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GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013 - Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

University, Municipality, The Private Sector and The Community: Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Department of Architectural Engineering Faculty of Engineering Assiut University - Egypt


1 Introduction 1- What is a KC? 2- What is a Knowledge Agent? 3- Statement of the problem 4- Aim and Objectives


Collaboration Models for Knowledge Management: The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as a Case Study

Khaled A. Youssef Department of Architecture King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Mamdouh M. A. Sobaihi Department of Landscape Architecture King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia,

Amro A. Taibah Department of Landscape Architecture King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

IJKBD is indexed in: •Scopus (Elsevier) •Academic OneFile (Gale) •Google Scholar •InfoTrac Custom Journals (Gale) IJKBD is listed in: •Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA): Journal list 2012 Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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What is a KC? The role of Knowledge Management (KM) … “a city that aims at a knowledge based

development, by continuously encouraging the Knowledge Management(KM) processes”. This can be achieved through the continuous interaction between its knowledge agents themselves and at the same time between them and other cities' knowledge agents“. (Ergazakis et al., 2006, pp. 65). Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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What are the Knowledge Agents? The role of Knowledge Management (KM) …

A ‘knowledge agent’ is any entity (human, organization, company, university, technology-park, etc.) that can manage knowledge. • • • •

Universities Government (Municipalities) The Private Sector The Community

(Ergazakis et al., 2008)

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents Ex. 1: Community-University partnerships allow both agents to achieve: • • • • •

common goals develop a culture of learning, generate new knowledge, and Facilitate the transfer of knowledge, and increase the extent of mutual interactions

(Tresman et al., 2007) Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents

University

Industry

Ex. 2: Industry-University Collaboration These collaborations promote knowledge objectives including:

many

• facilitating the transfer of knowledge, • providing company-based training for university members, • stimulating business-relevant education and research, • increasing interactions, and • contributing to the knowledge base .

(Gertner et al., 2011)

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents

Where is the problem? Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents Collaboration between any K-agents takes place without affecting or being affected by other agents. University

Industry and/or

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents

• Active engagement of all involved agents is lacking. • It is difficult to create a “knowledge tank” or “knowledge storage” contributed to and accessible by all K-agents. • In addition, while “explicit knowledge” is easy to transfer across time and space; “tacit knowledge” is much more difficult to transfer.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents

• The City of Jeddah is no exception when it comes to the culture of knowledge exchange and knowledge agent interactions. • Most collaboration exists within a one or two-way environments. • Multi-directional collaborations might take place in the limited context of a one day workshop.


Statement of the Problem Collaboration between Knowledge Agents

• Within the educational context, collaboration is limited in most cases to the traditional summer training or internship model. • Professionally, the typical paradigm takes place where faculty members offer consultation to government agencies and the private sector on an individual case by case basis. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Aim and Objectives Creating a Collaboration Model: Methodology

• Investigating the importance of different key players (agents) in the creation of a Knowledge City. • Reviewing and examining collaboration models

existing

• Establishing design guidelines for the model • Developing the collaboration model. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 13/44


2 Role of K-Agents 1- Knowledge Creation Institutions 2- Government Agencies 3- The Private Sector 4- The Community


Role of K-Agents 1- Knowledge Creation Institutions

• Universities, science parks, and research centers create knowledge and support innovation. • Intellectual capital is an engine of economic and social development.

• Universities and knowledge creation centres compete to attract the best professionals and students. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Role of K-Agents 1- Knowledge Creation Institutions

• The ranking of universities is influenced by the knowledge creation process; including:

o Quantity and quality of journal articles published o Awards and patents o Student graduation rate o Research expenditure, and o Number of start-up companies generated by the research and development activities .


Role of K-Agents 1- Knowledge Creation Institutions

• The role of knowledge creation institutions in initiating and developing successful KCs is becoming very evident., e.g. Barcelona, Stockholm and Manchester. • These institutions are the ‘engines of innovation, change and economic growth’.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Role of K-Agents 1- Knowledge Creation Institutions

• In Jeddah, King Abdul Aziz University (KAU), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), the Hajj research centre and many private knowledge creation institutions all exist. • They lack the coordination amongst themselves to benefit the society at a maximum capacity. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 18/44


Role of K-Agents 2- Government Agencies

• Ergazakis, et al. (2006) argued that there should be: o a sense of social urgency for change, o “societal will” translated into “political will”, and o unlimited support from the upper tiers of government. • In most successful KCs initiatives, the local government agencies takes the responsibility of the initiatives, and coordinates urban and economic development activities in conjunction with all K-agents.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Role of K-Agents 2- Government Agencies

• Examples of the success of government agencies are the initiatives in:

1.

Dublin, Ireland; Knowledge City”,

“Delft,

2.

Denmark’s “Mind Lab” initiative, and

3.

The initiatives Government.

of

the

The

Dutch Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Role of K-Agents 2- Government Agencies

• In Jeddah, the ‘societal will’ has not yet developed and need to developed parallel to the ‘KC initiative’. • The encouraging signs are there to be seen in the JSP (2009) as listed below: o Attain a high quality of life for all, o Achieve and maintain sustainable development, o Become a dynamic international, commercial and tourism centre, and o Become a cultural centre for the Muslim world.


Role of K-Agents 3- The Role of the Private Sector

• Carrillo (2006) argues the private sector to be one of the most productive assets that contribute to the KC economy. • The role of the private sector comes after the development of a strategic framework for the KC in its initiative. • Barcelona, Dublin, Shanghai and Singapore can be considered an example. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 22/44


Role of K-Agents 3- The Role of the Private Sector

• Jeddah Development and Urban Regeneration Company (JDURC) which was established in 2006, is a major agent in facilitating the transformation of the City of Jeddah. • JDURIC’s objective is to improve the quality of experience for Jeddah’s residents and visitors, and improve the local economy by providing a platform for Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs).


Role of K-Agents 4- The Role of the Community

• A KC should enable and foster the flow of knowledge moments

• A “knowledge moment” is a spontaneous or planned human experience in which knowledge can be created, exchanged and transformed into a new form. • A knowledge moment happens at the intersection of people, places, processes and purposes.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 24/44


Role of K-Agents 4- The Role of the Community

• In a culture where dialogue is common, ‘knowledge moments’ can be easily enabled.

• Creative people and “high human capital” are the “critical resource” for knowledge moments. • Most successful KCs are investing in their human capital, promoting individuals to become “knowledge citizens”. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Role of K-Agents 4- The Role of the Community

• In the City of Jeddah, there are many constraints in creating 'knowledge citizens‘, including: o There is no KC initiative. o No agencies to drive the efforts. o The networks responsible for knowledge exchange are weak. o Thus, the creation of the 'knowledge citizens' is a very challenging task.


3 Models of Knowledge Management: 1- Between 2 K-Agents 2- Between more than 2 K-Agents


Models of Knowledge Management: A Review Two-way linear interaction between 2 K-agents

Communities of Practice in Knowledge Transfer Partnerships


Models of Knowledge Management: A Review Joint communicative environment for 4 K- agents

“Environmental Communication Collaboration Model�, 2000, to develop the First Latvian Environmental Communication and Education Strategy (2000).


4 Collaboration Model for the City of Jeddah: 1- Guidelines 2- Proposed Model


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

1- A Strategic Vision to Guide the Collaboration • The starting point is a strategic vision and development plans to design and implement a KC

“Without a sound strategy and a guiding vision, attempts to transform urban regions into creative urban regions and cities into knowledge cities would likely result in failure” Ergazakis et al. (2009)

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

2- Involvement of All Stakeholders • Each agent has its own perspective on how and what direction the city or the region should follow in becoming a KC. • This vision will identify the nature and level of participation of each agent. • The representatives of these stakeholders would be the “associates”

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 32/44


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

3- A Body to Promote the Collaboration • Ergazakis et al. (2010) examined 12 successful KCs coming to the conclusion that there should be agencies/bodies to promote the development of knowledge-based regions.

• Representatives from many authorities have to be under one roof – ‘The Body’. • This body would be responsible for creating the environment, structures, and strategies needed for collaboration

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 33/44


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

3- A Body to Promote the Collaboration • This body allowing all parties to have: o common culture, o routines, o language, and o similar ways of doing things. • This body would assure the compatibility of goals, and the integration of objectives, aspirations and dreams of all parties involved.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 34/44


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

4- Cyclonic Model-based Flow of Knowledge • The concept of a knowledge cycle is strongly promoted

“the process of transforming data and information into knowledge and then back into value-added information is a cycle that is natural and ongoing”. Silver et al. (2000)

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 35/44


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

4- Cyclonic Model-based Flow of Knowledge • Silver et al. (2000) proposed a knowledge management cycle consisting of four fundamental steps, including: 1) Observation and analysis 2) Theory generation 3) Testing and application and 4) Knowledge consolidation. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

4- Cyclonic Model-based Flow of Knowledge • Ganesh (2000) proposed a four-phase knowledge cycle to develop organizational knowledge. These phases are: 1) Knowledge Creation 2) Knowledge Adoption 3) Knowledge Distribution and 4) Knowledge Review/Revision. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Guidelines

4- Cyclonic Model-based Flow of Knowledge • OldenkampI (2002) designed a three-phase cycle for knowledge management paradigm starting with: 1) Knowledge Development 2) Knowledge Sharing and 3) Knowledge Application. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

Slide 38/44


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Design and Implementation • A body has to be created. The goals of the body should include:

o o o o o

The Vision of “Jeddah’s KC Initiative” Identifying the Goals and Objectives Creation of Implementation Plans Creation of Administrative Structures Creation of Monitoring and Performance Measuring Agencies o Devise “Knowledge Storage Tanks” – methods and forms o Devise “Knowledge Exchange Programs” (specifically for tacit knowledge) o Promotion of the initiative locally, nationally, regionally and internationally

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Design and Implementation

Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah


A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Discussion and Conclusions

• The proposed model can is a mechanism for Jeddah to reinvent itself as a KC.

• While many models suggest the political and societal will to be the starting point, in the case of Jeddah a body is needed to champion the idea and bring different agents together. • Without a “champion”, the spread of philosophy, its understanding implementation will surely delay development of the city towards direction.

the and the this

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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A Collaboration Model for the Knowledge Management in the City of Jeddah Discussion and Conclusions

• In the review of the existing situation of Jeddah, we have come to the realization that some agents are more developed . • The “Knowledge Creation” bodies appeared to be more developed. They are thus suggested to lead ‘the body’ that will direct the KC initiative. • The model represents a starting point for further discussion, analysis and testing. It is the first step in creating an initiative rather than the first step in becoming a KC.

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef UNIVERSITY, MUNICIPALITY, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE COMMUNITY: Knowledge

Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

GCC 2020 MUNICIPALITIES CONFERENCE October 22-23, 2013, Dusit Thani Hotel - Dubai

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Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

University, Municipality, The Private Sector and The Community: Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabi...

Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

University, Municipality, The Private Sector and The Community: Knowledge Management Collaboration Model for The City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabi...

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