International Filtration News / Vol. 2

Page 1



Field of Dreams

Growing Plant-Based Filtration Media




LIQUID FILTRATION: A home run for hops is in play.

MINING & METALS: Domino filter press dominates as the world’s largest filter press. Issue 2 | 2023

2023 |


Solution Center: Filtration/Liquid Filtration

Showcasing Solutions for Success

The Buzz About Bio-Preferred

By Caryn Smith, Chief Content Officer & Publisher

World’s Largest Filter Press

By Adrian Wilson, International Correspondent, IFN

Biodegradable Filter Media for the Metalworking Fluid Applications

By James J. Joseph

To Hit a Home Run in Hops

Consistency Matters

By Frank Paul Servay

Do Filtration Mesh Micron Ratings

Have You Nominally Confused or Absolutely Confused?

By Kevin Gilbert

INTERPHEX 2023 to Showcase Pharma, Biotech, Device Development in New York


6 38 8 40 42 36

Planting Seeds

By Caryn Smith, Chief Content Officer & Publisher

Tech Spotlight

Samsung Introduces Easily Regenerable Air Purification Filter Technology Applying Photocatalysts


Tech Notes New Technology Briefs

Tech Talk

Post COVID-19 Provides Opportunity to Realign Meltblown Capacity

By Matt O’Sickey, Director of Education & Technical Affairs, INDA

True Cost

Filtration Market Is an Aggregation of Niches

By Bob McIlvaine, President, The McIlvaine Company

M&A Insights

Another Data Request – Has Diligence for M&A Deals Gone Too Far?

By Len LaPorta, Managing Director, Wiley Bros.-Aintree Capital Movers & Shakers

AFS FILTCON 2023 to Convene in Kentucky in May VOL 42 | ISSUE 02
Industry News & Notes
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Put your trust in us Filtration Products Increased demand for better indoor air quality requires highly efficient solutions. For unmatched quality and expertise, choose the leader in nonwoven technology–Kimberly-Clark Professional™ Find out more at Experts in filtration Leaders in nonwoven technology Superior quality and performance Over 140 years of innovation ®/™ Trademarks of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. or its affiliates. Marques de commerce de Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. ou de ses sociétés affiliées. © KCWW. T1U48D 8/20
Bob McIlvaine President, The McIlvaine Company +1 847.784.0013 Caryn Smith Chief Content Officer & Publisher, INDA Media Len LaPorta Managing Director, Wiley Bros.-Aintree Capital, LLC Adrian Wilson International Correspondent, IFN +44 7897.913134 James J. Joseph Industry Consultant, Liquid Filtration +1 757.565.1549 Matt O’Sickey Director of Education & Technical Affairs, INDA +1 919.459.3748 Frank Paul Servay Application Engineer Eaton Technologies GmbH Kevin Gilbert Product Design Manager Gerard Daniel Worldwide

CSMITH@INDA.ORG +1 239.225.6137

Planting Seeds

At the recent FILTECH conference and expo in Cologne, Germany, there were not many presentations where sustainability was not mentioned. The focus on biomedia, design for recycling, carbon footprint reduction, and more, was prevalent from presenters to exhibitors to attendees. The filtration industry is making this a real priority.

A joint study from McKinsey and NielsenIQ (found at examines sales growth for products, primarily everyday consumer packaged goods, that claim to be environmentally and socially responsible, exploring the correlation between ESG-related claims and sales performance. In collaboration with NielsenIQ, McKinsey analyzed five years of U.S. sales data, from 2017 to June 2022. They discovered:

• Products making ESG-related claims accounted for 56 percent of all growth – about 18 percent more than would have been expected given their standing at the beginning of the five-year period: products making these claims averaged 28 percent cumulative growth over the five-year period, versus 20 percent for products that made no such claims.

• Large and small brands alike saw growth in products making ESG-related claims.

• Consumers don’t seem to consistently reward any specific claims across all categories: They found no evidence that a particular claim was consistently associated with outsize growth.

• Products making multiple types of claims grew about twice as fast as products that made only one.

This data backs the notion that consumers are indeed looking for companies to pay attention to their carbon footprint – and reduce it. The report administrators noted, “There is strong evidence that consumers’ expressed sentiments about ESG-related product claims translate, on average, into actual spending behavior. And this suggests that companies don’t need to choose between ESG and growth.”

This is an important point, because while it seems burdensome and expensive to change the way we have always done it, it is actually now appearing profitable to do so –making it worth the undertaking.

On page 14, we highlight several companies who have achieved plant- or bio-based solutions for filtration. We found their ideas to be creative and adaptable to their current brands. Full sustainability, for most, may not be achievable, at least in the short term. Yet achieving smaller steps in the right direction could prove to be a huge gain!

Caryn Smith

Chief Content Officer & Publisher, INDA Media, IFN

International Filtration News Editorial Advisory Board

R. Vijayakumar, Ph.D., Chair


Tel: +1 315-506-6883


Rahul Bharadwaj, Ph.D.

Lydall Performance Materials

Tel: +1 603-953-6318


James J. Joseph

Joseph Marketing

Tel/Fax: +1 757-565-1549


Wenping Li, Ph.D.

Agriltech Research Company

Tel: +1 337-421-6345


Ernest Mayer, Ph.D.

E. Mayer Filtration Consulting, LLC

Tel: +1 302-981-8060


Robert W. McIlvaine

The McIlvaine Company

Tel: +1 847-784-0013


Thad Ptak, Ph.D.

TJ Ptak & Associates

Tel: +1 414-514-8937


International Filtration News is published by INDA Media, the B2B publishing arm of INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry. +1 919.459.3700 | News & Press Releases to

INTERNATIONAL FILTRATION NEWS (ISSN: 1078-4136x), is published bi-monthly by INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, +1 919.459.3700. Subscription price is $125 per year for non-U.S. subscribers. Periodicals postage paid at Novi, MI, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to International Filtration News, PO Box 158 Cedar Rapids IA 52406-0158 USA.


International Filtration News covers the topics and technologies that will shape the future of filtration and separation. Using subject matter experts from all parts of the industry, IFN is the leading source for the dialogues, debates and innovations across the full spectrum of filtration and separation applications and processes.

If you would like to utilize your expertise to help shape the content in the IFN , consider applying for the IFN Editorial Advisory Board. We welcome participation through input on trends and innovations, new story ideas and overall thought leadership. This is a collaborative board that meets quarterly to discuss the state of the industry. Send an email to Caryn Smith at for consideration.

6 IFN ISSUE 2 2023
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Samsung Introduces Easily Regenerable Air

Purification Filter Technology Applying Photocatalysts

Newly developed filter simultaneously removes particulate matter and volatile organic chemicals as primary air pollutants while retaining initial performance for up to 20 years.

Samsung Electronics recently introduced a new air filter technology that simultaneously collects particulate matter (PM) and decomposes Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and can be used for 20 years through simple water washing. A study about the technology was published in the journal Nature Communications in February.

“This project started from listening to suggestions from manufacturers and users of air purification filters,” said Hyuk Jae Kwon, one of the lead/corresponding authors at Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT). “We plan to expand the research into accelerating the commercialization of long-lifetime filters in the future.”

Conventional air purification filters need frequent replacement because of their short cycle of six months to one year. In addition, every single filter can only remove either PM or VOCs, respectively, limiting air purifiers’ space efficiency.

To address these problems, researchers at SAIT developed and implemented an unprec -

edented filter technology that applies photocatalysts such as copper oxide (Cu 2 O) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) for the first time and verifies the viability for commercialization.

Samsung’s ceramic catalyst filter technology is expected to help implement compact air purification systems, significantly reducing both disposable waste and the cost burden caused by frequent filter replacement.

The filter is designed to capture PMs first in the porous ceramic wall at the inlet channel, where the inorganic membrane is coated and decomposes VOC gases on the photocatalyst on the outlet channel under a single-pass airflow. It combines two different filters for dust and gas and increases dust loading capacity by four times compared to conventional filters, from five grams per liter to 20.

In addition, since the SAIT-developed Cu2O/ TiO 2 photocatalyst is insoluble, the filter is regenerable by simple water-washing and still retains its initial PM and VOC gas removal performance. Assuming ten times of regeneration through water-washing, the filter can be used for 20 years, lasting up to 40 times longer lifespan than the conventional HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter.

For further assessment, Samsung Electronics plans to produce prototypes for air conditioning facilities at office buildings, bus terminals and underground parking lots in its semiconductor campuses.

 For details on how to submit your company’s technology for consideration as a “Technology Spotlight” in IFN , contact Ken Norberg at or +1 202.681.2022.

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q Filter structure t SAIT researchers (left to right) Dong Sik Yang, Hyun Chul Lee, Hyuk Jae Kwon and Min Seok Koo.


Novel Air Filter Captures Wide Variety of Pollutants

An air filter made out of corn protein instead of petroleum products can capture small particulates as well as toxic chemicals like formaldehyde that current air filters cannot do.

The research could lead to improved air purifiers, particularly in regions of the world that suffer from poor air quality. Washington State University engineers report on the design and tests of materials for this bio-based filter in the journal Separation and Purification Technology

The WSU researchers developed a more environmentally friendly air filter made from corn protein fibers that was able to simultaneously capture 99.5% of small particulate matter, similar to commercial HEPA filters, and 87% of formaldehyde, which is higher than specially designed air filters for those types of toxics.

The researchers chose corn to study because of its abundance as an agricultural product in the U.S. The corn protein is also hydrophobic,

which means that the protein repels water and could work well in a moist environment such as in a mask.

The amino acids in the corn protein are known as functional groups. When exposed at the protein’s surface, these functional groups act like multiple hands, grabbing the toxic chemical molecules. The researchers demonstrated this by exposing a functional group at the protein surface, where it grabbed formaldehyde. They theorize that further rearrangement of the proteins could develop a tentacle-like set of functional groups that could grab a variety of chemicals from the air.

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Separation and Purification Technology (2023). DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2023.123179


Oregon State Develops Catalyst That Purifies Herbicide-Tainted Water and Produces Hydrogen

Researchers at the Oregon State University College of Science have developed a dual-purpose catalyst that purifies herbicide-tainted water while also producing hydrogen.

The project, which included researchers from the OSU College of Engineering and HP Inc., is important because water pollution is a major global challenge, and hydrogen is a clean, renewable fuel.

“We can combine oxidation and reduction into a single process to achieve an efficient photocatalytic system,” OSU’s Kyriakos Stylianou said. “Oxidation happens via a photodegradation reaction, and reduction through a hydrogen evolution reaction.”

A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. Photocatalysts are materials that absorb light to reach a higher energy level and can use that energy to break down organic contaminants through oxidation. Among photocatalysts’ many applications are self-cleaning coatings for stain- and odor-resistant walls, floors, ceilings and furniture.

Made up of positively charged metal ions surrounded by organic “linker” molecules, MOFs are crystalline, porous materials with tunable structural properties and nanosized pores. They can be designed with a variety of components that determine the MOF’s properties.

Upon MOFs’ calcination – high heating without melting – semiconducting materials like titanium dioxide can be generated. Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used photocatalyst, and it’s found in the minerals anatase, rutile and brookite.

Stylianou and collaborators including Líney Árnadóttir of the OSU College of Engineering and William Stickle of HP discovered that anatase doped with nitrogen and sulfur was the best “two birds, one stone” photocatalyst for simultaneously producing hydrogen and degrading the heavily used herbicide glyphosate.

Glyphosate, also known as N-phosphonomethyl glycine or PMG, has been widely sprayed on agricultural fields over the last 50 years since first appearing on the market under the trade name Roundup, and “only a small percentage of the total amount of PMG applied is taken up by crops, and the rest reaches the environment,” Stylianou said. “That causes concerns regarding the leaching of PMG into soil and groundwater, as well it should – contaminated water can be detrimental to the health of every living thing on the planet. And herbicides leaching into water channels are a primary cause of water pollution.”

Among an array of compounds in which hydrogen is found, water is the most common, and producing hydrogen by splitting water via photocatalysis is cleaner and more sustainable than the conventional method of deriving hydrogen – from natural gas via a carbon-dioxideproducing process known as methane-steam reforming.

Centrisys/CNP Awarded City of Houston, Texas Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade

Centrisys/CNP, a leading North American manufacturer of decanter centrifuges and advanced biosolids treatment technologies, has been awarded the project to upgrade equipment for the City of Houston, Texas’s largest wastewater treatment facility, the 69th Street Wastewater Treatment Plant. The upgrade will include 14 CS21-4HC 2ph decanter centrifuges with two spares. The new equipment will replace aging dewatering and solids handling equipment and will support the facility’s management of up to 200 million gallons per day (MGD) and daily average flow of 400 MGD 2-hour peak flow.

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p Oregon State University develops a catalyst that purifies herbicide-tainted water and produces hydrogen. p Centrisys centrifuge system

Egg Whites Can Be Transformed Into a Material Capable of Filtering Microplastics From Seawater

Researchers at Princeton Engineering have found a way to turn a popular breakfast item into a new material that can cheaply remove salt and microplastics from seawater.

The researchers used egg whites to create an aerogel, a lightweight and porous material that can be used in many types of applications, including water filtration, energy storage, and sound and thermal insulation. Craig Arnold, the Susan Dod Brown Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and vice dean of innovation at Princeton, works with his lab to create new materials, including aerogels, for engineering applications.

The path to the breakthrough actually began with an entirely different food, explained paper author and material scientist Professor Arnold. Along with his colleagues they set out making different breads mixed with carbon to see if they could produce the kind of aerogel structure they were looking for.

As none of the initial recipes worked, the team started to eliminate ingredients as they tested, until only egg whites remained – and fit the bill perfectly.

Egg whites are a complex system of almost pure protein that – when freeze-dried and heated to 900 degrees Celsius in an environment

without oxygen – create a structure of interconnected strands of carbon fibers and sheets of graphene. In a paper published last year in Materials Today , Arnold and his coauthors showed that the resulting material can remove salt and microplastics from seawater with 98% and 99% efficiency, respectively.

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p The structure of the aerogel is formed by graphene sheets stretched across carbon fiber networks. Shaharyar Wani/Princeton

Innovation for the World. Solutions for You.

At Berry, we leverage our unmatched global capabilities, sustainability leadership, and deep innovation expertise to serve customers of all sizes around the world. Harnessing the strength in our diversity and industry leading talent of 47,000+ global employees across more than 300+ locations, we partner with customers to develop, design, and manufacture innovative products with an eye toward the circular economy. The challenges we solve and the innovations we pioneer benefit our customers at every stage of their journey.

With over 35 years of experience manufacturing filtration media, Berry Global’s products have become the industry standard in the pleat support and filter layers for air, liquid, and gas applications. Berry Global’s proprietary technologies deliver unique material solutions for challenging customer needs. Whether using our unique REEMAY® spunbond PET technology in vaccine manufacturing, or TYPAR® spunbond PP nonwovens in water filtration to create safe drinking conditions, customers trust our proven filtration solutions.

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Rosedale Products Inc.

Rosedale Products, Inc. is a leading technology developer in the field of liquid filtration systems and waste minimization products for customers around the globe. With more than 50 years of experience, Rosedale offers an exceptional product line that includes high-performance filtration solutions for multiple industries. Rosedale technicians help customers find the best, most cost-effective approaches to their filtration needs.

Rosedale product lines set the industry standard in versatility and reliability and includes bag and cartridge filters, basket strainers, automatic back washing filters, filter cartridges, and many special application products. Together with ongoing consulting, troubleshooting, and support from our team of in-house experts, Rosedale provides comprehensive solutions for every critical industry filtration need.

Rosedale is committed to your vision. Rosedale manufactures industrial filtration products for virtually any industry where liquid and gas flows are present.

Rosedale has a vast product line that suits many needs, as well as the flexibility to customize standard products. Rosedale’s sales staff has knowledge of many industrial practices, giving customers the confidence that their filter solution is the best available for their specific need. The most popular products are bag filters, pleated cartridge filters, and basket strainers. Rosedale High Flow horizontally mounted filter vessels are setting the industry standard, containing one to 31 large pleated cartridges in 40 or 60 inch lengths. The High Flow product line boasts flow rates of up to 400 gallons per minute for each element in select applications.

Whatever your filtration application, Rosedale Products, Inc. offers a product designed to meet your needs. From filters that accept high-efficiency filter cartridges to filter bags, Rosedale products deliver superb performance at an exceptional value.

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The Buzz About Bio-Preferred

Bio-based Considerations for Filtration are Making Their Mark on Sustainability All Along the Supply Chain and Product Offerings

Plants not only help in providing natural filtration to the air we breathe, they also are now considered in all aspects of consumer choice as a desired ingredient, as the world strives to make healthier and sustainable choices. Everywhere you turn, “plant-based” marketing sells products. In the materials world, the use of living organism biomass is gaining traction to indicate a carbon-neutral eco-friendly product solution. With environmental, social and governance (ESG) strategies increasingly linked to corporate profitability, there is incentive to provide options consumers and corporations can feel good about.

It seems a steep climb to achieve any sort of fully sustainable filter media options to satisfy appetites for better options. Reimagining the production process for eco-friendly alternatives is not easy, cheap or quick. Yet – it can be done. International Filtration News caught up with three companies who are providing eco-friendly solutions to respond to the demand for health, wellness, and sustainability in filtration. Here is what they have to say about their work.

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iStock: Luis Carlos Jimenez

Planting Biomass in Nonwoven Materials

Roswell Textiles core value is a commitment to support health, wellness and quality of life, while being eco-conscious and reducing environmental impacts. Their new ECOFUSE™ materials are the nonwoven textile solution to meet this mandate of using plant-based materials that can be composted and allow for substantial reduction in carbon emissions. It is manufactured from biopolymers, intended to replace conventional high carbon footprint synthetic plastics.

Formed in 2020, Roswell Textiles developed, commercialized, and scaled Canada’s first domestic supply of synthetic meltblown during the COVID-19 pandemic in response to a call to action from the Canadian Federal Government. At that time, the pandemic made it obvious for the need to create a supply of Canadianproduced melt blown filter media for PPE manufacturing, non-existent in the country. To pursue this, the company received some funding from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) for their efforts.

The Journey

Then known as Roswell Downhole Technologies – a manufacturer of tubing encapsulated cable for downhole sensor systems for oil and gas – the new Roswell Textiles transitioned away from that sector and put their expertise in manufacturing and machinery to work to develop sustainable materials for melt blown media. The team of mechanical engineers were able to move quickly from concept to application, scaling production quickly and efficiently by engineering and manufacturing its own nonwoven production equipment in-house and making its first commercial sale of Canadian produced melt blown material in just two months.

Roswell Textiles’ President Kyle Fiolka says, “We’re a smaller producer. We are focused on technology innovation and more niche, higher performing areas. Filtration is obviously very challenging, especially in

the PPE space when you’re dealing with low DPs and medically certified devices. We have partnered with the PADM Group of Companies in Winnipeg to move it forward faster by providing converter capabilities, and they are now our parent company and strategic partner.”

Roswell Textiles has now positioned itself as an innovative nonwoven manufacturer and OEM of biopolymer nonwoven equipment. They recently announced the next generation of high performance and technical nonwoven materials under the brand name of ECOFUSE™. These highly engineered materials possess simi-

lar technical specifications as synthetic, polypropylene materials but with a 65% net carbon reduction. As a result of their plant-based start of life, they contribute to a more sustainable and circular economy.

Product Expansion

ECOFUSE™ materials are already commercial in medical, water and residential filtration applications with additional commercialization processes underway in hygiene, food and beverage packaging and construction materials.

“We’ve been working through the certifications of our PPE device (ECOFUSE™ is 82% of the raw material in PADM Medical’s PRECISION ECO™ procedural mask) and our big news is that as of March 8th, we received an FDA 510(k) Clearance on the product,” says Fiolka. (Kyle also serves as PADM Group’s Chief Innovation Officer). “That is extremely difficult. To our knowledge, we are the first PPE that the FDA has approved as a non-synthetic based procedural mask, so it is a big

p ECOFUSE™ is 82% of the raw material in PADM Medical’s PRECISION ECO™ procedural mask.


achievement.” The ECOFUSE™ biopolymer material is also a USDA Certified Biobased Product (100%) and tested to conform with ASTM D6400 and ASTM F2100 for finished product certification.

The Bio-Story

ECOFUSE™ is derived from crop feedstocks which offer a carbon footprint reduction when compared to hydrocarbon derived polymers. The product breaks down at end of life in an industrial composting process. “The feedstock used in ECOFUSE™ technology are regionally specific. Crops like corn, sugar cane, sugar beets are used to produce the biopoly-

mers” says Fiolka. “Since we developed the proprietary machinery and process conditions to suit, it is a modified nonwoven process.”

The product does not leave residuals or toxins in the soil as it decomposes. “We validate that with life cycle analysis,” says Fiolka. “We also encourage our clients to know the total impact of their finished product to the end of life. Even in incineration, biobased materials have a better footprint when it comes to emissions compared to polypropylene, for example.

Users of ECOFUSE™ can pursue an ISO accreditation or apply for carbon offset or carbon credit programs. We’re familiar with analyzing materials in that way because it’s how we’ve ensured that we’re doing something that’s truly better from an environmental impact perspective.”

The company’s focus is on commercializing biopolymer and low carbon footprint materials that can replace conventional nonwovens for use in filtration applications and other industrial products. “We have a vision of leading mass adoption of plant-derived nonwovens to help the world transition to more sustainable products. We feel that ECOFUSE™ can help drive this adoption by breaking down technical barriers for regulated products requiring high performance filtration properties. We came at this challenge from purely an engineering and theoretical perspective, and maybe that’s why we were able to do what we did. We didn’t have limitations in the possibilities and outcomes,” says Fiolka.

The challenges to overcome in PPE development included using nonconventional materials to produce microfibers that can effectively filter particles while maintaining high breathability. Also, the requirement to have a suitable shelf life for the product was critical. The requirement to provide a fluid jet barrier for the product had to be overcome to achieve the appropriate ASTM performance, as well.

Current applications for ECOFUSE™ are procedural/surgical masks and respirators, industrial and commercial air handling filters, and liquid filtration (water).

“In hindsight, we began in a very challenging nonwoven sector, looking at it from a regulatory perspective,” says Fiolka. “Yet, we were able to achieve success, so now other commercial applications are much simpler to adopt. We are receiving more inquiries for different applications. As equipment manufacturers, we have the ability and advantage to work with clients and deliver complete solutions at scale quickly and economically.”

Innovations like ECOFUSE™ help close technological gaps to allow consumers and producers the option to choose sustainable materials.

16 IFN ISSUE 2 202 3
These highly engineered materials possess similar technical specifications as synthetic, polypropylene materials but with a 65% net carbon reduction. As a result of their plant-based start of life, they contribute to a more sustainable and circular economy.
p The feedstock used in ECOFUSE™ technology are regionally specific. Crops like corn, sugar cane (above), and sugar beets are used to produce the biopolymers. iStock: Sugar Cane/Maceofoto Algae/Hawk111

Living Color and Fibers

Algaeing™ with our spunlaid technologies capabilities,” he says.

Avgol Nonwovens has been in the Spunlaid fabric market since the 1980s, then joining the Indorama Ventures family of companies in 2018.

“Our focus had been on the hygiene market, supplying many of the components used in baby care, menstruation management, and incontinence markets,” says Nick Carter, Vice President, Marketing. “The COVID pandemic was a catalytic moment in company history, as we were approached by non-hygiene industries to bring large volumes of high-quality products to other markets, including filtration. COVID also seems to be a catalytic moment in the filtration industry, as consumer concerns over healthy, purified indoor environments became a priority.”

Whether for automotive, public transportation, home or office/work environments, the consumer became much more interested in “upping their game” by spending more for higher qualities of filtration. Avgol Nonwovens has found that many of the product performance triggers for hygiene and filtration overlap, when designed to selectively separate or filter a “contaminant.” Since, Avgol has brought a product portfolio of technologies to the filtration mar ket and will continue to develop new products in this area.

Seaweed Is Believing

Jumping into a plant-based solution came as a collaboration, working closely with Algaeing™ – a small company that has

worked to produce non-toxic, biodegradable, and natural fibers and dyes for textile using algae since 2016. “The Algaeing™ team helped to create conceptual products that advance the sustainability factor of our portfolios,” says Carter. These sample products illustrate how Algaeing™ colorants can be used in various fiber applications, like coloration of PPE and thread. Avgol Nonwovens showcased them at the FILTECH show in Germany.

“This technology is applicable as both topical and integral color in our component materials. As one would imagine, thermal stability, color stability, and odor can be a challenge when using bio-sourced components. Very interesting solutions have been, and continue to be, identified as we continue to mesh technologies like

The use of bio-colorants is one of many solutions in Avgol’s overarching strategy of creating biodegradable and recycle materials for use in various applications. They are looking for performance modifiers that are readily separated through advanced or chemical recycling means, while also supporting release back into the environment when the “encapsulating” or “framework” polymer structure is removed through biodegradation. “Avoiding SOI’s and SIN listed chemistries is critical as we have to adjust our perspective of what was once safely sequestered away in the media now has the potential to be released much more quickly in a different form to the environment,” notes Carter.

These new sustainable technologies have a higher cost today and are quite often impacted by economy scale. Yet, that is where doing the best thing, not the most economical, comes into consideration for companies who want to be eco-friendly. “For Avgol, to consider using a compound that is known to be harmful if released in higher-than-normal concentrations through aggressive biodegradation is simply not a viable path to be taken in the design process,” affirms Carter.

Testing the Marketplace

As a provider to the nonwoven product production process, Avgol’s component materials are wound, spooled and/or laminated together by the manufacturers as part of the subsequent article of sale. Their manufacturing partners have helped them test their product for quality and performance. “We test the materi

p Avgol Nonwovens works closely with Algaeing – a small company who has worked to produce non-toxic, biodegradable, and natural fibers and dyes for textile using algae since 2016. p Algae is the secret weapon used in coloration of AVGOL Nonwovens fiber solutions.

als through a combination of nonwoven performance protocols, such as ISO standards and well-known cytotoxicity/skin contact methods, combined with specialized in-house testing and, where applicable, testing protocols defined by our customers to meet any unique aspects of the specification. The end-use performance is then confirmed by the manufacturer of the complete article.”

Specifically for the algae-based colorants, Avgol is evaluating the application where aesthetic enhancements are desired, including when there is a desire for uniform coloration as well as a rather unique heathering effect that they can produce. For now, the face mask facing layers, semi-durable bags/packaging and various components of absorbent hygiene products are some of the most immediate applications.

The most significant consumer benefit is the wellness-factor for the user when utilizing bio-based solutions. “When we consider that the algae-based colorants also exhibit skin wellness characteristics, anytime a fabric may be in prolonged contact with the user is also a potential value for aspects of the market,” emphasizes Carter.

Plant-Based Solutions Must Start Somewhere

“The value of multiple plant-based product lines extends from the resins we begin with to the performance and aesthetic modifiers we use in producing the final component materials. This is an important aspect of not only Avgol’s positioning, but truly is an aspect that should extend through the filtration industry. We are committed to enhancing the sustainability factor in our offerings” says Carter.

Bringing a fully bio-degradable solution may not be achievable at this time, it all starts somewhere, even with sustainable coloration that won’t hurt the environ-

ment in degradation. “We have various ways and means to achieve enhanced sustainability; it is not a ‘silver bullet’ solution or a magical-cure-all that I doubt any one company will bring forth,” says Carter. “Rather, the ‘best solution’ will most likely come through the collaboration of every link in the supply chain. I would not be at all surprised that the end-of-life situation of what to do with used filters will ultimately result in a ripple all the way back through the chain where input from resin producer to convertor to manufacturer to recycler will contribute insight and overall advancement in the future that we can only guess at today.”

“I see many parallels between the hygiene and filtration markets, as grander

trends will be seen in both industries. For example, products that have more reusable content and less disposable content, such as HVAC filter designs that have increased proportion of reusable filter frames and supports, with a corresponding lower use of the filtration media itself, wherein that filtration media is bought off bulk rolls at home improvement stores. We can see the same in the form of reusable diaper chassis that have just the pad area replaced instead of the entire diaper. Migration away from fossil fuel derived components in the nonwoven media is a given, whether it be the resin itself or the modifiers used, and I only included it here for the sake of completeness,” Carter speculates.

Sustainability, regardless of how it is defined, is becoming more of a qualifier and less of a winner when it comes to being selected by the end consumer. If one does not actively participate now and work across the industry, it will be left to only react in the future.

Filter Factor for Plant-Based Beverages

The global demand for plant-based food and beverages is exploding. For the consumer, product decisions are based on texture, taste and mouthfeel. For manufacturers, it hinges on starting with the right base. SPX FLOW, Inc., is upping the quality factor for plant-based beverage manufacturers with its new technology for plant-based concentration using APV membrane filtration. This innovation provides clean label products of higher nutritional value. Benefits include a greater yield, higher single-source protein content and a more sustainable process compared to traditional methods using evaporation and chemicals. The end result is a win-win: a cleaner, better product for the customer, and a more sustainable, versatile and higher-yielding result for producers.

SPX FLOW, a process solution provider for the industrial, nutrition and health markets for over a decade, developed the APV membrane filtration technology. The solutions, designed based on processing needs, include process filtration like

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To consider using a compound that is known to be harmful if released in higher-than-normal concentrations through aggressive biodegradation is simply not a viable path to be taken in the design process.
— Nick Carter
p SPX FLOW, Inc. takes plant-based beverage filtration to the next level of health and wellness.

microfiltration and ultrafiltration for fractionation, concentration, and standardization of plant protein. Additionally, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis systems are available for solids concentration, valorization of subproduct, and water recovery.

“Our history of supporting membrane filtration solutions for the industry comes from our decades-long record with the dairy industry,” says Allan Vangsgaard, Global Product Manager for Nutrition & Health. “More recently, we’ve seen the movement and increase in plant-based products. Keeping in line with our efforts for con stant innovation, our team has worked to develop our knowl edge and expertise in the plant-based sector. That’s where this new develop ment for membrane technology has come from — our vast work for improvement and optimization to benefit our customers.”

The basics of the technology itself stem from membrane filtration techniques used in dairy and translate well for a wide range of solutions designed to fit various plant sources, including soy, oat, nut, rice, pea and more that are used in plant-based beverages. “Every dairy plant is different, so we’ve grown accustomed to working with customers to develop a tailored processing system that fits their needs based on their unique situation,” says Vangsgaard.

Plant-based processing has similar challenges due to the highly variable raw products and the various end-product demands. The big challenge is there are so many content variables that need to be understood, from pro cess flow, protein and fiber content, product tempera ture and much more. Many moving parts come together, and one must understand each area, from pumps to valves to filters, to create the right end-product.

“That’s where this technology comes into play — the components aren’t new

per se, but how we use and implement them is new and innovative,” says Vangsgaard. “I like to think of it as if it’s like an orchestra. All the musicians and instruments work together to produce a singular song. The conductor understands the timing and elements needed to meld together seamlessly. Our experts are the conductors when it comes to designing end-to-end solutions for processing equipment.”

Higher Protein-Producing Technology

“It comes down to the setup and the process of the system overall,” says Vangsgaard explaining how it all works. “There are different particles and variables in plant-based sources than there are in milk. The protein content in nuts, grains and legumes varies much more than in milk. This changes the process, such as flow rate, membrane type, pressure, cycle loops and more. Compared to traditional plant-

based concentration, which involves chemicals or evaporation, there’s no need for additives with the membrane filtration process. By using a membrane instead, processors can stick with a singlesource ingredient filtered to a higher concentration of nutrients.”

SPX FLOW has state-of-the-art, collaborative Innovation Centers throughout the world to work with customers to test, develop and perfect their critical manufacturing processes. The Silkeborg Innovation Facility in Denmark has a complete membrane filtration setup to test all parameters for nuts, grains and legumes, such as flow, temperature, concentration, etc., and document how they impact the entire process. These tests provide a holistic view of the quality and result, and of the equipment and process itself.

“We continue to add new sources as the markets develop to support our customers so they can stay innovative,” says Vangsgaard. “It’s a benefit to not only emerging producers in the market but those established companies looking to innovate their existing products, as well. Plant-based processors have faced a challenge – their products are usually lower in protein compared to dairy, and this solution can help with that, as it improves the nutritional value for the consumers.”

Specializing in end-to-end solutions, from design to operations to maintenance, SPX FLOW fully understands the components and systems for processing plants, but also all the parameters to make successful products. “As we see more and more of our customers entering the plant-based sector,” notes Vangsgaard, “we are working with them to help position them as leaders in the field whenever possible.”

Plant-based processors have faced a challenge — their products are usually lower in protein compared to dairy, and this solution can help with that, as it improves the nutritional value for the consumers.
— Allan Vangsgaard
p SPX FLOW membrane filtration techniques used in dairy translate well for a wide range of solutions designed to fit various plant sources, such as the popular ingredients soy and oat (above). iStock: Soy/Popova Photo Oat/Tim UR



GHT5000F Domino Is Capable of Approximately Three Times the Throughput of the Largest Filter Press Currently in Operation

It’s been a busy few months for Diemme Filtration, part of the multinational Aqseptence Group. In a pilot project with supplier Mann+Hummel, the automaker has developed a filter for electric cars that collects particulate matter from its surrounding area. Both while driving and charging, its aim is to help improve air quality in cities.

Just before Christmas, the company started up the world’s largest filter press for dry stacked tailings, the GHT5000F

Domino – capable of approximately three times the throughput of the largest filter presses currently in operation – at the Toquepala copper mine in Peru.

In January of this year, Diemme subsequently began an expansion project at its plant in Lugo, Italy, to meet rising demand for its technology, especially in the field of metals mining.

Technology of Choice

expanding from traditional applications in the food industry to other industrial sectors as a process technology for the separation of solids and liquids.

Subsequently, the filter press has become the technology of choice for the treatment of industrial and municipal sewage sludge across the mining and chemical industries, power plants and the oil and gas sector, where high dewatering performance, low operational expense and reliability are key drivers.

presses was

Diemme was formed in the early 1970s at a time when the use of filter

In the mining industry, as a result of

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p The new GHT5000F Domino at the Toquepala copper mine in Peru.

dwindling ore grades, metal extraction companies are now dealing with huge volumes which results in a significant waste slurry – known as ‘tailings’ – requiring material handling management on a challenging scale.

The full filtration and dry-stacking of tailings is becoming an increasingly popular management technology and requires equipment specifically designed to suit the scale of such mining operations.


The Toquepala copper mine is operated by Southern Copper Corporation (SCC), a majority owned subsidiary of Grupo Mexico and received the first Diemme GHT5000F Domino press during summer 2022.

Parts of the frame were pre-assembled as modules in Italy, to reduce assembly time at the site, with quick-connect cables them minimizing wiring.

“The machine was rapidly assembled along with a tailings delivery conveyor at the site and after start up, a specialized Diemme team has been fully testing performance and optimizing the cycle to bring operation up to a steady level before production ramp up,” said Diemme’s head of R&D Davide Collini at the recent FILTECH exhibition in Cologne.

The Toquepala installation is a good example of the growth the company is experiencing across Latin America, not just in copper projects in Chile and Peru, but also iron ore and bauxite operations in Brazil, where it now has a major new service and spare parts facility in Belo Horizonte, capital of the country’s Minas Gerais state. Similar facilities are being set up in other countries in Latin and South America, as well as in North America and Australia.

Heavy Duty

With a daily capacity of 8,000 tons, the GHT5000F Domino press machine at

the Peru plant has a membrane plate size of five square meters and is equipped with a total of 141 of them, with heavy duty woven filter media at each side of the plates.

As a result, its maximum total filtration volume is 71 cubic meters, with a maximum total filtration area of 2,850 square meters.

The press carries out between 60-80 full cycles per day and benefits from an integrated work platform for easy maintenance. It also incorporates a new rinsing system with six points of washing for a homogeneous rinse of the filter media after each cycle, in addition to an automatic high-pressure fabric washing system with a double wash-bar to simultaneously clean the fabrics of two chambers and cut downtime in half.

Another innovation is a patented device for fully monitoring filter media and parts wear in order to schedule-in replacement times.


“Not only is it the biggest filter press available, it’s also the most intelligent and benefits from our intensive R&D work on intelligent processing and complementary AI,” said Collini. “The Toquepala plant is equipped with our AIDA IIoT system for remote control, management and optimization. This means that while we can be close to our clients physically from our regional offices, we can also assist remotely and help them optimize their machines and troubleshoot any problems.”

Naturally, the Domino machine in Peru is creating a lot of interest from other mine operators in the region and a second is already being manufactured in Lugo for a copper mining customer in Chile, with delivery planned for the third quarter of 2023.

“The GHT5000F Domino can significantly improve the capital cost of a tailings filtration plant compared with installing many smaller filter presses for the same operation,” said Collini. “On a case-by-case basis, it is possible to evaluate the total cost of ownership. This is the Formula 1 of filtration technology.”

Meanwhile, work is continuing on the new plant in Lugo, which will allow Diemme to more effectively handle numerous challenging filtration projects which are currently in the pipeline. The plant will be equipped with the latest cranes, paint shop and other facilities to allow the company to produce the latest and largest models in its range highly efficiently, including the Domino. It will effectively double the company’s filter press production capacity and will also be energy efficient, powered by an extensive array of solar panels. The plant is on schedule to be completed by mid-2023.

Adrian Wilson is an international correspondent for IFN He is a leading journalist covering fiber, filtration, nonwovens and technical textiles. He can be reached at p Diemme’s head of R&D Davide Collini, right, in conversation with Adrian Wilson at Filtech 2023.
The GHT5000F Domino can significantly improve the capital cost of a tailings filtration plant compared with installing many smaller filter presses for the same operation. – Davide Collini

Biodegradable Filter Media for the Metalworking Fluid Applications

In an effort to evaluate the salient points of the metalworking industry, the hope is that the potential for biodegradable products can be seen by the manufacturers of filter media. In order to assist companies to measure the potential, we will dive into and define the various aspects of the metalworking industry. At least it will hopefully serve as a guide for those companies who sell disposable nonwovens and aid in understanding the need for a transition to biodegradable fabrics. The transition will come because there is growing pressure for metalworking companies to move away from synthetic fabrics. Each major applicable point is outlined with the specific terminology to give an idea where the potential is within a plant.


Metalworking applications can be determined by operation.

• Machining of all types, including drilling, and reaming.

• Grinding: rough, intermediate, fine. Honing, polishing, surface finishing.

• Wire drawing: rod, intermediate, and fine. Rod rolling, continuous casting. Rolling mills roughing, tandem, and finishing, Continuous casting, extruding, forging, and shaping.

• Other metal working functions: quenching, heat treating, parts washing.


The applications may use one of the following fluids:

• Plain water

• Water-base coolants at varying degrees of stability

• Straight oils with viscosities ranging from 30 SSU to 200 SSU

• Some installations may use a heavier oils up to 1000 SSU


These applications use many type of filters (bags, cartridge, and sheets), but the design which has the largest potential are the flatbed open chamber filters with the driving force generated by either gravity, pressure or vacuum. These use roll media in widths ranging from 24 to 96 inches wide. The most popular is 51-inch wide fabrics.


The fabrics used for disposable nonwoven media are:

• Polyester

• Polypropylene

• Cellulose

• Nylon

• Combinations of fabric in layers or embedded

Fabrics are manufactured with many processes. Terms such as spunbonded, pointbonded, melt blown, and lofted are just a few techniques. Each technique offers some characteristics which contribute to the performance of the media on a filter.

The weight of the fabrics ranges from 0.5 to 3.0 ounces per yard. Air permeability ranges from 25 to 900 CFM. Some applications may use media with higher air permeability ratings.

Wet strength is an important parameter since the media has to survive the rigors of going through the bed of the filter. Some filters carry the media on a

carrier belt, so the media does not have to be as strong as when the filter’s design requires the media to be either pulled or pushed through the filter’s chamber. Other parameters of media, such as tensile strength, percent elongation, and mullen burst, should be checked.

Micron rating is a minor factor and there is a different reason to rate the fabric by microns for flatbed filter applications. The main reason is that most installations generate the solids as they operate. The solids form a cake on the fabric and the cake, itself, becomes the cleaning medium. The fabric usually serves as a “septum” (media support). Micron rating look at the largest particle instead of the smallest particle. This is different from the typical selection process of a cartridge filter.

Existing Problems Create the Potential for Biodegradable Media

The following are specific concerns:

Landfill – Disposal restrictions for landfill use are getting tighter. Waste dump areas do not want plant waste dumped with the solids intermingled with spent rolls of media.

It often is referred to as “old toilet paper.” It is awkward to handle and bury. Plus it does not decompose and adds to the waste volume.

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Wet strength is an important parameter since the media has to survive the rigors of going through the bed of the filter.

Many filter companies add a spent media winder on a new filter or have an add-on unit to be retrofitted to an existing filter. The rewinder would wrap the spent media around a throw-away arbor. It yields a tight roll which is easier to handle. It still is messy, and any liquid squeezed out of the media is collected separately in a drip pan below the rewinder. A doctor blade is needed to scrape the cake before rewinding. Otherwise the roll would not wind evenly and be much more awkward

to handle. The solids are dropped into a separate container.

Extra Cost – The extra handling to prepare the solids for waste disposal become a major expense item.

Permanent Media (reusable) – Many operators try to add reusable media to a filter designed for disposable media. There are basic problems:

a. The application does not allow for self-cleaning of the reusable media with the same fluid it is filtering.

b. The media slowly becomes blinded, and the reduction of effective filter area jeopardizes the clarity of the fluid.

c. The cost becomes prohibited because the replacement of the reusable belt and labor become large maintenance items.

Biodegradable media should eliminate most of the problems. The goal is that it can filter the fluid and once it is discharged in the waste container, it will breakdown to a pulpable material which can be handled along with the solids.

James J. Joseph is a consultant for industrial liquid filtration who has also written the book, Coolant Filtration 2nd Edition, Additional Technologies For more information contact Joseph Marketing,120 Richmond Hill Court, Williamsburg, Virginia, 23185. United States. Tel/Fax: 757.565.1549; Email: josephmarketing120@

p Figure 1 shows the different cake characteristics which are typically found. Micron ratings are still being used as a comparison between two fabrics selected for an application. This is usually applied when there is a question of roll usage rate.

Filtration is a key part of the brewing process. Regardless of how the beer is brewed, microbiological stabilization is always conducted – whether using flash pasteurization or cold-sterile membrane filtration – prior to bottling. This ensures quality standards are maintained along with the health and safety of consumers. These steps are also vital to the marketability of the final product, solidifying the taste, color and character of each beer a brewery produces, which is necessary for a stable shelf life and consistent overall product quality.

To Hit a HOME RUN in HOPS Consistency Matters

Honing Your Filtration Process Yields Higher-Quality, More Shelf-Stable Beer

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iStock: Robeo

The Filtration Process Explained

Filtration is a multistep process employed at different stages of brewing to remove solids, microorganisms and turbidity-causing particles that spoil beer, provide the foundation for professional stabilization later in the process, extend shelf life and produce a more flavorful, full-bodied taste. When done correctly, it results in consistent quality and taste, as well as time, cost and logistic resources required for production.

Filtration steps include:

• Centrifuge (optional)

• Clarifying and precoat (or crossflow) filtration

• Trap, fine and microbial removal filtration

• Alternative stabilization

• Fine and microbial removal filtration

• Membrane filtration or flash pasteurization (HTST) before bottling

Often during the first step in the process, a centrifuge is used to remove potential turbidity-causing particles that can unfavorably alter the taste and quality of beer once it matures. Remaining particles and yeast are gradually filtered out in subsequent steps.

Clarifying Filtration Removes Yeast and Byproducts

Clarifying filtration (precoat) removes coarse suspended solids – mainly yeasts and fermentation byproducts, but also other suspended solids such as malt and hops residues – resulting from sedimentation, fermentation or subsequent storage. It can also be used to remove young, stillactive yeast that forms a sediment after the fermentation process. Once harvested, that yeast can be used for additional fermentation processes, saving breweries money and ensuring consistency in beer quality.

Clarification filtration is typically based on one of two filtration technologies when brewing beer: crossflow filtration or precoat filtration using filter aids such as diatomaceous earth, cellulose and perlite.

Crossflow filtration can be implemented while maintaining low personnel costs but is used primarily in large breweries

due to its high investment costs. Utilization of this method has grown in recent years and is now more in demand than ever before.

The most common filtration method regardless of businesses’ size, however, is precoat filtration with diatomaceous earth. This approach offers breweries a variety of advantages, including the ability of cellulose, perlite or diatomaceous earth to be used in combination with stabilization aids for protein and phenol stabilization.

Optimizing Precoat Filtration

Classic precoat filtration with diatomaceous earth involves using a triple-layer filter cake: a first and second precoating along with subsequent, continuous dosing of product filtration. The initial precoating is performed using coarse diatomaceous earth with an average permeability of 1.3 to 1.5 darcys to produce a stable filter cake on the support sheets or the metal or plastic sieves of the filtration systems. Cellulose or perlite are often added along with the diatomaceous earth to metal sieves to aid with cleaning.

During this first precoat, the flow rate is of particular importance. If too slow, the filter aids become uneven, resulting, in some instances, in undesirable results, like leaks and/or cloudiness. To maintain appropriate flow rates, a system pressure of at least 29 psi (2 bar) is recommended, along with double the rate of the subsequent product filtration. If, depending on the system, 0.11 to 0.17 gal/ft²/h (4.5 to 7 hl/m²/h) or more is used for precoating, beer filtration should be between 0.07 and 0.12 gal/ft²/h (3 and 5 hl/m²/h).

The second precoating is conducted using finer diatomaceous earth with an average permeability of 0.2 to 0.3 darcy to

create the second layer of the filter cake. If the beer requires protein or phenol stabilization, silica gel or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) can be added to improve filtration performance and reduce the amount of diatomaceous earth necessary.

While this dosing varies, the typical recommendation is 0.13 to 0.16 lb./ft2 (600 to 800 g/m²) coarse diatomaceous earth, 0.13 to 0.16 lb./ft2 (600 to 800 g/m²) fine to medium-fine diatomaceous earth; for continuous dosing 0.67 to 1.34 lb./100 gal/h (80 to 160 g/hl/h) diatomaceous earth in the same way as the second precoating and an additional 0.25 to 0.75 lb./100 gal/h (30 to 90 g/hl/h) silica gel and/or 0.08 to 0.33 lb./100 gal/h (10 to 40 g/hl/h) PVPP.

Trap Filtration Removes Fine Particles

Carried out multiple times before different process steps or performed as an optional step before bottling, breweries often follow classic diatomaceous earth filtration with trap filtration using filter cartridges after fermentation and storage to remove finer particles. These precipitations can arise during storage, build up during clarifying filtration with diatomaceous earth, or tannin-protein complexes and thermal deposits (burnoff) that result in browning can be fueled during HTST. Today, the industry-standard retention rate is 3 to 10 µm.

There are three types of depth filter cartridges:

• Pleated: Large surface areas but usually only back flushable under certain conditions, which impacts cleaning and service and also complicates automating the regeneration process.

• Meltblown: Offers up to four gradations from coarse to fine and can be back flushed.

The most common filtration method regardless of businesses’ size, however, is precoat filtration with diatomaceous earth. This approach offers breweries a variety of advantages, including the ability of cellulose, perlite or diatomaceous earth to be used in combination with stabilization aids for protein and phenol stabilization.

• Fleece-wrapped: Wrapped up to 24 times in graduations, forming an efficient funnel to retain a range of particle sizes. Easy to clean when back flushing using both hot and cold water.

Naturally, some coarse suspended solids sink to the bottom of the fermentation tank during sedimentation and need to be separated before clarifying filtration using a centrifuge. Subsequent filtration removes suspended particles that do not form sediment during maturation and storage.

Fine Filtration for the Finishing Touch

There’s one additional stage before filling bottles, kegs and tanks: fine filtration. This allows breweries to optimize both the quality and the overall taste of their product.

Ultimately, fine filtration reduces the amount of yeast – above a retention rate of 1.2 µm; if the rate is between 0.4 and 0.3 µm, it reduces the number of microbes –as well as bacteria and unwanted agglomerates from protein-tanning processes, to eliminate turbidity at the end of the brewing process. The color and turbidity of

beer and wort, indicated by the European Brewery Convention (EBC) value, can be deliberately influenced by the degree of fine filtration.

At this stage, three methods can be used to separate particles, turbidity and microorganisms from beer:

• Mechanical separation on the surface (surface filtration). This is the most used mechanism and is found in most commercial filter media.

• Mechanical separation – a second type of mechanical separation mechanism – in the inner hollow space structure of the filter media (depth filtration). Depth filter media made of pure cellulose retains yeast and solids and removes fewer hop oils than mineral-based filter media.


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Diatomaceous earth filtration Trap filtration Cartridge filtration Stabilization Sheet, stacked disc cartridge or cartridge filtration Diatomaceous earth filtration Bottling Bottling Cartridge filtration Flash pasteurization (HTST) Storage Sheet or
cartridge filtration (1 or 2 steps) Stabilization Cartridge filtration Cross-flow filtration Stabilization Cartridge filtration Fermentation/ storage Centrifugation Beer clarification Clarification and pre-coat filtration Trap, fine and microbial removal filtration processes Fine and microbial removal filtration Alternative stabilization CLASSIC BEER FILTRATION 1-OR 2-STEP DEPTH FILTRATION WITHOUT KIESELGUHR Final membrane filtration
stacked disc
t Figure 1. Depicted above are steps for the three most common filtration methods in beer production: pre-coat, crossflow and one- or two-step depth filtration.

• Adsorptive separation using positive zeta potential (electrokinetic potential), which is only achievable if depth filter sheets or stacked disc cartridges are used.

While it is difficult to rate the different filtration methods in terms of quality, it is possible to compare filter media options using water throughput. Under defined conditions (∆p = gpm/ft² at 14.5 psi and 68°F or ∆p = l/m²/min at 100 kPa = 1 bar and 20°C ambient temperature), water throughput is also an indication of the fineness of the filter. If the value is within a range of between approximately 0.5 and 3.7 gpm/ft² (20 and 150 l/m²/min), fine filtration and a microbial removal effect can be assumed, though only confirmed by performing a special microbiological analysis and evaluation, during which the Log Reduction Value (LRV) is evaluated using a test microbe. For beer, cultured yeasts or malolactic bacteria are usually used and their retention rates measured. Values between 0.3 and 5 µm are considered industry standard.

Additional filtration steps using filter cartridges deliver an enhanced level of purity, reduce turbidity and remove remaining microorganisms. A final membrane filtration stabilizes the beer against microbiological aging, which can drastically shorten its shelf life by causing spoilage.

Deciding which process is the best fit for your brewery depends on investment and operational costs, the desire for implementing automation, resource consumption, maintenance costs and your own expertise.

Sterilized, Shelf-Stable and Ready for Market

To ensure beer is sterile prior to bottling, there are two well-established practices: flash pasteurization (HTST) and membrane filtration. Both have the same goal: reducing beer-spoiling microorganisms to

confirm microbiological stability, and thus quality, as well as to extend the product’s shelf life. This means killing malolactic bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, which can multiply and negatively affect beer flavor. Each process makes beer easier to handle, transport and sell, because sterility is required for beer to be transported and stored unrefrigerated.

Flash Pasteurization (HTST): In this process, beer is heated to 162°F to 167°F (72°C to 75°C) for a defined period to kill harmful microorganisms and eliminate fluctuations in quality created during previous stages of the brewing process, such as fine filtration. While necessary prior to bottling, HTST does have one drawback: Because heating and cooling the beer requires a lot of energy typically obtained from fossil fuels, it comes with a heavy carbon footprint and has a poor impact on the environment.

Membrane Filtration: This method has a far less energy-intensive process, though it has not been used for quite as long. During membrane filtration, unfiltered beer flows through a filter cartridge with a defined pore size that retains yeasts and other bacteria. This tends to result in a higher-quality alternative that’s also cost-effective with a smaller carbon footprint. These filter membranes are often made of one of four materials: Hydrophilic polyether sulfone (PES), hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), single-layer or double-layer nylon 66 (polyamide 66), and single-layer or double-layer cellulose acetate (CA).

Since being introduced to the market 20 years ago, membrane filtration is being used by more brewers because of its high degree of automation, reproducible process conditions and consistently high quality – making the brewing process safe and efficient.

Because the microbiological retention of the cartridges used can be clearly de-

termined by a defined pore size, membrane filtration is a more reliable method for increasing product safety. Filter cartridges can be checked against specific quality standards using destructive or nondestructive tests, meaning they:

• Can be tested for integrity

• Enable validated microbiological retention (bacteria retention rate or LRV = log reduction value)

• Ensure high mechanical and thermal stability

• Offer high chemical stability

Because these filter cartridges are critical to beer quality, high standards are applied to their functioning and mechanical, thermal and chemical stability. Thus, filter cartridges must be able to withstand, e.g., 72.5 psi at 68°F (5 bar at 20°C) of pressure. If this difference is not exceeded, the cartridge is mechanically stable.

Additionally, their thermal stability (up to 100 steaming cycles) is also guaranteed, depending on the manufacturer. After each thermal treatment, however, be sure to evaluate the integrity of your membrane filter cartridge.

Chemical stability is also important for keeping membrane filter cartridges from being clogged following numerous filtration and cleaning cycles. Chemical cleaning agents are used for regeneration with the addition of enzymes that filter cartridges must be able to withstand.

The filtration processes used during brewing depend on what works best for your operation. While each impacts the taste and quality of the final brewed product, they also require different levels of cost and resource expenditure investments.

Frank Paul Servay is an Application Engineer with Eaton Technologies GmbH, Germany. An educated winemaker, Servay attended the University of Applied Sciences in Geisenheim, where he studied viticulture and beverages technologies to earn his engineering degree [Diplom-Ingenieur (FH)]. Following university, he worked as a project manager for several notable beer, food and beverage plants before joining Eaton’s Filtration Life Science sector in 2008, where he focuses on beer, spirits and nonalcoholic beverage filtration processes.

The filtration processes used during brewing depend on what works best for your operation. While each impacts the taste and quality of the final brewed product, they also require different levels of cost and resource expenditure investments.

MAY 1-3, 2023


We invite you to participate in AFS FiltCon 2023 as a presenter, exhibitor, sponsor or attendee.

May 1–3, 2023 • Galt House Hotel, Louisville, KY

Conference Features

• 3 Plenary presentations

• Panel session – New for FiltCon 2023!

• Exhibition – 10x10 units and larger available

• Optional Short Courses (additional fee) on Monday, May 1

• Student Poster Competition

• Optional Industry Tours (additional fee) on Monday, May 1

• Optional Monday evening networking event at Louisville Slugger Museum

• 1-Day Prof. Chase Track on Tuesday, May 2 –New for FiltCon 2023!

New for FiltCon 2023, presenters may submit a full manuscript for review to be included in the FiltCon 2023 Special Issue of Separation and Purification Technology Journal. Manuscript submissions will be accepted from March 15 – October 1, 2023. Don’t miss this opportunity to submit your manuscript to the journal.

Dr. Ashish Gadhave, Alkegen

Dr. Wenping Li, Agrilectric Research

Conference Chairs

Dr. Sneha Swaminathan, Hollingsworth & Vose

Dr. Lin Zhao, Dow

Conference Website:

Plenary Speakers Dr. Wu Chen Principal Research Scientist Dow Dave Healey Vice President of Global Technology Hollingsworth & Vose Dr. Sadhan Jana B.F. Goodrich Endowed Chair and Professor of School of Polymer Science and Engineering The University of Akron

Short Courses

AFS FiltCon 2023 will begin with a selection of optional short courses conducted on a variety of Filtration & Separations Topics. Each course will earn .8 or .4 CEUs (depending on length of course).

**Required course for AFSCP

• **Introduction to Solid/Liquid Separation, 8 hours, Instructors: Dr. Wu Chen, Dr. Wenping Li, Mr. Chris Wallace and Dr. Lin Zhao

• **Introduction to Air/Gas Filtration, 8 hours, Instructor: Dr. Thad Ptak

• Metal Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing), 4 hours, Instructor: Mr. Neil Burns

• Microfiltration Membrane, 4 hours, Instructor: Mr. Scott Yaeger

• **Introduction to Filter Media, 4 hours, Instructors: Dr. Godwin Severa and Mr. Leonard Castellano

• New Course! Fundamental Topics on Filtation Theory, Pressure Drop, and Particle Capture, 4 hours, Instructor: Prof. George Chase

• Ultrafiltration Membrane, 4 hours, Instructor: Mr. Scott Yaeger

• Reverse Osmosis System Design Workshop, 4 hours, Instructor: Mr. Peter Cartwright

Optional Conference Activities (additional fees apply)

• Monday tours to JCEM and AAF Flanders, 1:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Join us Monday for optional, technical tours at JCEM and AAF Flanders!

This is a joint tour of both facilities Monday afternoon from 1:00 – 4:30 pm. The cost is $50 per person and includes transportation.

• Monday Networking event at Louisville Slugger Museum

Don’t miss Monday evening’s event at the infamous Louisville Slugger Museum! The Museum is approximately 5 blocks from the Galt House Hotel. Guests will walk from the hotel to the museum, departing at 5:45 pm. Enjoy this historic and interactive museum and enjoy some libations. Dinner will begin at 7:15 pm, followed by a Plenary presentation. We will depart the Slugger Museum at 9:00 pm to walk back to the hotel. The cost for the event is $100 per person.

Hotel and Travel Information

All conference activities will take place at the Galt House Hotel. The group rate is $164 until April 7, or when the block sells out. **Make your flight and hotel arrangements early as AFS FiltCon 2023 is the week of Derby! Reservations:


Do Filtration Mesh Micron Ratings Have You NOMINALLY Confused or ABSOLUTELY Confused?

Among the specifications used to describe wire mesh are the terms “nominal” and “absolute.” Initially there seemed to be a bit of confusion about their meaning and the distinction between the two. After looking into it a bit, that turns out to be an understatement. There is a LOT of confusion.

Filtration mesh and filter assemblies are listed with a variety of specifications: wire diameter, openings per inch, weave type, percent open area, porosity, and one specification called micron retention sometimes listed under the terms “nominal” and “absolute.” These two terms, nominal and absolute, can be the source of much confusion among those seeking answers about what they can expect from a filter cloth’s performance.

In order to clear up this confusion, first consider the variety of conceptions, misconceptions, unwarranted statements, and “definitions,” swirling about the internet. Searching “nominal vs. absolute mesh ratings” yielded the following variety of explanations.

First, not all of us are as fresh out of statistics class as others, so it is forgivable that some of us read right past these words, assuming a more colloquial meaning of the words is all that is intended. Some explanations are relying on colloquial understanding of the words, while others are using strictly statistics definitions.

• Some interpret it to mean the difference between measured openings vs. effective opening.

• Some descriptions of nominal vs. absolute seem to be just copy/pasted

from other web sites without much understanding.

• Some state that nominal rating is a calculated opening size, while the absolute rating is the opening size as measured by glass bead testing or bubble testing.

• Some sites got absolute aperture testing done once, who knows how long ago, for one sample of a nominal mesh, and have been publishing that absolute value since then — possibly for samples from different looms, different mills, or woven with different materials.

• Some mesh suppliers publish the absolute and nominal values of mesh with very complicated flow paths that can vary drastically after manufacture into filters.

• Some state the distinction between nominal and absolute as 60% vs. 95% filtration at a listed size.

• Customers will sometimes reject a mesh recommended by an expert based on data they found on some other source, against the recommendation of the expert, and when they send in the sample of the mesh they would prefer that the expert supply for them, it turns out that it was the very same mesh the expert had suggested in the first place, but labeled with unwarranted or unsupported absolute ratings.

• One source states that “Absolute filtration: Indicates that 99.9% of the particles larger than the specified micron rating will be removed by the filter. Nominal filtration: Indi-

cates approximately 80% of the particles larger than the specified micron rating will be removed by the filter.”

• Whatever performance someone needs from a filter, nominal is just whatever a supplier wants to name it, and absolute is a certification earned for a specific sample. Once you’re into complicated weaves, nominal might not even be easy to determine.

• Some sources say the nominal listing is reliable and the absolute rating is not. Other sources say the opposite.

• For some applications, filter performance changes after having accumulated a bit of stuff on the filter and the first cut is tossed or recycled. Some nominal ratings take this into account, others do not.

So what can be said definitively about nominal and absolute filter ratings?

Clearly, the definitions found online are all over the map. How can all these disparate understandings of the terms be reconciled?

Since an internet search only served to further cloud the issue, it was decided to go right to an industry-respected, independent source. An interview was held with Mr. Jon Miles and Mr. Keith Brocklehurst, the lab manager and the senior scientist at Whitehouse Scientific Ltd (Chester, UK), one of the industry’s recommended testing laboratories for independent verification of wire mesh. They explained their glass bead challenge testing, what it can tell us, and what it cannot, about mesh aperture.

Challenge testing is a method of measuring a mesh’s pore sizes by a real-world

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test of what size particles actually pass through the mesh. It is often called glass bead testing as it is most often done using finely calibrated glass beads of a known size range and distribution.

Keith had just recently presented a paper at the 2022 World Filtration Congress, WFC13 in San Diego, which aimed to define a more statistically robust method of measuring the “maximum pore size,” i.e., the absolute opening, than the existing challenge testing standard set by ANSI/API and ISO for evaluating “down-hole” sand screens used in oil extraction. If a maximum pore size standard already existed, why are they reexamining it and what do they mean by “more robust”? It was a perfect opportunity to pick their brains a bit.

Simplified Example

When evaluating a sample of wire mesh for its potential as a filter cloth, one of the first characteristics to be evaluated is the size of the pores in the mesh. For square weave meshes this is fairly easy. The openings in the mesh are simply the wire spacing, minus the diameter of the wire.

A square mesh with wires spaced at 100 wires per meter woven with 1.0mm diameter wires means that, if the weave were perfect, all the mesh openings would be expected to be 9.0mm. However, on occasions, minor imperfections in the quality of a weaving process may occur where a number of mesh apertures are less than perfect. In this case, a 9.0mm marble may fall through some of the apertures and others get trapped in the distorted apertures. In this simplified example, by Whitehouse Labs’ definition, the ‘Cut-Point’ or 97th percentile (d97) rating of that screen, as determined by either direct observation by image analysis or by challenging the screen with a narrow range of calibrated particles, may differ from the expected, 9.0mm value. The ‘Cut Point’ or ‘d97’ are both terms used by the world’s filtration industry to describe the

aperture size of a mesh that retains 97% of a specified range of particles challenged.

The absolute retention rating is an attempt to quantify the Maximum Penetrating Particle (MPP) that could pass through a screen. In other words, the largest hole in a screen. In the simplified example, the absolute rating cannot be determined by calculation because the largest hole is a function of the tolerances in the wire spacing and wire diameter. However, it is still possible to directly observe and measure the largest opening by measuring every hole in the screen, all ten-thousand (or more!) of them. The MPP could also be determined by challenge testing the screen with successively larger marbles, eventually finding

the rest of that roll of mesh, so how “absolute” can confidence in those numbers be?

MPP, or the 100th percentile (d100), is not helpful if you are not challenging every square inch off the roll, or if each sample challenged has a different MPP. Instead, what about finding another point close to the MPP that can be proven to be more accurate and, more importantly, meaningful? How about the d99.5? After all, in a sample of mesh with ten-thousand holes, 0.5% is 50 holes. That tells way less about the size of the true single maximum hole, but it tells way more about what can be expected from the rest of the roll of mesh. That is what is meant by robustness of the statistic; once established from one sample, it will reliably predict characteristics of the whole. The MPP is both very accurate and precise for that one sample of mesh, but it has very little predictive value about the MPP of another sample. The size above which the maximum 0.5% of holes fall, though, distributes the uncertainty among all 50 holes. Who cares what the MPP among them is, the median of the top 50 holes will be a very repeatable, predictable number, slightly smaller than the true MPP of any given sample, but consistent from sample to sample.

the marble that only fits through the very largest of those ten-thousand holes. If that MPP were 12.3mm, one could say that the absolute retention rating of that screen is 12.3mm. But that is only verified for one small area of mesh, cut from one particular roll of mesh. Cut another small area of mesh off that roll and the MPP for that sample might 12.5mm. For a third sample it might be 11.9mm. For each sample, the absolute largest hole could be identified, but none of them would be the same.

Measuring each hole or challenging each hole with a test marble – either way, in a mesh sample with ten thousand holes it is quite tedious. It probably is not even very representative of what to expect from

The best thing this example mesh has going for it, however, is that it makes for a convenient example. It makes the mental math easy, and it illustrates the point, but it would make for a terrible filtration mesh. Real filtration meshes must be woven to catch particles much smaller than 9mm marbles.

Lab Experiment

So, now imagine a complicated weave, where even the nominal rating is only theoretical. They are usually woven with some variation of a Dutch and/or twill (link blog on weaves) weave, often with practically no spacing between the wires. Instead of simple square openings, the

p Magnification of fine fiber layer filtration media compared to cellulose, spunbond, cellulose/ synthetic, and meltblown fibers.

openings in filter mesh require filtrate to pass through twists and turns, what is called a “tortuous path.” Such meshes will have a nominal rating, but the nominal rating cannot be easily calculated by counting wires and subtracting wire diameters, and it cannot be directly observed and measured like square mesh. It can only be inferred from challenge testing. For consistency and practicality, the nominal rating for these weaves is still the average pore size, just like with the simpler square weaves.

For assessing absolute micron ratings of filter weaves, calculations or direct observation are insufficient. Only challenge testing works. But which challenge test percentile to use? The single 100th percentile MPP still, or the 99.5 percentile maximum 0.5%, or perhaps the 97th percentile, called the cut point, which would be the maximum 3%?

Returning to the paper presented by Whitehouse at the filtration conference, they were considering methods to get more robust data than a petroleum industry standard. The original standard sought to quantify the MPP using 90mm diameter samples of the filter mesh. The filtration standard 19S, published by ANSI/API, is to prevent sand grains above a certain size from being pumped out of an oil well, accelerating wear and tear on pumps.

In reality, measuring every pore is quite impractical. Actual challenge testing

seeks to shortcut some of the counting and, instead, deduce pore sizes by extrapolation.

Moving on from the simplified example, much of the counting can be avoided by using a narrow range of beads at the same time. Whitehouse used a range of mesh aperture sizes to demonstrate their results but only those from a series of 250 micron meshes are referred to here. They produce, and use, narrow ranges of calibrated bead standards each designed to span ± one nominal aperture of the respective aperture target size. In effect, for a 250 micron mesh, this would be from approximately 212 to 300 microns. To do this, they mount the mesh sample in an instrument that holds it flat and vibrates it for a predetermined amount of time while containing all the glass calibration beads. After vibration, they analyze the spheres that penetrated the mesh, looking for the largest ones.

As discussed in the simplified example from earlier, the maximum penetrating particle is only so useful. To reduce the uncertainty, they assess the largest 0.5% of the microspheres that pass through the

mesh and measure the smallest of that set. This represents the 99.5 percentile of potential absolute openings (see figure 3). For the particular mesh samples they were examining, that worked out to be a median pore size of 250 micron, and a 99.5 percentile of 302 microns. In other words, the Nominal rating for the mesh is 250 microns, and the Absolute rating for the mesh is 302 microns at 99.5 percentile.

Whitehouse confirms their data in several ways. They create their range of calibration beads using highly precise electroformed sieves and certify sizes according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). They also use optical scanners to independently test and verify this data.

They have determined a robust “minimum” number of challenged particles that need to be counted (analyzed) and what they discovered here is that by using the 99.5 percentile rather than the single maximum penetrating particle at the 100th percentile, they were able to reduce variability in the results from up to 47% down to just 3% variability between test trials.


Looking back at the variety of conceptions and misconceptions of how to define nominal and absolute mesh ratings, it is understandable why some mesh suppliers may be hesitant to offer absolute ratings of the mesh they sell, or why the absolute ratings that are offered without further description of methodology are not very useful. This is why some of the internet definitions above have potential to be “good data,” but for a lack of any qualifying percentile or further description.

Interest in absolute retention ratings often seems rooted in a desire for some kind of guarantee that even glass bead testing cannot offer. Even the best testing

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Challenge testing is a method of measuring a mesh’s pore sizes by real world test of what size particles actually pass through the mesh. It is often called glass bead testing as it is most often done using finely calibrated glass beads of a known size range and distribution.
p Figure 3. Pore size distribution parameters in a filter medium.

and certification can only tell us so much about how a filter will perform in realworld conditions. Rarely do the particles in a filtrate actually behave like spherical glass beads, and with enough differential pressure, any particle can become a maximum penetrating particle.

Nominal retention ratings are generally based on the average pore size, which means half the pores skew larger and half skew smaller. The nominal might not offer the best idea of the maximum penetrating particle, but it is the most robust, repeatable statistic with the most predictive value for what to expect from any given sample of that mesh.

Absolute particle retention ratings are based on the largest pores in the mesh. They must include both a size and a percentile. Absolute retention ratings are less robust than nominal ratings, but far more robust than true MPP size. Published tables of absolute retention ratings can be a useful starting point for mesh

selection but require a healthy dose of skepticism about their origins and their predictive value.

In the end, testing labs like Whitehouse Scientific are the only way to certify the retention rating of a filtration product, and even then, they are only certifying a probability. If you want more absolute verification than that, get out your microscope and start counting.

Talk to a wire mesh expert about your filtration needs. They can help make sense of retention ratings and all the other variables that go into selecting the right mesh for your application.

Gerard Daniel Expertise

At Gerard Daniel, we’ve been sourcing, weaving, and distributing wire mesh for 70 years and stock the largest range of inventory in North America. Our application engineers use their deep expertise in woven mesh and components to develop the most effective solution, collaborating

with your design, development, and production teams to ensure the lowest cost to manufacture. Please reach out if you would like to learn more about our capabilities or visit

Special thanks to Keith Brocklehurst and Jon Miles of Whitehouse Scientific Ltd, Chester, UK. To understand more about glass bead and challenge testing, including learning more about the new 99.5 test, please visit, or contact them directly.

Kevin Gilbert is a Product Design Manager for Gerard Daniel Worldwide. In the 13 years he has spent with Gerard Daniel, Gilbert's team has worked with customers at all levels of knowledge and design requirements to develop filtration and separation solutions. Gilbert graduated from Cal State and Polytechnic University, Pomona with a Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering; then continuing at the University of Redlands where he earned his MBA.


INTERPHEX 2023 to Showcase Pharma, Biotech, Device Development in New York

INTERPHEX – the premier pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and device development and manufacturing event – is set to convene April 25-27, 2023 at the Javitz Center in New York City. More than 10,000 global industry professionals are expected to attend the event.

New this year is the Center for Professional Innovation & Education, a global leader in life sciences training, which will host six accredited pharmaceutical and biotechnology courses at the event. This comes in addition to the other exhibits, demonstrations, and technical conferences visitors have become accustomed to over the past several decades.

As of February, the exhibitor list featured over 400 companies, and several dozens of them were industry leaders in filtration and separation and related products, which play a crucial role in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industries.

The show floor has also been reimagined to bring attendees and exhibitors closer together. There are four major pavilions at the event:

• The New Exhibitor Pavilion, where the latest products, services and turnkey from new vendors can be explored.

• The INNOPHEX, is where emerging biotech, new technologies and the latest innovation are displayed through leading exhibits, conference sessions, and networking – and is focused on Cell Processing, Gene Therapy, Pharma 4.0 Technologies, and emerging Biotech.

• The Contract Zone features CMO/ CDMOs that help the pharma and

biotech industry develop and manufacture drugs, biologics, vaccines and more.

• The INNOVATECH Gateway Pavilion is the portal to global pharmaceutical technologies. Attendees will be able to see live demonstrations from various exhibitors of the latest technology within the pharma industry in a sequential order of the pharmaceutical product development lifecycle. Back by popular demand, the INTERPHEX Poster Hall is a sought-after area highlighting new technologies and equipment, leading methodologies, and innova-

tion. This year, the Poster Hall has been revamped and improved to display all posters digitally on the show floor. Submissions are reviewed by the panel at BioProcess International and e-Poster Hall winners will be awarded onsite.

INTERPHEX Sets the Bar

INTERPHEX is the premier pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and device development and manufacturing event. Based in New York, it invites attendees to experience science through commercialization. Through a unique combination of exhibits, demonstrations, partnering opportunities, networking and no cost technical conferences, attendees have the chance to learn about, experience, and procure new technologies and devices. Together with INNOPHEX, the International Pharmaceutical Expo, INTERPHEX showcases the very latest intelligence, cutting-edge technologies, and state-ofthe-artinnovationsthroughouttheproduct development life cycle.

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p More than 400 companies are scheduled to be at INTERPHEX 2023, including dozens of filtration and separations companies. INTERPHEX q There are several conferences and workshops at INTERPHEX 2023, covering all aspects of the industry. INTERPHEX

AFS FiltCon 2023 to Convene in Kentucky in May

The American Filtration and Separation Society (AFS) will convene its FiltCon conference – the first in-person AFS event since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, when it was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This year’s event is scheduled to be in Louisville, Kentucky, May 1-3.

After several years of physical absence there are great expectations for the event. AFS has a packed program for the threeday conference that will feature current

advances and research in the filtration industry with three plenary sessions, 24 technical sessions with four presentation per session, and a student poster session followed by networking opportunities. There will also be an Expo at the event site, the Galt House Hotel in Louisville.

An optional tour of JCEM and AAF Flanders will also be offered on Monday afternoon from 1:00 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. Transportation will be included and the cost for both tours is only $50.

Monday night there will be a networking event at the historic Louisville Slugger Museum. The group will gather at the hotel to walk to the museum as a group, only a few blocks away. The evening will include a reception and fun museum experience, followed by dinner and a plenary presenta-

tion. Prof. Sadhan Jana from The University of Akron will present “Our Quest for New Materials for Next Generation Separation and Purification Challenges.”

Tuesday morning will kick off with a plenary lecture from Dave Healey of Hollingsworth & Vose. Breakfast will be served in the exhibition hall after the plenary session. Four tracks of technical sessions will be offered both Tuesday and Wednesday. New for FiltCon 2023 is the Prof. George Chase track on Tuesday. Past students and professionals who have been influenced by Prof. Chase will be present in this track.

AFS leadership is excited to celebrate honorific and new product awards on Tuesday at the Annual Awards Luncheon. The afternoon will include additional technical sessions followed by the AFS Corporate Sponsor meeting and reception at 5:00 pm and the Student poster competition.

Wednesday morning will begin with the student poster awards ceremony followed

by Dr. Wu Chen’s plenary presentation, “The Role of Fluid/Particle Separation in the Efforts of Sustainability.” Breakfast will follow again in the exhibition hall followed by technical presentations. Lunch will be served, followed by a panel session which is also new for FiltCon 2023. The panel session will be moderated by Dr. Wu Chen from Dow and will include a balance of disciplines from the esteemed panelists. More technical presentations and time with the exhibitors will follow lunch and the panel session.

The American Filtration & Separations Society is a technical, educational, nonprofit organization which began in 1987 to provide a forum for exchange of information among engineers, scientists, and technologists in all areas of filtration and separations. The AFS has and continues to provide tremendous value by predicating its existence on the dissemination of information, education, and the encouragement of research. Membership comes from a wide variety of backgrounds, including end-users, marketing and distribution engineers, product designers, research scientists, raw material designers, company management, consultants, academia, and officials of government.

t Every AFS FiltCon conference features the student poster competition, where students present their latest findings and solutions to filtrationand separationrelated issues. t AFS FiltCon 2023 offers a large exhibitor space for companies.

Matt O’Sickey, PhD is Director of Education & Technical Affairs at INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry. Matt was previously Director of Technology for RKW-North America and Global Director of Market Development for Tredegar Film Products and may be reached at mosickey@inda. org or +1 919 459-3748.

Post COVID-19 Provides Opportunity to Realign Meltblown Capacity

One of the stories from the pandemic was the rapid industry response to the need for meltblown nonwoven fabrics for facemasks and respirators. In mid-2021, Nonwovens Industry reported that globally, in the neighborhood of 150 standalone meltblown nonwoven lines had been or would soon be commissioned to support the pandemic driven demand. INDA, as part of their North American Supply Report, notes that for all nonwoven categories, but considering only North America, prior to 2020, it was typical to see about $100 million in announced capacity investments each year. During 2020 and 2021, this rose to about $200 million. Furthermore, nearly $750 million of added capacity has been announced for 2022 and 2023. As seen in the chart below, it is typical for assets to be decommissioned as new, more efficient or technically capable equipment becomes available. Assets for production of meltblown nonwovens somewhat differ from this trend, as capacity has been added recently, prior to the pandemic to support increased demand in the filtration market,

without any significant decommissioning occurring. Transitioning into 2022, with supply chain challenges lessening, freight costs decreasing, and overall demand for the meltblown nonwoven consuming PPE declining from the historic peaks seen early in the pandemic, many meltblown nonwoven manufacturers are looking for alternative outlets for the significant added capacity. In many cases, that outlet will be air filtration products. In recent months, INDA has seen an increase in inquiries, both commercial and technical related, regarding filter media. This has included increased interest in INDA nonwoven training courses, where some attendees are pivoting from pandemic production of meltblown and facemasks towards new opportunities.

The air filtration market is certain to benefit from learnings during the pandemic. The public had a rare opportunity to learn during the pandemic that the indoor air quality they had been relying upon was not in as good shape as it should have been. For instance, “It took the COVID-19 pandemic to reveal

As director of education and technical affairs, Matt presents regular training related to nonwovens and filter media from INDA’s headquarters in Cary, NC.

For more information about upcoming training opportunities, visit

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* International Fiber Journal is owned by INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry (

air filters that had sat collecting dust for years at public schools throughout New Haven … inspections of 21 schools found that two-thirds had dirty or poorly maintained ventilation systems. About half had air filters that hadn’t been replaced in years … rather than twice a year as recommended.” This story was not an outlier and was echoed in many communities around the country. Anecdotally, it’s been suggested that were every air filter replaced per recommended guidelines, the overall demand for filter media nonwoven would be two to three times what it is today. That may be hyperbole but is almost certainly directionally correct.

The answers as to “Why filter media was not changed per manufacturer recommendations?” were generally either, “Budget constraints for new media,” or “Budget constraints for the manpower to change the media.”

A prior TechTalk column addressed the unfavorable cost impacts on overall HVAC system life of not maintaining filter media. Also recommended is a review of NAFA’s “Recommended Practice for Filtration for Schools.” It should also be noted that the American Rescue Plan provided $122 billion for the Elementary and Secondary Schools Emergency Relief Fund, which should mitigate those cost concerns. The Department of Education, in conjunction with the CDC and EPA have provided additional guidelines pertaining to indoor air quality of educational facilities. One item of note states, “Upgrade HVAC filters to minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV)-13, or the highest MERV rating a building’s ventilation system can accommodate to improve air filtration as much as possible without significantly reducing airflow.” In many cases, school systems found that their systems were of an age that prevented use of MERV-13 or better filters or worse that they had been using fiberglass filters which remove 30-35% less dust and pollutants than pleated meltblown nonwoven filters. Pleated meltblown nonwoven filters provide for greater surface contact area while maintaining potential to minimize low pressure drop across the filter. The number of pleats, pleat depth, pitch of pleats, and even the radius of curvature of the pleat will influence the overall balance of efficiency, fluid velocity (air flow), and system pressure drop.

In addition to the mechanical design criteria, the size and distribution of the pores in the meltblown nonwoven will have a significant impact on the filtration and system performance. What is appropriate for a facemask application does not necessarily drop in for HVAC filtration media and has provided some challenge in pivoting production from facemask media to air filtration media. Modelling of the in-plane pore size distribution is able to predict impact on throughput and able to anticipate changes in filter performance as pores become occluded with contaminants.

While the demand for facemasks and the associated nonwoven media has declined from peak pandemic levels, there is continued focus on improved indoor air quality and air filtration. This is in part due to improved consumer awareness and also due to

continued execution of COVID-era relief projects. As such, there will be an opportunity to realign meltblown capacity to this space, but will require consideration of the different technical needs of the applications.


1. McIntyre, Karen, “Meltblown – Nonwovens’ Golden Fleece”, Nonwovens Industry, March 2021, meltblown/

2. INDA, “INDA North American Nonwovens Supply Report 2021”, May 2022.

3. Hays, Emily, “Ignored School Filters Pose Health Risks”, New Haven Independent, February 25, 2021,

4. NAFA, “Guidelines Recommended Practices for Filtration for Schools”, 2012, https://

5. U.S. Department of Education, “Improving Ventilation in Schools, Colleges, and Universities to Prevent COVID-19,” 2021,

6. Patil, Sagar; Lomte, Sachin, “Design and development of high performance panel air filter with experimental evaluation and analysis of filter media pleats,” Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 5, Issue 11, November 2015.

7. Schousboe, Frederik Carl, “Media Velocity Considerations in Pleated Air Filtration”, Graduate Thesis, University of South Florida, March 10, 2017. viewcontent.cgi?article=7829&context=etd

8. Sun, Yixuan; Sanaei, Pejman; Kondic, Lou; Cummings, Linda, “Modeling and design optimization for pleated membrane filters,” Physical Review Fluid Vol. 5, Issue 4, April 2020

Many meltblown nonwoven manufacturers are looking for alternative outlets for the significant added capacity.

McIlvaine Company

Bob McIlvaine is the president of The McIlvaine Company, which is helping filter suppliers understand the true cost of their products and the impact on the Serviceable Obtainable Market. He can be reached at rmcilvaine@ or +1 847.226.2391.

Filtration Market Is an Aggregation of Niches

The most profitable market for filter suppliers should be the lowest cost of ownership for the end user. The expenditure is determined by relevant facts. The quantities needed are determined by unique factors. There is a $1 trillion filtration and separation market with 100,000 niches of $10 million each.

Which niches will combine for the Most Profitable Market (MPM)? Each filter supplier will be best served by a unique combination of niches to pursue.

Each niche has its own combination of facts which need to be multiplied by the most relevant factors to provide the Serviceable Obtainable Market (SOM).

The foundation of business strategy can be the MPM niche forecasts. They set sales strategy down to the local sales level. The longer-range forecasts should be the basis for R&D, manufacturing investment, and acquisitions.

Most would agree that this is the ideal business strategy, but they would also question the practicality of pulling together the millions of necessary facts and factors.

What makes it possible is that most of the facts and factors can be utilized in many different MPM niches.

The achievable market share is shaped by the value proposition which in turn needs to be validated.

Each $10 million MPM niche has a unique combination of facts and factors which should be separately and continually analyzed. MPM is based on a minimum of 20% market share. So, a 10-niche target would create a market of $100 million and $20 million in annual revenue.

Validation can be likened to a jury trial where magazines such as International Filtration News are the courtrooms. Within the powerful IFN archives, the suppliers can populate them to ensure that the body of evidence is sufficient to convince the jury in this “Court of Purchaser Opinion.”

The aggregation of multiple MPM niches results in robust sales and EBITDA.

Celeros is a perfect example of a company with an MPM based on aggregating niches. Celeros is a $400 million spin off from SPX Flow. Pumps, valves and filters were included. The spinoff was based on the niche concept to separate products primarily used in certain industries.

Celeros products are used in the power and energy markets. The energy applications are further segmented into upstream, mid-stream and refining.

The Serviceable Available Market for the broader filtration segment, which includes the targeted niches, generates $4 billion/year in revenues. The

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TRUE COST Product Least Celeros Most Macro filtration Strainers Automatic filters Filter presses Diameter Absorption Coalescer Filtration Dust efficiency Cyclone Spin filter Pulse jet Turbine inlet Pre-filter Cartridges HEPA Application Discrete Ships Process Pre-filtration history Now - 2% Spin filter 1980’s - 30% Compressor filter load Ambient air compressor Medium contamination High contamination Serviceable Available Market $50 million $4 billion $1 trillion Product niches Few 10 Many Industry niches Few 5 200

MPM niches are less than $2 billion. There is a unique focus on niches in between the least and most. Celeros is pursuing the “Goldilocks” portion of the market.

The applications covered are upstream, mid-stream, refining, power, general industry and naval. In each case, the company is targeting specific markets but not the largest ones. Celeros makes pulse jet filter elements, but they are targeted for gas turbine intakes and not the very large coal-fired boiler dust collector applications.

This is in keeping with the “Goldilocks” principle since the filters are tasked with higher performance than needed for HVAC, but less than needed for capturing fly ash in high temperature, abrasive, and corrosive conditions.

There are ten products including air coalescers, liquid coalescers, cartridge filters, automatic filters, spin filters, intake filters, compressor filters, activated carbon, particulate filters, and mist eliminators. Each of the products is unique.

In general, they follow the “Goldilocks” principle of serving a

relatively small market in between least and most. For example, strainers are the least efficient and filter presses the most efficient. The Celeros Automatic filter is designed to fill that 25- to 150-micron void.

Celeros Targeted Market

The most profitable niches often involve shared applications. For gas turbines, Celeros supplies the gas turbine intake filters but also valves. Celeros has a high market share in gas turbine bypass valves. In combined cycle plants, Celeros offers feedwater and lubricating pumps.

When a gas turbine shut down is scheduled there is the opportunity to replace the filters and repair the pumps and valves.

In terms of factors, the frequency of operation impacts filters, pumps and valves. The market is directly proportional to the quantity of gas turbines in use. This factor is shaped by other factors such as wind and solar with energy storage.

The entire industry will benefit from the MPM approach. By focusing on narrow niches, suppliers can better understand the processes and needs of the customers. Higher levels of profitability can be achieved when the cost reduction exceeds the higher prices. It will all be made possible by skillful litigation in the “Court of Purchaser Opinion.”

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By focusing on narrow niches, suppliers can better understand the processes and needs of the customers.

Len LaPorta is a managing director of Investment Banking at Wiley Bros.-Aintree Capital, LLC – a 75-year-old firm, located in Nashville, TN, focused on investment brokerage and underwriting municipal bonds for utility districts in the state of Tennessee. Len brings to the Firm experience in crossborder M&A transactions between USA and Europe, advises business owners on sell-side and buy-side transactions, capital advisory, and valuations. Len is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy with MBA from Boston College and a veteran of the U.S. Navy. He is also a member of INDA’s non-woven Technical Advisory Board. or (615) 782-4107.

Another Data Request – Has Diligence for M&A Deals Gone Too Far?

I am amazed by the number of former clients that echo similar statements: “I was absolutely shocked and unprepared for the amount of data the buyer’s third-party advisors requested once we accepted their offer.”

For most M&A deals started in fall 2022, the next couple of months will either end in a successful transaction or “deal fatigue.” The challenging global headwinds of 2023 have certainly been felt by management teams and their operations.

So why “deal fatigue” by the management team?

The most likely answer is data. More specifically, the process of data collection, internal validation, dissemination and then cross examination of the data by the buyer’s advisor team.

Sellers should anticipate initial data requests grouped by function: human resources, operations, customer and commercial, finance, governance, and environmental health and safety.

The following list is a compilation across the various functional areas.

Important diligence questions prior to a deal close:

1. Overtime policy – historical OT actual incurred going back to 2020

2. Discussion of current/historical use of temporary employees

3. Theoretical production capacity based on current shift structure

4. Discussion of transport/logistics –frequency of job drop-off/pick-ups

5. Discussion of current production bottlenecks; investments or other steps to remedy


Authority of Seller

No Conflicts: Consents

Financial Statements

Undisclosed Liabilities

Absence of Certain Changes, Events and Conditions

Material Contracts

Title to Purchased Assets


6. Understand customer churn, outside of top 10 customers – approximately what percentage is repeat business

7. Discussion around customer profitability analysis and approach to shifting from low profit customers

8. What is your capitalization policy ($ amount)?

9. What is your annual budgeted maintenance CapEx (% of sales)?

10. Can you provide a list of accrual true-ups that occur year end or quarter end?

Your M&A team is best positioned to help the seller and the management team set priorities on data collection. Utilizing the first 60 days of the assignment to pull and analyze data will be the most efficient use of everyone’s time – especially since the management team has to run the daily business operations.

Could deal fatigue have a negative impact on the deal?

Threats To the Purchase Agreement

The seller must be prepared when the legal teams begin to discuss Reps & Warranty (“R&W”) section of the purchase agreement.

Some of the blanket R&W statements will not feel good and many will go against the views of the business owner. Plan on spending quite a few hours with your legal team reviewing these major categories. Some major R&W sections are listed below:

For R&W discussions, the term “to the best of our understanding” may be what ownership wants to state – like pleading the 5th. Unfortunately, the buyer’s legal team will need “meat on the bone.”

Real Property

Intellectual Property

Accounts Receivable

Customers & Suppliers

Legal Proceedings and Government Orders

Compliance with Laws: Permits

Environmental Matters

Employee Benefit Matters

40 IFN ISSUE 2 20 23
and Qualification of Seller Condition
and Sufficiency of

Closing the M&A transaction in 2023 while the economy is in challenging times.

The ISM Manufacturing PMI for the U.S. fell to 48.4 in December 2022, slightly below forecasts of 48.5, pointing to the second month of contraction in factory activity as Americans are shifting spend-

ing away from goods to services. A reading below 50 indicates contraction.

Excluding the decline in April 2020 at height of the COVID pandemic, this was the lowest reading since February 2016.

New orders (45.2 vs. 47.2), and new export orders (46.2 vs. 48.4) declined further

and production shifted to the negative territory (48.5 vs. 51.5).

Also, inventories grew faster (51.8 vs. 50.9) and price pressures eased (39.4, the lowest since April 2020).

The month-over-month performance of supplier deliveries (45.1 vs 47.2) was the best since March 2009.

Good luck closing your transaction!

This article has been prepared solely for informational purpose. This article does not constitute an offer, or the solicitation of an offer, to buy or sell any securities or other financial product, to participate in any transaction or to provide any investment banking or other services, and should not be deemed to be a commitment or undertaking of any kind on the part of Wiley Bros. –Aintree Capital, LLC (“WBAC”) or any of its affiliates to underwrite, place or purchase securities or to provide any debt or equity financing or to participate in any transaction, or a recommendation to buy or sell any securities, to make any investment or to participate in any transaction or trading strategy. Any views presented in this article are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of WBAC. While the information contained in this commentary is believed to be reliable, no representation or warranty, whether expressed or implied, is made by WBAC, and no liability or responsibility is accepted by WBAC or its affiliates as to the accuracy of the article. Prior to making any investment or participating in any transaction, you should consult, to the extent necessary, your own independent legal, tax, accounting, and other professional advisors to ensure that any transaction or investment is suitable for you in the light of your financial capacity and objectives. This article has not been prepared with a view toward public disclosure under applicable securities laws or otherwise.

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Cummins’ Filtration Business Files for IPO

Cummins Inc. announced that its Filtration business, Atmus Filtration Technologies, has filed a registration statement on Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for a proposed underwritten initial public offering (IPO) of newly issued common stock.

Atmus Filtration Technologies intends to apply to have its common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol ATMU. The number of shares to be offered and the price range for the offering have not yet been determined. The IPO is expected to commence after the completion of the SEC review process, subject to market and other conditions.

Steph Disher will continue to lead Atmus Filtration Technologies as CEO alongside an experienced and capable leadership team. Atmus Filtration Technologies, which was founded by Cummins in 1958, is one of the global leaders of filtration products for on-highway commercial vehicles and off-highway agriculture, construction, mining and power generation vehicles and equipment. The company’s name is derived from “atmosphere” and reflects its purpose of creating a better future by protecting what is important.

Donaldson Acquires Biotech Isolere Bio

Atlas Copco Celebrates 150 Years of Innovation

Atlas Copco, founded in Stockholm in 1873, celebrated its 150-year anniversary in February. During a century and a half, Atlas Copco has been driving development and delivering breakthrough innovations to customers in many different industries.

“We are extremely proud of our past, and we continue to shape the future through our technologies and service solutions,” said Mats Rahmström, CEO and President of the Atlas Copco Group. “Much has changed since 1873 when we were a small local start-up. But I think our founders would recognize our innovative spirit, the passion shown by our employees and our dedication to drive development together with our customers.”

Atlas Copco was founded in Stockholm, Sweden, and initially delivered equipment for construction of the Swedish railroad system. Since then, the Group has evolved and today supports customers in many different industries, enabling everything from food production to space travel.

Donaldson Company, Inc., a leading worldwide provider of innovative filtration products and solutions, announced the acquisition of Isolere Bio, Inc. (Isolere), an earlystage biotechnology company that develops novel and proprietary IsoTag™ reagents and accompanying filtration processes used for the purification and streamlined manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Aimed initially at the purification of viral vectors used for cell and gene therapies, IsoTag™ reagents are designed to substantially improve product quality and purity with faster timelines compared to competing solutions, enabling accelerated and more affordable delivery of life-changing therapies to patients globally.

“With the integral addition of Isolere to our Life Sciences portfolio, Donaldson is positioned to create premier separation and filtration solutions for emerging genetic-based drugs,” said Tod Carpenter, chairman, president and chief executive officer of Donaldson. “We look forward to accelerating Isolere’s growth trajectory through sales synergies from our recent acquisitions of Solaris Biotechnology and Purilogics and through the strength of our balance sheet.”

“Isolere is thrilled to join the Donaldson family and bring our novel affinity-phase separation technology to market,” said Kelli Luginbuhl, Ph.D, co-founder and chief executive officer of Isolere. “Our technology, complemented by Donaldson’s filtration excellence, is part of a larger vision to bring end-to-end solutions to the life sciences industry.”

Founded in 2017 by Kelli Luginbuhl, Ph.D, Professor Ashutosh Chilkoti, and Joe McMahon, Isolere is headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. Once commercialized, revenue from Isolere will be reported within the Donaldson Life Sciences segment.

Evoqua to Divest its Carbon Reactivation and Slurry Services to Desotec

Evoqua Water Technologies has entered into a definitive agreement to divest its carbon reactivation and slurry operations to Desotec, a European provider of industrial mobile filtration solutions based on activated carbon technology.

The agreement includes the product line’s workforce, reactivation facilities and associated equipment in Darlington, Pennsylvania, and Parker, Arizona, and the reactivation and carbon vessel manufacturing facility in Red Bluff, California, USA. The deal is expected to close during Evoqua’s third quarter of fiscal 2023, which ends June 30, 2023.

Desotec, which was acquired by private equity funds managed by Blackstone in 2021, is headquartered in Roeselare, Belgium and employs approximately 250 people across Europe.

42 IFN ISSUE 2 202 3
p Mats Rahmström, CEO and President of the Atlas Copco Group.

DuPont Consolidates Ultrafiltration Technologies Under New IntegraTec™ Brand

To better serve municipal and industrial customers, DuPont is consolidating and rebranding its diverse portfolio of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for the sustainable purification, conservation, and reuse of water.

The DuPont™ IntegraTec™ portfolio of ultrafiltration technologies and products consolidates several legacy ultrafiltration brands – from Inge®, Memcor®, and DuPont Ultrafiltration – into a singular portfolio available to customers.

This new offering makes it easier for DuPont’s customers to harness the benefits of the Best-Fit ultrafiltration technology, either to be used alone or as a part of a multi-technology water treatment solution, toward the goals of high-filtration performance, high recovery, and energy savings.

With a global network of UF experts, DuPont’s team can help customers navigate the IntegraTec™ portfolio to tailor scalable, sustainable water and wastewater filtration solutions for industrial, municipal, and commercial applications.

Evonik Starts Membrane Production in Austria

Evonik has started up a new hollow-fiber spinning plant for production of gas separation membranes in Schörfling am Attersee in Austria.

The new production capacity enables the company to meet the ongoing strong demand for SEPURAN® membranes in biogas, nitrogen, hydrogen and natural gas applications. Evonik invested a low double-digit million-euro amount in the new plant and created around 30 new jobs in Schörfling.

Lauren Kjeldsen, Head of the Smart Materials Division, said: “The growth path of the membranes business clearly follows the group’s new sustainability strategy.”

Throughout the years, Wallner Expac has partnered with filter manufacturers to supply them with expanded metals. Whether the need is residential, commercial, industrial, HEPA, microfiltration, or other type of filtration, we pride ourselves on providing strong and sustainable solutions that help deliver optimal air quality and contribute to a healthier environment.

 Employee-owned and North America’s largest manufacturer of light gauge HVAC expanded metals.

 Developers of X-Mesh®, light gauge expanded metals specifically engineered for filter media backing. U.S. Patent 8,696,781

 Manufacturers of MicroForm® expanded metals for microfiltration.

 US-based manufacturing plants in California, Georgia, and Texas.

 Customizable specifications to achieve open area and breach test requirements.

 Additional services include conical, corrugation, slitting, powder coating, engineering & design, and more.

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p Evonik’s membrane production site in Austria.
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Articles inside

Another Data Request – Has Diligence for M&A Deals Gone Too Far?

pages 42-47

Filtration Market Is an Aggregation of Niches

pages 40-42

Post COVID-19 Provides Opportunity to Realign Meltblown Capacity

pages 38-40

AFS FiltCon 2023 to Convene in Kentucky in May

pages 37-38

INTERPHEX 2023 to Showcase Pharma, Biotech, Device Development in New York

page 36

Do Filtration Mesh Micron Ratings Have You NOMINALLY Confused or ABSOLUTELY Confused?

pages 32-35

To Hit a HOME RUN in HOPS Consistency Matters

pages 26-31

Biodegradable Filter Media for the Metalworking Fluid Applications

pages 24-26


pages 22-23

Filter Factor for Plant-Based Beverages

pages 20-21

Living Color and Fibers

pages 19-20

Planting Biomass in Nonwoven Materials

pages 17-18

The Buzz About Bio-Preferred

page 16

Rosedale Products Inc.

page 15

Innovation for the World. Solutions for You.

page 14

Egg Whites Can Be Transformed Into a Material Capable of Filtering Microplastics From Seawater

page 13


page 12


page 11

SPOTLIGHT TECH Samsung Introduces Easily Regenerable Air

page 10

Planting Seeds

pages 8-9
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