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PASSAGE MASTER Paragraph Studies for Academic Language Exams

35 Orjinal Metin ve Etkinlikleri

Farklı seviyelere uygun okuma metinleri

Fatih KİRAZ (IF)

ÜCRETSİZ


Sevgili adaylar, Uzun çalışmalar sonuncunda hazırlanan IN OTHER WORDS isimli kitabımız toplam 20 bölümden oluşmaktadır. Bunların ilk 18 bölümü kelime ezber teknikleri ve alıştırmalarını içermektedir. Son kısmında ise 25’şer sorudan oluşan iki adet genel tekrar testi bulunmaktadır. İlk 18 bölümde yer alan konular ve bunların içinde yer alan kelimeler son gelişmeler göz önüne alınarak hazırlanmıştır. Kitabımızda yer alan kelime egzersizleri çoklu zekâ kuramına göre hazırlanmış ve bulmacalardan kelime kartlarına farklı 10 çalışma olacak şekilde planlanmıştır. Her bir bölüme 16 kelime ve bunların arasından seçilen 10 tanesinin de eş anlamlıları ve zıt anlamlıları da etkinliklere dâhil edilmiştir. Böylece öğrenicilerin bireysel farklılıkları göz önünde tutulmuş ve sadece paragraf üzerinden ilerleyen ve diğer öğrenme tekniklerini göz ardı eden kelime öğretimi anlayışına son verilmiştir. Umuyoruz ki IN OTHER WORDS sizlere kelime dağarcığınızı geliştirmenizde oldukça faydalı bir kaynak olacaktır. Fatih KİRAZ (IF) Salih KARACAN Emine GÜNCÜ

SATIN AL & İNCELE


ÜCRETSİZ

YDS DERSLERİ

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Değerli Adaylar, Bildiğiniz üzere YDS, günlük hayatımızda yer edinmiş bir İngilizce birikimi istemektedir. Yani YABANCI DİLİ günlük hayatına yerleştirmiş; sadece ders için değil aynı zamanda vakit geçirmek için de okuyan ya da YABANCI DİLİ kullanan adayların başarıya daha kolay ulaşabileceklerdir. Hazırlamış olduğum bu ÜCRETSİZ Paragraph Master kitabımızda hem ders maksatlı okuma yaparken hem de paragraf içerikleri bağlamında vakit geçirmeye yönelik okuma da yapabileceğiniz bir eser ortaya çıkarmaya çalıştım. Umarım beğenir ve bolca faydalanırsınız. FATİH KİRAZ (IF) www.ifyayinlari.com


PASSAGE MASTER INDEX

PASSAGE – 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 2 PASSAGE - 2 ................................................................................................................................................. 3 PASSAGE – 3 ................................................................................................................................................ 4 PASSAGE – 4 ................................................................................................................................................ 5 PASSAGE – 5 ................................................................................................................................................ 6 PASSAGE – 6 ................................................................................................................................................ 7 PASSAGE – 7 ................................................................................................................................................ 8 PASSAGE – 8 ................................................................................................................................................ 9 PASSAGE – 9 .............................................................................................................................................. 10 PASSAGE- 10 .............................................................................................................................................. 11 PASSAGE – 11 ............................................................................................................................................ 12 PASSAGE – 12 ............................................................................................................................................ 13 PASSAGE – 13 ............................................................................................................................................ 14 PASSAGE – 14 ............................................................................................................................................ 15 PASSAGE – 15 ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PASSAGE – 16 ............................................................................................................................................ 17 PASSAGE – 17 ............................................................................................................................................ 18 PASSAGE – 18 ............................................................................................................................................ 19 PASSAGE – 19 ............................................................................................................................................ 20 PASSAGE – 20 ............................................................................................................................................ 21 PASSAGE – 21 ............................................................................................................................................ 22 PASSAGE – 22 ............................................................................................................................................ 23 PASSAGE – 23 ............................................................................................................................................ 24 PASSAGE – 24 ............................................................................................................................................ 25 PASSAGE – 25 ............................................................................................................................................ 26 PASSAGE – 26 ............................................................................................................................................ 27 PASSAGE – 27 ............................................................................................................................................ 28 PASSAGE – 28 ............................................................................................................................................ 29 PASSAGE – 29 ............................................................................................................................................ 30 PASSAGE – 30 ............................................................................................................................................ 31 PASSAGE – 31 ............................................................................................................................................ 32 PASSAGE – 32 ............................................................................................................................................ 33 PASSAGE – 33 ............................................................................................................................................ 34 PASSAGE – 35 ............................................................................................................................................ 35 ANSWERS ................................................................................................................................................... 36

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1


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 1

Two tiny fruit flies were found. These flies can be harmful. People are worried. One fly was caught in a trap. The trap was in a tree. The other fly was found not far from there. These flies can hurt fruit trees. They damage many different kinds of fruit trees. The flies need to be killed. Some people make their money by selling fruit. These fruit flies are damaging their fruit trees. The fruit sellers will lose money if the flies are not stopped. Workers will spray telephone poles and trees. The spray will have poison in it. They hope this poison will kill the flies. 1. People set traps for fruit flies, because ----. A) fruit flies trap and feed them B) people will know if they are around C) these flies are sold for high prices 2. How do the fruit flies cost some people money? A) They will damage expensive flowers B) Fruit sellers will have less fruit to sell C) Fruit flies damage telephone poles 3. Why are the flies wanted to be killed? A) They are disturbing people B) They are making strange noise C) They are damaging trees 4. Why are people worried about just two tiny flies? A) There might me more of them B) Because of the damage they may cause C) Because people have to buy some traps to catch them

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2


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE - 2

A computer is a machine. It handles a lot of information. Many places use computers to help them work better. Someone sent a computer virus to a lot of computers. A computer virus is a set of bad instructions written just to hurt computers. Someone made the virus and sent it to other computers. It was set to turn on by itself. When it did, many computers around the world began to have problems. When the virus is turned on, it makes the computer do things it is not supposed to do. Many computers started filling up with a lot of useless information. Several computer projects were in trouble. One project that will have to be stopped has already spent millions of dollars. People started turning off their computers. Others stopped their computers from being hooked up to other computers. The virus was spread by having computers share information with each other. Once in the computer, it takes over and tells the computer to do harmful things. 1. Many computers around the world began to have ----. A) black outs B) information C) problems 2. Many places use computers to help them ----. A) sleep B) sing C) work 3. What is a computer virus? 1. a program that gets into a computer and wrecks it 2. a sickness a person gets when using a computer 3. a bad computer disk that is mailed to people 4. Why did some people unhook their computers? A) They did not want to get a computer virus B) They did not want to share their information C) They wanted to use less electricity

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3


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 3

Many people go out of town for this long holiday weekend. Sometimes traffic can get very bad. Be ready for bad traffic if you are going to drive to the Lake Tahoe area. Some are saying that people will have lots of time to look out their windows. Traffic will be very bad in the Lake Tahoe area. You will be sitting in your cars for a very long time. Police officers will try to help. Many of them will go to the Lake Tahoe area. They hope to direct traffic and keep cars moving. It is important for everyone to stay safe when they are on the road. Holidays usually bring more traffic. Everyone needs to be ready for longer waits and stay calm. 1. The reason why total population of the city will decrease this weekend is that ----. A) there is a long holiday weekend B) lots of people will have to work C) any cars will be allowed in the streets 2. It is certain that people in the car will have enough time to ----. A) chat together B) watch out side C) playing card games 3. If one happens to pass the Lake Tahoe area, the thing waiting him there is ----. A) fun B) unforgettable memories C) bad traffic 4. It is important for everyone to ----. A) stay safe and be calm B) enjoy the time there C) use only left line which is open

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4


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 4

Sometimes people get sick. Sometimes a part of their body is not working right. Sometimes these parts or organs stop working. These organs might be the heart, the liver, or the kidneys. Some sick people need a new organ to take the place of the one that is not working right. When a person dies, some of their organs can be used in other people. The family of the dead person can choose to give the working organs to people who need them. A senator wants to make a law that will help keep records of people who want to give their organs. He thinks it will be easier for the relatives of a person who dies to make the decision. The relatives would still have the choice whether or not to give the organs. Good organs are needed everywhere. There are not enough organs in California. More people need to know about the need for organs. Many of the people who need them are not white. But people from other races are not giving enough of their organs. Without enough organs from people of all races, it is hard to find organs for all people who need one. State Senator Jackie Speier introduced a bill to create a state wide organ donation registry. Speier says family members would still have to approve of any organ donation for deceased relatives, but the registry would make the decision easier for the loved ones. The national average for organ donations rose in the first half of last year by about four percent, but donations in California dropped by 13 percent. Medical officials and those who coordinate donors with recipients say more public education is needed -- especially among minorities, who make up 70 percent of those on the waiting list for an organ. Organ donations among minorities are lower than the rest of the population, which officials say leads to a disproportionate number of minorities on the list of recipients. 1. Which one of the below likely to happens to our organs when we get sick? A) They could fix themselves B) They could stop doing their functions C) They could work really better than ever 2. Good organs required ----. A) only at special hospitals B) only in the states in western U.S C) everywhere in which organ donation is required 3. The aim of the senator with his law is to ----. A) create organ donors database to track people accepting donate their organs B) create a budget to cover all costs of replacing an organ C) It will stop doctors from removing organs 4. According the passage ----. A) everyone, but especially should know more about organ donation B) a budget must be created to make search on organ donation C) there is an increase in rate of organ donation

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5


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 5

The weather is very important to farmers. This time of year seems to be cooler than usual. This change is nice for some farmers but causes worry for others. One man who grows grapes said that he welcomed the cooler weather. It was giving him and his workers extra time to bottle their wine. Usually they would still be picking grapes this time of year. Other farmers are not quite as happy. The possible rain can cause a lot of damage to their crops. Food that is not picked right away can often rot. Farmers are usually on a very strict schedule. They need to get all of their food picked before the weather gets bad. When the rains start early it can ruin a lot of their crops. It seems that some farmers are happy about the cooler weather and others are concerned. It has been a nice relief for a few of them. For others, they hope that the rain will not start because it could ruin many of their crops. The calendar might say "August," but the weather's more like October. For some farmers the cool weather is a good thing. For others, it's a cause for concern. At Apple Hill, the cooler weather was giving the Boeger Winery a chance to concentrate on bottling instead of picking. "Things were really maturing, its just been a welcome relief to have more time to prepare," said Greg Boeger of Boeger Winery. But down in the Delta, the earlier hot weather has those two weeks ahead of schedule. Their harvest actually started Tuesday, and this cooling trend is a worry. There have been no problems yet, but for each of the last two years heavy rain right after Labor Day was a problem, one that Don Pylman would not like to see repeated. "If it doesn't start raining, we're in good shape," said Pylman. "If the sun comes out and clears up we can get right back to work but if we do get rain, the rots will start." The kind of grape makes a difference as well. Thin-skinned grapes like the chardonnay variety are much more sensitive to rain than some of the others. They're also more difficult to dry off. 1. If it rains at the wrong time, the rain may damage their ----. A) crops B) houses C) vehicles 2. The rain is hoped ---- in case it could ruin many of their crops. A) to pour down B) to come soon C) to not start 3. Most convenient word to describe the relation between the weather and farmers is ----. A) inapplicable B) complicated C) vital 4. According to the passage, it seems true that ----. A) some farmers are happy about the cooler weather. B) all farmers share same expectation about the weather C) schedule for farming is very flexible

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6


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 6

The value of certain foods in maintaining health was recognized long before the first vitamins were actually identified. In the 18th century, for example, it had been demonstrated that the addition of citrus fruits to the diet would prevent the development of scurvy. In the 19th century it was shown that substituting unpolished for polished rice in a rice-based diet would prevent the development of beriberi. In 1906 the British biochemist Frederick Hopkins demonstrated that foods contained necessary "accessory factors" in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and water. In 1911 the Polish chemist Casimir Funk discovered that the antiberiberi substance in unpolished rice was an amine — a type of nitrogen-containing compound, so Funk proposed that it should be named vitamin — for "vital amine". This term soon came to be applied to the accessory factors in general. It was later discovered that many vitamins do not contain amines at all, yet because of its widespread use, Funk's term continued to be applied, but the final letter e was dropped. 1. The passage tells us that before the discovery of vitamins, ----. A) Frederick Hopkins advised taking proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals B) polished rice was believed to be particularly healthy C) citrus fruits were not included in western diets D) some specific foods were already recognized as helpful to health 2. According to the passage, the name vitamin is applied to "accessory factors" although ----. A) Casamir funk didn't find it appropriate B) not all of them contain "amines" C) beriberi is caused by eating too much rice D) some of them are not vital in diet 3. From the information given in the passage, we can conclude that lack of a certain type of nitrogen containing compound in a diet ----. A) may lead to the disease called beriberi B) is still very common in many parts of the world C) can be corrected by eating citrus fruits D) does not normally cause any health problems

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7


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 7

A typhoid vaccine refers to either an oral or injected vaccination that can help reduce the risk of getting typhoid fever, which is caused by exposure to Salmonella Typhi, a bacterium. While this risk tends to be minimal in most developed countries, in developing countries it is more common to acquire typhoid. People planning to travel outside of their country should discuss with a physician whether the areas they plan to visit might have an increased risk for contracting this illness. Should risk be elevated, getting the typhoid vaccine may make good sense. There are two types of vaccination. One is taken orally in pill form over eight to ten days. A total of four pills are taken to provide some typhoid fever protection, although protection is not 100%. The oral typhoid vaccine is a live attenuated version of Salmonella Typhi and the pill is not recommended for people who are under the age of six, or for those with any type of autoimmune disease or compromised immune system. There is a slight risk of contracting the disease from the pill, though this is rare and might most often occur if people do have an autoimmune disease. This form of the vaccination tends to confer immunity for approximately five years and vaccination must occur at least two weeks before people enter an area where contagion is likely. 1. The text is about ----. A) the history of the typhoid vaccine B) pill form of vaccination C) developing countries and the risk of typhoid vaccine D) a vaccine and use ways 2. How many types of vaccination are there? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 3. What should people do two weeks before entering the risky areas? A) they have to take permission of local authority B) they should get a typhoid vaccine C) they had better search about the last cases D) they should choose what type of vaccination they want 4. How many years does the vaccination tend to confer immunity? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 5

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8


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 8

The attack of nickel, cobalt, iron, and alloys of these metals containing chromium and aluminum, by gases containing sulfur-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and nitrogen-oxygen has been studied at temperatures of 600 and 900°C. The degradation of these metals and alloys was characterized by using standard analytical techniques with emphasis on optical metallography. Three types of accelerated degradation were identified for the attack of alloys by gases containing another oxidant in addition to oxygen. One type of degradation occurred because of the formation of reaction products composed of mixtures of phases involving both of the oxidants. Another type resulted from the reaction of second oxidant phases with oxygen. The third form of degradation involved the development of less protective phases due to thermodynamic instabilities. Thermodynamic stability diagrams are used to help account for the effects produced by different elements in the alloys. 1. How many degradation have been mentioned in the text? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 2. The writer doesn't give information about ----. A) degradation types of metals B) circumstances of the study C) evaluation method D) results of degradation 3. The most convenient title for this text might be ----. A) degradation of metals B) effects of degradation C) metallography in studies on metals and alloys D) the oxidants during degradation 4. It can be said about the writer that ----. A) he wants to clarify readers about necessary temperature of the study B) he claims that there are at least three ways of degradation C) he uses thermodynamic stability diagrams to convince readers D) he wants to illuminate readers about degradation of metals

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9


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 9

The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. With some exceptions, glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and blood lipids are primarily a compact energy store. Glucose is transported from the intestines or liver to body cells via the bloodstream, and is made available for cell absorption via the hormone insulin, produced by the body primarily in the pancreas. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimolar. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. Intake of alcohol causes an initial surge in blood sugar, and later tends to cause levels to fall. Also, certain drugs can increase or decrease glucose levels. 1. One can understand from the passage that ----. A) Sugar is the first in the list to get necessary energy B) hypoglycemia refers to high levels of glucose C) there have been new test used to check the glucose level in blood D) hypoglycemia is also one of the reasons of diabetes 2. It is clear in the passage that ----. A) Glucose levels are likely to be lowest in the morning because of long hungry night B) some treatment processes might cause hyperglycemia in blood C) glucose is absorbed into a cell as it is absorbed into the body D) secretion of insulin in pancreas increases during nights. 3. Which one of the below is not mentioned in the passage? A) function of insulin B) reasons for diabetes C) absorption process of glucose D) treatment of diabetes 4. According to passage, writer ----. A) warns reader about the serious results of diabetes B) informs reader about process of glucose absorption in body C) mentions the signs of diabetes for persons with hypoglycemia D) stresses possible reasons of glucose level changes in blood

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10


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE- 10

Color theory is the study of color and its role in art and design. Obviously, humans have been thinking about colors for thousands of years, but modern color theory really arose in the 1800s, when it began to diverge from science into a pure art. A knowledge of this theory does require some understanding of basic scientific principles about color and perception, but much of modern color theory surrounds the way that people view, think about, and interact with colors, from those used on their walls to the hues in a company logo. This field incorporates psychology, history, and criticism just as much as it does science. One aspect of color theory involves the study of the historic use of color. Color theorists look at the shades which dominated particular eras in art, for example, for clues to the societies that the art was produced in. Some artists theorize, for example, that the dark, subdued tones which dominated Northern European art for much of the middle Ages were related to the “little ice age” of the era, which made European life significantly darker and duller. Colors have also been important historically because some were quite expensive and difficult to obtain, due to the ingredients needed. 1. As mentioned in the text colour, ----. A) colour theory has been a concern for thousands of years B) selection of colours may obviously affect the life C) many of the old colours used in medieval times can be produced easily D) Business use of colours based on messages sent through psychology 2. It is clearly stated in the passage that ----. A) color theorists can make deduction about definite time in the history B) modern view for colour theory is related to scientific view more C) modern colour theory is directly related to society's opinions D) Understanding colours without scientific base is impossible

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11


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 11

There were many whales swimming in the ocean a long time ago. Then they were hunted and killed by Native American tribes. They used the whale for food, oil, and other items. Seventy years ago, they were told to stop killing them because the number of whales was so small. Now the Native Americans were told that they could start hunting them again. The problem was that other people did not want the whales to be killed. They told the Native Americans that the whales should be left alone. Many people were upset. During a celebration, guards were asked to protect the Native Americans. There were no problems. One Native American felt good about that. He just wanted to enjoy his celebration. The Native Americans wanted to do what their ancestors had done for many years. They want to teach their children about their past. They think that it helps the group to stay together. Other people are afraid to let the Native Americans kill the whales. They think that other countries will start killing them, too. If too many people start killing the whales, then there will soon be no more whales. Some people will try to stop anyone from killing whales. They will sue the people who help to kill them. They will get in the way of those trying to kill a whale. Everyone will be watching to see what happens the first time the whales are hunted. 1. It can be understood in the passage that ----. A) the population of the whales in the ocean is not as many as it was B) writer knows what will happen when the first time the whales are hunted C) native American gave up hunting whales years ago was their own decision D) hunting celebration became a provocative for the people against the whale hunting 2. It is true about the passage that ----. A) international unions are about to accept the whale protection laws B) because numbers of whale have increased Native Americans are let to hunt whale C) whale hunting celebrations is thought to help natives to stay to gather. D) there is common agreement about the whale hunting 3. Some people worry because ----. A) there might be many protests during the celebrations of Native Americans B) Other countries haven't declared their decision about the whale hunting C) Native Americans want to teach the whale hunting to next generation as cultural heritage D) hunting permission encourages other countries to hunt whales like natives 4. It is in the passage that whale protectors ----. A) are going to begin judicial process about the people who are eager to hunt whales B) are going to hold meeting to protest whale hunting C) intimidate people not to hunt whale despite of official permission D) will just wait until judicial process ends

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12


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 12

With the exceptions of size and color, ants all share similarities in appearance and represent a single family, Formicidae. Ants can be found almost anywhere on Earth including the Sahara Desert. And no matter where they live they always occur in vast numbers. Despite this fact, ants often go unnoticed by us or are considered a nuisance in and around the house. Perhaps most of us don’t know about the role these tiny insects play in maintaining our environment’s biological balance. Currently, there are more than 12,000 described species of ants throughout the world. As a principal part of habitats around the world, these tiny insects have a major role to play. By aerating and mixing the soil and enhancing water infiltration they keep our environment healthy. They also make vast underground tunnels and move organic matter from above to below ground. The colonial life of ants is social. Their colonies contain huge numbers of individuals, which may reside in the soil, under rocks, in timber, in dead woods and even in plant-produced domiciles. Natural recyclers, ants recycle and incorporate dead and dying organic matter (both plant and animal) and nutrients into the earth. Many species also actively disperse the seeds of many plant species. Because ants are so abundant, widespread and successful, many plants and animals live with them and use them to aid in their own reproductive cycles – for example in seed dispersal and pollination. 1. Which one of the below was mentioned in the listening text? A) All the ants are same. B) The ant live everywhere except Sahara Desert C) They have a major role in maintaining the environment’s biological balance D) Ants live in small numbers of colonies 2. Which one is false about ants? A) A colony of ants may include vast numbers of them B) The biological balance in the environment is remained by couple of major animal species C) Many ants disperse the seeds of many plant species D) Today, the number of the ant species is very limited 3. Which one of the below isn't mentioned in the listening text? A) Danger of ants for human health B) Size of ants C) Their contribution to environment D) Their habitat 4. It can be understood from the text that ----. A) Ants don't have any role in pollination of plants B) Sociability is indispensable in colonies C) Aerating of the soil is carried out only by ants D) Most of us don't realize the differences between ants

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13


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 13

Standard carbon-14 testing, as used by archaeologists, is based on the natural process of radioactive carbon formation that results from cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen in the earth’s upper atmosphere. The radioactive carbon is taken from the atmosphere and incorporated into plant tissues by plant photosynthesis. It is then incorporated into all living organisms by means of the food chain. After an organism dies, its level of carbon-14 gradually declines at a predictable pace, with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Archaeologists precisely measure levels of the isotope in organic remains. Knowing the half-life, they back calculate how much time must have passed since the remains had levels identical to living organisms. Radiocarbon measurement can date organic remains up to about 50,000 years old. On the other hand, the forensic use of carbon-14 measurement does not rely on the slow decay process. Instead, tissue carbon-14 levels are directly compared to levels in a rapidly changing atmosphere. Using biological knowledge of the timing of a particular tissue’s formation, one calculates the year of birth or death of the organism from which the tissue was derived. 1. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) Carbon-14 testing is mainly used by archeologists B) Application of Carbon-14 testing differs from field to field C) Carbon-14 testing can calculate the approximate calendar age of all living forms D) Decrease in the level of carbon-14 is unpredictable after death of living form 2. According to the text, forensic testing ----. A) analyzes the decrease of carbon-14 in tissues to find out time of death B) uses different methods to accelerate slow decay process C) compares levels of tissues in a rapidly changing atmosphere D) doesn't rely on slow decay process since radiocarbon is artificially at high levels 3. The radioactive carbon is taken into a living form through ----. A) nourishment B) respiration C) contact with skin D) blood-borne process 4. Standard carbon-14 testing ----. A) is used to calculate the age of living forms older than 50.000 years old B) has some generalizations on which it is based to make predictions about age C) is used in both archaeology and judicial cases D) might be not certain because of the nuclear cases affecting radioactivity in the atmosphere

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14


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 14

Alternative medicine is, by definition, an alternative to something else: modern, Western medicine. But the term ‘alternative’ can be misleading, even off-putting for some people. Few practitioners of homeopathy, acupuncture, herbalism and the like regard their therapies as complete substitutes for modern medicine. Rather, they consider their disciplines as supplementary to orthodox medicine. The problem is that many doctors refuse even to recognize ‘natural’ or alternative medicine, to do so calls for a radically different view of health, illness and cure. But whatever doctors may think, the demand for alternative forms of medical therapy is stronger than ever before, as the limitations of modern medical science become more widely understood. Alternative therapies are often dismissed because they are sometimes administered by people with no formal medical training. But, in comparison with many traditional therapies, western medicine as we know it today is a very recent phenomenon. Until only 150 years ago, herbal medicine and simple inorganic compounds were the most effective treatments available. Despite the medical establishment’s intolerant attitude, alternative therapies are being accepted by more and more doctors, and the World Health Organization has agreed to promote the integration of proven, valuable, ‘alternative’ knowledge and skills in western medicine. 1. It is clearly stated in the text that ----. A) few practitioners think alternative therapies can completely substitute modern medicine. B) alternative therapy is often rejected by conventional doctors. C) alternative and modern medicines complete each other. D) alternative medicine has lost its impact in the last 150 years. 2. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) alternative medicine practitioners are required to be qualified. B) the demand for alternative forms of medicine has been decreasing since the 19th century. C) many doctors have a conflict about whether to use alternative treatments or not. D) the limitations of modern medical science accelerate demand to alternative medicine. 3. It can be concluded that the Western medicine ---A) also benefits from many traditional therapy results B) has remained for a relatively short time C) is practiced by people with no formal medical training D) is last ditch for the people who can't be cured in alternative medicine 4. The World Health Organization ----. A) doesn't have a tolerant attitude towards alternative therapies under any circumstances B) will likely to push western medicine to discover traditional therapies C) will accelerate the studies about all alternative medicine D) shares medicine establishments' view about traditional medicine

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15


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 15

One of the last sites of the monarch butterfly may soon be gone. The site is in Pacific Grove, California. That town calls itself Butterfly U.S.A. In this town, one woman owns some land that the butterflies like to live on. She wants to sell her land to people who want to build homes. The city does not want her to sell because the butterflies will not have a home. The city would like to make the land a place just for butterflies. It cannot do this because it cannot afford to buy the land. Millions of butterflies have followed the same paths for thousands of years. They start their trip in Mexico, in the south, and return to the same trees in California. They come to Pacific Grove to stay warm. The female butterflies need the plants there to lay their eggs. Thousands of butterflies land on the local trees. The monarch butterfly is the Pacific Grove city mascot. Many people come to the city each year to see them. The money these people bring is very important for the town. Some people say that more butterflies used to come. Not as many come now. Many people think that all of the new buildings take the butterfly homes away. If their nests are destroyed, all of the monarch butterfly could be killed. 1. One can understand from the text that ----. A) city council didn't want to buy the land B) butterflies is seen as an animal in Pacific Grove C) the monarch butterflies are under the risk of extinction D) there has been an increase in the number of butterflies immigrating to Pacific Grove 2. It is true that ----. A) the monarch butterflies have constant migration route B) city council is not eager to protect the animals under risk of extinction C) Pacific Grove is location of short break on their way to final laying area D) Urbanization isn't considered as a threat against butterflies 3. It is estimated that ----. A) there is a common view among local people about precautions to protect butterflies B) there are many other lands in which the monarch butterflies lay C) the monarch butterflies create new financial opportunities for local people D) there will be a donation campaign to enable city to buy woman's land 4. One can conclude from the passage that ----. A) writer's mood can be described with the adjective of desperate B) temperature is vital factor for the monarch butterflies' laying C) the monarch butterflies have linear migration route D) the monarch butterflies have spiritual meaning for local people

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 16

Emissions of global warming gases continue to rise as the world burns ever more coal, oil and gas for energy. The risk of destabilizing the Earth's climate system is growing every day. Few things can be more pressing for the protection of ecosystems and the well-being of society than avoiding the catastrophic effects of global warming. Time is not on our side. Damage resulting from extreme weather events already imposes a heavy toll on society that few economies are easily able to absorb. Floods along the Yangtse River in China in 1998 were responsible for 4,000 deaths and economic losses of US $30 billion. In the same year, extreme weather conditions in Florida lead to drought and widespread wildfires caused the loss of 483,000 acres and 356 structures from fires, and resulted in an estimated US $276 million in damages. These kinds of economic impacts have increased dramatically over recent decades. It begs the question, what kinds of calamities might global warming have in store? While there are various levels of certainty associated with the linkages between climate change and extreme weather events, decision-makers should take each of them into account when calculating the costs of climate change. Changing levels of precipitation, more severe El Niños or tropical cyclones, acute coral bleaching such that corals would not have time to recover, or a stagnation of the Ocean Conveyer Belt and the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet are risks. Each should have global policy consideration. Governments and businesses that fail to implement prudent climate protection measures must bear part of the responsibility for the consequences of these kinds of catastrophes by either reducing their emissions or paying into a compensation fund. Industrialized countries must not close their eyes to global warming. With around one quarter of the world's population, they account for two-thirds of the world's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Yet developing nations are expected to suffer the worst impacts of global warming. The dramatic floods in Mozambique that left thousands stranded and the recent bleaching coral reefs around Fiji are characteristic of what we can expect in a warmer world. 1. It can be understood that ----. A) There has been a decrease in gas emission B) Only governments are be responsible for the consequences of catastrophes C) Natural disasters may cause both financial and human lost D) Linking climate change to extreme weather events is a kind of dreaminess 2. Writer informs us that ----. A) Developed countries host 25 percent of world's population B) Industrialized countries do what they are expected to do about global warming C) Developing countries have major role in global warming D) We have still enough time to recover the damage of global warming 3. It is true in the passage that ----. A) Developed countries discharge the responsibility of avoiding global warming B) The consequences Global warming may reveal in the form of either flood or drought C) Global warming affects the countries located along an ocean D) 75 percent of gas emission triggering global warming is caused by half of the world's population 4. Writer suggests that ----. A) All the factories should stop their gas emission B) Many things for the protection of ecosystems must be revealed C) Governments should force private business to decrease the emission of gases D) Each global warming risk should have global separate consideration

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 17

Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or sometimes whole brains in the case of autopsy. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. In many English speaking countries neuropathology is considered a subfield of anatomical pathology. In contrast, there are a number of independent university chairs in neuropathology and even institutes of neuropathology in German speaking countries due to a different historical background. A physician who specializes in neuropathology, usually by completing a fellowship after a residency in anatomical or general pathology, is called a neuropathologist. In day-to-day clinical practice, a neuropathologist is a consultant for other physicians. If a disease of the nervous system is suspected, and the diagnosis cannot be made by less invasive methods, a biopsy of nervous tissue is taken from the brain or spinal cord to aid in diagnosis. Biopsy is usually requested after a mass is detected by medical imaging. With autopsies, the principal work of the neuropathologist is to help in the post-mortem diagnosis of various conditions that affect the central nervous system. Biopsies can also consist of the skin. Epidermal nerve fibre density testing is a more recently developed neuropathology test in which a punch skin biopsy is taken to identify small fibre neuropathies by analyzing the nerve fibres of the skin. This test is becoming available in select labs as well as many universities; it replaces the traditional nerve biopsy test as less invasive. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that ----. A) Neuropathology is never appraised as subspecialty of other fields B) Route map for the persons to be a neuropathologist is usually apparent C) a neuropathologist is liable to explain the cause of death in autopsies D) a punch skin biopsy petered out, and nerve biopsy methods have recently developed 2. It is clearly stated in the passage that ----. A) the one aiming to specialize in neurosurgery must get neuropathological competences first B) a biopsy might be most nondestructive diagnosis method when compared to any others C) neuropathologists always conduct a biopsy on same part of human body D) medicine world is so conservative in terms of accepting new biopsy methods 3. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) the traditional nerve biopsy is the most reliable method to diagnose the disease B) neuropathology is perceived in different ways in different countries C) is a diagnosis process relating to only surgical biopsies and many cases of autopsies D) a person can become a tutor for other physicians just after completing his residency on Neuropathology 4. According to the passage, we can deduce ----. A) that biopsy might be necessity even without medical imagining B) that epidermal nerve fiber density testing can be operated in all medical institutions C) whether biopsy conducted on spinal cord is more destructive is open to argument D) that neuropathology, in England, is discussed in detail more than done in Germany

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 18

Classicism both as an art style and as the first theory of art was defined by the ancient Greeks, emulated by the Romans, and then continued to appear in various forms across the centuries. Historically, the periods most associated with Classicism are the fifth and fourth centuries BC in Greece with writers such as Aristotle and Sophocles; the first century BC and first century AD in Rome with writers such as Cicero and Vergil; in late seventeenth-century French drama; and in the eighteenth century, especially in France, during a period called the Enlightenment, with such writers as Voltaire and Condorcet. In its varying formulations Classicism affirms the superiority of balance and rationality over impulse and emotion. It aspires to formal precision, affirms order, and eschews ambiguity, flights of imagination, or lack of resolution. Classicism asserts the importance of wholeness and unity; the work of art coheres without extraneous elements or open-ended conclusions. Both ancient Greek and ancient Roman writers stressed restraint and restricted scope, reason reflected in theme and structure, and a unity of purpose and design. In his Poetics, for example, Aristotle stressed the unities of time, place, and action. Perhaps basing his theory of drama on Sophocles's plays, Aristotle asserted that the action of a place must occur within 24 hours, with all the events taking place in one location, and each event causing the next event. Following these restrictions would produce a pleasingly cohesive drama. In all, the ancients believed that art was a vehicle for communicating the reason and intelligence that permeate the world and human affairs when people act rationally and according to moral precept. 1. It is clear in the passage that ----. A) there had been no description of art until Greeks B) Classicism fell into a decline with the rise of other art styles C) Classicists composed their works with full impulsive emotion during the Enlightenment period D) works created with Classicist view lead reader to think and criticize about the end 2. The one which is not mentioned in passage is ----. A) the ancients’ perception of Classicism B) definition of Classist view C) historical progress of Classicism D) emotion dominating Classist works 3. According to the passage, it can be said that ----. A) Art was seen as a vehicle to enjoy the life B) Classicism had its golden ages before the birth of Christ C) there is deep conflict between Greek and Roman Classicism D) whether Classist poetry view had very strict rules is not certain 4. According to the passage, which one of the below didn’t host Classist view? A) Rome B) Greece C) France D) Italy

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 19

NASA to land astronauts on the moon by 2020 in preparation for eventual Mars missions. It did not, however, specify how long the United States would remain on the moon. NASA’s current plans remain ambiguous about the relationship between the goals of moon and Mars, generating heated debate about the appropriate balance between the two. Some argue that extended presence on the Moon is a necessary predecessor to human Mars flights. A lunar laboratory, for example, would help scientists understand the effects of lunar gravity, dust, and radiation on human health, with the goal of preparing for next steps to Mars. Others worry that a moon base could evolve into expensive facility draining resources from further exploration goals. A new human space flight policy should clarify the expected size and duration of a U.S. lunar presence and direct the balance between the moon, Mars, and other destinations in exploration programs. To satisfy primary objectives of human space flight, a new policy should be more, and not less ambitious. It should also review the Constellation architecture to ensure compatibility with long-range exploration missions. Even if it means somewhat easing the 2020 deadline for lunar return, NASA must ensure that the new architecture provides a solid foundation for the next generation of human space flight. These decisions have immediate implications for research and development performed on the ground and on the ISS. In biomedical research, for example, issues for lunar outpost missions lasting months include radiation exposure and management of sick or injured crew. By contrast, planning for longduration Mars missions requires study of bone loss, muscle deconditioning, and nutrition, sensorimotor and immunological issues. 1. It is explained clearly in the text that ----. A) NASA aims to create Mars like life conditions for astronauts to get used to on the Moon B) There have been some changes in space flight policy C) Main goal of Mars mission is to search biological effects of space flights D) There is a common agreement about lunar laboratory 2. It is implied in the text that ----. A) All stakeholders of space flights support excessive expenses B) Life conditions on the moon and Mars are same C) NASA regards the moon as a forward base for next Mars goals D) At the lunar laboratory on the moon, only biological studies will be carried out 3. Which one of the below is not featured by the writer? A) Goals of the Moon mission B) Conflict about expenses of lunar laboratory on the moon C) Structure of the Constellation architecture D) New policy about space flights 4. Best title for this text might be ----. A) Biomedical researches on the moon B) New human space flight policy C) A lunar laboratory on the moon D) the moon based Mars missions

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 20

Whether sharks actually hear in the same sense that we do is unclear. The ears of sharks are completely internal. They are embedded within the chondrocranium (frontal skull). What looks like ear openings behind the eyes of sharks and rays are actually spiracles which primarily aid in respiration. As in the inner ears of higher vertebrates the ears of sharks are responsible for balance and equilibrium. The inner ear of sharks consists of a series of ducts and sacs collectively known as the membranous labyrinth. These cavities are filled with endolymph which in sharks is mainly sea water that enters through the endolymphatic ducts. Around the membranous labyrinth is another series of fluid filled canals known as the cartilaginous labyrinth that are supplied through the perilymphatic ducts. The cartilaginous labyrinth protects and supports the more sensitive membranous labyrinth within. The sacculus is a large inner chamber into which the endolymphatic ducts lead. Within this is an area called the lagena that has been shown to receive sound waves in some fishes. Lining the walls of the sacculus are patches of sensory epithelium covered with sand grains and calcareous deposits known as otoliths. As the shark banks the endolymph fluid and otoliths lag behind slightly. Their swaying registers on nearby sensory hair cells that send signals to the brain resulting in sensations of imbalance that the shark then corrects. Imagine the importance of good balance in an environment where there are sometimes no visual cues at all to tell you which way is up. At one time scientists thought that sharks may be able to hear with their entire bodies using their lateral line systems. This idea has since been discredited but the principle remains a reasonable one. Sound waves are after all little more than vibrations that fall within animals’ auditory range. And, considering the importance of hearing it would make sense that such a successful group of animals as elasmobranchs would make use of it in one way or another. 1. It is clearly stated in the text that ----. A) ears of sharks are located on their skin B) there are differences between shark and human in the way of auditory system C) auditory system of sharks include different phases D) some still believe that sharks hear with their entire bodies 2. Because of its structure, auditory system of sharks can be also called ----. A) chondrocranium B) labyrinth C) endolymph D) endolymph fluid

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 21

The US National Library of Medicine says that antibiotics - powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections – can save lives when used properly. Antibiotics either stop bacteria from reproducing or kill them. "Your body's natural defences can usually take it from there." Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the body's immune system can usually destroy them. We have special white blood cells that attack harmful bacteria. Even if symptoms do occur, our immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. There are occasions, however, when it is all too much and some help is needed from antibiotics. An antibiotic is given for the treatment of an infection caused by bacteria. Antibiotics target microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. However, they are not effective against viruses. If you have an infection it is important to know whether it is caused by bacteria or a virus. Most upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold and sore throats are generally caused by viruses - antibiotics do not work against these viruses. If antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly there is a risk that the bacteria will become resistant - the antibiotic becomes less effective against that type of bacterium. A broad-spectrum antibiotic can be used to treat a wide range of infections. A narrowspectrum antibiotic is only effective against a few types of bacteria. There are antibiotics that attack aerobic bacteria, while others work against anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria don't. Antibiotics may be given beforehand, to prevent infection, as might be the case before surgery. This is called 'prophylactic' use of antibiotics. They are commonly used before bowel and orthopaedic surgery. 1. It can be understood from the passage that ----. A) antibiotics can be used against bacteria or viruses B) antibiotics are final solutions in treatment of bacterial infections C) all antibiotics' affection process are same D) antibiotic use doesn't assure recovering 2. According to the text, one can say that ----. A) diagnosis of disease is vital before treatment B) there is no limitation in using of antibiotics C) dosage of antibiotic must be increased against viruses D) antibiotics are recommended to be used only after symptoms of illness 3. It is true about the antibiotics that ----. A) they can be used only against internal bacterial diseases B) preventive use of antibiotics are very common respiratory tract infections C) incorrect use of antibiotics reinforces bacteria and viruses rather than kill them D) a broad-spectrum antibiotic are used more commonly when compared to a narrow-spectrum ones 4. Text doesn't give information about ----. A) types of antibiotics B) danger of overuse of antibiotics C) differences between antibiotics D) process of prophylactic use

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 22

The relationship between electricity and magnetism wasn’t thoroughly studied until 1873 when physicist James Maxwell observed the interaction between positive and negative electrical charges. Through continued experimentation, Maxwell determined that these charges can attract or repel each other based on their orientation. He was also the first to discover that magnets have poles, or individual points where the charge is focused. And, important for electromagnetism, Maxwell observed that when a current passes through a wire, it generates a magnetic field around the wire. Maxwell’s work was responsible for many of the scientific principles at work, but he wasn't the first scientist to experiment with electricity and magnetism. Nearly 50 years earlier Hans Christian Oersted found that a compass he was using reacted when a battery in his lab was switched on and off. This would only happen if there were a magnetic field present to interfere with the needle of the compass, so he deduced that a magnetic field was generated from the electricity flowing from the battery. But Oersted gravitated toward the field of chemistry and left the research of electricity and magnetism to others. The granddaddy of electromagnetism is Michael Faraday, a chemist and physicist who architected many of the theories later built upon by Maxwell. One reason Faraday is so much more prominent in history than Maxwell or Oersted is probably due to his being such a prolific researcher and inventor. He is widely heralded as a Pioneer in the area of electromagnetism, but he is also credited with discovering electromagnetic induction, which we will discuss later when we explore some real-world applications. Faraday also invented the electric motor, and besides his influential work in physics he was also the very first person to be appointed the prestigious position of Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 1. Text doesn't give information about ----. A) principles of relationship between electricity and magnetism B) the scientists who studied on electricity and magnetism C) results of electromagnetic experiment D) history of electromagnetic studies 2. It is clearly understood in the passage that ----. A) it wasn't until 1873 that there weren't any studies on magnetism B) poles in magnets were found out during the study of the relationship between electricity and magnetism C) Maxwell was the first to have exact results in electromagnetism experiments D) Faraday's theories became a base for many upcoming physicists, like Maxwell 3. The best title for this passage might be ----. A) principles of relationship between electricity and magnetism B) the scientists who studied on electricity and magnetism C) pioneers of electromagnetic studies D) history of electromagnetic studies 4. It can be deduced in the passage that ----. A) Christian Oersted found magnetic field by luck in one of his studies B) 1873 was the year which first studies on electricity and magnetism were begun in C) the electric motor Faraday invented was the reason why he was appointed the prestigious position at the Royal Institution D) magnets' poles had already been known before Maxwell's electromagnetic studies

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 23

Children are curious. Sometimes, they are too curious! This can lead to injuries. Many childhood injuries can be avoided if adults are careful and know how to keep kids safe. Here are some important things to know about safety: Always make sure children are safe in a car by having them ride in a car seat. Older children should always wear a seatbelt when they are a passenger. Be a good example to your child by always wearing your seatbelt. Install smoke detectors in your home. Put them in the hallway outside of bedrooms and on each floor. Smoke detectors make a loud noise if smoke is present in the air. Make sure your children know what the sound means. Talk to them about what to do in case of a fire. Burns can occur in the kitchen. Whenever you can, cook on the back burners of your stove. Turn the handles in toward the wall. Always keep hot liquids away from the edge of the stove or table. Swimming pools are a common site of childhood drowning. However, children can drown in much smaller bodies of water, such as bathtubs, buckets, basins and toilets. All of these can be a safety hazard. Adults must always watch carefully when children are playing in or near the water. Many people keep chemicals, cleaners and medicines in the kitchen and bathroom. Cleaners and medicines should be stored in a safe, locked place so that children cannot reach them. Kids love to ride bikes, but they should always wear a helmet. Small children should wear helmets if they ride on the back of an adult’s bicycle. If they fall, a helmet will help protect their brain. It is also important to make sure babies are safe when they are sleeping. Babies can get their heads stuck in the slats of a crib. This could cause an injury to the baby’s head and neck. To be safe, make sure the slats on a baby’s crib are less than 2 3/8 inches apart. Safety is important. Knowing how to keep children safe in your home is a great way to show kids how much you care about them. 1. One reason of child injuries is ----. A) that parents force children to do difficult things B) bad behaviour C) curiosity of children D) that parents don’t let children play outside 2. A child can drown ----. A) only in deep water B) only in large bodies of water C) even in small containers such as toilets D) only in swimming pools 3. Where should parents keep the medicines? A) in the drawer next to the bed B) In the cabinet in the living room C) somewhere easily available in case of emergency D) In a locked drawer or cabinet 4. Smoke detectors are very useful to ----. A) be used as an ornament on the ceiling B) detect whether your children smoke or not C) to increase curiosity of your children D) avoid a fire in your house

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 24

Linguists have developed a variety of different theories about language, each having a different emphasis. Since the advent of generative grammar in the 1950s, many linguists have been primarily concerned with developing theories that are competence-based. Noam Chomsky is the principal proponent of competencebased theories of language. Chomsky developed his theory of language during a period when Behaviourist psychology dominated thinking about language. Because behaviourists viewed language as a product of linguistic imitation experience, they believed that children entered life with a blank slate, and learned language only after being exposed to it. Chomsky countered that this view had to be wrong because children were able to produce linguistic structures that they could not possibly have encountered through everyday experience. Chomsky therefore concluded that all human beings were born with an innate capacity for language, and that it was therefore more important to study what languages had in common rather than how they differed. To reflect this emphasis, he postulated the notion of universal grammar: the idea that every individual, regardless of the language they ultimately spoke, had within their linguistic competence a language acquisition device containing a set of universal principles. 1. According to the passage Universal Grammar ----. A) implies that similar region languages have a common structural basis and the set of rules B) was revealed by Chomsky who has tried to explain source of language in an imitative way C) can also be discussed in Behaviorist view since it explains language acquisition by the way of experience D) proposes that people always develop language with a shared layout unless having unusual growth condition E) explains language learning a process in which individuals listen to and repeat adult speech regularly 2. It is clearly stated in the passage that the Behaviorist Language view ----. A) makes external input obligatory so as to individual could construct language B) has never been a superior language learning model, because of the theoretical changes C) doesn’t entirely reject individuals’ innate capacity for language learning D) was reshaped after 1950s in which linguistics met the term of generative grammar E) focuses on the language production rather than the process of language learning 3. We can understand form the passage that ----. A) Generative grammar has been beginning of many language learning theories on different views B) Behaviorist view remained incapable of explaining the learning of the structures that have never been heard C) Chomsky’s language learning view ignores social interaction and imitation process more than Behaviorism does D) there was limited knowledge about language learning process of human E) because competence-based theories completed their development in 50s, they could light the way of next views 4. The passage mainly deals with ----. A) behaviorist psychology which affected main theories of language learning at that time B) definition of Universal Grammar and its effect on different language learning methods C) common contrast points between effects of external input and innate capacity on language learning D) Chomsky and his views on how languages are learnt E) alteration in language learning theories in the last 60 years

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 25

Ebola, which was first appeared in 1976 near the Ebola River in Congo, is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. Ebola outbreak, which arose in February, is the first documented one in West Africa. However, this outbreak was not entirely unexpected as the region shares an ecological system known to be associated with Ebola virus outbreaks. Ebola viruses are highly transmissible by direct contact with infected blood, secretions, tissues, organs or other bodily fluids of dead or living infected persons and animals; however, airborne transmission has not been documented. Exposure to the virus can be controlled through the use of protective measures in clinics and hospitals, at community gatherings, or at home. Since there is no specific drug against Ebola, the best treatment is intensive supportive treatment provided in the hospital by health workers using strict infection control procedures. Typical signs and symptoms of infection, which are observed within next two days following the infection, are intense weakness, muscle pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Men who have recovered from the illness can still spread the virus to their partner through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery. 1. According to the passage, Ebola virus ----. A) isn’t so threatening, because a person is infected only in case of touching infected patient’s skin B) may infect people who share the same environment via either direct contact or airborne C) forces people in Western Africa to stay away from public gathering and transportation D) is an epidemic disease which has been documented in other parts of Africa E) is direct threat even for people who don’t stay in contaminated areas 2. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) Western Africa has some similarities with other areas contaminated by Ebola virus before B) Large-scale studies of treatment and quarantine against Ebola outbreak are ongoing C) For now, people are struggling to keep the epidemic under control rather than entirely eliminate it D) the Ebola virus loses its fatal effect on infected persons just after the strict treatment procedures E) The countries on the west coast of Africa are lack of scientific competences against the Ebola Breakout 3. It can be inferred from the passage that signs and symptoms of infection ----. A) are very similar to other seasonal illnesses this is why people are get late to consult a doctor B) might be an advantage for early diagnosis only if patient identifies physical findings in two days’ time C) may show many different physical indications which emerge disparately in every individual D) must be deeply observed in different areas so as to determine the exact borders of breakout E) show that course of disease differs in animals and humans 4. The main concern of the passage is to ----. A) attract attention to Ebola breakout on the western coast of Africa B) emphasize the conditions under which Ebola disease emerges and becomes an epidemic C) clarify the readers about course of the disease and protection ways against Ebola virus D) summarize the details of Ebola virus about which people worry E) explain the disease of Ebola with the examples from breakout on the western coast of Africa

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 26

In England there was an important change in religion and politics when King Henry VIII made himself the head of the Church of England, bringing church and state together. He cut all contact with Catholic Church and the Pope in Rome, part of a reaction against the Catholic Church in many parts of Europe. Protestantism became more and more important and gave a whole new vision of man’s relations with God. The king or queen became the human being on earth who was closest to God, at the head of the Great Chain of Being which led down to the rest of mankind, animals, and insects and so on. The Dutch thinker, Erasmus, wrote of mankind as central to the world, and this humanist concern was the basis of most Renaissance thought. Also, the whole universe was governed by divine will; Nature was God’s instrument, and the social hierarchy was a product of Nature. Everything had their natural place in the unity of the whole: both within the family and state. At the same time, this order, which was founded on Nature, existed for man’s benefit, and man was an integral part of it. 1. It is understood from the passage that the Renaissance ---A) was a witness to many religious affairs related to politic base. B) enlighten the society only in terms of secular ideas and humanism C) in which kings desired to hold religious power was fight of sects D) revealed a new perception of divine source and its reflection on earth E) forced people to choose their side during the birth of new sect, Protestantism 2. It can be inferred from the passage that ----. A) England was not only state stood against the pope and Catholic church at that time B) human was in center of Catholic Church which was criticized by other sects C) Nature was God's instrument which he used to control all humanity D) Catholic Church and Pope were alone after all rebels in Christianity World E) Relations with the God revised for the first time after arising of Protestantism 3. It is clearly stated in the passage that ----. A) Man was a figure in the pattern of God in which man's place was arranged in advance B) That King Henry VIII made himself the head of the Church of England was beginning of discrimination between the sects C) Renaissance was thought as humanistic approach which was entirely refused by Catholic Church D) In Protestantism, the King and Queen were seen as a reflection of God E) Secularism and Humanism were main basics of Protestantism as Erasmus mentioned 4. According to the Dutch thinker, Erasmus, we can understand; ----. A) humanism is the essential difference between Catholic and Protestant Churches B) man can't stand against his destiny which existed for man's benefit C) human can't be thought as a separate living form in Protestantism D) nature discussed as a pattern of life rather than a symbol of environment E) Royal members were seen as reflection of God who was only master of earth

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 27

Geopolitical developments in Central Asia and the Caucasus which are landlocked, has made Turkey one of the active players in the world energy trade. Turkey has become an important north-south oil transit route. Analysis of Ankara’s abilities shows that energy concerns rather than a reassessment of its Western ties motivate its outreach to Russia and Iran. The Russian Federation, while enjoying huge reserves of oil and gas, keeps trying to play a major role in energy market at regional and global levels. The Iranian oil and gas reserves are being considered as a remarkable source for securing energy of the world, thanks to the ongoing boycotts of western countries. There is consensus on the existence of adequate oil and gas reserve of Central Asia and the Caucasus to meet needs near future. The presence of the United States in the Middle East, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan, has escalated the importance of Central Asia and the Caucasus in ensuring energy supply in this strategic region. With the end of domination of Euro-Athleticism in Russian foreign policy and with spread of Eurasianism approach in its foreign policy, Iran is perceived as a useful partner for Russians, especially in the ‘Near Abroad”. From mid of 1990s their relations constantly expanded, although there were some challenges too. Iran’s role in Civil war in Tajikistan and its constructive role in Chechnya War, made it clear for Russians that Tehran-Moscow ties will strengthen. 1. It can be understand from the passage that Turkey ----. A) is stuck among the regional energy powers in the Caucasus B) sees its relation with regional powers as a balance constituent against western countries C) has become important destination of countries searching secure marketing route for their energy sources D) will enhance its strategic partnership with Russia as a result of Eurasianism approach E) has to check its political based relation with Iran because of the USA existence in the Middle East 2. It is pointed out in passage that ----. A) the USA wants to control so as to dominate major part of the world energy reserves B) Iran made moves which coincide with benefits of Russian foreign policy in the region C) Caucasus will be opened to world energy markets via pipelines crossing Turkey from east to west D) Russia hosts enough oil and gas separately which world population may need near future E) Iraq and Afghanistan are both political satellite of the USA to control Russian Eurasianism policy 3. We can infer from the passage that ----. A) Turkey can’t take advantage of regional developments as much as expected B) energy concern is the major factor shaping Turkey’s regional relations especially with Russia and Iran C) regardless of boycotts carried out, Iranian gas and oil have a big request in international energy markets D) Russia spent all its effort on development of energy strategies against the USA and the EU partnership E) Close partnership of Russia and Iran is the unexpected outcome of the U.S. policy of isolating both of the states in international arena 4. It is stated in the passage that Eurasianism approach ----. A) began to shape Russian post-cold war foreign policy which focuses on more regional affairs B) bases on having the control of reserve areas of gas and oil exist in Eurasia C) is seen as a threat for energy domination strategies of the USA D) required Russia a partner like Iran until gaining its power back E) is being carried out against middle east policy of the USA

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28


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 28

Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, and fuel. This has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth. The changes that have been made to ecosystems have contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development, but these gains have been achieved at growing costs in the form of the degradation of ecosystem, increased risks of nonlinear changes, and the exacerbation of poverty for some groups of people. These problems, unless addressed, will substantially diminish the benefits that future generations obtain from ecosystems. The degradation of ecosystem could grow significantly worse during the first half of this century and is a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The challenge of reversing the degradation of ecosystems while meeting increasing demands of humans can be partially met under some scenarios that the international organizations have considered, but these involve significant changes in policies, institutions, and practices that are not currently under way. 1. We can gather from the passage that largely irrecoverable loss in the diversity of life on Earth ----. A) will be aided by annihilating unfair distribution of income which remains on the agenda of international organizations B) exists due to the desire of wealthy parts of the world for living better under any condition C) is the main outcome of humans placing financial income before nature itself D) forces international organizations to focus on how to decelerate the degradation of ecosystem rather than how to stop it E) precludes the studies searching the possibility of restoring the ecosystem without ignoring needs of humans 2. It can be inferred from the passage that ----. A) fifty-year-time might be very short when nature begins to reset itself B) Nature will be so mean to next generations whether necessary solution ways are searched C) low income all around the world is mainly result of the degradation of ecosystems D) inverting the negative changes in ecosystems needs broad-based changes in every area of life E) the earth was forced to change very fast as happened in different ways many times before 3. It is inferred from the passage that ----. A) human interest on ecosystems revealed for the need of basic sources, but then its financial gains became prominent B) humans are the only suspect of all negative changes in ecosystems C) people are opposed to legal regulations for the fear of interruption of financial gain from nature D) Ambition of people who use nature for their financial gain rather than supply their basic needs have become irreversible E) The Earth has witnessed the biggest financial growth since 1960s which can't be compared to previous ones 4. The passage mainly deals with ----. A) the contrast between millennium development goals and expectations during the first half of this century B) problem questioning the reasons of the degradation of ecosystems and reversing negative effects C) reasons of changes in ecosystems and offers for solutions to recover the ecosystem D) Millennium Development Goals and how to achieve them during the second half of this century E) humans’ nature perception and their negative effects on ecosystems

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29


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 29

In the two decades between 1910 and 1930, over ten percent to the Black population of the United States left the South, where the preponderance of the Black population had been located, and migrated to northern states between 1916 and 1918. It has been frequently assumed, but not proved, that the majority of the migrants in what has come to be called the Great Migration came from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent factors: the collapse of the cotton industry following the boll weevil infestation, which began in 1898, and increased demand in the North for labor following the cessation of European immigration caused by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. In 1910 over 600,000 Black workers, or ten percent of the Black work force, reported themselves to be engaged in “manufacturing and mechanical pursuits,” the federal census category roughly encompassing the entire industrial sector. About thirty-five percent of the urban Black population in the South was engaged in skilled trades, but they were gradually being pushed out by competition, mechanization, and obsolescence, The remaining sixty-five percent, more recently urbanized, worked in newly developed industries, and Black workers were aware that wages were low through labor recruiters and the Black press, and they could earn more even as unskilled workers in the North than they could as artisans in the South. Thus, a move north would be seen as advantageous to a group that was already urbanized and steadily employed. 1. According to the passage, which of the below is true about the salaries in the South? A) Industrial wages began to increase after boll weevil infestation B) They had increased for the people working in newly developed industries C) They were lower because of high demand for employment D) It would be wrong to say that all cities pushed wages lower E) Skilled workers could get increase in their wages, but unskilled workers weren’t so lucky 2. Which of the below is not in the list which entices people to move to the north? A) Higher wages in northern cities B) Demand for workers in the north C) Labor recruiters D) Better social rights in the north E) Black press 3. The main purpose of the passage is to ----. A) mention internal and external based shift in the US labor market B) deny economic changes after boll weevil infestation C) criticize social background of great migration to the north D) explain financial effects of newly developed industries E) inform reader about black workers in the US labor market by using statistics 4. It can be concluded from the passage that ----. A) There wasn't a balance in the number of black population between the south and the north before the great migration B) All black people used to live in rural areas rather urban areas C) Because of the worker demand, southern black people was forced to move to the north D) Black people used to work in the fields of traditional farming and tobacco E) Black people kept on staying in the south were damaged because of the migration to the North

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30


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 30

Territorially enlarged, the USSR, Soviet Russia, came out of the war with an aura of prestige from having fought Hitler’s Germany. Although in 1945 the Communist world was limited to the Soviet Union, it rapidly spread to Central and Eastern Europe, forming a protective buffer zone for the USSR. Communist propaganda was greatly helped by the presence of the Soviet army in the countries that it had liberated in Central and Eastern Europe. The leaders of non-Communist parties were progressively removed: they were either discredited, intimidated or subjected to show trials leading to their imprisonment or even execution. Three years was enough for the USSR to establish people’s democracies ruled by Communist parties Poland, Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia were more or less brutally forced into the Soviet embrace. Nevertheless, the refusal in 1948 of the Yugoslav Communists to follow the line decreed by the Cominform, which was opened in different cities in eastern Europe as an office, aim of which was to close ranks around Moscow and to ensure that European Communists were in line with Soviet policies, showed that the USSR had some difficulty keeping control of all its satellite countries. The division of Berlin is another matter of Soviet Russia expansion in Europe. Berlin was divided by western powers and Soviet Russia and became one of the main theatres of confrontation between East and West. The division of Europe into two blocs was confirmed. The city became a symbol of freedom for the West. 1. It is obvious in the passage that the Soviet Union ----. A) had advanced its political relations with eastern states before its Communist dominance in Europe B) used its military power, and success against Nazi Germany effectively over other eastern zone states C) expected communism to be approved in all Europe states D) used military power as direct force in neighbor states to approve communism as a major regime E) hosted many politician who believed that all relations with communist regime states were in a way F) they had expected 2. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) Western powers and Soviet Russia divided Berlin according to the political plans decided before B) Soviet Russia could expand neither its radius of action nor its communist orbit after of WWII C) Communist regimes generally don’t allow opposition among the people under rule to reveal D) People living in Berlin were deprive of deciding their own future liberally E) it is possible to say that Soviet Russia successfully had an effect on all area under its influence 3. It can be said about the Communist World of 1945 ----. A) believed that western military attacks were still possible to happen B) included also some central eastern states including Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia C) stepped forward to improve its relations with western powers with which they fought against Nazis D) was more tolerated to persons who didn’t support communism E) didn’t expected so sharp division between west and communism that would happen in next 5 years 4. It is clearly stated in the passage that the division of Europe into two blocs ----. A) was the final step of Soviet Russia’s expanded security zone dream B) became a deep conflict in Yugoslavia when the Cominform of USSR was rejected C) was a precursor of next wars between communist Russia and capitalist west D) was the same with difference between imprisonment and freedom in European people’s mind in that time E) caused to narrowing of communism effect in Europe contrary to previous expectations of communist leaders

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PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 31

A gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and has to communicate some piece of information to them. It can do this either because the gesturer deliberately sets out to send a signal - as when he waves his hand - or it can do it only incidentally – as when he sneezes. The hand-wave is a Primary Gesture, because it has no other existence or function. It is a piece of communication from start to finish. The sneeze, by contrast, is a secondary, or Incidental Gesture. Its primary function is mechanical and is concerned with the sneezer's personal breathing problem. In its secondary role, however, it cannot help but transmit a message to his companions, warning them that he may have caught a cold. Most people tend to limit their use of the term 'gesture' to the primary form - the handwave type – but this misses an important point. What matters with gesturing is not what signals we think we are sending out, but what signals are being received. The observers of our acts will make no distinction between our intentional Primary Gestures and our unintentional, incidental ones. A convenient way to distinguish between Incidental and Primary Gestures is to ask the question: Would I do it if I were completely alone? If the answer is No, then it is a Primary Gesture. 1. According to the passage an incidental gestures ----. A) must convey at least a message about person's physical or mental situation B) have two roles, second of which is transmitting a message to an onlooker C) are reflection of physical reactions of our body D) cause different perceptions on people who observes you E) have many functions in many different conversations 2. Incidental gestures are not seem as building element of conversations ---- . A) unless they contain a message for its receiver B) because people use incidental gestures unconsciously C) since they send warnings rather than messages D) yet they include some clues about speakers E) because we do not perform these gestures when we are alone 3. It can be understood from the passage that ---- . A) a communication between a speaker and a receiver is constructed only by verbal elements of language itself. B) primary gestures are always interpreted with same meaning by receivers C) gesture communication is a process in which receiving is believed to be more important than sending signals D) incidental gestures may have deeper meanings than they are supposed to have E) observers talking to us evaluate our speech according to the signals we send them 4. Writer emphasizes that ---A) gestures make sense in a way how they are commented by receivers B) incidental gestures' main role is to transmit warning C) the first condition of an action to label it as a incidental gesture is to be seen by someone else D) discriminating the gestures into groups help people to identify missing points in communication E) remaining communication of information is not the essential aim of gestures

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32


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 32

Off the Northern tip of Scotland lies a group of 70 isles which are largely treeless and are frequently battered by Atlantic storms, gales and rain. Combination of wind and high tides stripped away the grass from the top of a small hill called Skerrabra in the island known simply as ‘The Mainland’ during a storm. This revealed a number of stone dwellings. The stone buildings are extremely well-preserved, thanks to the layer of sand that protected the settlement. The interior fittings, furniture, household objects all of whom were made of stone also survive to this day. The houses are all very similar in design, consisting of a large square room with a central fireplace. There was a sunken floor tank in each dwelling, possibly to supply shellfish. The dwellings were all connected by a series of passageways covered by stone slabs. This allowed the villagers to travel from one house to another without stepping outside – not a bad idea, considering the harsh climate. There was only one main passageway leading outside the village, which could be sealed from the inside. The village also had an enigmatically sophisticated drainage system. Why Skara Brae was deserted is still unknown. For some time it was thought that the people met with disaster or more likely that environmental and social factors forced people to leave. Construction of large henge monuments in other parts of the island suggests that an elite ruling body, with the power to control other people, was emerging. 1. It can be understood from the passage that----. A) fertile areas are so rare in Orkneys Isles due to strong storm and wind B) the village was improved in some fields such as infrastructure system C) elite body was enough powerful to force habitants to leave their village D) the ancient village could be unearthed by luck after very strong storm in 1850 E) sea was one of the source of income that helped inhabitants to cover their expenses 2. Skara Brae was name of the ancient village in which ---- . A) people lived in safety without any threat from each other or their enemies B) architecture style that ancient habitant used was very primitive C) ruling area was easily discriminated from other parts of the island thanks to the architecture D) landscape of the main island was convenient for agriculture and planting. E) climate conditions forced habitants of the village not to step outside even in emergency situations 3. It can be inferred from the passage that ----. A) the village of Skara Brae must have been established in the Stone Age B) the habitants might have had enemies whom they had to take security precautions against C) villagers had primitive solutions in every field of daily life D) environmental factors forced habitants to leave the village E) there weren't any social layers between the habitants of the island 4. Drainage system existing in the village shows that ----. A) the village was constantly stripped by high tides B) habitants were improved in agriculture and irrigation C) other habitants of the island benefitted from this system D) people were so clever that they had a foresight of flood menace E) villagers supplied their water need with this system

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33


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE – 33

The predominance of the Western civilization throughout the world on the eve of the fateful year 194, in which Julian Calendar was begun to use, was both recent and unprecedented. It was unprecedented in this sense that, though many civilizations before that of Europe had radiated their influence far beyond their original homelands and developed there, none had previously cast its net right round the globe. The civilization of Eastern orthodox Christendom, which grew up in mediaeval Byzantium, had been carried by the Russians to the Pacific; but, so far from spreading westwards, it had itself succumbed to Western influence since the close of the seventeenth century. The civilization of Islam had expanded from the Middle East to Central Asia and Central Africa, to the Atlantic coast of Morocco and the Pacific coasts of the East Indies, but it had obtained no permanent foothold in Europe and had never crossed the Atlantic into the New World. The civilization of ancient Greece and Rome had extended its political dominion into North-Western Europe under the Roman Empire and its artistic inspiration into India and the Far East, where the Graeco-Roman models had stimulated the development of Far East Civilizations. It was the same with the other ancient civilizations. Ancient India radiated her religion, her art, her commerce and its colonists into the Far East and the East Indies, but never penetrated the West. As far as we know for certain, the only civilization that has ever yet become worldwide is western one. 1. One can understand form the passage that Islam, as a civilization, ----. A) pursued the same goal with other common civilizations on earth B) had influence mainly on countries in which sailing didn't improve C) never aimed to spread on the contrary to other civilizations at that time D) was affected by other civilizations in terms of expansion perception E) ruled some parts of the old world, Europe, for a long time 2. According to the writer Western world ----. A) can't be considered separately from the ancient Greece and Rome civilizations B) completed its spread in 194 with the beginning of Julian Calendar C) doesn't ignore previous civilizations and their contribution shaping today's world D) has always kept its relations with previous civilizations including The Ancient Greece E) remains distant from the civilization of Islam because of the its short term effect on Europe 3. It is clear in the text that Graeco-Roman ----. A) means a civilization affecting another civilization with its own belief and art B) was the civilization which was affected another and, then, was penetrated by another C) was continuation of Greece and Roman civilization ruling the far east for quite a while D) lost all its effect and validity after far east had inspired the far east E) extended it political supremacy into not only far east but also Roman Empire 4. Reader can deduce from the passage that ----. A) writer regards the Western World as a worldwide civilization B) ancient Indian civilization was the which was the closest to penetrate the western civilization C) northern Africa was never affected by any civilization but Islam D) Russian people adopted Orthodox church which created great influence on rest of Europe then E) Roman civilization opened new way of art especially in North-Western Europe

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34


PASSAGE MASTER PASSAGE - 35

All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes. How then can these cells differentiate and form structures as different as roots, stems, leaves, and fruits? The answer is that only a small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are expressed, or turned on, at a given time. This is accomplished by a complex system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules. Five major hormones have been identified: auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Studies of plants have now identified a new class of regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins. Unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific, that is, each has more than one effect on the growth and development of plants. The five has so many simultaneous effects that they are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops. Auxin, for instance, stimulates the rate of cell elongation, causes shoots to grow up and roots to grow down, and inhibits the growth of lateral shoots. Auxin also causes the plant to develop a vascular system, to form lateral roots, and to produce ethylene. The pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal. For example, hormones from the hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many different hormones, one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex. These hormones have specific effects on target organs all over the body. One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth. In other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones. Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. Oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. There are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall. 1. Which one of the below explains the oligosaccharins' function best? A) Influencing the development of a plant’s cells by controlling the expression of the cells’ genes. B) Regulating the daily functioning of a plant’s cells. C) Interacting with one another to produce different chemicals. D) Releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant’s cell walls. E) Producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions. 2. The reason why the five well-known hormones are not thought as helpful in controlling the cultivation of crops is that ----. A) there is not exact results about hormones effects on plants. B) each hormone has various effects on plants. C) hormones can function only with together. D) all hormones have same side effects on plants. E) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell’s genes at any particular time. 3. Which of the following might be function of an oligosaccharin? A) To stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant’s root system. B) To stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins. C) To activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls. D) To duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell. E) To produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells. 4. The author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the -. A) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful. B) way in which hormones are produced by plants. C) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones. D) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones. E) differences among the best-known plant hormones.

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35


PASSAGE MASTER ANSWERS

PASSAGE 1 1 B

2 B

3 C

4 A

1 C

3 A

4 A

1 B

3 C

4 A

1 A

3 A

4 A

1 A

3 C

4 A

1 C

PASSAGE 2 1 C

2 C PASSAGE 3

1 A

2 B PASSAGE 4

1 B

2 C PASSAGE 5

1 A

2 C

1 D

2 B

1 C

2 B

1 C

2 D

PASSAGE 6 3 A

1 D

PASSAGE 7 3 B

4 D

1 A

3 A

4 D

1 C

4 D

1 D

PASSAGE 8

1 A 1 B 1 A 1 C 1 C 1 A 1 C

PASSAGE 9 2 3 B D PASSAGE 10 2 C PASSAGE 11 2 3 C D PASSAGE 12 2 3 D A PASSAGE 13 2 3 C A PASSAGE 14 2 3 D B PASSAGE 15 2 3 A C

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1 D 4 A

1 D

4 B

1 C

4 B

1 C

4 B

1 C

4 B

1 B

PASSAGE 16 2 3 A B PASSAGE 17 2 3 A B PASSAGE 18 2 3 A B PASSAGE 19 2 3 C C PASSAGE 20 2 B PASSAGE 21 2 3 A C PASSAGE 22 2 3 D C PASSAGE 23 2 3 C D PASSAGE 24 2 3 A B PASSAGE 25 2 3 A B PASSAGE 26 2 3 A A PASSAGE 27 2 3 B B PASSAGE 28 2 3 D A PASSAGE 29 2 3 D A PASSAGE 30 2 3 D A

4 D 4 A 4 D 4 D

4 D 4 A 4 D 4 C 4 D 4 D 4 A 4 B 4 A 4 D

36


PASSAGE MASTER 1 A 1 D 1 A 1 A

PASSAGE 31 2 3 D D PASSAGE 32 2 3 C B PASSAGE 33 2 3 C B PASSAGE 35 2 3 B A

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4 A 4 A 4 A 4 D

37


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PASSAGE MASTER  

English passages with multiple choice questions prepared for YDS

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