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Pipiwharauroa Pipiri 2015

Pukapuka: Rua Te Kau Ma Rua

Panui: Tuaono

Tamararo 2015

Ko wai i hua, ko i toa Pārekareka ana ki te mātaki i ngā kapa i tū ki te ātāmira i ngā wiki kua taha ake. Tū tuatahi mai ana ko ngā toki o ngā tau kua hipa tae noa mai ki tēnei rā. E whakamihi ana ki a Waihirere, ko rātou i te tīmatanga, kei reira tonu rātou. Haunga hoki ngā kapa katahi tonu ka tīmata, kia kaha, kia pono ki te kaupapa, ki ngā tikanga o te haka, arā te whakaahua i ngā mahi, i ngā taonga tuku iho nō tuawhakarere, i heke mai i ō koutou kuia, koroua. Tau te tū, tau ngā kākahu, tau ngā reo. “E kore koe e ngaro taku reo, he taonga tuku iho nō mai rā anō” Koira te āhuatanga i puta mai i ēnei whakataetae. Ko te reo i tika, ko te reo i rere, ko te reo i Māori. E whakamihi ana ki te kapa i eke ki te taumata o ngā whakataetae me te hunga hoki i uru atu ki ngā kōwhiringa whakamutunga. Kia kaha te Tairāwhiti, kei te mātakihia tātou e te ao, nā te mea nō konei ngā kapa tino kaha rawa atu ki te haka! Ko koutou ēra!

Matariki Ka puta Matariki, ka rere Whānui Ko te tohu tēna o te tau e! Ka puta a Matariki ka tīmata te tau hou e ai ki te tangata whenua. He kohinga pakupaku noa engari ka kitea tonu ki te tiro hāngai koe ki te raki o te rāwhiti. Whakanuia ai i te putanga o te marama hou i muri i te putanga o Matariki. He āhua rerekē ia tau engari ka puta i te marama o Pipiri. Koinei te tīmatanga o te tau e hoki whakamuri ai ngā whakaaro ki te hunga kua whetūrangitia, arā. “Haere atu rā koutou ki te pae o Matariki e”. E ai ki, noho tōpu ai ngā wairua o te hunga mate i waenga i aua whetū. Ko ētahi iwi ka tatari kia puta a Matariki ka tahu i a rātou hapī ka whakahuahua i ngā ingoa o te whānau i mate i te tau kua taha. Ka hukea te hapī ka koromamao te kakara ki te rangi hei whakakaha ake i ngā whetū.

Tūranga Wahine Tūranga Tane

He wā harikoa, whakanui hoki tēnei mo ngā hua kua hauhaketia. “Ngā kai a Matariki, nāna i ao ake ki runga”. I muri i te wā hauhake ka puta a Matariki. Ko te wā tēnei o te nui o te kai. Kikī ana ngā rua i te kūmara, ngā pākoro me ngā whata i te kai. Ka rere ngā ika pēra i te moki me te korokoro. Ka hopukina, ka whakamarokehia, ka tuku ki te auahi kia maoa ka waiho mo te wā korekai. Ka tahua ngā manu me ngā miiti kia kore ai e matekai i te wā o te Hōtoke, Takurua rānei. I ētahi wā ka rere ngā pākau, manutukutuku rānei. Koinei hoki te whakangahautanga o te tangata i te hurihanga o te peka o te tau. Ka kanikani, ka waiata. Ko te iwi Māori anake e whakanui ana i te putanga o Matariki ahakoa e kitea whānuitia ana i te ao. I Hawaii e mōhiotia ana ko Makali’i. Ki Hapani ko Subaru. Ko te tikanga o te kupu Subaru ki te Hapani, arā ko te wā e whakakotahi ai, e huihui tahi ai ngā hoa me ngā uri. Tūranga Wahine Tūranga Tane - Tuatahi mo te wāhanga taitamariki

Inside this month...

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He Pānui

Te Kura o Manutuke - Tuatahi mo ngā Kura Tuatahi

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He Raumahara I Whakaaronuitia

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Tamararo 2015 Photos

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Māori in WW1

Tūranga Ararau


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Pipiwharauroa Pipiwharauroa He Pānui

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Founded October 1898 Pukapuka: Rua Te Kau Ma Rua Pānui: Tuaono Te Marama: Pipiri Te Tau: 2015 ISSN: 1176-4228 (Print) ISSN: 2357-187X (Online)

Pīpīwharauroa takes its name from ‘He Kupu Whakamārama Pīpīwharauroa’, which was printed in October, 1899 by Te Rau Print and edited by the late Reverend Reweti Kohere. Pīpīwharauroa was re-launched on 20 October, 1993.

Kei Tūtū, Kei Poroporo, Hei Oranga o te Iwi, The prosperity of Tāmanuhiri is in our whenua, moana and whānau Shane Bradbrook providing the opening kōrero at the Hui-ā-Iwi

Produced and edited by: Te Rūnanga o Tūranganui-ā-Kiwa Tūranga Ararau Printed by: The Gisborne Herald Email: pipiwharauroa@ta-pte.org.nz Phone: (06) 868 1081

http://www.facebook.com/pipi.wharauroa

Attendees of the Hui-ā-Iwi that was held at Muriwai Marae on 13 June 2015

Ngā Kaitiaki o

Te Maungārongo Kia Orana koutou, You may remember about 12 months ago I fronted the farming community in Whatatutu in response to a number of stock thefts from farms. There were about 60 farmers present at the hui and they were angry and frustrated as the thefts were on going and the offenders were not being caught. We had a good kōrero and the hui finished with us developing a community action plan with eleven actions that involved police, farmers, media, community, CCTV cameras and signage and theft of stock virtually stopped over night. Police helped by students did a survey in both Te Karaka and Whatatutu that identified the top five issues the community faced. A Community Safety Panel (CSP) was formed that included representatives from both communities who have looked at the survey themes they now own and are supported by the police. So what started as theft of farm animals has led to a community safety panel being formed and both communities have been empowered to own and respond to issues across their rohe supported by their local Ngā Pirihimana. 'Empowering Rural Communities' is the buzz. This concept has proven extremely beneficial and we are now taking the concept to Tologa Bay. I am off to Christchurch this week with Tim Rhodes who is the General Manager Wi Pere trust and Owen Lloyd local Kaumātua Mangatu Marae and CSP chair to share our story at the national finals for 'Problem Orientated Policing' awards. We are being considered against four other policing areas and their initiatives for the top award. I will let you know how we get on whānau. Remember a couple of panui back when I stopped the young Māori boy from Wairoa, driving alone, on a learners license. I went to Wairoa three weeks ago and took him on a mentor drive then he came to Gisborne last week for a second mentor drive. We have booked him in for his restricted test and we will get a few more drives in before then. I am really proud of his attitude and commitment and we are working together to get him there. 'Mean Māori Mean' Keep safe whānau. Kia Manuia Nā Inspector Sam Aberahama Area Commander:Tairāwhiti Police


Pipiwharauroa Kōrero o Te Wā

Tairāwhiti Community Law Centre Vulnerable Children’s Act 2014

Summary of Vulnerable Children Act changes

Joint accountability: Chief Executives from the Ministries of Education, Health, Justice, Social Development and the NZ Police must jointly develop and report against a vulnerable children’s plan to collectively achieve the Government’s priorities for vulnerable children. The plan will be reviewed every three years and reported on annually.

Last year the government passed an Act that seems capable of addressing some of the issues our families will be faced with over the coming years. You must understand the system and move with the system and know your way around it. The legislation can support families if you understand how to apply it to situations. You may take something from this Act that could support you and your whānau.

Child protection policies: certain state services and their contracted or funded providers of children’s services must adopt child protection policies, covering the identification and reporting of child abuse and neglect. In addition to the five government agencies, this requirement applies to the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Te Puni Kōkiri, district health boards, boards of trustees of state and state-integrated schools, and sponsors of partnership schools kura houra.

On 1 July 2014 the Vulnerable Children Act and other associated legislation passed into law. The Act forms a significant part of comprehensive measures to protect and improve the wellbeing of vulnerable children and strengthen our child protection system.

The overarching purpose of the child protection policies is to provide information and processes to improve the identification and reporting of child abuse and neglect.

The reforms were proposed in the White Paper for Vulnerable Children and the Children’s Action Plan, which were released in October 2012 after significant consultation with the public that resulted in almost 10,000 submissions. The Children’s Action Plan and the Vulnerable Children Act 2014 rest on the belief that no single agency alone can protect vulnerable children. For the first time, five chief executives of government agencies are jointly accountable for acting together to develop and implement a plan to protect our children from harm, working with families/whānau and communities. A number of measures have been enacted to keep our children safe. These include standard safety checking for paid staff in the government-funded children’s workforce and new requirements for government agencies and their funded providers to have child protection policies. The Vulnerable Children Act, and two other related Acts amending the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act and the Kiwi Saver Act, were developed by a multi-agency team of officials from the Vulnerable Children’s Board group of agencies. The measures in the Vulnerable Children Act 2014 contribute to the Government’s Better Public Services result to reduce the number of physical assaults on children. The legislative changes are going to take time and will be phased in over several years, together with other Children’s Action Plan initiatives, including the roll-out of further Children’s Team sites and common competencies for all children’s workers.

The requirement for child protection policies applies “as soon as is practicable” for government-funded service providers, except for schools which will be subject to this requirement at a later date – within two years. Embedding the new child protection policies will take time and the National Children’s Directorate will support each sector to improve their practice.

As part of this process, each government agency will guide organisations in their sector on how to assess their current policies and ensure they meet the new expectations.

We want to ensure all organisations implement high quality policies that safeguard the children accessing their service.

Safe Children’s Workforce: the Act introduces new requirements to ensure children are safe with the people who work with them by implementing: •

A new standard safety check for all paid staff in the government-funded children’s workforce,

Workforce restrictions preventing people with certain serious convictions from roles that involve working alone with, or with primary responsibility for, children. This restriction is subject to an exemptions process.

These requirements will be phased in over several years, with more detail on implementation to be developed over coming months. In the meantime, government agencies and sector representatives will work together to:

Altogether, the changes provide a framework for professionals from the different sectors to work better together to help children. By breaking down the barriers to information sharing and cross sector working, and brokering more targeted service provision, we can ensure children get better access to the services they need.

The National Children’s Directorate is coordinating implementation of the Vulnerable Children Act across government agencies and state services (including the Ministries of Education, Health, Justice, Social Development, NZ Police, DHBs and School Boards.

Determine what the legal requirements for the standard safety check should be and how best to articulate these in a clear - way in regulations Implement the exemptions process for the workforce restriction, to ensure a timely process is available for all affected workers Decide how to support implementation of the new requirements in each sector, including guidelines and specialised training if necessary.

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Summary of changes to Children, Young Persons and their Families Act and KiwiSaver Act

Alongside the Vulnerable Children Act, amendments to the CYPF Act and the KiwiSaver Act include: Safety of subsequent children: ensure the safety of subsequent children of adults who have had a child or young person permanently removed from their care due to abuse or neglect, or where the adult has been convicted of the murder, manslaughter, or infanticide of a child or young person in his or her care. Special guardianship: provide more security and stability for children entering ‘Home for Life’ placements through new special guardianship provisions. Child-centred care and protection: ensure a better future for children receiving a Child, Youth and Family response, through a more child-centred approach. Kiwisaver: improve the long-term financial future of children in care by enrolling them into KiwiSaver and make relevant KiwiSaver decisions without needing the consent of other guardians. The $1,000 start of grant has been dissolved as on 21st May 2015. Disabled children: ensure all options for support and in-home care are considered for children and their families/whānau before making any decisions about out-of-home care. Who do we contact if we need help? For more information visit the Children’s Action Plan website: www.childrensactionplan.govt.nz If you have any questions, please email: admin@ childrensactionplan.govt.nz Further communication will follow about how and when the changes will affect people, and the support that is planned to help make the changes as easy as possible. If you have any questions, please contact: admin@childrensactionplan.govt.nz Nā Nikorima Thatcher Tairāwhiti Law Centre

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Pipiwharauroa He Raumahara - I Whakaaronuitia

WIREMU KOUKA

New Zealand Māori team, he never played in a losing team remaining undefeated during his two year tenure with the New Zealand Māori All Blacks.

1882 – 1952

Ko Ko Ko Ko Ko Ko Ko Ko

Horouta me Tākitimu ngā waka Puketapu te maunga Waipāoa me Karaua ngā awa Ngāti Maru te hapū te Poho o Taharākau te wharenui te Mōkai te wharekai Maheni te urupā te ara o Tuaraki ki Manutuke te wāhi noho

He tini whetū ki te rangi, ko Ngāti Maru ki te whenua He tini ika ki te moana, ko Ngāti Maru ki uta A multitude of stars in the sky, as are Ngāti Maru below. A multitude of fish in the sea, as are Ngāti Maru ashore

HE WHAKAMāRAMA The tapawhā reflects this whakatauāki by Ngāti Maru Chief Taharākau. When the light of the moon and ahi light the Wharenui they reflect on the Pāua inlays of the carvings representing the stars in the sky, the eyes of our ancestors. This representation is shown with the Pāua inlays on the tapawhā pikitia which embodies this kōrero at night time. The pūhoro design represents ‘Ngā Tai e whā” – The four winds which encapsulates the children of Tawhirimātea, igniting the warrior’s awareness to his surroundings. During the day the Pāua inlays represent the eyes of the kahawai and the pūhoro design represents ‘Ngā ngaru o Tangaroa’ – the waves of Tangaroa on which our warriors travelled overseas. Within the pūhoro are the ūnaunahi designs representing the scales of the Kahawai. Wiremu’s father was Aperahama or Pera Kouka. As far as his whānau knows he was a Pākehā who worked with the missionaries at Waimate in the north during the 1830s and visited Tūranganui ā Kiwa in 1869. Later, during 1877-78, he came to live here having been given a block of land by the Grants Commission for services during the New Zealand Wars and, in 1879, he registered under the name of Pera Kouka, Pākirikiri as an objectionable elector. He registered on the First Māori Electoral Roll in 1908 as Pera Kouka giving his tribe as Rongowhakaata, Hapū as Ngāti Kaipoho and address as Manutuke. In 1882 Keriana Hinehuka Patene gave birth to their son Wiremu at

Frame designed and carved by Tiopira Rauna

the back of Te Poho ō Rukupō. Wiremu was only two months old when his mother died so Mere Karaka Te Rerehorua, the wife of Wi Kainuku Patene, took him to Tokomaru Bay where she raised him. She wanted to adopt Wiremu but Pera would not allow her to do so. Wiremu was a fluent Reo Māori speaker and, although he was born to a Pākehā father and a Māori mother, he looked more like a European and so was known as the ‘white hori’ to his whānau and the wider community in Tokomaru Bay. In 1921 he successfully applied to the Court under section seventeen of the Native Land Amendment Act 1912 to be declared a European but in 1939, pursuant to section five hundred and twenty five of the Native Land Act, 1931, again successfully applied to the Court, this time to have his European status revoked. In 1901 he married Heeni Materoa from Whakatane, their union ended in divorce in 1927. He had two sons with Maira Te Oriki Rawhira of Manutuke being Matuakore (Joe) and Hone (John) and in 1929 married again to Maani (Ani) Paku Taiapa from Tokomaru Bay. Together they had 16 children; he was 67 when his youngest child was born. Ani Paku was named after her Aunty Ani who was born in 1888. Aunty Ani was the youngest of four children to Renata Rongokako Te Mania and Heeni Pawhatai Tainate who were married in 1866. Renata was an exceptional athlete who was nominated as a forerunner or spy to scout the way ahead to detect for any enemy movements. Because of his height he was able to climb the palisades that surrounded enemy compounds, note activities and creep back and report. Hence he became known as Renata ‘peka taiepa’ – Renata ‘the fence climber.’ He was also partially ‘turi’ or deaf and therefore became nicknamed ‘turi peka taiepa. In time the title was reduced to ‘taiepa’ or fence and from which ‘Taiapa’ became the recognised surname.

RUGBY Wiremu had a very successful rugby career which was unfortunately cut short by the First World War. On 30 July 1909 the Poverty Bay Herald reported Wiremu Kouka (Takitimu) playing in the forwards for the Country team in a Town versus Country match. Although he was based in, and played for a Tokomaru Bay team, from 1910 to 1913 he travelled down from the coast to play for the Young Māori Party (YMP) thus making himself eligible for selection for the Poverty Bay Rugby team. He not only played representative rugby for Poverty Bay but was also selected and played for the New Zealand Māori team from 1911 to 1913. It was not until 1920 that he again turned out for YMP. Whilst with the New Zealand Māori team he played in five of their ten matches in 1911 which they won against Hawke’s Bay, Hastings sub union, Poverty Bay, Wanganui and drew against Wairarapa. In 1913 he played in only one game which they won 17 – 9 against the Rotorua sub union. So, in all of his matches for the

On 22 July 1913, Wiremu made the headlines in the Poverty Bay Herald under the intriguing heading ‘SUSPICIOUS CASE AT TOKOMARU’ ‘A suspicious case has been located at Tokomaru Bay, and Dr. Davis has the patient under close surveillance to isolate him. The patient is a half – caste, Wi Kouka, well known in football circles. He accompanied the Māori touring team to Sydney, and it is understood he was vaccinated when the team returned to Auckland from Sydney. He has been back at Tokomaru Bay for about a fortnight, and has now contracted a suspicious rash… A late message from Tokomaru Bay states that the doctor thinks the case under observation may be merely a vaccination rash. The natives at Whangara are agitated over the matter, and they are very anxious to be vaccinated.“

WORLD WAR ONE Due to his rugby career and working as a shepherd and fencer Wiremu was super fit when, at the outbreak of World War One, he joined the WW1 1st Māori Contingent B Company that fought in Gallipoli in 1915, France in 1916 and Egypt in 1917 – 18. He was awarded the 1914 – 1915 Star which was issued to NZ troops for service in a theatre of war including Gallipoli and Egypt between 5 August 1914 and 31 December 1915, the British War Medal 1914 – 1920 which was issued to all New Zealand servicemen and woman serving overseas during the First World War between 5 August 1914 and 11 November 1918 and the Victory Medal which was issued to all those who qualified for the 1914 Star or the 1914-15 Star and to most of those who had already qualified for the British War Medal. NATIVE CONTINGENT IN GALLIPOLI AND PIONEER BATTALION IN THE WESTERN FRONT The first Māori unit in the First World War, known as the Native Contingent, that Wiremu served with sailed for Egypt (on the vessel Warrimo) in February 1915. Its motto was ‘Te Hokowhitu a Tū’ (The seventy twice-told warriors of the god of war), signifying the 140 warriors of the war god, Tūmata-uenga. It was suggested that the Contingent go to Malta for further training and garrison duties, thus freeing up the Pākehā troops for combat when the Contingent arrived in Egypt. However mounting causalities called for a need for reinforcements on the Gallipoli Peninsula so on the 3rd of July 1915 the Contingent landed at Anzac Cove. Here they worked with the New Zealand Mounted Rifles. The Contingent played a vital role taking part on the assault of Chunuk Bair. Wiremu had told one of his daughters that he had shot a Turkey. The little girl thought that it was the turkey (bird) that he had shot but now fully appreciates what he was referring to. The capture of Chunuk Bair was the only success for the allies of the campaign. However the success was fleeting as the position proved untenable. The Ottomans (Turks) recaptured the peak after a few days and were never to relinquish it again. The contingent that Wiremu served with suffered heavy casualties. By September only 60 men of the Contingent remained on the peninsula. By December, when the Australian and New Zealand forces were evacuated, the numbers had been boosted by the return of the men who had recovered from wounds and illness. On the 5th December 1915 Wiremu was promoted (from Private) to Lance Corporal (at ANZAC).


Pipiwharauroa He Raumahara - I Whakaaronuitia

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Memories From His Whānau

Emere (Emily) Gaskin nee Kouka is the eldest daughter of Wiremu and Ani Kouka and her eldest daughter, Dianne quickly jotted down her mother’s memories of her grandfather when she was reminiscing about him some four years ago.

Wiremu Kouka

Ani Paku Taiapa-Kouka

treatment for his health problems at the Gisborne Hospital. In a story written by Elaine Bell for the Dairy Exporter after talking with one of Wiremu’s sons, Abel about his father’s war experiences, she noted that:

Māori Pioneer Battalion After Gallipoli the native Contingent, along with the shattered Otago Mounted Rifles, was re-formed into a Pioneer Battalion participating in the rest of the war in a support role. They were responsible for digging the trenches, building roads and other duties behind the front line, and were expected to have fewer causalities than the infantry units. In spite of this, the unit suffered heavily in France. It was here in France on the 2nd of May 1916 that Wiremu relinquished his appointment at Lance Corporal due to war injuries. He had been severely gassed and had to be treated for hypertrophy of prepuse. Not only did the gas affect his breathing, he had suffered gas burns over his body that took time to heal. Wiremu was hospitalised many times during 1916 – 1918 and was even treated at the Australian Dermatological Hospital Camp, Abbassai, Cairo, Egypt. War’s End When the armistice was signed, the Battalion was heading towards the German border to become part of the Rhine garrison. However, the British high command decided not to use ‘native troops’ to garrison Germany. Although they resented this attitude, many of the Pioneers were pleased to be heading home. On the 15th January 1919 Wiremu was promoted to Corporal. In March 1919 the unit sailed for New Zealand aboard the Westmoreland. Wiremu arrived in Gisborne abroad the SS Ayrshire on the 26th August 1919. Before he was finally discharged from Military Service on the on the 19th October 1919 he was authorised as an in-patient to receive

Wiremu Kouka and his son, Bill Kouka, lay down a hangi

“… after a lengthy stretch of combat (following the armistice in 1918) he was enlisted with the Military Police and given (the NZ Provost Corpse Working with the ANZAC Mounted Division) one of the 1000 horses to help with his duties. But it was his stamina and can-do attitude that saved him when disaster struck in 1917. World War One was known as the chemical war as both sides used gas and chemicals housed in mortar shells to fire at each other. The Germans marked their shells yellow so the contents were named mustard gas which disabled and harassed their enemy. The gas could stay active in the ground for days or weeks causing the victims’ skin to blister and their eyes become sore. They also suffered internal and external bleeding and it attacked the bronchial tubes causing great pain. Fatally injured victims often took four or five weeks to die. Wiremu came in contact with the gas but suffered only a ‘mild’ attack, allowing him to stay on in Europe until the end of the war. Back home with his family Abel remembers his dad trying to get relief for his breathing from a strange contraption involving a tennis ball and a glass tube which his dad pumped and squeezed in his mouth. He received a war pension and occasionally would get a bit of fencing work. Their happiest times were when they were sitting on a wooden bench out the front of their Gisborne home in the early evening when the Salvation Army Band came by on the back of a truck and played hymns and war songs right outside their house. They felt really special.”

“After surviving the War my father Wiremu met his future wife, my mother Ani in Tikitiki, they married and I was born at Ongaruru, Tokomaru Bay on 27 December 1923. We were brought up on a farm in an old villa style house which had a tennis court in front and a whole line of flax along the fence line facing the beach. My mother used to sit there and attempt to teach her older daughters including me to make kete, but I was not skilled and would get hoha and give up. My father was much older than my Mum and, as I recall, he was the one to control us, his children’s upbringing in almost every way. My mother just worked in the garden while we, the older children, looked after the younger ones. I remember my father saddling up the horse and taking them over the hills to collect firewood and sometimes we would go with him around the rocks to collect kaimoana and he would go diving. There were times when we would get very excited but he would warn us not to shout in the area where he was diving and we were not allowed to swim there either because the rip was too dangerous. The horses were scary at first and he made us wear dungaree trousers so we looked like boys. My sister Kath and I, being the eldest, would do most of the housework and make Māori bread, fried bread and the likes. We also used to help get the garden ready for planting and I can remember Mum making jam and fruit puddings out of the many fruit trees we had on the property. We had many many animals which also had to be looked after. Helping on the farm was just second nature to us. Once a year at Xmas time we headed to Tokomaru with Dad to catch the bus to Gisborne, it was called “Duko.” We stayed with some of Dad’s relations in Manutuke. I still remember the tomato sauce and tennis shoes which were bought only at Xmas time. Dad also bought a bag of flour, sugar and rice and a big can of treacle. After the flour was all used the bag was cut up, put in boiling water, dried off and made into panties for the girls. What memories … The house in Ongaruru burnt down whilst we were at a Xmas get together at Tuatini. I remember that day clearly, I think I was about 11 years old at the time. We then moved into a tent on the site attached to a lean-to. I remember the hill at the back of the house and how we gathered the leaves off the cabbage trees and sat on them to slide down the hill.

Due to his war injuries Wiremu was not fit enough to enlist in the Second World War. However like many Compared to Mum, Dad was very very possessive Māori during that time he played an active role on of us girls especially me and sister Kath when we the ‘home front’ serving in the Home Guard and were young. Unbeknown to us, when we went to Emergency Precautions Scheme which Ngāti Porou the movies at Waima, Dad was also in the hall and formed to guard the East Coast from the threat of a Japanese invasion. Many Māori moved to the cities for the first time to work in the munitions and other factories thus beginning the pattern of urban migration that would accelerate after the war. He ran a small subsistence farm of sheep, cattle and crops in the Maungahauini Valley, Tokomaru Bay next to Ted Walsh’s place on the way to Te Puia where many of his and Ani’s children were raised. In 1948 he retired, sold his farm and moved to live in Manutuke where he built a two bedroom home for his whānau in Tuaraki Road. Even though the older ones had grown up and many had moved to Wellington for work he still had a large family to provide for. In 1949 he was discharged Top Row Left to Right - Andrew Kouka, Mrs Emily Gaskin, Hemi Kouka, Mrs Mere as unfit from the Home Guard and died Knight, Rongowhaakata Kouka and Mrs Betty Campbell Middle Row Left to Right - Mrs Lydia Tansey, Mrs Millie Brown, Mrs Lena Riki, Mrs Ani four years later aged 70 years. Paku Taiapa-Kouka and Mrs Kerina Pohatu Insert Left to Right - Bill Kouka, Tom Kouka, Mrs Nellie Hokianga and Abel Kouka


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Pipiwharauroa He Raumahara - I Whakaaronuitia

would cough to let us know he was watching us. When we came out with our mates we used to try and lose Dad but we never could. At aged 15 and 14 after attending Hatearangi Native School, a schoolteacher there at the time took Kath and me to Wellington to what we thought was to further our education, but in fact we were put to work helping in a private home where I worked until I started my nursing career at 17 years old.

Tokomaru Bay always held a special place in my heart but I never lived there again because whilst The farm in Mangahauini Valley at Tokomaru Bay as it is today I was living in Wellington, my parents moved my the wood and fixing the fences. I caught the horse in family to Manutuke.” the mornings before we went to school to round up the cows to be milked ten and after school. Dad was Paddy and Nellie Hokianga (front left) at their wedding. Photo Another of Wiremu’s daughters, Merekaraka Te very strict, once he showed us kids what and how to taken outside Toko Toru Tapu Chuch, 3rd May 1952 Rerehorua passed on to her daughter some brief do something we had to remember as he had a very recollections of her father before she passed away heavy boot which we never forgot as, not only once, seven years ago. but quite a few times we copped the end of it. I was about seven years old when Dad died so I really don't know much about him. What I do remember My father spoke to me in Māori giving me a love Living on the farm at Tokomaru Bay there were though is he would always take my younger brother of Te Reo which I continued to speak throughout always heaps of jobs to do especially during the Hemi and me on his cart to get fire wood at George my life. I remember working with her sisters, Emily shearing seasons. We helped Dad chase the sheep into Browns beach and stack it when we got home. I and Kathy in his huge garden on our property in the yards and had a lot of fun trying to ride on them. remember riding the horse Blighty when he used the Mangahauini Valley planting out and harvesting We had fowls and pigs which we had to make sure to weed the garden with some contraption that mārakai and gaining skills that I used later in were fed. We also had a marakai and an orchard of the horse pulled; I think it was called a scarifier. I life when I founded the community gardens at fruit trees. While Dad and my brothers Bill and Tom don't know how old I was when, at the table having Mangaere, Auckland. I remembered him riding his worked on preparing the ground for planting I had dinner, I reached out for the bowl of jam. He hit me white horse which he also used to pull our cart to to do the smoko starting off boiling the water in a on the hand with his fork and told me to sing out take us to church and that he was very religious billy over a made up fire. Roma tea leaves were used for it, so I sung “Mary had a little lamb...” Well you taking karakia at the Marae. For me our valley was to make the tea and I made corned beef sandwiches can guess what he did to me after that. Today I am the ‘centre of the universe’ and I have passed that with butter and onions that had a smoky taste. 70 years old and a lot wiser. I remember Dad always sentiment onto my children. sitting on the veranda with his army coat over his Money was scarce and even though we went without shoulders. If he was not there he would be on his Keriana (Kath) Pohatu: a lot of things and had to make do with what we had bed near the open fire place in the sitting room. He there was always food on the table, Dad made sure fed us a lot on fish heads and when he died Mum I was named after my father’s mother Keriana and of that. Mum and Dad sung some awesome waiata brought us younger ones up on corned beef stew, really love my Dad and my Mum, she was quite a together before going to sleep and I remember the corned beef stew and corned beef stew. The only bit younger than him. He was a lovely man, very first ever movie my Dad took me to see was Nellie time we had a change from corned beef stew was kind and very religious. He spoke Māori most of Kelly, a musical comedy on my ninth birthday. when she would go into town once a month on her the time. I went everywhere with him on the farm benefit to do her monthly shopping and she would in the Mangahauini Valley on a horse and helped Lena Riki remembers her father being a gently spoken bring home a big parcel of fish, sausages and chips. him with his work like getting manuka for firewood person who rarely said much but was always available We would all have a big feed and then back to good that he sold. We lived in a big old farm house that to whaikōrero (speak) on his local Marae. ole corned beef stew. sadly burnt down but he replaced it with a smaller place.

Heneriata Whakataka Nellie Hokianga, nee Kouka who now lives in Manutuke was born on 1 November 1935 at Tokomaru Bay and grew up in Maungahauini Valley. I am one of my Mum and Dad’s 16 children, most of us were brought up in a two bedroom house which Dad built on an extra room to house all of us tamariki. We also had a kauta with a Raupo and Manuka thatched roof, sheets of corrugated iron on the walls, a dirt floor and a big fire place which was used to cook our meals. There were always a couple of big pots or dixies hanging on hooks over the fire to heat the water. Dad took us for our lessons firstly in the kauta and there was always a strap or a stick handy if we didn’t listen. Once the extra room was built on the house we moved our lessons into there as the kauta was really smoky and stuffy. We all had our chores to do and look out if you didn’t listen or do what we were told to do. I learnt a lot from my Dad and I remembered all that he taught me, it certainly came in handy when I got married. He named me Tomboy as I did all the boy’s jobs like chopping

We were not well off and I enjoyed going with him to many occasions at the Marae in Manutuke as there we experienced the luxury of eating round wine biscuits. Christmas for us was the usual hangi hakarai with the all its normal trimmings like stuffed chicken, pork, kumara, pumpkin and so on, yum. The specialty of Christmas was eating Madeira cake and jelly. Our special treat was blackball lollies.

Wiremu is survived by nine of eighteen children from Maira Te Oriki and Maani (Ani) Paku Taiapa and many many mokopuna. Pīpīwharauroa sincerely thanks and acknowledges the members of the Kouka Whānau who have contributed their research and memories making for a lovely story about a very interesting man, his contribution to rugby, the war, his community and his family.

Due to our mixed farm there was always an abundance of fresh fruit. Taken at Kouka Whānau renion in Tokomaru Bay. Aorere, Te Atakura and Apiranga Meat was in plentiful supply like Pewhairangi with their Mum and Dad Mr Tu chicken, pork, beef and lamb. We even and Mrs Irene Pewhairangi had our own seperator to make milk! When in season, watermelon and grapes were always delicious. Of course, Dad was always handy in getting Bibliography: a supply of eels. Yes, our table was always laden and Dairy Exporter, Elaine Bell April 2014 we were spoiled in that respect because we lived off Mulholland Malcolm, ‘Beneath the Māori Moon’ Huia Publishers 2009 the fat of the land. Kia ora! Anaru Rongowhakaata Kouka was born in 1944 and he was quite young when his father died but does still have a few memories of him.

Te Whānau ā Wiremu Kouka rāua Ani Taiapa me ngā whānau Maira Te ōriki Rāwhira hoki me ngā mokopuna katoa

Poverty Bay Herald 1913 Ngā tamariki katoa ā Wiremu Kouka Ngā mokopuna katoa ā Wiremu Kouka Ngā Tama Toa: The Price of Citizenship and Many thanks to Mr Andrew Kouka Sr. for all his research


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Kō Ngā Uri ā Māui

Kō Ngā Kōhungahunga o TKKM ō Kawakawa Mai Tawhiti

Kō Te Roopu Rangatahi o Rītana

Kō Ngā Uri ā Māui

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Kawakawa Mai Tawhiti

All Tamararo photos courtesy of Crazy Hat Productions

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Horouta Wananga

Kō Ngā Mokopuna o Te Hokowhitu Atu Kō Ngā Taiohi a Hauiti

Kō Ngā Tuna Pakupaku o Makatote

Kō Te Kapa o Puhi Kaiti


Tamararo 2015

Kō Te Kura o Manutuke

Kō Tūranga Tangata Rite

Kō Te Kapa o Waikirikiri

Kō Ngā Kōhungahunga o TKKM o Te Waiū ō Ngāti Porou

Kō Tūranga Tangata Rite Ngahau

Kō Te Pūmanawa o Te Wharau

Te Puna Reo o Puhi Kaiti

Kō Ngā Kaiwhakawā - pea!

Kō Te Pihinga a Hauiti

Kō Te Puna Reo o Puhi Kaiti

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Pipiwharauroa Tamararo 2015

Kō Te Kapa o Tapu Te Ariki

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Mangatuna

Kō Te Kura Pōtiki o Ngā Uri ā Māui

Kō Te Kapa o Waikirikiri

Kō Te Kura o Whangarā Mai Tawhiti

Kō Te Kura Pōtiki o Ngā Uri ā Māui

Kō Te Pārekereke ā Hauiti

All Tamararo photos courtesy of Crazy Hat Productions

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Kō Te Kura o Manutuke

Kō Te Pārekereke ā Hauiti

Kō Te Kura o Whangarā Mai Tawhiti

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Mangatuna

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whatatutu

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Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whatatutu

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Pipiwharauroa Tamararo 2015

Kō Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Waiū o Ngāti Porou

Kō Te Kura Tuatahi o Rerekohu

Kō Te Kura a Rohe o Te Karaka

All Tamararo photos courtesy of Crazy Hat Productions


Pipiwharauroa Warenga-ā-Hika

Waerenga-ā-Hika

Truth and Reconciliation 150 years on In the Mākaraka Cemetary just outside of Tūranga on State Highway 2 stands a memorial which records the names of six Hawke’s Bay Military Settlers who were killed on the 18th of November 1865. More than 100 Māori also lost their lives nearby in defence of their lands, but there is no acknowledgement of their deaths. In fact the military monument is the only physical reminder of what was arguably the watershed moment in the colonisation of Gisborne – the battle of Waerenga-ā-hika. This November marks the 150th anniversary of the seven day seige at Waerenga-ā-Hika pā. Situated between Mākaraka and Ormond, Waerenga-ā-Hika was the last bastion for 800 mostly Tūranga Maori who were followers of the outlawed Pai Marire faith – an indigenous religion that sought to drive Pākehā away with arms and spiritual resistance. Pai Mārire or ‘Hauhauism’ had been suppressed with much bloodshed in Taranaki, the King Country, Bay of Plenty (where Europeans were reeling after the sacrificial killing of missionary Carl Volkner) and the Waiapu Valley making Waerenga-ā-Hika one of the last bastions. A month before the seige, Donald McLean, Superintendent of the Province of Hawke’s Bay, called upon the government to take ‘speedy measures against the Hauhaus of Tūranganui’. He

Waerenga-ā-Hika

Te Pono me te Maungarongo Kotahi rau rima tekau tau ki muri I whakatūria he pōhatu whakamaumahara ki te hunga i mate i te 18 o Whiringa-a-nuku 1865. E ono ngā ingoa i tāngia ki runga. He ingoa nō ngā Hoia Whakanoho Whenua nō Heretaunga. Kei te urupā o Mākaraka e tū ana tēnei pōhatu. Engari, neke atu i te kotahi rau ngā Māori i mate i te whawhaitanga mo ō rātou whenua. Kāre he tohu whakamaumaharatanga ki a rātou i mate i aua pakanga. Heoi anō, e tū tonu ana taua pōhatu hei whakamaumahara ki te kino mārika o te āhuatanga whakauru mai a Tauiwi ki Tūranganui.

enlisted 300 volunteers from Ngāti Porou , who were joined by a mixed force of colonial troops numbering 200. Te Arawa, Ngāti Kahungunu and individuals from various Tūranga iwi, including Te Kooti Rikirangi, also beefed up kūpapa numbers. During fighting, Te Kooti was accused of treason by a kūpapa chief, the charges weren’t substantiated, but as we know he would eventually be arrested on other charges. After Waerenga-ā-Hika leaders ignored an ultimatum issued by McLean to submit, Major James Fraser who had led a number of conflicts in the East Coast, was directed to attack the pa. Seven days of rifle fire ensued, but resistance ended after two rounds of crude bombs made of salmon tins containing nails, steel balls, razors and sharp metal were fired into the pa. After heavy casualties – 100 dead and 100 wounded, 400 defenders surrendered on the 22nd of November, many of whom were exiled to Rēkohu/ Wharekauri without trial or conviction. Aggressive land confiscation ensued – and the rest, as they say, is the victor’s history. In its 2012 Treaty settlement with Rongowhakaata, the Crown acknowledged that it used military force in Tūranga when it hadn’t needed to; it did not pursue ‘reasonable possibilities for preserving peace’ after it issued its ultimatum to the occupants of Waerengaā-Hika; and its attack on the pa whose occupants

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included women and children was ‘unwarranted and unjust’. The event caused long term prejudice to Rongowhakaata, and indeed other Tūranga iwi – it was the event that marked the beginning of the end of their rangatiratanga. Tūranga leaders see the upcoming 150th anniversary of the Waerenga-ā-Hika battle as an opportunity for truth and reconciliation. A major commemorative event, led by Te Aitanga-ā-Māhaki kaumātua Charlie Pera, is being planned for the original site which will include a whakairo of remembrance to the Tūranga Māori who died. An education and awareness campaign is being designed so that the wider community can learn about this chapter of the region’s history – a truth that’s been conveniently swept under the carpet for 150 years. Invitations will also be extended far and wide, including kūpapa iwi in the interests of reconciliation. There can be no doubt that certain sectors of Gisborne society have prospered from the alienation of Tūranga iwi from their fertile lands, the genesis of which can be traced to this devastating event at Waerenga-ā-Hika. Shining the light of truth may cause a moment of discomfort for some, but it also presents a chance for Tūranganui-ā-Kiwa to take authentic steps towards a brighter prosperous future for all who live here. Nā Tina Wickliffe, Ngāti Porou, Rongowhakaata

Te Whiringa-a-nuku o tēnei tau ka eke te 150 tau o taua pakanga. E whitu rā rātou e noho karapoti ana i te pā o Waerenga-ā-Hika, i waenga o Mākaraka me Ōmana. Koinei te tūnga kaha whakamutunga mo te neke atu i te waru rau tāngata. I taua wā, ko te nuinga i te pakanga ko ngā pihareinga o te hāhi Pai Marire, ko ngā Hauhau i peia mai i Taranaki, i Maniapoto me te rohe whānui i Te Arawa, Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Whakatōhea i runga i te whakapae nā rātou i kōhuru te minita, a Carl Volkner i Ōpotiki. E noho pukuriri tonu ana a tauiwi i taua wā. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka noho te pakanga hei pā kaha. He marama i mua o te karapotitanga i whakapā atu te Hōia Whakahaere o te rohe o Heretaunga ki te Kāwana kia tere te whakatau kaupapa hei whakawātea i ngā hauhau o Tūranganui. Nā tēnei ka whakaemihia e toru rau ngā tāngata mai i Ngāti Porou me ētahi, rua rau i hamuhamuhia mai i ngā hōia ā tauiwi. I tūhono mai hoki a Te Arawa, a Ngāti Kahungunu me ētahi atu iwi ō Tūranganui. E ai kii, i whaipānga hoki a Te Kooti Rikirangi ki ēnei pakanga, nā tēnei ka whakaingoatia he ‘kūpapa’ engari kāre i whai wāhi aua whakapae ahakoa rā i mauheretia ia mō ētahi atu hara. Nā te kore o ngā rangatira o Waerenga-ā-Hika i aro atu ki ngā whakahau a Makarini, ka whakahautia e Major James Fraser kia puhipuhitia te pā. Nāna hoki i tātaki ētahi o ngā whakawhiu i Te Rāwhiti. E whitu ngā rā e pakū ana ngā raiwhara, engari auare ake. Engari nō te rertanga atu o ngā pōma kii tonu i te nāra, i te maitai, me ngā mētara koikoi ka piko te hunga. Kotahi rau i mate, kotahi rau i whara, e whā rau i tuku i a rātou i te 22 o Whiringa a nuku, ā, ko te nuinga i mauria mauhere ki Reekohu, kāre i whakawātia. Kātahi ka kaha rawa atu te murua o te whenua, ā, e mōhio ana koutou ki te mutunga. Kua huri te tai. I ngā kerēme a Rongowhakaata i te tau 2012, ko whakataunga ā te Tiriti, i whāki rātou arā, kāre noa he take mo te whakahau a te ope taua engari kāre rātou tiro āhuatanga hei whakatau i te maungarongo ki kainoho o Waerenga-ā-Hika. Kāre he tikanga mo te whakaeke i te pā he wāhine, he

Pene Brown, Owen Lloyd, David Puia, Nick Tupara and Charlie Pera discussing the placement of the whakairo of remembrance for the Tūranga Māori who died in defence of their lands at the battle of Waerenga-ā-Hika

tamariki te nuinga e noho ana i reira i taua wā. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka piri tonu te tohu kino ki a Rongowhakaata mo te hiaroa. Anō te tīmatanga ō te mutunga o tō rātou rangatiratanga. E tiro Hāngai ana ngā rangatira o Tūranganui ki te kotahi rau rima tekau tau hei tīmatatanga hou i runga i te pono me te maungarongo. He wā whakamaumahara e riro ana ma te kaumātua ō Te Aitanga a Māhaki e kawe ngā whakahaere, arā, ma Charlie Pera ngā whakaritenga. E ai ki, kei te whakatūngia he whakairo ki te wāhi i hinga ai te rahi o Tūranga. He whakaaturanga ki te hapori, ki ngā iwi kia mōhio ai rātou ki ngā hītori kāre i kōrerotia, kāre i rangonahia engari i hūnaia mo te rau rima tekau tau. Kei te tukuna he pānui ki te katoa, ki ngā whānau hoki o ngā kūpapa kia haere mai ki te whakatau i te maungarongo, ki te whakanui hoki i tēnei rā whakahirahira. Ahakoa rā he nui tonu kua noho rangatira i te aukatiatanga mai o ētahi whenua whai hua, e taea ana te hoki whakamuri ki te wā i tīmata mai ai. Tēra pea kāre e tau ngā whakaritenga ki ētahi, engari he wāhanga tēnei mo Tūranganui-ā-Kiwa ki te tiro whakamua mo te painga o te iwi, o te katoa hoki e whaipānga ana.


Dolly (Georgina) Nepe

Ruby (Kui) Emmerson

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Meka Whaitiri

Tēnā tatou katoa, tēnā hoki o tatou tini mate o ngā marae huhua o te Tairawhiti. E aku Mareikura, e oku Koka o Rongowhakaata, o Ngāi Tāmanuhiri a Aunty Dolly Nepe, a Nanny Mate Nepia me Nanny Kui Emmerson. Haere atu ki tua o arai, takoto mai ra koutou. Huri noa aku mihi ki a tātou te hunga ora, ngā mihi manaakitanga o te tau hou Māori ki a tātou katoa.

Taumarumaru ko te rā Ka rapa ngā mahara Kei whea rā koe, e ngaro nei E hine e ia Kei te kai kino te aroha I te ao, i te pō, i ngā wā katoa Moe iho i te pō Whiti rere tonu ake Ko tō tinana E tū ana mai Awhi kau atu au Ka ea ngā wawata Oho ake i te ao He moemoea Ahau ka takoto Ka titiro whakarunga Ki ngā kapua o te rangi E rere ana mai Anō he kawe kupu E hine e ia Ki te kore e painga Me mutu noa

"Angel" Sophie Veronica Lowe (nee Te Pairi)

HE WAIATA TANGI He mea tito tēnei waiata tangi mā Te Ruareima. Engari rā koe, e kui awe… Turituri wawara noa Kīkī a manu, tangi kau ahau Te reo rāhiri ata māeke auē… Hotu nuku, hotu rangi Taihoa koe e haere Kaore hoki koia, ko te aroha… Tē tāmutu no ate kikini a roto nei Pūhakehake te wai I aku kamo… Taku mōtoi tangiwai e Kua tangohia koe auē… Ehara I te kākā parakīwai… Eaoia, he kauhau ariki He muka rāwhiti nā Rangitahuri rā… Kei tō pūweru, kei a Tūpurupuru Kia pai ai koe te haere auē… Tātaitia rā he pūkai mata ririki… Te rua whetūkī o Matariki Ki Whakaeaea-a-rangi… Ki ō heinga I nui rā Mahue mai he rua pūhore ki muri nei e, auē Mārewa tō waka e hika… Ki ngā wai tokitoki Te āio mōwai rokiroki e… E wherowhero mai rā e Te Whakamanu Te pua I mahue atu I te muri rā i.

Matekino Kiriwera Nepia

Te Ture Whenua Māori Review Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 is being rewritten with the intent of making Māori land available for further development. In mid-June I attended the second round of Te Ture Whenua Māori Review consultation meetings held in Tokomaru Bay, Gisborne, Wairoa and Hastings to listen first-hand to Māori landowners. Over 400 attended and their concerns were: ● Poor process: There is no analysis of what is and is not working with the current Act and the Māori Land Court. There has been a short time period with a draft bill of over 400 sections made available less than one week before the nationwide consultation hui. ● Tikanga: The Crown is effectively changing the relationship of Māori with whenua. Whenua is referred to as an asset in the review document, not as taonga tuku iho and undermines our te ao Māori worldview. ● Lack of transparency: This is a Government-led change of Te Ture Whenua Māori Act. This raises immediate questions of motivation, confidence and trust The Government's economic growth agenda involves the extractive industries such as mining and deep sea drilling, access to land will be critical. ‘He kai kei aku ringa’ is the Government’s Māori economic strategy and development of natural resources including land and water is a key goal. At the Government level, Steven Joyce Economic Development Minister is leading the National government's economic growth agenda and Chris Finlayson, as Attorney-General, Treaty Negotiations Minister and Associate Minister of Māori Development along with Te Ururoa Flavell Minister of Māori Development are leading the rewrite of Te Ture Whenua Māori. At an operational level we have the Ministerial Advisory Group that includes Kingi Smiler (Chair), Matanuku Mahuika, Traci Houpapa, Spencer Webster, Linda Te Aho, Sacha McMeeking and Dr Tanira Kingi. This group of individuals are progressing the introduction of new Māori land legislation this year. Te Tumu Paeroa - The Māori Trustee is conspicuous by its absence. They need to urgently declare where they sit with this review on behalf of the many Māori land blocks they administer.

I heke mai i ngā kāwai rangatira o Rongowhakaata Me tana koroua i a Te Pairi Tarapekepeke. “Kia ora Rongwhakaata” Tō reo te whiu. Ō kupu tangi tonu ana Hine pūrotu Hine ngākau Hine rangmarie I haere koe i tō haere ohorere Nā te ringa kaha o aitua Nāu noa rānei Kāre e whakawā Nā te mamae, te pouri me te whakatakariri Ko wai hei whakakatakata, hei kawe i a mātou? Mokemoke ana Tuakana haere

Where to from here? As Māori we are 'tangata whenua'. As people without whenua, we have struggled. This new bill could redefine our relationship from 'tangata whenua' (of the many) to 'participating owners' whenua (of the few). Haere rā e kui Takahia atu te ara whānui a Tāne Ki a Hinenuite pō Me he manu rere ahau e, Kua rere ki to moenga, Ki te awhi to tinana, E te tau tahuri mai Kei te moe te tinana, Kei te wāke te wairua, Kei te hotu te manawa, E te tau tahuri mai. Haere, haere ra e hine Whakangaro i konei Waiho ahau i muri nei Tangi hotu hotu ai

At the Gisborne hui, I called upon Iwi Authorities and Māori Land Authorities to undertake their own independent analysis and make it available to Māori Landowners. As the Local MP, I will be undertaking my own analysis of this review for the benefit of constituents. The proposed changes of this bill are important; they must reflect the aspirations of Māori landowners. The submission close off date has been extended to Friday 7 August 2015. I encourage all Māori landowners to place a submission and, as the MP for Ikaroa-Rāwhiti, I would appreciate a copy of your submission. You can email these to tairawhiti@parliament.govt.nz


Pipiwharauroa Māori in WW1

MĀORI CONTINGENT AT GALLIPOLI

6 AUGUST 1915, PART III This is a further excerpt from Dr Monty Soutar’s manuscript about Māori in World War One. It follows on from last month’s account of the night attack on the foothills leading to Chunuk Bair. It describes the Māori Contingent’s role on 6 August 1915. The success of the attack along the Chailak Dere depended on the removal of the barbed-wire entanglement that completely closed the river-bed, or at least the most feasible entrance to the valley. Capt. Twistelon with 2/Lt Coupar’s platoon, and the dozen engineers with them, found that the wire was of “unexampled height, depth, and solidity” and it was “flanked by a strongly-held enemy trench running right across the opening of the Chailak Dere.”1 He detailed in his diary how his party overcame the obstacle: We moved out at 9.30 p.m. under a hell of a fire and some of it big bombs. We got a lot of them afterwards in the Turkish trenches, iron balls about 6 inches in diameter and filled with high explosives. They came through the air like a lot of comets and when they burst they made a terrific report ... We got up the creek to the wire entanglements without any accident. The engineer officer had his arm broken while cutting the wire so I had the job to do myself. That wire had the full attention of a trench of Turks not more than 70 yards distant and a machine gun on the northern flank. I had to go out to anchor the grappling irons 6 times and although they pushed the lead in for all they were worth no bullet came within a foot of me. The Māoris did most of the hauling from the creek bed which was fairly safe, only 2 wounded. One got a flare into his tunic which set him alight. I believe he thought at first he was killed and started to roll about which was just what 2 was needed to put out the fire.

The Māori lads tore up the stakes while under incessant fire. Still, not a man was killed. The bullets flew over their heads with one continuous screech. “I think we all get killed at that wire,” said one of them. “The bullets come ping, ping, ping over our heads all the time, but the Turk he fire too high. Pai kare, I think we have [a] lucky escape that time.3 The engineers went over the trench first, shooting and bayoneting any Turks who resisted. The Māori platoon followed. “There were dead Turks in the trenches,” recalled Pte Pita Tahitahi. "They were very poorly dressed with sand bags for puttees." Some of them were half dead, just laying there. You can feel it when you trample on them. You can hear the breathing. We just turn the rifle with the bayonet round and finish them off ... instead of leaving them there to 4 suffer.

Capt. Twistleton said they had barely finished the job “when we heard the 12th Squadron [O.M.R.] cheering so we hurried up in support and found they had taken the first ridge and the circular trenches.”5 One of the field engineers, Spr K. W. Watson, was later awarded the DCM. Wounded by a Turkish bullet he still managed to help his injured officer, Capt. Shera, out of the firing zone.6 Pte William Smith of Northern Wairoa said they too did the haka and he “could hear the Turks crying out from all parts of the scrub. They could not make it out.”7 So enthusiastic was Coupar’s platoon to join the fighting, that they neglected to send back a runner to let headquarters know that they had completed their task and gone to support the O.M.R. Capt. Pitt recalled: The entanglements were to be cleared at 10 o’clock at the latest, and at 9.45 no word had been received as to

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whether the clearance had been made or whether the success of the advance would be jeopardised. In order to ascertain whether the wires had been cleared, scouts were sent out to inspect. Later one of these came back and said that all was clear and he had to apologise for the others for they wanted to get a Turk. It appeared that the original party had cleared the entanglements, and having been fired on determined to have their revenge. They were not taken much to task for this, as they were very eager to accompany their pakeha 8 brothers to the objective.

Some of the men from this platoon were later found lying dead with Capt. Hay and some other Otago men on Bauchop’s Hill where they had been attacking.9 The death of their mates only served to motivate the rest of the men. “I felt sorry for them, but still it didn’t give me any feeling that I should die like them,” said Pte Tahitahi. “I just think I’m going to kill this enemy that killed my friends, before they kill me.”10 SATURDAY 7TH AUGUST As day broke the signs of the previous night’s attack became plainly evident. On Bauchop’s Hill the men found “Q.M. stores with new overcoats, barbed wire, stacks of ammunition [and] embroidered quilts.”11 Pte Teihoka, who was with Capt. Dansey, described the scene from Table Top: Awful sight this morning. Dead lying all over the roads. N.Z. still advancing. Rifle fire was awful. Everybody was mixed up both A & B Companies by this morning, advanced about 2½ miles into the Turk’s territory on the left flank ... not safe to put one’s head above the parapets for fear of getting a bullet through it. Advanced onto flat [Table] top this morning. There was some narrow squeaks. Made dugouts & had a rest. List of casualties from No. 4 [Platoon]: W. Manihera believed dead, P. Ropata dead, J. Harding wounded, H. Piper, P. Nopera, J. Arthur, W. Thompson 12 believed dead from wounds.

Those who died in this list were 23 year-old Pte Waitere Manihera of Rapaki who passed away not long after he was wounded. He had been shot in the abdomen when he and his uncle, Pte Henry Paipeta were leaving a captured trench to charge another.13 W. Thompson (listed above) was 22 year-old Pte Richard Thompson of Otakou who had been shot in the chest. He died on board a hospital ship two days later.14 27 year-old Pte Joseph Harding of Bluff died of his thigh wound after a week in hospital.15 Everyone, no matter which ridge they were on, were cheered by the sight of the British reinforcements landing at Suvla Bay. “We could see battleships and then we could see the barges coming to the shore,” recalled Pte Tahitahi. “Kitchener’s army ... well, we thought we were going to win the war ... with these British soldiers coming to help us.”16 Despite Turkish bombardments starting up and the Allied warships and field artillery returning fire, the work of the Mounteds was over, at least for now. The members of the Māori Contingent, though exhausted, were quietly pleased with their night’s work. “It has been the joy of every one of us to make good,” said one private. For we knew that our best friends had some doubt about the Māori when it came to night fighting. Of course, we know better. But it was quite reasonable to argue because the old Māori would not go out at night that the strain of a night march and a charge in the dark might prove too much for the nerves of our fellows. But the warrior tradition is stronger even in the most credulous Māori than the instinct to superstition, and we knew that. We knew every man 17 would make good when the time came.

The officers were extremely pleased with the efforts their men had made. Capt. Pitt thought that they were without peers, in spite of the efforts of the Pākehā soldiers (kore he kaha hei rite, ahakoa nga hoia pakeha).18 Lt. Hiroti later wrote that, “they attacked magnificently ... They have made a great name in the firing line.”19 Capt. Buck summarised the Brigade’s night’s work: The Auckland Mounted Rifles took Old No. 3 but dug-in without cleaning it out. Captain Dansey, with 70 Māoris, asked Major Chapman (Auckland Mounted Rifles) to give him another 50 men and he would clean up the position. This was refused, and Dansey did it with his 70 men, losing only seven killed and several wounded. Major Chapman was killed. The Wellington Mounted Rifles, under Colonel Meldrum, took Big Table Top, but Rhododendron, a little further on, delayed the infantry who were advancing while these operations were going on. The Otago Mounted Rifles, under Colonel Bauchop, with the Canterbury Regiment, 20 under Colonel Findlay, cleared up Bauchop's Hill.

A good deal of the enemy had been killed and a large number taken prisoners. The Mounted’s casualties were also significant, but tolerable. It speaks highly of the care taken in planning and the secrecy observed that the attack was a great surprise to the Turks. Many were found asleep in their dug-outs and in some cases they were undressed. Prisoners afterwards admitted that they had not expected the attack.21 C. E. W. Bean described the importance of the night assault as a “magnificent feat of arms the brilliance of which was never surpassed, if indeed equalled, during the campaign.”22 The Mounted Brigade had taken all its objectives and so could only be satisfied with their efforts. They now had only to wait and see whether the successes of the night would be equalled by the columns assaulting the high features along the Sari Bair range.23 References: 1) North Otago Times, 10 March 1916, p. 2. 2) Twistleton, pp. 38-39. 3) New Zealand Herald, 14 October 1915, p. 4. 4) Pte P. Tahitahi, Maori Contingent, interview by Christopher Pugsley, IV Pugsley, TVNZ 1983. 5) Twistleton, p. 39. 6) Taranaki Daily News, 11 January 1916, p. 6. 7) “Battle of Sari Bair”, New Zealand Herald, 30 October 1915, p. 9. 8) Poverty Bay Herald, 5 July 1916, p. 5. 9) AWM38, Official History, 1914-18 War: Records of CEW Bean, Official Historian, Diary, August 1915 includes reference to fighting on 6-10 August, Item No: 3DRL 606/14/1, AWM. 10) P. Tahitahi, Maori Contingent, interviewed by Christopher Pugsley for TVNZ, 1983. 11) C.E.W. Bean Diary August 1915 (typescript), AWM38 3DRL 606/14/2, p. 11, AWM. 12) Pte Wiremu Pitama to his mother, 14 August 1915, in Press, 18 October 1915, p. 5. 13) “Home Again”, Press, 11 January 1915, p. 2; 16/189 Pte Waitere Manihera, personnel file, ANZ. 14) 16/360a Pte Richard Thompson, personnel file, ANZ. 15) 16/267 Pte Joseph Harding, personnel file, ANZ


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                   

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                                                    

                                     

      

         


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Pipiwharauroa June 2015  

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