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IF YAYINLARI GRAMMAR PACK - 5 noun clauses


IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES

İçindekiler 1.

NOUN CLAUSES (İsim Cümlecikleri)................................................................................................................................. 2

3.

WH- (BELİRSİZ / KARARSIZ) .............................................................................................................................................. 3

2. 4. 5. 6.

THAT / THE FACT THAT: (BELİRLİ / KARARLI) .......................................................................................................... 2

WHETHER & IF (BELİRSİZ / KARARSIZ)......................................................................................................................... 3 TENSE AGREEMENT IN NOUN CLAUSES (Zaman Uyumu) ....................................................................................... 4 REDUCTION OF NOUN CLAUSES (Eksiltme).................................................................................................................. 4 A. INFINITIVE REDUCTIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 4 1. Wh- Soru kelimeleri ile. .............................................................................................................................. 4 2. Özneler ve zamanlar aynı ise. ................................................................................................................... 5 3. Özneler faklı ise. ............................................................................................................................................ 5

4. Özneler aynı ve zamanlar farklı ise ........................................................................................................ 5

B. GERUND REDUCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 5

1

7.

8.

9.

1. Gerund alan fiilerle yapılan ....................................................................................................................... 5

SUBJUNCTIVE (Yalın halde kullanma) ……………………………………………………………………………………………5

SORULARDA GÖZDEN KAÇIRMA ....................................................................................................................................... 7 REVISION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES 1. NOUN CLAUSES:

A. Noun Clause cümle içinde isim olarak görev almaktadır. Bundan dolayı cümle içinde ÖZNE ve/veya NESNE görevinde kullanılabilir.

I know that more than thirty thousand teachers will have been hired by the end of next month.

Where the meeting will be held isn’t known

B. Noun Clause genel olarak üçe ayrılmakla beraber, anlamsal açıdan iki grupta incelenebilir. NOUN CLAUSES THAT / THE FACT THAT

WH-

WHETHER / IF

NOUN CLAUSES

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DEFINITE

INDEFINITE

(BELİRLİ – KARARSONUÇ-NET İFADEGERÇEK)

(BELİRSİZLİK VE NET OLAMAYAN ZAMAN YER KİŞİ İFADELERİ)

A. THAT / THE FACT THAT 2. THAT / THE FACT THAT: (BELİRLİ / KARARLI)

A. WH-

B. WHETHER / IF

A. That ve the fact that genel olarak birbirlerinin yerine kullanılabilirler. •

I believe that/the fact that the criminal will admit all cases he has been involved.

B. Eğer NOUN CLAUSE bir preposition ardından geliyorsa sadece the fact that kullanılır. •

The teacher points out the fact that we will have to get high mark to pass to next grade.

C. That ve the fact that cümlede ÖZNE görevinde bulunabilir. Lakin genel olarak böylesi durumlarda özellikle akademik metinlerde cümlelere IT öznesi ile başlanır. •

That Turkiye will be a member of the EU is certain.

It is obvious that my boss will increase our salaries.

It is certain that Turkiye will be a member of the EU. It is known that Iran won’t be let to reach nuclear weapons.

D. THAT ifadesi daha ziyade soyut (abstract) ifadelerin ardından karşımıza çıkar.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES 3. WH- (BELİRSİZ / KARARSIZ)

A. WH- soru ifadeleri olarak bildiğimiz ifadeleri içermektedir. NOUN CLAUSE olarak kullanılmaları için soru halinden kurtulmaları gerekmektedir.

I don’t know who is my next patient.

Students haven’t been told whether they go outside.

• •

I don’t know who my next patient is.

It is not certain where we pitch a camp. My friends aren’t sure about how they will pass the university tests.

B. Bu ifadeler özünde soru kökü olarak kullandıklarında BELİRSİZLİK içerdikleri için NOUN CLAUSE olarak da kullanıldıkları zamanda belirsizlik içerirler.

I don’t know why Northern Iraq hasn’t been evacuated yet.

Where the president meets the Chief of National Security Service is still a secret.

Who the new leader of the party will be will be decided in extraordinary congress next week.

C. WHO & WHOM birbirlerinin yerine kullanılabilir. Lakin edat (preposition) arkasından gelen kullanımlarda WHOM kullanımı zorunludur.

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Could you tell me to whom you were talking? Could you tell me who you are talking to?

4. WHETHER & IF (BELİRSİZ / KARARSIZ) A. Anlam olarak olup olmadığı şeklinde tercüme edilebilir. Bundan dolayı belirsizlik içerir.

Residents of district are very anxious about whether the thief was caught.

B. Edat kullanımı sonrasında IF ve WHETHER arasında tercih WHETHER’dan yana yapılmalıdır. •

Residents of district are very anxious about whether the thief was caught.

C. Whether arkasından OR NOT ile takip edilebilir, ama bu zorunlu değildir. IF arkasından OR NOT almaz ancak kullanmak istiyorsak bunu cümlenin en sonunda kullanmalıyız.

I wonder if Fenerbahçe will beat its opponent or not.

Whether(IF X ) there will be a journey to MARS is still a matter of wonder.

D. IF özne konumunda bulunan NOUN CLAUSE içinde cümle başında kullanılamaz. Bu durumda gene WHETHER tercih edilmelidir. E. NOUN CLAUSE içinde IF şart anlamıyla da kullanılabilir.

• •

Doctor has explained that if I remain current eating habit, I will be obese in the future. I will go to the theatre whether he comes with me or not.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES 5. TENSE AGREEMENT IN NOUN CLAUSES

• •

Main Clause Present

• • •

Past

• •

Noun Clause Present Past Future

I have heard that she passed the exam yesterday.

Past Present*

• •

I heard that he had passed his exam the previous week.

I know that Catharine will in Paris next week.

They promised me that refugees would be protected until the border of Turkiye. Scientists explained that Ebola virus is very deathful.

*Eğer bilimsel gerçek genel geçer bir doğru tarihi bir ifade varsa present tense tercih edilir. 1. Some people ---- that those who ---- food stamps are lazy and unmotivated.

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A) B) C) D) E)

believe / receive believed / will receive had believed / had received would believe / receive have believed / received

2. Two recent U.S. studies ---- that roughly 1 in 10 elderly people surveyed ---- at least one form of elder abuse. A) B) C) D) E)

have found / will suffer had found / would suffer find / should have suffered found / had suffered have found / were suffering

3. Carol Gilligan, a sociologist, ---- explained that boys ---- are socialized better at work environment where rules run smoothly. A) B) C) D) E)

explains / will be socialized has explained / had been socialized explained / are socialized had explained/ would be socialized must have explained / were socialized

4. Socrates ---- that we ---- with the improvement of our souls.

A) must have said / would be concerned B) had said / had to be concerned C) was saying / should have been concerned D) has said / had been concerned E) said / should be concerned

6. REDUCTION OF NOUN CLAUSES A. INFINITIVE REDUCTIONS 1. Wh- Soru kelimeleri (what, when..) ile modal (can, should) yardımcı fiileriyle oluşan cümleler Wh + to şeklinde kısaltılabilir. Anlamda bir değişiklik olmaz. • • • •

I don't know what I should do. I don't know what to do.

The Mayor can't decide whether he should be candidate for next election.

The Mayor can't decide whether to be candidate for next election.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES • •

Students don't know how we can solve this problem.

Students don't know how to solve this problem.

2. Özneler ve zamanlar aynı ise that kalkar, yüklem to infinitive (to do) yapılır. • • • •

He is happy that he is healthy again. He is happy to be healthy again..

I am glad that I can have a chance to talk to you. I am glad to have a chance to talk to you.

3. Özneler faklı ise “THAT” kalkar, öznesi başına for getirilir, yüklem to infinitive (to do) yapılır. • • • •

It is not safe that children swim in adult pool.

It is not safe for children to swim in adult pool. It is urgent that she should change her job.

It is urgent for her to change her job.

4. Özneler aynı ve zamanlar farklı ise that kalkar, yüklem to + have+ verb3 yapılır •

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• • •

He’s glad that I have been chosen mayor. (passive)

He’s glad to have been selected.

I am happy now that I finished the project. (active)

I am happy now to have finished the project.

B. GERUND REDUCTIONS

1. Gerund alan fiilerle yapılan that cümleleri yine gerund kullanılarak kısaltılır. • • • • • • • •

I suggest that we wait a while before we make any firm decisions.

I suggest waiting a while before we make any firm decisions.

She acknowledged that she had been at fault

She acknowledged having been at fault.

She admitted (that) she had made a mistake

She admitted having made a mistake

Neil denies that he broke the window, but I'm sure he did.

Neil denies breaking the window.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES 8. SUBJUNCTIVE (Yalin Hal Kullanimi) ÖNEM -ACİLİYET

SIFAT

İSİM

• • • • • • • • •

It’s crucial It’s important It’s significant It’s vital It’s essential It’s urgent

importance significance urgency

ZORUNLULUK

EMIR-ISTEK

• • • •

It’s imperative It’s mandatory It’s obligatory It’s necessary

• • • • •

It’s advisable It’s recommendable It’s (in) appropriate It’s a good idea It’s a bad idea

It’s desirable

• •

requirement necessity

recommendation

• • • • •

• • •

suggest recommend warn

• • • • • • •

order command rule insistence demand

FİİL

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TAVSIYE-UYARI

command urge insist propose instruct prefer ask

Bir isim tümcesi, bu fiillerden birini takip ettiğinde tümcedeki fiil hiçbir koşulda değişikliğe uğramadan yalın halinde kullanılır. Aslında bunun sebebi, bu cümlelerin kendisinde SHOULD ifadesi bulunmaktadır. SUBJUNCTIVE ifadelerde should düştüğü için geriye fiilin yalın hali kalmıştır.

Bu tümceleri oluşturmak için THAT kullanılabilir. Aynı zamanda cümleden çıkarıldığında herhangi bir anlam bozukluğu meydana gelmez. •

• • • • • • • • • •

His mother insists (that) he (should) be at home at eight

The staff requests (that) he (should) reconsider his decision.

The teacher ordered (that) the students (should) stop talking.

The general commanded that the regiment (should) attack at once.

The lawyer suggested that he (should) write it into the contract.

The inspector urged that he read (should) this report carefully.

It is crucial that you (should) be there before Tom arrives.

It is important that she (should) attend the meeting.

It is vital that nobody else (shouldn’t) know the truth.

It is obligatory that every man (should) join the army when 20. It is advisable that he (should) stay at home.

Negative examples: • • •

The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting.

The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours.

I suggest that you not take the job without asking the salary.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES Passive examples: • • • •

Doctors recommend that all the children be immunized against the measles.

Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately.

He demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations.

We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.

9. SORULARDA GÖZDEN KAÇIRMA A. Tense agreement zorunlu değildir.

B. Gerçek IF CLAUSE kullanımına dikkat

C. ---- + ADJECTIVE varsa boşlukta ilk olarak HOW ifadesini düşün

D. ---- + NOUN varsa WHOSE / WHAT / WHICH / HOW MANY & MUCH düşün

E. ---- + FİİL / YARDIMCI FİİL / MODAL varsa özne eksik demektir. Cevap için WHAT / WHICH / WHO düşün. F. ---- + (CÜMLEDE NESNE YOKSA) WHOM / WHAT / WHICH / HOW MANY / HOW MUCH düşün G. Main Clause ifadelerinde genel olarak;

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 Continuous  Would / will Kullanımları yer almaz.

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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 6 | NOUN CLAUSES 10. REVISION

1. When I went to collect my jacket from the dry-cleaner's, the assistant said that he ---it but ---- able to remove the stain. (YESDİL) A) B) C) D) E)

was cleaning/won't have been had cleaned/hadn't been would have cleaned/hasn't been is cleaning/wasn't had been cleaning/isn't

2. We asked at the lost property counter whether a pink and blue bag ---- but the assistant told us that no one ---- in anything fitting our description. (YESDİL)

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A) B) C) D) E)

was found/has been handed is being found/would have handed will have found/is going to hand had been found/had handed might have found/will be handing

3. We feared that the roads ---- too busy on a national holiday, so we ---- not to go anywhere but stay at home. (YESDİL) A) B) C) D) E)

will have been/decide are/could have decided would be/decided were/will decide had been/have decided

5. It is well known ----. A) as mothers ought to be more patient with their children B) so you would save a great deal of money C) that the heating of most foods causes losses in the vitamin content D) if several friends will help me paint my house E) because Mark is so stubborn that it is useless to try to convince him

6. Can you tell me ---- this bicycle belongs to? A) B) C) D) E)

what whose who that which

A) B) C) D) E)

wouldn't be working/will give wouldn't work/will be given aren't working/are giving hadn't been working/had given weren't working/have given

7. The manager complained that the cleaner ---- at the time and wondered who ---them permission to leave early.

4. It is widely believed in Turkey ----. A) although nothing has been proved about their superstitions B) whether a blue bead really protects me from the evil eye C) because bad luck can wreck a person's life D) as oilier cultures have a variety of good luck symbols E) that an envious look cast upon you can bring bad luck

1 B

2 D

3 C

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4 E

5 C

6 C

7 D

005 - Noun Clauses - YDS  

YDS kampı tekrar ders özetlerini içerir

005 - Noun Clauses - YDS  

YDS kampı tekrar ders özetlerini içerir

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