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ISSN 2282-1767

Protective Coatings ®


ipcm_PC digital on

2019 - 8th Year | Quarterly - N.31 October

SIX TIMES FASTER: REVOLUTION IN BLADE REPAIR The solvent free paint system Teknoblade Repair 9000 is a welcome innovation for the wind power industry. Enabling rotor blade repair with only one coat of paint, it makes repair work up to six times faster, minimizing costly turbine downtime.



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with a global vision of the market and

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a modern approach to the dynamics

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modular courses


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DQGTXDOLW\RIWKHSURFHVVHV we are media partner of many leading

case studies

trade fairs in the world and exclusive agency

graphic design


readers engagement

and Fabtech Mexico.

global visibility

in this issue © MOD Crown








EcoQuip confirmed as suitable for explosive atmospheres



© Teknos

© Simon Price


SUCCESS STORIES Internal linings saved by corrosion resistant coatings


SUSTAINABILITY Five on Five Interview: Sustainability according to the industry players - Part III

44 © Adobe Stock



© Carina Hansen


Sherwin-Williams steps in with corrosion protection coatings for Royal Navy’s largest-ever warships


42 INNOVATIONS United against hydrogen embrittlement

24 ANALYSIS Polymeric repair: an attractive and convenient solution for damaged wind turbine shafts

44 FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY New concepts in life extension for brownfield offshore assets

32 HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Teknos puts sustainable and innovative solutions at the service of the wind power industry in its Vamdrup centre of excellence

38 BRAND NEW 40 SUCCESS STORIES New plastic materials and coatings will make it possible to install floating wind farms in deeper water with fewer costs

52 INNOVATIONS Efficiency increases in catalytic reformers

56 INSPECTION LOGBOOK Coating inspections: inspection personnel requirements


EcoQuip™ 2 EQp Vapour abrasive blasting

A cleaner and easier way of blasting for more profitable and durable results. Small and portable – makes it easy to move on the deck. It can handle both horizontal and vertical surfaces Atex approved – can be used on all vessel types (even tankers) Environmental friendly – 92% less dust and less media consumption compared to dry blasting. Uses less abrasive and less water than traditional machines for slurryblasting, pressure washing or water jetting. Limited Health Risks – Limited risks due to vibrations caused by hand tools Surface preparation – the surface roughness, visible cleanliness (rust, deteriorated coats) and nonvisible cleanliness (chloride levels) combined with feathered edges in spot blasting generate quality prepared metallic surfaces for recoating jobs.




ustainability is a term that is now far too abused, perhaps because it has numerous meanings, some of which are ignored by most. In fact, it does not only refer to the

ability to produce less pollution/waste/impact on the environment in the everyday life and in industrial production processes, but also, for example, to the choice of lengthening the service life of a product, thus promoting a circular economy model. We live in a world geared towards the bulimic consumption of products, resources, and raw materials, where replacing is better than repairing, and where the life cycle of many consumer and non-consumer goods has shortened dramatically. Yet, not guaranteeing the durability, long service life, and operational reliability of a product means not being sustainable. And what concerns the durability of a good more than its protection, particularly against corrosion? For eight years, ipcm®_Protective Coatings has been committed to inform the global

infrastructure, energy, chemical, shipbuilding, and maritime industries about the most recent and advanced corrosion protection and prevention technologies, as this is a natural phenomenon that cannot be stopped or eliminated but only contained and delayed over time. This autumn issue includes numerous articles, many of which are collected in a special section devoted to the energy production sector, including its offshore applications. These have a common thread: the purpose of preserving assets to extend their service life through installation, protection, or repair technologies that are less expensive (in terms of overall process or maintenance operations) and more efficient. In a word, sustainable. The covered topics, therefore, include innovative polyurethane raw materials for the construction of wind turbines, repair systems with cold-applied 100% solid epoxy resins avoiding long downtimes and disassembly costs, direct-to-metal (DTM) water-based systems integrated with graphene to increase their barrier effect, zinc flake coatings that avoid the hydrogen embrittlement of structures subjected to fatigue, and the use of polymeric materials to anchor wind turbines in deep waters with lower process costs. The latter technology prompts a further observation: nowadays, the plastic industry is often demonised by sustainability initiatives. However, these run the risk of affecting a sector and a material that can actually be of great help to sustainability. Let us think, for example, of the possibility to reduce weights in the transport sector thanks to the use of engineered plastic materials, resulting in fuel savings. Critical sensibility is therefore extremely important also in this journey towards sustainability.

Alessia Venturi Editor-in-chief

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



AGM Advances Applications for Water-Based Anti-Corrosion Coatings The development addresses customer regulatory pressures for

designed to facilitate the easy incorporation of graphene into coating

safer and more environmentally sustainable paints and coatings.

formulations and existing processes. Genable® dispersions are fully scalable industrial products and, based on initial findings, the addition

Applied Graphene Materials, the producer of specialty graphene

levels required to significantly enhance anti-corrosion performance in

materials, is pleased to announce it has achieved significant

water-based systems are low enough to ensure commercial viability,

technological progress (patent pending) on the deployment of

even in light industrial applications.

graphene into water-based coatings to enhance their barrier

Adrian Potts, CEO of Applied Graphene Materials, said: “A key driver

properties. The company will be sharing the findings of recent

for coatings developers to upgrade their product formulations is

development work with its existing customer base and the wider

increasing regulatory pressure to improve the environmental impact


and safety of their products. This is why AGM is working to replicate

Water-based coatings development remains a focus for industry

the success we have already achieved with the incorporation of our

formulators. This push is driven by the continuing tightening of

Genable® products into solvent-based products with its incorporation

regulations brought in to lessen the detrimental impact that

into water-based products. We are delighted to be able to present

solvent-based coatings have on both worker health and the

significant technological progress to our customers, reaffirming

environment. As the technology for water-based coatings continues

AGM as the leader in the development of cutting-edge graphene

to evolve, one of the key challenges that remains is to significantly

applications tailored to add significant value for paints and coatings

improve their anti-corrosion performance. In doing so, this will fully


extend their use away from decorative applications into broader

While the findings being shared publicly are in a commercial acrylic

industrial protective coatings.

DTM (Direct-to-Metal) coating, AGM believes that water-based

Over recent years AGM has proven the outstanding barrier and

Genable® technology could, with considered formulating, equally well

anti-corrosion performance gains possible by incorporating graphene

be adopted into water-based epoxy chemistries and likewise into more

into solvent-based coating systems using its Genable dispersion

complex formulated primer systems.

technology. This has been demonstrated with several commercial

AGM remains the industry leader for graphene exploitation into the

products reaching industrial end-user markets. However, effective

global paints and coatings industry, boasting a highly experienced

incorporation of graphene into water-based systems has previously

formulations and applications team, supported by a well-equipped

proven more problematic due to interrelated issues around materials

product development and characterisation laboratory and production

compatibility and film formation.

capability for consistent manufacturing.


This water-based breakthrough is again based on AGM’s platform Genable® technology, a range of master dispersions that are

For further information:

Tatiana Shepeleva © Shutterstock


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


20.0 15.0 10.0

6.7 3.5



0.0 6B1-1P2





5% Genable 1250

10% Genable 1250

20% Genable 1250

Blasted Steel - 1000 Hours (42 Days)

Average Corrosion Creep (mm)

Average Corrosion Creep (mm)

Blasted Steel - 480 Hours (20 Days) 50.0 40.0 30.0


30.0 20.0





0.0 6B1-5P2





5% Genable 1250

10% Genable 1250

20% Genable 1250

30.0 20.0 9.8 10.0



0.0 6B1-9P2





5% Genable 1250

10% Genable 1250

20% Genable 1250




5% Genable 1250



10% Genable 20% Genable 1250 1250

50.0 40.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0



0.0 6B1-6P2





5% Genable 1250

10% Genable 1250

20% Genable 1250

Abraded Steel - 1000 Hours (42 Days) Average Creep Average Corrosion Creep (mm)

Average Corrosion Creep (mm)




Abraded Steel - 480 Hours (20 Days) Average Creep 50.0


Bonderite Steel - 1000 Hours (42 Days) Average Creep Average Corrosion Creep (mm)

Average Corrosion Creep (mm)




Bonderite Steel - 480 Hours (20 Days) Average Creep 50.0

Š Applied Graphene Materials

Waterborne Coatings: Acrylic DTM (Direct-to-Metal) Creep Assessment following accelerated exposure testing [Neutral Salt-Spray (Fog) Testing - ASTM B117]

50.0 40.0 25.0

30.0 20.0 10.0



0.0 6B1-10P2





5% Genable 1250

10% Genable 1250

20% Genable 1250

Except for the 480-hour assessment of the coated Blasted Steel control panel all of the other control panels at both 480 hours and 1000 hours testing had substantial levels of corrosion emanating from the scribe and/or a complete failure in terms of corrosion. These panels have been denoted as having an average creep corrosion of 50 mm to aid pictorial representation in the graphs.

ipcmÂŽ Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



MilCorr® Fire Retardant VpCI® Shrink Film: Unbeatable Corrosion Protection for Harshest Environmental Conditions With MilCorr products, preservation costs may be decreased

© Cortec

by 40-60% according to well documented data for deep storage and preservation of military vehicles and equipment. Billions of dollars in assets are lost every year by the military due to corrosion. Many factors are considered when evaluating corrosion prevention as it is necessary to maintain a corrosion control and prevention strategy that is efficient yet economical. Over the years, various methods of corrosion prevention have been adopted by the military. New strategies are continually being developed and evaluated for effective corrosion control. Utilizing VpCI technology has shown to be one of the most effective methods throughout the years. Cortec offers another corrosion prevention solution to its professional MilCorr line of products used by military personnel globally. This heavy-duty film with superior mechanical properties features Cortec’s multi-metal Vapor phase Corrosion Inhibitors, flame retardant additives, and UV (Ultra Violet) inhibitors. It is successfully used not only for © Cortec

military, but also for preservation of other various types of industrial equipment (Figs. 1 and 2). MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film provides a top-notch universal protection system to maintain the integrity of the film itself, as well as the parts packaged within. It reduces costs of protection and extends asset life. MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film, in conjunction with other Cortec products, provides a total turnkey preservation for long term outdoor storage. With MilCorr products, preservation costs may be decreased by 40-60% according to well documented data for deep storage and preservation of military vehicles and equipment (Figs. 3 and 4). Savings of millions of dollars in hazardous waste generation is also a part of this data. This safe, multi-functional film can replace conventional rust preventatives, such as oils and desiccants, while extending equipment life. Parts protected with MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film are ready to use with no additional cleaning or degreasing necessary, saving customer’s time and money by eliminating extra processing steps. Metal parts packaged in MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film receive continuous multi-metal, contact, barrier, and vapor-phase protection against salt air and humid environments, moisture, Figures 1 and 2 - Equipment, pipes, flanges, and units wrapped in MilCorr VpCI Shrink Film.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

aggressive industrial atmospheres, and dissimilar metal corrosion. The VpCI vaporizes and condenses on all metal


© Cortec

© Cortec

Figsures 3 and 4 - Examples of military vehicles packed with MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film.

surfaces within the enclosed space and diffuses to every area of your

• Recreational vehicle preservation (boats, snowmobiles, etc.)

part; protecting its exterior as well as void spaces and recessed areas.

• Pallet shrouds.

Complete product storage protection as well as during domestic and overseas shipments is provided (Fig. 5), eliminating any rust claims

Militaries and their contractors are increasingly testing, identifying,

and allowing immediate use of protected object upon removal.

and approving VpCI products as a successful means of protection.

MilCorr FR VpCI Shrink Film conforms to military specification

Corrosion prevention, being the ultimate goal, is not enough in this

MIL-B-22019D, NACE Standards RP0487-2000, and TMO-2008. It

day and age. The safety of military personnel, environment, elimination

passes NFPA 701-2010 “Fire Test for Flame Propagation of Textiles

of hazardous waste disposal and labor costs make VpCI technology

and Films”, Test #2-Flat Sheet Specimens.

number one choice for the military industry. The efficiency and ease of

Typical applications are:

application along with the benefit of non-removal makes Cortec’s VpCI

• Military vehicles and equipment preservation

technology the most desirable corrosion protection solution available

• Mothball preservation of industrial equipment


• Export packaging of expensive larger equipment • Heavy equipment covers

For further information: © Cortec

Figure 5 - A heat gun is used to complete the shrink-wrapping process during preservation.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



Hull Corrosion Protection Systems Based on Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Technology Cathelco, a company which is part of Evac Group, offers

corrosion, they are not a complete solution. For this reason, most

world-leading impressed current cathodic protection technology

operators choose to protect their vessels with a purpose-designed

(ICCP) in combination with a broad understanding of various

impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system (Fig. 1).

corrosion problems and the most effective ways to solve them.

Using an arrangement of hull mounted anodes and reference cells connected to one or more control panels (Fig. 2), the system produces a more powerful external current to suppress the natural

• Commercial and cruise ships

electro-chemical activity on the wet surface of the hull. This eliminates

• Fast ferries with steel or aluminum hulls

the formation of aggressive corrosion cells on the plate surfaces,

• Naval vessels

avoiding problems that can exist where dissimilar metals are either

• Fishing vessels and other workboats

combined through welding or brought into proximity by other

• Luxury yachts.

components such as propellers.

Although modern hull coatings provide some protection against

The Cathelco C-Max anode range provides numerous advantages in

© Cathelco

Its systems have been designed for the following types of vessels:

Figure 1 - Scheme of the impressed current cathodic protection system on a ship.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


terms of performance and ease of installation. They are lightweight and diver changeable, producing a high output from a small footprint. © Cathelco

Cathelco corrosion protection systems by Evac are designed to automate the current output while the voltage output is varied. This allows protection levels to be maintained as seawater resistivity alters. In a sacrificial anode system, increases in seawater resistivity can cause a decrease in the anode output, and in turn in the level of protection offered. With an ICCP system, protection does not decrease across the standard range of seawater encountered. An essential feature of Cathelco ICCP systems is that they constantly monitor the electrical potential at the interface between the seawater and the hull, carefully adjusting the output to the anodes in response. Therefore, the system is much more effective and reliable than a sacrificial anode system, where the level of protection is unknown and impossible to control. By installing a Cathelco C-Shield system, operators can make significant savings in hull maintenance costs and also reduce fuel costs thanks to a smooth hull surface. Furthermore, increased hull integrity safeguards the owner’s investment and increases safety. For further information:

Figure 2 - One of the control panels connected to anodes and reference cells.

About Evac Evac is the world’s leading provider of integrated water and waste management systems, as well as corrosion-protection systems, for the marine, offshore, and building industries. Its cutting-edge solutions and services have been helping leading global players in these industries to significantly reduce their environmental footprint for 40 years. With offices in 14 countries across four continents and representatives in more than 70 countries, Evac is close to its customers wherever in the world they are located. The comprehensive offering includes solutions sold under well-known HEM and Cathelco brands.


AkzoNobel’s New Awlgrip Single-Stage Topcoat Makes Life a Breeze for Yacht Owners Navigating the process of yacht care and maintenance just got a

durable finish (Awlgrip topcoat) and a slightly softer, repairable finish

whole lot easier following the launch of Awlgrip HDT (High Definition

(Awlcraft 2000) and contains lower VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

Technology), a new single-stage repairable topcoat from AkzoNobel.

than traditional topcoats. Awlgrip HDT can also be supplied in any colour through AkzoNobel’s Awlmix centres, while around 300 are ready to be

Creating a new standard in topcoat appearance and durability, Awlgrip

selected online at

HDT is a high performance, mirror-like single-stage coating which allows

“Our products are all about making a difference,” adds Bilal Salahuddin,

owners to protect their boat with a stunning, long-lasting finish, all

Commercial Director, Yacht Coatings. “We’re committed to creating

without sacrificing convenience.

fit-for-purpose colours and innovative supporting colour tools and

“We’re always looking to deliver for our customers and Awlgrip HDT will

solutions that meet whatever technical challenges or performance

give yacht owners a longer lasting and easier to maintain finish,” explains

demands our yacht customers may face.”

Jean Michel Gauthier, AkzoNobel’s Global Business Director for Marine, Protective and Yacht Coatings. “It’s another tool in the ‘box of paint

Available now in North America and Europe, the launch of the new

tools’ which has been specifically tailored for consistent application,

Awlgrip product follows on from last October’s introduction of Awlgrip

reparability and exceptional colour retention.”

HDT polyurethane clearcoat, which can be used over the full range of

The new product passed the toughest of tests when it was put through

Awlcraft SE basecoats.

its paces during the last edition of the Volvo Ocean Race (now called The Ocean Race). Awlgrip HDT combines the functionality of a hard,

For further information: © AkzoNobel

Awlgrip HDT combines the functionality of a hard, durable finish (Awlgrip topcoat) and a slightly softer, repairable finish (Awlcraft 2000) and contains lower VOCs (volatile organic compounds) than traditional topcoats.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


CINGARD® EP950 PW is the only EPAL - Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres S.A. approved polyurea membrane for waterproofing of drinking water pipes and tanks, buried areas of concrete deposits and the interior of silos.

CINGARD® is the Only EPAL Certified Polyurea for Contact with Water Intended for Human Consumption CIN is the only Portuguese coatings brand to have two pure polyurea

high-performance coatings, passive fire protection, concrete structures

elastomeric membranes approved and certified for contact with

and floor coatings.

water intended for human consumption: CINGARD® EP950 PW and CINGARD® EP500.

CIN at a glance CIN is a Portuguese privately owned coatings company, acting through

CINGARD EP950 PW is the only EPAL - Empresa Portuguesa das Águas

subsidiaries in Portugal, Spain, France, Poland, Turkey, Angola,

Livres S.A. approved polyurea membrane for waterproofing of drinking

Mozambique, South Africa and Mexico and looking to extend its activities

water pipes and tanks, buried areas of concrete deposits and the interior

to other countries in Europe, Africa and South America. Portuguese

of silos. EPAL’s responsibility, as the most relevant Portuguese water

market leader since 1992 and Iberian market leader since 1995, CIN

company, is to assess the influence of materials on water intended for

ranks as the 16th largest paint company in Europe1 and the 48th in the

human consumption in accordance to a varied and comprehensive

world2 with a turnover of 238 million euros. CIN is a great place to work,


range of European standards in force. CINGARD EP950 PW certification

attracting, developing and retaining talent by offering challenging and

ensures that it is innocuous and so it does not alter the water’s

rewarding career opportunities.

physical-chemical, chemical and organoleptic properties.

With seven Research & Development Centres (R&D) in Portugal, Spain

CINGARD® EP950 PW and CINGARD® EP500 were also certified according

and France, CIN continually strives for innovation to improve processes,

to the European norm EN 12873 and the Spanish Royal Decree 140/2003.

anticipate market needs and ensure the success of its products, which


CINGARD product range is synonym of protection, sturdiness and safety,

are sold in over 40 countries. In addition to innovation, CIN has long

providing watertight coatings which are continuous and seamless. The

been committed to the quality and sustainability of its operations, having


polyurea elastomeric membranes allow the execution of waterproofing

successfully achieved and maintained its certified Quality (ISO 9001),

and insulation, for example in coatings for public buildings, industrial

Environment (ISO 14001) and Hygiene, Health and Safety (OHSAS 18001)

facilities and refineries, retention bins, dams, bridges, dikes, industrial

Management Systems.

flooring and terraces. This membrane can also be applied on pools (both inside and outside) and to protect the base of vibration-exposed

For further information:

equipment. Pioneer in Portugal with this innovative technology, CIN strengthens its Protective Coatings business unit portfolio that includes heavy-duty


According to European Coatings Journal, May 2019.


According to Coatings World, July 2019.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



EcoQuip Confirmed as Suitable for Explosive Atmospheres Stephan Rindfleish

© Graco

Graco Distribution BV - Maasmechelen, Belgium

Opening photo – The ignition tests were performed in a 50 cubic metre testing vessel. It had to be relatively large due to the air coming into the system from the blasting equipment diluting the gas mixture. Its large size would also permit a longer duration of the tests.


brasive blasting often has to take place in hazardous or explosive

safety and risk management and advanced dispersion, explosion and

environments. For example, in the power generation, construction,

fire modelling, was asked to perform tests to determine whether sparks

oil & gas, shipping, petrochemicals and chemicals industries, working in a

generated by the EcoQuip system would be potential sources of ignition.

potentially explosive atmosphere – where flammable liquids, vapours or

The experiments were performed at Gexcon’s test site at Børnesskogen,

combustible dusts exist – can be the norm rather than the exception. In

Norway, in May 2019.

such environments, it’s vital to use abrasive blasting equipment that has

EcoQuip is intended – and is ATEX approved – for use in atmospheres of

been fully tested to determine whether the blasting process might lead to

flammable materials in the Equipment Protection Level (EPL) Subgroup

an ignition.

IIA. This subgroup of explosive gases includes diesel fuels, petrol fuels,

EcoQuip is Graco’s vapour abrasive blasting equipment. It’s been proven

hexane, methanol, propane, ethane, acetone, toluene, benzene and

to be suitable in different industries for a range of applications such


as the removal of paint, rust, corrosion, industrial coatings and linings;

For the purposes of this test, hexane was selected. At a concentration

for cleaning metal, stone and woodwork; and for building and site

of only around 4% in air, hexane is not only extremely sensitive to

maintenance. In all these applications, EcoQuip has been demonstrated

electrical sparks, but is easy to ignite with a spark. It has an auto ignition

to reduce project costs and increase the speed, efficiency and productivity

temperature of 230 °C. Tests were therefore performed in explosive

of blasting.

atmospheres with a rich concentration of n-hexane. The tests were performed in a 50 cubic metre testing vessel. It had to be

Putting EcoQuip to the test

relatively large due to the air coming into the system from the blasting

Gexcon AS of Bergen, Norway, a world-leading company in the field of

equipment diluting the gas mixture. Its large size would also permit a


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


longer duration of the tests. The vessel was open at one end, which

abrasive blasting equipment during the test:

was covered with a plastic sheet to contain the combustible gas/air

• 30/60 mesh Garnet (GMA)

inside the vessel as well as to relieve the pressure of an explosion should

• 80 mesh Garnet (GMA)

one occur (ref. Opening photo).

• Fine Copper Slag 0.2-1.0 mm grit size (Star Grit)

The vessel was equipped with a recirculation system with a n-hexane

• Coarse Copper Slag 0.4-1.9 mm grit size (Star Grit)

evaporation system. Pure n-hexane vapour was injected into the

• Fine Crushed Glass 0.2-0.6 mm.

recirculation system to gradually increase the n-hexane concentration

Blasting was performed on rusty steel and aluminium plates of

inside the vessel. N-hexane concentrations around 7% were normally

approximately one square metre. These could be moved during a test,

used as the starting concentration and diluted to around 4% for all tests.

making it possible to blast on new material. The five abrasives were

The mixture of n-hexane vapour and air inside the vessel was monitored

used on both steel and aluminium plates, making a total of ten test runs.

with a binary gas analyser from Stanford Research Systems Inc.

The duration of each test run lasted between 3.2 and 7.5 minutes. The

EcoQuip (Fig. 1) was positioned on the outside of the test vessel, while

abrasives and blasting materials were chosen to cover the typical

the nozzle was inside the test vessel. A Graco standard #7 blast nozzle

worst-case combinations when it comes to spark generation.

(7/16”, 11 mm) was used during the tests. The nozzle was connected via a 15 metre hose to the equipment. EcoQuip was earthed to the test

EcoQuip passes with flying colours

vessel using its green earthing cable. The nozzle was mounted in rubber

None of the tests yielded an ignition. After the last test, the explosive

mounting brackets to prevent it from being earthed to the steel in the

atmosphere inside the vessel was ignited using an oscillating spark in

vessel in order to best simulate a person holding the nozzle (Fig. 2).

order to confirm that the atmosphere was indeed explosive. (It was!).

EcoQuip was supplied with water from a 1000 litre water tank standing on

Gexcon therefore fully endorses Graco’s EcoQuip vapour abrasive blasting

the roof of the testing vessel, about 3 metres off the ground. Only gravity

equipment as suitable for use in potentially hazardous areas involving

from this tank was used to supply the system with water. A Kaeser M122

explosive atmospheres caused by gases and vapours of the Subgroup IIA.

air compressor provided a steady pressure of typically 7.5 bar (110 psi).

These tests support EcoQuip’s ATEX ignition hazard analysis for category 2

Five different abrasives were used with the Graco EcoQuip vapour

equipment, zone 1 explosive atmospheres. ‹

© Graco

© Graco

Figure 1 - EcoQuip is Graco’s vapour abrasive blasting equipment.

Figure 2 - The nozzle was inside the test vessel. The nozzle was mounted in rubber mounting brackets to prevent it from being earthed to the steel in the vessel in order to best simulate a person holding the nozzle.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



Internal Linings Saved by Corrosion Resistant Coatings


he process of extracting and processing uranium can present

The exchange vessels measure at around 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in diameter

many challenges. Machinery and equipment are exposed to

and 5 m (16.4 ft) in height and are considered the lifeblood of

environments during production, which over time can cause damage

their business. The process conditions meant that there was a

and lead to shutdowns (Fig. 1).

strong chemical presence and high operating temperatures further

If left untreated, corrosion can lead to major consequences for

contributing to the corrosion of the lining.

large assets, such as vessels. Both on a financial level as well as

Two of the vessels were able to be viewed, due to being out of service,


helping to understand the process conditions. A solution had to be presented that could offer good chemical resistance and withstand

produce high purity uranium. A planned upgrade revealed issues with

high operating temperatures.

the existing rubber lining of exchange vessels, critical to the extraction

The existing rubber internal lining had to be removed using a high

process. The lining failure had caused corrosion of the steel substrate

temperature, ultra-high-pressure jet water operating at 150°C (302°F)

(which had continued to go unnoticed behind the rubber) and now

and 40,000psi pressure. This stripped back the rubber lining, leaving a

had the potential to severely impact production and ultimately shut

bare steel shell with only small amounts of rubber remaining. This was

them down completely.

then whip blasted and any sharp angles, burrs and weld defects were

© Belzona Polymerics Ltd.

A uranium mine in Australia uses a unique extraction technology to


Figure Fig ure re e 1 - Dur During ing prroce occe ess of o ura ra aniu n m extr ni extr xt act acting iing g an and d pro roc o ess e sing ing g machin mac hine hin ery an ery and d equi quipme pment nt ar are a e ex expos p ed pos e to se s ere sev er co condi nd tio ndi ti ns, which whi ch h ove ov r time ca can n caus causse dama dama mage ge and ge d le lead ad to shu shutdowns.

N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


© Belzona Polymerics Ltd.

identified and prepared to a minimum R5 radius suitable for coating. Following on from the pre-surface preparation, the vessel was degreased using high-pressure water jetting at 6,000psi followed by a solvent wash using MEK before being blasted. Before the new internal linings were applied, nozzle inserts were fitted with a stripe coat of Belzona 1391T to the circumferential welds and bracket details. Nozzle inserts manufactured using Belzona 1511 (Super HT-Metal) were initially dry fitted into the appropriate nozzle where they were then marked and cut to size before being bonded in place using Belzona 1391T (Fig. 2). Small areas of pitting around the welds were filled at the same time and allowed to cure. After the required length of time and within the overcoat window of Belzona 1391T, the stripe coat was applied to the welds and large nozzles. Spraying of the new internal linings began once the stripe coatings were cured. To provide a full turnkey solution without any delays, blasting of the second vessel began whilst the first vessel was being coated. The original coating was then left to cure overnight with a second coat to follow the next day. Heat was applied to the vessels to assist in providing a fast cure time and return to service. Thanks to effective time management throughout, the overall application was able to be completed very quickly, with each vessel taking a few days to complete. The vessels gained long-term protection against corrosion and a longer service life. ‹

Figure 2 - Nozzle inserts manufactured using Belzona 1511 (Super HT-Metal) are cut to size before being bonded in place using Belzona 1391T.

BELZONA 5721 CUTTING EDGE ON THE LEADING EDGE Belzona 5721 is the latest solution for leading edge protection on wind turbine blades, optimised for high performance in situ. • • • • • •

Easy to mix and apply by brush Cold-curing single coat system Apply as low as 5°C (41°F) Touch dry in 30-40 minutes Outstanding UV stability Excellent rain erosion resistance Discover how Belzona can extend the lifespan of wind turbine blades


Hel en lenius, Tekn Ca o ik

a, Tikkurila kul ar

Joel Sv

Elis aM

, DSM ets M


Fred er

John Fa

HMG er, ld

n, Belzona dse en


Five on Five Interview:Sustainability According to the Industry Players - Part III Welcome to the third and final part of our first Five on Five interview. Earlier this year, we asked 15 questions to five senior figures of five leading companies from within the surface treatment industry. We split the answers into three sets of five and with each article we delved deeper into how the industry is embracing sustainability and facing its challenges, what it represents business-wise and how companies are measuring up to competitors. In case you missed the first two articles you can read them online at • Part I can be found by selecting issue n. 29 of ipcm®_Protective Coatings (April 2019) and scrolling onto page 46; • Part II can be found by selecting issue n. 30 of ipcm®_Protective Coatings (June 2019) and scrolling onto page 50. Our aim was to give our readers some unique, thought-provoking and hopefully inspiring content to go hand-in-hand with our newly launched sustainable section. The Five on Five format allows for a broad overview of the actual picture of sustainability within the industry, which thankfully shows that each and every player has this as a genuine priority throughout their organisations. Lastly, we would like to thank once again all the below who took time out of their busy schedules to work with ipcm® on this series: the time spent answering our questions alone shows how serious these companies are about sustainability.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


For this third instalment we once again had the sincere pleasure of working with the following industry leaders: Joel Svendsen - President of Belzona

Helen Mets - President of DSM Resins & Functional Materials

John Falder - HMG Paints Managing Director

Fredrik Calenius - TEKNOS Chief Procurement Officer

Elisa Markula - Tikkurila CEO & Minna Avellan - Director, Communications and Investor Relations of Tikkurila

11. Can you describe your sustainability program?

committed to making continuous improvement in the management of its environmental, economic and social impact. We work with our partners to

Joel Svendsen, Belzona – We started working on steel, but of course

promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental

steel isn’t the only material that suffers from degradation. Over the

issues and disseminate good practice.

years we have gone after various different materials, so we can extend their lifespan. In trying to do this, we’ve also strived to not include nasty

Fredrik Calenius, TEKNOS – We have defined four focus areas in our

chemicals or have a high level of toxicity. So, Belzona has tried really hard

CSR program: sustainable solutions & services, responsible operations &

in using materials that are as environmentally safe as possible. And safe

supply chain, people development, and future generations.

for people as well. These things tend to go hand-in-hand. If you can, use

• Sustainable solutions & services: We invest in and develop solutions and

ingredients that have low toxicity or low volatility.

services which are better whether it is for environmentally, quality, health, safety or human aspects. This goes beyond just environmental-friendly

Helen Mets, DSM – Our sustainability strategy revolves around people,

products; it can be e.g. a service educating our clients.

the planet and profit - and they not only apply to how we view the

• Responsible operations and supply chain: We work as a responsible

external world – so the products we develop and the relationships we

company within our entire value chain, from procurement of raw

form across the value chain - but also to how DSM conducts its own

materials to the manufacturing and delivery of the products to our


customers on time, safely and with the respect for the environment.

We believe that combating climate change is a responsibility and a

• People development: We strive to foster a culture based on our

business opportunity, so we are very active in improving our own carbon

company values Creativeness, Persistence and Fairness. People are our

footprint and advocating for climate action. We plan to realize 30% of our

biggest asset. We are committed to develop our employees’ competences

own carbon footprint reductions. One way the company is doing this is by

and skills, attracting the best talents, and creating an environment in

developing and marketing products under our Brighter Living Solutions

which ideas and initiatives flourish.

brand – so-called because they are demonstrably better than mainstream

• Future generations: Continuity describes and affects all our actions. We

solutions in terms of their environmental (e.g. CO2 emissions, resource

want to make choices, which bear to all the generations to come. We want

extraction, waste) and/or social impact (e.g. working conditions and health

to build a company, which the next generation will be proud to lead and

and safety). Brighter Living Solutions currently account for 62% of DSM’s

be part of in the future.

product portfolio. DSM is striving to be a leader in product stewardship. Our focus is to consume fewer resources overall; replace scarce, toxic or

Minna Avellan, Tikkurila – Our sustainability program is called “A

polluting raw materials; extend product lifetimes and enable retrieval and

Colorful Tomorrow”. It provides Tikkurila with a framework for responsible

recovery of organic waste streams – all while growing and improving our

and sustainable business development, and takes environmental, financial

innovative product portfolio and business performance. Specifically, DSM

and social aspects into account. In 2017, in line with our strategy, we

has identified three key platforms where we can drive sustainable growth:

defined, together with key business personnel, sustainability customer

climate change and energy, resources and the circular economy, and

promises. These promises guide our sustainability initiatives and support

nutrition and health.

the business development from the sustainability point-of-view: • We drive our portfolio towards maximized performance with minimum

John Falder, HMG – The HMG sustainability program is a way of being at

environmental impact.

HMG. From your first day you can see how we try to act. HMG Paints is

• We improve and protect air quality with our products and professional

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31




products is not fully understood. Sustainability itself is not the only benefit.

• We drive at better resource efficiency with quality, safety and durability

Product performance, appropriate price point and even materials that are

on top of our minds

easier to work with, are high priorities for both industrial customers and

• We are a responsible and active partner in our communities

consumers alike.

• Based on these promises, we are in the process of defining new sustainability targets and agenda.

John Falder, HMG – One of the key areas that we struggled with is plastic. Plastic waste is difficult to deal with, so HMG favours metal packaging wherever possible which can be recycled. As we know there is a worldwide push on plastic usage currently and HMG is fully supportive of this.

12. Is there a project that didn’t work out? Fredrik Calenius, TEKNOS – We are still in the very early stages of Joel Svendsen, Belzona – Quite a long time ago, perhaps the 1990s, we

implementing our sustainability policies so it’s a little bit early to answer

put a lot of effort into water-based systems. It was one way of reducing

this, however so far everything is going smoothly.

the cost, without incorporating any hazardous solvents into the product. We were able to make these systems work, but we were unable to achieve

Minna Avellan, Tikkurila – Of course, there has been demanding

the same level of performance as the two-coat systems that we already

projects during the years – in product development, finding new raw

had. So, in the end, the performance dictated our path. It was the right

materials, in the development of production processes etc. We have strict

thing for customers. It was better to have a more expensive solution

quality requirements and if those are not met, we might discontinue a

that lasted longer. From a sustainability standpoint, even if it’s a more


expensive solution, if it allows you to extend the lifespan and performance of that structure or equipment, it’s worth it. Helen Mets, DSM – Rather than a project per se that didn’t work out,

13. Do employees actively participate in these programs or activities?

in terms of obstacles, DSM finds itself in a challenging position where it needs to pull the market along. The value of sustainability and sustainable


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

Joel Svendsen, Belzona – I do think it’s important to get our staff


involved in these programs and activities as well. I will say, it is much easier these days. In decades past, there was a certain negativity towards environmental initiatives. For example, I remember a lot of people saying “If it’s not a nasty chemical, it’s not going to work well. Give me the really nasty, dangerous stu - that’s the good stu!â€? Crazy to think that people would have had this approach to sustainability. So, certainly it’s good to see people move away from this standpoint. Helen Mets, DSM – Sustainability is part of our DNA and we have a shared mission and regard ourselves as a “purpose to lifeâ€? company, so our employees are actively engaged in all aspects of our sustainability activities – from energy saving initiatives to research & development. Our extensive scientific community – or who we refer to as our Bright Science team - are dedicated to creating innovative, sustainable solutions in the fields of nutrition and health, climate and energy, and resources and the circular economy. John Falder, HMG – Yes, employees from all levels of the business actively engage in programs and activities. Especially those activities which have an impact on our local community and those that have an impact on the day-to-day running of HMG. This has been reflected in the two BCF Coatings Care Awards that HMG has won. Fundamentally, it’s also key that employees are sustainable away from HMG, being good neighbours and providing a positive impact on society. Fredrik Calenius, TEKNOS – During 2018 and late 2017 Teknos conducted internal stakeholder interviews and workshops to define key priority areas and materiality for its sustainability work. The process started with an initial stakeholder interview, which was held in autumn 2017 by a third-party organization and was followed up by the establishment of a CSR team and ongoing workshops and interviews with key stakeholders inside the organization. The CSR team represents dierent functions and units of Teknos including R&D, QEHS, Procurement, Sales, Marketing, Product safety and HR to ensure that the voices of internal and external stakeholders are taken into account. In spring 2018, Teknos involved over 130 people in face-to-face workshops from dierent business functions and countries across the organization to define the most crucial topics, opportunities and risks in terms of sustainability.


can participate in various sustainability-related campaigns and


projects, for instance community involvement projects and safety


The future will show, but we surely hope and anticipate that our employees will continue to participate actively. Minna Avellan, Tikkurila – Depending on the country, employees

campaigns. Moreover, we have been inviting people to contribute in the development of the company’s sustainability agenda. This is




an important topic and we will definitely put more efforts to engaging

quality management system standard, the ISO 14001 environmental


management system standard or the OHSAS 18001 health and safety management system standard. The certificates confirm the compliance of our management, processes and practices with the international

14. What is the role of third-party certifications in sustainability within the paints and coatings industry?

quality, environmental, occupational health and safety standards, and ensure that those are developed systematically. Within our portfolio, we have more than 300 eco-labelled products. The ecolabels include the Nordic Swan Ecolabel, EU Ecolabel, M1

Joel Svendsen, Belzona – Their biggest role is in the realm of

classification measuring low emissions and allergy label.

energy efficiency. Most importantly, they’re helpful because there is a temptation to make poor decisions when they aren’t in place. They ensure people look at the long-term goals and aims, rather than short-term, easy-to-achieve “success”. Helen Mets, DSM – Third-party certifications play a very important role for their ability to instil confidence and trust in consumers. They raise the bar in consumer choice – so much so, that they function like a demand driver, particularly for more sustainable, safer and high performing products. John Falder, HMG – The BCF Coatings Care program has been important. Even though Coatings Care is a voluntary programme, it’s a great basis for good management practices. It offers HMG and other participating companies the opportunity to pursue a common, effective management approach for their health, safety and environmental programmes and advises best practices on how to achieve high standards by self-assessment and by measurement of improved performance. Fredrik Calenius, TEKNOS – Sometimes it can be hard for customers to understand or even believe a company’s sustainability claims. Third-party certifications are a good way to demonstrate to different stakeholder that the company lives up to its sustainability claims and also to help customers to choose the most sustainable option, i.e. to increase trust in the company and to help customers make the right choices. In my opinion, the coating industry makes no exception in this. As the interest and knowledge from the customer’s side for these certifications grows, they can also prove to be a competitive advantage, and help the whole industry to develop towards a more sustainable direction. Thus, I believe that certifications have a big and increasing role for both customers and coating companies. Minna Avellan, Tikkurila – The third-party verifications reflect proven and standardized quality, durability and safety of our operations and products. Because we want to continuously improve our performance and promote the sustainability aspects of our operations, different kind of third-party certifications are a trustworthy proof that we are progressing and meeting the international standards. The majority of Tikkurila’s sites are certified according to the ISO 9001


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

© Belzona


15. How do you see the future of sustainability?

electric cars, which means our power plants must be bigger. Previously, it was thought the size of power plants, or our electrical distribution

Joel Svendsen, Belzona – I think something we have to accept about

networks didn’t need to increase. People thought that we could continue

the near-future of sustainability is that for some areas, there are no

to improve energy efficiency in lieu of our energy infrastructure. But

alternatives to petroleum products. For operating airplanes and ships,

it’s much more efficient to produce power in a plant, rather than in an

vessels that need to carry a great deal of energy, we’ll see petroleum for

electric car. And of course, by using electric power you open a whole load

a long time. However, as battery technology improves, we’re going to

of other energy sources such as wind power, geothermal etc., which we

see more and more things moving away from petroleum power. Cars

are already working in and providing repair and protection solutions.

are leading this shift. I think we’re going to be increasingly shifting to

We predict that there will be more work for us in electrical distribution, battery manufacturing and mining materials for the batteries. Helen Mets, DSM – Becoming more circular and reducing carbon footprint are the most pressing challenges for industry to solve. We have to think big and bold and develop a future where every product has a value proposition which supports its sustainability credentials traceably through the supply chain, as well as performance - and at an affordable cost. DSM believes there will be opportunities created by dynamic shifts driven by positive changes in consumer behaviour and rapidly emerging technologies. We will become even more focused, extending our innovative spirit into new industries and applications, challenging boundaries and exceeding expectations about what sustainability can deliver. We will also continue to lead the charge through advocacy to truly shape a sustainable future. John Falder, HMG – The next steps for HMG are keeping sustainability on our agenda with continuous improvement across the business and extending this to our upstream and downstream partners. Sustainability has played an important role in the previous 88 years of HMG Paints and we believe it will play an equally important role in the next 88 years. Fredrik Calenius, TEKNOS – Sustainability will be more and more important in a company’s success. In the future we believe that the focus will be on developing new business models and solving the social and environmental problems. This is the way we will build our business. Elisa Markula, Tikkurila – Our purpose is to offer “surfaces that make a difference” and that includes sustainability as a part of our DNA. Especially Millennials want to work in companies that have a purpose and when we embed sustainability as part of our core, we believe that we will not only attract new talents but also engage our current employees to serve our purpose. We will continue the work in all operations and functions in our company as everybody has a clear role to execute sustainable actions in their work, and we want to make that work more visible through clear measurements and KPIs. We will require more sustainable actions also from our suppliers to keep developing truly sustainable products and services and increase our communication towards stakeholders, especially for our customers. We want to be seen as the most responsible and sustainable employer and player in our market areas.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31


© MOD Crown


Sherwin-Williams Steps in with Corrosion Protection Coatings for Royal Navy’s Largest-Ever Warships

Openin Ope nin ng phot ho o - Sherw Sherw Sh e wininn-Wil W lia Wi iams ms was was se selec lec lected ected te to o su suppl p y corr ppl corr orrosi osion osi os on pro on otecctio tion nm mari arine ari n coa ne coatin t gs to the va ti tin vario rious rio us ext extern xtern ernal al and in inter ter e na nal al su fa sur fac acess of o HMS Qu Queen ueen e E ee Elliza zabet za beth bet ha and nd d sis sister ter te e sh er ship ip HMS MS S Pr P inc nce nc e of Wale aless - th the e larg argest est s warsh rsh hips i ever bui b ilt for th the Royall Navy.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings



lobal protective coatings leader Sherwin-Williams

to come,� said Sherwin-Williams product manager

has delivered a diverse range of protective

Alex Sandilands. Thanks to its long track record of

coatings to more than a million square metres of

providing excellent corrosion protection on steel

HMS Queen Elizabeth and sister ship HMS Prince of

surfaces, the Sherwin-Williams high-build epoxy zinc

Wales - the largest warships ever built for the Royal

phosphate primer Macropoxy C425v2 was applied to

Navy (Ref. Opening photo).

both carriers. The high solids, two-pack Macropoxy

Sherwin-Williams was selected to supply corrosion

M922 containing micronised glass flake and

protection marine coatings to the various external

anti-corrosive pigments was successfully used as a

and internal surfaces of the two prestigious vessels.

tank lining. The Sherwin-Williams Biogard M630V2

Principle applications included exterior decks,

water-based epoxy finish was applied in various

berthing spaces, passage ways, wet areas, machinery

colours to wet space areas such as bathrooms,

spaces, cabins, galleys and the bridge, while ensuring

galleys, decontamination spaces, laundries and

longer corrosion protection and a visually appealing

machinery space bulkheads and all standing decks.

aesthetic finish.

A range of water-based finishes including M770 and

“There can be no room for compromise on projects

Sherwin-Williams Macropoxy M630V2 in pebble

of this nature which require the very highest

or white were also used to provide a protective

preparation and application of the best marine

aesthetic appearance on various areas of the ships.

coatings available. We feel privileged to have been

Application of the coatings was provided by

involved in providing both knowledge and expertise

applicator Wood working with The Aircraft Carrier

in the marine environment to combat corrosion

Alliance. HMS Queen Elizabeth was delivered to the

and to deliver the highest aesthetic finish over

Royal Navy in December 2017, while completion of

such a large scale of surface areas. This will protect

coatings for HMS Prince of Wales is scheduled for

these flagship British naval carriers for many years

later this year (Fig. 2). ‚

Š Sherwin-Williams

Figure 2 – The completion of coatings for HMS Prince of Wales is scheduled for later this year.




































N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


24 ANALYSIS Polymeric repair: an attractive and convenient solution for damaged wind turbine shafts

32 HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Teknos puts sustainable and innovative solutions at the service of the wind power industry in its Vamdrup centre of excellence

38 BRAND NEW 40 SUCCESS STORIES New plastic materials and coatings will make it possible to install floating wind farms in deeper water with fewer costs

42 INNOVATIONS United against hydrogen embrittlement

44 FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY New concepts in life extension for brownfield offshore assets

52 INNOVATIONS Efficiency increases in catalytic reformers

© Adobe Stock

© Russell Gold



Polymeric Repair: An Attractive and Convenient Solution for Damaged Wind Turbine Shafts Arthur Mendonça Belzona Inc. – Miami, USA


by upsetting the operation of mechanical components such as the yaw

Shafts and other components inside the nacelles of wind turbines could

mechanism. Replacing and welding, albeit common repair solutions, are in

be exposed to a highly corrosive environment due to ingress of moisture

most cases not feasible. An alternative and innovative polymeric solution

or mist combined, with airborne salts, not to mention various forms of

can be used to repair damaged shafts by means of a cold applied 100%

mechanical actions that can cause wear damage (ref. Opening photo).

epoxy material. This paper will focus on the polymeric solution and a case

This wear-corrosion mechanism can be exacerbated if the turbines are in

study where corrosion and excessive wear compromised the operation of

the vicinity of coastal zones where the winds can carry high concentration

the wind turbine. The client sought a solution that could be applied in situ

of electrolytes. As a result, the overall performance of the wind turbine

using an epoxy material as a repair compound injected into a split former

can be drastically affected, either by reducing energy production loss or

engineered specifically for this application.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings



considering the design dimensions of the shaft being repaired. The

Shafts are critical components of any rotating equipment and are used

repair procedure can be carried out in situ without the need for specialty

to transmit power and torque from one component to another. For the

equipment or hot work permits. Non-metallic materials needed for

power generation industry, this means transferring energy from an energy

the application are readily available and the standardized application

generation source to a place where it can be converted into useful work.

procedure allows contracting or incumbent personnel to be effectively

The same concept applies to the wind power industry, where the energy

trained within hours.

generated by the wind and the sub sequential rotation of the turbine

Avoiding the disassembly of the system represents one of the biggest

blades are transferred into a generator that creates electricity. Another

advantages of polymeric repairs over conventional methods because

important mechanism of a wind turbine is the yaw drive which turns the

downtime and its consequential production losses are greatly minimized.

turbine in the direction of the wind to maximize the rotation of the blades.

Other advantages of this technique are as follows.

Operated through the yaw motor, the main shaft of this mechanism is also

a) Corrosion resistance - The polymeric non-metallic compounds are

critical for the proper functioning of the system to maximize the efficiency

both corrosion resistant and electrical insulators. Their use prevents

of the turbine [1].

harsh environments from further affecting turbine shafts. Some of these

As any other piece of equipment, shafts are subject to damage from

polymeric non-metallic solutions, 100% solids epoxies, have been used in

corrosion and wear, that can be accelerated by specific environmental

different industries for over 60 years such as hydroelectric power plants,

conditions, insufficient lubrication of mechanical components, or improper

offshore and onshore oil and gas facilities, and mining sites just to cite

grounding for galvanic isolation. Worn and defective shafts cannot only

a few. They have a reliable and proven track record of success in these

accelerate the wear of other components, but they can also potentially

corrosive environments [2].

shut down the entire machine, halting production and resulting in revenue

b) Tolerance of defect dimensional geometries – The repair can be

loss. Once damaged, they are conventionally repaired using hot processes,

carried out onto defective areas of any depth, length, and shape.

e.g. welding or metal spraying, and then machined down to the specific

Solvent-free epoxies can be moulded to any dimension and geometry

design parameters. If not carefully controlled, these conventional methods

without loss of volume during its cure.

can cause residual damage to the shaft by generating potential thermal

c) Reduction of metallurgical changes compared to welding – A

stresses, distortion and undesired metallurgical alterations. These

known consequence of welding, © Belzona Inc.

mostly when post-weld heat

repair methods also require the

treatment (PWHT) is performed

disassembly of the machine,

incorrectly or neglected, is the

which can be time consuming and

formation of a macroscopic galvanic

expensive when considering the

couple by producing a differential

downtime of the equipment. In the

composition within the fusion

wind turbine industry, replacement

zone. Typically, this results in

or disassembly generally involves

accelerated corrosion at the weld

contracting a crane service,

seams via bimetallic corrosion.

lowering the components,

Welding can also introduce heat

transporting them to a fabricating

affected zones (HAZ) including and

shop and re-assembling of the

surrounding the fusion zone. These

machine. This process can take

areas have experienced elevated

weeks to be completed.

temperatures to produce solid-state microstructural changes. Since

The repair method

the application of polymeric repair

The problem and limitations of

materials does not require hot

conventional methods can be

work, the application temperature

avoided by using polymeric

is maintained below levels that

non-metallic compounds in a cold

would affect the microstructure of

applied in situ repair solution.

the steel. This effectively prevents

The repair consists of injecting or

the formation of HAZ or galvanic

forming the non-metallic repair

couples [3].

material using split formers. Such formers are pre-fabricated

Figure 1 – Flanged split former for in situ shaft repairs.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



Different polymeric materials can be used to repair and rebuild shafts

required attributes. Careful consideration of the following parameters will

suffering from metal loss. However, some applications require products

enable cold-applied reliable systems.

that can withstand harsher demanding service conditions than others

a) Heat Resistance – Temperature increments affect the mechanical

without failure including elevated temperatures, corrosive marine

performance of polymeric materials. Epoxy products tend to deform

environment or the combined action of erosion-corrosion. In addition, the

under a fixed load at a specific temperature known as heat distortion

repair system must be designed so that the operational limitations of the

temperature (HDT). If an epoxy rebuilding compound is used for

rebuilding compound are not exceeded within the desired lifetime of the

operations above its HDT, the adhesion, compressive strength, tensile

shaft being repaired.

strength, and other mechanical properties can be diminished.

At least one manufacturer of non-metallic polymer compounds

erosion and abrasion. 100% solid epoxies can be formulated with ceramic

recommends the use of 100% solids epoxy materials in environments

or thermoplastic additives to enhance the resistance of the system against

b) Abrasion Resistance – Service conditions can include different levels of

prone to corrosion and wear. These 100% solids epoxy materials can

the effects of abrasion damage. It is important to assess the presence

be chemically designed with superior properties to withstand the

of erosive media in the surroundings to properly select the right epoxy

environmental conditions to which they may be exposed.

compound to use.

Some of these properties include:

c) Curing Time – As mentioned before, 100% solid epoxies cure through

a) Solvent-Free Materials – 100% solid epoxy rebuilding materials are

exothermic reactions, and some products will present faster reaction time

designed so there are no volatile compounds leaving the adhesive material

than others. The proper material should be determined based on the

through evaporation at normal temperature and pressure. Thus, it is safer

size of the repair being performed and the turnaround schedule of the

for the applicators to use, especially in confined spaces or small habitats.

maintenance intervention.

b) Quick Return to Service – 100% solid epoxies cure through

d) Application Method – 100% solid epoxies can be supplied as paste- or

exothermic reactions. The heat generated by the chemical reaction

fluid-grade materials. Paste- grade repair composites are typically used

influences the drying times. Quick curing indeed provides a definite appeal

to rebuild thicker areas of metal loss and restore the metal profile. These

for asset owners as enables quick project turnarounds.

paste materials are preferably applied by a forming technique. Fluid-grade

c) Excellent Resistance to Compression, Tension and Corrosion –

materials, on the other hand, are chosen when less viscous materials are

Solvent-free epoxies have superior tension and compression strength

required and are usually applied by injection. Both types of materials can

when compared to other solvent-based rebuilding materials. In addition,

provide long-term protection to a variety of service conditions.

they can perform well in highly corrosive environments. At least one 100% solids epoxy manufacturer subjects its products to The use of one or a different 100% solids epoxy material will depend on its © Belzona Inc.

Figure 2 Cross-Sectional side view of hand applied forming technique.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

sensible testing protocols to ensure conformance with the most stringent


© Belzona Inc.

Figure 3 Cross-sectional side view of injection technique.

standards set forth by the industry. These tests not only help understand

material and the shaft can be achieved. The pre-designed split moulds

the performance of the product and fitness-for-service, but they are

should be coated with a release agent for ease of removal after curing of

also useful to fully characterize a material. Manufacturers decide which

the epoxy material. A thin layer of the repair compound is applied onto

tests will best highlight their product properties; then, they employ a

both surfaces, the prepared area of the shaft and the internal surfaces of

range of internal and external testing to verify the product’ performance.

the former, making sure that the repair compound wets out the profile

Some manufacturers benchmark their products to the requirements of

as much as possible. Additional epoxy material is subsequently applied

internationally recognized industry standards such as ISO1, ASME2 and

onto both surfaces, taking care to avoid air entrapment. A central peak

ASTM . This allows asset owners to establish comparisons among different

of material should be built up on the split mould to ensure that all the

products and select that which best fits their needs. However, most asset

occluded air is displaced by the excess material when clamping the split

owners are usually interested in performing further tests to simulate an

mould around the shaft (Fig. 2). The split former is then placed around the

environment that resembles their service conditions.

shaft and clamped into position, making sure excess material is extruded

As mentioned before, in situ shaft repairs can be carried out by two

out through the venting holes and the edges of the former. Excess

methods: hand-applied forming and injection. Forming applications involve

material is removed and cleaned around the perimeter of the shaft.

the use of 100% solids paste-grade epoxy as a rebuilding compound.

The injection method is preferred when using a less viscous coating grade

Before the start of the application, a split mould is engineered and

epoxy material. Initially, the process is very similar to the hand-applied

fabricated to meet the repair requirements, such as shaft diameter and

forming method. The split mould is fabricated according to the engineering

repair length (Fig. 1). Depending on the length of the repair, it is important

design of the shaft, followed by surface preparation of the substrate to be

to design the split former with venting holes along the length of the former,

repaired. The split mould is designed with drilled venting holes to allow

to ensure that the excess material can be extruded out during repair

air to evacuate as the injected product displaces it. A thin film of the fluid


grade material is applied onto the prepared area of the shaft and the

Then, the defective area of the shaft is cleaned and abraded to create

internal surfaces of the former. The split moulds are then positioned and

a mechanical profile following the recommendations of the rebuilding

clamped in place. On the edges, the split mould should seal the void cavity

compound’s manufacturer. By doing this, an optimum bond between the

into which the fluid grade epoxy would be injected (Fig. 3). The fluid grade


epoxy is then inserted into an injection cartridge and using a suitable gun, 1 International Organization for Standardization, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, 1214 Vernier, Genève, Switzerland 2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2 Park Ave, New York, NY 10016, United States of America 3 ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr, Conshohocken, PA 19428, United States of America

it starts being slowly injected, from bottom to top to ensure removal of air. The injection continues until the entire cavity between both surfaces has been filled and the product starts to ooze through the venting holes. The injection cart is removed, and the injection port is plugged. The fluid grade

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31









© Belzona Inc.

Figure 4 - Isometric view of assembled component with split former.

Figure 5 - Front view of split former for injection of fluid grade epoxy material.

epoxy material should be allowed to cure following the recommendations

Repairs were required to prevent further corrosion and reinstate the

of the manufacturer before removing the former. The repair can be

operational efficiency of the components. Two conventional approaches

finished using suitable emery cloth.

were firstly considered: replacement and welding. Replacing the generator shaft for a new one would require the contracting services of a crane and

Case studies – the problem

proper installation and reassembly of the shaft into the nacelle. The cost

During the maintenance schedule of a wind farm, the nacelle of the wind

of such procedures was estimated to be US $300,000, not to mention

turbine was removed to inspect its internal components. Inspection

the monetary impact of 2-week downtime and a non-operational turbine.

revealed moisture ingress in the nacelle due to the humid environment and

The second option considered was to lower the equipment and transport

unproper weatherproofing of the external surface of the turbine. Excessive

the shaft to a fabricating shop for weld repairs to be performed. Although

humidity inside the turbine and lack of lubrication caused the shaft to

this option was US $25,000 cheaper than the first option, doing so would

corrode and wear, respectively. As aforementioned, the metal loss on shafts

also require a crane contractor and transportation logistics. The time

can cause inefficient operation of the mechanisms inside the nacelle.

estimation was also from 2 to 3 weeks.

© Belzona Inc.

Figure 6 Lower and upper sections of split former.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


To avoid excessive disruption of the operation of the turbine, a third option

discussing different options, the following application method procedure

was proposed to the asset owner. This unconventional solution was a

was implemented:

suitable in situ repair using non-metallic 100% solids epoxy polymers.

1. Design: The split former was constructed as per design (Fig. 4),

The repair could be completed in 24 hours for different diameters shafts

to be consistent with the length of repair area and diameter of the

operating in the nacelle.

shaft being repaired (Fig. 5). Holes were drilled and threaded to serve

Applying the solution

material (Fig. 6).

Before commencement of any maintenance procedure, all personnel

2. Surface Preparation: The damaged area of the shaft was mechanically

involved in the repair gained full understanding of the repair extent,

prepared to the requirements of SSPC-SP11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare

procedure, and application logistics. Although both hand-applied forming

Metal [4]. A rough surface and minimum average profile depth of 1.6 mm

and injection technique had demonstrable in-field testing evidence and

around the circumference of the shaft were achieved to optimize the

success track records in different industries, the injection technique

adhesion of the 100% solid epoxy to the substrate (Fig. 7).

was chosen as the preferred method of application for this repair. After

3. A release agent was evenly applied onto the internal surfaces of the split

as injection and venting ports for the 100% solids epoxy fluid grade

© Belzona Inc.

Figure 7 - Repair area after surface preparation.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31

© Belzona Inc.

Figure 8 - Clamping the split mould into place.



© Belzona Inc.

© Belzona Inc.

Figure 9 - Injection of 100% solid fluid grade epoxy through pneumatic injection gun.

Figure 10 - Product allowed to cure after application is completed.

former to facilitate removal of the former after full cure of epoxy material.

cavity was filled. This was confirmed by the product exiting through the

4. The formers were then placed around the damaged area. The length of

ventilation ports. Injection ports were capped with a bolt as the product

the former was confirmed to extend beyond the damage area to proper

reached them (Fig. 9).

seal and mould to the dimensions needed. Once properly aligned, the

6. The fluid grade epoxy was subsequently allowed to cure in accordance

former is clamped by using 4 M10 bolts (Fig. 8).

with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The ventilation ports were

5. The fluid grade 100% epoxy was mixed in accordance with the

removed, and the application was completed (Fig. 10). 7. After full cure of the fluid grade epoxy, the former was removed. The

The cartridge was inserted into a pneumatic injection gun and injection

product was mechanically abraded by a fine sandpaper to smoothen any

procedure commenced. The material was slowly injected until the

flashing and possible protuberances caused by the injection and venting

© Belzona Inc.

manufacturer’s instructions and then poured into the injection cartridge.

Figure 11 - Injection application completed.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


ports (Fig. 11). To remove the formers, extraction jacking bolts were used in each side of the mould.


Conclusions Several conclusions can be drawn from this article: 1. Using cold applied 100% solid epoxies is an effective and proven solution for shaft maintenance when conventional repairs such as

[1] Wu, Z., & Wang, H. (2012). Research on Active Yaw Mechanism of Small Wind Turbines. Energy Procedia, 16, 53-57. doi:10.1016/j. egypro.2012.01.010

welding and replacement are not feasible. Such polymeric materials allow for equipment or assets to be repaired in situ, with no heat, and in an easy and safe manner. 2. This method offers the best compromise between cost and performance when compared to shaft replacement and welding repair

[2] Flanagan, K. (2014, January 03). Modern Polymeric Materials Offer Options for Equipment Repair. Electric Power

procedures. Without the need for disassembly of the equipment and with faster turnaround times, the cost of the epoxy material solution is quickly offset by the savings in production and revenue loss caused by

[3] Davis, J. R. (2006). Corrosion of weldments. Materials Park, OH: ASM International

extensive downtime. 3. When repairing wear and corrosion damage of shafts with a non-metallic material, the root cause of the problem is being solved. 100% solid epoxies will provide excellent corrosion and abrasion

[4] SSPC SP11, “Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal”, (Pittsburg, PA:SSPC)

resistance to minimize future wear mechanisms. ‹

A revolutionary Commercial Transport Topcoat

Call: 0161 205 7631





© Teknos



Teknos Puts Sustainable and Innovative Solutions at the Service of the Wind Power Industry in its Vamdrup Centre of Excellence Barbara Pennati ipcm



umankind has been using wind energy for millennia. Just think of

Surely, economic interests and power plays have prevailed over such

the fact that it has enabled us to sail the oceans for years, that

environmentalist conscience, so common nowadays but probably

the first wind wheel used to power a machine dates back to the first

less widespread in the past. However, in the shadow of oil giants, the

century, or that the first windmills made their appearance in Iran as

renewable energy industry has managed to carve out its space. This

early as the seventh century. Yet, over the years, we have witnessed an

include the wind power sector, which currently employs 300,000 people

almost exclusive development of non-renewable energy sources, which

in Europe and which will be a key industry to reach the European

are now also considered the main cause of air pollution. This, in turn,

Parliament’s target of 32% renewable energy by 2030. A recent report

has contributed to raise collective environmental and sustainability

of the European Wind Energy Association1 states that “Wind energy

awareness, which more and more governments and businesses are now translating into practical measures.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

1 “Wind energy in Europe: Outlook to 2023”


Opening photo - The wind power sector currently employs 300,000 people in Europe and it will be a key industry to reach the European Parliament’s target of 32% renewable energy by 2030.

could grow by 90 GW in Europe in the next five years but there’s a lot

funds by the organisation, it was actually in this context that one of the

of uncertainty.” Nonetheless, the report also calculates that 208 billion

first concrete wind turbines able to produce electricity was built. Some

Euros will be invested in new wind energy assets in Europe by 2023

of the teachers participating in this project began to collaborate with

(ref. Opening photo).

local entrepreneurs, who then started industrial production. Knowledge

Despite uncertainty, especially in terms of regulations due to red

of course has been refined over the years, up to today’s technological

tape and to the need for greater simplification of rules for both new


and already-existing plants, it is therefore not surprising that the

Denmark is now among the first wind energy producing countries, with

countries and companies involved in the wind production chain are

a wind power consumption of 43.4% in 2017. The Danish government’s

investing more and more in products and technologies designed for

massive investment in this renewable energy source has led companies

this sector. Teknos, a multinational company established in Tuomarila,

like Teknos to invest in products and solutions to offer quality coatings

near Helsinki (Finland) and specialising in the production of paints and

to this sector, able to guarantee perfect functionality while respecting

coatings for various application fields, has found the perfect synthesis

the environment.

among its own vision, its values, and their implementation precisely in the wind power industry.

Open dialogue with applicators By its very nature, the wind sector presents numerous challenges.

Once upon a time in Denmark

“Wind turbines are exposed to often adverse weather conditions in

The story of how the wind market developed in Denmark, at least in

highly corrosive environments, both onshore and offshore. Even a few

part, is rather unique. “In the 1970s, several schools were founded on an

metres can make a difference in terms of electricity production, which

agricultural land called Tvind, in West Jutland. These were schools using

also depends very much on weather. Finally, the wind power industry is

alternative teaching methods, created by radical idealist Mogens Amdi

rather conservative: usually, no reliable data is released as to how much

Petersen,” explains Group Commercial Director Henrik Hansen, during

energy is lost when a turbine is damaged, but we know for sure that, in

our visit to the Teknos plant in Vamdrup (Denmark), the specialised

the presence of structural damage, also caused by corrosion, electricity

centre for solutions for the wind sector. “Despite the controversies

production is affected. Therefore, it is essential to provide coatings that

that emerged later due to tax fraud and the misappropriation of public

do not only guarantee optimal corrosion protection, but are also easy

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



© Teknos

Figure 1- Teknoblade Repair 9000, a high solid coating based on elastomers able to form a protective elastic layer, was developed for restoring coatings on the edges of wind turbine blades.

to apply and long-lasting”, states Steffen Hawkins, Group R&D Manager,

paint product,” says Henrik Hansen. “The wind power industry aims

Waterbased Metal Coatings of Teknos A/S.

at guaranteeing the same energy efficiency of other non-renewable

“Teknos is a long-standing company, established in 1948 in Tuomarila

sources. Therefore, production must be as efficient as possible, with

(Finland) by the family that still manages it and that led it to become one

the lowest number of production steps possible as well as quick

of the leading manufacturers of paints and coatings in the world. We

maintenance times. The following needs emerged: the product had to

strongly believe in the importance of establishing an active collaboration

be applied in one coat, dry quickly even at low temperatures, be easy to

and an open dialogue with our customers. That is why, when we

repair and maintain, and contain a low VOC level.”

started operating in the wind market, we asked the sector applicators

“We also turned to applicators during the development phase of a

what their needs were and what were the characteristics of a quality

system for restoring coatings on the edges of wind turbine blades (Fig. 1): this is a very sensitive area that, if damaged and not repaired

© Teknos

in time, can lead to the collapse of the entire turbine, which depends precisely on the structural balance of its various components,” adds Steffen Hawkins. “It emerged that the repair solution should not have been a foil nor a rubber mat. The most functional solution turned out to be a quick-drying coating that is easily applied while hanging on ropes. When we developed the product, we demonstrated how to apply it at an applicator’s training centre, where we were able to recreate the typical rope suspension conditions of wind turbine maintenance operations. Such direct exchange allowed us to have immediate feedback from those who would have then used the product. We took note of their comments and assessments and we continued to further develop the product in order to make it more and more functional.” This led to the development of Teknodur Combi 3560, a low-VOC content, high-solid polyurethane system guaranteeing excellent corrosion protection, colour retention, and quick drying times, and Teknoblade Repair 9000, a high-solid coating based on elastomers able to form a protective elastic layer, suitable for the preventive protection

Figure 2 - Teknos’ production site in Vamdrup (Denmark).


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

and repair of wind turbine blades.


Vamdrup, the meeting point for the wind power industry

the equipment and show them how to use both in the best way,” says

Teknos’ Vamdrup production site (Fig. 2) is the second largest plant

Teknos A/S Managing Director Sten H. Søgaard. “This creates a common

in the Group, with 5 production lines and 25 million tonnes of paint

thread between our values and everyday work situations, translating

produced each year, 60% of which is exported while the remaining 40%

theory into practice and offering a complete service to both our

is sold directly. Vamdrup is also a technological centre of excellence for

customers and staff.”

the research, development, and production of coatings for the wood

“In Vamdrup, we have as many R&D employees as production operators.

protection and wind power industries. “We have different training

This demonstrates how important it is for us to develop innovative

centres in e.g. Finland, Germany, and Sweden. That of Vamdrup, in

solutions from which our customers can benefit,” states Steffen Hawkins

particular, is devoted to the application of products for the wind industry

(Fig. 5). “There are several ways in which product development can

(Figs. 3 and 4). In these centres, we do not only support our customers,

begin at Teknos. Sometimes, customers come to us with a problem, so

helping them choose the product that best suits their needs and

we look for a solution. Other times, we discuss, for example, how we

demonstrating how to apply it correctly with the same technologies they

can make an application faster or more cost efficient, if we can improve

use, but we also provide a training service for Teknos employees from

some properties or make a product more durable, or if it is possible to

other branches, taught directly by our local experts,” explains Steffen

implement special properties, such as antimicrobials ones.”


“The product development process can take anywhere from eighteen

“We have invested heavily in innovation and application equipment. In

months to three years and it depends on the complexity of the

this way, if a customer wants to try a product, we can also lend them

product itself and its testing period, which usually takes a long time,”

© ipcm

© ipcm

Figures 3 and 4 - The Vamdrup centre of excellence, devoted to training operators on the application of products for the wind industry.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



© ipcm

Figure 5 - Steffen Hawkins, Group R&D Manager, Waterbased Metal Coatings of Teknos A/S, in his laboratory in Vamdrup.

says Hawkins. “In fact, we do not just test our products in salt spray

states Sten H. Søgaard. “Our history has been dotted with acquisitions

chambers, but also in the open air, thanks to an outdoor exposure

that have led us to be the Group we are today. With time, we have

system complying with the ISO 11474

therefore encountered different cultures that

standard2 (Fig. 6). For example, when we test

we have tried to blend, in order to create

products intended for environments with

a wide, multi-faceted, but at the same time

a C3 corrosion class, we carry out outdoor

unique corporate culture, with the aim of

tests for a year, applying a saline solution

making Teknos a supplier of sustainable

twice a week and testing exposure to light

and above all high-quality coatings, able to

and moisture through the inclination of the

serve the most diverse industrial sectors.

panels at different angles and positioning

Not only must our products be sustainable,

with different exposures. Final approval

but also our production processes must

comes only when we are certain that the

not pollute the environments where they

product has been tested in conditions as

occur. Over the years, we have proved that

close as possible to reality.”

it is not only possible to create sustainable products, but that it can also be done while

A global vision for local action aimed at sustainability: Teknos’ mission

perfectly balancing costs and quality. This

“Teknos started as a family business and

challenging innovation and research process,

then expanded to the European level, up

but our culture and our values push us to

to becoming a global business present in

always expand our boundaries: if you are

type of products requires a long-standing and

never the first to take the first step, you will

22 countries and with 16 production sites,” © ipcm

ISO 11474:1998: Corrosion of metals and alloys — Corrosion tests in artificial atmosphere — Accelerated outdoor test by intermittent spraying of a salt solution (Scab test) 2


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

Figure 6 - Teknos’ products are tested both in salt spray chambers and outdoors in compliance with the ISO 11474 standard.

always remain behind others. This mindset often leads us to think of unconventional solutions and develop products that no one had ever created before, also with a view to


reducing costs and production times.â€? “Wind energy is now providing a large percentage of total energy consumption in dierent parts of the world. On Christmas evening last year, all the energy consumed in Denmark was generated by wind. The British government is building Hornsea (Fig. 7), one of the largest oshore wind farms in the world, in the North Sea; it will be able to supply electricity to more than one million homes in the UK. We firmly believe that the wind power sector will grow exponentially in years to come, up to accounting for 20% of the world energy consumption,â€? states Henrik Hansen. “Teknos’ objective is driving this growth by bringing innovation, supporting our customers, and

proving that sustainable products can guarantee the same qualitative and functional yield as their most polluting equivalents. We are doing this by developing solutions that are easy to apply, cost-eective, environmentally friendly, and more durable – an increasingly crucial requirement in the wind power industry. These objectives require a change of mentality on the part of manufacturers and applicators, but we are sure that it will happen soon: eventually, these values will be an integral part of the industry, as they already are of Teknos’ philosophy.� ‚


Wet chemical quality testing

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Figure 7 - The British government is building Hornsea, one of the largest oďŹ&#x20AC;shore wind farms in the world, in the North Sea; it will be able to supply electricity to more than one million homes in the UK.


ipcmÂŽ Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



Proven Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200 Chosen for Corrosion Protection at Ras Tanura Refinery Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200 from Sherwin-Williams was chosen for its

our customer to provide the necessary level of protection with efficiencies

time-saving advantages as the proven single coating protection against

in time and cost of using only one product,” said Emre Karapinar, Project

corrosion and high heat for the O&G bulk valves at Saudi Aramco’s Ras

Development Manager for Sherwin-Williams.

Tanura refinery.

Independently tested and certified for use in severely corrosive environments, Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200 comes without the need of an

Experts from Sherwin-Williams collaborated with contractor Tecnicas

inorganic zinc primer even when it is cured at ambient temperatures. It

Reunidas on the clean fuels and aromatics project to protect bulk valves

is approved under Saudi Aramco engineering standard SAES-H-101V /

for all process conditions and temperatures and ensure fault-free

System APCS-11C as a high temperature resistant CUI coating for O&G

continuous operations at the facility near the industrial port city Jubail in

projects in the Middle East.

Saudi Arabia. Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200 is the industry’s next-generation

Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200 can be applied direct to steel or stainless steel,

single-component corrosion under insulation (CUI) solution for

as a coating under insulation, and is acceptable for use on cryogenic

high-heat applications. It offers unrivalled corrosion resistance and

equipment or over properly prepared steel surfaces either insulated

enhanced durability in reducing damage from shop to field with faster

or uninsulated. It is ideal for power plants, refineries, chemical facilities,

shop throughput. It also provides lower Volatile Organic Compounds

offshore and marine and pulp and paper industries.

(VOCs). “We were aware of the challenges associated with bulk valve packages for

For further information:

these projects and our R&D team came up with a versatile solution for

© Ahmed Jadallah/Reuters

Heat-Flex™ Hi-Temp 1200, the next-generation single-component corrosion under insulation (CUI) solution, has been chosen in order to coat the O&G bulk valves at Saudi Aramco’s Ras Tanura refinery.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings



Covestro Delivers First Ever Order of Polyurethane Resin for Wind Blades © Covestro

The joint team of Covestro and its partners is pleased about the first commercial use of a polyurethane resin for the manufacture of wind rotor blades in China.

Covestro, a leading global supplier of high-performance polymer

our vision of creating products that benefit society and improve people’s

materials, has delivered its first commercial order of polyurethane

lives all over the world.”

raw materials for wind blades to China.

Zilu Liang, Deputy Chief Engineer, Wind Power Products at TMT, said, “As an innovative material, polyurethane, compared to epoxy resin,

China is the world’s largest wind power market with 221 GW of installed

has advantages in costs and in the production process. We have

capacity at the end of 2018, according to the World Wind Energy

cooperated with Covestro since 2016, and now we have achieved

Association . The blades, produced by Zhuzhou Times New Material

continuous production. We hope to further collaborate with Covestro

Technology (TMT), one of the largest manufacturers of wind blades

to explore large-scale wind blades and wind blades completely made of

in China, have then been delivered to Envision, a leading global wind



turbine technology company. They are scheduled to be installed in a wind farm in East China in July 2019.

Superior properties

Covestro delivered polyurethane resin to TMT for the production of 18

Covestro’s novel polyurethane infusion resin was developed to help the

polyurethane wind blades of 59.5-metre-length, also for the spar caps

wind power industry meet the growing demand for longer wind blade

and shear webs. These blades were delivered to Envision, heralding the

designs. Wind turbine rotor blades of this kind are typically made out

successful deployment of Covestro’s innovative polyurethane resin in

of fiberglass-reinforced resin by applying vacuum infusion technology.

blades for commercial wind farm projects.

The successful use of polyurethane resin for manufacturing large-scale

To ensure successful deployment, the Covestro wind power team

rotor blades for wind turbines suggests that the material itself features

produced a prototype of the wind blades which has passed static and

superior mechanical properties and anti-fatigue performance. There are

fatigue tests. The prototype was put into trial operation at a wind farm in

also benefits for the production processes in the wind blade factory, for

central China in 2018.

example, a faster curing process and better processing properties to deliver higher productivity levels.

Polyurethane resin – a game-changing innovation

Irene Li, Head of PU Application Development Asia Pacific at Covestro,

Ulrich Liman, Global Head of R&D, Business Unit Polyurethanes at

summarized: “This is the first step to realizing the industrialization of

Covestro said, “We are very excited to be working with Envision and

polyurethane resin in the wind industry, opening up a new chapter in

TMT on this first sales order of PU wind blades in China. Polyurethane

polyurethane chemistry. We believe that our polyurethane solution

resin in the production of wind blades, is a game-changing innovation

delivers significant advantages in wind blade production and along the

delivered by Covestro teams around the world. We remain committed to

value chain.”


For further information:

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31




New Plastic Materials and Coatings Will Make It Possible to Install Floating Wind Farms in Deeper Water with Fewer Costs © AIMPLAS


ind farms are a clean, sustainable and independent way to produce electricity on land, and offshore wind farms are

becoming increasingly more common. This second type actually produces energy more efficiently, but the current technology for implementing them involves higher installation and maintenance costs (Fig. 1). Also, when there

are no offshore locations far enough from the coast at the right water depth (less than 60 metres) where the wind turbine can be anchored directly to the seabed, more expensive systems must be used such as mooring, anchoring and floating structures. To provide a solution to these problems, AIMPLAS, the Plastics Technology Centre, is participating in the FLOTANT project, which aims to develop a solution for installing marine wind farms in water depths of 100 to 600 metres, with installation and maintenance costs that are 55% to 60% lower than at present. FLOTANT, which began in April 2019, is framed within the Figure 1 - Offshore wind farms actually produce energy more efficiently, but the current technology involves higher installation and maintenance costs.

European Horizon 2020 programme and will last 36 months. The solutions developed in this project will make it possible to install wind turbines of more than 10 MW thanks to an anchoring


system made of high-performance polymers that will reduce platform movements (Fig. 2). This solution will consist of a plastic-concrete hybrid floating system, dynamic lightweight wiring and a high-performance power export system. The project has chosen three different environments to install three prototypes: dynamic testing equipment for marine components used in the anchoring and power export systems, a tank that simulates marine conditions for the prototype of the comprehensive system, and the Port of Taliarte (Gran Canaria) for characterization of the new polymeric materials under real marine conditions. AIMPLAS role in the project is mainly to develop and optimize the anchoring, wiring and floatation system through the development of thermoplastic and thermoset materials with antifouling and antibite properties (Fig. 3). The result is expected to reduce the cost of producing this type of energy from €107 per MWh in 2018 to €85-€95 per MWh by 2030. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant

Figure 2 - The FLOTANT project is developing a plastic-concrete hybrid system that is expected to reduce installation and maintenance costs by over 50%.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

agreement number 815289. ‹


About AIMPLAS AIMPLAS, the Plastics Technology Centre, is located in Valencia, Spain, and is listed in the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness’s Registry of Technological Centres. The centre is a member of the Spanish Federation of Technology Centres (FEDIT) and the Network of Technological Institutes of the Valencian Community (REDIT). AIMPLAS is a non-profit research organization that aims to operate as a technology partner for companies in the plastics industry, and offers comprehensive, customized solutions by coordinating research, development and innovation projects and technological services © AIMPLAS

(analysis and testing, technical assistance, training and competitive and strategic intelligence). For further information:

Figure 3 - AIMPLAS role in the project is mainly to develop and optimize the anchoring, wiring and floatation system through the development of thermoplastic and thermoset materials with antifouling and antibite properties.


Leader globale nella produzione e ricerca tecnologica nel campo delle Vernici in Polvere

I nostri Mercati



Numero verde Colormax


800 911142






Distributore Esclusivo per l'Abruzzo dei prodotti Interpon -



© Carina Hansen

Opening photo Application-related hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking may cause sudden system failure in functional components of wind energy units.



United Against Hydrogen Embrittlement Klaus Gradtke DÖRKEN MKS - SYSTEME GMBH &Co. KG, Herdecke – Germany


pplication-related hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking that is associated with the application may cause sudden system failure in

functional components of wind energy units (ref. Opening photo). The result: maintenance and repair work – and subsequent downtime for the units. Avoiding this calls for effective corrosion protection. Whether it is the construction of new plant or regular maintenance and repair work, to render the assembly process as efficient as possible and increase service life, the components of wind energy units should be coated effectively. Because it is not just red rust that is harmful to the components. Similarly dangerous is application-related hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking – a phenomenon that appears to occur “out of the blue”. It can even lead to sudden failure during the assembly of the subsequently highly-stressed components. Construction parts but also connecting elements can break at any time. In wind energy units this sudden loss means downtime and associated costs.

Interaction of various causes The risk of hydrogen embrittlement affects high-tensile steels above strengths of > 1,000 N/mm² and is favoured by, for example, structural defects, inclusions, impurities or mechanical stresses in working the steel. Further influencing factors arise in the manufacture of components from steel via measures such as forming, hardening or thermal processing. The coating of the component can also have an influence. In pickling or cleaning procedures and the galvanic coating of ferritic steel parts atomic hydrogen may arise in the process bath, which can diffuse into the steel surface. Finally, hydrogen charging may occur via corrosion hydrogen, i.e. when using the components. It is the critical interaction of various influencing factors that ultimately results in failure of a component without any prior damage being noted.

A gradual process The atomic hydrogen migrates to grain boundaries and areas of defect within the steel, where it enriches itself, weakening the metallic compound until a microscopically-fine crack is created. Although this eases tension in this zone, at the tip of the crack new tension concentrations arise, which in turn attract more atomic hydrogen, weaken and crack. Ultimately, the remaining


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


Risk prevention through zinc flake The best solution is therefore to use a coating system in which no hydrogen is offered in the process. Non-electrolytically-applied zinc flake coating is consequently a good choice when faced with the challenge of protecting a high-tensile steel component from corrosion. This is a “lacquer” comprising numerous small flakes to protect components of various kinds against corrosion. The sacrificial behaviour of the ignoble zinc actively protects it against environmental influences. This is known as cathodic corrosion protection. Zinc flake coatings typically contain a combination of zinc and aluminium flakes (in accordance with DIN EN ISO 10683 or DIN EN 13858), linked via an inorganic matrix (Table 1). Table 1 - Relation of layer thickness to salt spray resistance as per DIN EN ISO 10683 (the stated reference thicknesses are for orientation only). Source: Dörken MKS

The system, which consists of a basecoat and a topcoat, requires a coat thickness of just 8 to 20 μm and enables very high durability in various corrosion protection tests (Figs. 1 and 2). Flake-like zinc particles, combined by a binding matrix, cross-link on the component.

cross-section can no longer bear the external tensile load and a

This may already occur at room temperature; however, most products

delayed brittle fracture occurs.

cross-link at temperatures of 180–220°C. There is no more gentle

DIN 50969-1 describes how the influencing factors of hydrogen-induced

way of applying cathodic corrosion protection. Depending on the

stress corrosion can be reduced via the constructive design of a

component, different application forms may be advisable, such as the

component, material and manufacturing technology measures and

dip-spin process or spray application.

by reducing tensile residual stress. In coating, too, an attempt can be made to minimise hydrogen absorption via corresponding process

No question of cost

control - for example where pre-treatment does not pickle, but instead

Effective zinc flake systems not only offer high-performance cathodic

blasts or degreases using alkaline substances. Hydrogen can also

corrosion protection, but the low coat thickness also means that they

be diffused again by tempering. However, this is dependent on the

are not more cost-intensive than less suitable, conventional thick-coat

structure of the coating and is time and therefore cost intensive.

applications. ‹

© GSI NL SLV Duisburg

© GSI NL SLV Duisburg

Figure 1 - Intercrystalline hydrogen crack (SEM picture 10μm).

Figure 2 - Transcrystalline hydrogen crack (SEM picture 10μm).

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31




New Concepts in Life Extension for Brownfield Offshore Assets Jim Britton Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc. – Houston, United States


s offshore infrastructure ages and the price of oil remains low, the

the process when required? Are we willing to change?

corrosion industry is challenged to find better ways to maintain the

Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc. has pioneered many new methods

integrity of subsea structures. In this context, better means more

for offshore cathodic protection life extension over the years, and its staff

cost-effective; to develop the most cost-effective system we must

has learned quite a few lessons. The following case histories demonstrate

approach the problem from the owner’s perspective and ask the right

not only how different the solutions are, but that they have one thing in

questions. How long does the system have to remain in operation? Are

common: each solution is the most appropriate and cost effective for the

we willing to take on some maintenance work to show an initial cost

owner of the asset.

reduction? Are we willing to consider a shorter life extension and repeat

© Simon Price

Opening photo: The North Sea platform is in 160 meters of seawater: a 20-year life extension was needed.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


Project Case History n. 1

a single structure. It is worthy of note that the eight installations replaced


the 900-plus that would have been required for the sacrificial anode

The structure is a fixed steel drilling / production platform located in 160


metres of water in the northern North Sea (ref. Opening photo). The platform was installed in 1980 and was fitted with sacrificial aluminium

Power units

anodes. The platform is still viable and serves as a critical hub for major

The power units for such an installation require 570 KVA. Normally, we

fields in the area. Based on this utility, the operator required a 20-year

would use outdoor oil-immersed transformer rectifier equipment, but for

life extension. A survey showed large areas of the structure to be

this current rating, the oil tanks’ size would have been prohibitive because

inadequately protected with readings in the range of (-) 0.680 V vs.

deck space was at a premium. It was decided to use air-cooled

Ag/AgCl sw. recorded on parts of the structure. It was determined that

thyristor-controlled units housed in ventilated custom-built containers,

the large eight-legged structure required a retrofitted cathodic protection

which optimized the equipment’s footprint (Figs. 2a and 2b).

current capacity of 7500 Amperes. Power cables Options

Routing of the subsea power cables to the anodes is always a challenge.

The first option was replacement of the original aluminium-based CP

On this particular structure, however, there were two spare J-tubes

system. A daunting challenge, this would entail adding over 600 gross

that could be used after extensive internal cleaning to remove marine

tonnes of anodes to the structure. Given the advanced age of the

fouling accumulations. The cable pulling operation went very smoothly

platform, this would have required some removal of the original (now © Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

depleted) anodes, and there wasn’t sufficient space on the seabed to deploy aluminium anode sled structures. After a front-end engineering exercise, this option was abandoned in favour of an impressed current cathodic protection solution (ICCP). System selection Project costs in the North Sea are dominated by offshore construction costs, so a solution that minimized boat and ROV time was critical. The system selected was a newly-modified, high-capacity version of a buoyant anode system that has been used on many previous projects. The new anode sleds (Fig. 1) each had a current rating of 950 Amperes. Eight sleds were deployed at various locations on the seabed around the base of the structure, making this the largest-capacity retrofit deployment of ICCP on

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Figure 1 - 950-Ampere ICCP buoyant anode skid: this is one of eight that were installed.

Figures 2a and 2b – 570 KVA-rated power units in their custom container; interior view at left, exterior to the right.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Figure 3 – The monitoring screen shows location, East and West faces of 12 monitors.

Figure 4 – The ROV-installed wireless monitor: note the depleted original anode at bottom.

considering that four 1000 mm2 cables were pulled into each tube

(Fig. 4). The clamps were fitted with a standard dual-element reference

simultaneously. Each of the heavily armoured cables had an OD of 70 mm.

electrode (Figs. 5a and 5b). The monitoring system can send data unit-to-unit subsea and then transmit through the air-water interface. It

Modelling and monitoring

is also possible to communicate with the monitors using an ROV. It was

In order to predict the current distribution and any possible interference

necessary to clean heavy marine growth from the structure so the ROV

with pipelines, the structure was modelled extensively using BE and FE

could install the monitors, and this was achieved quickly and efficiently

techniques. The models yielded a diverse set of predicted results, which

using a brand-new, ROV-mounted flexible cleaning system (Fig. 6). It took

did not inspire much confidence. It was decided that a monitoring system

just 4 days to install the 12 monitors.

was required to ensure that the current distribution would be adequate across the large, complex structure. Because of the high costs associated with running cables to multiple locations on the structure, it was decided

Project Case History n. 2 The structure

12 locations in two vertical rows on either side of the structure (Fig. 3). The

In this case, the structure is a floating offshore storage and offloading

blue-tooth wireless transceivers were located on ROV-installable clamps

installation (FSO) located in the Irish Sea in just 30 metres of water (Fig. 7).

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

that a wireless system would be used. Wireless monitors were installed at

Figures 5a and 5b – Dual-element reference electrode (Ag/AgCl & Zinc) used on wireless monitors.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

The front of the vessel is connected to a catenary-arm mooring buoy (CALM) that allows 360-degree rotation of the hull (weathervaning). It had a conventional marine ship hull ICCP system that was installed in 1996, began to fail around 2006, and by 2012 was unable to maintain protection. The operator required a life extension until 2028 (15 years). Based on operational records and offshore current requirement testing, it was deemed that 300 amperes of retrofitted cathodic protection capacity would be adequate. Options From the operator perspective, the most important consideration was to avoid any subsea intervention or modification to the hull below the waterline. These constraints left very few options. It was decided that a

Figure 6 – ROV Flexiclean system reduces cleaning time for subsea installations. © Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

suspended anode system could be made to work if the following points were considered: a) The system needed to be engineered to address the obvious potential failure mechanisms, which were fatigue and abrasion. b) The system would have to be easily recovered. This would allow retrieval ahead of foul weather to protect the anode module and also would allow regular recovery for inspection and maintenance. These provisions were accepted by the owner and a retrofittable suspended-anode module system was designed (Fig. 8).

Figure 7 – This FSO in the Irish Sea requires a 15-year life extension.


© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Design considerations

such a system. Clearly, the cost advantages

The original design concept used a

of not requiring any subsea intervention

hang-off frame and a recovery davit (Figs.

were obvious, but we also needed to ensure

9a and 9b) that were mounted behind the

that the system was functional. What we

railing on the vessel. This was to simplify

found out after analysis of the first 15

installation and allow stowage of the anode

months of operational data was:

module securely on deck in the event that

a) The anode system was recovered 23

green water conditions prevailed. This was

times, which was an average of once every

eventually modified by the EPC contractor

20 days. This was more frequent

to a full overboard balcony concept, which

through the winter of 2014.

uses one for hang-off and one for recovery

b) The system was out of the water

(Fig. 10). The anode system is designed to

approximately 30% of the time.

have a current rating of 150 amperes and is

c) Hull potentials were maintained in the

set to hang about 4 metres below the keel

protected region for better than 98% of the

of the vessel. The mechanical design of the

time and only one region of the

anode module, power cable system and

hull showed spikes outside protected ranges.

recovery tethers were highly scrutinized by

During the first annual inspection visit the

the certification authorities. The recovery /

Deepwater’s team found some localized

deployment winch is a simple push button,

abrasion damage to the tether rope’s outer

and redundancy is incorporated wherever

braiding, which was deemed non critical.

possible. Power is automatically cut to the

They also noted some minor localized

anode as soon as the winch is activated. To track the performance of this new system, a

Figure 8 – Suspended anode module uses balcony-mounted recovery.

data logger was included to monitor current and potential on the system.

abrasion damage to the protective sheath on the power cable that was easily repaired. There was no visible damage to the anode

module, which was functioning as designed. One redundant continuity jumper was damaged between a tether clevis and the module frame, which was quickly repaired. As expected, the sacrificial anode protecting

We included the logger mainly to understand the operational profile of

the anode module’s steel structure was lightly depleted (Fig. 11).

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.


Figures 9a and 9b – The original concept had inboard-mounted deploy recovery.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc. © Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Figure 10 – The system installed (AFT) shown in the recovered position.

Power units & monitoring It was hoped that the existing power units could be re-used, but they were not in a suitable state of repair. They were replaced with basic air-cooled potentially controlled units rated 150 A at 24V DC. Control was effected using reference electrodes attached to the anode module’s tether which were compared against the permanent electrodes that were part of the original system. The use of the data loggers allowed to compensate the IR drop from the reference electrode location to effectively control the system from a semi-remote electrode. This important improvement allows potential control even if the original hull equipment is non-operational, which is usually the case. The first 18 months of operation showed this concept to be entirely workable and a viable way to address floating systems with a relatively low current requirement. As a large percentage of the FPSO fleet still uses conventional marine ICCP technology, this represents a good option for when those systems inevitably fail in service.

Project Case History n. 3 A brownfield fixed platform in 42 meters of water required a short five-year life extension ahead of a decommission decision. The retrofit was completed as part of an IRM program where inspection and repair were conducted on the same mobilization. The platform, a small four-pile wellhead structure, has six wells and is located in the Eugene Island area in the central Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 12). With all potentials in the range of (-) 0.670 to (-) 0.680 V vs. Ag/AgCl sw, the platform was almost completely depolarized. The water depth precluded installation of conventional diver-less suspended-link anodes [1], so the decision was made to use subsea-installed links (Fig. 13). The required current was estimated at 175 Amps, so a total of 22 links attached to 11 subsea clamps were ordered. An aluminium weight of 6750 Kg was calculated to provide the required current for six to seven years. The as-found inspection followed by the repair and the as-left re-inspection took four days offshore using a shallow air six-man dive crew (Figs. 14a and 14b). Part of the

Figure 11 – Condition of the module after 18 months in service.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Figure 12 – Wellhead platform in the Gulf of Mexico: the structure requires a five-year life extension.

Figure 13 – Link anodes shown in “skirt link deployment” installed using a shallow air six-man dive crew.

scope was to record the current output from each anode string after


installation so that the customer could optimize similar life extensions on

These three case histories show the diversity of technologies available

other structures in the fleet. A clamp-on subsea ammeter was used to

for the life extension of offshore cathodic protection systems. Other

accomplish this. The results are presented (Table 1) and show

examples are given [2]. It is wise to solicit several options from solution

before-and-after potential measurements and the current output of each

provider so that the optimal solution can be easily identified. ‹

string. The current required to protect the structure came in very close to References

This method of life extension is very popular in the Gulf of Mexico where

[1] RetroLink anode systems

there are many old structures requiring only a short life extension. The

retrolink/project case histories.

average life of a “5-Year” system has been shown to be around 6.5 years.

[2] “CP Maintenance For Brownfield Infrastructure” Jim Britton. Presented at

Over 600 structures have been fitted with this type of system since 2003.

Corcon 2012, Goa, India.

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

estimate (160 Amps actual vs. 175 Amps designed).

Figures 14a and 14b – Skirt link installation: the retrofit and inspections took four days offshore.


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ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31

© Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc.

Table 1 - Summary of data from anode replacement – potentials and anode currents




Efficiency Increases in Catalytic Reformers Marina Silva IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc., Richmond – United States

Process Overview

increased temperature promotes the development of further scale. As

Catalytic reforming converts low-octane, straight-run naphtha fractions,

oxidation continues, tube metal is consumed leading to a decrease in

particularly heavy naphtha, into a high-octane, low-sulfur reformate,

tube wall thickness, which shortens the tube life (Figs. 1 and 2).

which is a major blending product for gasoline/petrol. The process is endothermic and is carried out by feeding a naphtha and hydrogen

Ceramic coatings

mixture to a furnace, where it is heated in a series of fired heaters to

Ceramic coatings for process tubes prevent oxidation and scale

the desired temperature, 450° to 520°C (840° to 965°F), before passing

formation for approximately two turnarounds. This thin-film coating

through a series of reactors.

maintains the process tube in a like-new condition, maximizing conductive heat transfer to the process and increasing radiant section

Thermal inefficiencies

efficiency. Likewise, by stopping oxidation, tube metal loss is prevented

In a high temperature environment, steel alloy process tubes will

(Fig. 3).

immediately oxidize, and scale will develop. This oxidation scale layer acts as an insulator and will lead to a decrease in heat transfer as the

Coating refractory lining

scale increases in thickness. To compensate for the insulating effect of

The emissivity of typical refractory linings in fired heaters ranges from

the scale, the heater is subjected to excessive fuel firing. The resulting

0.45-0.65. When radiant energy encounters these refractory linings,

Process tubes of catalytic reformers in oil refineries are subject to oxidation caused by high temperatures. The resulting thermal inefficiency can be avoided by applying ceramic coatings.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


© IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc.

Figure 1 - Simulated view: typical process tube condition.

© IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc.

Figure 2 - Simulated view: process tubes under IR illustration.

much of the energy is reflected back and is absorbed into the flue gas

Heater evaluation at a refinery

and carried out of the radiant section, into the convection section and

A refinery reported that excessive process tube scale on their catalytic

out the stack, with the majority never reaching the process.

reformers was creating a limitation and contacted Cetek, the pre-

High emissivity coatings for refractory surfaces increase surface

eminent global turnkey provider of ceramic high-emissivity coatings, for

emissivity to 0.92, a near black body. Radiant energy is absorbed by

an inspection and recommendation. Cetek visited the site to conduct an

the high emissivity lining and reradiated across a broad spectrum. The

infrared inspection of the heaters. After reviewing the infrared images

reradiated energy is able to penetrate the flue gas and be absorbed by

and the data supplied by the refinery’s process engineer, Cetek’s fired

the process increasing radiant section efficiency.

heater expert recommended both high emissivity coatings for process

fotorince © Adobe Stock

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



© IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc.

Figure 3 - Simulated view: side-by-side comparison of process tubes with and without ceramic coating.

Benefit Category

Benefit Percentage

Radiant Section Efficiency


CO2 Emission Reduction


NOx Emission Reduction


Table 1 - Cetek’s heater evaluation at a refinery.

tubes and refractory surfaces for all heater cells.

Post Application Report

The results of this evaluation are summarized in Table 1.

After the coating was applied and the catalytic reformer was returned to

With the predicted fuel savings and capacity increase from the

service, and conditions in the heaters were similar to the pre-evaluation

application of high emissivity ceramic coatings, a payback period and

conditions, a fired heater study was completed to measure the actual

return on investment was calculated over the life of the coating. Keeping

benefits of the ceramic coatings. The increase radiant efficiency of 10%

the same production rate, the coating would produce over $2.9M in fuel

was achieved.

savings; when keeping the same firing rate and increasing throughput,

Taking the cost of the project and the benefits into consideration, the

over $10.5M in additional profit could be realized from the increase in

payback was 14 months in terms of fuel savings or 4 months for capacity


rate or process severity increase (Figs. 4 and 5). ‹

© IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc.

© IGS Integrated Global Services, Inc.

Figures 4 and 5 - Before and after the application of Cetek coating.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


About IGS and Cetek Integrated Global Services, Inc. (IGS) is an international provider of surface protection solutions headquartered in Virginia, USA. IGS operates operational hubs, subsidiaries, and sales offices around the world to service global asset owners and operators. IGS has over 30 years of experience helping customers solve metal wastage and reliability problems in mission critical equipment and is an industry leader in the development and application of solutions to corrosion and erosion problems in challenging operating environments. IGS’s proprietary High Velocity Thermalspray (HVTS) coating systems solve corrosion and erosion problems in process vessels, towers, columns and other mission critical equipment. IGS’s Cetek ceramic coatings and Hot-tek™ cleaning, repair, and inspection services optimize the efficiency of high temperature process equipment. IGS’s Environmental Products improve the reliability and efficiency of critical equipment with unique solid particle filtration and airflow redistribution.



C O R P O R AT I O N Environmentally Safe VpCI ®/MCI ® Technologies


Coating Inspections: Inspection Personnel Requirements Massimo Cornago NACE International Certified Coating Inspector, NACE CIP PEER Reviewer


s we have explained in detail in the previous article, due to the very

• Paint Manufacturers course

high “added value” the Certified Coating Inspector gives to every

• SSPC tutorials

project, his figure is rather complex. In this article we analyse some of

• F.R.O.S.I.O Paint Inspectors Program

the most important requirements that this professional profile needs to

• NACE International’s Coating Inspector Certification Program.


The last two (FROSIO and NACE International) are recognized all over the world as the best professional courses.

“The Coating Inspector must meet certain professional and personal requirements”. Although specific requirements may vary, depending

The Coating Inspector could also achieve training through prior

on the nature and the purpose of any inspection job, generally they

experience, directly on the job and through proper supervision and

include physical ability, training and long experience on the job, as well

adequate jobsite instructions. All of these contribute towards good

as verbal and written communication skills and certain character traits.

inspection work. On the job training is best obtained by working under

“The inspector must be properly prepared to respond to all inspection

the supervision of an experienced, certified Coating Inspector. The


Physical requirements Every Coating Inspector involved in the project, must have all the physical capabilities to meet all the phases of his work requirements. He should be physically fit and able to access the work areas in which the inspection operation is conducted, using special equipment if necessary, to allow the work to be conducted safely and as specified in the Project Coating Specification. In general, the Coating Inspector should be able to climb towers, or crawl into tight spaces, or at very high heights (elevated tanks, bridges, oil & gas rigs and production platforms, etc.), without fear and to lift control instruments which weights up to 12 kg or more. The Coating Inspector’s vision must be close to 10/10, be free of such defects as colour blindness and have the dexterity to mark areas of deficient workmanship.

Training The Coating Inspector should be trained through formal courses in different areas: ”The Fundamentals of Corrosion and its control by different methods, in particular by protective coatings use”, “Procedures for Surface Preparation”, “Techniques of application, methods-systems and equipment”, “Hands-on instruction in the calibration and relative use of quality control instruments”, etc. Depending on the professional level, many different training courses are available worldwide: • Community College and trade school courses • Industry courses


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


supervising inspector should monitor the trainee’s work regularly to

The worker and all the involved Coating Inspectors (including the

ensure that the standard test procedures and practices are routinely

supervisor) should discuss and/or agree what corrections may be

followed and the quality documentation presented. Whether through

required to meet the job specification requirements.

formal training or experience, the Coating Inspector should also be

The Coating Inspector must also have good writing skills and be able

knowledgeable in all the application standards required by the Project

to provide clear documentation to establish whether the specification

Coating Specification. There are many International Standards relating

requirements have been met. They are of great value in case of dispute

to coating works, regularly reviewed by groups of very important

about a possible coating failure or in the case of change of personnel.

people coming from industries, paint manufacturers, universities and

In case of dispute, the Coating Inspector should attempt to resolve


all the differences of opinion in accordance with the established

Once trained, the Coating Inspector should keep himself up-to-date

procedures. As underlined in the previous articles, any not clear

with new technical developments in the field (i.e. new technologies, new

information must be clarified in the pre-job conference. Any deviation

techniques, new equipment and regulations), through membership

from specifications detected by the Coating Inspector at work should be

in NACE, ISO, SSPC or other technical associations, and by reading

immediately discussed with the Applicator at the jobsite and reported

technical journals and magazines or attending seminars, congresses and

in writing to the project manager. Remember that the Coating Inspector


does not normally have the authority to stop the work or to change the specs requirements to meet the quality of the work performed, only the owner or his representative has this authority.

Communication skills The Coating Inspector must be able to communicate verbally in a concise, professional and impartial manner. He should be patient and

Ethics and judgement

very calm at all times, and not be excitable, rude or arrogant. Inspection

In order to provide quality monitoring and be fair to all the parties

should not be a demeaning, confrontational process. Deficient work

involved, the Coating Inspector must have “high personal integrity” and

should be identified and, when necessary, marked and documented.

a “strong work ethic”. This means clear, impartial and sufficient detailed documentation that can stand up to any challenge: in some cases, the documentation may be used as legal evidence. Personal standards of quality or workmanship should not be imposed by the Coating Inspector. He has to remain constantly aware that the criteria for work acceptance are the job specs requirements and not some preconceived personal point of view such as “what will give the best performance” or “what the Boss would like” or “what will work”. It must be perfectly clear and understood that the Project Specification (even if comprehensive and well written) cannot cover all the possible problems that could arise. Accordingly, some knowledgeable judgement between the parts (Applicator, Coating Inspector) will occasionally be required. However, the Coating Inspector should not modify or interpret job spec. requirements that are not approved by the owner’s representative. The Coating Inspector should support the Applicator by advising him when the “surface preparation” or “coating application techniques” must be modified to meet job specification requirements, saving any other additional application work and saving money that would otherwise be spent to take corrective actions. The Coating Inspector should try to anticipate the problems that may arise and address them before they result in delay. In other cases, inspection may identify an area where clarification of the specification requirements may be necessary. In the next issue of ipcm® we will develop the “Capability Levels of a Certificate Coating Inspection Personnel”, in accordance with NACE-FROSIO-SSPC, which are necessary for any different particular job in a “Coating Project Work”. ‹

pichitstocker © Adobe Stock

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



MP : MEDIA PARTNERSHIP - ipcm _Protective Coatings is present with own booth or press corner ®




wind europe offshore

Copenhagen, Denmark

offshore wind energy industry

November 26-28, 2019

DECEMBER 2019 marintech china

Shanghai, China December 3-6, 2019

maritime industry

JANUARY 2020 euroguss


construction & architecture

techstroy expo roads


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

Nuremberg, Germany January 14-16, 2020

Essen, Germany

die casting technologies

infrastructures maintaining and improving

January 14-16, 2020

Krasnoyarsk, Russia

construction and architecture

January 21-24, 2020

Krasnoyarsk, Russia

construction machinery

January 21-24, 2020

© Australasian Corrosion Association


Melbourne CBD Skyline set against the Yarra River.

Corrosion & Prevention 2019 to Reveal Latest Developments in Corrosion Mitigation The Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) will host the industry

an integral part of the activities. It provides an opportunity for delegates

leading, Corrosion & Prevention 2019 (C&P 2019) conference and

to experience the latest products and services relating to corrosion

exhibition from 24-27 November, at the Crown Promenade in

mitigation. There is free entry to the 60 + trade exhibitors during certain

Melbourne, Australia.

times at the conference and the Learning Centre stage will feature daily practical sessions, hosted by some of key exhibitors.

This annual conference and trade exhibition will bring together leading

The ACA Applicator Trade Day hosted by BlastOne has become a regular

researchers and industry practitioners who combat corrosion on a daily

and popular feature of the C&P2019 program, hosted offsite and features

basis. C&P 2019 will showcase the latest techniques and technologies

a range of hands on practical sessions that are free to attend, however

to help mitigate corrosion. It has been estimated that industries and

you must book in advance.

governments spend billions of dollars every year on corrosion mitigation

C&P 2019 will appeal to a wide range of industries including: building

and repair, making it vital that the latest technologies and practices are

and construction, cultural and historical materials preservation,

applied to managing this threat.

defence, education and research, food processing, government, marine

Diverse technical streams will showcase the latest developments in

transportation and infrastructure, mining and resources, oil and gas, power

corrosion, ranging from fundamental corrosion science to hands-on

generation and energy systems and water and wastewater treatment.

application. Topics covered will include concrete corrosion and repair,

As always, C&P 2019 will provide the premier venue for networking

steel corrosion, water infrastructure, cathodic protection of pipelines,

opportunities for delegates to network with colleagues and peers.

asset management, high-temperature corrosion, non-ferrous metal

Building on their well-established reputation, the social functions including

corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion.

the Welcome Function and Exhibition, ACA Awards Dinner and Farewell

This year’s P F Thompson lecture will be delivered by Willie Mandeno,

Function, will not disappoint. There is something for everyone, a Young

Principal Engineer Materials, WSP Opus. Willie is an ACA life member and

Corrosion Group and ACA Foundation networking evening.

has specialised in the specification of engineering materials and protective

Like previous years, C&P 2019 will facilitate an exciting Partner Program,

coatings for more than 35 years. The ACA’s premier lecture marks PF

featuring a range of activities. The event will also feature a new inaugural

Thompson’s contribution by emulating the academic and technical

event, the ‘Women in Corrosion’ Breakfast, canvassing the issues faced by

qualities for which he was known. Attendees will have the opportunity to

women working in the Industry.

hear from an impressive list of Plenary Speakers covering an interesting array of corrosion related topics. In addition to the technical program, the conference exhibition will be

For further information: and

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31


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Half a Century of Corrosion Protection and Beyond: ITSM Celebrates Fifty Years of Corporate History © Giulia Agnoletto


TSM is a long-standing company specialising in anti-corrosion surface treatments. It was established in 1969 in a basement on the

south-eastern outskirts of Milan (Italy) by the Loschi family. On September 20th, it celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, a piece of industrial history in the contracting sandblasting, coating, and corrosion protection field. For the occasion, the Loschi family invited its customers, suppliers, and employees to the Ca’ del Bosco winery in Erbusco, in the Franciacorta territory – a wonderful location combining suggestive views, contemporary art, tradition, and high technology in the art of wine making (Fig. 1). In this exclusive and welcoming setting, after an exciting visit to the winery to learn about its philosophy, methods, and a few little secrets (Fig. 2), the guests were invited to attend a presentation dedicated to the past, present, and future of the company. Its past and present were recalled through the projection of suggestive old photographs recently exhibited in the plant of

Figure 1 – ITSM celebrated its fiftieth anniversary with its customers, suppliers, and employees at the Ca’ del Bosco winery in Erbusco, in the Franciacorta territory.

Mombretto di Mediglia (Milan), ITSM’s headquarters since 1981, capturing fragments of work and everyday life and able to reveal an unpredictable beauty to a sensitive eye (Fig. 3). Luca and Sara,

© Giulia Agnoletto

© Luca Loschi

belonging to the younger generation and recently involved after years

Figure 2 - Visiting the Ca’ del Bosco winery.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

Figure 3 - One of the evocative photographs dedicated to the activity of ITSM and projected during the event.

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ZOOM ON EVENTS © Giulia Agnoletto

Figure 4 - The conference.

of experience in different sectors, took the opportunity to present themselves to the audience during the event (Fig. 4). The presentation continued with an explanation of the company’s mission and vision for the future. “We hope that, with a bit of luck, these are only our ‘first fifty years’ of business,” said commercial and administrative manager Vanna Loschi. ”We are confident that the family tradition that links us to this company will live on and that, after the third generation, even the fourth one, now including a few young girls who are present at this meeting, may join our company in the not too distant future. Production and quality manager Tiziano Loschi then ignited a debate on one of the most age-old, unsolved issues of the last few years: given the presence of representatives of major national and international paint manufacturers, he drew attention to the unavoidable issue of environmental sustainability, as topical as controversial for today’s industrial coating world. The meeting ended with a tribute in the memory of Loris, Vanna and Tiziano’s brother, who recently passed away after spending over forty years in the company. “Loris was an eclectic man of great sensitivity and curiosity,” says Vanna. “He cultivated interests in different fields, especially literary and artistic. That is why the best way to remember him on this occasion is to present his posthumous book, which includes a selection of one hundred poems and short stories written by him from 1967 to 1990 and the reproduction of some of his most

Figure 5 - The cover of the book “Cento – poesie e racconti, 1967-1990” by Loris Loschi.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31


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© Luca Loschi



significant paintings. The donations received for the distribution of the book, entitled ‘Cento – poesie e racconti, 1967-1990’, will be entirely donated to charity (Fig. 5).” This event clearly showed that the current management, joined by its closest collaborators, intended to celebrate this important goal by looking ahead with the purpose of improving, updating, and strengthening, but without forgetting the achievements of those who helped make the company a solid business, especially founders Mario and Nalide. The party, therefore, had two objectives: celebrating the milestone of fifty years of activity, but also presenting the firm’s latest investments, including the new insulated roof, the new conditioning, Figure 6 – The presentation of the last purchase made for the Mombretto di Mediglia plant: the innovative, powerful two-component airless device for the application of paints with a short pot-life.

thermal destratification, and suction systems, and the innovative, powerful two-component airless device for the application of paints with a short pot-life, such as two-component epoxy intumescent products (Fig. 6). All this demonstrates ITSM’s constant and growing

© Giulia Agnoletto

desire to expand and improve its offer. Also thanks to good weather, the celebration ended with a buffet on the winery’s lawn, brightened by fine Ca’ del Bosco wines and live jazz-funk music played by the Fahrenheit Trio (Fig. 7, 8, and 9). ‹ © Giulia Agnoletto

© Giulia Agnoletto

Figure 7 – From left to right: Luca, Tiziano, Vanna, and Sara Loschi.

Figure 8 – A convivial moment during the event.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

Figure 9 - Gadgets celebrating the company’s anniversary, including a black chalice with a manually satin-finished logo by ITSM itself.

11-13 February, 2020 Austria Trend Hotel, Savoyen

The forum for the steel pipeline community, exploring pipeline coatings, protection, technology and markets

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SAVIM: Thirty-five Years of Beauty, Sustainability, and Family in Tune with the System


he venue was that of great occasions: the Mosconi Bertani mansion,

positive and constructive relationships with people.

a unique place in the oenological history of Verona and in the artistic

“We are three siblings with different experiences and abilities that help

tradition of the Italian region of Veneto, built in the late Eighteenth

us better manage our firm, always united even in conflicts. It was not

century and surrounded by a splendid park and vineyards (Fig. 1). The

easy to choose to be entrepreneurs. Indeed, our parents made it difficult

occasion, in this case, was the celebration of the thirty-five years of activity

because they wanted to make sure that we would have had the good of

of Savim Europe Srl, a well-established company active at a global level

the company at heart. We have chosen to take on this burdensome but

and specialising in the design and construction of complete manual and

rewarding responsibility. That is why today, together with the network of

automatic plants for both liquid and powder coating, painting booths and

people we have built over the years, we are celebrating love and beauty.

ovens, and systems treating fiberglass and composite materials.

Surfaces are beauty and love is in every product, since it is the result of the

The Scavini family – Renzo with his wife Lauretta, who founded the

time, intelligence, sacrifices, errors, and dedication invested in its creation.”

company in 1984 and developed it in the following years, and their

Marina Scavini’s words opened the event and started a series of

children Marina, Nicoletta, and Francesco, the current managers (Fig.

speeches by institutional representatives, consultants close to the Scavini

2) – decided to bring their employees, suppliers, and friends together

family, and staff, some of whom were rewarded for their loyalty to the

for a day dedicated to beauty, art, theatre, good food, and good wine,

company. Each speech was linked to an issue of great importance for

representing the values on which the history and success of this firm are

Savim, including social commitment, involvement in the local economic

based. “We wanted to combine the themes of beauty and business, as

and industrial fabric, and sustainability (Fig. 3), and it was preceded by

the latter directly entails the former, especially in a sector like ours, since

the theatrical representation of some scenes from works by European

finishes give products a ‘skin’ and, therefore, an aesthetic value,” stated

playwrights, such as Shakespeare and Goldoni, symbolising the themes

Marina Scavini speaking to about one hundred and twenty guests. “We


would like to thank our parents for passing on to us values that are still

Renato Della Bella, the President of the Apindustria association, of

behind what we are and what we do, such as honesty, consistency, trust,

which Marina Scavini is the vice-president, spoke of the responsibility

reliability, listening, respect, hard work, and commitment, and above

to do business, understood as being responsible not only for the

all the ability to always do it with a smile. On the strength of our history

territory within one’s own company but also for that surrounding it.

but at the same time projecting into the future with both product and

“Savim’s expansion abroad also affects its territory of origin and it boosts

management innovations, Savim never forgets the importance of building

the growth not only of the company itself but also of its employees, © SAVIM

Figure 1 - The Mosconi Bertani mansion, a unique place in the oenological history of Verona and in the artistic tradition of the Italian region of Veneto.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings

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Figure 2 - The Scavini family – Renzo with his wife Lauretta, who founded the company in 1984 and developed it in the following years, and their children Marina, Nicoletta, and Francesco, the current managers.

suppliers, and anyone coming into contact with it,” said Renato Della

a company that does not think about the future in terms of sustainability

Bella. “In order for the territory in which a company operates to remain

will soon cease to exist.”

beautiful, healthy, and rich in values, entrepreneurs must exercise their

“As well as a sound product, the best legacy an entrepreneur can leave is

responsibilities also outside their own firms, through the concepts of

the ability to build strong relationships,” stated prof. Franco Cesaro, the

legality and compliance with rules.”

morning speech moderator and a consultant of Savim. “This is an excellent

Savim consultant Matteo Civiero addressed the issue of sustainability as

ability of Renzo Scavini, which has been inherited by his children.”

related to business management. “The future belongs to those who can

The event continued with a rich aperitif in the gardens of the villa with

imagine and build it. By its own nature, a company is created to build the

the delightful accompaniment of jazz music, followed by a lunch in the

future. What worked in the past will not work in future, but the beauty

beautiful banquet hall of the Mosconi Bertani mansion (Fig. 4), gladdened

of the effort to do business for pursuing a dream and giving it to future

by the comedy duo I Lucchettino. After the cake cutting and a few photos,

generations so that they take care of it will always exist. Whereas once it

all the guests could enjoy the villa and its vineyards as well as a tasting of

was possible to neglect the issue of sustainability in business, nowadays

the famous Valpolicella wines. ‹


Figure 3 - The event started with a series of speeches by institutional representatives, consultants close to the Scavini family, and employees.


Figure 4 - The event continued with a lunch in the beautiful banquet hall of the Mosconi Bertani mansion.

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31



Record Numbers for Tank Storage Asia 2019 Tank Storage Asia 2019 boasted record visitor numbers in September,

He spoke about data being the next big commodity, saying that

as terminals, traders, petrochemical producers and equipment

companies need to invest in data and have a comprehensive data

suppliers gathered in Singapore.

strategy to ensure results. Mark Lim, Commercial Manager at Stolthaven, along with Chye Poh

The event saw a 35% increase in visitors this year, attracted by a strong

Chua, CEO at ShipsFocus provided a unique insight into how Stolthaven

conference line-up, new one-to-one networking opportunities and a

is already using big data to its advantage. The partnership has been able

whole host of ground-breaking technologies on the show floor.

to collect and use data to improve jetty scheduling - identify and reduce

Over 50 exhibitors were present on the show floor, with many new

wait times, reduce demurrage and improve utilisation.

names appearing in 2019, including Matrix Applied Technologies,

‘This is the perfect event for the terminal industry,’ says Lim. ‘It’s a

DoveChem, FQE Chemicals and APMS.

great way of getting the industry together – terminal operators, our

The show attracted decision-makers from across the region including

customers, and vendors – to share experiences. It has been a great

representatives from Shell, Saudi Aramco, Total, Dialog, Chevron,

success and we’ll definitely be back next year.’

BP Singapore, BASF, ExxonMobil, Singapore LNG, Horizon, Thai Oil Group, Rotary Engineering, Cargill, Neste Singapore, Pertamina, Odfjell Terminals and many more. ‘It is a good event to meet with the industry’s key players,’ says Vincent Quek, Regional Manager at Dixon Valve. ‘It saves us time and resources to meet in one place.’

Insights from industry leaders The two-day conference programme featured speakers from key terminals in the region, including Vopak, Stolthaven and Oiltanking, who discussed crucial topics ranging from new sustainability initiatives, innovations and first-hand experiences on implementing new safety case regulations. Edwin Ebrahimi, Innovation Engagement Leader at Vopak spoke about the significant shift in innovation the terminal has seen in the last five years – from exploring proof of concepts in 2015 to having innovation truly embedded in the company’s culture by 2020. In this time Vopak has explored drones, wireless open and close sensors, digital checklists and remote-operated vehicles. ‘We don’t innovate for the sake of it,’ Ebrahimi explained. ‘First and foremost, we introduce new technology to create a safer environment at our terminals.’ ‘The industry has a joint responsibility to continue improving its safety performance. Sharing stories of successful deployments of innovations at events such as Tank Storage Asia helps raise awareness and speeds up the acceptance of innovation in our industry.’ Innovation and forward-thinking were key themes throughout the event, with Mark Stuart, the conference keynote speaker, giving a presentation on how the tank storage industry can move into the digital age. Stuart asked the audience for their input on what is most important when it comes to driving the tank storage sector forward, and responses included the use of drones as well as ensuring companies ‘fail fast’ when it comes to testing out new initiatives.


N.31 - 2019 OCTOBER - ipcm® Protective Coatings


New business opportunities

Sushant Gupta, Director of Asia-Pacific Refining at Wood Mackenzie

With the event held just days after the drone strikes that knocked

echoed this, adding that product imbalances and changes to trade flows

out half of Saudi Arabia’s oil supply, it is no surprise that geopolitical

represent significant new opportunities for storage operators.

tensions and volatile market conditions featured highly in the

Gupta also spoke of the significant slowdown in oil demand growth, with

conference room.

current world demand growth at its slowest level for the past 10 years.

Paul Hickin, Associate Director at Platts spoke of the fragile balance

Added to this, demand for gasoline is also expected to slow post-2030, as

between supply & demand in today’s marketplace. Oil demand worries

a result of higher penetration of electric vehicles & better fuel efficiency.

continue in the wake of the global slowdown and the recession risk

Overbuilding of refineries has created further imbalances, with around 3

is now at 35%, Hickin explained. However, IMO2020 could provide a

million bpd of surplus capacity expected over the next 5 years.

demand spike and oil demand growth could remain above 1 million b/d

The conference was attended by terminals, oil majors, analysts and

in 2019 and 2020.

regulators from across the region. ‘The Tank Storage Asia Conference

S&P Global Platts predicted that oil prices are likely to break out of the

provided us with an insight into the regional and global storage market’

$55-$65/barrel range, more likely testing the high of $70/barrel, if not up

says Ramadan Fan, Domestic Marketing Consultant at Saudi Aramco. ‘This

to $80/barrel. However, longer-term prices will head back to an average

gave us the opportunity to connect with peers from across the industry’.

of around $55/barrel.

New initiatives for 2019 Tank Storage Asia introduced TSA Connect, a one-to-one networking platform, which proved a huge success with exhibitors and visitors alike. Over 1550 meeting requests were submitted through the networking platform in the lead-up to the event. ‘This networking platform was a great addition to this year’s Tank Storage Asia,’ says Jon Verlander, Regional Sales Manager at Saferack, ‘It has helped us meet the people we needed to see at the show.’ This year’s show attracted visitors from across the region, including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Vietnam, Australia, Thailand and the Republic of Korea. ‘The southeast Asia market is a large market for us but we don’t have a lot of penetration here,’ says Jeff Heath, General Manager at Matrix Applied Technologies. ‘Historically we’ve done very well in the region and we’re looking to grow the business in the very near future. Tank Storage Asia helps us do this. This event pulls in the people we need to talk to in order to help us become more recognised in this region.’ After such a successful show, planning has already started on next year’s event, which will be held on 7 & 8 October at the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore. For further information:

ipcm® Protective Coatings - 2019 OCTOBER - N.31 © Easyfairs


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2019 - 8th Year | Quarterly - N.31 October

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ipcm® Protective Coatings n. 31 - October 2019  

This autumn issue includes numerous articles, many of which are collected in a special section devoted to the energy production sector, incl...

ipcm® Protective Coatings n. 31 - October 2019  

This autumn issue includes numerous articles, many of which are collected in a special section devoted to the energy production sector, incl...

Profile for ipcm