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Cover legends Front cover CENTER. A phylogenetic tree of Escherichia coli: Phylogeny analysis has shown that E. coli comprises four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D). Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing E. coli (STEC/VTEC) normally belong to phylogroups B1 and D, whereas extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) mainly belong to phylogroups B2 and D. A STEC/VTEC strain belonging to serotype O104:H4, phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type ST678, with virulence features common to the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) pathotype, was reported as the cause of the recent 2011 outbreak in Germany. [See article by Mora et al., pp. 121-141, this issue.]. Red “leaves”: ExPEC; green “leaves”: VTEC. UPPER LEFT. Transmission electron micrograph of negatively stained bacteriophages of the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinobacter ruber. The phages were isolated from brines of a crystallizer pond at the Bras del Port salterns (Santa Pola, Alicante, Spain). Micrograph by Pepa Antón, University of Alicante, Spain, and Inmaculada Meseguer, University Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. (Magnification, ca. 250,000×) UPPER RIGHT. Transmission electron micrograph of two archaeal square cells of Haloquadratum spp. from a crystallizer pond at the Bras del Port salterns (Santa Pola, Alicante, Spain). Gas vacuoles are visible as bright spots around the edges of the cells. An extracellular filamentous structure can be seen as well. By Inmaculada Meseguer, University Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. (Magnification ca. 12,000×) LOWER LEFT. Micrograph of a protist (darkfield microscopy) from the hindgut of an individual of the soldier caste of Reticulitermes grassei, from Cordova, Spain. Termites are eusocial and colonies consist of distinct castes, including sterile workers (pseudergates), soldiers, and the reproductive kings and queens. Preparation by Mercedes Berlanga, University of Barcelona, Spain, and micrograph by Rubén Duro. (Magnification, ca. 2000×). LOWER RIGHT. Fruit bodies of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) growing on a substrate of wheat straw. The mycelium colonizes the wheat straw until the appropriate environmental conditions trigger the change in growth
phase and fruit bodies flush in bunches. The bunch size varies with the strains; the bunches produced by strain N001 (picture) can be formed by up to 20 carpophores and reach a fresh weight of up to 250 g. This strain contains two nuclei whose genome has been sequenced by L. Ramírez and A.G. Pisabarro, and their team, at the Public University of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain in collaboration with the Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA. (Magnification, ca. 0.5×)
Back cover Portrait of Néstor Morales Villazón, a pioneer in microbiology in Bolivia. Born in Cochabamba (Bolivia) on February 2, 1879 to Constantino Morales and Aurelia Villazón, he entered the medical school in his hometown, later moving to La Paz to finish his studies. He was a surgeon in the sanitation services of the Federal Army during the early days of the Revolution in 1898, carrying out his work at the Landaeta Hospital and the Public Hospital, with a later appointment as Surgeon to the Army Training School. Soon he was named Assistant Professor of Dissection at the School of Medicine of the University of La Paz, and within a short time Professor of Anatomy. In 1904, Morales was sent to Europe to be trained in bacteriology. Upon his return, he held several positions: Professor of the School of Hygiene, head of the Bacteriology Section at the Board of Health, Dean of the Medical School, and director of the National Institute for Bacteriology. In 1911, he founded the Dental School of La Paz; in 1915, he organized the Pediatrics Section of Landaeta Hospital, even writing a book on childcare. However, he was fascinated by microbiology and most of his professional career was devoted to what was, at that time, a new field of medicine and biology. In 1912, he founded a journal, Revista de Bacteriología e Higiene, which he used as a platform to improve Bolivian hygiene and to promote the prevention of infectious diseases—mainly typhoid fever—through vaccination. Despite his invaluable work and having received many honors both in his country—in 1913 the Senate of Bolivia awarded him a gold medal—and abroad, in 1920 he was forced into exile for political reasons. He began a new life in Argentina but never forgot his beloved Bolivia. During the El Chaco War, he sent vaccines and other products to the Bolivian National Institute of Bacteriology, so that its work could continue.
Front cover and back cover design by MBerlanga & RGuerrero
Vol 14, number 3 september 2011