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Presentation 2

Life Safety and Security for Buildings

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA

Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Table of Contents 1. Taxonomy of Buildings in view of Life Safety Considerations 2. Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice • Concept • Issues to be covered • Contents: examples

3. Life Safety Requirements in ‘Tall’ Buildings 4. Life safety and Security Requirements in Intelligent Building


TAXONOMY OF BUILDINGS IN VIEW OF LIFE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS • • • • •

Low-rise Buildings Mid-rise Buildings High-rise Buildings Tall and Super Tall Buildings Intelligent Buildings


LOW-RISE

MID-RISE

HIGH-RISE

UAE: Height < 15m

UAE: 15m < Height < 23m

UAE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; USA: Height > 23m UK: Height > 30m

Fire and Life Safety Codes of Practice Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


TALL AND SUPER TALL BUILDINGS

INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

Singapore: Height > 91m New Zealand: Height > 91m (20 floors) Fire and Life Safety Design for Tall buildings Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Safety and Security considerations

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY: CODES OF PRACTICE Low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise buildings • Concept • Issues to be covered • Contents: examples


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Concept

Fire and Life Safety Code of Practice is the outcome of discussion between: • Civil Defense Department • Fire Safety professionals • Industrial fire protection practitioners • Fire engineering consultants • Matured international standards such as: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) International Code Council (ICC) British Standards (BS) European Standards (EN) Singapore Fire Code (SFC) • Local authority (regulations) • Vendors Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Issues to be covered • Construction

• Fire detection and alarm systems

• Fire services

• Fire protection systems

• Means of egress

• Mechanical ventilation and smoke control

• Fire extinguishers

• Monitoring

• Exit signs

• Guidelines for the disabled

• Emergency lighting

• Risk assessment

• Voice evacuation and communication system

• Submission of drawings

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Fire rating for exterior walls and exterior openings

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Sprinkler and draft curtain used in escalator opening

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Mezzanine: Area limitations + mezzanine enclosure

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Materials: properties, testing and approval

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Access way for fire fighting appliances

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Facilities for fire fighting appliances

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Facilities for fire fighting appliances

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Architectural elements

Dimensions of staircase Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Re-entry floors Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Architectural elements

Layout of fire fighting lobby, fire lift and exit staircase Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Mechanical ventilation for smoke-proof & fire fighting lobby

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Architectural elements

Natural ventilation for car park structures Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Architectural elements

Handrail location Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Mechanical elements

Spacing between heat and some detectors Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016

Distribution pattern of a standard sprinkler


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Mechanical elements

Standby fans Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Contents: examples Mechanical elements

Smoke purging for enclosed car park structure Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


ENGINEERING GUIDE: FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY FOR TALL BUILDINGS Tall and Super Tall Buildings • Concept / Challenges • Issues to be covered • Contents: examples


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Concept / Challenges

Conventional fire and life safety codes of high-rise buildings are not enough to ensure safety in tall and super-tall buildings, due to the following: • Height beyond available resources of fire department ladders • Extended evacuation time • Effort needed to reach the grade level • Pronounced Stack effect • Water supply limitations • Greater challenges of mixed occupancies • Iconic nature of the building

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Engineering Guide

Description • Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) and the International Code Council (ICC) • Why: address complex fire protection challenges of very tall buildings. • The guide provides performance-based fire protection engineering concepts and can be applied internationally.

• Target users include: Engineers, architects, building officials, contractors, and other professionals involved in the construction of tall buildings.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Engineering Guide

Topics • History

• Components of performance-based design

• International practices

• Unique features of tall buildings

• Hazard, risk and decision analysis

• Integration of building systems

• Reliability of systems

• Situation awareness

• Emergency egress

• Fire resistance

• Facades

• Suppression

• Detection and alarm

• Smoke control

• First responder issues

• Electrical

• Buildings under construction

• Building life cycle management

• Commissioning

• Inspection, testing and maintenance

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Engineering Guide

History: significant tall building incidents 1. One New York Plaza - August 15, 1970

2. MGM Grand - November 21, 1980 3. First Interstate Bank - May 4, 1988 4. One Meridian Plaza – February 23, 1991 5. World Trade Center Explosion and Fire – February 26, 1993 6. World Trade Center Buildings 1 & 2 – September 11, 2001 7. World Trade Center Building 7 (WTC 7) – September 11, 2001 8. Cook County Administration Building – 2003 9. Caracas Tower Fire - October 17, 2004 10. Windsor Tower, Madrid, Spain – February 12, 2005 11. The Beijing Mandarin Oriental Hotel Fire - February 9, 2009 Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Engineering Guide

History: lessons learned One Meridian Plaza, Philadelphia, Feb. 23, 1991 • The need for sprinkler redundant water supply

protection

having

• Curtain walls should be protected to limit fire & smoke spread at exterior walls between floors. • Annual inspection and testing of the pressure reducing valves is needed. • Fire alarm systems for high rise buildings should be connected to a supervisory service. • Primary and secondary power should be routed independently. Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Engineering Guide

History: lessons learned Windsor Tower, Madrid, Spain – February 12, 2005 • High rise buildings need sprinkler protection having redundant water supply. • Curtain walls should be protected to limit fire and smoke spread at the exterior wall between floors. • Vertical openings, including stairways and elevator shafts, need to be protected to limit smoke and fire spread between floors.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 1- Simultaneous Evacuation • Evacuation of all building occupants on all floors, egressing at the same time

• It might be adopted for tall buildings in non-fire scenarios • It causes large-scale disruption • Egress components require greater width than those required for other evacuation strategies

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 2- Phased / staged / sequential Evacuation • Evacuating people in the immediate vicinity of the fire, firstly.

• Occupants outside the evacuation zone are either notified or are given no warning • Initial evacuation zone is determined on a case-bycase basis

• The philosophy adopted is the initial evacuation of the fire floor + above floors (2 to 3) + below floors (2 to 3) • It requires a good level of fire and smoke resistant compartmentation between evacuation zones

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 3- Progressive Evacuation • The same as phased evacuation, except that the occupants are evacuated to a safe area within the building • Occupants will either remain, or be relocated to an alternative safe area • The relocation of occupants can either be horizontal or vertical • Tall buildings (relatively small footprints) generally adopt the vertical form • One notable exception is the sky bridge connecting twin towers; e.g. Highlight Towers in Munich and Petronas building in Kuala Lumpur. Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 3- Progressive Evacuation

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 4- Full/Total Building Evacuation • Using protected stairways to reduced level of risk from fire and smoke.

• Protected elevators can be also used. • Minimizing evacuation time is crucial. • In Taipei 101 in Taiwan, total evacuation time was 2.5hrs when using only the egress stairs.

• Incorporating the use of elevators resulted in a reduction in the overall evacuation time to 1 hr.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Evacuation Strategies 5- Hybrid/Combined Strategies • Many modern tall buildings contain more than one occupancy types; hotel, offices, restaurants, cafes, etc. • Tall buildings may have a separate evacuation strategy for each individual occupancy. • Vertical egress components can be shared among various occupancies. • The combination of strategies should be tested.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings How to reduce the evacuation time? Components of Egress • Exit discounting (an exit can be lost in the event of a fire)

• Horizontal Stair Transfers (the need to transfer floors or corridors) • Effective wayfinding/exit signage • Egress discharge locations (safe, away from car movement paths and sufficient)

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings How to reduce the evacuation time? Elevator Evacuation Elevators can play the following roles: • For use by the fire department in their fire fighting operations. • For use by fire-fighters to shuttle equipment. • For use by the fire department to assist in rescue operations.

• For use by disabled occupants for evacuation, or others unable to use the stairways. • For use by all of, or a portion of the general building population for evacuation.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings How to reduce the evacuation time? Training and communication • Fire fighting department. • Occupants.

• Training should not be restricted to classrooms; it should include practical training. • Training should be periodical (scheduled).

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Supplemental escape equipment

• Helicopters for Egress/Rooftop Helipads • This might conflict with the use of green roofs and PV cells • Number of evacuees is relatively small. • Direction of movement is then upwards; conflicting with those getting downwards.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Protecting building occupants in place (Refuge Floors)

• Creating safe areas within the building to which occupants can be relocated (areas of refuge / refuge floors) • • • •

Waiting for an evacuation elevator Included protected elevator lobbies or stairway landings Fully protected by sprinklers With openings to the exterior on opposing sides to prevent smoke accumulation • Re-entry is allowed

• Sky lobbies • Areas (or even whole floors) where transfer between various elevator groups can be achieved in order to reach the desired floor • Sky lobby areas may share a level with mechanical equipment

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings When ‘refuge floors’ are needed?

• Korea: building height > 50 stories or 200m • Hong Kong: building height > 25 stories • KSA: building height > 30 stories

• India: building height > 24 stories

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Development of Egress Plan

• What are the anticipated credible events? • How a fire is detected? • How are occupants alerted?

• How are emergency responders alerted? • How will occupants and fire department personnel interact? • Where will the occupants go?

• How are occupants being accounted for? • Will elevators be used?

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Building Fire Modelling

â&#x20AC;˘ FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of fire-driven fluid flow. The software solves numerically a form of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for lowspeed, thermally-driven flow, with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from fires. â&#x20AC;˘ CFAST (Consolidated Model of Fire and Smoke Transport) is a two-zone fire model used to calculate the evolving distribution of smoke, fire gases and temperature throughout compartments of a building during a fire.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Engineering Guide: Fire and Life Safety for Tall Buildings Structural Fire Analysis

Structural fire analysis means analyzing the structural systems under realistic fire conditions. This type of approach typically involves: • Evaluation of realistic fire scenarios in and around the building. • Calculation of the heat transfer from the fire(s) to the structural elements. • Quantification of the structure’s response.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


SAFETY AND SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS IN INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS • • • •

Safety and Security of Intelligent Buildings Securing IBMSs Technical Solutions Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings


Safety and Security of Intelligent Buildings What is special about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Intelligent Buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;?

Intelligent Building Management Systems (IBMSs)

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Securing IBMS Why securing IBMS? • IBMSs are now connected to other building systems (IT data centers, remote access servers and public utilities). • Growth in the use of open protocols. • This offers a wide range of opportunities, while at the same time posing influential challenges, among which ….. SECURITY of the IBMSs is one the most important concern.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Schneider Electric 3-Phase Security Plan

Design Installation

Operation

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Schneider Electric 3-Phase Security Plan Design • Physical security • Multiple barriers to access (building, room, and cabinet access control) • Preventing unauthorized physical access to network devices. • Protect communication cables.

• Network infrastructure • • • •

Limits network access points Use firewalls to access control Manage users accesses Restrict remote access

• Selection of components (security features) • Wireless technology Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Schneider Electric 3-Phase Security Plan Installation • Considerations • Isolate all the system from the outside world till ready • Hardware (equipment) • Anti-virus software • Security measures

• Configuration rules of the Firewall • System devices • User accounts

• Thread detection and mitigation

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Schneider Electric 3-Phase Security Plan Operation • Monitoring the system

• Maintaining user accounts and access lists • Backup and recovery plan • Firewalls periodical check

• Building IBMS security awareness • Periodical security audits • • • •

Penetration testing Attempts to acquire passwords from users Verifying the security procedures followed Assessment of protection against new types of threats

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions TE Connectivity: Solutions for building safety and security Fire detection Video surveillance Access control

Theft detection Intrusion detection Network systems

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions TE Connectivity: Solutions for building safety and security Fire detection

Fire Detection

Video Surveillance

Access Control

Theft detection

Intrusion detection

Network system

Video surveillance Access control

Theft detection Intrusion detection Network systems

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Siemens Solutions Danger Management Installing one-source management application that combines all safety and security features into one system. • Fire • Intrusion

DMS8000

• Access / Vandalism

Benefits at a glance

• Evacuation

• Management station

• Video Surveillance

• Centralized danger management and supervision

• HVAC

• Flexibility to safety and security strategy • Guidance capabilities during the event treatment • Open architecture and scalability

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Siemens Solutions Fire Detection Systems / Cerberus PRO

Fire detection system

Panels for safety overview

Fire detectors

Special detectors

Floor displays

Acoustic/optical alarming

• Fire control panels – they combine high security standards with latest technology • Fire detectors – they ensure very fast and highly reliable detection thanks to intelligent detection technology

• Peripheral devices – they increase safety even further • Special detectors – they cover applications from hazardous areas to high bay warehousing

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Technical Solutions Siemens Solutions Multi-sensor: High intelligence

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

1

Proper building height Maximum building height; i.e. compact building form, smart growth, footprint, land value, etc.

Versus minimum building height: minimize the challenges imposed by building height (safety)

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

2

Integration between architectural and engineering disciplines in the deign process

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Architectural design, MEP disciplines, structural engineering, fire and life safety specialists, etc.

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

3

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Use of Simulation Tools Way-finding, visibility, integration, fire simulation, structural simulation, etc.

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

4

Integrated security and life safety plan Appropriate evacuation strategy, components of egress, scheduled/periodical and practical training, communication with users, reports, etc.

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

5

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Evacuation strategy Simultaneous, progressive, phased / staged / sequential, full / total or hybrid evacuation strategy

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Conclusion Remarks: Safety and Security in Buildings

6

Level of technology Latest technology, flexibility of the system, vendors, maintenance,

Life Safety and Security for Buildings Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

continuous updates, testing, maintenance, etc.

Arab League Center, Crowne Plaza Dubai Deira Dubai - 2016


Thanks for attention

Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Design, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

E-mail: khaled_ali@yahoo.com khaled.ali.youssef@gmail.com kaali3@kau.edu.sa Tel: 00966 53 7896 144

Profile for khaled.ali.youssef

Life Safety and Security for Buildings  

Taxonomy of Buildings in view of Life Safety Considerations Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Concept Issues to be covered Contents: e...

Life Safety and Security for Buildings  

Taxonomy of Buildings in view of Life Safety Considerations Fire and Life Safety: Codes of Practice Concept Issues to be covered Contents: e...

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