International Filtration News – Issue 3, 2024

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filtnews.com Issue 3 | 2024 QUALITY CONTROLS The Critical Language of Measurements & Standards URBAN FILTRATION Clean Air: A Right or Delight? FILTCON 2024 Delivering an Array of Research TM AUTOMOTIVE & AEROSPACE FIBERS IN FILTRATION GREEN 0R DURABLE? Brew with purpose. Join the movement for a better beer. To learn more, visit us at pall.com/brewbetterbeer Our sustainable filtration solutions are pushing the limits of what’s possible to help solve tomorrow’s most complex challenges.

Seamless construction core 99% nickel composition

Patented manufacturing process allows for endless designs

At Beverlin, we’re at the core of innovation Infinity Core TM isn’t just a new product for 2024, it’s a revolution in filtration.
To learn more, visit beverlin.com
call us at 616.949.5990 Introducing Infinity Core™
or
2 IFN ISSUE 3 2024 CONTENTS Solution Centers Bringing Innovation
Industry Elsner Epic Resins PSE Green or Durable? Automotive & Aerospace Fibers
By Jason Chen The Critical Language
Measurements
By T.J. Ptak Clean Air:
Right
Dr. Iyad Al-Attar Calculated ESG By Maura Keller Show Review: FILTCON 2024 By Caryn Smith, IFN Chief Content Officer 11 2024 | VOL 43 | ISSUE 03 18 Viewpoint History – Someone
It By Caryn Smith, IFN Chief Content Officer & Publisher Tech Spotlight Reducing Risk
Tech Notes New Technology
Emergence Trending
M&A Insights Potential
Estate
Laws Impact M&A
By Len LaPorta, Managing Director, Mergers & Acquisitions, Pickwick Capital Partners, LLC True Cost Pursuing the Best Moons, Planets, and Stars in the Filtration Galaxy By Bob McIlvaine, President, The McIlvaine Company Movers & Shakers Industry News & Notes 18 FEATURES 18 21 30 26 6 40 8 38 42 9 COLUMNS & DEPARTMENTS 26 33 Cover: Courtesy of Ahlstrom-Munksjo 33 14 21
to the
in Filtration
of
& Standards
A
or Delight?
Has to Make
of Airborne Bacterial Infections Caused by Air Filtration Systems
Briefs
University & Institutional Research
Changes in
Planning
Activity

Caryn Smith Chief Content Officer & Publisher, INDA Media csmith@inda.org

Maura Keller Freelance Writer

612.720.4694 maurakeller@gmail.com

Jason Chen International Correspondent, IFJ jasonchen200501@hotmail.com

Len LaPorta Managing Director, Mergers & Acquisitions, Pickwick Capital Partners, LLC laportal@pickwickcapital.com

Thad Ptak, Ph.D. Principal, Ptak Consulting +1 414.514.8937 thadptak@hotmail.com

Bob McIlvaine President, The McIlvaine Company +1 847.784.0013 rmcilvaine@mcilvainecompany.com

Dr. Iyad Al-Attar

Visiting Academic Fellow School of Aerospace, Transport, & Manufacturing, Cranfield Univ. i@driyadalattar.com

International Filtration News is actively seeking contributed technical articles from qualified industry professionals and those allied to the filtration industry. If you would like to pitch an article for publication in IFN, contact Caryn Smith at csmith@inda.org or +1 239.225.6137.

29-May 1, 2025

info@inda.org

Immerse yourself in the next generation of filtration technologies and innovations. Discover the latest developments from world-class exhibitors. Gain new intelligence on what is driving the filtration market.

The two-day FiltXPO conference program will share technical insights in filtration innovations and technologies from industry professionals all over the world. Conference program details will be released in the fall of 2024.

Unlock business opportunities, gain exposure to new products, and build connections with key players in the filtration industry. Your next success story starts here.

4 IFN ISSUE 3 2024 CONTRIBUTORS | ISSUE 3 2024
April
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Questions? Contact the Registrar registrar@inda.org +1 919 459 3724 filtxpo.com MAKE PLANS TO EXHIBIT, SPONSOR, OR ATTEND TODAY! The
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VIEWPOINT

History – Someone Has to Make It

“Research is creating new knowledge.” — Neil Armstrong

On a recent flight, I watched the movie “First Man” about astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first person to walk on the moon. This movie reminded me of how early space exploration – from equipment, uniforms, tools and more – seemed utterly primitive. Our space pioneers went willingly into the unknown in unpredictable tin-can air crafts in the name of research.

In one scene in space, the craft was off path, and Armstrong took out grid paper and pencil to make calculations to get them back on track – no computer, no software program, just plain math.

In another scene, Armstrong says, “we need to fail here [on earth] so we don’t fail up there.” Research and development combined with significant trial and error, made it possible for mankind to get to the moon. Embracing failure to gain success made way for the current more sophisticated program, albeit still laden with risk.

What does this have to do with filtration?

Technically, nothing. Yet, this story illustrates how the desire to do the impossible, uncover possibilities, and re-imagine outcomes, combined with knowledge, research, trials, failures, and sometimes sheer guts, will take us into the future of innovation and even ground-breaking firsts that make history. Without the “what if” that scientific research seeks to answer, we would never make progress towards today’s worldwide filtration problems. And there are many to solve, from

PFAS to air quality to the availability of simple clean drinking water, there is much to do.

In our pages, we seek to inspire industry to reach into the unknown and find solutions, create innovation, and even make history.

On page 14, we are launching a new column, Emergence, to spotlight research coming from universities, institutions, and think tanks. If you have research news, please share it with us by emailing csmith@inda.org.

Writer Jason Chen explores materials innovation in the aerospace and automotive sectors on page 18, with durable and green solutions that are making news.

Standards that guide industry continue to be a topic of discussion. On page 21, T.J. Ptak analyses the framework for the development of standards, and how circumstances can sway the way they are written; important considerations in today’s connected world.

On page 33, you’ll find highlights from the recent FILTCON 2024 Conference held by AFS in Houston, Texas, where research was center stage. The event was held in the midst of another historical astrological event on April 8, where the Moon’s shadow swept across the U.S., as millions (including me) watched the total solar eclipse, which won’t occur again for another two decades. People still look to space for inspiration. Keep reaching!

International Filtration News Editorial Advisory Board

R. Vijayakumar, Ph.D., Chair

AERFIL

Tel: +1 315-506-6883

Email: vijay@aerfil.com

Rahul Bharadwaj, Ph.D.

Lydall Performance Materials

Tel: +1 603-953-6318

Email: rbharadwaj@lydall.com

Tom Justice, CAFS, NCT

ZENE, LLC Filtration

Tel: 757-378-3857

Email: justfilter@yahoo.com

James J. Joseph

Joseph Marketing

Tel/Fax: +1 757-565-1549

Emai: josephmarketing120@gmail.com

Wenping Li, Ph.D.

Agriltech Research Company

Tel: +1 337-421-6345

Email: wenpingl@agrilectric.com

Robert W. McIlvaine

The McIlvaine Company

Tel: +1 847-784-0013

Email: rmcilvaine@mcilvainecompany.com

Rishit R. Merchant

Parker Hannifin

P: +1 (805) 604-3519

E: rishit.merchant@parker.com

Thad Ptak, Ph.D.

TJ Ptak & Associates

Tel: +1 414-514-8937

Email: thadptak@hotmail.com

If you would like to utilize your expertise to help shape the content in the IFN , consider applying for the IFN Editorial Advisory Board. We welcome participation through input on trends and innovations, new story ideas and overall thought leadership. This is a collaborative board that meets quarterly to discuss the state of the industry. Send an email to Caryn Smith at csmith@inda.org for consideration.

6 IFN ISSUE 3 2024
CONTENT | EDITORIAL CHIEF CONTENT OFFICER Caryn Smith Driven By Design LLC csmith@inda.org | +1 239.225.6137 EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION MANAGER Ken Norberg ken@filtnews.com | +1 202.681.2022 ART DIRECTOR Julie Flynn INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT Adrian Wilson ADVERTISING | SALES PUBLISHER Driven By Design LLC advertising@inda.media | +1 239.225.6137 ADVERTISING COORDINATOR Vickie Smead vsmead@inda.org +1 919 459 3700 x 3720 AUDIENCE | CIRCULATION CIRCULATION MANAGER inda@stamats.com | +1 800.553.8878 INTERNATIONAL FILTRATION NEWS (ISSN: 1078-4136x), is published bi-monthly by INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, +1 919.459.3700. Subscription price is $125 per year for non-U.S. subscribers. Periodicals postage paid at Novi, MI, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to International Filtration News, PO Box 158 Cedar Rapids IA 52406-0158 USA. International Filtration News is published by INDA Media, the B2B publishing arm of INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry. +1 919.459.3700 info@filtnews.com | www.filtnews.com News & Press Releases to IFNNews@inda.media
MISSION International Filtration News covers the topics and technologies that will shape the future of filtration and separation. Using subject matter experts from all parts of the industry, IFN is the leading source for the dialogues, debates and innovations across the full spectrum of filtration and separation applications and processes.
TM
Join the world’s largest Filtration Event FILTECH November 12 – 14, 2024 Cologne – Germany The Filtration Event www.Filtech.de Platform for your success Choose and reserve your space or register as a visitor: Filtech.de Your contact: Suzanne Abetz· E-mail: info@filtech.de More Space More Exhibitors More Solutions for all F+S Tasks U.S. Companies are cordially invited to join the U.S. Pavilion 500 + Exhibitors

SPOTLIGHT TECH

Developing Sustainable Gel to Remove PFAS

Harmful chemicals could be lurking in drinking water in many places, and Chemistry Assistant Professor James Reuther at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell (UMASS Lowell) wants to filter them out.

Reuther and his research group are developing a sustainable water filtration system that can remove per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which are long-lasting chemicals linked to harmful health effects. The project is being funded by grants totaling nearly $85,000 from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Technology Transfer Center.

“PFAS is one of the biggest environmental concerns of our time,” Reuther said. “We need new ways to get rid of the pervasive chemicals in a very efficient manner.”

Since the 1940s, PFAS have been used in a wide variety of products, from nonstick cookware to firefighting foam. Scientists later discovered that exposure to PFAS may lead to increased cancer risks, decreased fertility and several other health issues. Federal and state agencies have taken steps to protect communities from exposure, but risks remain because PFAS, which are often referred to as forever chemicals, persist in the environment and the body.

 The gel, pictured on the left, filters out PFAS by trapping the chemicals in naturally formed voids, as seen in the microscopic image of the gel on the right.

q Ph.D. students Dylan Shuster, left, and Shayesteh Tafazoli, right, are assisting Chemistry Asst. Prof. James Reuther, center, with the research.

“PFAS have this exceptional stability, so it takes massive energy to break them down,” Reuther explained. “They’re so pervasive –used so often, and literally everywhere. You can test the blood of individuals all across the country, and there’s almost a guarantee that you’ll find PFAS.”

People can be exposed to PFAS through drinking water, which becomes contaminated

when the chemicals enter the environment, such as at firefighter training sites. To filter PFAS out of the water, Reuther and his team created a gel by linking together polymers, which are chemical compounds consisting of bonded molecules. The linked polymers naturally form voids, which trap pollutants as water moves through.

Traditionally, activated carbon is used to remove PFAS and other pollutants from the water, as it has a similar porous nature, but it lacks a major benefit found in the filtering gel created by Reuther and his team.

“These gels are adaptable, meaning we can give them specific properties (by changing their

polymer structure) so that they target specific pollutants to be removed from the water,” said Shayesteh Tafazoli, a polymer science Ph.D. student working in Reuther’s lab. The gel filters out PFAS by trapping the chemicals in naturally formed voids. The gels are also a sustainable alternative to activated carbon filters, which need to be thrown away once they become filled with pollutants. The researchers can open the gel and remove the PFAS by applying a stimulus like ultraviolet light. The PFAS can then be properly disposed of and the gel reused.

“The sustainability aspect is the most enticing piece of this. We don’t want to be adding to the problem,” said Dylan Shuster, a sustainable chemistry Ph.D. student working in Reuther’s lab.

The researchers are looking at ways to improve the filtering gel. They are exploring the possibility of decomposing PFAS on the material itself, as well as ways to remove heavy metals and other contaminants from water. www.uml.edu

 For details on how to submit your company’s technology for consideration as a “Technology Spotlight” in IFN , contact Ken Norberg at ken@filtnews.com or +1 202.681.2022.

8 IFN ISSUE 3 202 4
UMASS Lowell
Images:

NOTES TECH

Camfil Introduces Gold Series Timer

Camfil Air Pollution Control (APC), a manufacturer of industrial dust, fume and mist collection systems for industrial processes, recently released the Gold Series Timer, its latest dust collection controller. The GST’s innovative design delivers a user-friendly, easily applied pulse-jet cleaning control solution for industrial dust collection systems.

The GST stands out with its pulse output modules, which are seamlessly expandable to accommodate various solenoid valve types and dust collector sizes. Its integrated differential pressure sensor not only enables pulse-on-demand cleaning but also ensures high-pressure alarms for enhanced safety, and extra pulsing modes as necessary.

The GST features an exceptionally clear UV-resistant LCD, conveniently accessible front panel settings and controls, and expandable analogue and digital input/output options. The diagnostic logic embedded in the system provides real-time alerts, ensuring swift response to pulse valve solenoid and diaphragm failures. www.camfilapc.com

DuPont Launches New Nanofiltration Elements for Dairy Processors

DuPont Water Solutions has launched the new FilmTec™ Hypershell™ NF245XD range of nanofiltration elements for use in the dairy industry. The durable elements are purpose-designed for use in longlasting and efficient solutions for the separation and demineralization of milk and whey streams.

“The sanitary full-fit design of FilmTec™ Hypershell™ elements is specifically designed for food and dairy processing applications to help reduce the volume of water and energy consumed when concentrating milk and separating lactose or whey,” said Yolanda Cuenca, Global Technical Leader Dairy.

“OEMs, plant managers, and operators across the dairy ingredients industry are constantly seeking more cost-effective separation and demineralization solutions,” said Arturo López, Global Marketing Leader Dairy. “FilmTec™ Hypershell™ NF245XD elements can help them maximize operational efficiency by improving product yield while consuming less energy than alternative solutions.” www.dupont.com

NX Filtration Signs Key Agreements in Vietnam

NX Filtration announced significant strides in advancing sustainable water solutions in Vietnam with the signing of two pivotal agreements. These agreements mark a crucial step forward in the company’s commitment to environmental stewardship and the promotion of circular economy principles.

In partnership with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Nam Cau Kien Industrial Park, NX Filtration will embark on a groundbreaking feasibility study for industrial wastewater reclamation. Over 12 months, the company’s break through hollow fiber Nano membrane technology will be deployed, with the initial six months dedicated to operations. This innovative approach not only facilitates the recycling of wastewater for industrial purposes but also positions Nam Cau Kien Industrial Park as a trailblazer in Vietnam’s green industrial landscape.

Additionally, NX Filtration’s collaboration with CA Water JSC and Climate Fund Managers (CFM) heralds a new era of sustainable water management at the La Giang Water Treatment Plant in Duc Tho District, Ha Tinh Province. Through this partnership, NX Filtration aims to integrate its hollow fiber Nano membrane technology into the existing water treatment infrastructure. The successful implementation of this project will not only bolster the plant’s capacity to provide clean and safe water to the local community but also serve as a blueprint for future sustainable water management initiatives. www.nxfiltration.com

ISSUE 3 2024 FILTNEWS.COM 9
p From the signing of the agreements, left to right: Mr. Mark Harbers, Minister of Infrastructure and Water Management; Ms. Christianne van der Wal, Minister at the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality; Mr. Robert Gerard, Sales Director at NX Filtration; Mr. Pham Hong Diep, Chairman of Shinec JSC; Ms. Ingrid Thijssen, President of the Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW); and Mr. Nguyen Quang Vinh, Vice President of Vietnam Chamber of Commerce (VCCI).

TECH

NOTES

Toray Develops Reverse Osmosis Membrane

Freudenberg Launches Fully Synthetic Wetlaid Nonwovens for Filtration

Toray Industries, Inc., has developed a highly durable reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. This innovative offering guarantees the long-term provision of high-quality water. It also maintains the superior removal performance of Toray’s existing membranes vital for reusing industrial wastewater and treating sewage. The new membrane offers double the resistance to cleaning chemicals of conventional counterparts. This reduces performance degradation from membrane wear and simplifies operational management, halving replacement frequencies and shrinking the product’s carbon footprint.

The company is preparing to mass produce this membrane and launch it in the rapidly expanding Chinese market in the first half of 2024. It looks to develop products with the new membrane for the global market thereafter, including Japan.

The broad applications of RO membranes include desalinating seawater and river water, reusing wastewater, and producing drinking water as a technology to ensure sustainable water sources. Reusing wastewater entails treating water of diverse quality levels with RO membranes. The downside is that an increased reliance on cleaning chemicals to purge contaminants on the membrane surface to maintain their operational efficiency deforms their pores, diminishing removal performance. This has spurred demand for more resilient membranes. www.toray.com

CMU Chemists, Engineers Work on Water Filtration Technique for the Military

A polymer developed at Central Michigan University could provide a new generation of water filtration technology for the U.S. Department of Defense. It also has the potential to help solve stubborn water quality issues.

Three members of the chemistry and engineering faculty – Brad Fahlman, Itzel Marquez and Anja Mueller – are working on two types of filters using the polymer to remove ammonia and a form of arsenic in a water filtration system.

A graphitic material composed with the polymer would do the heavy lifting. The process begins in a lab where contaminants are imprinted on the polymer. Those contaminants are then removed from the polymer, leaving tiny indentations that fit

the contaminant like a key in a lock, according to Fahlman.

The CMU research team is looking at two applications to clean water. One involves a membrane, which is Mueller’s specialty. Marquez is working the other angle, mixing the polymer and contaminated water in a filter similar to a home pitcher.

The membrane theoretically would work faster, but that brings its own challenges, Mueller said. It must permit water to flow through it without breaking.

Freudenberg Performance Materials unveiled a new 100 percent synthetic wetlaid nonwoven product line made in Germany. The new materials can be manufactured from various types of polymer-based fibers, including ultra-fine micro-fibers. These unique wetlaid materials from Freudenberg are designed for use in filtration applications as well as other industrial applications. This product line rounds off the wide range of wetlaid nonwoven capabilities from the leading manufacturer of high-performance materials.

Customers in the filtration business can use Freudenberg’s new fully synthetic wetlaid nonwovens in both liquid and air filtration. Applications include support for reverse osmosis membranes, support for nanofibers or PTFE membranes, as well as oil filtration media. The new materials are suited to use in the building and construction industry or the composites industry. www.freudenberg-pm.com

The polymer has lots of folds and bulges which attract and trap contaminants. The polymer technology has far-reaching potential, according to Fahlman. It can be replicated

to remove a wide range of contaminants, including some that are currently proving difficult like PFAS. www.cmich.edu

10 IFN ISSUE 3 202 4
p Anja Mueller, a member of Central Michigan University’s chemistry and biochemistry department, talks to two students while conducting research on a molecule that can remove contaminants from water to make it potable.

ELSNER Revolutionizes Filtration Manufacturing with Automation

As industries continually seek ways to streamline production processes and enhance product quality, automation emerges as a critical component in achieving these objectives. ELSNER stands at the forefront of automation, offering comprehensive solutions tailored to the spiral element and other filter element production sectors. With a focus on every step of the production process, from tape application to glue bead placement, ELSNER’s machinery is designed to elevate productivity and quality, providing manufacturers with the confidence they need in their investment.

Enhanced Productivity Through Automation

ELSNER’s commitment to innovation is evident in its line of automated machinery, which addresses the entire spectrum of the spiral element and other filter element production. This range of equipment is not just about speeding up production times; it’s about redefining what’s possible in terms of efficiency and output quality. By integrating automated solutions like the EMF-42 for automatic membrane folding and the APB-42 for filter assembly and rolling, ELSNER enables manufacturers to reduce the margin for human error significantly. This precision ensures products of consistently high quality, with the added benefits of increased production uniformity and accuracy.

Revolutionizing Workflows and Saving Resources

In the face of labor shortages, automation has become a strategic advantage and necessity. ELSNER’s machinery, including the innovative SFR-42 for filter rolling and gluing, offers a way forward. By automating complex and repetitive

tasks, companies can maintain operations with fewer employees, allowing them to redeploy human resources to more critical, skill-intensive areas of the production process. This not only optimizes productivity but also opens avenues for employee growth and skill development within the organization.

Comprehensive Solutions for Spiral Element and Other Filter Element Production

ELSNER Engineering Works provides a comprehensive approach to automation in spiral element and other filter element production. Their solutions cover:

Filter Rolling and Gluing: With the SFR-42, tasks such as applying glue and outer wrap tape for spiral wound membrane filters are automated, minimizing manual labor and improving throughput.

Filter Element Finishing: The Element Trim Saw is meticulously designed for finishing the edges of industrial liquid filtration elements, ensuring a flawless final product.

Automatic Membrane Folding: The EMF-42 machine transforms membrane and plastic mesh into precisely folded “leaves,” streamlining the production process.

Filter Assembly and Rolling: The APB-42 automates the assembly of filter components, enhancing efficiency and consistency.

ELSNER Engineering’s global footprint, with over 3000 machines operating across 60 countries, underscores its reputation as a leader in automation solutions for the filtration industry. By embracing ELSNER’s technologies, companies can meet and exceed their customers’ growing demands, setting new standards for productivity and quality in the manufacturing world.

eew@elsnereng.com

ISSUE 3 2024 FILTNEWS.COM 11
ADVERTORIAL | SOLUTION CENTER: FILTRATION

Resilient Molded End Cap Polyurethanes

Epic Resins Adds a Resilient Line of Molded End Cap Polyurethanes

Epic Resins is committed to serving global customers as a trusted partner in superior quality resins and polymers. Their philosophy is based on listening to your needs and developing quality solutions to meet your challenges. The company was built on technology-proven chemistry and a wealth of market and application knowledge. This guarantees consistent products and maximum value.

Founded and headquartered in Wisconsin for 65 years, Epic Resins has formulated, manufactured and supplied high-quality epoxy resins and polyurethanes to a wide range of industries. Specializing in potting and encapsulation compounds and adhesives, Epic Resins delivers products to enhance customer profitability and performance.

Because Your Design Can NOT Be Compromised

Whether you’re a spa equipment supplier wanting a filter end cap material, an OEM supplier seeking an air filter potting compound or an automotive manufacturer looking for a chemical resistant filter adhesive, Epic Resins can formulate it.

Epic Resins, a renowned manufacturer of epoxy resin and polyurethane products, answers the needs of the filtration market

with their ToughPleat series. This line of molded end cap polyurethanes boasts exceptional performance and versatility.

The ToughPleat series is comprised of a range of two-component polyurethane formulations specifically developed for molded end caps. These VOCfree polyurethanes are engineered to possess outstanding tear resistance and high strength, making them ideal for demanding applications in molded filter end caps. Common uses of the material include bag house filters and hightemperature, under-the-hood automotive applications.

User-Friendly Features

The material’s robust yet flexible nature makes it particularly well-suited for filters that are subjected to constant pulsing and/or pressure drops. By providing superior tear resistance, ToughPleat ensures that filters remain undamaged during the installation or removal process. Its high tensile strength and elongation properties ensure durability and longevity, even under demanding conditions.

One of the standout features of this series is its user-friendly composition. With a convenient mix ratio by volume

and low viscosity, these polyurethanes can be easily dispensed and seamlessly integrated with various types of metering equipment.

Enhance Productivity & Cost Savings

ToughPleat’s fast gel time guarantees quick turnover of filters and production cycles. The overall efficiency of the manufacturing process reduces work-inprogress (WIP) time in many production configurations. This efficiency boost translates into enhanced productivity and cost savings for manufacturers.

Multiple Versions Available

Each filter application has its own set of unique requirements. To address this, the ToughPleat series offers multiple versions tailored to specific property needs. Filled and unfilled versions of the material with a mixed color of black or gray are available with property versions that vary based on:

• Hardness

• Tensile strength

• Elongation

• Tensile modulus

• Tear strength

ToughPleat benefits for molded end cap applications:

• High tensile strength

• High elongation

• Excellent tear resistance

• Easy to dispense

• Reduced WIP time www.epicresins.com

12 IFN ISSUE 3 202 4
ADVERTORIAL | SOLUTION CENTER: POLYMERS
p Epic Resins development and quality assurance labs are equipped with the latest in analytical testing equipment, ensuring product consistency and superior technical support. p The chemists at Epic Resins work directly with your engineering and manufacturing departments, enabling us to provide you with effective solutions to fit your demanding needs. p ToughPleat series is a solvent-free formula designed to have excellent tear resistance and high strength for demanding molded filter end cap applications.

Introducing All-New, Redesigned

ROTH MFM3-S High-Speed Blade Pleater

Breakthrough Performance/Premium Quality/Unbelievable Technology

Pleating Systems & Equipment – a leading supplier of high-quality manufacturing equipment and contract pleating services – specializes in helping filter manufacturers to select the right type of equipment and solutions to fit their filter production needs.

The principals of “PSE” have owned and operated the largest privately owned filter manufacturing facility in the United States from 1996, while simultaneously owning the most successful pleating machine distributorship for over 25 years. We are experts in filter manufacturing, pleating machinery and accessories and understand the challenges manufacturers face. At PSE, we are third-generation filtration family and continue to provide outstanding solutions for our customers.

Next Evolution in Pleating Technology has Arrived

The all-new ROTH MFM3-S CNC Digital Blade Pleater. Next level performance packed with groundbreaking speeds while maintaining utmost precision. ROTH Composite Machinery has set the bar high with industry leading engineering and patented core on an all-new highspeed design.

The ROTH MFM3-S, an incredibly engineered high-speed blade pleating machine, now producing a NEW recordbreaking speed of up to 510 pleats per minute! A perfect balance of high precision pleating and extreme speeds without compromising its robust strength.

The remarkable MFM3-S is built to last a lifetime running 24 hrs/7 days a week, process approved.

Roth Industries, partnered with Pleating Systems & Equipment, was founded in 1947, is supported by over 1,000 employees globally, and has long been respected as an innovator in the areas Building &

Contract Pleating

PSE continuously runs multiple contract pleating lines to accommodate customer’s overflow pleating requirements, interim machine sale pleating. Our production lines feature our new CroyBilt Integrated Mini Pleat Systems and the latest High-Speed CNC ROTH Blade Pleaters. Capabilities include 4-300mm pleat heights including glue bead application.

Used Equipment and Trade-In Program

Used pleating equipment can be a great way to get started or expand your growing filtration business. PSE regularly acquires used pleating equipment, often via our trade-in program. Customers can frequently check our website to see what treasures we have in our warehouse.

 High Speed CNC Blade Pleaters

 Integrated Mini-Pleat Systems

 Servo Rotary Pleaters

 USED Equipment

 Contract Pleating

 OEM Parts & Service

www.pseusa.com

ISSUE 3 202 4 FILTNEWS.COM 13
ADVERTORIAL | SOLUTION CENTER: MINI PLEAT SYSTEMS
p ROTH MFM3-S paired with the NEW High-Speed MPS-1000 (Black Edition) Mini Pleater.

EMERGENCE

In this new feature, IFN will highlight significant research from universities and institutions around the world. If you are a part of a project you would like to highlight, email csmith@inda.org. Please write “IFN Emerging Research Submission” in your subject line in order to apply. Please send a completed press release and/or summary of the research as you would want it to be printed, a link to the university online story (if applicable), and all high resolution photographs/charts/graphs, short researcher bio(s). All selections could be edited for length.

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY

Reimaging Kidney Dialysis with New Paradigm for Dialysis Membranes

Acollaborative team led by Piran Kidambi, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, William Fissell, associate professor of nephrology and hypertension at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Shuvo Roy, professor of bioengineering at University of California, San Francisco, and Francesco Fornasiero, biosciences and biotechnology staff scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, has developed a new type of filter for kidney dialysis machines that can clean the blood more efficiently and improve patient care.

Chronic kidney disease, a condition where kidney damage results in poor blood filtration, affects approximately 697.5 million people – or 9 percent of the global population. Treatment includes hemofiltration, hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Hemofiltration and hemodialysis support the kidneys by filtering toxins and waste products from blood.

The new filter uses carbon nanotubes – tiny tubes formed by a sheet of carbon atoms bonded in a hexagonal honeycomb mesh structure – that have very small, smooth channels. These channels make it easier to remove toxins and waste from the blood without letting important proteins escape, which can be a problem with traditional filters.

In the article “High-Performance Hemofiltration via Molecular Sieving and Ultra-Low Friction in Carbon Nanotube Capillary Membranes,” published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials on Aug. 27, 2023, Kidambi and his coauthors demonstrate that their dialysis

membranes made up of carbon nanotubes and polymers create a new paradigm for dialysis.

“Our membranes outperform state-of-the-art dialysis membranes by more than an order of magnitude while simultaneously allowing for enhanced removal of middle molecules that could cause toxicity and other health complications,” Kidambi said. “We showed that precise control of carbon nanotube diameters not only allowed for enhanced and effective removal of middle molecules, but the straight channel geometry as well as slippery walls of the nanotubes allowed for significantly enhanced flow.”

Wafer-scale vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated into a membrane platform comprising sub-5 nm channels/capillarie enable overcoming persistent challenges in hemofiltration/hemodialysis. Compared with conventional membranes, CNT membranes allow for greatly enhanced removal of middle molecules (≈15–60 kDa) while maintaining comparable albumin (≈66 kDa) retention and significantly higher hydraulic

permeability (more than an order of magnitude when normalized to pore-area).

(Cheng, Ferrell, et. al.)

The work also yielded fundamental insights on how biomolecules transport in nanoscale constrictions. Like an octopus that can contort itself to fit in the smallest spaces and then expand, Kidami and his co-authors discovered that biomolecules squeeze into the entrance of the nanotube in the membrane, travel through it and expand again on the other side. This knowledge can help researchers and engineers design membranes for biological separations beyond dialysis.

Using better membranes in dialysis is beneficial for patient care. Kidambi and his colleagues plan to assess long-term operational feasibility, blood compatibility and other questions about the filter to develop it for patient care. They aim to further this technology with advances the Kidambi lab has made in graphene.

“Our goal is to enable smaller kits for dialysis so they can go to patients, instead of them coming to the hospital and getting strapped into a dialysis machine three times a week for four hours,”

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International Filtration News Explores Trending Innovation
RESEARCH
Peifu Cheng (Submitted) Piran Kidambi, Vanderbilt University

said Peifu Cheng, a postdoctoral research associate in the Kidambi lab and the paper’s first author. “That would be a huge improvement in the quality of life of the patient. Our long-term goal is to move toward implantable devices.”

— © 2024 Vanderbilt University The research was supported by faculty startup funds from Vanderbilt University and Kidambi’s NSF CAREER award. A portion of this work was performed at the Molecular Foundry, which was supported by the Offices of Science and of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Read: https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2023/09/20/ vanderbilt-team-reimagines-kidney-dialysis-bycreating-new-paradigm-for-dialysis-membranes/

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY

Ian Hosein Awarded New Process Patent – Energy from Saltwater Report by Kwami

The lack of access to clean drinking water impacts billions worldwide. With an estimated 46% of the global population affected, underdeveloped communities don’t have the means to utilize efficient technology for water purification. As the percentage of those affected grows, associate professor Ian Hosein was recently awarded a patent that shows promise in addressing global water security and revolutionizing sustainability. To Hosein, sustainability is more than just a solution to environmental issues – it’s a means of empowerment.

his patent by exploring the effectiveness of current filtration systems.

“We worked a lot with polymers and plastics, which were great for filtration down to the atomic scale. They’re also impermeable to salts and let certain things in and out,” Hosein said. “Since most filtrations are using plastics, former student Fuhao Chen G’19 discovered that if you have saltwater on one side of the plastic film, and no salt on the other, you’ve essentially created a battery. Saltwater has a lot of energy, so when you place it next to non-salty water, there’s diffusion.”

Taking this a step further, they discovered the potential of using other materials to regulate the high and low energy difference between salty and non-salty water and harness it as energy.

“If you put a barrier between salt water and non-salty water, you have all this stored energy on one side and low energy on the other. It’s like hydroelectricity in a dam and you can control the current or amount of electricity produced.”

“There’s an enormous amount of energy out there at a time when the world needs it most,” Hosein said. “We’re taking energy from the sea, which everyone has access to, and providing a simple technology to be able to harness that energy.”

As an associate professor in biomedical and chemical engineering and a leader of a research group that develops sustainable technologies, Hosein is dedicated to clean energy efforts. Sparked by a student’s curiosity to investigate alternative energy sources, he began the journey to

The ability to control the amount of electricity produced is what distinguishes Hosein’s patent from other patents. While many filtration systems rely on a plastic film similar to Hosein’s device, they’re passive, meaning they can’t control the amount of electricity produced. Hosein’s patented technology is active, which means it can apply additional voltage on both sides to amplify its efficiency. Other filtration systems may have inconsistent voltage depending on how much salt is in the water.

“Our planet is 96% saltwater, and saltwater also doesn’t discriminate,” he said. “It’s accessible to everyone, and anyone can gain access to clean energy with this. This could change the world.”

With help from the University’s Office of Technology Transfer, they obtained a patent for the device, which Hosein intends to utilize to power small residentials and sealines. If his patented technology is scaled up, it may even be able

to power sea transportation, which currently relies heavily on carbon-based fuels. With this renewable technology, Hosein also hopes to level the playing field of sustainability.

“Sustainable energy is very empowering,” he said. “With this tech, people can empower themselves to generate their own energy and have access to clean energy. They may not have access to oil and coal, but they do have seawater. With this device, we’re closer to a world where everyone has access to clean water and more renewable energy.”

— © 2024 Syracuse University News

Read: https://news.syr.edu/blog/2023/09/28/ ian-hosein-awarded-new-patent-for-process-thatgenerates-energy-from-saltwater/

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN

Injectable Water Filtration System Could Improve Access to Clean Drinking Water

Report by Nat Levy, Cockrell School of Engineering

More than two billion people, approximately a quarter of the world’s population, lack access to clean drinking water. A new, portable and affordable water filtration solution created by researchers at The University of Texas at Austin aims to change that.

The new system collects dirty water with a syringe and injects it into a hydrogel filter that weeds out nearly all tiny particles. It also offers significant advantages in cost, simplicity, effectiveness and sustainability compared with existing commercial options, giving users the ability to easily decontaminate water from nearby streams and rivers and make it drinkable.

“The pressing concern of particlepolluted water, particularly in remote and underdeveloped regions where people frequently rely on contaminated water sources for consumption, demands immediate attention and recognition,” said Guihua Yu, a professor of materials science in the Cockrell School of Engineer’s Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Materials Institute. “Our system, with its high efficiency in removing diverse types of particles,

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Ian Hosein, associate professor of biomedical and chemical engineering.

offers an attractive yet practical solution in improving freshwater availability.”

Today’s options for portable water filtration of tiny particles mostly consist of filter paper and microporous membranes. According to the research, these devices filter out about 40% and 80% of particles larger than 10 nanometers, respectively. This new system catches close to 100% of these particles.

CU BOULDER

a universal trade-off where those with high water permeability also struggle to remove salt. That is, membranes that can process a high volume of water are also inherently limited in their ability to clean that water.

“They are also vulnerable to degradation from chemicals used in water treatment,” Straub said. “So, there are a lot of advantages to pursuing this technology and possibly integrating it into existing treatment process.”

It is made of low-cost, sustainable, readily available materials. The main innovation is an intertwined web of nanocellulose fibers that catches particles while the newly cleaned water passes through.

All the user has to do is take the syringe to the nearest water source, pull out the water and inject it through the filter. The system takes care of the rest, producing clean, drinkable water.

The filter system has been tested with several types of water sources, including muddy water, river water and water contaminated with microplastics. The hydrogel films are biodegradable and can be used up to 30 times before replacing.

The research team has tested the technology using syringes as large as 1.5 liters, about 40% of an individual’s daily drinking water needs, and plan to continue developing the technology to use it at larger scales to tackle global drinking water needs.

“The reality is a large percentage of the world’s population lacks access to safe drinking water, even in places where fresh water sources are available,” said Chuxin Lei, lead author and a graduate student working in Yu’s lab. “There is an urgent need for simple, universal and efficient materials and devices for purifying particle-contaminated water, which should be able to help people around the world obtain clean water.”

© The University of Texas at Austin 2024 Team members on the project also include colla-borators from Northeast Forestry University, Shanghai Tech University and Tsinghua University in China.

Read: https://news.utexas.edu/2024/01/22/injectablewater-filtration-system-could-improve-access-toclean-drinking-water/

New Membrane Filtering Technology Could Help Address Water Scarcity

Researchers have developed a new membrane water filtration system based around air bubbles that can help address water scarcity issues around the world.

Membrane filters generally use pressure to force water through a sieve to separate out unwanted particles and contaminants. The new membrane system is unique in that it uses a tiny layer of air bubbles to distill the water rather than sieve it. This change makes the system more permeable and better at removing unwanted impurities than the common reverse osmosis systems working today.

The new technology is described in a recently published journal article in Science Advances, and the work on campus was led by Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering Assistant Professor Anthony Straub with Ph.D. student Duong Nguyen contributing as first author.

“These can be utilized to purify water to a very high degree when it comes to desalination of seawater and in wastewater reuse efforts,” Straub said. “We also have ongoing work with NASA to use these membranes to recycle water during space exploration and research missions.”

Current state-of-the-art engineered membranes are all limited in their use by

Nguyen is originally from the coastal area near Hanoi in Vietnam where maintaining clean water supplies is still a big challenge because of contamination from industrial activities. He has experienced how a lack of efficient water treatment technologies and poor water infrastructure negatively impacted people in the area.

“A passion for both securing water resources and improving water quality for my community – and globally – is what led me to pursue a degree and research into water purification membranes at CU Boulder,” he said. “The university has a strong reputation in this field with many faculty that are the top researchers in water treatment and reuse, including my advisor professor Straub. I have learned a lot from him, both in conducting research and in terms of professional development during my Ph.D. training here.”

Straub said the university has a strong history in water reuse research – primarily through the Membrane Science Engineering and Technology Center on campus and ongoing activity in the Environmental Engineering Program. He added that the team used the Colorado Shared Instrumentation in Nanofabrication and Characterization facility on campus to complete the highly interdisciplinary work.

“We have been trying to create this type of membrane for years,” he said. “We will now look at ways to scale it up and potentially integrate it into existing approaches to water treatment.”

— © University of Colorado

Read: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv. adg6638

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Nguyen and Straub.

Optimal Fiber Processability Increase Machine Uptime Improve Fiber Quality

bekaert.com/filtration Filtration media Bekipor® The recyclable approach to filtration, creating a cleaner world

FAUTOMOTIVE & AEROSPACE

FIBERS IN FILTRATION GREEN 0R DURABLE?

ibers are main raw materials for making filter media in aerospace and automotive filtration applications. They can be chosen from a wide range of materials, including celluloses, thermoplastics, and glass fibers. Among them, cellulose fibers are popular choices in making filtration paper in fuel filters, cabin air filters, engine oil filters, and engine air filters in automobiles, aircrafts, and spacecrafts due to their advantages of good processability, desirable chemical and mechanical properties, and relatively low cost. The most common cellulose fibers available in the market for filtration purposes are plan-based pulp fibers, including hardwood pulp fibers, softwood pulp fibers, cotton pulp fibers, and their treated (e.g., mercerized, bleached) versions.

Cellulose fibers are bio-based materials. They are derived from cellulose, a natural polymer serving as a structural component of plant cell walls. Their bio-based origin means that they might have less environmental impact, or smaller carbon footprint, than their petrochemical-based counterparts such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polypropylene (PP) if being manufactured in an appropriate way. At the same time, cellulose fibers are also biodegradable, which means that they can be broken down to based substances such as water and carbon diox-

ide in a relatively short period of time by living organisms. However, as the used cellulose fibers contain oil and contaminants, and are mixed with metals and petrochemical-based fibers and polymers, they often end up being burnt in metal recycling or energy recovery facilities before they are decomposed by organisms.

On the other hand, used cellulose paper can also be broken down into single fibers by fiber disintegrators, after removing polymers and other unwanted substances. The single fibers can be used for making recycled filter paper. Research from China’s Tianjin University of Science and Technology (TUST) shows that recycled cellulose filter paper would have slightly lower bursting strength, stiffness, and tensile index than new paper, but still good enough to be used in some less demanding applications.

However, in real practice, cellulose filter paper is usually not recycled because this is not economically favorable – metal and oil are usually the primary goals of in a filter recycling process. In California, used metal-encased oil and fuel filters will be crushed and recycled to recover metal, while used paper-only oil and fuel filters are recycled as a source of fuel at energy recovery facilities. In some other places, filter paper is picked out from metal canisters or mesh by hand, and then made

into a mush to separate out the oil – that mush is difficult to be recycled or reused, and often burnt or sent to landfills.

In fact, there are some patents that focused on recovering filter papers from engine air and cabin air filters. For example, the China-based Bengbu Hongfa Filters Co. Ltd. has a patented technology to recycle filtration paper from engine air filters by using high pressure nitrogen and a repair fluid. Although these kind of technologies have never been really commercialized, they may have a chance to take off in the future as a part of the world’s greener economy.

Bio-Based Cellulose Composites

Different types of cellulose fibers are often mixed together to produce composites that combine their advantages for aerospace and automotive filtration applications. In general, hardwood pulp fibers are relatively low-cost, while softwood pulp fibers may have higher permeability.

On the other hand, mercerization treatment often increases a pulp fiber’s permeability and cost, while reducing its strength. In other words, composites made of different types of cellulose fibers may achieve a balance among permeability, pore sizes, strength, contaminant holding capacity, cost, and other characteristics.

The MA-based Hollingsworth & Vose (H&V) and the Finland-headquartered

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TRANSPORTATION

Ahlstrom Oyj (Ahlstrom), among several others, are leading global suppliers for cellulose fiber-based filter media. Other companies mainly focus on regional markets, providing tailored solutions serving their local customers. As a whole, they are actively working on developing new filtration composites with innovated structure, producing a substantial number of patented technologies related to aerospace and automotive filter media every year.

Some research also incorporates other cellulose fibers such as lyocell, viscose, and cellulose nanofilament (CNF) into the above-mentioned popular hardwood, softwood, and cotton pulp fibers. These composites provide additional functions while maintaining relatively low cost and bio-based and biodegradable benefits.

For example, the China-based Qilu University of Technology (QUT) developed a composite from hardwood pulp fibers, lyocell and CNF. Their research showed that when the lyocell content reached 60% in terms of weight, the composite would achieve a good balance between filtration efficiency and resistance – it can remove 98.97% of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) when the filtration resistance is at 146.7 Pa. In this structure, CNF is applied on the surface of the composite to increase the efficiency for capturing small particles.

Bio-Based and Degradable Binders

Binder is a crucial component for improving the mechanical properties of filter media. It is usually made of thermoset resins such as epoxy, acrylic and phenolic aldehyde, and applied to the fibers by spray impregnation, dip impregnation, or coating methods. In addition, it is often modified by or incorporated with other materials such as carboxylic nitrile latex to further improve its binding ability, and consequently the filter media’s mechanical properties.

However, these thermoset binders are usually not bio-based, nor biodegradable. Although bio-based and biodegradable binders have shown in the market, their applications are currently not available for aerospace and automotive filtration. For example, the Sweden-based

p Top: Ahlstrom’s oil and fuel cellulose-based filter platform (in microfiber glass or 100% cellulose) is fine fiber laminate with high capacity and also fuel water separation on standard fuels and advanced composites for biodiesel and aggressive fuel water separation. Ahlstrom

Center, left: OrganoClick’s 100% biobased binder OC-BioBinder™ is based on biopolymers from residual waste streams in the food industry. With these biobinders, nonwoven and technical textiles can become 100% biodegradable, non-toxic and 100% compostable. OrganoClick

Center right: H&V’s End-of-Life Fuel Water Separation solution is based on glass fiber filtration media. Long Service Interval (LSI) glass fiber media has high dust-holding capacity (DHC), which is twice that of cellulose melt-blown media. H&V

Bottom: Donaldson’s Ultra-Web® technology is made with an electrospinning process that produces a very fine, continuous, resilient fiber of 0.2-0.3 micron in diameter, forming a permanent fine fiber web with very fine interfiber spaces that trap dust on the surface of the media. Donaldson

OrganoClick has developed a bio-based binder called OC-BioBinder™ from residual streams in the food industry such as orange peel, shrimp shells and wheat bran. It is used for binding nonwoven and technical textiles made from most fiber types, including cellulose fibers, showing

a potential for a wide range of industries in the future, although it is not yet used in aerospace and automotive products.

Other researchers are trying to use petrochemical-based but easy-to-degrade binder materials to replace conventional thermoset resins. An example is a patented technology developed by TUST. This technology uses polyhexahydrotriazine (PHT) resin to replace phenolic aldehyde resin as a binder material for pulp fiberbased engine oil filter. TUST found that the degradation rate of PHT would reach 94.2% when the resin was put into a hydrochloric acid and acetone solution at a room temperature for half an hour. After removing PHT, a filter paper can be easily broken to single fibers and recycled.

TUST’s results showed that the tensile index and bursting strength of recycled cellulose fiber filter paper would decrease, respectively, 16.14% and 2.27%, while their other characteristics maintain at similar levels as original filter paper. Although recycling filter paper from used engine oil fibers is not yet economically viable, this patented technology does open a door to the possibility in the future.

Demand for Durability

Although being bio-based, biodegradable and having many other advantages, cellulose fibers often have to incorporate other materials, such as chemical fibers and glass fibers, to improve their durability and reliability when they are exposed in the environment where cellulose-based filter media could easily burst, for example, at a high temperature of 125 to 135°C (257 to 275F) in engine oil. The chemical fibers used for this purpose are mostly thermoplastic fibers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyamides (PAs), and polyacrylonitriles (PANs). The glass fibers used here are mostly microfiber with diameters of only several micrometers.

New composites made by these materials continue to show up. For example, in the last few years, Ahlstrom has developed a series of patented technologies for producing a series of self-supporting pleated oil media from cellulose fibers, thermo-

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plastic fibers, glass fibers, thermoset binders, and additives. These media exhibit a much higher bursting strength than conventional oil filter media, while eliminating the use of expensive metal meshes that support the pleated structure to save some material cost.

There are also many other patented multiple-layer structures developed by other companies every year for the purposes of automotive and aerospace filtration. These activities indicate strong demands for new composites and structures in these industries, which have driven new advanced materials to enter the market as well. Examples include blended fibers made from electrospinning high-strength or high-thermal-resistant resins, such as aramids, polysulphonamide (PSA) and polyimide (PI), with other polymers. Although these materials still have not been available in the market at a large scale, their research and development will no doubt provide new solutions for filters used in tough or new environments, such as fuel-cell vehicles in the future.

Also, every material also has potential to provide additional benefits – a fiber could exhibit significantly different characteristics when it is in different forms. For example, researchers from China’s Xi’an Polytechnic University (XPU) developed a needle-punched nonwoven from regular PET and three-dimensional crimp PET as filter media for engine oil. When the proportion between regular PET and its three-dimensional counterpart readjusted, the nonwoven’s strength, bulk, pore sizes, permeability, and filtration efficiency of the filter material would change accordingly. A desirable combination of different filtration properties can be achieved in this process.

Nanofibers made from different types of materials have also long been used to increase the filters’ ability to capture small particles. For example, the UltraWeb® Media Technology by the MNbased Donaldson Company, Inc., which adds a layer of nanofiber on cellulose media, provide a filter media with high dust holding capacity and high filtration efficiency in engine air filtration.

Recycling filter paper from used engine oil fibers is not yet economically viable, TUST’s patented technology does open a door to the future possibility.

The China-based Newstar Industry (Newstar) also developed a filter material with a nanofiber layer. The base filter paper is a composite made of cotton pulp fibers and softwood pulp fibers. Newstar’s research showed that with additional 4% nanofibers added on the filter paper’s surface, the filter media will have an average porosity of 23.8 μm, while maintaining an air permeability of 115.4 L/m2s when the pressure difference is at 200 Pa. This filter material also shows desirable bursting strength and excellent initial filtration efficiency for removing nanoparticles.

Evolving Media

The cited examples illustrate that cellulose fibers are often partially or even totally replaced by petrochemical-based and non-biodegradable fibers when pursuing durability and reliability. On the other hand, bio-based or biodegradable fibers, such as PLA, chitosan and nylon 56, are also being researched to replace petrochemical fibers in these applications. Some research even focuses on the development of PLA composites for air filtration applications, including cabin air filtration. Although the use of these bio-based materials is still in early stages, a promising and fast-growing market could be expected for the future – similar to what has occurred in the bioplastic industry.

Jason Chen is an international correspondent for International Fiber Journal . He is a leading journalist covering the fiber industry in Asia and a senior analyst who has published more than 50 books and reports for polymers, composites, and other advanced materials and technologies. He can be reached at jasonchen200501@hotmail.com.

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The

Critical Language of Measurements & Standards

“When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind.” – Lord KeLvin

Measurement is the fundamental concept in the study of the sciences, engineering, and other technical fields. It is essential to almost all everyday activities, since in our daily life, we come across different measurement types for length, weight, times, etc. We can look at the measurement as the process of associating numbers with physical quantities; as an activity intended to produce knowledge about the state of an experimental system. Measurement theory covers principles of how numbers are assigned to objects and phenomena, how different measures relate to each other, and the associated amount of error in the measurement process.

According to Eisenhart[1], measurement is defined as “the assignment of numbers [or values] to material things to represent the relations among them with respect to particular properties.” The process of assigning numbers results in an output that can be controlled using statistical techniques, and the value assigned is defined as the measurement value. Three fundamental concepts presented in his publication were immediately accepted:

• Measurement process requires statistical control.

• Statistical control implies a process which is repeatable and reproducible.

• Measurement values must include a statement on uncertainty.

Eisenhart’s work had a permanent effect on measurement processes at NIST and throughout the metrology community; it is widely accepted and utilized by standardization organizations. The comprehensive process to obtain measurements, which can include the collection of instruments or gauges, standards, methods, fixtures, software, and personnel, resulting in the assignment of a number to the feature characteristic being measured is called the measurement system. Because the output of the measurement process is used in making decisions about the product and the manufacturing process, the quality of measurement data, which are commonly characterized by the bias and variance, are critical. The value of using data-based procedures is limited by the quality of the measurement data, which is related to the statistical properties of multiple measurements obtained from a measurement system.

Standardization

Standardization is as old as interactions within human communities and standards have existed since early historical times. The primary purpose of early standards was to bring human activities in line with natural occurrences; first standards were ways of measuring time and space. Time-unit standards were employed by ice age hunters approximately

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iStockphoto/Dmitry Kovalchuk
QUALITY CONTROL

20,000 years ago, by carving lines in caves to keep a count of the days between different phases of the moon. King Henry I in 1120 AD created the preferred unit of measurement based on the length of his arm, which was called the “ell.”

Standards that exist in science, technology and manufacturing have a great impact on our lives since they prevent technological problems that could happen. Technical standards bring improvements to everyday life, and solve problems that have advanced everything from manufacturing to public safety.

Wars have often forced standardization as Greek philosopher Heraclitus stated, “War is the father and king of all.” One example of standardization for military is interchangeable rifle parts, popularized in America when Eli Whitney used them to assemble muskets in the first years of the 19th century.

One of the examples related to the public safety is the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, which burned for more than a day and destroyed 1,500 buildings. Fire companies from New York, Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Harrisburg came to Baltimore to combat the fire; however, most of their fire hoses could not be connected to the fire hydrants. With the lesson learned, the U.S. started many standardization projects.

One of the latest examples of standardization is the charging connector for electric vehicle. Standardizing the North American Charging Standard (NACS) connector will ensure that all manufacturers will be able to install the NACS connector on electric vehicles and at charging stations.

Based on the above examples, the specific meaning of the term “standard” can vary depending on context. It can refer to a unit of measurement, set of practices, specific part or a way of looking at the world. In general, standards assure that technology work properly since they:

• Provide basic terms to measure and evaluate performance;

• Make interchangeability of components made by different manufacturers possible; and,

• Protect consumers by ensuring safety and durability of products.

Major categories of standards include:

• Measurements standards: Fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures.

• Documentary standards : Test methods, sampling procedures, classifications, and others.

Examples of measurement standards include NIST – F1 and F3 atomic clocks, which serve as the basis for civilian time in the U.S.; and the Kibble balance, which is the basis for all mass measurements.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The NIST was founded in 1901 and is the principal standard organization in the U.S. with responsibility of coordination its measurement standards with other countries, development and distribution of measurements and calibration procedures to other measurement systems. A calibration procedure is the process used to transfer the measurements with the intention of bringing the other measurement systems into agreement with measurements produced by NIST. This transfer process typically involves a hierarchical system of transfer; each level relies on its own system of standards.

There are several hierarchy levels of physical measurement standards:

• National standard: usually held by NIST.

• Primary standards: measurements are transferred to it by NIST using state-of-the-art calibration.

• Secondary standards: transferred by an organization with access to a primary standard.

• Working standards: used to calibrate the measurement systems at production facilities.

Figure 1. Traceability pyramid.

Measurements that are connected back to NIST through the proper calibration procedures are defined as traceable to NIST. Similarly, the Department of Defense defines traceability as “the ability to relate individual measurement to national standards or nationally accepted measurement systems through an unbroken chain of comparisons.” Traceability is an important concept since measurements which are traceable to the same standards will agree more closely than those that are not traceable. Traceability can have a positive impact on the reduction of re-testing and rejection or acceptance of products. Figure 1 shows the traceability pyramid; the higher location of the standard in the pyramid, the more accurate the standard (smaller measurement uncertainty).

As indicated, it is impossible to determine the accuracy of a measurement system without using traceable standards. Manufacturing and testing organizations which do not have their own metrology departments typically use services of outside organizations called “calibration labs.” Calibration labs are capable of establishing, under given conditions, the relationship between a specific measuring device and a traceable standard of known reference value and uncertainty.

Technical Standards

Technical standard is a specialized form of document which attempts to create a consistent and uniform practice among a specific community of practice. There are different ways in which organizations develop consensus around standards. The method of developing standards and the formality of the process determine the type of standard. The two primary recognized types of standards are:

• De facto: widely accepted in practice by an industry and its customers, but not formally sanctioned.

• De jure: approved by an official standard organization and developed through a formal process.

Compliance with both types, de facto and de jure standards, is voluntary. However, there are some cases when the de jure standards are cited by legal codes or

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t
A common misunderstanding about standardization is that, the publication of a standard is considered as success and the work is done. It is incorrectly believed that standard adoption and conformance will follow by itself.

regulations, which could make it mandatory to follow. In some cases, a de facto standard can become a de jure standard if taken through a formal standard process.

What is a Standard? One of the best descriptions of a standard can be found on the website of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). According to ISO, the ISO standards are internationally agreed by experts, and they represent the distilled wisdom of people with expertise in their subject matter and who know the needs of the organizations they represent. A standard is like a formula that describes the best way of doing something.

The ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, defines standard in a formal way as “a document that has been developed and established within the consensus process of the Society and that meets the approval requirements of ASTM procedures and regulations.”

ASTM publishes six different types of standards which include: (a) test method, (b) specification, (c) classification, (d) practice, (e) guide, and (f) terminology. Standard Development. Standardization Includes a wide range of considerations – from the actual standard development to its publication, acceptance and implementation. The U.S. standardization system is a decentralized system that is partitioned into industrial sectors and supported by independent, private sector standards developing organizations. It is also a voluntary and demand driven system in which standards are developed and implemented by stakeholders in response to specific concerns and needs expressed by industry, and consumers.

In the U.S., the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which was founded in 1918 is an organization that administers and coordinates the U.S.

standards as well as a conformity assessment system. It approves standards as American National Standards (ANS), and is the U.S. national member body to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and other organizations.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an independent, non-governmental international standard development organization composed of representatives from the national standard organizations of member countries. As of 2023, there are 167 members. The organization develops and publishes standards in technical and other fields.

As stated before, the voluntary system serves as the foundation of the U.S. standardization; standard development depends upon data collecting, discussion and agreement among diverse range of stakeholders. For these reasons, when developing a technical standard, it is critical to include a broad group of contributors in the process.

These contributors must be knowledgeable in order to develop a standard which reflects the current technologies and needs. In order to achieve optimal results, it is important to have a balance between specific contributor groups such as product manufacturers, end users, technical experts and standard experts. Despite having proper representation, it is possible that two groups look at the standardization outcome with a totally different assessment.

For example, specific manufacturers might feel that a proposed standard fails to fit with their products, while other manufacturers feel it fits well with their technology. Both groups have different opinions of a successful standard. The majority of contributors to the standard development want the standard to succeed; however, the understanding of suc-

cess might differ between participants. A common misunderstanding about standardization is that, the publication of a standard is considered as success and the work is done. It is incorrectly believed that standard adoption and conformance will follow by itself.

Another challenge associated with voluntary standard development is a potential collusion, when two or more technology manufacturers work together to push for a standard which benefits their technology.

As noted before, the main goal of a technical standard is to unify specific practices (for example, test method) within a particular community. It is a challenge to develop a standard which satisfies all parties, and recognizes different goals and priorities of the various contributors which is important when negotiating consensus on specific test methods and features.

In addition to the organizational part of standard development, the engineering and scientific efforts are equally critical for the creation of a successful standard. Rigorous engineering practices must be applied through all stages when developing new test methods.

New, standardized test methods should be validated for their intended purpose and application range. In the validation process the ultimate goal is to assure that the test method represents characteristics of the product with the required reproducibility and repeatability. The ASTM E 1488, Standard Guide for Statistical Procedures to Use in Developing and Applying Test Methods[2] provides guidance how to develop estimated precision and bias statements. This standard recommends several specific phases during the development of a test method. Figure 2 shows some of the steps.

Four steps are recommended:

• Design phase

• Development phase

• Evaluation phase

• Monitoring phase

After the interlaboratory studies (ILS) are completed, the precision statements are included in the test method to provide specific estimates of variation anticipated

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when using the test method. The purpose of precision statements is to provide information on how close or far apart different test results may occur. The repeatability and reproducibility are the two measures of variability obtained for the test method. It should be noted, that the ILS results can underestimate the measurement variability due to the well-known Hawthorne

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effect[3]. Blind measurements when operators do not know that an assessment is conducted could result in different (higher) variability.

Inclusion of precision statements is required by all ASTM test methods, and this recommendation is based on the Eisenhart[1] study. Unfortunately, some standards related to the measurement of

filtration efficiency, including ASHRAE and ISO standards, do not include the precision statements. These statements could have a significant impact on publication of test results, comparison and filter selection decision process.

Dr. Thad Ptak has over 30 years of experience in filtration technologies, aerosol science and indoor air quality. He has conducted extensive research in the areas of development of filter media and filters, portable air cleaners, indoor air quality, sensors for IAQ and instrumentation for particle generation and measurement.

References

1. C. Eisenhart, Realistic Evaluation of the Precision and Accuracy of Instrument Calibration Systems, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 67C, 1963

2. ASTM E 1488, Standard Guide for Statistical Procedures to Use in Developing and Applying Test Methods

3. R. Gillespie, A History of the Hawthorne Experiments, Cambridge University Press, 1991

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CLEAN AIR ... A Right or Delight?

Deciphering the Decision-Making Process in the Hindsight of COVID-19 Pandemic to Discover IAQ and Clean Air Foresight to Design Cities for Air Quality

It is challenging to advance the cause of air quality in an unstable, unequal, and unsustainable world. Accepting our escalating anthropogenic emissions is alarming for three reasons: it will continue to increase, become a habit, and eventually become irreversible. Outdoors, the inevitable emissions pose a health risk for city inhabitants, requiring global governments to preserve urban air quality. Therefore, good urban air quality governance is imperative since indoor and outdoor air quality are correlated. Left uncontrolled, excessive urban heat and pollutant concentrations demand extensive filtration stages and more effective HVAC equipment to condition the air for pleasant and healthy living.

The emissions from transport and fossil fuel combustion, further exacerbated by rapid urbanization and population growth, have emphasized air quality issues. Cities compete for people, investments, and prosperity; their inhabitants have to compete for clean air to survive. While sustainable urban development aims to design and build cities that provide a low-carbon way to live, clustering inhabitants in polluted cities cannot be celebrated and can negatively impact their well-being.

This is particularly true for people living in dire conditions who rely on open-

ing a window as a form of ventilation simply because they cannot afford or access HVAC and filtration systems. Ultimately, their outdoor and indoor air quality is the same. While enormous funds have been spent in the past decades on energy efficiency, the horrific impact of air quality underfunding came to the forefront with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 to cash its importance. Ultimately, as we strive to ensure better air quality for the built environment, emphasis should also be placed on the equity of clean air delivery irrespective of the socioeconomic status of inhabitants, as clean air should not be a commodity for the elite or the lucky few.

How Bad Are Things?

When our family doctor prescribes many types of medication, it is an sign of how sick one is (Figure 2). Equally, when we need to employ extensive filtration stages in HVAC systems (Figure 2), which can be energy-intensive, it reflects how poor our urban air quality is. Our environmental status quo can be best represented by imagining living in an aquarium where the owner adds more fish daily. Space is finite, consumption and waste rates rise, and survival challenges become greater. Eventually, fish get sick and die unless a larger filtration system is installed and the owner buys a bigger aquarium. We do not have the luxury of purchasing a new and bigger planet than the one we already inhabit.

The COVID-19 Pandemic

The impulsive reactions in dealing with the first COVID-19 wave reflected the fears that the pandemic, which spread like cancer, would take a toll similar to the Spanish flu as the virus spread like cancer. Turning the tide of the pandemic required responding early instead of reacting late to the spark of the virus, which spread as a result of the employment of ineffective processes. For our cities to be safe to inhabit, it is critical to foster unconventional and holistic approaches orchestrating big air quality data and AI-based engines' intelligence to respond adaptively and effectively to any variation in IAQ and human occupancy.

The pandemic has demonstrated that although we had the technologies and processes to reduce virus transmission, we needed to ask different air quality questions. The contested meaning of clean air, rival filtration formulations, and inconsistent performance of conventional ventilation systems form a dissuasive IAQ foundation for healthy living. While we may innately know the general importance of clean air, embedding the required HVAC and filtration technologies from Day One is critical to attaining higher air quality targets. Therefore, investing in continuous air quality monitoring infrastructures and filter performance is central for optimal clean air outcomes.

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URBAN FILTRATION

Finding the best strategy to respond to the spread of the virus during the pandemic was challenging. The developments of the pandemic were surrounded by risk and uncertainty. A key lesson from the pandemic is recognizing the need to establish decision-making mechanisms that foster resilience and aim toward sustainable and healthy cities based on humancentric approaches. Making decisions under risk suggests the possible outcomes are known. The intensity of the pandemic and impact on global economies sparked doubts about the means-to-end notion of the decisionmaking process and emphasized the importance of clean air.

The attention air quality received during the pandemic soon was overshadowed, as other priorities, such as energy efficiency, emerged. Overlooking the importance of inhaling clean air and its relation to our well-being suggests that air quality was waiting for the pandemic to showcase its critical role. Admittedly, degradation in air filtration and ventilation system performances have made our built-environment easy prey for pandemic conditions. For decision-makers to entertain raising the bar of the health and safety of their buildings, they insist on basing their approval on the economics

and financial gains of filtration upgrades alongside required retrofitting works. Ultimately, focusing only on the capital expenditure of filtration upgrades thwarts any air quality enhancements and overlooks their impact on occupants’ wellbeing and productivity. Air quality should

against any deterioration in air quality. Optimizing ventilation quantities and admission schemes must entail responding to the concentrations of other airborne pollutants aside from particulate matter, such as gaseous pollutants and bioaerosols. Inhaling indoor air that is efficiently conditioned, appropriately filtered, and adequately ventilated constitutes the essence of sustainable living in a healthy building where our well-being is protected.

Although higher ventilation rates per person or area alongside upgraded filtration efficiency are logical solutions, occupied envelopes with dense human occupancy and close proximity are challenging to predict. Therefore, systems such as demand-controlled ventilation stand out as an effective adaptive strategy to variations in CO2 concentrations. Energy-efficient ventilation systems focusing on air quality are paramount when responding to the increase or decrease in human occupancy indicated by CO2 levels. As social distancing was the hype during the pandemic (Figure 3), its implementation to alter the pre-pandemic human occupancy in offices, schools,

Ultimately, as we strive to ensure better air quality for the built environment, emphasis should also be placed on the equity of clean air delivery irrespective of the socioeconomic status of inhabitants

be granted a seat at the HVAC table and a voice in the building design strategies rather than waiting for the next pandemic to bring it to the spotlight.

Air Quality Governance

Urban air quality governance emerged as a central realignment to protect our built environment, well-being, and economic vitality. Although met with cynicism, enshrining air quality policies holds immense promise to drive change toward healthy building designs beyond conventional settings. It is time to challenge and change how building envelopes and ventilation systems are designed, operated, and maintained to stand firm

or shopping malls seems impractical due to the reduced use of the occupiable building space. Ultimately, advanced and adaptive ventilation and filtration technologies can be central in ensuring appropriate levels of human occupation.

We seek refuge in our buildings and aspire to healthy living and working conditions that protect our well-being. The allure of living in smart cities must include embracing data-driven strategies to align building urban resilience with enhanced air quality. The ties of targets among air quality, thermal comfort, and ventilation rates make accessing, employing, and integrating HVAC and air filtration technologies essential to embracing

ISSUE 3 202 4 FILTNEWS.COM 27
t Figure 1. The conceptual analogy of requiring medical and filtration prescriptions for patient recovery. p Figure 2. Typical air filter designs and classes for various stages of filtration for HVAC applications. Images Supplied by Author

sustainable built environments. Relying solely on frequent replacement and dicey upgrades of air filters cannot be accepted if one opts for sustainable living and empowered circular economies.

Abandoning our buildings during the pandemic meant they were not fit to occupy. Although locking down cities seemed rational, it may not have been right. Humanity has borne the heaviest burden during the last pandemic, with economic paralysis stretched beyond lives lost. School closures caused an unprecedented disruption and impacted 94% of students worldwide, putting close to 1.6 billion children and youth out of school by April 2020[1,2]. The pandemic forced students to abandon their classrooms, which is nearly a declaration that their indoor space is thought to be occupied by SARS-CoV-2 and, therefore, unfit for healthy educational purposes.

It is naive to believe that pandemics like COVID-19 are once-in-a-generation events. Although no one questions the intent of attempting to defeat the pandemic, what ailed our approach was the late response to induce immediate changes rather than the employment of ready-to-go regulations engineered to prevent pandemics. After the first wave struck, experts started tweaking standards, investigating existing ventilation rates, and upgrading installed filter efficiency. Looking back at the number of COVID-19 waves, one can say that the virus only left our cities when it infected all of us.

The Role of Governments

Governments must legislate air quality policies to avoid having cities become catalysts for virus transmission. Striving for clean and green cities requires widening the scope to include “air quality” in modern urban planning and the healthy buildings we claim to design. The fluctuating interest of governments in air quality driven by pandemics and wildfires forced the authorities to pull the plug on cities by enforcing curfews and lockdowns to reduce exposure to pollutants and bioaerosols. While the success of such measures is subjective, their impact

in reducing virus transmission remains debatable. Shallow victories of mandating masks and vaccines misled us to believe that pandemics are poised for defeat. This is a wake-up call to diverge from the norm and progress toward clear thinking of what healthy buildings and cities are all about and how maintaining and sustaining their readiness is the order of the day. The initial rejection of out-of-the-box air quality (Figure 4) and adaptive HVAC approaches should not threaten us with scorn and dread

to transcend our cities to be pandemicproof. Fumbling the future of air quality by drafting new blueprints for HVAC, filtration, and IAQ guidelines every time a pandemic invades our cities may put out the pandemic flames, but not their fires.

The Overarching Message of Air Quality

The importance of clean air must be at the heart of every building we occupy. Enhancing air quality is achievable if the available technologies and innovations are employed for energy-efficient operation. The determination that built empires can certainly orchestrate air quality infrastructure and second-to-none human-centric HVAC systems. However, relying on symbolic forces of clean air and appealing to the ethical compass of decision-makers and operators cannot ensure sustainable indoor air quality. When building operators are legally bound to sustainably deliver clear air, they will get to the core of building problems and provide optimum – not just acceptable – indoor air quality. It is time to strive for sustainable cities, resilient

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pFigure 3. 3-D rendering reflecting the social distance implementation office space. pFigure 4. SEM of typical filter media used in HVAC applications.

environments, and a building envelope designed, built, and operated according to the highest standards of performance excellence (Figure 5). That requires ventilation and filtration systems that work smarter, think faster, and respond earlier to any variation in air quality. Before relying on conventional air quality advice, we

should question whether the “IAQ” lens regards “clean air” as a right or delight for human occupants. As we aspire to a modern and sustainable built environment, raising the bar of air quality is imperative in shaping the future of our cities to evolve as an equitable, responsible, and just society.

Dr. Al-Attar is a mechanical engineer and an independent air filtration consultant. He is a Visiting Academic Fellow in the School of Aerospace, Transport, and Manufacturing at Cranfield University, consulting for air quality and filter performance relevant to landbased gas turbines. Dr. Al-Attar is also the strategic director, instructor, and advisory board member of the Waterloo Filtration Institute. In 2020, Eurovent Middle East appointed Dr. Al-Attar as the first associated consultant for air filtration.

Recently, he became the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) patron for EUROVENT. With engineering degrees (BSc, MSc, Ph.D.) from the University of Toronto (Canada), Kuwait University, and Loughborough University (UK), respectively, he is now reading for an MSc in sustainable urban development for air quality inclusion at the University of Oxford. His expertise is on the design/performance of highefficiency filters for HVAC and land-based gas turbine applications, focusing on chemical and physical characterization of airborne pollutants.

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pFigure 5. 3-D rendering of the conceptual future built environment with humancentric approach and walkability.

Calculated ESG

As Demands for Environmental Accountability Increase, Companies Turn to New Tools to Tell Their Sustainablility Story

These days, the topic of environmental, social and governance (ESG) strategies taking precedence throughout companies of all sizes within the filtration industry, as well as a myriad of other industries across the globe.

Whatever you call it – ESG, sustainability, or corporate responsibility – there is a growing recognition that companies need to focus not only on tending to their bottom lines, but also on their impact on communities, the environment, and society as a whole. Indeed, there has been a macro societal shift in expecting how businesses should behave – an expectation of a more defined environmental contract.

Historically speaking, it’s important to understand that ESG is nothing new – it grew out of the sustainability movement of the '90s and early 2000s, which started to put pressure on the corporate world to consider the environmental impacts of their actions. Today, having a solid ESG record is a sign of a well-run, forwardlooking business. And it’s what stakeholders – customers, suppliers, employees, and investors – expect from businesses within the filtration industry and beyond.

But ESG initiatives offer plenty of challenges. In a recently released e-book, Nefab, the developer of GreenCalc, a data-driven tool that tracks and quantifies all financial and environmental data in a company’s supply chain, pointed to several ESG challenges facing the traditional supply chain. Not only does transportation and packaging have a major impact on CO2 eq emissions and global warming in both local and global levels,

Q+A

IN THIS ISSUE:

CHARLES DE MUIZON Head of Sustainability, Nefab

but sustainable solutions are critical in this area, yet are frequently overlooked by companies of all sizes.

In addition, improper recycling of the majority of packaging can pose significant challenges, limiting the ability of moving to a more circular use of resources. For example, unoptimized packaging practices within supply chain activity can result inefficient use of cargo space, resulting in ships, trucks and aircraft shipping “air.”

International Filtration News connected with Nefab’s head of sustainability, Charles de Muizon, to learn more about ESG reporting and the challenges facing companies that want to focus on ESG initiatives, including emissions within the supply chain environment.

International Filtration News: What is the importance of ESG reporting and measuring a company’s carbon footprint?

de Muizon: We are in a state of climate change crisis and every responsible business must do its part to join the fight. One way to do this is by applying the three main principles of a circular economy – reduce, reuse, and recycle (3Rs) – to the design process of each packaging and logistic solution. Another is to implement tools and systems to evaluate environmental footprint and maximize resource efficiency. Environmental, social and governance (ESG) is a framework for defining your business’ overall sustainability management strategy, including specific initiatives and KPIs which progress can be monitored through data-driven tools.

IFN: What type of impact can supply chains have on a company’s ESG?

de Muizon: ESG has an instrumental impact on supply chains. In fact, it’s been proven that supply-chain ESG risk assessment helps an organization to identify the most critical risks of the supply chain and decide on the relevant mitigation actions and allocate resources accordingly. After all, we are all connected and are part of each other’s supply chains which are driven by our customers’ actions. That is why all suppliers will strive to align and support their customers to reach their sustainability targets because it affects their own supply chains as well.

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ESG TOOLS

p GreenCalc™ helps identify and track CO2 eq savings to meet growing sustainability goals, in order to understand and improve the environmental impact at every stage in the company. NEFAB

IFN: What are the current sustainability issues and challenges facing the fiber and filter media industry?

de Muizon: With the climate clock ticking, both the industry and legislators are urged to come up with solutions to protect the limited natural resources. The natural solution is to switch to reusable, recyclable, and biodegradable materials – which is where fiber and filter media come into play.

Although the recycling of paper fibers is well implemented in many countries, the collection of waste and implementation of circularity business models is still missing. Building a network of trusted partners that would benefit from joining the circularity process will be key.

IFN: How can companies evaluate the total lifecycle of products and the impact on a company's ESG? How does Nefab's GreenCalc Tool help in this regard?

de Muizon: Collecting accurate data will be key. Companies will need data to report their progress on reducing their carbon footprint. Although, quantifying your own carbon footprint is not a difficult thing to do, what creates real value is the added value in the form of support in monitoring and analyzing the data in real time and identifying actionable ways of improvement (for example, by redesigning

With the climate clock ticking, both the industry and legislators are urged to come up with solutions to protect the limited natural resources. Building a network of trusted partners that would benefit from joining the circularity process will be key.

your packaging and flows to save CO2). This is exactly what GreenCalc™ does, Nefab’s proven digital tool for identifying CO2 eq emissions and cost savings in supply chains. By analyzing the total lifecycle of your packaging solutions from the cradle to the grave, GreenCalc™ supports the global demand for optimizing transport efficiency and driving sustainable supply chains. By measuring the emissions, waste, returnability, and different types of ma-

terials in all flows through its dedicated Scope 3 GAIA dashboard, the tool allows a company to assess the packaging and logistics environmental impact baseline but also monitor the impact of the improvement initiatives. Since 2021, Nefab completed over 3,000 GreenCalc™ analyses, assisting its customers in reducing, on average, 31% tons of CO2 eq emissions over the entire life cycle of the packaging, including its production, transportation, and end-of-life.

ISSUE 3 202 4 FILTNEWS.COM 31
p Ensuring that your packaging solution is optimized to reduce total cost in your supply chain can yield significant savings. NEFAB suggests you evaluate specific cost areas within your logistics flows, such as transportation and warehousing, and identify ways in which a smarter packaging solution can make a difference for your bottom line. NEFAB

IFN: What is the role that CO2 plays in the sustainability of supply chains?

de Muizon: I believe that we all should look at CO2 as a motivator, because it incentives businesses to reduce their carbon footprint. As a result, by focusing more on the importance of the sustainability initiatives, more improvements will be implemented for the benefit of all.

IFN: How can companies save resources and improve sustainability in their supply chains?

de Muizon: It all starts with the design. Following sustainable design guidelines that ensure that all packaging solutions are produced according to the 3Rs principle is a good start. Additionally, reducing the number of materials and resources needed to design and ship the packaging is one of many ways where a company can generate savings while minimizing

Supply Chain ESG Stats

Nefab points to some key stats that indicate the level that supply chains need to be improved to meet today’s ESG initiatives.

• 20 percent of CO2 eq emissions are linked to transportation.

• Nine out of ten packaging solutions are not reused.

• 60 percent of packaging doesn’t get recycled properly.

• 50 percent is the average filling ratio in transportation.

its green footprint. An efficient way to reduce the use of resources is to switch to lighter materials to decrease the overall weight, more ergonomic design to eliminate the transportation of air or improve the logistics operation.

For example, by redesigning a packaging solution that enables the product to be stacked during transportation, Nefab’s customers were able to increase the load per truck, resulting in approximately 20% financial savings per year, in addition to CO2 eq savings. In fact, the latest version of GreenCalc™ can evaluate over 44 different packaging materials which allows to model almost any type of solution. Last, but not least, collecting data and quantifying the impact of the packaging, improve its design and track the progress of the supply chain flows.

So, is the ESG movement here to stay? Well, it appears that there is now a real desire not just to measure companies’ impacts, but also to manage them. And this is not going to let up anytime soon.

Maura Keller is a Minneapolisbased writer and editor. Reach maura at maurakeller@gmail.com or 612.720.4694.

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FILTCON DELIVERS AN ARRAY OF RESEARCH in the Shadow of the Moon

AFS Welcomes Experts Converging in Houston, Texas to Deliver the Latest in Filtration Research & Development

In the backdrop of a historic total solar eclipse on April 8 in the U.S. – the next one occurs in 2044 – American Filtration and Separations Society’s FILTCON 2024 event was located in Houston, Texas, boasting a 94% view of the eclipse. The popular AFS Expo hosted about 40 exhibitors from across the filtration supply chain, and included 20 Latest and Greatest presentations on exhibitor offerings.

The show kicked off strong with a day of short courses, followed by a plenary session from Dr. Rigoberto Advincula, University of Tennessee, on “Additive Manufacturing & Membrane for High Performance.” His talk centered around research with 3D printing, machine learning, and polymers.

Most interestingly, he discussed the potential of super hydrophobic surfaces, inspired by nature, to reduce fouling in

Their study yielded a “super” lotus leaf, better than the leaf in its origins, that has water repelling properties preventing bio fouling and improving filtration and membrane performance potentially in oil and gas.

filtration and membrane systems. His team used 3D printing methods to create super hydrophobic surfaces with optimized variables, including shear thinning behavior, yield stress, and storage modules.

In one experiment, the team set out to recreate the surface of a lotus leaf, a super hydrophobic film in nature, from polymers.

Advincula believes the use of 3D printing and AI machine learning advancements are the next step in research and development in filtration. “It’s an energy saver, because instead of doing trial and error in your R&D, you can be more directed in the science domain by using machine learning. And, in fact, you can go even further if you want, all the way to the supply chain to the cost of energy to the different types of media in process integration and system engineering,” he says.

Furthermore, he notes that machine learning has the potential to revolutionize chemical engineering, as an example, predicting chemical reactions and optimizing process conditions.

Len Castellano, AFS Chair, welcomed attendees prior to the second Plenary session, and announced Connie Rhea as the new Executive Director of AFS.

In the next plenary session, Trey Hamblet of Industrial Info Resources (IIR) spoke on “Industrial Market Spending Outlook,”

ISSUE 3 202 4 FILTNEWS.COM 33 SHOW REVIEW
p Dr. Rigoberto Advincula, University of Tennessee, presents opening plenary on “Additive Manufacturing & Membrane for High Performance.” p Len Castellano, AFS Chair. Images: Caryn Smith
“Just short of $500 billion worth of investment spend that is very specifically ESG motivated spending.” — Jeff Hamblet

and focused much of his talk on ESG. “At this moment, when you look at everything that we’re tracking around the world, there's just short of $500 billion worth of investment spend that is very specifically ESG – environmental social governance – motivated spending. Right here in our backyard [U.S.], we represent $151 billion of that,” he says. Meanwhile, the adoption and investment in green hydrogen faces challenges, and the investment in carbon capture and alternative fuels in the refinery industry is uneven between refiners and petrochemical producers, and there is growth in renewable diesel in North America.

“In showing the overall spend for the North America [U.S. and Canada], we’ve continued to see spending in the petroleum refinery industry ticked up, which is incredibly intriguing. ... When you think about all the closures that we’ve seen across the refining industry to see spending to come back up to this level is impressive and encouraging. You know, crude price, obviously, that’s something that everyone who owns or operates refinery wakes up in distress about every day, we’re at the margins. And so where prices are right now is certainly a constraint to some degree. Domestic demand, I talked about that electric vehicles sneaking up on a parking lot earlier. There was concerns about loss of domestic demand due to the EV revolution. On the driver side, we’ve continued to see production in the field in the oil and gas industry remain incredibly impressive.”

Reflected in the panel discussion moderated by Dr. Wu Chen on “Carbon Capture – Filtration and Separation,” the continued strength of the gas and oil industry is evident in the slow growth of these technologies. Panelists included Tiffany Chen, BASF, Andreas Scope, MANN + HUMMEL, and Martin A. Taylor, Bechtel Energy technologies & Solutions. The panel focused on various carbon capture technologies, emphasizing the importance of selecting the appropriate

technology based on CO2 concentration. They also shared the goals of the process and the importance of contamination control, as well as water quality standards for industrial facilities, explaining the need to maintain low levels of total suspended solids in the system.

Overall, the panel noted there is much work to do in this area to increase return on investment in order to increase effectiveness and sector participation.

On the sustainability track, David Huber, from CLEAResult, a presenting sponsor, spoke on the ability for organizations to get government grant funding towards achieving sustainability targets for the companies that can report data on key energy metrics. He emphasized the urgent need to reduce fossil fuel consumption in industrial settings, citing the importance of decarbonizing the grid and avoiding carbon double bonds. He also stressed the need for small and medium-sized industries to prioritize energy audits and invest in emissions-reducing projects in order to be ready for the rigorous application process when funds are made available.

Lifetime Achievement Award –Dr. Wu Chen

Awards Take Center Stage

The prestigious AFS awards highlight achievements in filtration and separation.

Frank Tiller Award – Dr. Tinoush Dinn

and

Dr. Tinoush Dinn has been with BASF Corporation since 2015 as a Senior Global Process and Chemical Engineering Research Engineer. As a member of the solids processing group, Dr. Dinn supports BASF North America and global operations and performs R&D, process development, scale-up (lab to pilot and plant) process design, and optimization for solid-liquid and membrane separation processes. Before this position, he worked as a research engineer and project manager in multiple industries, such as mining and minerals, oil and gas, and water and wastewater treatment, for over 12 years with backgrounds in operation, design, research, modeling and simulation of separation processes.

Dr. Wu Chen, pictured with his family, recently retired as an R&D Fellow at Dow. He has over 30 years of industrial experience in solid/liquid separation and air/ gas filtration in technologies and filtration markets. He also has expertise in project management, process design and plant startup.

With 40 years of experience in solid/liquid separation, Dr. Chen has served AFS with great passion since the Society was founded, as a pillar in the acceleration of the Society's development. He is currently the chair of the AFS Education Committee and the coordinator of AFS short courses. He has been the chair of AFS, the board of directors, conference chairs, local chapter officers and served on various committees.

He has received the AFS Frank Tiller Award for outstanding technical achievement, the AFS Well Shoemaker Award for leadership and service to the filtration industry, and the Fellow Member Award for sustained significant contributions to filtration technologies and industry.

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Award Photos –AFS
Caryn Smith L to R: Kenneth Winston, Dinn, Len Castellano.

Wells Shoemaker Award –Mr. Chris Wallace

Mr. Chris Wallace is the VP of Technology and Sr. Corporate VP for Filtration Technology Corporation (FTC) in Houston, TX. Since he joined FTC in 2003, he has been involved in production engineering, application engineering, research and development, and technical sales and marketing of filtration and separation products for liquid/solid, gas/solid, liquid/ liquid and gas/liquid applications. He holds a B.S. in Biomedical Engineering from Tulane University.

Senior Scientist – Dr. Ashish Bandekar

Dr. Ashish Bandekar is a Senior R&D Engineer Manager at Gessner. A published author and patent-holding engineer, he has worked in developing meltblowns and designing filters for various industrial

Sorptive materials for customized filtration

sectors for the past seven years. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Akron under the guidance of Professor George Chase. Before joining Gessner, he held positions with FTC, Lydall and Entegris.

Young Scientist –

Dr. Harshal Gade and Dr. Jianyu “Jerry” Zhou

During his Ph.D. program, Dr. Harshal Gade, center, focused his research efforts across disciplines of physics, chemistry, and polymer science to study the chargepolarization of polymeric nanofibers. He recognized that the practical use of charged fibers (also known as electrets) had two main challenges: accurate and sensitive charge measurement and proper handling and storage of the fiber materials did not adversely affect the charge. To

address the first challenge, Dr. Gade fabricated a custom-made Faraday Bucket sensitive enough to detect less than onevolt changes on fiber mats. He applied a source-free resistance-capacitance circuit model to evaluate the voltage-time data to calculate the amount of charge carried by the fiber samples.

Dr. Jianyu “Jerry” Zhou (right, in photo) holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Akron, where he systemically studied filtration theories, material, characterization and applications with Professor George Chase.

Because clean air is our most essential good

12. - 14. November 2024 Meet us at Booth E38, Hall 8 FILTECH 2024 in Cologne

Application

→ Cabin air filtration in aircraft, agricultural and landfill vehicles

→ Odour removal in households, such as in kitchen hoods, refrigerators and vacuum cleaners

→ Surgical smoke purification

→ Purification of contaminated breathable and process air

→ Filtration of hazardous substances in air conditioning systems

→ Indoor air purifiers

→ Solvent recovery systems

Foam filter

→ Variable dimensions, shapes, and adsorbent content

→ High adsorbent capacity at very low pressure drop

Pleatable filter media

→ Very well suited for limited construction space

→ Combined solutions with particle filters or different covers Customized coating of sorptive composite materials

→ Variable layer structure and widths

→ Carrier, cover material and roll size according to customer specifications

→ Provision of the required materials possible: spherical and granulated activated carbon, ion exchangers, zeolite, superabsorber etc.

ISSUE 3 202 4 FILTNEWS.COM 35
solutions
www.talamon.de +49 3386 21 11 2-0 info@talamon.de Get in contact:
Bandekar. Wallace. L to R: Castellano, Gade and Zhou.

Currently, Dr. Zhou works as a Senior Project Engineer for Parker Hannifin. He is based in the Parker Filtration Innovation Center and focuses on filter media applications and filtration material development to connect with Parker's diversified needs in applications in filtration industry. Dr. Zhou has been an active member in AFS since 2015. He is co-chair of FiltCon 2024 and serves on the AFS Education Committee.

Professor George Chase Award –Dr. Pratik Gotad

Dr. Pratik Gotad is a 5th year Ph.D. student in the School of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering at the University of Akron. He completed his B. Tech in Polymer and Surface Coating Technology at the Institute of Chemical Technology; he was a Gold medalist for his undergraduate batch. His

Ph.D. thesis focused on developing novel functional polymer aerogel media for applications in liquid-liquid filtration and separation of small organic molecules such as PFAS and surfactants from liquids. Professor Sadhan Jana also received a plaque as Dr. Gotad’s professor.

New Product Award –GKD-USA – VORTEX Separation Unit

Vortex is a biomimetic solution adapted from the same natural processes that enable basking sharks and manta-rays to filter their food without clogging their gills. Instead of attracting particles to a

INVEST IN AUTOMATION

PURPOSE-BUILT SOLUTIONS

filter surface, Vortex forms fluid patterns that suspend and isolate the particles into a continuous vortex – separating them from fluids and channeling them into a capture unit for removal.

The spiral forms a continuous vortex within inflowing fluids, separating unwanted particles into a concentrated stream that can be channeled into a capture unit for removal. This design vastly outperforms conventional filtering systems.

Engineering Merit Award –MayAir – Constant-Efficient Intelligent HEPA Box and Return Air Inlet

The Intelligent HEPA Box and Return Air Inlet can adjusted remotely and quickly through the built-in air volume control valve. The air volume can be fed back to the central control room at the same time, realizing the rapid intelligent switching of working mode. Meanwhile, the rational structure of the product and no wearing fittings make it easy to overhaul and maintain.

Built in the USA and supported worldwide, our converting machinery is trusted by over 3000 customers in more than 60 countries.

36 IFN ISSUE 3 202 4 2024 ELSNER ENGINEERING WORKS, INC 475 FAME AVE, HANOVER, PA 17331 717-637-5991 EEW@ELSNERENG.COM ELSNERENG.COM LEARN MORE
ELSNER’s automated filter manufacturing machinery helps you save time and money.
Gotad.

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Are You Listed?

Len LaPorta is a Managing Director of Investment Banking at Pickwick Capital Partners, LLC based in White Plains, NY. Len has significant experience in cross-border M&A transactions between USA and Europe, advises business owners on sell-side opportunities. Len is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy with MBA from Boston College. He is a veteran of the U.S. Navy, and a former owner of a contract manufacturing firm. laportal@pickwickcapital.com (203) 451-7799.

Potential Changes in Estate Planning Laws Impact M&A Activity

The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) nearly doubled the exemption threshold for individual and married couples. The planned “roll-back” is slated to take effect in 2026.

Taxes are probably the single most variable discussed among the current generation leading a family-owned business. Estate planning and looking into the future adds a tremendous catalyst to those family discussions. Unfortunately, most extended family discussions around estate planning becomes too complex. Your professional tax advisors should be on speed dial.

Congratulations on building a very nice and profitable business. Thinking of stepping back or taking some “chip” off the table? You probably need to make a decision to generate a return and use proceeds to fund your estate plan. Obviously, your middle market firm is in an illiquid state until you actually decide to sell the business.

What do you mean my firm is in an “illiquid state” until I sell the business? Certainly, many firms utilize S and LLC corporate designations for tax purposes. In many cases, the owners are so content that every business decision has some angle for tax purposes – and life is good. Most businesses just keep on moving forward over a couple generations. Being content as an owner works until you receive an unsolicited offer from a competitor or your family decides to hire an investment banker to sell the company.

Let’s look at a “normal” sell-side process with a typical timeframe of seven to nine months to complete the M&A transaction. Preparing for the process has two main components of 1) internal: how complete and accurate is the current corporate information (e.g., incorporation documents, Quick Books, inventory control, etc.) and 2) external: information needed to satisfy the buyer due diligence and legal confirmatory due diligence to complete the transaction.

Internal preparation. The business owner has certain key performance indicators (KPI) that they and their team track on a frequent business. Many owners fall into the trap of just looking at a few items and “their gut” to let them manage the busi-

ness. Creating a KPI report is simple and this allows the owner to manage the business with his direct reports. One potential KPI report would track daily value of shipments versus shipments scheduled in the next seven days versus new orders. In this example, the owner keeps a pulse on both manufacturing operations and the sales department. Does this KPI report example also help the owner spot any payroll issues?

External preparation: A recent example might be helpful to the reader. The family has owned the business and light manufacturing facility for over 30 years since buying the company. They are contemplating selling the business and no longer want to be the owner of the building. Environmental regulations (some states have gotten tougher) have changed over three decades. My suggestion was to complete a Phase 1 Environmental Report at the start of the process – to understand if the company is in current compliance with all federal and state statutes. In addition, we wanted to ensure that no issue at the facility was serious enough to warrant a Phase 2 Report.

Finally, we wanted to establish a budget and timeline for remediation and include this information in our management presentation. During the closing process, the buyer’s legal team may want to “box- in” this budget expense in the purchase and sale agreement and ensure it’s the seller’s responsibility to fund the potential multi-year expenditure.

Why this rationale in Phase 1? We wanted to showcase that the owners take this seriously and they had a plan in place prior to starting buyer discussions. This particular example also brings into bear outside factors that impact the environmental status of the facility and property – a flood from the nearby local river five years ago was well documented. We wanted to ensure that potential contaminated river water was not causing the owner any unwelcome environmental issues and clean-up that would stop a deal from closing.

We are seeing a great run in our domestic markets, but what global headwinds continue to keep you up at night? Do you anticipate these global headwinds weakening? Are you getting any younger? Do you have a strong non-family related management team? Would you like to play more golf?

38 IFN ISSUE 3 20 2 4
M&A INSIGHTS
This article has been prepared solely for informational purposes and to relay the opinion of its author. Neither Mr. LaPorta nor Pickwick Capital Partners LLC provide tax-related advisory or services. Consult your tax advisor or accountant for such advice.
Many owners fall into the trap of just looking at a few items and “their gut” to let them manage the business. Creatißng a KPI report is simple and this allows the owner to manage the business with his direct reports.

How about using net proceeds to satisfy a commitment for a charitable donation?

Recap of Variables impacting Value Creation

1. Personal: Age, Health, Successor, Family Issues, Liquidity, Partner Conflict, Estate Planning

2. Business: Cash Flow Needs, Capital Needs, Key Employee Risk, Competitive Risks

3. Environment: Policy Changes, Regulatory Risk, Benefits Complexity, Market Conditions

4. Industry: Structural Changes, Disintermediation, Commodification

As of this writing, a M&A transaction would probably close in January/February 2025. Some deals could be completed in Q4 2024, but that takes many variables to align.

If the “roll-back” does occur, the current exemption (Individual = $12.92M or Married Couples = $25.84M) is reduced to $7M and $12.92M, respectively.

Now might be a good time to learn about the timeline to complete a sell-side process. Please consider all your options and tools when considering your estate planning initiatives. We would encourage you to ask your professional advisors to invite an investment banking team to speak with you and your family.

ISSUE 3 2024 FILTNEWS.COM 39

Bob McIlvaine is the president of The McIlvaine Company, which is helping filter suppliers understand the true cost of their products and the impact on the Serviceable Obtainable Market. He can be reached at rmcilvaine@ mcilvainecompany.com or +1 847.226.2391

Pursuing the Best Moons, Planets, and Stars in the Filtration Galaxy

Th e semiconductor industry is a large and fastgrowing market for filtration products. The ultrapure water needed for washing chips can easily exceed one million gallons per day per line. On site filtration of chemicals requires high quality cartridges. Activated carbon and alumina impregnated filters are used to remove airborne molecular compounds (AMC). High-efficiency air filters (HEPA and ULPA) are needed for general clean space plus mini environments and isolators.

The capability of chips keeps improving as line sizes are reduced. We may be entering a post digital environment. IBM is leading the way with a nondigital chip with 2 nm line sizes but ten times the capacity of a 3 nm digital chip.

A $10 billion research center is being built in NY with support from several chip makers and the state. Intel, TSMC and TI are building state-of-the -art digital facilities in the U.S.

In this fast-moving market the products and market shares are subject to rapid change. The markets themselves are volatile. The U.S. is benefiting from governmental subsidies. Europe is debating a similar strategy. Taiwan, who has the most high-end

market now, is risking an invasion from China. Depending on the appetite for risk, the market is either very attractive or scary. It is necessary in such a dynamic market to forecast out 20 years.

Factors impacting the market are:

Market size

Growth rate

Volatility

Suitability

The volatility is a function of the following factors:

Economic

Political

Social factors

Technological

The most profitable market is an aggregation of niches and not a slice of the total. The niches can be viewed as a galaxy with moons, planet systems, and star systems.

The moons can represent markets as small as $1 million per year with 40% market share and 30% EBITDA. They would be part of a planet system which includes multiple moons represent markets of $10 million per year or more.

The arrangement of moons in the planet system is of fundamental importance. They share a common value proposition which can be viewed as the planet itself around which the moons rotate. The moons can be a combination of products, industries and locations which create the value proposition.

These planets systems in turn rotate around a star to form a system. This market can be $100 million or more. The star system is part of a galaxy which can be 1 billion per year or more.

The Air, Water, Energy Universe is more than $1 trillion per year.

The key to 40% market share and 30% EBITDA is selecting the right combinations of moons in the right planet systems.

Using the semiconductor example, the ULPA filter market for a large semiconductor plant is more than $1 million per year and meets the criteria of a moon.

Here is the Semiconductor ULPA filter market based on the world forecast for 2023 as one hundred percent. All numbers on the chart are percentage of this number.

40 IFN ISSUE 3 2024
TRUE COST Location Product Category Product Range Present 1-Year 5-Year 10-Year World Air Filter ULPA Median 100 108 147 216 World Air Filter ULPA High 100 110 180 240 World Air Filter ULPA Low 100 105 110 110 U.S. Air Filter ULPA Median 10 10 15 28 U.S. Air Filter ULPA High 10 10 17 31 U.S. Air Filter ULPA Low 10 10 12 12 Taiwan Air Filter ULPA Median 8 8 11 20 Taiwan Air Filter ULPA High 8 8 12 11 Taiwan Air Filter ULPA Low 8 8 2 1 TSMC U.S. Air Filter ULPA Median 0 0 0.5 1 TSMC U.S. Air Filter ULPA High 0 0 0.7 1.5 TSMC U.S. Air Filter ULPA Low 0 0 0.3 0.5 TSMC Taiwan Air Filter ULPA Median 2 2.1 3 5 TSMC Taiwan Air Filter ULPA High 2 2.1 3.6 6 TSMC Taiwan Air Filter ULPA Low 2 1.8 0 0

The planet system can be a combination of products, locations, and plants, which combine to represent a market of $10 million or more per year with 40% market share and 30% EBITDA.

Planet systems can be modified continually to reflect market developments. Four large semiconductor plants are being built in the Southwest (Texas and Arizona). ULPA filters are only replaced every four years or so. This is a significant spike in the market. It is therefore desirable to create a planet system for these plants.

The importance of 20-year forecasts increases as you move up the chain from moons to galaxies. You can manipulate moons rather quickly. But changing galaxies is much more difficult.

The best combination of moons rotates synchronously around the core planet which is defined by a value proposition. For example, Camfil, AAF, and MANN + HUMMEL, all offer fan filter units along with HEPA, ULPA and AMC filters. Their value propositions champion the package purchases.

The potential for liberal democracies along with the autocracies is of galactic proportions. Technology developments such as faster non-digital chips also could impact the entire AWE market in a galactic way.

Forecasts should be revised yearly. Planet systems with 10-year forecasts should be revised every six months. Individual planet forecasts should be continually revised and cover at least five years. Individual moon analyses should be continually reviewed and cover the next year.

Filtration opportunities in the world semiconductor industry are substantial but so are the risks. It is not the food industry. But with the proper long-term analyses risks can be minimized.

ISSUE 3 2024 FILTNEWS.COM 41
TI -Texas Instruments Four new fabs are under construction in Sherman, TX SA-Samsung New 30 billion plant in Austin, Texas will open in 2025 In -Intel Two new fabs in Chandler Arizona are under construction and one is nearing completion TS-TSMC Arizona fab slated for operation later this year and a second fab is under design SW TI In TS SA Planet System for Ulpa Filters in Southwest Semiconductor Market 85 Old Barnwell, W. Columbia, S.C. USA 29170 | Tel: +1 (803) 739-0770 | Fax: +1 (803) 739-0814 sales@solentech.com | service@solentech.com | service.usa@solentech.com Many useful options offered www.solentech.com 106 Mini-Pleat systems High-speed, manual ALSO AVAILBLE: 105 Extension Conveyor The World Renowned SOLTECH Mini-Pleat Systems Since 1985. These compact Systems have been engineered for reliability, and are user friendly with "Touchscreen" operation Have you tried our “Contract Pleating” service? Give us a call and we will rush you a quotation Filter Manufacturing Machinery Solent Technology Inc Compliant for our European Customers 212 Mini-Pleat Systems - Hybrid of our two successful machines H.E.P.A. ASHREA - GLASS & SYNTHETIC H.E.P.A. ASHREA - SYNTHETIC 202 Mini-Pleat Systems - Computerized H.E.P.A. ASHREA - GLASS 102 Mini-Pleat Systems - Computerized

SIFA Technology Announces the Acquisition of CMP

SIFA Technology, a company founded in 2001, is an international leader in the sector of very high efficiency filtration, in the collection of micro/nano particles in controlled contamination environments and in the production of super thermal insulation. Since the beginning, SIFA’s reference market was the entire world, without any borders, thanks to the nature of its activities: thus far, it operates in more than seventy countries, on the five continents.

Now, with the aim of increasing its assets and intensifying its category extension, SIFA Technology announces the acquisition of the company CMP COSTRUZIONI MECCANICHE PERGOLA, an operation that includes the absorption of a carpentry production site located in Pergola, in central Italy.

The acquisition, made official on March 1st, confirms SIFA Technology’s desire to invest in the territory despite its international soul with the aim of covering its sector in an increasingly complete manner, preserving, and expanding the performance and services offered to the entire customer base of the acquired CMP.

The operation represents for SIFA the absorption of one of its own historic and strategic partner, with which, thanks to the skills and capabilities put in place by the target company, it has been able to gain worldwide references in the supply of air handling units manufactured in metal carpentry both for operating room ceilings and for areas for immunosuppressed people, in Bio-Hazard applications or in Dangerous zones in the field of Pharma, nuclear processes, treatment of exhausted air, industrial and in the HVAC.

This strategic operation will allow SIFA to develop new solutions and new products thanks to its dynamism and R&D activities, involving the core business of SIFA and that of CMP in a transversal way. www.sifatechnology.com

Innovance Acquires Jorgensen Conveyor and Filtration Solutions

Innovance, a 100 percent employee-owned holding company focused on manufacturing and industrial technology, has acquired Jorgensen Conveyor and Filtration Solutions, Mequon, Wisconsin.

Founded in 1950, Jorgensen builds conveyors, coolant filtration systems, material handling equipment, and chip processing equipment for machine tools, metalworking, and other industries.

“This acquisition continues our strategy of building the Innovance portfolio with recognized industrial machine OEM companies and brands that complement our strong Lou-Rich contract manufacturing business,” said Merritt Becker, CEO of Innovance. www.innovance.com

Cleanova Secures Filtration Contract for European Carbon Capture Plant

Newcomer Cleanova has secured a contract to supply the filtration system for the first full-scale carbon capture facility to be added to a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility.

The WtE plant, located in Norway, supplies heating and process steam to several industrial customers. The addition of the groundbreaking carbon capture facility will enable the WtE operators to capture 10,000 tonnes of CO2 annually, making operations even more sustainable and developing an additional income stream. Unusually, the scope of work not only includes post-combustion CO2 capture, but also the treatment and liquefaction of the CO2 to food grade quality. The Cleanova filtration system is critical to success. It will ensure that the sequestered carbon is free from contamination and moisture and is of suitable quality for use in food applications.

Javaid Rias, CEO of Cleanova, said: “This is a big boost for Cleanova and demonstrates our commitment to enabling clean environments through innovative filtration solutions. Our team is working in close partnership with the EPC contractor to ensure that we deliver exceptional filtration results, which will be repeatable on other WtE carbon capture projects.”

Established only six months ago, Cleanova is committed to providing consumable, mission critical filtration systems that allow customers to sustain their industrial processes and protect the environment by increasing efficiency, reducing emissions, and minimizing waste. www.cleanova.com

QUA Inaugurates New Membrane Manufacturing Facility in India

QUA, a leading innovator in advanced membrane technologies for water and wastewater treatment, announced the commencement of production at its new state-of-the-art membrane manufacturing center in Pune, India. The new facility marks a significant milestone in QUA’s ongoing expansion and reinforces its commitment to solving water scarcity and complexity.

The expansion increases production capacity by four times, furthering QUA’s strategic goals to deliver a broad portfolio of advanced technologies and exceptional customer service. This new facility is a significant upgrade from previous capabilities, utilizing the latest advanced manufacturing systems, process monitoring technologies, and commitment to safety and environmental stewardship. The facility features a state-of-the-art zero-discharge solution, enhancing sustainability by recycling wastewater from manufacturing operations. www.quagroup.com

42 IFN ISSUE 3 202 4 MOVERS & SHAKERS

Brioche Pasquier Entrusts Veolia with the Construction and Management of Wastewater Reuse Unit

Brioche Pasquier, a French leader in the production and sale of industrial pastries and viennoiseries, has partnered with Veolia, world leader in ecological transformation, to meet its wastewater reuse needs at its site in Les Cerqueux. The new installation, operational since September 2023, allows for the reuse of 3 m3/h of wastewater as cooling water for its cooling towers.

Brioche Pasquier has entrusted Veolia Water STI, a Veolia subsidiary specialized in water treatment for industries for over 30 years, with the implementation of a packaged treatment plant to reuse the wastewater it generates. Veolia will operate it for two years.

The facility, located at the headquarters of Brioche Pasquier in the Pays de la Loire region, allows the manufacturer to be 100% compliant with water quality requirements in the food industry. Serving as a pilot unit for its other production sites, the water treatment solution is instrumental in Brioche Pasquier meeting its sustainable development goals, limiting its impact on the water resource by significantly reducing its consumption. Overall, this installation saves 85% of the drinking water used for cooling the factory, which represents 18,000 m3/year. The treated wastewater that is not recycled in the plant is used for agricultural irrigation. www.veoliawatertechnologies

AAtmus Filtration Technologies Inaugurates New Distribution Center

tmus Filtration Technologies Inc., a global leader in filtration and media solutions, announced the expansion of its distribution capabilities with the inauguration of the Atmus Southern Distribution Center (SDC) in Hutchins, Texas, U.S.

SDC had a soft launch in late 2023 and is now fully operational, signifying a critical milestone as Atmus transforms its supply chain to better serve its customers. The facility serves customers throughout the United States with a focus on the Southern region.

Situated just outside of Dallas, the SDC covers 94,000 square feet and is solely dedicated to distributing Fleetguard products, a brand of Atmus. Fleetguard fuel filters, lube filters, air filters, crankcase ventilation, hydraulic filters and coolants and other chemicals serve customers across various markets, including trucks, bus, construction, mining and power generation around the globe. www.atmus.com

Thomas Lantzsch to Canatu’s Board of Directors

Canatu, the global leader in developing advanced carbon nanotubes and manufacturing equipment for the semiconductor and automotive industries, announced the appointment of former Intel executive Thomas Lantzsch to Canatu’s Board of Directors. With over 40 years of experience as an executive business leader across Fortune 500 companies and early-stage startups, Lantzsch brings a wealth of semiconductor experience to Canatu.

Lantzsch was most recently a Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Internet of Things (IoT) Group at Intel Corporation where he led a global team responsible for Intel architecture computing solutions for diverse IoT market segments. Prior, he worked at ARM Holdings PLC for ten years, rising through various roles to Executive Vice President of Strategy. www.canatu.com

HUBER Unveils New Manufacturing Facility in North Carolina

HUBER Technology, Inc., a company that specializes in high quality mechanical solutions such as stainless-steel equipment for municipal and industrial water, wastewater, sludge treatment and energy, announced the grand opening of its newest manufacturing facility in Denver, NC.

Scheduled for April 2024, the unveiling marks a milestone in the company’s commitment to expanding its operational footprint and contributing to the local economy.

The newly established plant features state-of-the-art technology and streamlined processes, empowering HUBER to enhance production efficiency and meet growing market demands. The plant will support environmentally sustainable practices and underscores the company’s commitment to sustainability and responsible manufacturing. www.huber-technology.com

ISSUE 3 2024 FILTNEWS.COM 43

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Articles inside

International Filtration News – Issue 3, 2024

1min
pages 8, 10-18, 20-24, 26-38, 40-45

SIFA Technology Announces the Acquisition of CMP

5min
pages 44-45

Pursuing the Best Moons, Planets, and Stars in the Filtration Galaxy

3min
pages 42-43

Potential Changes in Estate Planning Laws Impact M&A Activity

3min
pages 40-42

GUIDE

1min
pages 39-40

INVEST IN AUTOMATION PURPOSE-BUILT SOLUTIONS

1min
page 38

FILTCON DELIVERS AN ARRAY OF RESEARCH in the Shadow of the Moon

7min
pages 35-38

Q+A

4min
pages 32-34

Calculated ESG

1min
page 32

CLEAN AIR ... A Right or Delight?

8min
pages 28-31

C NTRACT PLEATING SERVICES

1min
page 27

The Critical Language of Measurements & Standards

8min
pages 23-27

ADVANCE YOUR NONWOVEN SKILLS AND CAREER

2min
page 22

FAUTOMOTIVE & AEROSPACE FIBERS IN FILTRATION GREEN 0R DURABLE?

5min
pages 20-21

CU BOULDER

4min
pages 18-19

EMERGENCE

6min
pages 16-18

Introducing All-New, Redesigned ROTH MFM3-S High-Speed Blade Pleater

1min
page 15

Resilient Molded End Cap Polyurethanes

1min
pages 14-15

ELSNER Revolutionizes Filtration Manufacturing with Automation

1min
page 13

Freudenberg Launches Fully Synthetic Wetlaid Nonwovens for Filtration

2min
page 12

NOTES TECH Camfil Introduces Gold Series Timer

2min
page 11

SPOTLIGHT TECH Developing Sustainable Gel to Remove PFAS

3min
page 10

VIEWPOINT History – Someone Has to Make It

3min
pages 8-9
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