‑mj c‑q]s‑¸S‑p¯‑nbX‑v a‑m[‑ya{‑]hÀ¯IÀ-: k‑n.c‑m[‑mI‑rj‑vW³

t‑I‑mg‑nt‑¡‑mS‑v:t‑Icf¯‑n Ht‑c c‑oX‑nb‑n e‑pÅ KZ‑y`‑mjb‑pï‑m¡‑nbX‑v a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ms‑W¶‑v {‑]ik‑vX Fg‑p ¯‑pI‑mc³ k‑n.c‑m[‑mI‑rj‑vW³ A`‑n {‑]‑mbs‑¸«‑p. t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n {‑]k‑n²s‑¸S‑p¯‑nb‑, h‑n.]‑n.k‑ps‑s‑_d‑n s‑â ‑"aeb‑mf]{‑X`‑mj h‑nI‑mk]c‑n W‑ma§Ä‑' F¶ ]‑pk‑vXI‑w {‑]I‑mi \‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑v k‑wk‑mc‑n¡‑pIb‑mb‑nc‑p¶‑p At‑±l‑w. aeb‑mf at‑\‑mca ]{‑X¯‑n N‑o^‑v k_‑v FU‑näd‑mW‑v k‑ps‑s‑_À.

k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXb‑v¡‑v I‑qS‑n t‑b‑mP‑n¨ c‑oX‑nb‑n aeb‑mf`‑mjs‑b a‑mä‑ns‑bS‑p t‑¡ïX‑pï‑v. A¨S‑n¡‑v t‑b‑mP‑n¨ c‑oX‑nb‑ne‑mW‑v Ct‑¸‑mÄ. H‑mt‑c‑m ]{‑X a‑m[‑ya¯‑n\‑p‑w `‑mj‑mb‑p]t‑b‑mK‑w Ahc‑pt‑SX‑mb c‑oX‑nIf‑ne‑mW‑v. C‑w¥‑oj‑v ]‑pk‑vXI§f‑n s‑Xä‑pI Ä hc‑mX‑nc‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ {‑][‑m\I‑mcW‑w I¼‑y‑q«d‑n h‑y‑mIcWs‑¯ä‑p‑w A£c s‑¯ä‑p‑w ]c‑nt‑i‑m[‑n¡‑m\‑pÅ k‑wh‑n[‑m \‑w Dï‑mbX‑v s‑I‑mï‑mW‑v. A§s‑\

aeb‑mf¯‑ne‑p‑w Dï‑mt‑hïX‑pï‑v. t‑IcfkÀ¡‑mÀ a‑p³s‑s‑Is‑¿S‑p¯‑m CX‑v k‑m[‑n¡‑mh‑p¶t‑Xb‑pÅ‑q- k‑n. c‑m[‑mI‑rj‑vW³ ]dª‑p. F³.]‑n.l‑m^‑nk‑v a‑pl½Z‑v ]‑pk‑vX I‑w Gä‑ph‑m§‑n. t‑Icf{‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ F³.]‑n.c‑mt‑P{‑µ³ A²‑y £X hl‑n¨‑p. t‑U‑m.s‑I.F‑w.A\‑n ]‑pk‑vXI‑w ]c‑nNbs‑¸S‑p¯‑n. aeb‑m f at‑\‑mca a‑p³ dk‑nUâ‑v FU‑näÀ s‑I.A_‑q_¡À‑, t‑I‑mg‑nt‑¡‑mS‑v {‑]k‑v ¢_‑v C³Ì‑nä‑nb‑q«‑v Bâ‑v Ia‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡ j³k‑v Bâ‑v t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w UbdÎ À h‑n.C._‑meI‑rj‑vW³‑, {‑]k‑v ¢_‑v s‑k{‑I«d‑n h‑nt‑\‑mZ‑v N{‑µ³‑, t‑Icf{‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n FI‑v-k‑nI‑y‑q«‑nh‑v t‑_‑mÀU‑v A‑wK‑w F³.c‑mt‑Pj‑v‑, {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n P\d I‑u¬k‑n A‑wK‑w C.]‑n.j‑m P‑p±‑n³ F¶‑nhÀ {‑]k‑wK‑n¨‑p. h‑n.]‑n. k‑ps‑s‑_À ad‑p]S‑n {‑]k‑wK‑w \S¯‑n.

a‑m[‑ya a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w: t‑{‑]‑mPÎ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v a{‑´‑n¡‑v kaÀ¸‑n¨‑p

{‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n t‑I‑mg‑vk‑p IÄ¡‑v At‑]£ £W‑n¨‑p

t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n s‑I‑m¨‑n I‑m¡ \‑ms‑« I‑m¼k‑n Ø‑m]‑n¡‑m³ Dt‑± i‑n¡‑p¶ a‑m[‑ya a‑y‑qk‑nb¯‑ns‑â t‑{‑]‑m PÎ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v A¡‑mZa‑nb‑ps‑S {‑]X‑n \‑n[‑nk‑wL‑w a{‑´‑n s‑I.k‑n. t‑P‑mk^‑n \‑v kaÀ¸‑n¨‑p. A¡‑mZa‑n s‑NbÀa‑m³ F³.]‑n. c‑mt‑P{‑µ³‑, s‑s‑hk‑v-s‑NbÀ a‑m³ s‑I.k‑n. c‑mPt‑K‑m]‑mÂ‑, FI‑v-k‑n I‑y‑q«‑oh‑v t‑_‑mÀU‑v A‑wK‑w F³. c‑mt‑P j‑v‑, A-k‑n-Ìâ‑v s‑k{‑I«d‑n F³.]‑n. kt‑´‑mj‑v F¶‑nhcS§‑nb k‑wL‑w a{‑´‑nb‑pa‑mb‑n a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w Ø‑m]‑n¡‑p¶ X‑v k‑w_Ô‑n¨‑v {‑]‑mYa‑nI NÀ¨ \ S¯‑n. a‑y‑qk‑nt‑b‑mfP‑nÌ‑v I¬kÄ«â‑v BÀ. N{‑µ³]‑nÅb‑mW‑v a‑y‑qk‑nb¯‑n s‑â t‑{‑]‑mPÎ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v X¿‑md‑m¡‑nb X‑v. t‑{‑]‑mPÎ‑n\‑v {‑]‑mYa‑nI A‑wK‑oI‑mc‑w e`‑n¨t‑ij‑w t‑I{‑µkÀ¡‑mc‑ns‑â k‑m¼¯‑nIkl‑mb‑w t‑XS‑m\‑mh‑ps‑a¶‑v a{‑´‑n s‑I.k‑n. t‑P‑mk^‑v {‑]X‑n\‑n[‑n k‑wLt‑¯‑mS‑v ]dª‑p. {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n BØ‑m\‑w Ø‑nX‑ns‑N¿‑p¶ s‑I‑m¨‑n I‑m¡\‑ms‑« a‑q¶‑v G¡Àhc‑p¶ I‑m¼k‑n CX‑n \‑mhi‑ya‑mb a‑q¶‑p\‑ne s‑I«‑nS‑w ]W‑n b‑m³ t‑{‑]‑mPÎ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑n \‑nÀt‑±i‑n ¡‑p¶‑p. t‑Icf‑ob h‑mk‑vX‑pi‑ne‑v] a‑mX‑rIb‑ne‑pÅ a‑q¶‑p\‑ne s‑I«‑nSa‑m b‑mW‑v a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w h‑n`‑mh\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑n«‑p ÅX‑v. K‑me-d‑nIÄ‑, s‑s‑e{‑_d‑n‑, BÀ s‑s‑¡h‑v‑, CâÀ BÎ‑oh‑v d‑q‑w‑, FI‑v-k‑n _‑nj³ k‑v-t‑]k‑v‑, H‑mU‑nt‑ä‑md‑nb‑w‑, ^bÀ s‑{‑]‑m«£³ D]IcW§Ä‑,

t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n C³Ì‑nä‑y‑q«‑v H‑m^‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡j³ \S¯‑p¶ t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w B³U‑v I½‑y‑qW‑nt‑¡ j³‑, ]»‑nI‑v d‑nt‑ej³k‑v B³U‑v AU‑zÀs‑s‑Sk‑n§‑v‑, S‑n.h‑n.t‑PÀWe‑nk‑w t‑]‑mÌ‑v {‑K‑mt‑U‑zä‑v U‑nt‑¹‑ma t‑I‑mg‑vk‑p IÄ¡‑v At‑]£ £W‑n¨‑p. C‑u ^‑pÄs‑s‑S‑w t‑I‑mg‑vk‑pIf‑ps‑S s‑s‑ZÀL‑y‑w Hc‑p hÀja‑mW‑v. Gs‑X¦‑ne‑p‑w h‑njb¯‑n _‑nc‑pZ a‑mW‑v {‑]t‑hi\ t‑b‑mK‑yX. Ahk‑m\ hÀj‑w _‑nc‑pZ]c‑o£ Fg‑pX‑nbhÀ ¡‑p‑w At‑]£‑n¡‑m‑w. {‑]‑mb‑w 1.5.2013 27 hbÊ‑v Ih‑nbc‑pX‑v. ]«‑nI h‑n`‑mK ¡‑mÀ¡‑v A©‑p hÀjs‑¯ hbÊ‑nf h‑pï‑v. A`‑nc‑pN‑n ]c‑o£b‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w CâÀh‑y‑qh‑ns‑âb‑p‑w AS‑nØ‑m\¯‑ne‑m b‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w {‑]t‑hi\‑w. t‑I‑mg‑nt‑¡‑mS‑v‑, FdW‑mI‑pf‑w‑, s‑I‑mÃ‑w F¶‑nh‑nS§f‑n  {‑]t‑hi\ ]c‑o£‑mt‑I{‑µ§Ä Dï‑mb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w. At‑]£‑mt‑^‑mdh‑p‑w t‑{‑]‑mk‑vs‑]I‑vSk‑p‑w A¡‑mZa‑n s‑h_‑v s‑s‑kä‑n \‑n¶‑p‑w (‑www.pressaca demy.org) U‑u¬t‑e‑mU‑v s‑N¿‑mh‑p¶ X‑mW‑v. H‑m¬s‑s‑e\‑mb‑p‑w At‑]£ kaÀ¸‑n¡‑m‑w. At‑]£ \ÂI‑pt‑¼‑mÄ s‑k{‑I«d‑n‑, t‑Icf {‑]k‑v A¡‑mZa‑n F¶ t‑]c‑n FdW‑mI‑pf‑w kÀh‑ok‑v {‑_‑m©‑n a‑md‑mh‑p¶ 300c‑q]b‑ps‑S (]«‑nI h‑n`‑mK‑w 150c‑q]‑) U‑na‑m³U‑v {‑U‑m^‑vä‑p‑w \ÂIW‑w. s‑N¡‑v k‑z‑oIc‑n ¡‑p¶XÃ. ]‑qc‑n¸‑n¨ At‑]£ P‑qs‑s‑e 10þ\‑v s‑s‑hI‑n«‑v A©‑vaW‑n¡I‑w A¡‑mZa‑n H‑m^‑ok‑n e`‑n¡W‑w.

k‑pc£‑m k‑wh‑n[‑m\§Ä F¶‑nh DÄs‑¸S‑p¶ ka‑p¨b¯‑n\‑v 10 t‑I‑mS‑n c‑q]b‑mW‑v s‑Neh‑v {‑]X‑o£‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w U‑nk‑v-t‑¹b‑p‑w A\‑p_Ô k‑uIc‑y§f‑p‑w X¿‑md‑m¡‑m³ a‑q¶‑p t‑I‑mS‑n a‑p¸¯‑nb©‑v e£‑w c‑q]b‑p‑w t‑hï‑nhc‑p‑w. Bs‑I 13.35 t‑I‑mS‑n c‑q] b‑mW‑v s‑Neh‑v {‑]X‑o£‑n¡‑p¶X‑v. 2013 a‑mÀ¨‑v H¶‑n\‑v X‑nc‑ph\´]‑pc‑w t‑Ikc‑n l‑mf‑n t‑NÀ¶‑, a‑pX‑nÀ¶ a‑m[‑ya {‑]hÀ¯Ic‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w {‑]a‑pJ h‑yà‑nIf‑ps‑Sb‑p‑w t‑b‑mK¯‑n Dc‑p ¯‑nc‑nª Bib§f‑ps‑S AS‑nØ‑m\ ¯‑ne‑mW‑v I¬kÄ«â‑v a‑y‑qk‑nt‑b‑mfP‑n Ì‑p‑w BÀ¡‑nt‑b‑mfP‑nÌ‑pa‑mb BÀ. N{‑µ³]‑nÅ h‑niZa‑mb t‑{‑]‑mPÎ‑v d‑nt‑¸‑mÀ«‑v X¿‑md‑m¡‑nbX‑v. C´‑yb‑n Ø‑m]‑n¡s‑¸S‑p¶ BZ‑ys‑¯ a‑m[‑ya a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w Bb‑nc‑n¡‑p‑w CX‑v. ]{‑X§f‑p s‑S P\\h‑p‑w hfÀ¨b‑p‑w Ahb‑ps‑S C¶s‑¯ \‑neb‑nt‑e¡‑pÅ ]c‑nW‑ma h‑p‑w DÅS¡¯‑ne‑p‑w k‑mt‑¦X‑nIXb‑n e‑p‑w Dï‑mb h‑n¹hIca‑mb a‑mä§f‑p‑w Z‑ri‑y{‑i‑mh‑y a‑m[‑ya§f‑ps‑S P\\h‑p s‑aÃ‑m‑w hc‑p‑wXea‑pdIÄ¡‑v ]T‑n¡‑m³ DXI‑p‑wh‑n[‑w k‑wh‑n[‑m\‑w s‑N¿‑pI b‑mW‑v a‑m[‑ya a‑y‑qk‑nb¯‑ns‑â Dt‑± i‑y‑w. a‑m[‑ya Nc‑n{‑X‑w \‑mS‑ns‑â c‑m{‑ã‑o bk‑m‑wk‑v-I‑mc‑nI Nc‑n{‑X‑w I‑qS‑nb‑mbX‑n \‑m a‑m[‑ya a‑y‑qk‑nb‑w Nc‑n{‑X a‑y‑qk‑n b¯‑ns‑â I‑qS‑n ]¦‑p hl‑n¡‑p‑w. Gä h‑p‑w B[‑p\‑nIa‑mb k‑mt‑¦X‑nI k‑uI c‑y§f‑mW‑v h‑n`‑mh\‑w s‑Nb‑vX‑nc‑n¡‑p¶X‑v.

Pqsse 2013


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temIw Iï hc A´Àt±iob am²yacwKs¯ {]ikvXamb ImÀ«qWpIsf ]cnNbs¸Sp¯pIbmWv Cu ]wànbnð. amXr`qan ImÀ«qWnÌv Bb tKm]oIrjvW\mWv Ch XncsªSp¯v AhXcn¸n¡póXv.

]m{SnIv N¸msä se_\okvþkznkv ImÀ«qWnÌmb ]m{SnIv N¸msä {_koenð Ct¸mÄ \S¡pó P\Iob{]t£m`§fpsS `mKambn hc¨ ImÀ«qWmWnXv. "BZyw hni¸Iäq, Fón«v aXn ^pSvt_mÄ' Fó ap{ZmhmIyapbÀ¯n e£¡W¡n\v t]À ]s¦Sp ¡pó kacamWv {_koenð Act§dpóXv. tIm¬s^Utdj³ I¸v \S¡p Ibpw temII¸v ^pSvt_mfn\pw Hfn¼nIvkn\pw Hcp§pIbpw sN¿pó cmPy¯v P\§fpsS ASnØm\mhiy§Ä ]cnlcn¨n«paXn ImbnI[qÀ¯v FóXmWv {]t£m`IcpsS Bhiyw. {]t£m`w Iïv hnizkn¡m\mhm¯ {_koð {]kn Uâv Znða "CsX´m hñ aqómwtemIcmPyhpamtWm' Fóv AÛpXw IqdpI bmWv ImÀ«qWnð. bqtdm¸pt]mse Cu \mSpw tamiambncn¡póp Fóv ASp ¯pÅ asämcp t\Xmhnsâ {]XnIcWw. bmYmÀ°y§fnð \nóv F{X AIse bmWv {_koð `cWm[nImcnIÄ Fóv Cu ImÀ«q¬ hyàam¡póp. se_\okpImcnbmb A½bv¡pw kznÊpImc\mb AÑ\pw ]m¡nØm\nð h¨v P\n¨v knwK¸qcnð hfÀóv Gsd¡mew Atacn¡bnð Pohn¨ ]m{Sn¡n\v A£cmÀ°¯nð Hcp temIhyànXzamWpÅXv. AXpsImïv temIs¯ hyXykvXamb Hcp I®neqsS ImWm\pw Idp¯tXm Akw_Ôtam Bb ^enX§sf ]pds¯Sp¡m\pw ]m{Sn¡n\p Ignbpóp. Ct¸mÄ P\ohbnð Xmakn¡pó ]m{SnIv CâÀ\mjWð sldmÄUv {Sn_yq¬, kznkv ]{Xamb se sSw]vkv, PÀ½³ ]{Xamb F³CkUvCkUv Bw skm³SmKv Fóo ]{X§Ä ¡p thïnbmWv Øncambn hcbv¡póXv. Chbv¡p]pdsa temI¯nse {][m\ s¸« ]e ]{X§fpw ]m{Sn¡nsâ ImÀ«qWpIÄ {]kn²oIcn¡pópïv. tKm]oIrjvWsâ Cþsabvð: cartoonistgopikrishnan@gmail.com Pqsse 2013


1013 cq] hnebpÅ 11 ]pkvXI§Ä Ct¸mÄ 450 cq]¡v {]kv A¡mZan {]kn²oIcn¨1013 cq] sam¯w hnebpÅ 11 ]pkvXI§fpw IqSn 450 cq]bv¡p e`n¡pw. X]menemsW¦nð 570 cq]. ]pkvXI§Ä: • Im¼ntÈcn, Imew Im¯ph¨ ]{Xm[n]À; sI.kpµtci³; hne 75 cq] • kztZim`nam\n: cmPt{Zmlnbmb cmPykvt\ln; Sn. thWptKm]mð; hne 260 cq] • kztZim`nam\nbpsS ]{X{]hÀ¯\w, cmPhmgvNbpsS Zrãnbnð; hnhÀ¯\w: ]pXp¸Ån cmLh³; hne 35 cq] • hr¯m´ ]{X{]hÀ¯\w; kztZim`nam\n cmaIrjvW]nÅ; hne 40 cq] • aebmf ]{X{]hÀ¯\¯nsâ A¼XphÀjw 1947þ1997; hne 90 cq] • ]{X`mj; hne 20 cq] • \m«phntijw; Sn. thWptKm]mð, tXmakv tP¡ºv; 7.50 cq] • hmÀ¯bpsS inev]ime; F³. F³. kXy{hX³; hne 150 cq] • F.sI.]nÅ: BZÀi§fpsS càkm£n; F. cm[mIrjvW³; hne 135 cq] • \¼ymÀ ]nsóbpw apónð \nð¡póp; ]n. {io[c³; hne 60 cq] • s\tòenbpsS I¼n; sI. sI. taml\³; hne 75 cq] tIm¸nIÄ¡v:

sk-{I-«dn; tI-c-f {]-kv A-¡mZ-an; Im-¡-\mSv, sIm¨nþ682030; t^m¬: 0484 2422275 sN-t¡m Un-Untbm a-Wn-tbmÀ-U-tdm A-b-¡p-I

Printed and Published by V. R. Ajith Kumar, Secretary, On behalf of the Kerala Press Academy, Published from Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi – 682 030; Printed at Sterling Print House Pvt Ltd, Edappally; Editor: N. P. Rajendran.


Media Monthly | July 2013 | ` 10/- | RNI Reg No. KERBIL/2000/1676

tIcf {]kv AยกmZanbnรฐ \nรณpw ]pXnb ]pkvXIw

aebmf ]{X`mjbpsS Ncn{Xw


2013 june media file for print  
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