Special Thanks to. Group Programmes Unit, United Nations Department of Global Communications AND Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations New York Office, USA
HOPE TO THE FUTURE ASSOCIATION NGO Representative at the United Nations Department of Global Communications Official Member of United Nations Academic Impact Korea Web: www.hopetofuture.org I Address: 4F, Bongeunsa-ro 176, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea Tel: +82-2-6952-1616 I Email: email@example.com
Team Manager Eun Chung LEE I firstname.lastname@example.org Writer and Editor in-Chief (Assistant Manager) Jung A Chelsea PYUN I email@example.com Assistant Editor and Writer Nakyoung LEE I Hanyang University Suemin KANG I Korea University Contents Review Jeaneyoung KIM I Yonsei University Bokyoung KWON I Kyung Hee University Book Designer Hajung JIN I Kyung Hee University
Table of Contents
THE 15TH UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS TRAINING & YALE UNIVERSITY MODEL UNITED NATIONS XLVI DELEGATION OF KOREA Program Introduction 15th United Nations Headquarters Training in New York ........................................................................... 3 Yale University Model United Nations XLVI Delegation of the Republic of Korea ................................. 4
2020 HFA Representatives YMUN Delegation Information ...................................................................................................................... 6
Main Program (1) UN Headquarters Training UN Speakers List ........................................................................................................................................... 12 UN Report ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations ................................................... 15 Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations .................................................................... 29 Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations ............................................................................ 38 United Nations Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fund............................................................................................................ 55 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ............................................................... 67 United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs ................................................................................... 85
Main Program (2) XLVI Yale University Model United Nations Curriculum..................................................................................................................................................... 94 Delegation of Korea: Position Papers and Memorials ............................................................................... 95
The 15th Participant Individual Reflection Trainee Reflection ....................................................................................................................................... 140 Staff Reflection............................................................................................................................................. 198
Organization Overview Hope to the Future Association (HFA) ...................................................................................................... 201 Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations ..................................................... 203 United Nations Department of Global Communications (UNDGC) ....................................................... 203 Yale International Relations Associations (YIRA) ................................................................................... 203
The 15th United Nations Headquarters Training & Yale University Model United Nations XLVI Delegation of the Republic of Korea
19 Jan – 28 Jan 2020 United Nations Headquarters in New York Permanent Mission of Republic of Korea to the United Nations Yale University, New Haven, CT
Program Introduction “On August
2017, Hope to
15th UN Headquarters Training in New York
the Future Association and the Yale MUN Secretariat signed an official MoU and agreed to a collaborative partnership that
UN Headquarters Training is a professional pedagogical training program customized and developed for the youth to provide an intensive training at the UN Headquarters in New York. Hosted by Hope to the Future Association (HFA)—a UNDGC-associated NGO in Korea, the program mainly focuses on the UN’s agenda, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and global matters dealt by the UN and its member
allowed the establishment of a team of representatives from South Korea. Based on this agreement, the association provides students with opportunities to participate in an international MUN conference and to receive training at the UN Headquarters in New York. Through such experiences, we aim to contribute to the enhancement of each respective student’s potential.
states. Having UN high officers and experts with direct experience in the international organization as the main speakers, the program aims to deepen understanding on global issues and to develop multifaceted perspectives and critical ideas on the UN. The training also provides direct networking opportunities with UN officials, NGO representatives, and UN diplomats. The trainees are able to acquire a deeper understanding of UN institutions, construct a framework in understanding key global issues and foster their public speaking abilities and critical thinking. The ‘15th UN Headquarters Training’ was organized from January 19th to the 28th, 2020 at the UN Headquarters in New York and the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN with 36 youth representatives selected from across the country.
The 46th Yale University Model UN Delegation of Korea Yale Model United Nations (YMUN) is a four-day international relations simulation for high school students held annually at Yale University. Delegates from all over the world interact with one another through debate and diplomacy to solve complex challenges facing the world today. At YMUN, delegates take part in a simulation of the United Nations or another international body and gain better insight into the subtleties of international affairs. Students take on the roles of UN representatives and members of other international bodies and national cabinets allowing them to learn about the workings of international politics and problem-solving. By engaging in topics concerning security, economic development, and social progress, delegates learn to navigate the complexities of international negotiation and teamwork, adopt new perspectives and develop comprehensive resolutions to pressing global issues. Building upon forty-six years of experience, YMUN XLVI strives to provide every delegate with a dynamic and enriching opportunity. This year’s YMUN had an organ dedicated to the NGO Programme, crisis committees and the traditional YMUN committee organs to embrace the diverse skill sets and interests that delegates bring to the conference.
15th UN Training
XLVI Yale Model UN
Korea Diplomacy and Foreign Policy
YMUN brings together more than 1,800 delegates from over 40 countries, connecting the youth from around the world with Yale.
Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN
Hope to the Future Association selects Korean Delegation Representatives through a rigorous process of interviews and essay screening.
Switzerland and the United Nations Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Greece and the United Nations
Yale University, New Haven
Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations
Grade 9 – Grade 12
Age 15 – Age 18 Youth Participants from
Sustainable Development Goals
the 6 Continents of the World
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA)
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA)
1,800 People from 52 Countries
Save the Children
Youth and Education United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Jin-Hoan CHOUNG President of Hope to the Future Association Greetings! I am Jin-Hoan CHOUNG, the President and the Head Director of Hope to the Future Association. It is my great pleasure to welcome you as participants of 15th UN Headquarters Training & 46th Yale University Model UN Delegation of Korea. The program is specifically designed to foster global capability and to build up the firm ground of global competitiveness of the Korean youth. In today’s world, the status of our country is rising in the international society with the lead of former UNSecretary-General ‘Ban Ki-moon’. I am delighted to have our youth participate in the UN-related training program with interests in human rights, world peace and security, and 2030 agendas. The program being held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York will and widen the perspectives of the youth who hold the key to the future. During this 2020 winter program, participants had a meaningful discussion with the First Secretary Na Sang-deok regarding the relationship between the Republic of Korea and the UN, Korean diplomacy, and foreign policy at the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN. The participants also attended briefings from international organization experts and had meetings with the UN high officials, which enabled them to obtain multifaceted perspectives and establish direct experiences with professionals. Participants were able to develop a profound degree of understanding of global pending issues and UN agendas at the 46th Yale University Model UN, an international competition with 1,800 participating students from around the world. We hope the MUN experience functioned as a cornerstone for broadening the perspectives and established critical points of view through discussions and presentations with students from diverse backgrounds. In this regard, the program has long provided a solid foundation for participants to gain academic knowledge and has facilitated opportunities to communicate with participants from around the world with the ultimate goal to construct a cooperative horizon among the youth. “Since May 2017, Hope to the Future Association has organized ‘Yale Model UN Korea’ as a partner of Yale University in Seoul, Korea. Along with this event, HFA will actively organize various education programs: academic forums, UN Headquarters Training programs, global citizenship education, and volunteer programs.” We hope the 10 days of this program were a meaningful experience to all of the 36 participants and a great opportunity to step forward towards their own dreams. Thank you.
Name and School Sungmin CHOI, Busan Foreign School United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Italy Yumin KIM, Anyang Foreign Language High School Organization of American States (OAS), Panama Eunjae BAEK, Haksan Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; High School The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM), Portugal Jisoo KIM, Seohae Sahmyook High School United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), South Africa Seoyeon PARK, Jangheung Middle School United Nations Commission on Population and Development (CPD), Kuwait Minseo JUNG, American Embassy School Ad-Hoc, Delegate 5 Youha LEE, Suwon Academy of World Languages United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), Italy Dohun KIM, Dongtan Global High School Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Italy Kiwoong LEE, Homeschooling World Bank, Italy Sunwoo KIM, Jakarta Intercultural School United Nations Commission on Population and Development (CPD), Haiti Soomin HONG, Bugil Academy First Council of Nicaea, Hypatius of Gangra
Minjun KIM, Vision Classical Christian School United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brazil Sujong KIM, Vision Classical Christian School United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Yemen Sujin KIM, Yantai American School International Court of Justice (ICJ), Islamic Republic of Pakistan Seoyeong YOUN, Goyang Global High School United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), Italy Kidon SONG, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies Japanese Occupation of Korea, Cho Man-sik / Park Hon-yong Subin LEE, Sookmyung Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; High School United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD), Italy Yoonsung CHO, Dongducheon Foreign Language High School Press Corps, Editor#1 Minhyeong LEE, Dongducheon Foreign Language High School United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Italy Chaeyeon PARK, Yongnam Middle School United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ), Afghanistan Seungho JON, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies Press Corps, Reporter#6 (UN News Center) Gyuri KIM, Pusan Foreign Language High School United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), Italy Yeonho JUNG, Busan Foreign School World Bank, Nicaragua
Geon YOON, Raffles Christian School African Union (AU), Gambia Kihun SONG, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies European Commission (EC), United Kingdom Sungsoo JO, Korean Minjok Leadership Academy International Court of Justice (ICJ), Palestine Naeun PARK, Bongeun Middle School Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL), Ukraine Sooyoung JO, Korea International School Jeju Campus Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Katherine Lyon Daniel Seeun KIM, Daejeon Foreign Language High School United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), Netherlands Minji KIM, Daejeon Foreign Language High School The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM), Democratic Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic of Korea Yeonhee KANG, Anyang Foreign Language High School United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Portugal Ga Hyun SHIN, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies International Court of Justice (ICJ), Palestine Hyunnmin CHOI, Bugil Academy Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Syrian Arab Republic Sungbin JO, Cheongshim International Academy Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Iraq Andrew Junyoung LEE, Busan Foreign School United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Mexico
17 GOALS TO TRANSFORM OUR WORLD
â&#x20AC;&#x153;On September 25th 2015, Reference: www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment
the UN Member States adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years.â&#x20AC;?
The SDGs, build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and aim to go further to end all forms of poverty. The new Goals are unique in that they call for action by all countries, poor, rich and middle-income to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. They recognize that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand with strategies that build economic growth and addresses a range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection. While the SDGs are not legally binding, governments are expected to take ownership and establish national frameworks for the achievement of the 17 Goals. Countries have the primary responsibility for follow-up and review of the progress made in implementing the Goals, which will require quality, accessible and timely data collection.
“The adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, with its core set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), are the UN’s blueprint for achieving a happier and healthier world by 2030. But how do we all manifest these goals in our own lives?” The UN’s official SDGs website encourages all people to take action through a guidebook “The Lazy Person’s Guide to Saving the World.” According to this guide, there are three levels, which you can accomplish in order to participate in achieving SDGs. The guide suggests some easy things people can adopt into our routines: Things that people can do from their couch, home, community and work. There are easy points that, if we all do it, will make a big difference to change our planet. The ‘Be the Change’ initiative provides an opportunity for all of us to better “walk the talk” when it comes to the SDGs. This initiative guides and encourages us to live more sustainable in work and at home by changing our consumption patterns, using active transport such as cycling, and buying local foods. Everyone is welcome to participate. Every little step helps – inform your family, your friends and your community about simple actions they can take in their daily lives.
“End extreme poverty. Fight inequality and injustice. Fix climate change. The Sustainable Development Goals are important, world-changing objectives that will require cooperation among governments, international organizations and world leaders. It seems impossible that the average person can make an impact. Should you just give up? No! Change starts with you! Every human on earth-even the most indifferent, laziest person among us- is part of the solution and make a great impact”
2020 Youth Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York
UNITED NATIONS BRIEFINGS SPEAKERS LIST Organizations
List of the UN Speakers
Korea and the United Nations Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations Sang-deok Na
Switzerland and the United Nations Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Favre Dominique https://www.eda.admin.ch/mission
Deputy Permanent, Representative Minister of Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA)
Greece and the United Nations Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations Spyros Pagkratis https://www.mfa.gr/missionsabroa d/en/un-en
Secretary of Embassy, Fifth Committee Expert
Children Rights United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Shannon O’Shea Team Leader: Public Partner Advocacy, Visibility and the SDGs Public Partnership Division
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) Abraham Joseph Co-Founder and Vice President, Development Goals Global Watch Inc. (DGGW) Former, Chief Senior Socio-Economic Affairs Adviser at the UN
Disarmament United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) Aaron Junhoung Yoo https://www.un.org/disarmament/
Political Affairs Officer
UNESCO and Education United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Lily Gray Political Affairs Officer https://en.unesco.org/
VISITING IVY LEAGUES: MEETING WITH THE CURRENT KOREAN STUDENTS Profile
List of the Speakers from Ivy leagues
Ji Yeon Kwon Columbia University, Data Science & Design Major Speaker since the 12th Training Program in 2018
Jung Ho Hwang Harvard University, Computer Science Major Trainee of the 11th Training Program at the UN by HFA UN DPI NGO Youth Representative 2019 by HFA
Brown University, Political Science Major University Staff of the 11th Training Program at the UN by HFA UN DPI NGO Youth Representative 2016 by HFA Intern at UN Department of Global Communications 2019
Somin Lee Brown University, Political Science Major Trainee of the 2nd Training Program at the UN by HFA
Group Photo at the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations
- TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. General Introduction of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations
2. Introduction on Lecture from Sang-deok Na, First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations
A. History of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations
A. History Between the UN and the Republic of Korea B. Status of the Republic of Korea in Global Field
B. Future Plans of Permanent Mission of the Republic of
C. African Countries D. General Way the Republic of Korea is Shaped E. Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) F. North Korea G. Development and Climate Change
3. Q&A Sessions 4. Participant Reflection ď Ž 16
1. General Introduction of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations A. History of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations The United Nations (UN) and the Republic of Korea (ROK) have had a special relationship since the establishment of the government. The UN approved the establishment of the ROK government through a General Assembly resolution in 1948. In 1950, it adopted a Security Council resolution to dispatch UN forces. After the war, the ROK was provided the necessary support to overcome the ruins of the war and to achieve successful economic development. As such, the UN has been instrumental in the development of the ROK. So, in 1991, the ROK realized its long-cherished dream of joining the UN. Since then, the ROK has established a representative office of the UN and achieved industrialization, democratization and human rights development simultaneously for the first time in half a century. Based on the experience, it has actively participated in discussions in major areas of the UN including international peace, security, development, human rights, humanitarian assistance, and climate change. Especially, Ban Ki-moon entered the UN Security Council as a non-permanent member in 1996 and 2013, chaired the UN General Assembly in 2001, and became the 8th Secretary General in 2006. In addition, the status of the ROK in the UN was enhanced by taking the chairmanship of major organizations such as the UN Economic and Social Council (2015), the Human Rights Council (2016), and the Peace and Construction Committee (2017). B. Future plans of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations Based on its accumulated capacity for multilateral diplomacy, the UN mission aims to play a corresponding role to help the ROK contribute to world peace and prosperity as a responsible middle power. In particular, it plans to take advantage of the experience of overcoming the devastation of war to play a key role in peace-keeping activities as well as in issues such as regional conflicts and the protection of women and children under conflict. In addition, based on the experience of democratization and industrialization, the government intends to contribute to the promotion of the human rights of the vulnerable such as disabled people and preschoolers, as well as the discussion of the development of underdeveloped countries. Above all, there are plans to make efforts to contribute to the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and the permanent peace settlement through diplomatic activities at the UN, a key stage of multilateral cooperation. C. Policies on Major Issues 1. International Peace and Security International peace and security are one of the three missions with development, and human rights. The ROK has participated in activities for peace and security and is dedicated to protecting international peace. Especially, ambassador Cho Tae-yul, the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea, was elected as the chair of Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) to prevent conflict and realize peacekeeping.
2. Disarmament and Non-Proliferation With increasing threats of proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction (WMD), needs to strengthen international nonproliferation system keeps increasing. To prepare chances for all parties to share opinions honestly, the ROK is going to make possible contributions and welcome initiatives such as creating an environment for nuclear disarmament for finding realistic disarmament measures. Ranking fifth in the world for being a powerful nation in nuclear energy and as a nation exporting nuclear facility, ROK will reinforce its capability of counterterrorism and nuclear security through active participation in the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). In terms of the nuclear issue of North Korea, the international society has adopted UN Security Council sanctions and clarified not to recognize North Korea as a nuclear power nation. The ROK government is going to promote foregoing measure of North, proposing a positive future that would be followed if North Korea realized denuclearization. 3. Development and Climate Change In 2015, UN member states agreed to adopt the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. The ROK contributed to establishing the completed document, participating actively in discussing main issues such as rule of law, good governance, education, agricultural development, female, and physically-challenged people during the process of preparing 2030 agenda. Also, based on unique development experience that achieved economic development and democracy at once, the ROK is trying to spread its exemplary development case.
Meanwhile, climate change is becoming a serious threat to the point of disrupting development effort and achievement of international society. Since 2015, the ROK government has implemented the emission trading system. Also, in 2015, the government submitted Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) including a voluntary reduction plan of greenhouse gas emission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. In 2016, it arranged reduction initiatives of greenhouse-gases in the fields of national industry, transportation, and building to establish a fundamental roadmap for national reduction of greenhouse-gases. 4. Human Rights The ROK is participating in the endeavor of the international society to protect and promote human rights throughout the world, adopting, protecting and promoting international human rights as one of the main missions of diplomatic policy. Especially in respect to the human rights issue in North Korea, the ROK government is going to cooperate closely with the international society for North-South exchange and cooperation to affect positively in ameliorating human rights of North Korean. 5. International Law Article 1 of the UN Charter defines peaceful resolution of international dispute in accordance with the principle of international law as one of the purposes of UN. Also, Article 13 specifies that the General Assembly should propose and recommend the research for gradual development of international law. The ROK is participating vigorously in the forming process of international norm in UN General Assembly, International Law Commission (ILC) and United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and executing international duty as a responsible member of international society and a member state of multilateral agreement. Also, the ROK is involved in discussions on the agendas of the UN General Assembly Sixth Committee such as national and international constitutionalism, measures for eradicating international terrorism, criminal liability to UN officers and professionals carrying out their missions, and supporting programs for international law supply. 2. Introduction on Lecture from Sang-deok Na, First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations A. History Between UN and the Republic of Korea Sang-deok Na, the First Secretary of the Permanent Mission to Korea gave us a lecture about the relationship between the UN and the ROK. In 1948, the national authority of the ROK was officially admitted by the UN General Assembly Resolution 195. The UN played a significant role in the establishment of the ROK through various reconstruction programs and monitoring the first general elections. With economic support, ROK could develop in the long run. Currently, several national, regional, and international organization offices of the UN are located in the ROK.
B. Status of the Republic of Korea in Global Field Since electing a leader is not a contest, there is no debate to become a leader. However, the majority of member states need to approve the candidate to become a leader of a particular organization. Even though ROK joined the UN relatively late, many Koreans are positioned as leaders in several different sub-organizations. As someone with remarkable leadership and working skills, Korean ambassador Oh Jun, became president of the Economic and Social Council. From 2006 to 2017, Ban Ki-moon served as the Secretary-General of the UN. He successfully had ended his presidency a few years ago. ROK is a latecomer country in the UN; however, it is highly evaluated in the global field. A few decades ago, ROK was one of the developing nations that mainly depended on financial aids of the UN. Now, ROK is classified as a donor country that offers foreign assistance to emerging countries. The sudden change in the status of ROK is the only case in the whole world history, and this makes ROK a role model for other member states. ROK shares invaluable experiences with other member states. ROK is often introduced as a success story to other member states. ROK can advise how to balance the economic growth and the three pillars of the UN: Human rights, Peace and Security, and Development. These days, national wealth is not the only sector to show federal power. The government must support its citizens to solve the inequality within the nation.
Currently, ROK is the 11th largest budget-owning nation. Overcoming social disparities, ROK has developed as one of the influential countries in the whole world. C. African Countries In Africa, there are still many disputes. African people are different from us historically and culturally. It is our homework to translate our commitment to action which is a very challenging task. D. General Way the Republic of Korea is Shaped The ROK needs to take on the role as a facilitator between developed and developing countries since it has had the opportunity of experiencing being both a developing and a developed country. The ROK has the ability to connect two different countries together as a facilitator. For being a supporter, the ROK can support developing countries through financial means. For the agenda sector, the ROK can put forward new agenda in UN committees since it has different perspectives from other countries. This is the overall way that ROK is shaped. In matters of Peace and Security, the ROK is facing threats due to North Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nuclear weapons. E. Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) The Peacekeeping operations (PKO) are the main operations that the UN are doing to maintain world peace and security. Currently, the ROK is the 36th contributing country sending 600 troops mainly to countries like Lebanon and South Sudan. Financially, the ROK is the 10th largest country supporting PKOs. Next year, ROK is holding a PKO ministerial meeting in Korea. F. North Korea A dual process is being implemented currently. The first one is the UN sanctions placed on North Korea, and a dialogue and reconciliation process is underway. The year of 2017 was one of the hottest years since the UN passed all sanctions related to North Korea. This is a very unusual thing to happen in the UN. President Moon Jae-in announced a plan to make the DMZ an international peace zone. The three organized parts of the plan. The first part is general tolerance. The second part is guaranteeing the mutual security of both North and South Korea. The third part is close-term tariffs. The peace negotiations between North Korea and the United States of America (U.S.) seemed to start off in a good direction, but they are starting to fail as both countries are demanding contradictory things. North Korea wants the U.S. to first relieve the tariffs placed on North Korea and then to negotiate, while the U.S. wants North Korea to completely denuclearize first and then to reward them. From North Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perspective, they believe that it is contradictory for the U.S to implement a maximum pressure policy. G. Development and Climate Change Right now, the ROK strongly supports sustainable development. Before, it just focused on developing the economy but now it also considers climate change. The ROK combine these two aspects of climate change and developing economies so that it can maximize economic development while minimizing climate change. The ROKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment in the Paris Treaty is reducing the carbon emission by 37% by 2030. This gas emission is mainly caused by the manufacturing industry so the country needs
to restructure our industrial structure, which is a very big project. In terms of climate change, the ROK has held the GCL, and is a host country of a climate change organization, showing that it is a major contributor to restricting global warming. Finally, for human rights, the ROK has advanced greatly in democratization. For the ROK’s position on the sanctions on North Korea, it mostly suggests strengthening sanctions, and China gets the final say on what passes. On reducing sanctions on North Korea, China suggests weakening the sanctions most of the time and the U.S. has the final say on what happens. International laws on what countries need to do to reach a goal written in a form of a document is a convention. The Paris Treaty is an example and a great historic accomplishment. While the treaty was a great accomplishment, the mood seems to be changing in the process of carrying out the treaty since countries have their own circumstances.
At the Art Gallery of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations
3. Q&A Sessions Q. How does international law play a role in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal? (Sujong Kim, Vision Classical Christian School) A. International law is a very broad concept. For SDGs, treaties play great roles in order to keep nations on the same right track. A most typical example would be the Paris Agreement in 2016, in which nations agree to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Though these agreements should be followed as they are signed, it is true that its lack of absolute binding power makes it harder for these agreements to be realized. For instance, the U.S. withdrew from the Paris Agreement for its own interests. Further discussion on a convention’s implementation process should be placed for its effectiveness.
Q. What is Korea’s current contribution to international society on the Sustainable Development Goals? (Seungho Jon , Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies) A. Before the SDGs, we had the Millennium Development Goal. In SDGs, climate change became a bigger issue as the ultimate goal is not to let the future generation fall due to resource depletion. With this strong motivation, the ROK has diligently led and supported the SDGs. Taeyul Cho, the Korean UN Ambassador, has contributed to SDGs on the behalf of the ROK as the ECOSOC and UNDP chair. The ROK is one of the leading nations in quality discussions on the SDGs based on our dramatic development experience in the mid-late 20th century. Q. What efforts have been made by the United Nations and UN Representative Korea to improve the environment of the disabled people internationally? (Subin Lee, Sookmyung Girls’ High School) A. For disabled people, the UN has developed its accessibility through advanced technology. For example, Wayfinder, a GPS application available on mobile phones, allows the disabled community to find their way outdoors. Furthermore, the UN created an international human rights treaty known as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in order to protect the rights and dignity of people with disabilities. Q. How sensitive is the United Nations’ position on the North Korean regime in response to the real-time situation in South Korea? (Soomin Hong, Bugil Academy Global Leader Program) A. 70% of the UN Security Council issues are in Africa and Middle East Asia. Paris, England and many more are the main submitters of these issues. Furthermore, North Korea faces these similar issues and has China and the U.S. as the main submitters. In terms of tightening sanctions, China has the final say while the U.S. has the final say on easing sanctions thus forming a dynamic relationship. In addition, the North American Summit was discussed as a success story at the United Nations in 2018. However, in 2019, there were some difficulties at hand. Unlike other Security Council issues, the Korean peninsula had infrequent ups and downs and the issues were less changeable. Therefore, we were only able to subtly respond to the issues. Q. You mentioned your experience in Kenya and its geographical features make a fundamental difference with Korea. However, is there any way for Korea to support African governments’ social and political development? (Yumin Kim, Anyang Foreign Language High School) A. There were three strong forces that drove the ROK’s dramatic development: government leadership, professional bureaucracy, and strong will of the public. However, most of the time African governments lack all three, due to political corruption which nullifies the effectiveness of international aids. Political revolution is the first step for them, then they can take a step for economic development supported by NGO and civil support. Q. Is there ongoing discussion in the United Nations about the matter of permanent members’ right to veto? (Seoyeong Youn, Goyang Global High School) A. The UN is established based on the representations of member states. The nations create frontiers where their own interests are primary. Additionally, denying the veto right for the benefit of the country and not for the international public is allowed. The G4 countries are requesting for a veto. Furthermore, we should correct Africa’s historical inequality. The majority of the Security Council issues are in Africa with no permanent members. The ROK is one of the countries that have a voice in the reform of the Security Council. When using veto rights, many institutional alternatives have been proposed to prevent veto in human rights violations and mass destruction.
Participant Reflection Sujong Kim, Vision Classical Christian School I am Sujong Kim, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m in group number 2. Our group had a meeting with the First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. Our groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s meeting was the first meeting of a lot of meetings, so we had less time to prepare than other groups. We prepared the Q&A in one day, but we had better results than we thought. It was because the inspector gave us a lot of information and thanks to the hard work of our staff, we were able to produce good results quickly. Also, the meeting with the UN Observer was a great honor for me. I was happy to have a better understanding of the political and economic position of Korea while talking to the Inspector General. Until then, I was only interested in the UN and thought there were UNICEF or UNESCO in the UN, but I was surprised that each country had a representative, and it was a better chance to know about the representative of the ROK. The Inspector General answered our questions in great detail, so we were able to come up with answers more easily. From now on, we won't just forget that there are more agencies in the UN and try to find out more when we go back to the ROK. Again, it was a great experience for me, and if I had the chance to experience it again, I would be honored.
Seungho Jon, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies It was a great honor to meet First Secretary Na, working for the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. Since I would like to become a Korean diplomat, the meeting with the First Secretary was a meaningful experience for me. His thoughtful lecture inspired my dream, and I was delighted by the Q&A session. The First Secretary carefully answered our questions in detail. He specifically explained how he came to be an officer of Ministry of Foreign Affairs stationed in the UN and carefully mentioned what he thinks about the current issues for the United Nations. Thanks to his wonderful speech about the relationship between the UN and the ROK, I believe the conference was a great opportunity for me. After the meeting, I think I made a big step towards my dream.
Subin Lee, Sookmyung Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; High School I had the honor of asking a question about the efforts made by the UN on the improvement of the environment of the disabled community worldwide. As I heard the reply, I noticed that considerable efforts were being made in order to aid the disabled people. For example, after the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force on May the third in 2008, the Convention made improvements on changing the attitudes and approaches to people with disabilities. Furthermore, the convention was able to help change views towards the disabled community and emphasized that every person with any kinds of disabilities have equal rights to people who do not have disabilities. Moreover, they are to be acknowledged as being active members of the society. In other words, anyone with disabilities are to enjoy all human rights as well as the fundamental freedoms. Other than the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities was adopted by the General Assembly on December the 20th 1993. Even though it may not be a legally binding instrument, the Standard Rules represents a strong moral and political commitment of governments to take action on giving the disabled community the equalization of opportunities. Considering the 22 rules, they summarize the message of the World Program of Action and cover all aspects of the lives of people with disabilities. I have come to realize that the UN has made significant effort in achieving the improvement on the equality of the disabled people.
Soomin Hong, Bugil Academy Global Leader Program As the student who once dreamed of becoming a diplomat, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations was always the dream workplace. In New York City, the Permanent Mission was there proudly representing the ROK to the world. As soon as I walked into the Permanent Mission, the past, present, and future of the ROK were in the exhibition. It was not only an incredible honor just to physically be there but also to have a chance to get a briefing and Q&A session. The briefing, covering the start to the end of the relation between Korean and the UN, provided us a profound understanding of how the ROK established its ground in the international community. Thinking of itself as the bridge country between the developed and developing countries, our country has a greater mission than ever for the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sustainable developments. This mission is an
extension of individuals’ responsibility, including myself, which requires understanding our current status and practices in daily life. What really impressed me was the Q&A session which was full of enlightening questions and answers. I asked a question on the hottest potato—the stance on international sanctions on North Korea, which might be really sensitive and complicated. However, the First Secretary gave full respect to my question and did his best to provide a detailed answer. It was an irreplaceable opportunity to get direct answer about the real-time global issue from the field expertise. I sincerely appreciate this precious time which gave me hope and a spirit to work towards contributing to the growing nation’s status.
Yumin Kim, Anyang Foreign Language High School I was responsible in researching about the background of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. To be specific, I analyzed the policy on major international issues such as security, disarmament, climate change, human rights, and international law. Especially, I was highly interested in the part of international disarmament, and non-proliferation. I agreed that ranking fifth in the world for powerful nation in nuclear energy and as a nation exporting nuclear facility could encourage Korea to take great responsibility in counter-terrorism and nuclear non-proliferation. But I thought it would be important to be cautious and conscious not to abuse the strongness in a negative or an anti-human way. With huge interests in humanitarian aid, human rights, and favorable diplomacy, promoting foregoing measure of North Korea with realizing denuclearization was such an enlightening and hopeful vision to me. Regarding these concepts, I’m going to conduct a study on the mutual relationship between humanitarian aids to North Korea and the diplomatic relationship with North Korea or denuclearization. Also, in
terms of dealing with refugees, I agreed with First Secretary Na because I think Koreans need to have a more global tolerant mind especially for immigrants and refugees. In the honorable Q&A session, I asked about the way the ROK government could support Kenya politically and economically. Thanks to his informative reply, I realized the seriousness of African corruption and its huge negative impact to development. Considering this, I plan to study how to magnify and maximize the effectiveness of international aids of UN organizations and governments of each nation. Reminding the overall meeting, it was really inspiring and directed the way for my dream and vision regarding with international relation, aids, politics, and economy. Andrew Junyoung Lee, Busan Foreign School I had an amazing opportunity today meeting the First Secretary working for the UN and another person working for UNESCO. I initially did not know much about what these organizations actually did to help the world become a better place in general. After the Q&A session with the Korean First Secretary, I was able to gain general knowledge of what Korean diplomats are doing and my countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s positions on global issues. I really liked what someone said about how you need to know your own country well before you learn about other countries, since I had almost no knowledge on South Korea. Through the lecture with the person working in the UNESCO I learned what UN organizations were doing and how meaningful their actions are. Additionally, I learned how pressing the situation is globally with issues such as global warming and inequality and that the attention of people should start to be aroused, since this is our world, and the people living in the world is no different from us.
References Cho, Hyun. “Greetings from Chief of Mission.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5247/contents.do. “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-onthe-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html. “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.” Wikipedia. Last updated on Janury 25, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_on_the_Rights_of_Persons_with_Disabilities. “Development and Climate Change.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5288/contents.do. Fuchs, Michael. “How to Create a Durable U.S.-South Korea Alliance.” Center for American Progress. Published on August 20, 2019. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2019/08/20/473713/create-durable-u-ssouth-korea-alliance/. “Homepage.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/index.do. “Homepage.” United Nations Geneva. https://www.unog.ch/80256EE600585943/(httpHomepages)/6A03113D1857348E80256F04006 755F6?OpenDocument. “Human Rights·Humanitarian Assistance.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5289/contents.do. “International Law.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5290/contents.do. “International Peace and Security.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5286/contents.do. Kelly, Robert E. “Moon Jae-in’s Foreign Policy Reorientation.” The Interpreter. Published on December 2, 2019. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/moon-jae-s-foreign-policyreorientation. “Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation.” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/un-ko/wpge/m_5287/contents.do. 타뮤즈. “미국-뉴욕, UN 본부.” 취미로 하는 블로그. https://i-photo.tistory.com/81. “#Envision2030 Goal 13: Climate Action.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030-goal13.html.
A Group Photo with Favre Dominique from the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs
- TABLE OF CONTENTS â&#x20AC;&#x201C;
3. Current Priorities
1. First Steps in the United Nations A. Definition of SDGs
A. United Nations Reforms
B. Summary of the Session
B. Window of Opportunity with the New Secretary General of the United Nations C. Human Rights
2. 3 Pillars A. Peace and Security
D. Science Diplomacy
B. Human Rights and Democracy
E. Final Phase of the UNSG Candidacy
First Steps in the United Nations
1920: League of Nations 1936: Palais de Nations Since 1946: Geneva, Switzerland as the European Headquarter of the United Nations (UN) Prior to full UN membership: Active observer and member of specialized agencies -2002: Popular vote in favor of joining the UN 2006-2009/2010-2013/2016-2018: Member of the Human Rights Council 2011-2012/2014-2016/2020-2022: Member of the ECOSOC 2011: Presidency of the General Assembly (Joseph Deiss)
Selected Recent Steps: Since 2009: Chair of the PBC Burundi Configuration 2018: Vice-President of the Executive Board of UNDP 2018: Co-Facilitator of the Global Compact for Migration 2020: Vice-President of the Executive Board of UNICEF Since 2019: Chair of the OEWG on Cyber Security Candidate for a non-permanent seat in the UNSC 2023/2024 2.
3 Pillars A. Peace and Security One of the main tenets of the UN is to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to that end, to work in unison to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest. As representative of a country that openly discusses issues in open market and open areas in the economic point of view, the Deputy Permanent Representative of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs urged other countries about the importance of peace and security.
B. Human Rights and Democracy Rule of law requires that legal processes, institutions and substantive norms be consistent with human rights, including the core principles of equality under the law, accountability before the law and fairness in the protection and vindication of rights. There is no rule of law within societies if human rights are not protected, and vice-versa. Rule of law is the implementation mechanism for human rights, turning them from a principle into a reality. As countries develop, it is often the scenario that countries forget the importance of human rights. As a country that respects the foundation of democracy, the Deputy Permanent Representative mentioned the contribution of citizen work to the democracy. C. Development In the Declaration of the High-level Meeting on the Rule of Law, member states noted that “the rule of law and development are strongly interrelated and mutually reinforcing, that the advancement of the rule of law at the national and international levels is essential for sustained and inclusive economic growth, sustainable development, the eradication of poverty and hunger and the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, all of which in turn reinforce the rule of law.” They therefore called for consideration of that interrelationship in the post-2015 international development agenda. 3.
Current Priorities A. UN Reforms There are three tracks that Switzerland is putting as priorities to reform the UN: efficiency, financial support, and new industrialization. In the case of efficiency, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland believes that it is best for people to be on their ground, meaning that the UN should interact with many private sectors and communicate with them to increase efficiency. In perspective of financial support, we think that the topic of ‘billions to trillions’ is so important to achieve and reach 2030 agenda of UN. By advertising the UN’s skills, specialities, and abilities, the UN should encourage private sectors to fund the UN. The UN should interact
and further cooperate with many private sectors. Lastly, the UN also has to change in order to face the new world of industrialization and digitalization.
B. Window of Opportunity with the New Secretary General of United Nations On this subject, Deputy Permenant Representative Dominique stated, â&#x20AC;&#x153;as you know, we are a new member of the UN. We only say what Switzerland thinks, we always reflect what Switzerland considers. Everything we communicate and think only identifies Switzerland. Everywhere we go, everything we eat, we always consider about Switzerland. Personal statements are not allowed. In Geneva, discussion is much operational. Programatic approaches are discussed. It is a very complementary process. And we believe that broader
expension of the UN is good thing. There is big movement of celebration of 75th anniversary. Every citizens, regardless of age, they can participate in this celebration. And the Secretary General will write a report on this—write some procedures, and remove the old- fashioned thing. Therefore we can achieve peace, and security.” C. Human Rights To quote the Deputy Permanent Representative, human rights are a “global phenomenon that can only be solved on a global level. It is really worth it of the UN. Come together, and talking to each other is the biggest values of United Nations. Switzerland just created in Geneva science diplomacy. This topic has to become more modern and adopted to these new tools. The world is changing and we also have to change ourselves, so that is why Switzerland is putting a lot value in this issue. We want to eradicate poverty. We want to achieve SDGs. We want to make the world become better.” D. Science Diplomacy Deputy Permanent Representative stated that “Switzerland created a Science Diplomacy Hub called the GESTA in Geneva, where Switzerland believes that the we have to work together with private sectors, and with academia so that the diplomacy become more modern and adapted to these new tools. The idea behind this is that the world is changing, and we also have to change ourselves, and that is why Switzerland is putting a lot of emphasis on these issues too.”
E. Final Phase of the UNSCCandidacy The final phase of Switzerland’s Security Council candidacy is a two-year phase, where they will campaign very strongly. Switzerland will start those two years on July the 6th, with a big launching event of the final phase. Through active cooperation with other nations, Switzerland will work very hard to earn the votes of member states.
- UN Coordination in the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs -
Q&A Q: What was the process you had to undergo to become the Deputy Permanent Representative of Switzerland and the United Nations? A: There are various ways of achieving it, but in my home country, there are two major ways. Firstly, taking the diplomatic exam, which just about 15 individuals annually pass. Secondly, to be in the development cooperation branch. This normally applies for professionals for a certain field. The respective people compete with one another to take the role of the deputy permanent representative. In addition, people progress and generally attain the role of deputy permanent representative as they work longer.
Q: What is your biggest achievement of having the role? A: As I represent my country, I do not intrude any personal opinion, but rather I only speak what my country speaks. This in my opinion have so far been the greatest achievement. Q: What do we have to do work in the United Nations? A: Do what you like and do what you do the best. In the past, I was a lawyer in the financial sector; however, I was highly interested in international economy, and therefore decided to invest my time in it. My hard work and dedication allowed me to come up until the Deputy Permanent Representative.
References Foreign & Commonwealth Office and Sir Mark Lyall Grant. “’70 Years Ago, the UN Charter Established the Three Founding Pillars of the UN System: Peace and Security, Human Rights, and Development.” Gov.UK. Published on February 23, 2015. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/70-years-ago-the-un-charter-established-thethree-founding-pillars-of-the-un-system-peace-and-security-human-rights-anddevelopment Tautakitaki, Ikinasio. “The Three Pillars of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: A ‘Non-Binding’ International Contract on the State Duty to Protect Human Rights, the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and the Access to Remedy for Victims of Abuse.” Victoria University of Wellington Legal Research Paper, Student/Alumni Paper no. 49 (2016).
Group Photo with Spyros Pagkratis from Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations
- TABLE OF CONTENTS – 1. Introduction
1) Human Rights
2. History of the Mission
2) International Law
A. United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in
4. Issues at a Glance
A. Greek Debt Crisis
B. United Nations Educational, Scientific
B. International Relations and
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
C. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
1) Greek-Turkish Relations
D. United Nations High Commission for
2) Cyprus Issue
Refugees (UNHCR) 5. Q&A Session 3. Main Roles of the Mission
6. Participation Reflection
A. Peace and Security
B. Economic and Social Development C. International Law and Human Rights
Introduction Greece, a nation located in the southernmost area of the Balkan Peninsula composed of 2000 islands with only 170 of them inhabited yet with one of the richest cultural heritages, was indeed an interesting country to investigate throughout the research program. Being the first group out of the past UN training programs to ever visit the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations despite the brevity of the session due to time constraints, the conference was of priceless experience especially with Greece being a place of diverse incidents recently. 1. History of the Mission Greece joined the UN on October 25th, 1945 as one of the 51 founding Member States. With its past long involvement with the UN, Greece has had several notable missions throughout history that involved many of th e UN-associated organizations and programs. A. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) UNFICYP, one of the longest-running peacekeeping missions, began in 1964 to settle the dispute between Greek Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot communities on the island of Cyprus located under mainland Turkey. In 1974, the role of the mission enlarged with an outbreak of a revolt that favored the Greek Cypriot community over the Turkish Cypriots and the continuous intervention of the Turkish military. After the announcement of a ceasefire in August 1974, UNFICYP continuously remained at the place to inspect the borders of the ceasefire, to accommodate humanitarian support and to sustain the buffer zone that prevented possible conflicts. The mission consists of four main components which are the PKO military, UN police, Civil Affairs branch, and the Administration, and exists to this day showing positive results such as the creation of crossing points indicating a sign of the moderated relationship between the two communities even though the attempts to completely resolve the conflicts between those two communities have been fruitless so far. B. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) As a nation with the fourth highest tertiary education enrollment among OECD countries and with one of the major industries in Greece being tourism which takes up to 19.7 percent of Greece’s GDP, one can assume the importance of UNESCO’s role in Greece. UNESCO was first introduced at the Conference for the Establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1945 where the representatives of forty-four countries decided to create an organization that would embody a genuine culture of peace for the nations. They believed that the embracement of “intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind” will prevent another world war. Currently, UNESCO works to ensure the protection of the natural and cultural heritage of nations by granting emergency assistance for World Heritage Sites in immediate danger, helping state parties to build public awareness and assisting countries with technical substitution and professional training. Greece, as one of the forty-four founding nations of the UNESCO, has 16 sites (along with 2 communal sites) registered as World Heritage Sites starting from the Acropolis in Athens which was assigned as a World Heritage Site in 1987 and has held various educative programs like the one held in the year 2003 called the World Heritage Youth Forum. Again, the efficient and well-founded system of heritage management along with their educational achievements confirms that education and cultural preservation are of great concern for Greece.
Spyros Pagkratis, Secretary of Embassy, Fifth Committee Expert, Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations
C. International Monetary Fund (IMF) The IMF, though an associative organization with the UN (not under the direct branch of the UN), has been closely tied to Greece with a recent debt crisis in Greece in 2018. Beginning from late 2009, Greece’s economy was heavily influenced by the global great recession with its susceptibility accounted to the economic structural instability of Greece and its lack of independence in monetary policies as a Eurozone member. In spite of the efforts of the government with constant tax modification, expenditure allocation, and the assistance of the IMF along with the Euro Group and the European Central National Bank through a negotiated debt relief for the privately-owned banks through a reduction in the evaluation of the value of their collateral that is commonly referred a “haircut”, the nation’s economic status exacerbated and Greece eventually rejected further austerity measures to be undertaken. The UN, concerned by the fact that such an economic crisis may degrade standards of living in Greece, warned of possible infringements in human rights due to the incident. Greece, in response, attempted to alleviate the situation through debt audit commission and enacting laws to substitute those living in extreme poverty. As of now, Greece is slowly attempting to recover from the economic crisis. D. United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) Greece is currently seen as a major transit point for many asylum seekers who attempt to reach mainland Europe with 75,000 refugees entering the country just in the year 2019. While it is proclaimed to be the role of the Greek government to accept and register refugees, the UNHCR has acted as a liaison between the government, the refugees and the non-governmental organizations or volunteers to assure the protection of refugees and asylum seekers. Moreover, the UNHCR had undertaken measures to ensure the protection of refugees including the promotion of policies for the pursuit of higher quality of life for the refugees, substitution for the gaps of basic necessity deficiency that includes food, water, sanitation and shelter, and provision of assistance for the
government for enlarging the government capacity. Taking a look at the UNHCR’s history in Greece, the UNHCR’s role in Greece has become increasingly important from the year 2015—the year the European refugee crisis had begun. The outbreak of the Syrian Civil War and the political oppression of various nations in 2015 stimulated a mass movement of refugees to the point beyond the Greek government’s capacity and under such circumstances, the UNHCR provided sustenance for Greece to hold the influx with various measures as mentioned previously. With continuous wane in the refugee population along with the well-guided policy of the Greek government despite some conflicts still in existence, there seems to be hopeful signs of moderation in the refugee crisis. 2. Main Roles of the Mission A. Peace and Security Maintaining a relatively peaceful milieu and relationship with nations in the contemporary world even through the recent period of unrest, Greece can be seen as one of the countries that have greatly attempted to pursue peace as by the SDG #16. Evaluating national security and stability of Greece itself, the country has shown great improvements in their security level in the past few years. Simply looking at their crime rate demonstrates such improvements; there has been a steady decline in the crime statistics regarding intentional homicides, personal violence, intergang violence overdominance, and predatory killing from the year 2011. On the other hand, there remains some concerns related to poverty and immigrant crimes created by the debt crisis in the year 2018 and the ongoing European immigrant crisis. For poverty crimes, robberies and burglaries have continued to be a common threat with 587.1 cases per 100000 populations. For immigrant crimes, the 2012 Paros case denoted the crimes inflicted by the influx of illegal immigrants into the country.
In the case of Greece’s external conflicts with other countries, there are two main countries to take into consideration: Turkey and Libya. Greece and Turkey had a controversial relationship partially due to the dispute
on the island of Cyprus. The Greek Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s struggle was stimulated by the involvement of each government and eventually led to an armed conflict. Though there has been small progress in their relationship, they are still far from complete alleviation of the situation. Another external dispute can be found in the Libyan and Turkish maritime deal in the East Mediterranean sea. The Greek government, triggered by the fact that Libya and Turkey set their own deal for the East Mediterranean sea, expressed their disagreement with the message from the Prime Minister about the possible sanctions from Greece unless Libya scraps the deal made with Turkey. There seem to be obstacles remaining for Greece to resolve to ensure peace and national security. B. Economic and Social Development Economic and social development is another name for peace. Mindful of the need to achieve both, Greece considers it very important for governments and institutions within the country to work systematically. In particular, it emphasizes the need to raise funds for development, the timely performance of sustainable development goals, and the protection of vulnerable people to achieve economic and social development. Greece, however, received 326 billion euros in bailout aid in three roundsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from the EU and the IMFâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;after the 2009 financial crisis. Since then, there have been cuts in pension, civil servants bonuses, subsidies, and medical care. The end of the bailout program in August 2018 by implementing austerity measures, including cutting welfare budgets, privatizing state-owned companies and raising income taxes, helped the country overcome the financial crisis and Greece was released from the IMF in 2020. Credit ratings also gained positive results as major international institutions positively evaluated Greece's economic growth in 2019 ahead of the end of the bailout assistance program, and Greece's economic growth has been on the rise recently. However, based on purchasing power parity (PPP), Greece is only two-thirds the size of the EU country and has a large public debt. Moreover, it cannot use fiscal policy commonly used by countries in crisis, which worsens the problem of bad loans held by banks.
Greece has systematically upgraded its humanitarian aid programs to counter an urgent humanitarian crisis. In 1999, the MFA established Hellenic aid as an intra-ministerial coordinating agency to oversee humanitarian assistance and development programs and ensure a swift response to emergencies. In 2000, heads of states and governments from 189 countries gathered in New York to sign the Millennium Declaration, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) remained a matter for the international community to solve by 2015. Then, in 2001, the Greek Conference adopted the Secretary General Report on the Millennium Declaration and later confirmed eight development goals known as the MDGs and determined that they were feasible objectives for the Greek government. The goals from 1 to 8 are to get the poor out of poverty and hunger, send all children to school,
empower women, lower child mortality, improve maternal health, fight AIDS, malaria and other diseases, and ensure environmental sustainability. The eight goals declared a way forward and required global partnerships for achievement. Greece has implemented a national social security system not only in international social development programs but also in its own country, allowing people from vulnerable groups to maintain their basic lives by providing medical care and transportation. Besides, Greece has established institutions related to gender equality to help women who are exposed to violence. Further, the Greek government is trying to improve the prison environment to ensure basic human rights for people detained, including residents in prison and illegal aliens. The Greek constitution prohibits discrimination based on nationality, race, language, religion or political beliefs, although it does not always protect rights. Greece also has a lot of interest in domestic and international programs that lead to the development of society. C. International Law and Human Rights Although numerous international treaties and conventions were ratified and taken into effect, we cannot completely ensure the protection of human rights. This means that even international commitments enacted upon unanimous consensus have irrecoverable loopholes. Greece in the UN is at the forefront of participating in all relevant discussions as possible and willing to open up channels for discussions. Despite the complicated nature of human rights issues, Greece has been buttressing the minimum standards of this framework. 1) Human Rights The Greek Constitution declares that preserving human dignity and securing the rights of individuals at all times is of utmost importance. The direction of the Greek government on the protection of human rights is aligned with the principles enshrined in the Greek Constitution. For example, Greece, as a member of the Human Security Network, ratified the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD) and its Optional Protocol to come up with initiatives to assist people with disabilities. Currently, the government does not only grant job opportunities to disabled citizens, but also grants access to political arenas which inhibited their participation beforehand. It strives to discard stereotypes regarding their capabilities and raises the awareness of the public via political campaigns. Greece delivered official reports to the main human rights treaty bodies on a regular basis and adopted the Security Council Resolution 1738 which denounced unrestrained attacks against journalists in zones with heavy conflicts. The government decided to shed light on the compromised safety of journalists within conflict zones and endorsed the execution of the UN Plan of Action on the issue of impunity. Then, in 2013, Greece introduced the resolution â&#x20AC;&#x153;Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunityâ&#x20AC;? to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly. Plus, Greece has committed to eradicating discrimination based on race by clearly announcing its plan to combat racism and xenophobia. It led to the creation of a special division in every police department dealing with hate crimes. Moreover, the government relied on a groundbreaking approach of publicizing its draft laws before it submits to the Parliament to let civilians express their opinions in decision making processes from the beginning. Engagement of civil society was noteworthy as it made detailed suggestions and comments about those laws on the government website. Although Greece was not elected as a member of the UN Human Rights Council this time, it earnestly aspires to promote and protect human rights as priorities. 2) International Law Greece adopted the UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property in 2004 and suggested a consensus be reached regarding a universal ban on reproductive human cloning. The nation is especially interested in implementing humanitarian law in regions with armed conflict as it agreed with the Protocols Additional to both Geneva Conventions of 1949 and publicized its declaration under Article 90 of the First Protocol. Greece is also intolerant of crimes against humanity, which is why they are hugely standing up against wartime abuses while facilitating judicial proceedings at the International Criminal Court and endorsing the principle of complementarity of the Rome Statute. While protecting the citizens in conflict zones becomes the most important priority, Greece suggested ways to enhance the safety and security of UN personnel who may
have a chance to risk their lives at the end. In summary, Greeceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution to the work of the International Law Commission is evident, boosting the development of international law. 4. Issues at a Glance A. Greek Debt Crisis During the Q&A session, there was a question about the recent economic crisis Greece experienced and changes in policies in regards to banking. Secretary Pagkratis gave us an explanation on the Greek debt crisis and how Greece has responded to its consequences. He first began by mentioning that what Greece has undergone is not a banking crisis, but rather a fiscal crisis mainly caused by high public debt. The questions and answers on this topic, combined with information gained from further research, are explained below instead of in the Q&A part of the report.
In 2001, Greece adopted the Euro as its currency in replacement of the Drachma. For the first few years, the results seemed favorable to the country. As interest rates dropped, the Greek people and government began to borrow more loans, which persisted until 2008 when the massive debt crisis struck the country. The amount of sovereign debt soared to dangerous levels and subsequently, Greece was provided with emergency funds by the European Union (EU) and the IMF. Of course, the bailout program was not a windfall. In return for the loan, Greece was required to take austerity measures that involved increasing taxes and cutting fiscal spending. The measures originally intended to strengthen its overall economic structure, concerning the management of its public finances. To mention a few, Greece was requested to lower trade barriers, reform the pension system, and privatize many of its state-owned businesses. The unprecedented recession, combined with the rigorous austerity measures, resulted in an extremely steep rise in unemployment with the youth unemployment rate even reaching 50 percent. Frequent riots occurred as numerous people experienced severe loss of income and an increased level of social exclusion. What worsened the situation was that Greece was within the Eurozone, meaning it was unable to implement its independent monetary policies to effectively cope with the recession. Since decisions on monetary policies were in the hands of the European Central Bank (ECB), monetary tools were not available options for the country. In other words, it was only through the fiscal policy that the Greek government could handle the crisis and such a constraint was one of the factors that exacerbated the circumstances.
After the Secretary gave us some background information about the public debt crisis Greece had gone through, we were also able to learn about recent circumstances and outlooks regarding the issue. Overall, the results have shown both positive and negative signs. According to what him, Greece is currently one of the two nations in the EU with a surplus public budget, along with Finland. At the same time, however, as of 2017, one-third of the whole population is living below the poverty line and unemployment remains at 22 percent. The Secretary stated that the focus now is to use the budget surplus to alleviate prevalent problems such as social inequality. He also added that although indicators and statistics have shown slight improvements in recent years, most people have not seen tangible improvements yet and many of them are still suffering from economic burdens. Although he did not elaborate more on this topic due to the time constraint, many problematic aspects still remain in Greece. Problems such as the weakened industrial structure, bureaucracy, judicial obstacles, and tax evasion are considered some of the factors that hinder the progress toward recovery. For instance, while the size of the government has shrunk, inefficiency remains a prevalent problem partly due to excessive political patronage and centralized decision-making process. The industrial structure of the national economy is not stable enough as well. Part-time jobs occupy a large proportion in the job market, and many people are involved in the black economy, which poses an impediment to transparent and efficient taxation. To conclude, the Greek debt crisis and its aftermath is not a completed issue, but rather an ongoing one that still draws the attention of numerous stakeholders around the world. At the same time, it should be noted with careful consideration that the crisis also a humanitarian issue that directly affects the prosperity of the lives of numerous people and ultimately, their human rights. B. International Relations and Foreign Affairs 1) Greek-Turkish Relations For the past several centuries, Greece and Turkey have undergone complicated disputes and negotiations. Since Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century, the two nations have fought with each other in four major wars, from the Greco-Turkish War in 1897 to the First World War that ended in 1918. While there appeared signs of relatively favorable relations in the next few decades, the relations of the two countries began to exacerbate in the 1950s, attributed to events such as the Cyprus issue and the expulsion of Greek minorities in Istanbul. They have also gone through the territorial, boundary, air, and maritime disputes in the Aegean Sea. In addition, in the face of the successive earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999, they executed the so-called earthquake diplomacy. To elaborate, by providing aid to earthquake victims, they sought to promote sympathy, generosity, and reciprocity between the two nations, expecting improvements in the bilateral relationship that has been marked by mutual hostility for quite a long period. According to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Greece is devoted to the principle of peaceful resolution of disputes with the foundation of international law. Moreover, Greece is currently a firm supporter of the accession of Turkey to the EU. It was Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou that lifted the objections of the Greek government regarding Turkeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s accession to the EU. In 2017, Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras stated that it could be a strategic mistake by the EU to cease talks with Turkey on the accession issue. During the process, Greece has been putting emphasis on the point that the accession must be preceded by the timely fulfillment of the accession criteria. Such criteria includes respect for the principle of good relations with neighboring countries and also for minority rights and religious freedom. This is closely related to the issue of the Greek minority residing in Turkey and the freedom of Ecumenical Patriarchate. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece also states that Greece is attentive to the members of the Muslim minority within the country and actively consults with them to formulate cohesive policies. It also stresses that the relation between the two countries is of significant importance, as it influences the stability of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Europe. Indeed, perspectives on diplomatic issues greatly vary depending on which side one takes, yet the Ministry of Greece currently holds stances as above.
2) Cyprus Issue After a successful separation of Greek Cypriots from Turkish Cypriots in the 1960s, the former ironically did not shift their direction of foreign policy toward Greece. President Makarios pursued his country’s stance on immunity from diplomatic entanglements and maintained its status as an independent republic. First of all, Greek Cypriots were depressed that Greece was prioritizing relations with European countries more, rather than supporting them wholeheartedly. The Greek government discussed the approaches to pursue western interests more importantly than the pre-independence of the island throughout London and Zurich talks. Moreover, they concluded that the Greek support was insufficient since it prioritized its affiliation with NATO. Conflicts that ignited in Europe became evident after the military gained control over Athens in 1967. Makarios, who confided in Eastern Europe and Third World nations, appeared as a threat to the anti-communist atmosphere in Greece. Plus, his intransigence to handle constructive criticism about the executive branch questioned his ability as the head of the state. Adding fuel to the fire, the Treaty of Alliance enabled the Greek soldiers’ entrance from the mainland and raised possible concerns about outright confrontations. In the early 1970s, Greece abetted anti-Makarios organizations to incite violence and cause political turmoil across the island and attempted to depose Makarios. The Cypriot National Guard staged a coup at the climax of the conflict and induced the Turkish intervention which mainly revolved around the military. After the normalization of the relations between Cyprus and Greece, Greece committed to assisting Cyprus financially and economically to stabilize its political conditions. Greece even decided not to influence domestic politics from the outside, acknowledging a causal relationship between its intervention and instability on the island. Yet, their honeymoon period ended when they realized their differences in priorities as the Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis took a placatory position on Cyprus. Greece aspired to restore its reputation to return to NATO and de-escalate military tensions with its nemesis, Turkey. Plus, in spite of the disapproval of Greek Cypriots, the Greek government agreed with the American-British-Canadian Plan (the ABC Plan) of 1978 to facilitate its progress in terms of negotiations. After the inauguration of the socialist government of Andreas Papandreou in 1981, it directed the attention of the international society to the Cyprus settlement effort. Sometimes, modifications in the approach to the issue of Cyprus involved uneasy and hardly resolvable smallscale conflicts. He publicly proclaimed that relations between Greece and Cyprus will remain deteriorated until the Turkish troops possibly withdraw from the island in the future. The Davos process, which focused on the development of confidence-building measures, and the 1988 election of George Vassiliou in Cyprus served as stepping stones to mend relationships between the two governments. The establishment of a joint committee composed of their foreign ministries contributed to the prevention of divergent approaches that incurred incomparable damages to Cyprus. Although its severity continues, numerous efforts are going on to unite the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
5. Q&A Session Q. How has Greece sought balance and consensus in the face of the refugee crisis? Also, as an EU member that actively accepts refugees, what is Greece’s opinion on the Dublin 3 Regulation (the regulation stating that the country where an asylum seeker first enters the union is responsible for registering the asylum application)? Greece is a country that is actively trying to aid refugees, taking in thousands of people from Libya or Turkey every year. Greece is not only next to the Mediterranean, but also its laws for refugees are very generous. Although this is a ray of hope for refugees who seek asylums, Greece itself is currently bearing a lot of burden, and is unable to house all the arriving refugees. Considering this, we have asked Secretary Spyros Pagkratis of the Greek Embassy for his opinion on the Dublin III regulation, and on the refugee issue of Greece as a whole.
The Secretary commented on how the world has changed since the Dublin Regulation was made. Since the Dublin Regulation was created when there were a lot less people seeking asylum in Europe, the regulation is not fit for the current situation with the Mediterranean refugee crisis. He has also stated that, because of this, the EU is currently reviewing the Dublin regulation in order to modify it to better fit the current situation. He then briefly explained how the refugee system functioned in Greece in its entirety, and commented on how people use Turkeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s human trafficking network to get themselves into Greece, and on how immigrants disguise themselves as refugees in order to get accepted. He commented also that the process of determining refugee status became more complicated due to this. Greece offers full services such as healthcare and education for pending immigrants too. Overall, the secretary expressed his opinion that all the countries in Europe must work together in order to solve the refugee crisis, and on how the old regulations of the EU must be reworked accordingly to adapt to the new circumstances. Q. Has there been any notable contribution Greece has made in the field of culture and heritage, such as in UNESCO? Secretary Pagkratis mentioned the long and rich historical background that includes historical sites and architectural prosperity inherited from generation to generation. Greece attempted to protect those heritages through the establishment of the national tourist organization in the 1900s. Actually, this tourism is extremely important for Greece at the moment because those heritages mostly serve as Greeceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main tourist attractions and the tourists from Asian countries are new contributors to the economy of Greece. Also, he said that Greece is working hard to protect the destruction of cultural property against the environment or intentional destruction of cultural heritage. As an example of that, Greece directs a resolution for the protection of cultural properties every 3 years. In part of that, UNESCO is one part of the UN cooperation with Greece for the preservation of the Greek cultures. It was very impressive that he stated that if the cultural heritage vanishes due to terrors or wars, it could wipe away our history and memories in a short period of time. We were especially impressed by this line, and realized again about the importance of preserving both tangible and intangible heritages all over the world.
Participant Reflection Kidon Song, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies Upon my arrival in the United States, I was extremely anxious as it was my first time being involved in the United Nations Training Program arranged by Hope to the Future Association. As a student accustomed to rote learning, I had high expectations to constantly challenge myself in this unusually intriguing environment. Fortunately, I figured out that everyone in my group was even more passionate than I was as they were committed to thorough research about the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations (PMGUN). When we chose to visit the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations, I was curious about why our team members selected this mission over all the other places. This question brought me to the finishing line of this program. Of course, not everything was smooth and easygoing since we had to wait for about 30 minutes at the PMGUN due to our early arrival. Plus, the Secretary of the Embassy was running out of time as he had an appointment previously scheduled afterward. On a race against time, we selected 3 out of 6 questions and asked him right away. Although he was in a hurry, he provided well-elaborated responses on the current European migrant crisis and the Greek government-debt crisis. He articulated that the Greek taxpayers were largely contributing to the resolution of the migrant crisis with facilities designated to refugees and financial assistance to those in need. Also, he suggested that the country overcame the liquidity crisis with state-wide employment and the alleviation of social inequality through enhanced social mobility. Moreover, he stressed the abundance of historical artifacts and aesthetically appealing statues in Greece which should be further preserved for the sake of the posterityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inheritance. After this Q&A session, I also learned that Greece was officially known as the Hellenic Republic from a suspended bronze plaque. This experience truly enriched my understanding regarding domestic affairs and honed my tactics to approach international relations. Nothing had a clear-cut solution. Everything on Earth needed deliberation. Time flew like an arrow; at least that was how I felt. Once in a while, I was so exhausted that I did not even have the motivation to push myself through this project and depressed that I had to work on this seemingly endless assignment. Yet, my teammates always kept my mind sharp as they served as my role models and directed my attention toward a superordinate goal to achieve. Special thanks to Seoyeong, our group leader, who devoted her entire time to taking care of all of us. Also, I would like to express gratitude to Minhyeong, Minseo, Minji, and Seoyeon, who have always been supportive and enthusiastic, for their diligence, cooperation, and perseverance. You guys definitely rock!
Minseo Jung, American Embassy School Looking back at my first UN training program, I remember how I was impressed by my teammateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deep understanding regarding global affairs, the efforts they put in their work, and their desire to learn. Hence, their work ethics was by far a great stimulator as well as a well-established guideline on how I should approach to learning back then. Even though two years had passed and I was working with completely new members this time, I could clearly notice the same perhaps even greater effort and desire from my teammates while working for this paper and I confidently affirm that working with such people was a priceless experience. Frankly speaking, when our group was first assigned to investigate and write about the permanent mission of Greece to the UN, I wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sure how the paper would turn out. The country of Greece seemed too far and too broad for me to write about. Yet, the various perspectives that each of our teammates shared and the specific field of interest we each had about international affairs slowly began to shape the overall outline of our paper. After the Q&A session with Secretary Pagkratis from the PMGUN and thorough research on each of our assigned topics, our work became more and more solid. The only regret that I had about this entire procedure of writing this paper was that there was a lack of time for interviews and questions due to time constraints. Out of the 6 prepared questions, our group barely had time for three. Fortunately, with his answers being very specific, clear, and objective addressing various points of inquiry at the same time, there were fewer difficulties to cope with. Finally, I would like to thank all of my teammates who have gone through these twists and turns with me for it was their embracing and enthusiastic behavior that stimulated me to work harder and make the most out of this opportunity.
Seoyeong Youn, Goyang Global High School (Seoul National University) In addition to visiting the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN at the beginning of the UN training, I was glad to have the opportunity to visit another mission, which was Greece. While searching for some background information about the mission and foreign affairs of the country, I was able to gain meaningful insights into some of the main issues the Greek governments have been dealing with in terms of international relations. Despite the time constraint, the speaker, who was the Secretary of Embassy, was passionate about answering the questions that we have prepared in advance. The topics ranged from the inflow of refugees and Dublin Agreement to the public debt crisis to the preservation of both tangible and intangible cultural heritages. During the session, I could deepen my understanding about Greece overall, especially about recent progress and efforts that the Greek government have made to cope with a variety of its ongoing issues. Moreover, combined with further research, I was able to gain more knowledge on the public debt crisis including its causes and outlooks. It was a very memorable learning experience since I was particularly interested in the economic aspects of international issues. Not only that, but it was great to cooperate with our group members, who were all hardworking, brilliant, and friendly. I was really grateful that I had the chance to serve as the leader of our group and would like to continue with my interests on international relations and economic issues.
Minji Kim, Daejeon Foreign Language High School The secretary Spyros Pagkratis gave a wonderful and energizing lecture to us. Actually, I did not have much information about Greece, and this lecture and research gave me a chance to know more about it. Several fields that he mentioned, especially the parts on refugees and cultural heritages, were extremely interesting and impressive for me. With regard to refugees, it was the most interesting that the policies related to refugees are quite positive, as can be seen from offering full services such as healthcare and education for pending immigrants. Also, regarding heritages, I was deeply inspired by the stance of Greece on cultural and historical sites. This lecture became a completely valuable opportunity for me to learn lots of information about the single country and related key issues. I hope that Greece continues to develop more in multiple fields and overcomes their economic crisis.
Minhyeong Lee, Dongducheon Foreign Language High School This event was, overall, a most unforgettable and unique experience. The Secretary was very eager to answer our questions and was very kind and generous. Even though there was only enough time for three questions, his answers were very detailed. His point of view was instrumental in writing the paper. This was a great experience and I hope the other students after us will be able to experience this also.
Seoyeon Park, Jangheung Middle School I visited the Greek embassy and met the Secretary Spyros Pagkratis in the embassy. We did a lot of Q&As. Our question was about the relationship in neighboring countries, and the future of Greece. The Secretary mentioned that the future of the Greek is good because they have a lot of heritage so many tourists are visiting Greece and they are doing a lot of things about tourism. I think of all of the countries having a bright future.
References Amadeo, Kimberly. “Greek Debt Crisis Explained.” The Balance. Published on 14 December, 2019. https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-greece-debt-crisis-3305525.
Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Issues of Greek-Turkish Relations.” Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Accessed on 27 January, 2020. https://www.mfa.gr/en/issues-of-greek-turkish-relations/.
The World Factbook. “Europe: Greece.” The World Factbook. Accessed on 22 January, 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html.
“Greece in the UN” Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations. Accessed on 27 January, 2020. https://www.mfa.gr/missionsabroad/en/un-en/greece-in-organization.
“The States Parties: Greece.” UNESCO. Accessed on 29 January, 2020. https://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/GR.
“About UNHCR in Greece.” UNHCR. Accessed on 29 January, 2020. https://help.unhcr.org/greece/about-unhcr-in-greece/.
“World Heritage.” UNESCO. Accessed on 29 January, 2020. https://whc.unesco.org/en/about/.
“Head of UNHCR Calls for Urgent Response to Overcrowding in Greek Island Reception Centres, Europe to Share Responsibility.” UNHCR. Accessed on 28 November, 2019. https://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2019/11/5ddfc2ea4/head-unhcr-calls-urgent-responseovercrowding-greek-island-reception-centres.html.
United Nations. “Refugees.” United Nations Global Issues. Accessed on 29 January, 2020. https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/refugees/.
“Mission and Mandate.” UNESCO. Accessed on 29 January, 2020, https://en.unesco.org/about-us/introducing-unesco.
“Education at a Glance 2019.” OECD. Accessed on 10 September, 2019, https://gpseducation.oecd.org/Content/EAGCountryNotes/GRC.pdf.
Bowman, John et al. “Greece.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. Accessed on 22 January, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/place/Greece#ref26441.
“Greece Crime Rate & Statistics.” Macrotrends. Accessed on 29 January, 2020. https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/GRC/greece/crime-rate-statistics.
“Greece Crime Statistics.” Knoema. Accessed on 29 January, 2020, https://knoema.com/atlas/Greece/topics/Crime-Statistics.
A Group Photo with Shannon O’Shea from UNICEF
- TABLE OF CONTENTS – I.
Background A. History of UNICEF B. What Are the Roles of UNICEF UNICEF’s Works A. Adolescent Development B. Environment and Climate Change C. Social Policy D. Uprooted Children E. Child Protection
Stories in UNICEF A. Working with Governments to Reduce Child Poverty and Enhance Equity B. Hear My Voice Children Advocating for the Right to Learn C. Education and Dreams - Displaced in Mali
Organizations Related to UNICEF A. Save the Children B. World Vision C. Food for the Hungry D. Child Fund Korea
â&#x2026; . Background A. History of UNICEF The United Nations Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fund (UNICEF) was founded in 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly. The General Assembly founded UNICEF following World War II because it believed it needed an organization to provide relief and support to children living in the ruins of war. UNICEF's founding ideologies are close cooperation with business partners, sustainable human development orientation and the development of family and community capabilities. The unbiased spirit of relief is to help wherever there are children who need it without discrimination. UNICEF works in cooperation with governments, UN agencies and humanitarian NGOs in each developing country. Working in collaboration with business partners in various fields will enable faster and more efficient support for children and women who need urgent help. UNICEF also strives to lead the international community and countries to consider children first in establishing policies and using resources. Finally, UNICEF trains children's caretakers and community members to help families and communities develop their own abilities. UNICEF works with about 190 countries to promote children's rights and happiness in order to benefit children who are alienated and have a hard life. B. What Are the Roles of UNICEF In 2019, UNICEF did lots of work worldwide for those who need help. For nutrition, 2.1 million children were treated for serious malnutrition. For the health part, 28.9 million children were vaccinated against measles. For the sanitation part, 32.2 million people were supplied with access to safe water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene. For the child protection part, 2.6 million children and caregivers were given access to mental health and psychosocial support. For the education part, 3.9 million children accessed formal or non-formal education, including early learning. In the cash transfers part, 850,000 people outfitted with cash assistance.
In 2020, 64 countries will be helped by UNICEF. UNICEF will assist 95 million people (49 million women and girls), and 59 million children. About nutrition, 5.1 million children will be treated for serious malnutrition. 8.5 million children will be immunized against measles. 28.4 million people are going to have access to safe water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene. 4.5 million children will have access to mental health and psychosocial support. 1.4 million children and women to have access to gender-based violence sirs mitigation, prevention or response interventions. 10.2 million children are going to have access to formal or non-formal education, including early learning. 1.7 million people will be reached with cash assistance. 49 million atdanger/affected children and adults are to be engaged through communication for development/community engagement.
Ⅱ. UNICEF’s Works A. Adolescent Development UNICEF considers development during adolescence to be “a time of transformation.” Humans during this stage begin to experiment leading to them learning new skills and perspectives. Today’s generation of youths is larger than ever. However, according to UNICEF, “90 percent of adolescents live in low and middle income countries, and 125 million live in areas affected by armed conflict.” Thus a majority of them do not enjoy the rights that they should possess. The world population of adolescents is rapidly increasing. This is a problem in areas like Sub-Saharan Africa where most countries are second or third world countries, but the population of youths is projected to reach “500 million by 2050.” Still, UNICEF believes that investing in teens “builds strong economies, inclusive communities, and vibrant societies.” So, the fund works in varying ways to address these problems. For instance, UNICEF promotes health and well-being among adolescents. It provides proper nutrition for young bodies to develop properly as well as proper items for girls to manage their hygiene and menstrual health. Education is another quality that UNICEF values. It seeks to grant access to quality education catered to gender.
B. Environment and Climate Change While children do not have a significant impact on climate change, they are the most vulnerable to climate change. Starting from air pollution to the absence of basic water services, childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives are being threatened. As solutions the following four are suggested: 1. Making children the center of climate change strategies and response plans, 2. Recognizing children as agents of change, 3. Protecting children from the impact of climate change and environmental degradation, 4. Reducing emissions and pollution.
C. Social Policy About 663 million children around the world live in poverty. Children are more likely to live in poverty than adults and not to mention their vulnerability to its effects. This means that poverty is not letting children have access to things such as nutrition, education, health services, water, and sanitation. These could lead to deaths and children who grow older would face the consequences of poverty compounded. Children are left for reasons such as lack of social services, humanitarian crises, protracted conflicts, violence, and climate change. In response, governments are making social protection programs. D. Uprooted Children Currently, there are millions of children that are displaced. Many leave their homes due to conflict, poverty, or climate change. A childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s journey away from home is usually faced with danger, and the problem has only been increasing. According to UNICEF, the amount of child refugees has doubled from four million to nine million between 2005 and 2015. UNICEF believes that â&#x20AC;&#x153;children around the world, regardless of where they are from
and why they have left their homes, should be treated the same.” So, the UN provides refugee camps with childfriendly spaces. Recently, there was a global compact for migration, which is a landmark agreement that for the first time recognizes that children are central to migration management. E. Child Protection Another main objective of UNICEF is child protection. All children have basic human rights to be protected from harm, but millions of children suffer violence, exploitation, and abuse every day. Children’s vulnerability comes from many factors. Usually they originate from gender, race, ethnic origin, and economic status. Some are even more susceptible to harm like children with disabilities or orphans. F. Education UNICEF works globally in order to ensure quality education. In the past, UNICEF attempted only provide simple education for all, but, recently, UNICEF has been striving to ensure that education that children are receiving is not only feeding students with knowledge but the ability to understand new information. There have been many initiatives taken by UNICEF tailored for specific children like children with disabilities and children in emergencies. Ⅲ. Stories in UNICEF A. Working with Governments to Reduce Child Poverty and Enhance Equity A Vietnamese family in poverty in every aspect has made UNICEF think about the goals they should focus on: children in the worst situations should be prioritized and all of UNICEF’s work should work on making equal opportunities. They are having difficulties with communication in their own language due to lack of education and lack of growth affected by the lack of proper nutrition. This story is stressing the importance of social policies to achieve equality. Governments and communities are implementing social protection to address the problems like those mentioned above such as cash grants to families, health insurance, day care, social work, and public policies to combat discrimination. This family in Vietnam have received help regarding school and basic health care for free. Like this example, “well-designed social protection can make children’s lives better.” B. Hear My Voice Children Advocating for the Right to Learn In Timbuktu—a city in central Mali, more than a million children, one-third of which are elementary school students, are absent from school. In 2017, the percentage of middle school students exceeded 60 percent. The children of Timbuktu have many problems that need solving in order to go to school. UNICEF substantially expanded its children’s ambassadorial education in Mali in 2018. During the 20182019 period, UNICEF and its partners trained more than 3,800 teenagers and children nationwide to help educate children. For gender equality, UNICEF also taught many girls to become child ambassadors. When children prepared to go back to school after summer vacation, they are trained to tell friends and parents about how important education is. They learn the benefits of education and how to talk
to parents about value-added education. The ambassador's goal is to bring Mali's children back to school. Their future is slowly changing their minds for a better future. Their efforts mean that their voices are heard in decisions that affect their future.
C. Education and Dreams â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Displaced in Mali Tents, set up by UNICEF and the government of Mali, were set up in Sevare, just outside of the city of Mobti in central Mali. This is one of the temporary learning spaces. The tent provides shelter and a foundation for formal education. The tent's teacher, displaced Boureima, knows better than anyone that kindness should be given to children who have avoided terrible violence. Previously, Boureima worked as a teacher in the village of Bankas. He says he enjoyed teaching and working there. Unfortunately, a devastating attack there forced him to leave for Sevare. 11-year-old Rockyatu is a student who enjoys taking Boureima's classes. She says, "I like him," and asks him questions passionately. This passion of Rockyatu is a tribute to Boureima. Rockyatu says he wants to be a school principal when she grows up. When I asked her where she would be a principal, she said she would be a principal everywhere.
Ⅳ. Organizations Related to UNICEF A. Save the Children “Every child deserves a future.” The start of Save the Children was with Eglantyne Jebb launching the fund in London in 1919. This was the first worldwide action for children. The Great Depression was happening, and some progressive American people were motivated by Jebb and started Save the Children that’s now in America. Save the children became a worldwide organization as time went by. Save the Children makes sure that they fully understand the child’s needs and do their best to meet those needs by doing whatever it takes. They do this because they believe all children around the world should live in a world where there is future. Through health programs, education, and protection programs, they reach out to kids especially those in areas where the accessibility to infrastructure is low. B. World Vision Describing themselves as “dangerously soft-hearted. But just the right kind of dangerous,” World Vision is a global Christian humanitarian organization. They work with various kinds of groups to combat poverty and injustice. In the 1950s, Bob Pierce reached out to a little girl with 5 dollars, then started World Vision. Today they help more than 3.5 million kids around the world. Their mission is to aid those in poverty internationally through Christian partnerships. World Vision is committed to transformational development, emergency relief, promotion of justice, partnerships with churches, public awareness, and witness to Jesus Christ. They are similar to UNICEF in that their works are mostly focused on kids. World Vision has transformed the lives of 3 million children.
C. Food for the Hungry Food for the Hungry aims for “ending poverty, together.” Larry Ward was surprised by the suffering many children were going through particularly those dying due to hunger. Ward thought “if children died one at a time, he could help them at a time.” He founded Food for the Hungry in 1971 and in the next decade, he managed to reach out internationally. Food for the Hungry’s work can be divided into six big categories: agriculture, health, education, livelihoods, spiritual development, and risk & resilience. Regarding agriculture, they collaborate with local professionals to assist and train farmers for agriculture success. Regarding health, to prevent situations such as children dying from curable diseases, Food for the Hungry holds training workshops, increases accessibility to clean water, etc. Regarding education, they work with communities, volunteers, and teachers to help children reach their potential fully. Regarding livelihoods, Food for the Hungry provides secure infrastructures and programs aiming for adequate jobs to prevent the cycle of poverty. Regarding spiritual development, Food for the Hungry reminds the people about God’s love and ultimately reduce violence through programs in local institutions. Regarding risk & resilience, Food for the Hungry reviews existing works for resilience, and extend the capacity of the locals to respond to crisis more quickly.
Ⅴ. Q&A Session Q. How does UNICEF spread awareness? A. Spreading awareness is crucial. We have to be able to inspire the future generations to contribute to UNICEF. In fact, UNICEF acts as a platform for youths to speak on issues. There are programs such as the “World’s Largest Lesson.” It is a lesson plan created to spread awareness that is free, online, and has been translated into multiple languages. It doesn’t make students memorize the SDGs and the MDGs, but, instead, it teaches students to internalize the SDGs. Also, we have come to the conclusion that in recent times, we have to creatively spread awareness that includes something entertaining. An example of that would be “Comics Uniting Nations.” It reaches very young people, and the project has worked with memorable names in the industry such as Stan Lee.
Q. What is the main difference between helping children and helping adults and people in general? A. By children we mean people under the age of 18. Children are the future of our society so supporting the whole environment is crucial. Especially, empowering the parents is necessary.
Q. What are your thoughts on the effects of donation to our society? A. UNICEF gets money from the partners in private sectors, individual, etc. One thing UNICEF considers is the need of sustainable funding as we cannot constantly ask for fund every time we need the fund to help children around the world. Q. There are lots of social problems students face such as youth suffrage, school democracy, etc. Why do you think teens should focus particularly to UNICEF and how do you think students can participate in the movement of UNICEF? A. Obviously UNICEF is not the only way to contribute to our world. There should be activism at a local level. We should be able to think globally and act locally.
Q. Does UNICEF deal with children’s rights in developed countries as well? A. There are indispensable rights for children whether that is in a developed or third or second world country. No matter how rich a country is, there will always be children with their rights being violated. Q, Are there any priorities when it comes to child’s rights? A. To track things, we deeply confer with countries.
Q. Are there any activities done to improve child’s rights in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea? A. First of all, protection from human traffickers is important in this issue. Furthermore, refugees shouldn’t be seen as threats but as assets and we need to feel sympathy toward the refugees. Q. What kind of activities are done for young refugees? A. We have so many projects with technology and companies. That said, protecting privacy during the use of those projects is currently the major issue in our society. Q. Until when does UNICEF provide supply to the countries in need? A. Until they don’t need support. UNICEF works for long term development. Q. Is there any criticism against UNICEF? If so, what’s your response to that? A. Sometimes there are sensitive issues to be dealt. I learned that we should focus on how to speak out but in an appropriate and considerate manner. Q. What are the challenges and progress UNICEF has gone through so far? A. For progress, child mortality rate significantly decreased. For other progresses, we need to really get down to the community level and look what progresses were made.
Q. What do you think the UNICEF role is when it comes to gender equality? A. “Education” is the way to prevent the human rights violation: girls need to be in school. Most of all, we should never forget that this is a long-term game.
“Protecting Children from Violence, Exploitation and Abuse.” UNICEF. Accessed on March 21, 2011, www.unicef.org/protection/57929_57972.html.
“Environment and Climate Change.” UNICEF. Accessed on December 9, 2019. www.unicef.org/environment-and-climate-change.
“Children Uprooted.” UNICEF. www.unicef.org/children-uprooted.
“Adolescent Development and Participation.” UNICEF. www.unicef.org/adolescence.
“Social Policy.” UNICEF. www.unicef.org/social-policy.
“What We Do.” UNICEF. www.unicef.org/what-we-do.
Yuster, Alexandra. “Working with Governments to Reduce Child Poverty and Enhance Equity.” UNICEF. November 19, 2015. https://blogs.unicef.org/blog/working-with-governments-to-reduce-child-povertyand-enhance-equity/.
“Follow our Extraordinary History.” Save the Children. https://www.savethechildren.org/us/about-us/why-save-the-children/history.
“How Does Save the Children Help?” Save the Children, https://www.savethechildren.org/us/what-we-do
“Mission and Values.” World Vision. https://www.worldvision.org/about-us/mission-statement#1470680849329-b0702df0-156b
“Our Work.” World Vision. https://www.worldvision.org/our-work
“Our History.” Food for the Hungry. https://www.fh.org/about/history/
“We are Agents of Change.” Food for the Hungry. https://www.fh.org/our-work/
“Hear My Voice: Children Advocating for the Right to Learn.” UNICEF. January 15, 2019. https://www.unicef.org/stories/hear-my-voice-children-advocating-right-learn.
“Education and Dreams – Displaced in Mali.” UNICEF, November 1, 2019. https://www.unicef.org/stories/education-and-dreams-displaced-mali.
Accelerating the United Nations Sustainable Goals Through Partnerships United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Yantai American School, Sujin Bugil Academy, Hyunmin
Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies, Kihun
Korea International School Jeju Campus, Sooyoung Jakarta Intercultural School, Sunwoo
Abraham Joseph Co-Founder and Vice President, Development Goals Global Watch Inc. (DGGW) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA)
A Group Photo with Abraham Joseph from UN DESA
- TABLE OF CONTENTS -
1. Introduction of UN DESA D.
A. UN DESA B. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Decent Work and Economic Development
Preventing Climate Change
2. Historical Backgrounds A. History of UN DESA
4. Specific Research
B. History of Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals
3. Topics Information
5. Participants Reflection
A. No Poverty â&#x2013; References
B. Quality Education C. Gender Equality
Introduction of UN DESA A. UN DESA i. What is the UN DESA? The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, also known as UN DESA, is a UN entity aimed at enabling sustainable development across the world. Establishing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as its guide, the UN DESA is responsible for advising nations in spurring international obligations into enforced and practical national actions via the UN General Assembly, ECOFIN, and a variety of other methods. In addition, the UN DESA analysis key issues, such as education in relation to Sustainable Development Goals. ii. How is the UN DESA structured? UN DESA is headed by the Under-Secretary General for Economic and Social Affairs, who advises and is appointed by the UN Secretary General. He oversees the various divisions of the UN DESA, collaborates with other UN agencies and governments, convenes the Executive Committee of Social and Economic Affairs, and manages the Development Account of the UN regular budget. The Assistant Secretary General for Economic Development and Assistant Secrecy General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affair aid the USG. B. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) i.
What are the SDGs?
The Sustainable Development Goals, also known as the SDGs, derive from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a global framework for peace and prosperity, adopted by all UN member states in 2015. They are seventeen goals that incentivize international cooperation and ensure the continued growth of sustainable development. The SDGs recognize that methods to reduce deprivations such as poverty must align with those that reduce climate change and pollution, while increasing economic growth, health and quality education.
2. Historical Backgrounds A.
History of UN DESA
The UN DESA, as part of the UN Secretariat, is responsible for following up on major UN summits and conferences as well as services to the UN Economic and Social Commission and the Second and Third Committees of the UN General Assembly. The Department was reorganized into its present form in 1997. The department is currently led by Liu Zhenmin, who served as deputy minister for economic and social affairs, following the appointment of Secretary-General Antonio Guterres on July 26, 2017. The UN DESA supports agenda-setting and decision-making by countries around the world to address economic, social and environmental issues. It supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all on the basis of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development and the 17 SDGs adopted by the UN General Assembly on September 25, 2015. The UN DESA continues to play a key role in effectively translating global commitments in economic, social and environmental fields into national policies and actions and monitoring progress toward internationally agreed development goals in providing a wide range of analytical products, policy advice and technical support. It is also a member of the UN Development Group. B. History of Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals The UN DESA has been dealing with SDGs, which were born at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, economic, and political challenges facing our world. The SDGs replaces the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which launched worldwide efforts to cope with the humiliation of poverty in 2000. The MDGs established measurable, universally-agreed objectives for tackling extreme Poverty and hunger, preventing deadly diseases, and expanding primary education to all children, are among the development priorities. The MDGs drove progress in several important areas such as reducing income poverty which is providing much needed access to water and sanitation, driving down child mortality and drastically improving maternal health for 15 years. Some of the MDGs achievements were that more than 1 billion people were lifted out of extreme poverty since 1990, child mortality dropped by more than half, the number of out of school children dropped by more than half, and HIV/AIDS infections fell by almost 40 percent since 2000. The legacy and performance of the MDGs provide us with valuable lessons and experiences to begin work on new goals. But for millions of people around the world, the work remains unfinished. We must go the last mile in relieving hunger, achieving full gender equality, improving health services and getting all children into school beyond the primaries. The SDGs are also an urgent request to turn the world into a more sustainable path. The SDGs are bold commitments to end what we have started and address the more pressing challenges facing the world today. All 17 goals are interconnected meaning success in one goal affects the success of others.
Addressing the threat of climate change will help us manage our fragile natural resources, achieve gender equality or better health, and foster peace and an inclusive society will reduce inequality and help the economy prosper. In short, this is the biggest opportunity for us to improve our lives for future generations. The SDGs were in line with another historic agreement signed at the COP21 Paris Climate Conference in 2015. Together with the framework for reducing Sendai disaster risk, signed in Japan in March 2015, these agreements provide a set of common standards and achievable goals to reduce carbon emissions, manage the risks of climate change and natural disasters, and better rebuild after the crisis. The SDGs are unique in that they deal with issues that affect us all. They reaffirm our international commitment to ending poverty forever and everywhere. More importantly, these planets involve all of us to create a more sustainable, safer and more prosperous planet. 3. Topics Information A. No Poverty Among the 17 SDGs, the first Goal is simply: ‘No Poverty’. Despite the simple appearance, the Goal consists of many targets that aim to be achieved by 2030 including: the eradication of extreme poverty for all people everywhere (living on less than $1.25 a day), the reduction of at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions, and much more. Regarding the UN’s track to reach these targets, although they are making progress, the organization isn’t making quick enough progress approaching 2030. This is the case as only poverty was only decreased by 8.6% in 2018, 55% of the population have no access to social protection, 800 million people still living on less than $1.90 a day. However, the UN recognizes that eradicating poverty is vital, and continues to work towards that goal. B. Quality Education SDG 4 “ensures the inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. This Goal aims that everyone gains access to effective and appropriate levels of education by 2030, while expanding upon the number of educational facilities, scholarships, qualified teachers, and lessons about sustainable development. While there were improvements in the quantity and quality of education over time, but it is clear that there is still much room to improve. For example, while childhood education before the mandated primary education rose to a global average of 69% in 2017, in reality this number varied significantly from region to region, as in the least developed countries the average was 34%. This is reflected in other methods to measure quality education, such as in the noted resource depravity suffered by schools in subSaharan Africa than anywhere else in the world. This specific issue is most prominent at the lower school levels, of which less than half have access to these all these items. Likewise, 64 million children aged 6 to 11 years old, 61 children of 12 to 14 years old, and 138 million youth aged from 15-17 years old were found not
to be in school, adding up to a total of 262 million, almost twenty percent of children and adolescents worldwide. The number of qualified teachers also represent only about half of the teachers operating there. In 2016, almost 500 million adult women and 250 adult men were still illiterate worldwide, the literacy rates being lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. However, literacy rates among youth were 5 percent higher than that of adults, implying an increased access to quality education for the new generation. C. Gender Equality The world is a better place for women today than it was in the past. Fewer girls are forced into early marriage; more women are serving in parliament and positions of leadership; laws are being reformed to advance gender equality. Despite these gains, discriminatory laws and social norms remain pervasive, along with harmful practices and other forms of violence against women and girls. Women continue to be underrepresented at all levels of political leadership. Across the globe, women and girls perform a disproportionate share of unpaid domestic work. In order for sustainable development to be brought to the society, it is essential to tackle gender equality by empowering all women and girls as stated in Goal 5 of the SDGs. D. Decent Work and Economic Development Goal 8 of the SDGs specifically explains how inclusive and sustainable economic growth can drive progress and generate the means to implement the SDGs. Globally, labor productivity has increased and unemployment is back to pre-financial crisis levels. However, the global economy is growing at a slower rate. More progress is needed to increase employment opportunitiesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; particularly for young people, reduce informal employment and the gender pay gap and promote safe and secure working environments to create decent work for all. Most of these objectives can be mitigated better when quality education is promoted or achieved. However, in 2018, one fifth of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth were not in education, employment or training, meaning that they were neither gaining professional experience nor acquiring or developing skills through educational or vocational programs in their prime years. Furthermore, there is a stark gender difference. Young women were more than twice as likely as young men to be unemployed or outside the labor force and not in education or training. E.
The primary objective of establishing SDG 17 was to make sure that the world would develop while preserving the environment for future generations. Thus, the UN has been persuading developing countries to prioritize their investment in renewable energy and its related education to gradually change their high-dependence on carbon-based fuel into increased use of pro-environment energy sources. Although there have been continuous efforts/methods to reduce the use of carbon-based fuels, not every country-especially many African nations- was able to follow this pro-environment development trend. In spite of this setback, the UN has been proposing a lot of solutions and
recommendations to accomplish SDGs. During our interview, Mr. Abraham Joseph elucidated the need for quality statistics to implement pro-environment policies more effectively. Whether on a domestic level or an international level, people and researchers all over the world cooperate to counter the climate crisis. This time, I interviewed Mr. Abraham Joseph to specifically explore understand what previous actions had been done to save our planet. 4. Specific Research A. Q&A Q1. Looking at places such as sub-Saharan Africa, there are problems where despite the rapid urbanization, the slow economic growth hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t prepared these countries for the predictable population growth in these areas causing the people who have migrated to that region to lack basic needs such as shelter, clean water, sanitation, etc. What are some ways in which UN helps in these areas? Do they help speed up the economic growth? A1. UN members cannot forcefully or directly give suggestions in trying to improve the situation in the country or regions, as some countries can take great offense to this act. Therefore, what the UN members do is wait for the government of the country to ask for help on certain factors, an example can be that a country can ask the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s advice on how to attract the private sector to branch into their country in a more effective manner. Q2. What is the main source of poverty? When did it really begin and how are these countries or areas still in the poverty cycle? A2. The sources of poverty in a specific region or country are numerous as situations, locations, and time frames can differ. For example, in Africa around $130 billion gets out of the continentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s budget provided by funders and other organizations due to corruption, and this money can be a huge help towards helping more people get out of poverty.
Q3. As a special advisor of the Women in Sovereign Entities (WSE), in what ways do you believe that providing educational content and programs to enhance understanding of the sector and providing research and news on women’s leadership in the capital markets will be important in propelling gender equality? A3. Women are only educated in developed countries, not in the least developed countries. It is important to enhance women’s leadership in the capital markets by providing educational content and programs because they can interact more in the private sector that will eventually lead to equality in work places to economic growth. This economic growth will be responsible for contributing to gender equality. Q4. Gender equality is often complementarily discussed in the perspective of girls and women. There is a trend of separating boys and girls in public schools based on pseudoscientific theories of how boys’ and girls’ brain functions are different. What obstacles does this create for achieving gender equality? A4. I believe that everyone should be on the same page when receiving education and learning to adjust what they learn. Like what you said, boys do not receive stereotypical questions concerning gender equality but mostly girls. You can visit UN Women, and you’ll find a lot of programs related to supporting girls and women. Q5. In investigating the UN DESA, I found that in UN DESA there are many divisions such as a Statistics Division. So, I want to ask you the role of each division not only yours but also the others. A5. There are many divisions in UN DESA. They are all related to monitoring and adjusting not only developing countries but also developed countries. For example, the Statistics Division take a role of investigating the nation’s official issues so that UN DESA can comprehend problems or doubting points. Overall, the UN DESA’s work is coordinating the policy to not only developing countries but also developed countries to make sure the SDGs can be achieved. So, the ultimate goal of respective division is requesting countries to foster the nations industry in appropriate way, and urges them to satisfy and contribute to SDGs.
Q6. In your lecture, you mentioned the financial aid to the countries in which its government is unable to manage the economic and political problems. And I know the UN DESA has division about financing subsidies in those countries A6. For resurrecting countries which are fell into the economic crisis, all divisions contribute to the problem. Basically, the UN DESA is an agency to achieve the SDGs. Therefore, all divisions are combined to solve the problem if it is necessary to achieving the SDGs. The economic crisis is same. If an economic crisis occurs in a country, the UN DESA serves as an adviser to the country about its economic policies. In the process, experts from various fields analyze the economic crisis. As there are several departments in UN DESA, it encourages them to identify and implement relevant policies to overcome the economic crisis. However, coercion does not exist because it is a UN agency. Nevertheless, we pride ourselves on what we do as meaningful. Q7. Were there any successful educational programs or efforts towards developing nations to change their high-dependence on fossil-fuels to the active use of renewable energy? A7. 17.5% of total final energy consumption nowadays comes from renewable energy. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s look at previous efforts done in India; for example, the Cochin International Airport. The Cochin International Airport implanted a lot of solar panels to generate an adequate amount of electricity. There is also significance of an institution called Macfast, which was mostly built based on sustainable energy sources. Macfast could recycle wastes and water by themselves, which would further provide an energy source to enable Macfast students to operate a radio station. Q8. According to the data of UN DESA, what kinds of international efforts (restriction of using fossil-fuels, etc) are viewed as an ultimate solution for an ongoing climate crisis? A8. Other non-government stakeholders, such as private sectors, NGOs (Non-governmental organizations), and CSOs (Civil Society Organization), can pledge to follow international agreements such as the UN Global Compact. Several institutions not following such international agreements will lose their memberships in international organizations. This broad spectrum of cooperation among different institutions could resolve the climate crisis. I also want to highlight the importance of quality statistics. Quality statistics would provide descriptive explanations for different institutions.
Further Investigation: Q1. In one of the targets for Goal 1 (No Poverty) of the SDGs, it mentions, “create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions”. How can countries create effective frameworks that can help alleviate poverty to a greater extent? A1. To effectively help eradicate poverty, countries will need to adopt integrated policy frameworks that would involve a wider range of stakeholders, therefore, utilizing more innovative approaches and partnerships to help solve poverty. Integrated policy frameworks can cause more inclusiveness and transparency while providing more efficient policy-making. When making policies at a national level, achieving policy coherence throughout the levels in the policy development cooperation is vital, in order to allow developing countries to fulfill their huge sustainable development potential. Q2. In most Muslim countries, based on laws like Shari’a and Qur’an, women are often denied from made deeply personal choices and have lower rights than men despite universal documents written to bind all states to customary international laws like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen. What kind of actions or progress have there been to tackle gender equality in terms of religious boundaries? A2. The relationship between religion and gender equality is a complex one. Religion plays a vital role in shaping cultural, social, economic, and political norms in many parts of the world. Similarly, gender roles and the status of women and men in society are deeply tied to the manner in which religious texts have been interpreted for centuries by those in positions of authority—positions held predominantly by men. The role of faith-based organizations, institutions and actors in the gender equality agenda is equally multifaceted: while often rooted in patriarchal traditions, they are also among the most powerful agents of social change. The language of faith reaches to the deepest roots of human motivation, mobilizing individuals and communities to sacrifice comfort and material wealth in pursuit of higher goals. In addition, faith-based organizations and institutions are among the largest, most stable, and well-resourced social networks. Many of these networks transcend political, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, and have the capacity to coordinate and execute largescale social action. In many regions of the world, faith-based organizations and institutions, by virtue of their long-standing presence and service in diverse communities, have come to command the trust and respect of local populations. Faith-based actors have, for many years, engaged in various facets of gender equality work. In the area of gender-based violence, they have worked to raise awareness of the scale and wide-reaching implications of such violence; they have worked on violence prevention, and provided survivors with services such as counseling, shelter, and legal assistance. In their efforts to eliminate harmful practices including female genital mutilation and child marriage, they have worked with institutional and community-based religious leaders to influence attitudes and behaviors, and to advocate for girls’ and women’s health and security. In the field of maternal and child health, faith-based actors have been among the primary providers of basic health care and obstetric services in underserved and remote areas, and in regions facing conflict and humanitarian crises.
Q3. For financing the sustainable development, what process should be conducted for permitting typical businesses? A3. The UN budget structure is one where the UN Department of Treasury budgets plans where the UN headquarters will spend the money and uses the budget in the field. Basically, this structure is followed, but the UN DESA does not have the amount for direct aid. Just how it works to compile the national budget and modify its policies, the UN DESAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s amount is spent on the cost of the expertâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attendance and policy analysis. Of course, there is a division in relation to financial aid to developing countries, but it is a discussion of how to support it and rarely is directly assisted by the UN DESA. Q4. What are characteristics and functions of Cochin Airport? A4. The Cochin airport is the first airport in the world to entirely run on solar power- there are about 46,000 solar panels. Cochinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s significance was so influential that many other buildings wanted to imitate its usage of solar panels. According to an article from BBC, Cochin airport generates more electricity than it needs, so it stores its leftover energy for rainy-days and nighttime. Also, this article explained how the Cochin Airport could be a perfect precedent for planning further implant of solar panels throughout India. However, this article also pointed out the possibility of India failing its practical application of solar panels due to lacking standards in place.
Participant Reflection Sujin Kim, Yantai American School On 21st of January, there was a lecture on Agenda 2030, partnerships for accelerating SDGs from Mr. Abraham Joseph. He began with his career that he worked in the United Nations for more than 30 years in the fields of African issues, eradicating issues in post conflict countries, supporting the ECOSOC, UN system coordination, etc. He then asked us questions on the facts of the United Nations such as: how many IDPs are there in this world, and how many people are feed each day by the United Nations. It was very shocking to realize numerous people around the world are suffering but still some portions of those people are receiving help from the UN. Now moving onto the actual presentation, I was able to totally grasp on the basic information of each Sustainable Development Goals. I was particularly interested in goal 4 and goal 5 of the SDGs which were quality education and gender equality. Based on his previous experiences, he explained how both girls and boys should be on the same page when receiving education and learning to adjust what they learn. Through MDGs, there have been a lot of aspects of global issues that has been resolved including: global target of reducing poverty by half, infant mortality, maternal mortality, increasing primary school enrolment, fighting against HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and improving source of water. Last but not least, I realized, through his speech, that we, the UN Headquarters Training Program Team, were gaining much more than thorough knowledge of the SDGs but also memorable influence in both our goals and mind maturity. Thank you, Mr. Abraham, for making me realize how great of an experience I am gaining through the academic institution of Hope to Future.
Sunwoo Kim, Jakarta Intercultural School In Dr. Abraham Joseph’s presentation on the United Nations agenda to complete the 17 sustainable development created in 2015. To break down his presentation, Dr. Joseph talks about a myriad of topics including on the development of the UN’s international policies, background of SDG adoption, the MDGs and how it is different from the SDGs, and the challenges & progress when implementing the SDGs. However, the main issue that Dr. Joseph focused on, was the United Nation’s progress regarding the completion of the sustainable development goals. More specifically, Dr. Joseph talked about each sustainable development goals, and how much the UN progress has made for each of them. For example, focusing on the purpose of eliminating poverty myself, I noticed that Dr. Joseph mentioned that the world is not on track to accomplish this goal as the poverty population was only decreased by 8.6 % in 2018, 55% of the people have no access to social protection, and 413 million of the 736 million people lived in poverty in 2015. Overall, after listening to Dr. Joseph’s presentation, I felt honored to someone who has experienced being a part of the UN for 30 years. Therefore, I truly both learned and felt the United Nations' importance in their involvement with a variety of world issues from equality to climate change for the present and the future. Not only that, I was able to learn that the united nations recognize their flaws and continuously strives to fix these problems for the best in the world.
Kihun Song, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies I was interested in listening to the lectures by UN experts from different committees. I was especially fascinated by the lecture of Dr. Abraham Joseph on the effort of the UN DESA (Department of Economic and Social Affairs) for carrying out realistic solutions to meet UN SDG (Sustainable Development Goals). Dr. Josephâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lecture was interesting and enjoyable as he first started with UN trivia which broadened my knowledge regarding the United Nations. Among his explanations on specific examples and solutions that UN DESA has done before, solutions toward climate change were very interesting. Dr. Joseph illustrated how the global community had been investing more in green energy especially mentioning Cochin Airport and MACFAST. After his lecture, I felt the importance of carrying out practical solutions as a priority. Specifically, I thought that NGOs and CSOs should also cooperate with the international community to counter and slow down the climate crisis. Also, the current status of the climate crisis motivated me to think more about individual efforts. When I go back to Korea, I will research more about pro-environment movements and activities.
Hyunmin Choi, Bugil Academy What is UN DESA? This is the question I asked when our group first decided to interview UN DESA. I actually knew very little about the UN. In fact, it was safe to say that I had no knowledge of most committees, not just UN DESA. The committee, which seems to have heard of somewhere, such as UNICEF and UNESCO, also learned about the role and realized that this was how little I knew. So was the UN DESA. I have never even heard of the name of the Committee, and I have had knowledge of the tiny piece of UN. But with this training, especially in this situation where I have to write a report as well as a lecture, I have learned a lot about the UN. Not only was it an honor to be able to talk directly to UN DESA officials, but also the process of researching data to find the role of various divisions was a great opportunity to broaden my knowledge. While preparing the report, I was able to develop its planning and editing capabilities while in charge of planning and organizing the report, conducting the brainstorming, creating forms and gathering the reports. Through UN education I have gained a lot. In particular, I realized that I should keep an eye on international issues and their handling, which I did not look for because it is a liberal arts. So, I am grateful that I was able to participate in this education. It is my hope that this UN education will not end here but will continue.
Sooyoung Jo, Korea International School Jeju Campus
Overall, the presentation was highly informative, talking generally about the history and activities of the UN before delving deeply into each of the SDGs and the successes and failures the UN faced while working to achieve them. For example, a lot of time was spent comparing the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs, to the current Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs. While the MDGs were certainly ambitious like the SDGs are, they saw clear successes in making the world a better place. For example, they saw the reduction of infant mortality, maternal mortality, and poverty by half, as well as an increase in primary school enrollment, fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS, and access to clean water. The SDGs, while carrying on the unfulfilled goals and areas of improvement for the MDGs, also integrate goals that address a new alarming issue, climate change, effectively modernizing them to fit the most current values. One of the most memorable experiences of this lectures from Dr. Abraham Joseph were the question and answer sessions. Even if it could be argued that the information provided in the presentation could be found through sufficient research, professional opinions, and more importantly, the admission of flaws of the UN were invaluable and would be much harder to find. As a cynic, these in particular United Nations gave me hope for the organization. It told me that not only did these professional cared and thought deeply about these issues to the extent they had personal opinions regarding it, impression that these people not only genuinely cared about these issues, but were knowledgeable and comfortable enough about it to admit its faults and ways to do better.
Kiwoong Lee, Homeschooling According to Dr. Abraham Joseph, the former Chief/Senior Advisor to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of TimorLeste, The UN has been dealing with the SDGs since 2012. He explained the examples of each SDGs, and the precedents that the United Nations has been working on, and how we can achieve its goals. The one of the good thing about this training was that it was conducted with questions focused on the things we were curious about. So much so that we could get the information we wanted and it was a really informative time. Through these education, we learned more about the work that institutions like the United Nations do and learned many things, including SDGs and our relationships and how we can develop and what problems the agencies are focusing on recently. Having been interested in economic growth, I thought economic growth and political, diplomatic and social problems were related. So I thought that being educated at the UN itself was a step forward in my goal. It was too informative and I learned a lot from the education.
“Who Are We.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/about/who-we-are.html.
“Sustainable Development Goals.” Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300.
“Background on the Goals.” United Nations Development Programme. https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/background.html.
“Achieve Gender Equality and Empower All Women and Girls.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2019/goal-05/.
Berger, Julia. “Religion and Gender Equality.” UN Women Brief. https://www.partner-religiondevelopment.org/fileadmin/Dateien/Resources/Knowledge_Center/Religion_and_Gender_Equalit y_UNWOMEN.pdf.
“Making Eradication of Poverty an Integral Objective of All Policies: What Will It Take?” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Published on May 5, 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/intergovernmental-coordination/integrationsegment-endpoverty.html.
Menon, Supriya. “How is the World’s First Solar Powered Airport Faring?” BBC News. Published on October 9, 2015. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-34421419.
“Ensure Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2019/goal-04/.
Junhoung Yoo from UNODA Giving a Lecture on Disarmament
- Table of Contents 1- Introduction to the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs 1-1.
History of the UNODA
Mission of the UNODA
Structure and Main Activities of the UNODA
2- Current Actions
a) Conference on Disarmament Secretariat & Conference Support Branch b) Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch c) Conventional Arms (including Practical Disarmament Measures) Branch d) Information and Outreach Branch
UNODA’s Fellowship Programme
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
Denuclearization in the Middle East
Denuclearization in North Korea
3- Q&A 4- Summary of Session
e) Regional Disarmament Branch
1. Introduction to the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs 1-1. History of the UNODA The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) is an Office of the United Nations Secretariat established in January 1998 as the Department for Disarmament Affairs, part of former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's plan to reform the UN as presented in his report to the General Assembly in July 1997. UNODA had originally been established as a department in 1982 upon the recommendation of the General Assembly's Second Special Session on Disarmament (SSOD II). In 1992, it became the Centre for Disarmament Affairs, working under the Department of Political Affairs. At the end of 1997, it reverted back to being the Department for Disarmament Affairs. Then, in 2007, former Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte of Brazil as the High Representative for Disarmament Affairs at the Under-Secretary-General (USG) level, and the department became the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Following the retirement of Sérgio Duarte in February 2012, Angela Kane—then USG for Management—was appointed as the new High Representative for Disarmament Affairs. She was the first woman and first non-diplomat appointed to this position. Now, in 2020, Izumi Nakamitsu of Japan is the High Representative for UNODA.
1-2. Mission of the UNODA The main mission of the UNODA is to provide substantive and organizational support for norm-setting in the area of disarmament through the work of the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the Disarmament Commission, the Conference on Disarmament and other bodies. It also fosters preventive disarmament measures, such as dialogue, transparency and confidence-building on military matters, and encourages regional disarmament efforts. The latter includes the UN Register of Conventional Arms and regional forums. It provides information on the UN’s disarmament efforts as well. Moreover, the UNODA supports the development and implementation of practical disarmament measures after a conflict, such as disarming and demobilizing former combatants and helping them to reintegrate in civil society.
1-3. Structure and Main Activities of the UNODA The UNODA is led by an Under-Secretary-General (USG) and a High Representative. The main purpose of the activities of UNODA is to deal with the problems related to remaining international peace by leading the member states to a peaceful resolution. To achieve this goal, UNODA comprises five â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;branchesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: a) Conference on Disarmament Secretariat & Conference Support Branch The Conference on Disarmament Secretariat & Conference Support Branch, based in Geneva, provides organizational and substantive servicing to the Conference of Disarmament (CD), the single multilateral disarmament negotiating forum of the international community. b) Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch The WMD Branch provides substantive support in the area of the disarmament of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons.) It supports and participates in multilateral efforts to strengthen the non-proliferation of WMD and in this connection cooperates with the relevant intergovernmental organizations and specialized agencies of the United Nations system, in particular the IAEA, the OPCW and the CTBTO PrepCom. c) Conventional Arms(including Practical Disarmament Measures) Branch The CAB focuses its efforts in the conventional field (all weapons not considered, including small arms and light weapons) of promoting transparency and confidence-building, curbing the flow of small arms in regions of tension, and developing measures of practical disarmament. It is responsible for substantive conference support on the UN Programme of Action on small arms, the Arms Trade Treaty process, and the UN transparency registers. CAB chairs the UN-internal coordination mechanism on small arms, CASA.
d) Information and Outreach Branch The IO Branch organizes a wide variety of special events and programmes in the field of disarmament, produces ODA publications such as the Disarmament Yearbook and occasional papers, and maintains the databases for specialized areas such as Register of Conventional Arms, Status of Treaties and Article 7- Mine-Ban Convention. e) Regional Disarmament Branch The Regional Disarmament Branch provides substantive support, including advisory services, to member states, regional and sub-regional organizations on disarmament measures and related security matters. RDB oversees and coordinates the activities of the three regional centres: i. UN Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC) ii. UN Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific (UNRCPD) iii. UN Regional Centre, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC)
1-4. High Representatives There have been seven High Representatives for disarmament from 1988 to now, 2020. 1. Jayantha Dhanapala (1998~2003) 2. Nobuyasu Abe (2003~2006) 3. Nobuaki Tanaka (2006~2007) 4. SĂŠrgio de Queiroz Duarte (2007~2012) 5. Angela Kane (2012~2015) 6. Kim Won-soo (2015~2017) 7. Izumi Nakamitsu (2017~present-2020)
2. Current Actions 2-1. UNODAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fellowship Programme The fellowship programme was established by the general assembly in 1978 to increase the number of officials in each member state for the purpose of enhancing agreements and negotiations regarding disarmament. This programme is made up of 3 segments. The first one took place in Geneva where all the member states were introduced to many kinds of negotiations for disarmaments. In the second segment, member states visited international organizations related to disarmaments such as the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Organization (CTBTO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna as well as the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The third and last segment took place in the United Nations headquarters in New York where the member states became familiar to the actions taken for disarmament from the UNODA. 2-2. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) NPT stands for the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This international treaty was established to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons technology and the weapons themselves. As the treaty is promoting the peaceful use of nuclear weapons, their long-term goal is to fully achieve disarmament. In 2011, 191 member states have ratified to this treaty with 4 exceptions; India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Sudan, Middle East countries that possess nuclear weapons which high ranking officials within the UN states as a shame that these countries still have 22,000 warheads for nuclear weapons. To further explaining about this treaty despite these limitations, the treaty is divided into 3 pillars which is non-proliferation, disarmament, and denuclearization which are all dedicated to achieving complete disarmament. 2-3. Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) The Biological Weapons Conventionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;BWC for shortâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the development, production, and stockpiling of any weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The BWC expanded itself throughout a total of 6 review conferences. The treaty opened itself up to ratifications in 10 April 1972 and was officially established on 26 March 1975. In the Second Review Conference in 1986, it was agreed that the State Parties implemented confidence building measures (CBM) for the purpose of preventing and reducing the number of doubts or suspicions to improve international cooperation related to peaceful biological actions. These measures were then later expanded in the Third Review Conference in 1991 where States Parties provided annual reports and agreed forms when performing actions related to the BWC which included information about research centres or laboratories, and information about facilities that are not related to weapons such as vaccine production facilities. In the Fourth Review Conference, the process of establishing this convention was momentarily adjourned and was resumed with annual conferences by the Fifth Review Conference leading to successfully adopting a finalized document on the Sixth Review Conference. 2-4. Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) Chemical weapons have been in use since World War I, and there have been constant efforts to eliminate these weapons ever since. As a result, the Geneva Protocol was established in 1925 which prohibited the development and use of chemical weapons. However, this protocol possessed numerous limitations such as supporting countries filing rights to use chemical weapons against non-supportive countries. Despite these shortcomings, the use of chemical weapons has significantly decreased since World War II. After negotiating for a dozen of years, the CWC( Chemical Weapons Convention ) was established in Geneva on 3 September 1992. With the CWC
officially enforced in 1997, the OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) was established as well. Now, the OPCW, represented by 189 member states provides provisions to the CWC to ensure credible, transparent regime to revise the destruction of these weapons and to achieve more membership from member states of the UN. 2-5. Denuclearization in the Middle East As mentioned above, the Middle East is currently taken into concern by UNODA for their weapons of mass destruction. While there are many resolutions and treaties regarding this issue, looking at the Middle East as a whole, the effects of these measures are not to their fullest acknowledging the fact that there are some countries that ratify and some that don’t with these measures, Addressing this fact, the UNODA has established a 1995 Middle East resolution. The main goal of this resolution is to establish a WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction)free zone which is also included in the NPT. 2-6. Denuclearization in North Korea There were continuous negotiations between Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the United States of America for nuclear disarmament of Korean peninsula. In particular, North Korea and the U.S. held a Stockholm negotiation in October, 2019. However, they could not come to a conclusion due to their different perspectives and range towards denuclearization. At a UNODA conference in Geneva on 21 January 2020, North Korea has refrained from conducting nuclear and ballistic tests for the past two years, but the U.S. harshly criticized North Korea for its most brutal and inhumane sanctions. Also, North Korea stated that if the U.S. maintains hostile policies such as sanctions and pressure, denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula will be impossible, and North Korea will continue to develop its strategic weapons and will be able to find a new path. Accordingly, the United States Ambassador to Arms Control Robert Wood expressed concerns over North Korea’s comments, saying the U.S. wants North Korea to return to the dialogue table. 3. Q&A At the end of the lecture, we had a brief Q&A session. The questions are about nuclear weapons, range of the influence of the UNODA, how the organization deals with the situations that requires use of military forces, and how they bring out a negotiation between the opposing military forces. For the first question, we asked about concerns on the nuclear weapons, which is absolutely one of the biggest issues in the disarmament field. Q. Could nuclear weapons simply be used as a mean of self-protection under the international treatise of nuclear weapon? A. It is not legitimately illegal to obtain or obscure nuclear weapons. However, the case could not be simply defined as illegal or legal due to the fact that there are no certain established lawsuits that could condemn a certain member state’s decisions. In the international laws which are composed of treaties and other things, they are not legitimately saying that the weapons are illegal. However, all the UN secretary generals are thinking that no nuclear weapons is the best option for the entire world. For the second question, we questioned the definition and range of disarmament itself, and also how much the UNODA can influence. Q. We want to know to what range the word “disarmament” means, and how much the UNODA is able to influence on the Disarmament. In the case of the military trade it is not said to be illegal. But if it is not used by the authorized user, it is a problem. That is what the UNODA brings onto the debate table. However, that doesn’t mean that the UN forcibly bring them to the table, but by themselves.
Third, we asked that the how the UNODA abides by the non-force principle while working on with the military issues. Q. Considering the characteristics of international organizations, since the United Nations is limited from applying any force mechanisms, how does the UNODA plan to achieve disarmament while following that rule? A. UNODA's main role is to bring the both sides who uses force to the table and make them negotiate with pens. The United Nations does not have any power to stop them, but it has the power and role to be a mediator. That is what UNODA can do. 4. Summary of Session The lecture that we have received from Mr. Aaron Junhoung Yoo, the Political Affairs Officer in the UNODA, contained a brief explanation about what the UNODA does. He explained about mass-destructive weapons such as nuclear weapons, chemical weapons which was used in Syrian civil war, and others, which UNODA mainly deals with. Also, with numerous questions Yale Model United Nations 46th students had, we were able to know more specifically what this UN office does on specific issues, such as nuclear problems like North Korea or Middle East, which has weapons of mass-destruction. Based on these knowledge from the lecture and background researches, we were able to know more detailed jobs and write this report on the UNODA.
“Biological weapons-UNODA.” United Nations. www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/bio/.
“Chemical Weapons-UNODA.” United Nations. www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/chemical.
Reuters. “North Korea Says Won’t Be Bound by Nuclear Testing Pledge.” National Post. Published on January 21, 2020. https://nationalpost.com/pmn/news-pmn/politics-news-pmn/northkorea-says-wont-be-bound-by-nuclear-testing-pledge
“Nuclear Weapons – UNODA.” United Nations. www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/nuclear/.
“The United Nations Programme of Fellowships on Disarmament – UNODA.” United Nations.
Yale Model United Nations 2020 Delegation of Korea 23.01.2020 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26.01.2020
XLVI Yale Model United Nations Curriculum Date
14:30 – 18:00
16:00 - 17:00
International School Reception
17:00 - 18:00
Delegate Trainings (New and Advanced)
18:30 - 19:30
20:00 - 22:30
Committee Session ①
10:30 – 15:00
Yale Day & Global Exchange Program
15:00 - 16:00
16:30 - 18:30
Committee Session ②
18:00 - 20:00
19:30 - 22:30
Committee Session ③
09:30 - 12:30
Committee Session ④
12:00 - 13:30
13:00 – 15:45
Committee Session ⑤
15:45 – 16:00
16:00 – 18:30
Committee Session ⑥
18:00 – 20:00
20:00 – 23:00
10:00 - 12:30
Committee Session ⑦
13:00 - 14:00
Delegation of Korea: Position Paper & Memorial Kidon Song, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies Japanese Occupation of Korea (Crisis Committee), Cho Man-Sik / Park Hon-yong
“Resonance of Civil Disobedience” “Using Korean products is a road to sustaining and revitalizing our national economy”
The initiation of the March 1st Movement in 1919 demonstrated the uncontrollable aspirations of Korean compatriots yearning for independence. Amid a barrage of deadly gunfire, Koreans set a precedent of nonviolent resistance against contemptible intruders and claimed their independence. This historical event ushered the Japanese Occupation of Korea into the period of “cultural” rule as the Government-General of Chosen (GGC) could not perfectly clip the wings of Koreans with the military rule. The “cultural” rule (Munhwatongchi in Korean) enabled granting permission to establish newspaper companies, implementing universal suffrage and protecting the freedom of assembly and association in Korea. Yet, Japanese imperialists employed this deceptive strategy to divide the public opinion to extirpate the very roots of national sentiment and identity.
While guaranteeing fullest freedom in spreading Japanese-friendly materials, GGC erased controversial contents about the Japanese rule and banned publication of newspapers secretly assisting Korean independence activists. The media regressed into the reptile press and were defunct after losing their transparency. GGC concocted a ruse of creating Iljinhwe to cajole skeptics and persuaded them to collaborate with Imperial Japan to reconstruct degenerate Korean society. At that time, a flock of prominent figures like Kwangsoo Lee betrayed their fatherland and encouraged others to follow in their footsteps. Moreover, GGC began to condemn institutions with ideologies contrary to its colonial theory. It denounced the establishment of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and mustered up troops to raid righteous armies in Manchuria to root Korean connections out in Asia. Plus, it abominated the Communist Party of Korea as it stimulated sabotage of colonial rule to achieve absolute equality for every comrade, discrediting sovereignty of GGC over the peninsula. Massacre at Jaeam-li and Disarmament of the Korean Liberation Army at Svobodny testify to GGC’s will to fragment Korean communities. Japanese authorities are awaiting domestic discord and instilling ethnic inferiority to emasculate the proindependence force. As Cho Man-sik, he would establish the Korean Products Promotion Society (KPPS) to revitalize companies of Korean origins to regain domestic competitiveness. Using Koreans products is a road to sustaining and revitalizing our national economy, Cho once said. Imported Japanese goods manufactured in factories crowded out handmade, error-prone Korean products and marginalized Korean peasants and merchants as incompetent laborers. This trend discouraged Korean workers from breaking the barriers and discontinued financial assistance to freedom fighters defying Japanese rule overseas. KPPS would ensure that Korean consumers have their backs and defend domestic markets from foreign interventions. Plus, he would support the foundation of civic universities in the Korean peninsula. Although GGC constructed Keijo Imperial University with a limited number of majors (law and medicine), Cho Man-sik believed that this institution served as an industrial unit of producing experts during wartime. Disapproving of such disposable knowledge, he wished to educate people with
knowledge espousing spiritual awakenings and enlightenment so that they could restore Korean identity. To conceal it under Japanese rule, GGC was obsessed with disseminating false information about the incapacity of the Joseon Dynasty and the fatalistic subjugation of Koreans. Universities in Japan manipulated certain academic branches to their taste to justify Japanese control over Korea. Last but not least, he would pursue superordinate goals to transcend ideological divisions. As Gandhi of Korea, he resorted to nonviolent resistance to not provoke Japan and prioritized public interests over private interests. He would arrange meetings between anticommunists and communists to bridge their gap in understanding the direction of future state-building procedures. He would even recommend political factions to ease tensions between each other and resolve ongoing conflicts.
Seungho Jon, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies Press Corps, Reporter#6 (UN News Center)
“As journalists, we have the power to provide a voice for those who feel like they are not being heard, and we should be actively involved in raising awareness to this issue globally so that member states will cooperate to solve this crisis together.”
“Refugees” In 2018, the UNHCR, a global organization under the UN, estimated that over 70 million refugees are currently living in states of uncertainty around the world.1 As the number of refugees boundlessly increases, several governments have taken a negative stance regarding the worldwide crisis. The United Nations defines refugees as individuals who cross an international border for their safety. Since each country differently interprets the broad term, some individuals who enter are excluded from the refugee list, creating challenges for them as they attempt to restart their lives.
The 1951 Refugee Convention is a fundamental international law that protects the rights of refugees. The proposal states that the governments of the countries in which these refugees arrive in must treat them equally. The UNHCR ensures the rights of refugees followed by the 1951 Convention.2 However, not only do some nations ignore the existing law, but others even point out that the convention has lost its power. Since the UN provides a broad definition for a refugee, this allows for states to individually interpret its meaning. For example, some countries believe that fugitives by natural disasters are not considered refugees. People not admitted as refugees have no right to reside permanently in other countries. They also lack the basic rights of new citizens. For instance, some climate refugees failed to be admitted as refugees. Even though unpredictable natural disasters threatened them, about 18 million people in Oceania were not confirmed as refugees in several countries in 2017, until UN decided to adopt the range of refugees in 2018.3 Another obstacle that individuals fleeing their home countries face is the strict procedures to become refugees. This is prevalent in East Asian countries such as Japan and Korea. Every year, less than 1 percent of asylum seekers become actual refugees in Japan.4 The evaluation takes several months, which is unsuitable to refugees in danger. Because UN officials are mere observers for the refugee evaluation, they have no power to alleviate the procedure.
“Populations.” UNHCR, 2018, reporting.unhcr.org/population. United Nations. “The 1951 Refugee Convention.” UNHCR, www.unhcr.org/1951-refugee-convention.html. 3 United Nations. “Climate Change and Disaster Displacement.” UNHCR, www.unhcr.org/climate-change-and-disasters.html. 4 McCurry, Justin. “Japan Had 20,000 Applications for Asylum in 2017. It Accepted 20.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 16 Feb. 2018, www.theguardian.com/world/2018/feb/16/japan-asylum-applications-2017-accepted-20. 1 2
Additionally, many people treat refugees negatively. An example of this is the rise of Islamic Extremism wherein many started to consider Muslims unfavorably. Here, the name of ‘Islam,’ is used to justify crimes against Muslims, including terrorism. 5 Growing European distrust in Muslims stemmed from Muslim-initiated attacks on Europeans. This is one of the reason why Muslim refugees escaping the civil war occurring in their home country were denied from many European areas. Last year, Hungary enacted the Stop Soros law, stating that any individuals or groups that assist refugees are subject to one year in jail. While European opposition to refugees is relatively new, Australia has a history of fighting against the refugee crisis. A decade ago, many asylum seekers voyaged to Australia by boat. However, the state had been facing several problems, such as an economic deficit. After a long meeting with Oceania leaders, Australia decided to cage these individuals in ‘Australia refugee facilities,’ located outside of its territory. Consequently, Australia was the first nation to jail thousands of refugees. According to Hankyoreh, an Asian newspaper with worldwide influence, reported that the sanitation of the prison is horrific. The refugees also had difficulties in meeting the doctor, and some had to wait for months to get medication.6 The actions member states took toward refugees derived from the negative recognition of refugees due to various incidents such as terrors. As detailed in the examples above, it is now our responsibility to ensure that refugees are treated in a peaceful way. First, we should check and balance each government. A great majority of refugees are threatened under these incoming governments due to political disputes. As members of the Press Corp, it is our job to make sure that all governments are treating people fairly under a reasonable legal system. We need to be aware of voices from every single nation around the world through gathering annual reports of refugee status from each member state. Also, our primary goal is to end wars peacefully. Still, ruthless wars are in progress in the Middle East and Africa. There should be a peaceful ending between these disputes. If they cannot handle their problems, we should be their problem-solver. We should notify them that there are many other alternatives rather than fighting. We all know those are not one-day problems. But we can at least try for the millions of refugees wandering around the world and risking their lives. We should also encourage other past imperialistic countries to suggest concrete political solutions, such as providing economic advantages or creating a government agency responsible for refugees. Another solution to the increasing number of refugees is voluntary repatriation. This is a proposal supported by the UNHCR, which describes that we should facilitate refugees to decide to return home. 7 Some refugees, accurately asylum seekers, are not admitted as a refugee, and they stay for a long time elsewhere. We should provide them information about their home country and promote home visiting opportunities. As a result, this reduces the burden of the nations in taking responsibility for refugees and comforts the refugees to settle down in their homeland. If they decide to go home, we must do our part in monitoring their status and provide an emergency packet and necessary resources. These are the possible solutions that we can use to reduce the number of refugees. At the end of the day, as journalists, we have the power to provide a voice for those who feel like they are not being heard, and we should be actively involved in raising awareness to this issue globally so that member states will cooperate to solve this crisis together.
Casciani, Dominic. “How Do You Define Islamist Extremism?” BBC News, BBC, 10 June 2014, www.bbc.com/news/uk-27777892. Lee, Yookyung. “Made a Hell to Go Back (Translated).” Hankyoreh, 28 May 2015, h21.hani.co.kr/arti/world/world_general/39601.html. 7 United Nations. “Solutions.” UNHCR, www.unhcr.org/solutions.html. 5 6
Ga Hyun Shin, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies International Court of Justice (ICJ), Palestine
“That the Court declares that the relocation to the Holy City of Jerusalem of the United States Embassy is in breach of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.”
“An Unlawful Conduct of Relocation” MEMORIAL to the COURT The Palestinian Liberation Organization of the Government of the State of Palestine: Applicants The Government of the United States of America: Respondents
Claim: that on December 6 2017, the President of the United States of America unilaterally recognized the Holy City of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced the relocation of the United States Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to the Holy City of Jerusalem, that the Government of the United States of America (hereinafter referred to as the Respondents) was highly criticized by international societies of infringement of the Respondent’s neutral front to mediate peace compromises between the Israeli and Palestinians and the international peace and security, that the Emergency Special Session in General Assembly was hold and it adopted resolution ES-10/19 and affirmed that any decisions or actions related to the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect and it is considered as null and void, the Respondents ignored those warnings and inaugurated its Embassy in the Holy City of Jerusalem, and our informed witness, Michael Lynk, would further speak the truth. Assert: that such actions constitute a breach of the Article 1, Article 3, paragraph 1, and Article 21, paragraph 1 of the Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes, which states that diplomatic missions must be carried out within the receiving State, that such actions could have no legal effect according to the Partition Plan in resolution 181 (II) in the United Nations General Assembly in which provides that “Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem” in Palestine, that such actions are against numerous resolutions such as resolutions 54 (1948), 242 (1967), 338 (1973), 446 (1979), 452 (1979), 465 (1980), 476 (1980), 478 (1980), 1397 (2002), 1515 (2003), 1850 (2008), and 2334 (2016) adopted by the Security Council in response to the illegal settlement activities or occupation in Holy City of Jerusalem against the Palestinian people,
that such actions are against the resolutions 181 (II) of 29 November 1947, 194 (III) of 11 December 1948, 3236 (XXIX) of 22 November 1974, 3375 (XXX) and 3376 (XXX) of 10 November 1975, 31/20 of 24 November 1976 and all its subsequent relevant resolutions adopted by General Assembly, which states the exercise of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people under the status of the occupation of the Holy City of Jerusalem, that such actions are against the advisory opinion rendered on July 9 2004 by the International Court of Justice on the legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and that the continuous Israeli settlement activities are dangerously imperiling the viability of the two-State solution based on the 1967 lines, that such actions are severe violations to many other resolutions adopted by the Human Rights Council and United Nations specialized agencies, international humanitarian law and relevant resolutions, that such actions are against the legal obligations and responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, that the reckless actions of the Respondents endangered further international world peace, just society, and guaranteed security as the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations fundamentally claims. Prayers: that the Court finds the Respondents in violation of International Law, that the Court declares that the relocation to the Holy City of Jerusalem of the United States Embassy is in breach of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, that the Court orders the Respondents to withdraw the diplomatic mission from the Holy City of Jerusalem and to conform to the international obligations flowing from the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, that the Court orders the Respondents to take all necessary steps to comply with its obligations, to refrain from taking any future measures that would violate its obligations and to provide assurances and guarantees of nonrepetition of its unlawful conduct.
Seoyeong Youn, Goyang Global High School (Seoul National University) United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), Italy
“Female Reproductive Health” “We cannot confront the massive challenges of poverty, hunger, disease and environmental destruction unless we address issues of population and reproductive health.”
“We cannot confront the massive challenges of poverty, hunger, disease and environmental destruction unless we address issues of population and reproductive health,” said Thoraya Obaid, the former executive director of the United Nations Population Fund. 8 Despite such significance, reproductive health has long been considered a rather personal affair, complicating the progress towards an open discourse and active actions on the issue. In this regard, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development is noteworthy, where the concept of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) was put forward and member states reached consensus on its importance. Since then, there have been several notable improvements around the globe, including in the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births which fell by 45% over the past two decades.9 Italy has a great regard for such substantial efforts and achievements of the international community to enhance female reproductive health so far. At the same time, however, it is indisputable that we are still confronted with massive challenges that require even further international cooperation.
Hence, Italy is aware that a wide range of factors such as wealth, income distribution, political circumstances, and social policies of each country are inextricably linked with ensuring reproductive health of its people. In other words, threats to female reproductive health can be far more severe in some less developed nations, particularly in conflict-affected areas. Therefore, Italy, as one of the developed nations, stands under dual obligations to take part in the international collaboration to promote reproductive health in less developed countries and to address its domestic problems related to the agenda. While Italy is equipped with a relatively advanced health system that was ranked 2nd in 200010, there exist some regional disparities in the accessibility and quality of reproductive health care services. Moreover, abortion was legalized nationwide in 1978, and yet some have raised concerns that access to safe pregnancy termination is not fully guaranteed, with the proportion of conscientious objectors among medical workers increasing in recent years.11 Outside of domestic issues, Italy has been an active participant in the realm of global female reproductive health. Particularly, it has been at the forefront in the United Nations against child marriages that have put numerous young women at constant risk.12
“UNFPA and Rotary Renew Cooperation on Population and Development Issues,” United Nations Population Fund, accessed January 4, 2020, https://www.unfpa.org/press/unfpa-and-rotary-renew-cooperation-population-and-development-issues# 8
Snow RC, Laski L, Mutumba M. Sexual and reproductive health: progress and outstanding needs. Glob Public Health. 2015;10(2):149–173. doi:10.1080/17441692.2014.986178 9
“The World Health Report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance”, World Health Organization, https://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/whr00_en.pdf?ua=1. 10
“Abortion is a right in Italy. For many women, getting one is nearly impossible”, CNN Special Report, May 2019, https://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2019/05/europe/italy-abortion-intl/. 11
“Italy in the UN – against child and forced marriages”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy, September 22, 2014, https://www.esteri.it/mae/en/sala_stampa/archivionotizie/approfondimenti/2014/09/20140922_onu_matrimoni.html. 12
It is crucial that the international community move forward with commitments listed in past consensus including the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Specifically, Italy feels that policies in fields such as education, nutrition, poverty reduction and social protection are all associated with reproductive health and therefore suggests that we put more emphasis on a multi-sector approach to this matter. Furthermore, the provision of relevant information regarding sexually transmitted diseases, abortion, and sexual violence is especially significant, which can enable individuals to realize which action to take and thereby prevent further complications. In this context, appropriate sexuality education programs should be established both in developed and developing countries with the comprehensive participation of governmental and non-governmental organizations. Also, as can be seen from the case of abortion laws, some of the issues on reproductive health are surrounded by differences in cultural, religious, and social norms. Thus, instead of relying on rather coercive methods, the international community should strive toward protecting universal values regarding human rights and health by pursuing gradual and cumulative changes that hold great potential in the long run. To conclude, Italy welcomes global actions to enhance female reproductive health, especially that of the marginalized people, and also would like to reiterate its resolve to address related domestic challenges as well.
Yoonsung Cho, Dongducheon Foreign Language High School Press Corps, Editor#1 1
“World Refugee Aspects”
“Life’s greatest happiness is to be convinced we are loved.”
Said Victor Hugo. According to the Oxford Dictionary, refugee defines as someone who has been forced to leave their country, especially because of a war. As society develops, there are different types of refugees that are losing jobs and hopes due to our human’s egoistic mind. Due to this, the ratio of the refugee has increased ever since. There are more than 66 million international refugees and additionally, 16 refugees die every day as stated by the ‘2017 UN refugee report’. Now is the time not to think which country will suit the refugee the most comfortable way. This is the time to save as many refugees we can and help them in their specific needs.
According to the ‘UNHCR World Refugee Urgent Country List’, the biggest refugee suffering countries are Syria and Yemen. Before we talk about the actual numbers and solutions, it is important for us to know the facts behind refugees.
Photo from https://www.srhr-ask-us.org/publication/resource-flows-sexual-reproductive-health-rights-asia-pacific-gaps-opportunities/
First of all, Syria is known to be the country that is urgent right away. According to the ‘UNHCR Syria refugee essay’, they estimate that more than 5.7 million people, half of whom are children, have fled to neighboring countries and 6.1 million people are displaced internally within Syria, making it the largest exodus of refugees and in more than two decades. The summary of Syria refugee was a coup d’Etat that occurred to get rid of Al-Assad’s government who operated a dictatorship for the last 40 years in Syria. As rebels stand up to fight against this dictatorship, the refugees have been created ever since. As there are various types of helps and aids we can provide, the best aid we can do is to provide ‘a safe location.’ The countries that are located near Syria all avoid expropriating refugees, as the damage could also affect themselves. Therefore, most of the refugees are forced to move far away from their homes to survive. However, as the number of refugees is too obnoxious to expropriate in a single country, they choose to move too far countries. During this journey to survive, it is common for them to face different types of dangers such as cold, dehydration and such. In measure to fix this problem, the countries need to risk their safety and save the ones that are in danger in the current measure. There is a well-known European country that expropriated a lot of refugees and offered a job and a roof to stay in. It’s in Germany. Germany is well known for accepting 60 thousand refugees. Looking at Germany’s effort to care for other citizens (refugees) well, the UN and other international groups suggest other countries to do perform their legislation around refugees for the international crisis. It is not only Germany that can be the best suitable country for the refugee (Syria). In my opinion, South Korea also can be the suitable country for the Syria refugee. Currently in Korea, the employment rate has reached the lowest rate in the last 100 years making the youth in Korea go through the hardest time. If Korea accepts and prepare right job (Right human respect, and payment) for them, the whole economy will grow, which will increase the total GDP (Gross domestic product) and GNI (Gross National Income). The other big example would be Yemen. In short, the refugees have been created due to coup d’Etat against the dictatorship. A most suitable solution would probably be the increase of jobs. Comparing to the Syria refugee problem, the Yemen refugee problem has less people under serious circumstances who need help right away (Female, Kids, Elderly, etc.). Therefore, various types of human resources can be used in different types of ways. A lot of developed countries should encourage developing countries to use such human resources for who are suffering from a lack of labor resources and population. Last but not least, the solution and the prevention. Although there are specific and various types of solutions and prevention that can suit refugees, the most comprehensive solution and prevention are out there for the public. However, people care less and, think less as they don’t have enough time. Therefore, it is not only the country or the people whom we should blame on. Each one of us has to think about the specific and essential question that lead us to open the true reason and the solution for the refugee issue. Referenced papers
박선욱. "난민보호에 관한 국제법의 국내적 이행" 가천법학 VOL.6 NO.3 (2013):21-46 Yoo Eun Jung. "The Current State of Refugee, Refugee Law and Integration Policy in Korea" 법학논총 VOL.25 NO.1 (2012):215-254
Dohun Kim, Dongtan Global High School Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Italy 1
“Chinese Investment to Africa Is a New Way for the World’s Poorest Continent.”
“China will not to demand political to the African countries for the act of investment.”
War, conflicts, violence, disease, poverty, and refugees, these are the things that come up with in people’s minds except for Africans when they think about Africa. 4.7 trillion is the amount of aid in dollar which have sent to Africa to resolve the problems since 1960. Nevertheless, the continent still remains as the poorest continent in the world. And now China, which is expected to be the rival country against the United States, is coming up to help the African countries differing its way of international aid with Chinese-based infrastructure investments, under the name of “Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) ”, or “ The New Silk Road.” Many countries are worrying and criticizing that this project will be the expansion of Chinese hegemony in Africa and will finally put the African countries into the New colonialism. In this international atmosphere, Italy chose to join the BRI, considering it as a chance for “win-win” more than the chance of hegemony expansion.
Geopolitically, Italy has done its role to connect both sides by Silk Road with people like Marco Polo and other merchants. And in 2019, Italy once again chose to be a partner of “the New Silk Road.” Italy recognizes that the increasing trade of trade with Africa under the BRI project was and will be helpful to improve the African economy, based on the fact that Chinese infrastructure investment made the participating African countries, which were once colonized by Italy in the early 20th century, to be in better status. At the center of this topic discussion there is a worry related to Chinese rising hegemony. It is right if the African countries cannot pay back the debt, they will be controlled by Chinese government. For this matter, Italy suggests that the ECOFIN committee should limit the Chinese behavior by international legislation. China limited itself from being super-continental country by speeches and declarations. For example, the president Xi emphasized not to demand political act for the investment (Kim Yoon-hee (2019). Changing China-Africa Economic Relations: Focused on Nigeria. International Area Research, 23(4), 165-194)). And also according to Chinese diplomacy agency, in 1955, the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence were announced in Asia-Africa conference. However these things don’t have any obligation or power. So to keep China from being superhegemony, Italy strongly suggest to the ECOFIN to recommend the member states to regulate Chinese hegemony related to the BRI project legally. On the other hand, Italy also recognizes and would like to emphasize that joining the Belt and Road Initiative is an opportunity to have economic, political, and humanitarian benefits to all around the world. Africa is being developed the way faster than the past decades. In case of Kenya, construction of the railway from Mombasa to Nairobi made the international trade active in the country. And by Chinese corporations in Africa, the people became to have better access to the necessaries of life with lower prices. The better access to the life necessaries means the better background for life, and less number of people who dies for disease, and poverty. Naturally, the number of refugees will be reduced. And as many developed countries join the project, the Chinese hegemony will not be able to be in power easily. Thus the Italian republic makes a proposal that the committee to write a resolution containing recommendation for the member states to join the New Silk Road project.
Yeonhee Kang, Anyang Foreign Language High School United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1
“Statelessness” “The state of being stateless is called a problem because being stateless is not treated as something different, but rather because it is treated as 'wrong' by law in the country”
The world we live in now has various problems, including global warming, war, inequality, poverty, and religious conflicts. However, the bigger problem is that these problems create new problems, and one of them is statelessness. The state of being stateless is called a problem because being stateless is treated as not something different, but rather because it is treated as "wrong" by law in the country. In addition, because stateless people currently do not have a nationality, statelessness has the potential to cause greater human rights violations in addition to the human rights violations they have faced so far. In response, Portugal has recognized and is moving to improve these problems of the stateless.
Statelessness has come to the fore as a problem to Portugal after the decolonization of previous colonial territories (Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tomè and Principe). Statistics from those who reported themselves as stateless in Portugal show that the number of people who reported themselves as stateless surged from 1,175 in the1980s to 19,698 in the 1990s, because of the Law N. 37/81, which, throughout the 1980s, restricted the access of children born in Portugal to foreign parents to Portuguese nationality. There are three types of people who have lost their nationality, the first is that they did not go through a revised procedure in Portugal due to lack of access to information and inexperienced recognition, the second is that they arrived in Portugal with insufficient documentation, and the third is because they obtained Portuguese citizenship but later were canceled due to fake documents. In all three cases, the lack of official documents is the underlying cause. Portugal also has stateless people caused by reasons other than dec olonization, which means that we also have problems just like other countries. Recently caused statelessness is mainly about gaps between international laws. Portugal has acceded to both conventions on statelessness and is showing continual interest. However, this interest is not reflected in the law The UNHCR says it deals with the issue of the stateless, but it is not a real solution for the stateless. In addition, it is necessary to take proactive action rather than holding a convention. We propose creating a commission or subdepartment that deals specifically with stateless because there are so many displaced people besides stateless people that UNHCR manages to deal with. The problem common to them is the law of a country that is too complicated to solve even if it tries to solve its own nationality. In addition, because of the nature of the stateless, public power will be needed to ease restrictions on the overall life, including economic difficulties. To address this situation, a sub-department of the UNHCR should be created, but the goal is achieved by 2024 to solve the problem of the stateless by teaming up for each country and managing it in more detail. Portugal, in particular, can come together with countries where it had previously colonized to work out a better solution to resolve the cause of stateless people due to decolonization.
Next, the main cause of the recent occurrence of statelessness is the international law's gaps. To solve this problem, countries involved in the matter must come together to come up with standards for international law. The biggest problem so far in enacting the international law has had the difficulty of setting standards that accurately reflect the status and practicality of each country. However, the international law proposed here should focus on the establishment of certain standards related to each country's definition of a stateless person, and on those who have lost their nationality by moving between countries. This action will bring about proactive participation of countries and identifying the country's stateless people. Portugal once again proposes the above solutions to recognize and solve the problem statelessness.
Seeun Kim, Daejeon Foreign Language High school United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), Netherlands 1
“Peace is for
“Protection of Female Reproductive Health”
everyone. It is up to everyone to build peace. We need to enable women from the country and the diaspora to work together, for peace”
In many developing countries, sexuality is banned. Many women give birth without expert medical aids. This situation prevents fair and equal development. In 2015 one in five women and girls under the age of 50 reported having experienced physical or sexual violence within the year. The Netherlands perceives the seriousness of this agenda so that has been trying to solve this problem both domestically and internationally.
The domestically, the Netherlands had its abortion laws in 1984. This could happen within the first 21 weeks of pregnancy, and abortion was still applicable for health reasons for up to 24 weeks. Legalizing abortion laws in the Netherlands was not an easy process. But in 1969, the government lifted a legal ban on contraceptives and began accepting family plans, making efforts for women. In 2019, upon arrival in the Netherlands, not only will they be tested for tuberculosis in the GGD, but they will also be able to take the STD test free of charge only for those affected. Moreover, internationally, the Netherlands promised its commitment to a global effort to provide an additional 120 million women in the world's poorest countries with access to family planning information, services, and supplies by 2020. In 2015, The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Dutch Embassy signed cost-sharing agreement in support of the efforts to empower women in Libya. The Netherlands believes that solutions to improve female reproductive health must focus on international collaboration. At first, an international consultation should be formed, consisting of various countries, without limitation of the developed and the developing countries, and experts, to investigate the most specialized solutions, both coordinative and reactive. In this consultation, the country which needs some helps report their condition of female reproductive health and specify how much financial support is needed. After reporting, any country which can financially support it spontaneously steps up and enters into an agreement. If there are no countries willing to support at the consultation, UN could put pressure on some countries with the ability to support. Second, the various programs which provide reproductive health care services like medical insurance or a medical examination should be taken. In developing countries, not everyone has access to contraceptives or HIV/AIDS medication. In addition, many women give birth without expert
medical assistance. The countries could utilize some organizations like Medicines Sans Frontiers (MSF) and offer international financial aids. As the country which have many interest in women rights, the Netherlands expect that this commission could propose an effective and realistic resolution. This delegate believes that the Netherlands has an ability to support and lead this commission. In addition, this delegate would like to share many ideas more specific in the sections with varied delegates.
Chaeyeon Park, Yongnam Middle School United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ), Afghanistan 1
“At first, expand the budget to rebuild the prison justice system such as constructing new prisons and improve the law systems. The UN could help by international organizations and funds.”
“Justice in Prison Policy” The West’s efforts to help rebuild Afghanistan have included considerable investment to strengthen the criminal justice process. USA, Canada, Australia and the EU have spent US$25,932,994 on drafting new criminal laws, training judges, constructing and renovating prisons. Despite all this work, Afghanistan’s justice system remains weak and compromised with poor governance, lack of rule of law, impunity for militias and police. And there have been many well publicized crises with hunger strikes, riots and allegations of torture.
At present, Afghanistan’s prison facilities are now fulfilling its intended role but the prison system as a whole is struggling to do so. For examples, holding former combatants alongside criminal prisoners presents enormous challenges in having to find the right balance between security and rehabilitation. And controlling insurgents in security prisons brings with dangers of torture and ill treatment. Until now, thousands of prisoners have escaped from prisons. These relate to corruption and collusion by prison staff. Many observers find it hard to see how the tunnel was constructed without the knowledge or suspicions on the part of the authorities. Staff commitment to the formal justice system may diminish when faced by traditional values of family and tribal loyalties. Therefore, since 2003 the government has been implementing a comprehensive prison reform program. Objectives for reforming prison systems support CPD (Central Prison Department) and judiciary in establishing rule of law and promotion of human rights. Partners to fulfill this program are Government of Afghanistan – Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Women’s Affairs. Recent Accomplishments are UNODC performances through the Prison Reform and Law Reform as well as projects providing leadership to address the absence of a legal framework for alternatives to imprisonment (2010, ongoing). And other accomplishments are assessment on drug abuse problems among detainees (January 2010) and teaching both male and female penitentiary and judicial staff about regulations and its implementation. Basic training Manual for Prison and Detention Center Workers, with its companion manual, and comprehensive
assessment on the implementation of Alternatives to Imprisonment (ATI) in Afghanistan are also one of the outcomes. The solutions may be conducted in three ways. At first, expand the budget to rebuild the prison justice system such as constructing new prisons and improve the law systems. The UN could help by international organizations and funds. Promoting recognition of Afghanistan peoples about the condition of the prison and the importance of the prison justice can be one of alternatives. In terms of UN activities, sending experts in the field of prison justice in conjunction with UNODC is a good way. The recognition of Afghanistan brings about revolution of the prison justice such as welfare promotion of the prison. Another way is to reduce crime rate through preventing a recurrence of a crime and reduction of the first offense. If the crime rate decreases, the government supplies one offender with more welfare. Therefore, there cannot but be an improvement of welfare in the prison. For these, UN should make many efforts to increase instructors in terms of the prison justice and budgets in concert of international companies.
Geon Yoon, Raffles Christian School African Union (AU), Gambia 1
“Natural Disasters Response in Africa” “We must not continue the insufficient ways to solve the disaster. We must find more effective ways to accomplish our goals.”
Natural disaster: it is a work of fate, sometimes man-made, which results in great damage and possibly a loss in life. It is an event that results in costly risk management and disaster recovery in many nations, especially those in Africa. “According to the World Bank (WB) reports on the Status of Disaster Risk Reduction in the SubSaharan Africa Region, disasters, particularly related to meteorological and hydrological hazards and climate extremes, are increasing across the West Africa region […]”..
Although most countries have independent councils to deal with such disasters, there are none in the African Union that regards these issues. As a result, many divisions and subdivisions in the African continent are affected by the disasters to a greater extent than they should be. “More than 19 countries are currently affected by protracted crises, conflict and violence. Conflicts can devastate agriculture and rural livelihoods, causing significant economic loss, food insecurity and damage on all scales.” Due to the absence of an independent organization, the African Union works on hand for the country most in need of help when a natural disaster hits. The methods they use is expensive but ineffective. In Gambia, the government believes prioritizing the development of more effective disaster risk management policies is key. The National Disaster Management Strategic Action Plan further sets out the priorities for implementing the bill and policy. The African Risk
Capacity provides the government with an effective tool to reach its objective of mobilizing more effective emergency and disaster services. Rising sea levels, along with excess rainfall and high tides, causes Gambia's river to reach its flood stage, causing inundation. In Gambia, urban flood hazard is classified as high based on modeled flood information currently available. This means that potentially damaging and life-threatening urban floods are expected to occur at least once in the next 10 years. Since the end of WWII, floods have occurred in Gambia during 1948, 1954, 1955, 1956 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010 as of 2010. These floods caused homelessness, loss of lives, and also interruption of transport and ferry facilities. During 2006-2010, for example, there was an internal displacement of population in the state; during the period, around 5000 people were forced to abandon their homes. As we can observe from history, this was not an exception for other neighboring countries. In 1992, there was an influx of 241,640 refugees originating from Liberia. In 1994, there was an influx of 142,671 refugees coming from Sierra Leone. Lastly on 2006, there was an influx of Senegalese refugees. In response to the repeating floods, the Disaster Management Governing Council ensures the availability of resources and accountable use of funds. The National Disaster Management Agency sets up a system and monitors early warning indicators and triggers. It leads and coordinates emergency response through its regional Disaster Management Coordinators and Regional Disaster Management Committees. It also leads assessment and monitoring processes for emergency response and preparedness activities. Government Ministries and Departments provide human resources, materials and logistics for immediate response and assessment activities. Not only does UN System provide guidance and technical advice on establishment, vulnerability analysis and risk assessments for the country to enable more rapid and informed targeting and responses, but it also supports rehabilitation and recovery programs; mainly the implementation of preparedness/disaster risk reduction activities through capacity building.
Many issues, such as poor rehabilitation and planning, revolve around the government of the Republic of the Gambia and its instability. Therefore, stability must be achieved in order to counter these problems. To stabilize the country, it needs funding, better education, and ultimately the support from international community. Additionally, recent studies also state what schools, authorities, parents and external agencies could do to improve the situation. For instance, findings show that residents could undertake minor modification on their houses, carry valuable property to safe places and restrict school attendance in order to protect their children from floods and illness. Such reactive and concurrent strategies on the household level rather than mobilizing the community could prove to be more effective. I personally believe that it is important for schools to educate children to create an improved response in the cases of such events. Ensuring education for all children is crucial for addressing sustainability goals and for adopting effective disaster risk reduction strategies. For example, schools can practice or train student on how to react and what to be done when flood occur. Moreover, the government must change. The government should start constructing infrastructure such as elevated buildings and
planting natural defense such as levees in the river bank. Elevated buildings allow buildings to keep out from being under water and therefore yield in a reduced cost for repair. Levees create a barrier that keeps river water from flowing out towards the land. These are not essential solutions; however, the accumulation of such small changes could and will someday produce a larger wave of change.
Minhyeong Lee, Dongducheon Foreign High School
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Italy
The Mediterranean Refugee Crisis “Italy’s immigration policies are currently in no shape to begin actively accepting refugees.”
Italy is the closest country in Europe for refugees from Libya to seek shelter, being right across the Mediterranean sea. But Italy is unable to provide shelter for all the refugees. Not only are there many people in Italy who are against accepting immigrants, the former government has tried not to find a place for all the migrants, but have only tried to send them back to Libya, where their rights are not provided. Italy’s immigration policies are currently in no shape to begin actively accepting immigrants.
There are other countries in Europe that are already ready to provide asylums for refugees, but the Dublin regulation prevents asylum-seekers from going to other countries. Requiring them to first register in the first country they arrive in before they can move. This bars refugees from seeking asylums in other parts of Europe, basically trapping them in Italy, which is not ready to take in refugees again. Therefore, Italy proposes to the other countries of Europe to alter the Dublin regulation to allow free movement of refugees throughout Europe. Not only will altering the Dublin regulation allow refugees to move freely to other countries that are better suited to provide shelter, it will allow countries that are not prepared to start actively accepting refugees to make preparations that are in order to start accepting refugees. Refugees from Libya must cross the Mediterranean Sea in order to get close to Europe. However, the lives of many refugees are lost on the journey. Italy proposes that the United Nations provide aid to refugees in the Mediterranean Sea. The amount of refugees that make it all the way to Italy has decreased significantly. Going from 117,153 in 2017 to 23,037 in 2018, and to 11,471 in 2019. This may be due to increased naval inspections from Libya. The United Nations providing aid to those crossing the Mediterranean would reduce casualties for refugees, and allow them to escape Libya and go seek an asylum in Europe.
Naeun Park, Bongeun Middle School
Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL), Ukraine
“Doesn't the world see the suffering of millions of Palestinians who have been living in exile around the world or in refugee camps for the past 60 years? No state, no home, no identity, no right to work. Doesn't the world see this injustice?”
From ancient time to nowadays, there is one thing that keeps making fights: The territory dispute. This conflict is still in situation in the place of Palestine. This conflict started with the Zionist movement. Jewish all around the world gathered Palestine region. After World War II, Jewish established Israel. The war occurred between Jewish and Palestinian for 4 times. Most of the Palestine region became Israel’s. Many of Palestinian became refugees. Palestinian refugees split into many other nations, and there are 58 official Palestinian refugee camps. But the real problem is, they are not like those of other refugees who escaped from war. They have homeland, which means at least they have place to return back. But the Palestinians, literally, lost their homeland. They don’t have place to live without worries. What makes the matter worse is that the number of refugees is increasing. Now, the Palestinian refugees are in danger. They are suffering from political violence, Israel military’s strict control and high economic problems. They needs our international communities’ help.
Ukraine have experienced civil war. This war started in 2014 and ceasefire in 2015. The east part of the Ukraine, Donbas region, is the wealthiest region in Ukraine. They are at the border of the Russia. But in 2014, Donbas region decided to become People’s Republic. As a result, the government defined them as a terrorists, and the civil war occurred. In this process, Ukraine refugees appeared. In 2015, our country did a peace agreement, but the small conflicts were continue to occur. We know the pain of split refugees. Over three years conflicts, more than 2 million Ukrainians were displaced from their homes. Their life and family were broken or lost. Our country decided to join the United Nations High Commission Refugee Agency (UNHCR). Though our country is developing country, Ukraine is trying to help refugees as much as we can. Ukraine currently hosts 2,620 refugees and person granted complementary protection. When our member states cooperate, we can help Palestine refugees to have better quality of life. For the stability of Palestinian refugee, Ukraine requests other nations to gather them as a member of the nation’s society. Of course there are some drawbacks like government’s budgets, citizen’s agreement and welfare. But also there are many other advantages. For example, they can do 3D jobs which lacks working people. Many of people don’t want to have 3D jobs. But 3D works are necessary for human living. When refugees get a job, then they can be productive. Which means they can return back that money to government by tax. So we can solve financial problem that comes from refugees. Also, it is a good chance to accept various culture. Now we are living in global society. Coexistence of culture is clear advantage for that nation. Furthermore, when nation doesn’t have ability to gather refugees, at least they can give aids to Palestine refugee camps or give Palestine aids to other nation who gathered refugees. Member states can make donation system, so refugees can have better quality of life at the camps. All of our nation can’t live alone. We help each other, and we are helped by each other. Never ignoring others’ help, that is the most beautiful world.
Minjun Kim, Vision Classical Christian School
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brazil
“Natural disasters will always happen, but the extent of the damage will depend on how you deal with them.”
“Global Responses to Natural Disasters” Natural disasters are now causing a lot of damage to humans. Typically there are Russia heatwaves, the devastating earthquake in Haiti, Japan tsunami, and China Sichuan earthquake, etc.
While the advanced countries have well-established systems and processes against natural disasters but developing countries are more prone to damage because they are slow to respond to natural disasters and are not well-established. I don't think the international community has enough quick and fast systems. When natural disasters occur, the extent of damage seems to be reduced by providing support quickly. Especially, saving peoples is important, but the international community seems to be not fully prepared in these areas. In 2011, heavy rains caused flood and landslide in Brazil, leaving 400 people missing and 14,000 homeless and 785 dead. This resulted in 1.2 billion dollars in property damage, and the Brazilian government provided 460 million dollars in emergency aid. But the victims complained that the supports from the government were not enough. There are frequent floods and landslides in Brazil. It seems to be bigger damages at the shantytowns or low-income families living at slopes and hills. Brazil’s heavy rains also caused to collapse of three Brumadinho Mine Dam in 2019, leaving more than 200 people missing and 40 dead. So Brazil has developed a weather monitoring system to provide real-time maps and graphs to predict and prepare for problems. However, the downside is that Brazil's government seems too weak for economic supporting and recovering from natural disasters. So, if a natural disaster occurs in Brazil, we're going to strengthen and build up the alarm system especially for the slums to minimize damage and provide economic assistance to the poor preemptively. Also, the government provides a support one-half of the property damage for a victim who loses their families. We need to provide additional financial support to them.
Sujin Kim, Yantai American School International Court of Justice (ICJ), Islamic Republic of Pakistan
“Customary International Law should be ‘lex lata’, assessed as an applicable law as it stands and not ‘lex ferenda’, as one might wish it to be.”
“Nuclear Disarmament Between the Marshall Islands and Pakistan” THE INTERNATIONAL COURT of JUSTICE LA COUR INTERNATIONALE de JUSTICE MEMORIAL to the COURT
The Government of the Marshall Islands Republic: Applicants The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: Respondents Claim: that Pakistan has always been a strong supporter of the general, complete, and verifiable disarmament , at appropriate multilateral fora, based on the principles of universality and non-discrimination under an effective international control regime. Such disarmament should keep in view the respect for fundamental principles of sovereignty, right of self-defense, equal and undiminished security for all, including Pakistan, that Pakistan adheres to maintenance of international peace and security in line with the primary purpose of the United Nations (hereinafter UN), that Pakistan has always been a supporter or the necessity of nuclear disarmament, taking account of voting in favor at the UN General Assembly sessions on Draft Resolutions entitled “Follow-up to the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons”, which “calls upon all states to immediately commence multilateral negotiations leading to an early conclusion of a nuclear weapons convention prohibiting the development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer, threat or use of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination,” from 1997 until 2015, that this shows not only the inconsistency of The Applicants’ belief in multilateral negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament but also the artificiality of its claim in this case, that “the existence of and extent of customary international law obligations in the field of nuclear disarmament, and Pakistan’s compliance with such obligations” pertain to the merits of the Marshall Islands case, that Pakistan is not a party to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), that Pakistan would continue to adhere to its policy of the Credible Minimum Deterrence, without entering into an arms race, that the Applicants accusing Pakistan for failing “to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion, negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament” is not legitimate since the Applicants had never sought bilateral
consultations with Pakistan, either formally or informally, in connection with its claims of nuclear disarmament until filing its Application in the ICJ Registry on 24 April 2014, that Pakistan’s nuclear programme forms an integral part of its national defense—that is, the defense of Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war,
that there is neither in customary nor conventional law any specific authorization of the threat or use of nuclear weapons. Assert: that it is a fundamental principle of international law that a treaty only binds the parties to that treaty. Article 34 of the Vienna Convention 1969 (hereinafter the “VCLT”) on the International Treaty firmly adheres to the pacta tertiis nec nocent nec prosunt principle, which means “that the treaty cannot grant rights and obligations to third parties,” that it is enshrined in Article 34 of the VCLT that “a treaty does not create either obligations or rights for a third State without its consent,” where in same article 2, it defines that a “third State means a State not a party to the treaty,” that the Applicant’s accusation for not following certain obligations in the NPT goes against Article 63 of the Statute of the Court which provides for intervention as of right by parties to a convention when construction of that convention is in issue. Article 63 recognizes that only parties to a convention will be affected by its construction and “necessarily has an interest in the matter,” that law of self-defense is justified under the ‘dual conditions’ which is necessity and proportionality as highlighted in the article 49 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on Responsibility of States, where necessity states that the possession of nuclear arms is necessary to prevent further destruction and not simply retaliatory, and proportionality relates to the general requirement that only such force is used as is needed to repel the attack. Pakistan’s possession of nuclear arms, as in means of self-defense, is “proportionate to repelling the attack” and not treated as “a requirement of symmetry between the mode of initial attack and the mode of response,”
that Customary International Law (hereinafter CIL) does not prohibit the use of nuclear weapons, and certain obligations in the NPT The Applicants view as Customary International Law is just an allegation since CIL is generally accepted only when states regard the norm as embodying legal obligations requiring compliance, conforming to a pattern of conduct due to a feeling of obligation—opinio juris—and when the international community expressly accepts and follows certain norms through custom—general practice, that the absence of a treaty specifically prohibiting nuclear weapons use in all circumstances, including selfdefense when the survival of the state is at stake as stated in Nuclear Weapons Case, suggests that Customary International Law does not contain a per se prohibition against nuclear weapons use, that Customary International Law should be lex lata, assessed as an applicable law as it stands and not lex ferenda, as one might wish it to be, that all states should not intervene but respect each other’s sovereignty rights as stated in chapter 7 article 51 of the UN Charter, which asserts, “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations,” that Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement signed by India and Pakistan takes priority more than the Customary International Law as mentioned in Generalia Specialibus Non Derogant, which means “universal things do not detract from specific things”. It states that when a matter falls under any specific provision, then it must be governed by that provision and not by the general provision. As the treaty provides a confidence-building security measure environment and refrained each party from “undertaking, encouraging, or participating in, directly or indirectly, any action aimed at causing destruction or damage to any nuclear installation or facility in each country,” it is against the international law for the Respondents to oblige to the requests of the Applicants.
Prayers: that the Court to adjudge that Pakistan hasn’t broke certain obligations in the NPT as it’s not a party to the treaty, that the Court to reaffirm that certain obligations under the NPT is not Customary International Law since neither possessing nuclear weapons nor nuclear disarmament is regarded as a norm embodying legal obligations
requiring compliance, conforming to a pattern of conduct due to a feeling of obligation and expressly followed by the international community through customs, that the Court to recognize the self-defense system of Pakistan as both national sovereignty and a measure to deter possible harms or attacks in the future, that the Court to order the Applicants to take all the compulsory steps that it is obligated to adhere within article 2 section 1 of the UN Charter by ceasing any attempts to block Pakistan from its national sovereignty or any other international, multilateral, and regional fora, acknowledging the fact that they have never sought any bilateral consultations with the Respondents and brought in bad faith; this goes against article VI of the NPT which states, each part “undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control,” that the Court to announce the Marshall Islands that the Respondents will give up its nuclear weapons only when other nuclear armed states do so, and when disarmament is universal and verifiable as repeatedly stressed at international fora like the Conference on Disarmament. It rejects any unilateral disarmament on its part.
Seoyeon Park, Jangheung Middle School United Nations Commission on Population and Development (CPD), Kuwait 1
“Many countries in the world, including Kuwait and Southeast Asia, are in a fastpaced society. Keeping pace with that pace is important, but it is more important to have a relationship that helps each other and overcomes difficulties together.”
“Building Stability and Sustainability in Southeast Asia” Southeast Asia is located at the center of world trade and has a warm climate for most of the year. So many people visit for business or tourism purposes. As a result, a lot of capital has flowed into Southeast Asia, and the region has become an area where economic growth is expected to boost manufacturing competitiveness and expand the market. Among them are trade-related parts such as Kuwait, a country that exports oil resources to the world that is greatly affected by the safety and sustainability of the Southeast Asian region.
Many countries in Southeast Asia are working to build infrastructure that takes safety and sustainability into account. Southeast Asian countries have grown more than in the past, according to the Social Overhead Capital ranking released by the World Economic Forum. Southeast Asian countries, which have many developing countries, however, face many difficulties in pushing forward their projects due to a lack of budget to build infrastructure. This has left many countries in Southeast Asia still unable to resolve various issues, including the environment. This shows that the safety of its citizens and the impact of Southeast Asia on the world can occur. Therefore, the state of Kuwait believes that with economic growth exploding, it is important to aim to develop infrastructure as solutions to problems given in this field must grow together. Kuwait is also working
with other countries based on oil resources to change the social infrastructure of the Kuwaiti city. This is changing the international perception of Kuwait. Therefore, if Southeast Asian countries apply the solutions to situations handled in cooperation with other countries, the basis for safety and sustainability will be laid, which will have a great impact on improving the performance of economic ministries. And other countries' trust will also be enhanced, which will have a good impact on many areas. And it is important to take advantage of a country's characteristics to become a sustainable country. Singapore, for example, is building many things in a city called the Green Building. Singapore used the climate very well. Southeast Asian countries believe sustainable development should be based on previous success cases, and geographical advantages can be exploited. Many countries in the world, including Kuwait and Southeast Asia, are in a fast-paced society. Keeping pace with that pace is important, but it is more important to have a relationship that helps each other and overcomes difficulties together. Therefore, Southeast Asia and Kuwait will do better if they cooperate.
Eunjae Baek, Haksan Girls’ High school The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM), Portugal
“Make this a global issue, inform us of the cases in which other countries have resolved these disputes, and try to move in this direction.”
“Gender Equity in Access to Education” Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. But in turn resulted from the Revolution of 1974, the constitution of 1976 guaranteed Portuguese women full equality for the first time in Portuguese history. However, Portugal is still “some way behind” so far as gender equality goes, with only 13 percent of higher education
Institutions in the country led by women. About 2000, only 22% of Portuguese women left school before finishing their primary education. While men usually finished the fourth grade [nine years old, the end of the first cycle of primary education], many women failed to complete any educational cycle. So the literacy rate is still lower for women compared to men: the literacy rate is 94% for females (aged 15 or older, data from 2011), while for males it is 97%. Today, a generation of women who were convinced that their daughters had a right to a future outside the home, domestic workers see their daughters obtaining bachelor's degrees or even doctorates. This has led to a growing number of women with bachelors or doctoral degrees, but inequality has continued. The average salary for a doctoral man is about 2,400 euros, and for a woman only 1, 600 euros, which means that the average income for a woman is about 30 percent lower than men .The increase in higher education for women was necessary, but this did not lead to equal cause in the power structure. Portugal is a low axis of housekeeping: women have their place in the world of men, and men have not done so in the world of women. If we don’t share labor, the problem is hard to solve. This is also due to gender stereotypes. Since the past, there is a stereotype that a woman should do housework, so men do not do housework. CIDM/CIG and other public institutions have attempted to strengthen the role of education and science in breaking down gender stereotypes by solving these problems and developing a range of gender stereotypes.
To solve the gender inequality in education, all children should be supported by the country so that they can attend school and receive education until the 12th grade, which is the mandatory education period. Also, during the period of education, students should be educated to solve gender stereotypes. Studies show that many of the school textbooks include stories and images that reflect a stereotyped portrayal of the role and activities of women and men. The Portugal proposes teachers inform children that the image causing the gender stereotype in the textbook is wrong and suggest that the textbook be revised. Education is closely related to people's occupation and salary. In order to get a good job and a higher salary, people have to do a higher level of study, but inequality arises because of the society that employs more men than women. To prevent this, the law should be enacted so that women can have a certain percentage of a company, increasing the social advancement of women, and increasing the reason for their academic achievement. And Portugal hope the United Nations will make this a global issue, inform us of the cases in which other countries have resolved these disputes, and help us move in this direction.
Sooyoung Jo, Korea International School Jeju Campus
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Katherine Lyon Daniel
“Outbreak” “To accomplish this coordination and transparent communication at the individual, local, and international level is essential.”
Throughout history, disease has been a far deadlier killer than any army, and has been credited with bringing down entire civilizations and peoples. However, from the Black Death to smallpox to the Spanish Flu, humanity has stood strong despite waves of all kinds of blights and illnesses. In modern times, the CDC has played a prominent role in preserving the health and welfare of the people of the United States, having proven successful in their attempts to contain and eradicate various diseases, such as measles, within the US. This could not have been accomplished without careful but swift investigation procedures and close cooperation. These are factors that have aided the CDC in their successes before, and they will prove to be invaluable now.
Our first course of action should be to pursue reliable information regarding this unknown disease and containing it by observing for any symptoms among possible victims and identifying the pathogen. Any further actions, such as informing the public dispatching scientists comes after this crucial step. Not only will informing the public in a knowledgeable manner with a clear plan of action and detailed explanations will be key to preventing out-of-control rumors and the rampant spread of unfounded fears, the quicker we act the more information we gather, which can be used to determine incubation period, methods of transmission, and other information vital to finding a cure, without doing any detrimental harm to healthy personnel. To accomplish this, coordination and transparent communication at the individual, local, and international level is essential. First, the CDC must collaborate with the FBI and other necessary personnel to immediately investigate the whereabouts of Castillo, even as a missing person’s case, and to bring her to the nearest hospital for medical examination if needed. While there is no way the CDC can legally hold those without symptoms such as Carlee Smith quarantine, the CDC should clearly communicate the necessities and averted public health threats should she at least be under surveillance, and to explain to the general public as well if needed. On the local level, the CDC must inquire hospitals and health care officials in areas that Richard Robinson, Carlee Smith, Jason Canterburry, and Luisa Castillo had contact with, such as San Francisco, Connecticut, St. Louis, and
Florida to determine if there has been any strange medical activity, such as an unusually high occurrence of illness. In particular, the CDC must acquire information such as whether or not the peers and family members the first four had close contact with exhibited symptoms of this unknown disease, and the medical history of those who have been confirmed to have contracted it, such as Jason Canterburry. In addition, states and nations outside the continental US, should also be notified of this unknown disease, such as Hawaii and Japan, though with strict confidentiality. Of particular note are the local health officials the group first contacted about the disease in Papua New Guinea, who promised to launch an earlier investigation when they were first informed of the disease.
Kiwoong Lee, Homeschooling World Bank, Italy 1
“Supporting the World’s Poorest” “Poverty is not made by God, it is created by you and me when we don’t share what we have”
Before they built the bridge, the living conditions of the Lao villagers were very harsh. Their agricultural production could not keep up with the seasons. Moreover, they could not go to work or to the hospital if they were sick when it rained. Then, a helping hand was on the way, and simple ideas such as building a bridge over the river turned into action, changing the lives of the peasants and improving their lives and welfare.
The bridge is one of more than 4,500 projects carried out by the Laotian People Reduction Fund, a grassroots project supported by the World Bank's International Development Association to improve welfare for the poorest. Following International Development Association (IDA)’s involvement, other donors followed suit. Over the last 16 years, more than 10,000 families have benefited from these projects. It illustrates how IDA works as well. It concentrates efforts to achieve the greatest effect by providing a common national platform to donors, public and private sector partners, civil society, multilateral organizations and regional development stakeholders. IDC's partners recognize the unique value and calling power it brings. As Peter Maurer, President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) says, “IDA has provided a platform for improving responses to acute food insecurity for those affected by conflict. It leverages the comparative advantage of a range of stakeholders through the Bank’s unique convening power.” To qualify for IDA support, a country's per capita GNI must be below the established threshold of $1,145 in the 2019 fiscal year. About two-thirds of the roughly 500 million poorest people live in 75 countries that are eligible for IDA resources. Extreme poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in the world’s most vulnerable countries, many of which are in Africa. This is why the IDA is partnering with other agencies to increase its concentration on conflict-affected and vulnerable countries. It doubled its financial aid to countries facing vulnerability, including the allocation of $400 million to Yemen, and increased it to $14 billion, including more than $2 billion in additional funding for refugees and their host communities. The IDA is responding quickly to changing global needs, including coming up with solutions to the most serious development problems to maintain effectiveness. For instance, it mobilized $545 million emergency support for Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe following the aftermath of Cyclone Idai, which devastated these countries in May 2019. When the IDA,
which Italy and other member states joined, was founded in 1960, the idea of an IDA to gather and utilize funds to reach more people and gain greater influence was innovative. At that time, poor countries desperately needed capital but could not afford to borrow it at interest rates like the middle class, so the World Bank shareholders created the International Development Association, a fund that provides subsidies and concessions. Since then, IDA has provided more than $360 billion for investment in 113 countries. The representatives of the IDA meet every three years to discuss the strategic direction of the IDA and replenish the funding. Invite representatives of the Borrowing Countries to the meeting to ensure that the policies and financing of the IDA meet the needs of the State. The IDA will continue to deepen the focus on five strategic topics: jobs and economic transformation, governance and institutions, gender, climate change, and vulnerability, conflict and violence. For these plans to flourish for them to come true, people must be healthy, educated and able to participate despite obstacles. It should also address new challenges such as debt sustainability, take advantage of opportunities opened by the digital economy and continue to invest in people and comprehensive development. IDA's focus on growth, workforce, resilience and collaboration with a wide range of partners aims to eradicate extreme poverty over the next decade, create opportunities for the world’s poorest, and help IDA countries achieve their sustainable development goals.
Sunwoo Kim, Jakarta Intercultural School United Nations Commission on Population and Development (CPD), Haiti 1
“Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa” “Urbanization is not about simply increasing the number of urban residents or expanding the area of cities. More importantly, it’s about a complete change from rural to urban style in terms of industry structure, employment, living environment and social security.”
Although a potential opportunity, currently, the rapid urbanization of countries located in sub-Saharan Africa poses a myriad of problems. Among these problems, a huge one is the lack of economic growth, as the African continent has a GDP per capita of around $1,100 despite 40% of the continent being urbanized, which is highly contrasted by the $3,300 GDP per capita in Asia when the continent has a similar amount of urbanization. Not only that, the labor markets in the area are inactive as shown by the 75 million people who are unemployed. Besides the economy, the growing population and migration in expanding cities have prevented millions of people from having an appropriate shelter. But, despite the various problems, many believe that the African continent can benefit from this rapid urbanizations by being ready and fixing the problems that come along with it.
The Deputy Executive Secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), for example, stated that African countries should place industrial policies that will provide the skilled jobs and productivity gains needed for the structural transformation of their economies that can enhance growth and eradicate poverty. Like countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Haiti has also been experiencing rapid urbanization, as current estimates show, 52% of the population is living in cities as contrasted by the 90% of the population living in rural areas in the 1950s. However, the country’s persistence of weak economic growth causes rapid urbanization to be unhelpful instead of being beneficial. Currently, estimates show that 35% of citizens living in the urban area do not have access to treated water and roughly 67% do not have access to sanitation facilities. A tragic result from these problems came in the form of Cholera causing roughly 800,665 people to be affected and 9,480 people to die by March 2017. Not only that, the mix of an overpopulated and under-employed population, and a rising population of the youth have resulted in the rise of crime levels and frequent social protests in urban areas. Despite the many drawbacks to Haiti’s rapid urbanization, with the help of international donors and advisors, the government is currently focused on forward planning which would, in theory, allow the creation of a consistent program of urban planning, combining the need to urbanize new areas and expand on existing services in existing urban areas. In being in a similar situation of having unsustainable urbanization, the countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Haiti can learn from each other’s’ past mistakes and successes to effectively solve the persistent problems and transition into sustainable urbanization. Ideally, this means that the countries are able to meet all seventeen of the sustainable development goals created by the UN. For example, regarding the eighth sustainable development goal is to ‘Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all’, both countries aren’t on pace to achieve this goal as shown by the unemployment rate of 6.4% of the 1.06 billion inhabitants in sub-Saharan Africa and 13.5% of the 10.98 million inhabitants in Haiti, without the account of those in vulnerable employment. In order to solve this problem, the recent reports of UNESCO and the International Labor Organization have recommended that the government, private sector, and international donor create integrated and comprehensive strategies to create jobs for youth and improve the transition from school to work. Some strategies include creating policies that require the improvement of labor standards and social protection for the youth, such as appropriate wages and work conditions. This would be vital for the countries in sub-Saharan Africa as over 70% of workers are in vulnerable employment contrasted by 46.3% globally. This recommendation can also apply to Haiti as their current situation regarding unemployment is devastating as well. The successful translation of youth into appropriate jobs can provide more job opportunities in the urban areas and help alleviate poverty as getting suitable wages from their jobs can provide for their families. Despite many other problems occurring due to rapid urbanization in Haiti, the UN’s goals to sustainable development and the focus on the rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan countries can help the country to urbanize sustainably. Reference “About the Sustainable Development Goals - United Nations Sustainable Development.” United Nations, United Nations, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/. “Africa’s Rapid Urbanization Can Drive Industrialization, Says New UN Report.” Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations, 19 Oct. 2017, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2017/10/africas-rapid-urbanization-can-drive-industrializationsays-new-un-report/. EIU Digital Solutions. “The Economist Intelligence Unit.” Haiti Struggles to Address Urbanisation Challenges, https://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=866651470&Country=Haiti&topic=Economy. Fraser, Arabella, et al. “Africa's Urban Risk and Resilience.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Elsevier, 3 Nov. 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420917302881.
“International Conference on Population and Development.” United Nations Population Fund, 23 Dec. 2019, https://www.unfpa.org/icpd. “International Labour Organization.” Facing the Growing Unemployment Challenges in Africa, International Labour Organization, 20 Jan. 2016, https://www.ilo.org/africa/media-centre/pr/WCMS_444474/lang--en/index.htm. “Unemployment, Total (% of Total Labor Force) (Modeled ILO Estimate).” The World Bank, The World Bank, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS.
Soomin Hong, Bugil Academy First Council of Nicaea, Hypatius of Gangra
“The Holy Trinity” “The followers of Arianism shall meet the orthodox faith, regretting their sins for blinding Christians from the full grace and truth.”
The division of the Church clouded the hope of the unified religion and the empire. Rising of Arianism led to the theological disputation—the fundamental disagreement on the relationship between God the Father and the Son. Therefore, with the great threat of Christianity as an obstacle to the empire’s success, the 1st Council of Nicaea is called by your majesty. The goal of the First Ecumenical Council is to establish basic Christian doctrine, reaching consensus on the definite relation between the existence of the Holy Trinity (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit).
This bishop, named Hypatius of Gangra, from the city of Gangra, Paphlagonia, strongly urges that the Church must extinguish Arianism to protect the tradition of Christianity. Followers of Arianism deny Holy Scriptures and doubt the status of the one and the only God, which are unforgivable sins. Arius’ view degrades Christ to the creature of the Father, completely detaching him from the divinity. This view is incompatible with the salvation of the Christ who salvaged the world as “the Only Begotten Son of God” by appearing in the form of a human. The Trinity—the co-equality of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit—confirms Christianity as true monotheism and thus the divinity of Christ. The Gospel of John clarifies the Holy Trinity, stating “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning.” Only Christ can be “the Word, who became flesh and made his dwelling among us,” which declares that Christ and his lessons belong to the essence of God the Father. Therefore, no doubt is allowed in his divinity, refuting the main heresy of Arianism that there was a time prior to Christ since Christ, the Word, was with God from the beginning. Upon the firm belief of the Holy Trinity, the Fathers of the Church established the fundamental church doctrine which all sects came from. This basis suggests that if the followers of Arianism condemn the Holy Trinity as illogic, inevitably, all sects should define as heathenism for disobeying the Bible. Accordingly, this bishop highly recommends the followers of Arianism shall meet the orthodox faith, regretting their sins for blinding Christians from the full grace and truth. Arianism has eclipsed the glory of Christ who illuminated the light of all mankind, and thus this council should excommunicate it.
Abide by the orthodox faith, the followers of Arianism must recognize themselves as pagans thus repent their sins. Accordingly, this bishop highly requests this council to reach the consensus and to publish the Nicene Creed
which will contain the absolute doctrine and followed by the worldwide Christian followers. Finally, the central Church shall organize the monitoring institution on behalf of it to make the unity of Christianity sustainable. This bishop calls for unity among all Christians, believing that there is only one true faith in God. “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.”
Jisoo Kim, Seohae Sahmyook High School United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), South Africa 1
“Human Rights for LGBT+ Populations” “LGBT+ populations are not the subjects of discrimination and abhorrence.”
Since there are various kinds of people, there are some people who are different from general, not wrong. However, since there are biased people who think that LGBT+ populations are wrong, actions which violate the human rights are increasing, and it is disturbing the order of some member states. To prevent these actions and protect the human rights of LGBT+ populations, some member states made a law about LGBT+ populations. However, prejudices towards LGBT+ populations are still remaining, and it is a serious problem that all member states should cooperate to handle the problem. Republic of South Africa has a history regarding the human rights of LGBT+ populations. Social status towards more than 400,000 LGBT+ populations in South Africa has been influenced by the combination of traditions, colonialism, apartheid, and the movement of human rights. South Africa is aware of problems LGBT+ populations are suffering, and wants to get solutions with member states.
On June 17, 2011, South Africa led a resolution at the United Nations Human Rights Council requesting that the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) draft a report "documenting discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity" to follow up and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action. In August 2011, the Department of Justice in South Africa established a National Task Team (NTT) to address the issue of crimes against LGBT+ communities. The NTT has established a rapid response team to handle crimes, and produced information pamphlets with frequently asked questions. Despite these efforts to address a discrimination problem towards LGBT+ communities, LGBT+ South Africans, particularly those outside of major cities, continue to face some challenges, including homophobic violence such as correction rape, and high rates of HIV/AIDS infection. Since in many cases, the prosecution itself is not even prosecuted, and they don’t recognize it as a crime at all, it is very difficult to identify. LGBT+ populations are not the subjects of discrimination and abhorrence. There is no way of solving a problem of LGBT+ populations without attentions and efforts of member states. The discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity must be vanished through continuous education and legislation towards the human rights of LGBT+ populations. South Africa believes that proper education about sexual orientation and gender identity is necessary. UN and other international organizations such as UNAIDS should provide a general guideline to educate about venereal diseases, and also to cultivate right perceptions towards LGBT+ populations, and the education in regard to LGBT+ populations should be enacted periodically in schools, businesses, etc. Additionally, the high rates of HIV/AIDS infections would go down through education through
general guidelines of education, as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, to end the HIVS/AIDS epidemic by 2030. Also, sponsored advertisement about LGBT+ populations through social network services and other Internet means is necessary. The opportunity to get proper information towards LGBT+ populations should be increased, as the access to the Internet is increasing. To put efforts to vanish prejudices, many programs such as campaigns and publishing books about gender identity can be a way to handle the problem of LGBT+ populations.
Andrew Junyoung Lee, Busan Foreign School
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Mexico
“Global Responses to Natural Disasters”
“Students should have the right perception of discrimination by changing and correcting the wrong perception of discrimination.”
Since the birth of nature and ecosystems, even before humanity came to existence, natural disasters have long been impacting a wide range of environments. Nevertheless, we must not regard the recent escalation in their frequency, strength, and subsequent destruction as a truly natural phenomenon. Behind this abnormality lies the climate change. It is “very likely that human influence has at least doubled the risk” (Harvey 2018) of the European heat wave exceeding the threshold magnitude, killing tens of thousands of deaths across the continent. From cyclone and tsunami to floods and droughts, most of the natural disasters directly or indirectly have been scaled up primarily due to climate change. Despite several political efforts to detract public attention from the event by denying it from happening, countless scientific evidence demonstrates the actual, impending climate crisis. If the representation of the reality remains distorted, it would not only exacerbate the human fingerprints on the climate but also significantly hamper the development of eco-friendly alternatives like Green Technology and the implementation of necessary countermeasures; the consequence of this crisis will be te existential threat to the entire humanity.
Dealing with climate change should be the long-term global agenda, but it is equally imperative to analyze whether the current responses to natural disasters are effective. While innovation in technologies to prevent and prepare for upcoming calamities are impressive, disproportionate allocation of these technologies and resources are holding the effectiveness of the responses back. Developed countries possess sufficient financial, technological, and human resources to forecast events and neutralize their harms, whereas developing countries utterly lack public funding and government capability necessary to properly deal with disasters. Similarly, within most of the countries, the rich households are better off than their poorer counterparts in tackling the adversities. “Natural hazard damages play an important, growing, and largely hidden role [in rising the wealth inequality], especially along the lines of race, education, and homeownership.” (Howell & Elliott 2018) Expertise and technologies in risk management would have to be transferred from the developed countries to the developing countries, where the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) and UNDP being the optimal ground of exchange. This transfer would not only serve as a nurturing ground of effective measures but also an opportunity for developed countries to take responsibility for the
environmental damages their industrialization has incurred. In addition, state governments should focus on elevating the quality of the life of the poor and guaranteeing the basic surviving conditions against natural disasters for them. This is along the same line with the grand political scheme of poverty relief and lessening the social inequality, with a stronger emphasis on disaster-specific welfare plans. Resolving the problem of inequality is the only way to link recovery with long-term development to fortify resilience against future disasters. Reference Harvey, Chelsea. “Scientists Can Now Blame Individual Natural Disasters on Climate Change.” Scientific American, 2 Jan. 2018. Howell, Junia, and James R Elliott. “Damages Done: The Longitudinal Impacts of Natural Hazards on Wealth Inequality in the United States.” Social Problems, vol. 66, no. 3, 2018, pp. 448–467., doi:10.1093/socpro/spy016
Kihun Song, Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies
European Commission (EC), United Kingdom
“We encourage all European countries altogether to strengthen punishments against unlawful conduct of the far-right movements.”
“Rise of the Far Right” Recently, far-right politics has been issued all across Europe due to increased attention to the immigration issue and Euroscepticism. The United Kingdom is highly involved with the current wave as it deals with the Brexit: what far-right groups welcome as one of the goals for Euroscepticism.
In the 1970s, the National Front (NF) took the lead of the far-right movements throughout our nation. Although it didn't have its representations at European or British Parliament, its impact on the British people's views regarding antisemitism, white supremacy, and immigrant repatriation seemed substantial. Then, the British National Party (BNP) took a leading role in 1982. It frequently emphasized the concept of Euroscepticism: the UK shouldn't integrate with other EU member states. Later, in 2016, as Brexit was issued, a lot of people expected the active involvement of far-right groups as they shared the same view-Euroscepticism-with Brexit supporters. Ironically, in recent years, the popularity of far-right groups has been decreasing. National Action was proscribed as a terrorist organization. UKIP (United Kingdom Independence Party), which once took 24 seats at European Parliament in 2014, only received about 20,000 votes in the 2019 general election. Additionally, the British public feels betrayed at the conservatives and far-right groups as a symbolic phrase of the Vote Leave-We Send the EU 350 million pounds a week- was confirmed a fraud: the UK isn’t sending that much money overseas. The United Kingdom has several solutions to counter this trend. First, we will prevent far-right groups’ influence on the British public by bolstering the use of Smart Policing, which informs the local community to be involved positively during demonstrations via social media. This way, the British public will be informed about the beliefs of the far-right community, which leads to the public’s profound consideration before encountering far-right movements. Also, we shall expect “noblesse oblige” from politicians regarding their public remarks and statements. Politicians shouldn’t be allowed to devise extremist rhetoric to gain more popular support. We would establish a new institution that consistently fact-checks on politicians’ statements. Also, as the BBC did to far-
right groups, the country as a whole would limit far-right groups’ political participation by reducing TV appearance and via media censorship. Furthermore, on an international level, we encourage all European countries altogether to strengthen punishments against unlawful conduct of the far-right movements: xenophobic hate speech, ethnicity-based violence and discrimination. Also, with the help of European countries, the United Kingdom seeks to launch several massive “exit programs” that would help the far-right group members to normalize their radical viewpoints. We could develop or invest more in the already-existing “exit program” models of Germany and Sweden to save people from far-right extremism.
Hyunmin Choi, Bugil Academy
Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Syrian Arab Republic
“Chinese Aid in Africa” “In conjunction with the external effects of the economy’s structural weaknesses, this could well jeopardize the success of the plan itself.”
China’s Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) is number-one policy of President Xi Jinping. It seemingly helps developing countries to foster their own industry. Indeed 125 nations-including the country which locates around the middle-western Asia and Europe-have got China’s investment to build several infrastructures such as ports, railways and highways. However, the country which does not have a way to meet its engagement in time gradually have collapsed in terms of economy. For example, after Pakistan participated in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Pakistan made 62 billion dollar debt which the nation couldn’t afford to pay back. It caused financial crisis on Pakistan and made them consider to apply International Monetary Fund (IMF) bailout.
This shows that Belt & Road Initiative cause enrolled nation to plunge into severe financial crisis. Syria believes that BRI is an opportunity and hazard. So, Syria anticipates to guaranteeing BRI’s security by discussing this topic with Member States. Syria is part of the Economic Corridor of China-Central West Asia from Dec. 16, 2019, and China believes Syria has the stability to proceed with the BRI. Syrian President Bashar alAssad identified Syria’s strategic location as a pipeline hub in 2009 when he announced a "four-sea" policy to create a bloc of economic integration in Syria, Iraq, Turkey and Iran to link the Mediterranean, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf into one economic bloc. China and Syria signed a cooperation agreement on trade issues, and more than 200 Chinese companies took part in the international trade fair in Damascus in the summer of 2019. It also noted that China has invested $2 billion in the Syrian industry and an additional $23 billion will be invested through a future cooperation forum between China and Arab countries. Also, Syria got 500 million dollar subsidy
for building port in Tartus from Russia in 2017. The Ministry of Defense of Russia said it plans to spend 3.2 billion rubles annually on expanding the Tartus base in late 2017. Borisov, the Deputy Prime Minister, stated that Russia helped recover its fertilizer crops in Homs and planned to invest $200 million. Syria insists that BRI should proceed in collective condition. Syria emphasizes the importance of mutual support for China’s one-on-one business. The current BRI is a problem with China’s support being temporary and imposing a large amount of debt on countries that are incapable of paying back their loans. Therefore, it is a reciprocal solution that both companies in the target country and companies in China should participate in carrying out BRI's projects. The participation ratio should be determined by negotiations with China, but proposes to limit the minimum ratio. Through this, both countries offer an opportunity to appeal their situation without coercion from either side. Also, Syria suggests that the BRI proceed in the form of investment in companies in the target country, in addition to the form of loans. However, it proposes to limit investment to more than the largest shareholder’s shares. Applying the limitation, the government will seek economic independence of participating countries and allow them to pay back their debts in the future. In addition, we expect to prevent China’s economic evasion by restricting its stock sales. Finally, the BRI should meet the criteria of the Official Development Assistance (ODA). This is due to the advantage that the ODA provides reasonable conditions for developing countries, thereby reducing the burden on participating countries. This would provide both countries to reduce inequality in negotiation.
Sungbin Jo, Cheongshim International Academy Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN), Iraq 1
“This is a cooperative and efficient method not only to extend the range of assistance but to ignite aspiration of people to proceed one more advanced step.”
“Belt and Road Initiative(BRI)” The Silk Road-a network of trade routes and centre of economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between East and Westbegins to re-emerge with supports of other nations centred on China. From the 2nd century to the 18th century, the Silk Road contributed to the exchange of many goods, syncretic philosophies, and technologies with other civilisations; it resulted in economic development, especially in China.
Likewise, President Xi aims to attain the glorious past again, promoting Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) that a Chinese global development strategy involving infrastructure development and investments. Since announcing BRI in 2013, China has signed co-operational documents with 126 nations, and in consequence, it has constructed infrastructure such as ports, railways, and telecommunications in them as aids. Chinese foreign aid has commenced since the 1950s, yet with BRI, it becomes concentrated on investments to African states which account for a significant percentage of whom participated in and suffered from the aftermath of civil wars. Although many African states have accepted aids from China positively, there are a few problems and concerns regarding BRI. As Malaysian prime minister, Mahathir Mohammad warned “there is a new version
of colonialism happeningâ&#x20AC;?, BRI is prone to be deemed economic imperialism due to the ascension of debt and crisis of insolvency in other countries as well as African countries, and has additional drawbacks such as environmental issues as well. During the regime of Saddam Hussein, Iraq attacked Iran, with supports of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and UAE, to expand Iraqi hegemony and Sunni influence in 1980. The war prolonged for 8 years, and finally, in 1988, ended by a meditation of UN, bringing about the devastation in both states. After 2 years, in 1990, he started a war with Kuwait, commonly known as the Gulf War, because Iraq experienced economic difficulties deteriorated by IraqIran War, and had a dispute on an oilfield. Iraq invaded Kuwait, and subsequently, the UN permitted coalition forces to be sent and defeated it. As a result, Iraq was devastated significantly and depended on Oil-for-Food Programme, based on UN Security Council Resolution 986, until the end of the Iraq War. In 2003, the U.S. attacked Iraq since Iraq had WMD. The combined forces won and the regime of Saddam Hussein was resigned. Consequently, Iraq Civil War occurred entirely, and in 2011 U.S. government withdrew its armies. Thereafter in 2014, Islamic states (IS) invaded Iraq and expanded, and finally, in 2017 Iraq defeated them with aids of coalition forces. Hopefully in 2015, Iraq and China concluded the MOU making China construct infrastructure and invest in Iraq. Although wars and terrors abated, however, Iraq was tremendously destroyed by the sequence of wars and has suffered from poverty, hunger, unemployment, the peril of wars, and aftermath carved on memories of people. This is the same situation occurring in African states as an aftermath of wars they endured and the reason why they need aids from BRI to improve their lives. Therefore, Iraq supports BRI completely and determines to aid in the betterment of BRI as well as the African states. Many international concerns have emerged in terms of the economic imperialism, financial stability, and perils of being abused. To win the international trust in BRI and vindicate that it does not cause the economic imperialism, funding, plans and structures for BRI, and ultimately the support and participation of the international society are essential. Thus, Iraq suggests that international organisations and NGOs, as well as more nations, participate in the whole process of BRI involving the planning phase to the superintendence as much as possible. Besides, Iraq recommends devising platforms to manage the trading routes and international crimes such as terrors on it. If many nations and institutions engage in BRI, they can prevent states to exploit others as colonies. Checking and balancing one another, a state cannot easily interfere in domestic affairs of others maintaining their sovereignty; it will not degenerate into â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;neocolonialismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Moreover, by supervising aids and trades, platforms will not only reduce possibilities of abuses but enhance the stability of BRI. Iraq also proposes to permit international financial institutions such as IMF, WB, and IBRD and private enterprises to invest and perform development assistance. Currently, though BRI is based on infrastructure development and investments which means it requires a considerable amount of funding and wealth, it has been generally led by only Bank, AIIB. It burdens both China and assisted countries with a high ascent of debts. Debts are the biggest factor that undermines bases of BRI; this is essential to be solved. Aids and investments from international institutions and individuals would decrease debts and support assistance programmes, for example, Oil-for-Food Programmes Iraq was provided. Furthermore, recognition must be changed. Discriminations such as racism weaken trusts and make states avoid joining BRI, yet it is still enacted; it is necessary to promote funding for education reform and global education.
The young generations learn diversity and tolerance should be an impetus to progress Belt and Road Initiative. Iraq strongly believes that this is a cooperative and effective method not only to extend the range of assistance but, to ignite aspiration of people to proceed one more advanced step.
Subin Lee, Sookmyung Girls’ High School
United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD), Italy
“The New Dangers Water Scarcity Brings” “This growth rate leads scientists to predict that by the year 2025, one in five humans will live in regions suffering from water scarcity.”
According to the Pacific Institute, there has been a total of 926 water conflicts and one of them is the Nile River basin, presently shared by 11 nations. The steady increase in the number of water conflicts is noticeable. This growth rate leads scientists to predict that by the year 2025, one in five humans will live in regions suffering from water scarcity. Thus, disputes over access to or control and use of water resources will inevitably occur. Moreover, in 1985, Dr Boutros Boutros Ghali said, "The next war in the Middle East will be fought over water, not politics," according to the BBC News. With less than 0.01% of water worldwide being available for human use, tensions rise due to global population increases, urbanization, growing industrial, agricultural and household demands. Furthermore, the rising temperatures due to climate change further promotes the potential of water disputes.
In Italy, generally, only 70 per cent of the total population have access to sanitized water. Water supply is becoming a social and economic emergency due to increasing water demand and lack of management practices. Furthermore, the available water resources are approximately 58 billion cubic meters per year, a relatively ample amount. Nevertheless, due to climate change, the impact on water resources is inevitable: the reduction in quantity, quality and availability of water and the increasing frequency and intensity of droughts, especially in the summer. Furthermore, the frequency and the severity of river flow droughts are rapidly growing, with annual river flow reduction by up to 80%. Additionally, glacial lake outburst flooding due to glacier melting in the Alpine area is leading to increased numbers in floods in the Southern region. Regarding the sudden emergence of floods, the Directive 2007/60/EC, also known as “Flood Directive”, promotes an approach for the management of flood risks. This Directive entered into force on November the 26th 2007; established a framework on the evaluation and administration of flood risk, aiming to reduce the unfavorable consequences of floods. Furthermore, improving water infrastructure is of great importance since water conservation and efficiency are essential in sustainable water management. For example, using solar desalination or smart irrigation systems are
for water efficiency and management. Additionally, without proper sanitation, water becomes full of diseases thus, dangerous to drink. Consequently, addressing contamination and monitoring water quality is crucial. Moreover, developing sewage systems in particular areas is another way of preventing water scarcity from growing more critical. 1
Youha Lee, Suwon Academy of World Languages United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), Italy “Trafficking in Conflict Zones”
“Helping the victims adjust back to the society without discrimination should be considered an important part of the solution to trafficking.”
The issue of trafficking in conflict zones have been largely recognized by the international community in recent decades. For instance, the United Nations Security Council has passed resolutions acknowledging the seriousness of this issue and requesting for better research to combat this issue more effectively. Forms of trafficking differ by surroundings and the conflicts in them- sexual slavery, child soldier, prostitution, forced marriage, and abduction. Factors contributing to trafficking are also very diverse but most of them relate to war zones and this is why addressing this topic is crucial in the UN.
Trafficking is a definite harm to human rights in our society which makes it more important to resolve this issue. Long story short, the factors of trafficking in conflict zones are effects of wars and chaos in the country. Insecurity of their economic situation, broken infrastructures, lack of education, few job opportunities, weaker law effects, etc. To add on the cause of trafficking, inequalities internally and externally in countries, increasingly antagonistic immigration policies and increasing desire for cheap labor are the small portions of underlying factors that have been identified. The many factors that increase susceptibility to trafficking comprise poverty, violence and discrimination. The Government of Italy thoroughly meets the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Italy remains on Tier 1. Every year, the TIP (Trafficking in persons) Report ranks each country’s efforts to act in accordance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Tier 1 (Italy) is the highest rank, meaning that a government has recognized the existence of trafficking, made efforts to resolve the problem, and meets the TVPA’s minimum standards. Italy has been working hard to address this issue by improving coordination among government agencies, international organizations, and NGOs in identifying victims of trafficking, increasing financial support for NGOs providing shelter and other needs to victims, increasing safety for solitary minors, and exercise more investigations regarding trafficking. Moreover, various trainings on trafficking about law enforcement increased in Italy. The government funded some training sessions on antitrafficking methods, including a session with NGO participation. This country has reached an important milestone in combating trafficking in that Italian prosecutors started an exchange with 22 African countries to bring prosecutors to work together with Italian prosecutors for six months of training increasing the effectiveness of the training session. However, many in prostitution and migrants at reception centers still remain unidentified. The government did not take specific action within the nation to reduce demand for prostitution. Italy has to increase the level of coordination in the national, regional, and local level supporting investigations of trafficking and care of survivors especially regarding commercial sex which seems to be much underground in Italy. The government should improve the national coordination structure to work with all
relevant public institutions and NGOs, and collect data to effectively reduce trafficking. Until now, the government relied mostly on NGOs and international organizations when helping victims. Therefore, this country will work on improving coordination with national institutions to address the issue of trafficking within the country more thoroughly. Providing public language and cultural lessons locally for people who are new to the country so that they can adjust to the new environment better which reduces the possibility of being trafficked when perpetrators disguise themselves by saying they will give you jobs, shelters, etc will be essential. Raising awareness of trafficking via public commercials and social media will be necessary in that it can encourage people to pay attention to the problem and help with reducing trafficking by, for example, donating to NGOs that will be used to help the victims or enforce investigating process. Borders should be strengthened to prevent perpetrators from transporting victims from country to country. Collaboration with white hackers should be considered regarding the investigating process. Most importantly, programs and shelters for survivors is essential. Mental and physical treatment and shelters should be supported by the government, local centers, or NGOs to make it accessible to every survivor. Helping the victims adjust back to the society without discrimination should be considered an important part of the solution to trafficking.
Sungsoo JO, Korean Minjok Leadership Academy International Court of Justice (ICJ), Palestine
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT of JUSTICE LA COUR INTERNATIONALE de JUSTICE
“They may have made history, but didn’t recognize the history.”
MEMORIAL to the COURT
The Government of the State of the Palestine, The Palestinian Liberation Organization: Applicants The Government of the United States of America: Respondents
Claim: that on October 23, 1995 the United States Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act which states “Jerusalem should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel; and the United States Embassy in Israel should be established in Jerusalem no later than May 31, 1999,” that on December 6, 2017 the president of the United States of America Donald Trump unilaterally recognized the Holy City of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced the relocation of the United States Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem calling it “a long-overdue step to advance the peace process and to work towards a lasting agreement,” that on 18 December 2017, the United States of America as a permanent member of the Security Council vetoed on the adoption of a resolution reiterating “any decisions and actions which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council”, that on May 14, 2018 the United States Embassy officially relocated to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv.
Assert: that Palestine should be recognized as a state according to the Montevideo Convention Article 1 which indicates “The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states”, that Jerusalem is not Israeli territory by the UN Resolution 478 in which the UN Security Council determined that “all legislative and administrative measures and actions taken by Israel, the occupying Power, which have altered or purport to alter the character and status of the Holy City of Jerusalem, and in particular the recent "basic law" on Jerusalem, are null and void and must be rescinded forthwith”, that Jerusalem is a neutralized area by the Partition Plan in UN resolution 181 (II) which provides that “Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth in part III of this plan, shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not later than 1 October 1948”, that such recognition of the Respondents is against the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War which states that “When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position, administration, food supply and supervision of the proposed neutralized zone, a written agreement shall be concluded and signed by the representatives of the Parties to the conflict. The agreement shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the zone”, that Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem has no legal validity under the UN Resolution 2334, [ + 54 (1948), 242 (1967), 338 (1973), 446 (1979), 452 (1979), 465 (1980), 476 (1980), 478 (1980), 1397 (2002), 1515 (2003), 1850 (2008) ] that such action of the Respondents goes against the Article 1 of the Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention which states “Disputes arising out of the interpretation or application of the Convention shall lie within the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice and may accordingly be brought before the Court by an application made by any party to the 'dispute being a Party to the present Protocol”, that such action of the Respondents goes against the Article 3 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations which states “1. The functions of a diplomatic mission consist, inter alia, in: (a) Representing the sending State in the receiving State;
(b) Protecting in the receiving State the interests of the sending State and of its nationals, within the limits permitted by international law; (c) Negotiating with the Government of the receiving State; (d) Ascertaining by all lawful means conditions and developments in the receiving State, and reporting thereon to the Government of the sending State; (e) Promoting friendly relations between the sending State and the receiving State, and developing their economic, cultural and scientific relations.â&#x20AC;? that such recognition by the Respondents is against the UN Resolution 181.
Prayers: that the Court recognizes Palestine as a state, that the Court finds that Jerusalem is not Israeli territory, that the Court finds the Respondents in violation of International Law, that the Court demands the immediate relocation of the U.S. embassy from Jerusalem back to Tel Aviv, that the Court demands the Respondents to withdraw the diplomatic mission from Jerusalem, that the Court favors the suspension of the Respondents from the United Nations until the Respondents withdraw their recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, as in accordance with United Nations law,
Witness for the case: Michael Lynk References https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-president-trump-jerusalem/ UN Security Council Document S/PV.8139 (2017), https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/un-documents/document/spv8139.php Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, https://www.ilsa.org/Jessup/Jessup15/Montevideo%20Convention.pdf UN Security Council Document S/RES/478 (1980), https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/DDE590C6FF232007852560DF0065FDDB UN General Assembly Document A/RES/181 (II) (1947), https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/7F0AF2BD897689B785256C330061D253 Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949), https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.33_GC-IV-EN.pdf UN Security Council Document S/RES/2334 (2016), https://www.un.org/webcast/pdfs/SRES2334-2016.pdf https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1967/06/19670608%2002-19%20AM/Ch_III_8p.pdf https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1964/06/19640624%2002-10%20AM/Ch_III_3p.pdf UN General Assembly Document A/RES/181 (II) (1947), https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/7F0AF2BD897689B785256C330061D253
Yeonho JUNG, Busan Foreign School World Bank, Nicaragua 1
“Economic Development in “The World Bank must consider the its recent interventions and adapt them to assist the development of the African continent.”
Sub Saharan Africa” Around 2014, there was a population boom among developing countries, making it harder for the UN to combat poverty, rendering the progress the UN has made almost futile. The poverty rate has gone up from 278 million to 416 million throughout the same period. The World Bank has gone to significant measures to aid the least developed countries (LDCs), by even imposing no interest on loans to a select group of countries called the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). Still, poverty continues to be deeply rooted in many developing countries, specifically Africa.
Even after barren results in aiding Africa, the delegate of Nicaragua believes that the UN must continue efforts to eradicate poverty and that the UN must consider the World Bank’s recent interventions and adapt them to assist the development of the African continent effectively. In 2004, Nicaragua received $4.5 billion in debt reduction from the International Monetary Fund and HIPC initiative, as well as poverty reduction and growth facility programs to aid the economy. Furthermore, the Nicaraguan economy has been bolstered by the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreements (CAFTA-DR), which supplied opportunities for private sectors of the Nicaraguan economy. Nevertheless, Nicaragua has seen economic setbacks such as 2018 (-3.8% GDP growth). Also, Nicaragua is one of the worst countries in terms of economic complexity - productive capabilities of large economic systems. Thus, Nicaragua believes that sub-Saharan African countries, as well as other HIPC countries, should continue to gain benefits, and the UN must adapt the World Bank to benefit developing countries. As mentioned above, Nicaragua believes that the solution to combating poverty in sub-Saharan Africa is to modify the World Bank to rejuvenate economies that are part of the HIPC effectively. It is evident that the debt relief given by the World Bank is not well suited to help LDCs in the future. In fact, as coordinator of the German Jubilee Network - an NGO that strives for international insolvency framework - puts it, “we are back to square one, precisely where we were back in 1990.” The UN should try to call upon multilateral organizations to help sub-Saharan African countries, as well as other LDCs, obtain potential economic benefits through natural resources. Some multilateral organizations are particularly primed to benefit these countries, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which helps “secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers.” Consequently, developing countries’ economies will be bolstered, and job opportunities will make the economy more self-sustainable. In addition, there must be changes to the conditionals that the World Bank is imposing on the HIPC countries. For example, the World Bank should enforce HIPC countries to invest a significant part of the loan to social infrastructure to provide HIPCs with the proper environment to develop and to be more self-sustaining. Also, the World Bank must make HIPC countries engage in multilateral trade agreements through the conditionals, which will incite economic growth just like the CAFTA-DR that has proven to provide economic benefits to Latin American countries. The eradication of poverty is of paramount importance, and the World Bank must modify their policies to combat poverty effectively.
Sungmin Choi, Busan Foreign School United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Italy
“Global Response to Natural Disasters” “All of these facts and reasons are how we will prevent natural disasters from becoming catastrophes.”
Natural disasters have ravaged the earth from prehistoric times. These inevitable accidents are increasing in occurrence. According to the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), the total natural disasters reported each year has been steadily increasing in recent decades, from 78 in 1970 to 348 in 2004. The aftermath of these natural disasters leaves governments needing to spend vast sums of money on rebuilding and recovery.
The casualties can be reduced largely if national warning systems and other methods of preparing for natural disasters are implemented by all countries, but the difficulty of implementing these systems have blocked progress in preparing for the catastrophe that natural disasters bring. On the other hand, the international response to natural disasters has usually been effective and beneficial. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) said, “We can deliver medical supplies and other equipment, provide technical guidance and public health advice, and quickly mobilize our existing infrastructure at the country, regional and global levels.” This shows how the international response to natural disasters is organized and effective. Italy believes that this issue is a very pressing matter that needs to be solved. Italy is an earthquake-prone country. The 1980 Irpina Earthquake, for example, left at least 2,483 people dead, at least 7,700 wounded, and 250,000 homeless. More recently, in 2009, at least 308 people were killed by the L’Aquila Earthquake. Although Italy put in an earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the warning wasn’t delivered to the civilians in time, which left them unable to evacuate in time, leading to many casualties. Italy is continuing to try and improve the EEW systems so that the citizens are informed beforehand, which will reduce casualties. Therefore, Italy has taken steps to protect its citizens against these threats but believes that international cooperation is still necessary to effectively respond to these disasters. The delegation of Italy believes that the first step to improving the global response to natural disasters is to set anti-corruption safeguards. The problem with corruption is that it delays disaster recovery. For example, after Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico in September 2017, the official death toll was 64 deaths, but a recent study puts the death toll closer to 4,600 deaths. A majority of these deaths are because a prolonged blackout left many Puerto Ricans with chronic illnesses incapable of accessing necessary medical care. Corruption had delayed the progress of restoring electricity in Puerto Rico, which led to these many deaths. The delegate of Italy believes that the progress would have been quicker if corruption hadn’t delayed the process. These facts show how corruption is a very important issue that is very closely related to this topic. This is why the delegation of Italy proposes to set anti-corruption safeguards that will prevent corruption from being present in disaster recovery. Italy believes that another solution to allay this problem is international cooperation. For example, systems that can deliver early warnings of natural disasters must be installed globally, for the purpose of a more effective response both by the affected country and by other nations and international organizations. These delivery systems can also alert the citizens beforehand, which gives them a chance to evacuate before the natural disaster hits. Another solution to this issue is to create an international organization that is responsible for all the global responses to natural disasters. For example, one decision that this organization will be responsible for is deciding how much aid is going to be given to the affected country. This will increase the effectiveness of the responses
to natural disasters. This organization can also monitor environmental patterns that could let countries predict when natural disasters will hit, leading to a more timely response. All of these facts and reasons are how we will prevent natural disasters from becoming catastrophes.
Yumin Kim, Anyang Foreign Language High School Organization of American States (OAS), Panama
“The Organization of American States and the United Nations have both set apart democracy as the gold standard of governance.”
“Promoting Democracy in Americas” In 1945, the opening words of the United Nations Charter, “We the Peoples”, reflected the fundamental principle of democracy-that the will of the people is the source of legitimacy of sovereign states. Since their beginnings, the Organization of American States and the United Nations have both set apart democracy as the gold standard of governance.
However, the success of democracy is intertwined with many other variables. Specifically, throughout the year, malaise in Latin America increased as did the idea that citizens have the power and capacity to organize themselves and influence the policies of their governments. However, the disproportionate use of violence and repression against protester in the region has also been a common yet worrying theme, which represents a serious threat to democracy in Latin America, and this precariousness and resentment of public appear in a storm of protests. In these ways, two essential elements of democracy, declared by the former Commission on Human Rights, both respecting for human rights and fundamental freedoms and maintaining transparency and accountability in public administration, are being violated. Panama is going through similar problems. Specifically, corruption and impunity remain pressing problems, affecting the police, the judiciary, and the highest levels of government. Panama’s political system has many entrenched interests that exert influence through patronage and extra-legal payments, and institutions of accountability are generally weak. Finally, in 2018, anticorruption protest in Panama drew thousands. To deal with this national aspiration, in 2019, Panama’s new president, Laurentino Cortizo, took office, pledging end to corruption and close of the wealth gap. Unfortunately, Panama hasn’t completely gotten over the corruption, people still live in deficiency of democracy. The government already attempted to handle the problem but soon put it aside from the main policy, considering tackling corruption as the most difficult issue. Moreover, discrimination against darker-skinned Panamanians is common, and indigenous groups have struggled to uphold their substantial legal rights with respect to land and development projects. To reform this widespread malaise among politics and society and to ameliorate this Pan-American problem, efforts of OAS for strengthening democracy should be activated. The role of Department of Electoral Cooperation and Observation, responsible to observe elections in the Americas, has to be reinforced. Specifically, the international organizations focusing on certain country, such as Department of Sustainable Democracy and Special Missions, whose mission is to support the fight against corruption and impunity in Honduras, are necessary to be subdivided to solve more specific issues for democracy in more countries. Also, to regulate corruption and violence of government, ensuring the independence of judiciary branch and developing
the role to prevent it from abusing its power are important. With these peaceful and fundamental methods, current inter-American problematic era would be changed into transition period toward advanced democracy.
Gyuri Kim, Pusan Foreign Language High School United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), Italy
“The Opium Trade in Afghanistan” “I propose to be the defense
lawyer of the Italian people.” – Sergio Mattarella
Since 2001, Afghanistan has been on top ranks when it comes to producing opium poppies. On a global level, 90 percent of the heroin supply in the world is from opium poppies in Afghanistan and 95 percent of the European supply of heroin. As a European country also being one of the many stakeholders, Italy is strongly concerned about Afghanistan’s difficulty towards controlling the opium production and the effect it is bringing to the world, especially European countries including Italy.
Italy has also had a similar issue as Afghanistan in the past. In the 1940s, Italy had the second largest production of cannabis as they were partially legal in Italy for recreational use. However, the amount significantly declined during the 1960s when synthetic fibers were introduced as an alternative in the market and international promotion against narcotic drugs were enhanced. However, Italian citizens oppose the idea of intensifying punishment of carrying cannabis or any other drugs and therefore the government is making legalization efforts. The opium production in Afghanistan also leads to second-hand damage such as terrorism and AIDS. Therefore, the second-hand damages should be the second most important factor in this whole case. In Italy’s case, Italy has taken an aggressive stance towards terrorism by carrying out deportation towards suspects and establishing a committee called CASA (Anti-terrorism Strategic Analysis Committee) to share information about any terrorist threats. As a result of this aggressive stance, Italy is currently almost immune from terrorism compared to other European countries. Moving on, since the opium trade also leads to health issues, due to the shared use of needle injections when using drugs. The main example of diseases spread from this drug crisis is AIDS or HIV. This syndrome has a potential to spread at an unbelievable pace. Especially, if this drug crisis is not controlled or in the worst case scenario; intensifies. Therefore, the first hand solution to this problem would be to find a resolution towards the opium production itself. However, since the spread is already happening, short-term emergency resolutions are needed as well. Most of the victims that are HIV positive from drug abuse are reported uneducated which is why infections happen through sharing needles during drug abuse. Therefore, short-term resolutions to first of all stop the issue from intensifying would be to enhance education for all Afghan citizens. Also, to avoid any more spreading, humanitarian aid especially towards medical care should be carried out as well. Lastly, for long term resolutions to solve the opium trade issue itself, the CND should first of all create policies so that the Afghan government can take control of the country as the lack of control is one of the main reasons for this out of control trade. Also, since the CND is limited from using forceful measures, negotiation such as but not limited to benefit when trading or ratification in other agreements should also be an option to act as a motivation framework.
Works Cited “Cannabis in Italy.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Jan. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_in_Italy. “Opium Production in Afghanistan.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Dec. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium_production_in_Afghanistan. Stefano Bonino, Andrea Beccaro. “Analysis | Why Has Italy Avoided Jihadist Terrorist Attacks? Our Research Helps Explain.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 24 Dec. 2019, www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/12/24/why-has-italy-avoided-jihadist-terroristattacks-our-research-helps-explain/.
Minji Kim, Daejeon Foreign Language High School The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
“Some differences do exist among the varied educational programs directed at boys and girls, and there are some restrictions on higher education for women, obstructing the potential greater progress for girls’ education.”
“To Achieve Gender Equality in Education” Gender equality has been progressed than the past that Gender Inequality Index (GII) from United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) reported got lowered from 0.547(1995) to 0.439(2018). Despite this progress, however, many women are still out of the opportunity of education. For example, according to UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), 16 million girls will never set foot in a classroom and women account for two thirds of the 750 million adults without basic literacy skills. These phenomenon are caused in member states which has large gender gap than others.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) deeply agrees with the importance of reducing gender gap to ensure the rights of women’s education, so this delegate promises that she would participate in this council actively. The education in this country, DPRK is universal and state-funded schooling by the government. The selfreported national literacy rate for both men and women citizens at age of 15 and older is approximately 100 percent. However, some differences do exist among the varied educational programs directed at boys and girls, and there are some restrictions on higher education for women, obstructing the potential greater progress for girls’ education. It is influenced by the traditional gender role of this country, which is highly patriarchal. For example, there are different curriculum between boys and girls, with more emphasis on “physical education for boys and home economics for girls”. In addition, in perspective of university level of education, the limitation on girls’ education in DPRK is showcased more obviously, like Pyongyang University for Science and Technology, one of the top universities in DPRK, has only had male students before. Recent reports have mentioned about increasing numbers of female students at this university, but still need improvement. So, this country is trying to solve this problem. To eliminate the case whoever being excluded with the education because of the gender inequality, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea thinks it is the best way to solve this problem is to work cooperatively. This country hope developed countries in this field to help member states which need to develop system about women
education and change the previous awareness about women’s participation in social activities. Also, the member states which are in opposite part would make effort to expand woman’s society participation range. DPRK believes this solution would help countries’ progress in gender awareness and education, and this delegate is prepared to discuss more about this agenda.
Sujong KIM, Vision Classical Christian School United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Yemen
“EARL WARREN, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, said, ‘The statelessness is like a punishment.’ The people of Yemen are not sinners. Above all, their rights should be guaranteed as soon as possible.”
Yemen is in a serious situation. Yemen was originally divided into two countries, South Yemen and North Yemen, which led to a war between the two countries, and the efforts of the two countries resulted in reunification as more and more people of the same race, the same language, came to terms with the foreign powers. But after a while, the militant group Hooti, who had always rebelled against the government, started to raise coups. And the terrorist group al-Qaida militants have joined the civil war, making Yemen a country that continues to experience civil war. Eventually, the Hooties took control of the capital Sanaa in September 2014, and the presidential palace in January the following year. But the real victims of this civil war were the people of Yemen.
According to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) research, more than ten thousand Yemenis died, more than 20 million Yemenis (75 percent of the total) need help to survive, and more than two million have fled their homes and become refugees. The bigger problem is, the children of these people who have left their homes are all stateless. The nationalized person literally means "the person without nationality," and according to the Public Interest Law Center, a person who becomes a stateless person cannot go to school because he or she cannot prove his nationality, finds it difficult to get a job, and even has limited access to public health services, voting rights, and antelope rights. They are people before they are citizens of a country. Yemen believes that the first thing we need to do is to allow them to enjoy the rights they have as people. The Yemeni government has done many things to make Yemen a peaceful country. In April 1980, he began moving toward reunification. In November 1981, the president of North Yemen visited South Yemen. In December of the same year, the two Koreas signed an agreement for reunification. Then, in 1983, he elaborated on the unification plan. In 1990, unification was achieved. Besides the achievements to achieve unification like this. In 1994, the anti-unification forces stopped the revolt. In June 2012, the U.S. and the U.S. carried out a campaign to wipe out al-Qaida and successfully recapture the strongholds of Zar, Zinjibar and Shukra. After that, they quelled Hutti's 2004 uprising, but the Hooti rebels and al-Qaida forces grew stronger day by day, and the Yemeni government could no longer stop their attacks. The Yemeni government has done a lot of work, but it hasn't stopped everything. And there's been a lot of damage so far, but if we leave this situation as it is, we're going to have a lot more damage in the future. So Yemen is in need of other countries' help right now. The Yemeni government believes this should be resolved within the country, not outside the country. The people of Yemen, who have become stateless, must return to Yemen to regain their rights. Just because Yemeni citizens continue to flee to other countries does not mean that everyone can live safely (Jeju-do Yemeni refugee case). To do so, safety in the country must be guaranteed first. But now Yemen is in a civil war with the Huti faction,
al-Qaida and Yemeni government forces, and it's not safe at all. So Yemen needs the help of other countries. If the military and resource assistance of other countries can help secure the security of the country and allow the people to return to Yemen, other countries will no longer have to worry about the refugee issue in Yemen. Yemeni people don't have to be stateless anymore. Also, the strength of the Huthi and al-Qaida forces could be enough threats not only to Yemen but also to other countries, so it is better for the Yemeni government to develop and ensure security before that. In June 2012, Yemen recaptured the main strongholds of al-Qaida with the help of the United States. EARL WARREN, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, said, "The statelessness is like a punishment." The people of Yemen are not sinners. Above all, their rights should be guaranteed as soon as possible.
The 15th Trainee Individual Reflection
SEOYEONG YOUN, GOYANG GLOBAL HIGH SCHOOL (SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY) Visiting Columbia University As the very first part of the program schedule, we visited Columbia University for a campus tour and a talk session with the enrolled students. I was so much exhilarated by the fact that I was visiting a worldrenowned university located in the city of New York. Honestly, I did not have a lot of background knowledge on Columbia University before. Luckily, however, Ji Yeon Kwon, who was a junior majoring in data science and design, accompanied us on the tour, passionately explaining many features of the campus buildings. Although I was not able to precisely memorize all the information, it was a pleasant experience to look through many buildings and sculptures at the campus on a clear day. I marveled at the grand history of the university where a number of remarkable academic achievements have been made, and also at the endless passion of the students there. After the tour, we went into a hall where Ji Yeon Kwon would be sharing with us her own valuable stories. At first, she told us briefly about some advantages of Columbia University, including its location, diverse backgrounds of students, and well-balanced structure of various disciplines. Even though I was already admitted to a university in Korea at the moment, such introductions were interesting enough to catch my attention. What was even more absorbing and informative, however, was the next part, which was her sincere advice on life and dream. She gave us a very enthusiastic speech about what she learned throughout her life, especially while studying at Columbia University. Be curious, and make a way by yourself. These were her key messages. Instead of following in the footsteps of others who are generally praised for their success, instead of fitting ourselves into standardized norms, she stressed that we should always be open-minded, seek out new opportunities, and strive to be a better person. She not only shared her experience regarding how she has pursued her passion and dreams, but also quoted stories of several other people, whose efforts to explore a broader world and maximize their potentials have paid off in the long run. In addition, her friend named Chanwoo, also enrolled in Columbia University, joined the talk session and shared his stories as well, which all of us felt very grateful about. One of the most impressive parts of their advice was to think of college life as an opportunity for my own growth. Perhaps this made a stronger impression on my mind since I was a student entering a university in just about two months. From time to time, I had been thinking about which I should prioritize among various elements during my college life, whether it be grades, employment, interpersonal relationships, or my interest. Then from the speech, I felt that the one word, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;growthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, would be a meaningful goal and a useful guideline for me when I have to make specific decisions for my college life and beyond. Fortunately, I also had an opportunity to ask them a question, which was about how to overcome the feeling of being insecure and the fear of uncertainty that might arise while following our passion and inner voice. I was really touched by their saying that such concerns prove that I love myself, care for my dream, and struggle for my further growth. Moreover, it was reassuring to hear that feeling nervous about our uncertain future is just a natural thing and an inevitable part of human experience. I realized that instead of trying to get rid of such feelings completely, which may be actually impossible, I should try not to be obsessed with them and use them as a positive driving force that constantly motivates me.
Nowadays, I have often pondered over my specific future career, as a student who will be majoring in economics. As of now, I hope to enter a graduate school abroad and later become a professional economist who contributes to global poverty reduction and resolving other economic issues. However, there are several other options that people around me tend to prefer and recommend me, most of which are known for their high job security. In such contexts, the speech and Q&A session at Columbia University was quite an encouraging experience that taught me to keep exploring my true passion and put my full effort into it. Stepping out of the hall after the session, I just envisioned myself achieving my goal and moving forward to achieve another greater goal someday.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Looking back on the days I spent in the US, I can now certainly say that my perspectives toward the world have been broadened and deepened through the program. During the three days of the UN training, we listened to lectures of UN staffs from agencies working in various fields. First of all, in the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN, I was able to learn how Korea has been engaged with the UN and the international community. I learned how the Korean government has been putting effort into achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which I have been always curious about, and also how it responds to circumstances surrounding North Korea and issues on nuclear weapons. Fortunately, I got the chance to ask a question about the UN Security Council. Previously, while reading several books that cover the structure and role of the UN, I realized that the veto system of the Security Council given to the five permanent member states often encounter the criticism that the countries abuse their power to promote their political self-interest, which can lead to unjust consequences such as negligence and acquiescence of severe violations of human rights. After I asked the First Secretary about ongoing discussions within the UN regarding such voting procedures, he gave us several examples of how various member states and groups have been striving to fix such problems and build more democratic and effective United Nations. Another impressive lesson was from the seminar on the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti called MINUSTAH, which was part of the YMUN Global Exchange Program (GEP). While taking part in the interactive seminar with the professor and other students, I was reminded that good intentions do not always lead to good outcomes and thus we should be more concerned about how to bring about better results where no one is left behind. I also realized the importance of comprehensive and critical thinking when approaching international affairs, which enables much more balanced and multi-faceted understanding. After the UN training, we began our experience at YMUN with the opening ceremony, where numerous students from around the world gathered together. At first, during the committee sessions, I was not sure if I could speak with confidence in front of more than sixty delegates. Fortunately, however, I found myself giving speeches and interacting with other delegates more actively than I had expected. All the experiences I had during the sessions, including cooperating with other delegates to write resolutions, listening to their fluent speeches, and getting close to friends from diverse backgrounds, were truly inspiring, motivating, and interesting. I felt particularly pleased when the operative clauses of the working paper I wrote, which were about measures to enhance security at school for the promotion of gender equality in education, received positive comments from other delegates and later served as some of the core parts of the final resolution. Moreover, just being in the committee itself was a great experience for me, since I have not had much opportunity to use English that much so far. As the conference went on, I could feel that the worries I had in the beginning had completely vanished and were replaced by delightful memories. Although the training programs both at the UN and YMUN were really helpful and informative, I can never leave out all the friends who spent the ten days with me together. I was really glad to get close to them and have joyful conversations with them every day. Although I was the oldest of the participants this time, there were actually so many things I could learn from others, who were all very thoughtful and had great passion for what they are interested in. I wished I had had more time to interact with them and sincerely hope that everything will go well for each of them in the future. In addition, I was grateful to the teachers from the association who led us
with careful attention all the time and for the opportunity I was given to take part in the program twice in my life.
MINJI KIM DAEJEON FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia & Brown & Harvard University On January 19th, 23rd, 26th, I visited Columbia, Brown and Harvard University each. It was such a wonderful experience for me to look around how the campus looked like in person, and have a lecture from Korean students who are currently studying there and also related with this TP program. For me, I haven’t been thought of entering overseas university, but I was overwhelmed at leading, passionate, and enterprising atmosphere and students. Especially, what I found at Brown University was a lot impressive that most of the students looked relaxed and happy that Hyunjo Koh, student I met at Brown University also appeared her own satisfaction of school a lot and mentioned that point as an advantage of the university. Also, I thought it was fresh that students could take lectures whatever they are interested in regardless of their major. Learning those at Brown University, I got a strong motivation for studying and the future. By touring Columbia and Harvard University, moreover, I really loved beautiful scenery and building of campus, and student of Columbia University, Ji Yeon Kwon’s energizing lecture about ‘curious’ was also memorable. Through visiting those three universities, I could broaden my field of vision beyond Korea, think about my future in various ways, and get motivation from the whole process. So, it became a deeply memorable and important, interesting experience for me.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation On January 23rd to 25th, I participated in the Yale Model UN as a delegate of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in committee SOCHUM. Before the contest started, I was extremely strained because it was my first MUN experience, and foreign students’ energizing and active attitude made me afraid. When the session began, I tried my best to participate well in the conference, but when they started to make a bloc and write resolution, it was hard for me to work more without more MUN experience and language skills. Thinking about my whole experience during this event, however, I am proud of myself. Before I participated in MUN, I had a bit hesitant at having a deep conversation and getting closer with foreign people, but this chance made me reduce that kind of feeling by having a speech, conversation, and note passing. Furthermore, I was deeply impressed when other delegates praised me for my speech. Also, it was such a memorable chance to have a campus tour with Yale student and students from various countries, and take lessons from professors of Yale. It was a great time to study my interest field by authoritative speaker and heal with walk through the Yale campus and visit a wonderful place. In addition, I could make foreign friends by the tour, and it was a wonderful experience to introduce Korea and K-pop to them.
By entering this event, I could get lots of things by fitting in the group of students with various nationalities and finally it raised my confidence in English and treating foreign friends. Though it was awfully a shame that last day’s every schedule was canceled so we couldn’t enjoy the closing ceremony, the whole experiences during 3 days were valuable enough and I could find my inadequacy and make up for it. So, this 46th YMUN became the biggest part for me among every chance during 10 days.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York On January 20th to 22nd, I completed a UN Training Program. It was a totally worthy time that my dream and major which I desire is deeply related to the UN, so I wanted to visit UN and know more about it directly. When I saw UN Headquarters building in real for the first time, it was so marvelous and wonderful. In aspect of installation, conference hall of GA, ECOSOC, Security Council were all a lot impressive and the meaning behind the architecture was touching. Also, there were lots of informative lectures. I was especially interested in Sustainable development goals of UN DESA and Education Equality of UNESCO. For the lecture of UN DESA, I could deeply know about SDGs, what UN handles as important these days, and I could learn more about ‘equality’ and link with other field which equality works important after the lecture of UNESCO. In addition, the Permanent Missions of the Republic of Korea and Greece to the United Nation were also deeply memorable. I could solve my curiosity related to Korea’s position in UN and how several issues were handled in UN. For the case of the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN, it was particularly memorable because it was our group’s main subject, so I had a lot of research. It left much to be desired because the lecture was too short because of the secretary’s schedule. However, I could know about the country Greece more than before when I just had basic information. Refugee and heritage issues were more interesting for me. Having UNTP, I could learn many things to the point of being similar to YMUN. Actually, I could widen my knowledge about my interested field and it became a special experience to visit the real building of UN, and it gave me passion and motivation for achieving my dream to me. Lack of my English skills, actually I couldn’t understand every moment of the lecture, so I want to visit here again with improved skill and knowledge and enjoy UN again.
SUBIN LEE SOOKMYUNG GIRLS’ HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University Looking at the pale, blue sky so similar yet so different from the one at home, it suddenly dawned on me that I was in another country. As upon entering Columbia University, we were given a tour by an enrolled student and later on a speech on the topic of life. For the first half of the talk, she told a few short anecdotes about her friends. With the specific accounts, she discussed the importance of being and staying curious, particularly regarding the topics that interest you. She emphasized that by remaining curious, you will be an attentive student as well as someone who craves for further knowledge, inevitably going far with both successful and meaningful outcomes. Additionally, in the second half of her speech, she mentioned, "no way, make a way." Those excessively simple yet profound words made a surprisingly immense impact on me. There were countless times when I wanted to give up due to challenging or adverse conditions. However, with the words 'make a way', I realized that regardless of the given circumstances, we are to make a way of our own to achieve what we wish and dream of. That even though when there might be times when all seems impossible, we are to never give up and constantly do everything we can do to achieve our goals.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation The MUN Conference at Yale University was briefly overwhelming due to the large numbers of delegates participating and the fact that it was my first MUN Conference. I couldn’t restrain my exhilaration on the thought that I was about to gain various, unforgettable knowledge or experiences and meet numerous people from all over the globe. However, I was notably anxious and nervous about whether I would be able to speak and if so, speak well and frequently. Furthermore, I can still remember how the steady, rhythmic drum of my heartbeat rapidly intensified as I walked towards the room of my first committee session. My committee of YMUN XLVI was CSTD, the Commission on Science and Technology for Development. I was thrilled to have been able to participate in this committee because I had a great interest in issues on science and technology for development, specifically concerning the issues and effects of nuclear weapons. Watching the other delegates of my committee debating, I was greatly mesmerized by their speeches and thoughts on the topics. With the different aspects of the issue at hand, I was able to look at the controversial problem from different perspectives. Additionally, they all spoke with great passion and enthusiasm that it was admirable to watch. Though I regret that I hadn't spoken as frequently as I had hoped, I am grateful that I had an opportunity to overcome my great fear of public speaking. Consequently, I wish to say that I gained more confidence when it comes to public speaking and that I was able to broaden my perspective and discover everything I could that I hadn’t known previously.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Stepping into the UN Headquarters momentarily took my breath away. With functionally diverse rooms and various people, suppressing my smile was next to impossible as I looked around. The lecture that I was most greatly impressed by was about the Sustainable Development Goals. “There is no World War Three because of the United Nations.” Those were the words that I remember the most from the lecture. I was always intrigued to know how much the UN has done to achieve world peace and their accomplishments in doing so. The fact that millions of innocent lives were still alive due to the UN sufficiently answered my curiosity.
YEONHEE KANG ANYANG FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University Visiting Columbia University could be described in two words for me, inspiration and challenge. First of all, I cannot mention Columbia University without talking about the campus. Beautiful and antique, but also modern at the same time. Looking around the campus made me think ‘This must be the world’s best place to study’. There were libraries that made me be in awe. After the campus tour that amazed me, there was a lecture waiting for us. She talked about her story at Columbia University, how she got there, basic facts about Columbia University and so on. The part that really made me focus was the part she talked about three of her friends she met. I was so into her lecture because I had a lot to relate to. She also told us to be curious and find your own way if it seems like there is no way and so on. Many of her advice as a person who lived longer actually helped me a lot. She made me consider new paths of my life and how I should live throughout my whole life. “Making a map with ideal sources wouldn’t make me happy after all, so try even though things are uncertain and believe your gut.” This is what I learned from her. I was also very touched by how she really tried to listen to us and give a useful answer. This lecture means a lot to me especially because the wonderful lecturer went far beyond inspiring me. I had no doubt that I would go to a university in South Korea but, after seeing them genuinely enjoying their university life made me want to study abroad. However, my new set dream that would last at least 3 years was hit by a realistic barrier. I had not a chance to study abroad considering all my peripheral situations. After that, all of a sudden I remembered her saying if there seems like there is no way, make one. There are so many people around the world who already made their new way in much more harsh environments. This lecture did really affect me. I want to thank her again for being so passionate.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation Attending YMUN affected me a lot in many different ways. I thought that I should become a more active student in more issues, should continue to discuss and to think about solutions to the problems that the world is experiencing. Our committee had a mission to resolve ‘statelessness’, which I was first surprised by the active attitude that students have been studying their country in various ways and come up with creative solutions to
the topic. I thought this Yale MUN was too big for me to handle, so I felt a lot of pressure at first, but as I became part of the MUN, I think it was one of the best opportunities to learn more and more about the MUN. Flashback to the first day of Yale MUN, I felt so nervous. When I went there, I had to use only English, but I was very worried if they could understand me or if I could understand them. The first schedule at Yale was the Opening ceremony. At Opening Ceremony, Chief Economist at NASA came and gave a speech, and at first I was surprised by the importance of his position and the content of his speech. As a Chief Economist, his speech was about things, from NASA’s, from the Chief Economist of NASA’s, what we couldn’t learn on the internet no matter how hard we try to. It was a valuable speech from NASA that I never would have again. Also, another person who inspired me at the Opening Ceremony was the Secretary General. Her speech also told us how we should accept the MUN as teenagers, but the effort to get there seemed to shine. She was seen as a person in charge of the total responsibility for nearly 2,000 people, also a master of MUNs. Along with that, it's a characteristic of MUN, it seemed as if everyone needed to be kind to be a kind person. The first session started after the Opening Ceremony. When the first session started, I was so nervous that I didn't have the courage to be friendly enough to talk to new people. I kept practicing the opening speech because I wanted to finish the opening speech. Fortunately, during the first session, I was given a lot of opportunities to speak, exchanging notes with other delegates, and the MUN started. Unlike in Korea during the first session, the chairs answered questions and answers kindly in an attitude that delegates did not know very actively. After the end of the schedule, I had to think about motions to raise during the next day’s session, what kind of topics to discuss and so on. The second day at Yale was the day when there was a schedule for both the Yale Day and the Committee session. In the morning session of the Yale Day Program, I could attend a variety of lectures by Yale's professors. I thought it was a rare opportunity and I tried to take as many classes as I could. I took courses on ‘The United Nations and the World Order,’ ‘International Economics’ and ‘International Education & U.S. Global Power.’ In the first lecture, he gave a detailed answer to the students' questions, along with the overall content of the United Nations, the reasons why it is important in our society today, and what challenges we are focusing on. In the second lecture, he talked about a variety of knowledge about the economy that I didn't have the opportunity to access, and we linked it to the little rules that we know and the graphs that reflect real social phenomena, so we could see what the ‘economy’ is like in real life. The last lecture was about American history, which is a very rare chance to have knowledge about International students. She dealt with the history of the United States and gave lectures on the national status of the United States. They all gave different lectures, but I was very grateful for their passionate attitude to answer all of their questions. In the remaining session, I've worked harder to better understand each country's position and look at a wider variety of topics related to statelessness, including the motion I've prepared. The third day at Yale was a day of sessions all day. It was the most meaningful day for me in that we conducted MUN activities and formed a bloc. After a never-ending repetition of the unmoderated caucus, moderated caucus and speaker’s list, finally started writing the working paper and after that was amendments, which was my favorite part because our bloc along with others, gave feedbacks to working papers. It was the longest day, but I could learn more about MUN and it was a great opportunity to develop my English skills and make friends through various conversations as well as conversations related to statelessness with my friends. My experience with Yale MUN made me very tired, but it was one of the activities that made me feel alive. If I get another chance, I want to participate again next time. It was hard, but it was an activity that erased the hard feelings.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Lectures during the UN training sessions made me think that I have tons left to learn. It totally helped me with build-up background bits of knowledge about the entire UN, along with what introductions to each institution. Education at the UN was really full of lessons. I was proud to be very interested in international issues, but when
I came here and listened to the lecture, there were many things I didn't know. That realization made me want to ask more questions. Starting with UNESCO, the UN DESA, UNODA, the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN, UNICEF were all very valuable lectures. Among them, I am going to talk more about UNICEF, which I learned the most about and also wrote a report about. The reason why the lecture at UNICEF is memorable is that it details what activities are actually being carried out, how they function as part of the United Nations, and what structure they work on, rather than what is on their website. She told me about the secret behind the name of UNICEF and the history of UNICEF. The UNICEF stated its time-to-day goals, and most ultimately, the phrase ‘Realizing the rights of every child, especially the most disadvantaged’. All parts of the SDGs were involved in UNICEF's activities. The reason why this part was so surprising to me was that SDGs used to say, "No one should be left behind," which shows that they really want to achieve that goal. For example, achieving SDGs 2,3,5,17 would have contributed to ‘every child survives and thrives’. She also talked about climate change, which the UN is emphasizing very much these days. She said that the current generation's commitment to climate change is to protect the future of children and to ensure that they have the right to enjoy it. She was asked as he talked about the efforts being made these days, saying that efforts to achieve climate change and SDGs can be made in many different ways. The lecture given by UNICEF was all the more meaningful because it allowed me to think about things I didn't normally think of, expanded my thoughts and made me think about what I could do on more arising issues. I have no doubt that supporting children in many ways is the most valuable investment in the future, and that it is to ensure their human rights so that the world can move to a better place.
Visiting Brown & Harvard University Being able to visit Ivy League universities is such a rare opportunity, and it was an opportunity to get direct information about universities by being able to explain and ask questions directly from seniors. It may be thought of as a beneficial time only for students preparing for overseas universities, but it is NOT. I felt there was enough to learn from Ivy League students, even from students who were thinking about other ways of their future. It was a good time passing through the library to feel their passion for studying, to get the inspiration for studying and to leave a picture on the campus in the fairy tale.
SEUNGHO JON HANKUK ACADEMY OF FOREIGN STUDIES Visiting Columbia University After arriving in New York, I first visited Colombia University. I met a Korean student who studies data science and graphic design. She specifically introduced her university and explained how she got into Columbia. She shared her own success story, describing how she was different from other typical high school students. She emphasized that the most significant factor which made herself a successful student was “curiosity.” She has always been curious about society. Reaching out of the question, she started to investigate the principles of the world. Highly acclaimed, she could get into Columbia. She also shared her life mottos. She taught us how to live successfully and began to encourage us how much we are privileged. Her life advice led to a simple answer: don’t be afraid. There are tons of people out
there, wondering how to make a better society. However, only some people actualize it. The student told us that we shouldn’t be afraid of what the world hasn’t done because this is how we make a difference from the rest of the world. Her life advice amused me. Also, I could have set a goal to get into a good university to obtain good influencers around me.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation Participating in Yale Model United Nations was a great opportunity for my career. I have participated in MUN several times at school; however, I had never experienced being a UN reporter. I was approved to join in MUN Press Corps. The committee was mainly reporting how other committee works and interviewing other participants. I wrote three different articles about three different committees in YMUN. I analyzed how the discussion has gone through the committee and investigated the background information on a particular topic. Writing articles and editing peers’ works, I could heighten academic writing skills. Most significantly, I could interview lots of people from several different regions. I asked about the individual thought of the topic as a delegate of their nations. Asking others’ opinions and meeting different people was an invaluable experience that I had never experienced in my school life. Socializing with diverse people was a delightful experience. Then, I have participated in Yale Day. First, I attended several lectures taught by Yale professor. It was such a great honor to listen to the lectures. The quality of the lectures was overwhelming. I’ve never met a person who clearly explains the concrete information. Mainly, I was touched by Taylor Zemach-Bersin’s “International Education and US Global Power. Talya Zemach-Bersin, a professor in Education Studies at Yale University, teaches advanced topics in education studies. Professor Bersin criticized discriminatory American society. She pointed out several discrimination cases in the United States and explained why the US had faced the limitation. Even though there are many intelligent foreign laborers in America, many are underwhelmed by social prejudice. She warned that if the American society does not embrace the smart foreign labor, the glory will soon collapse. I know racism still exists in modern society. Though many advocates for equality, yet many people are living under prejudice. However, the professor told us that the unfairness in the work field is no good in the working society. She emphasized the collaborative society, where everyone can work fairly. Her lecture touched me because since I am an Asian student studying in South Korea, I am also a foreigner in the US, so I had to endure racism. Then, her speech, championing equality, highly impressed with a sense of empathy. In addition, I went to ‘professor lunch,’ holding at Davenport College Common Room. I met Professor Robert J. Klee who is at Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. We had a long conversation about the environment and human selfishness. He believed the people should actively participate in saving Earth. He also highly recommended the government to work on the policy immediately. I also learn how to deliver a good speech. Since the professor should stand in front of thousands of people, public speaking is an indispensable factor in his life. Even though he knows a lot, the audience should fully absorb the professor’s idea. His special skill was to delay. If he gets tough questions from the reporters or students, he then clears his throat to think about what he should do next. Meeting with Yale professor was an invaluable experience that I never had during my entire school life. I have learned many things through private conversations with the professor.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York The United Nations is an international organization responsible for world peace. The United Nations has always been my dream place. Securing the world peace is what I want to do when I get older, so training at the United Nations was a big deal to me. Learning deeply about the UN and its sub-organizations was the most intriguing part of the practice. Even though I wanted to know lots of details of the UN, only the web-searching was available. During the training, I could learn about the UN in detail and went deep inside the UN, where the ordinary tourists
cannot go. I have learned explicitly about SDGs, UNESCO, UNICEF, and DISEC from the people who work in the UN. Primarily, it was a great honor to meet the Secretary of the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN in New York. He deeply explained about Greece. I could deeply learn about Greece, owning a great history inside. I am highly interested in Greece because the nation was suffering under the refugee crisis. As a refugee activist, I have always wondered how Greece views the refugee crisis in Europe. The Secretary advocated that nations should embrace the refugees under humanitarian value. However, he criticized the illegal refugees coming through the sea because the voyage is life-risking. He also stated that the Greek government and the other nations are feeling the burden of refugees, so they recently discuss how to distribute refugees in several different areas among the EU. Even though it was a short conference, debating about the refugees with the Secretary of Embassy at the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN was a great honor.
SEEUN KIM, DAEJEON FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Brown University Today, I left the Hampton Inn Hotel in the morning and took a bus for three hours to go to Brown University. Before I arrived, I just wondered how much it is big and why its name was Brown. And I met our advisor at the pre-education before coming to America. Because I want to study diplomacy and be active in the UN like her, her story and advice were interesting and helpful. When we arrived at Brown University, We entered the room to listen to a small lecture from our advisor and her friend who did this program 12 years ago. She introduced Brown University and talked about herself and why she came here. And many friends asked her some questions. Thanks to her lecture, I think I get a broader view of university because I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think about overseas university before. And I thought that the curriculum at Brown University is very good. Students can have a lecture about their interests, try many things more freely, and get many aids from the school. I was very impressed when I heard that there is an institution that gives some help to students who have not adapted to school. Because of this, I could get to know that the university has much attention to students. After the lecture, we had two groups and looked around the school. There are so many students on the outside, and they had a talk, had a meal, and just had some rest with their friends. They were so nice to us! When we said hello, they smiled and said hello, too. I could see the happiness in all of their face. Moreover, the school was so pretty! The overall buildings were brown and wonderful. I loved the buildings in there because the door and its appearance were very elegant. But we may have missed some of the more wonderful places at Brown University. There will be no end to exploring all the beauty of the university.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation The reason why I participated in MUN was to get a broader perspective. I thought that MUN is the process that worldwide delegates discuss, consult, and make the resolutions. I expected that I could get a sense of responsibility as a member of the world. In addition, because I participated in several MUN programs before, I thought that YMUN can be of help to my experiences. My committee was Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), and the country was the Netherlands. Before I entered in commission room, I was very nervous and
worried! It was the first time to participate in a big conference like this and there were only two Korean in our committee! At the first moderated caucus, every delegate was participated in the general speaker’s list and spoke actively. And I added myself to that list. When I picked my placard up, I was very nervous and at the same time, I was very proud of myself! At the first unmoderated caucus, I was very surprised because every foreign delegate was very active, and aggressive. When the supervisor came into the conference room and asked about the chairs’ affairs, foreigners said their opinions very freely, without hesitation. For the first time, I and my friend were a little defensive, but I tried to talk and get into the conversation during the unmoderated caucus, and I passed the notes as much as possible. Thanks to this conference, I could talk with many foreign delegates in English a lot and considered women's rights. I learned that the important thing to solve the human rights problem is to discuss and make the right resolution internationally. Using this experience, I will keep being interested in the MUN program and women's rights problem.
DOHUN KIM DONGTAN GLOBAL HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University “Make a way, make your own.” In the first day of YMUN 16th fieldtrip, the first university we visited was Columbia University. The only information I had about the university was that Korean Singer Junghyun Park graduated it. Not knowing about the Columbia University, we met Ji Yeon Kwon, a student of Columbia University who guided us. Columbia University was a quite amazing place. Entering to the University, I could see a statue sitting on a rock. Across from the statue, there was a big, huge library, where famous philosophers’ names were on the top. I thought it was really amazing. The entire campus was beautiful, especially with the natural sunlight. But the most impressive thing was absolutely the lecture that Ji Yeon gave us. Make your way. Before I listened the lecture, I thought myself as a man in paradox, because I was thinking about the Korean military academy after I submitted the application for this program. Actually during the campus tour I suddenly thought, ‘Why am I here?” However, I realized that I was a short-minded, and short-thinking person. Making my own way, which was the main topic, suddenly inspired me. I wanted to be an international person, but interested in military academy, but what matters? I recognized from then the thing is mine, and depends on me. With such a great lecture, I felt so much inspiration.
Visiting Brown University Brown University was unknown for me, because I was not interested in abroad studies. However, after this visit, if I prepare for abroad universities, I thought that this Brown University would definitely be my one of my goals. I felt that this university is pretty much small but powerful. First reason for it was that this school had no classes that students MUST attend to. It was felt to give them freedom of study and a chance to focus on their majors more than any other universities. Second reason was that especially in study of politics, there was no limit in politics study. Student choose one of the issues that they want to study. I thought it would be very beneficial to
students themselves. So overall, brown university was to me like a place where freedom is guaranteed and also where student can study deeply. With the beautiful campus, Brown came to me as one of the dream universities.
Overall Reflection "The United Nations was not created to take care of, but to save money from hello"-by the Second UN secretary general, Tag Hammarskjold There will be no better explanation for the UN than this sentence. I would not be able to express my feelings about the UN better than this sentence. With the training of UN experts, I have once again taken the words into my mind. The most memorable lecture institutions in the tenday period were lectures by the Permanent Missions of the Republic of Korea and Switzerland to the UN, the UN Office for Disarmament, SDGs and professors at Yale University. In the case of the Korean mission, the nation's entry into the United Nations gave us a detailed firsthand look at what the country's mission is doing. It was also clear exactly in which position Korea is in the UN and how much progress our country has made. The first schedule in the U.S. was more memorable because it was the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN. On the other hand, in the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the UN I was able to have a more different experience. The visit to the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the UN was a truly unique experience, as I was able to meet with Swiss diplomats there and see exactly how Switzerland, a neutral country, works in the UN In addition, I could learn more about Switzerland. The next lecture was about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The most impressive thing was the detailed description of each of the sustainable development goals with exact statistics. In the case of the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), it was chosen as the subject of the project group project, allowing more in-depth investigations. The most impressive thing there was that the UNODA is the only organization within the United Nations that turns the armed forces into the non-armed, which is to counteract force with non-military force. In particular, even though it was a short lecture, based on the issues on disarmament pouring in these days, a lot of information and importance have been obtained through questionand-ans. After hearing so many lectures, we headed to Yale University's model UN competition. As Yale was a dream school, it was really fun for prominent people to get together and discuss with one agenda. But on the other hand, I really envied them. It struck me how I would have felt if I had overcome the fear of standing in front of the stage and could have spoken freely. But it took a step further to overcome the stage by eventually challenging public speaking. Although he was not fluent, it seems to be a meaningful achievement. I was also proud to express my ideas with confidence when I wrote a resolution paper that reflects the opinions of each person at the end. When can I deal with such a big agenda related to a person's life? Originally, my goal was to overcome my limitations, but I think I was able to achieve that goal at all through this mock UN As a result, this field trip to the U.S. was a very meaningful experience to learn more about the UN and to meet with the best ties to grow me by applying it to practice. I think it's a real blessing that I can record such valuable experiences and happiness even with my insufficient sentences.
SUJIN KIM YANTAI AMERICAN SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University The visiting of Columbia University on the 19th of January 2020 marked an unforgettable experience during my freshman year. When I entered the university, every building showed antiquity that existed from 1754. The fact that it was the oldest Institution of Higher Education in New York was somehow understandable. As Ji Yeon Kwon, a junior at the Columbia University, introduced us some main buildings of the campus, I learned how every building were interconnected. I further learned that it wasn’t just the buildings that were interconnected, but also the people. I got to know that this university is the most diverse in the Ivy League. Ji Yeon told us how some of these people were assets to her and how varying their stories can be. After the campus tour, she gave us a speech mainly on the importance of curiosity; how it opens gate to everything. From the lessons, I learned that I should be malleable in difference and education. She further claimed, “If there’s no way, make a way.” Though unstable and difficult it might seem, I learned that my perceptions can be reality. This saying reaffirmed my belief in doing what I really love to do, not forced by anyone or anything. Our background doesn’t matter when meeting success in one’s life because it’s “not about what we have; it’s about what we do”. Though my life isn’t mapped out, I believe that through this experience, I got to step a bit closer to the person I’ll become. “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.”
Visiting Harvard University It was an unexpected journey to Harvard; if journey is the right word to use in this case. Visiting Harvard was decided on the day YMUN XLVI was supposed to hold its last session and closing ceremony. However, due to a flu outbreak, all the schedule was cancelled and the UN Headquarters Training Program team headed to Harvard University. We met Jung Ho Hwang, currently a freshman in Harvard, and a participant of the 12th UNTP. During the tour, he told us how the John Harvard statue is not John Harvard himself. Nobody actually knew John Harvard’s face, so they just brought a Harvard graduate school student and made a statue of him instead. When I was walking through the Harvard yard, I was more than amazed at the magnificent buildings and their size. Additionally, it was so peaceful; everyone seemed to be enjoying their time at that moment. The Harvard mood really reaffirmed my will to be one of them. Though the time was short, it was long enough for me to experience what it’s like to be inside Harvard.
Visiting Brown University Visit to Brown University was a reacquaintance with Hyunjo Koh for me. Currently a senior at Brown University, she previously helped me understand mock trial proceedings, which hugely contributed in preparing for the International Court of Justice during YMUN XLVI. I was so happy when she said she remembered me. Hyunjo Koh and Somin Lee gave us a tour at Brown University on the 24th of January. I saw Blueno and Bruno statues, the representation of the university. It was interesting how Blueno was part of a contract; it will soon be taken away from the university as the contract comes to an end. Like Hyunjo told us, the students of Brown University seemed so happy by doing what they really wanted to do. They didn’t seem to be bound from anything; they
really seemed to be enjoying their lives and all the human interaction. Because Hyunjo and Somin had to leave soon due to their classes, we weren’t able to go into every specific details of Brown University, but I still would like to thank them for spending their precious time with us.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation From January 23 to 26, nearly 2000 high school students from all around the world came together at YALE Model United Nations XLVI with different religion, race, sex, mind, and purpose. I was part of the Korean Delegation, a group from Hope to Future Association. Before attending the Model UN, I applied for the International Court of Justice as an advocate. Despite the fact that I was just an unexperienced freshman compared to other experienced juniors and seniors in the ICJ, being the Respondent 1 for the topic of nuclear disarmament between the Marshall Islands and Pakistan marked a marvelous beginning of my career as an attorney. When I entered the conference room, I was welcomed with warm and friendly presidents. After presenting 7 minutes of memorized opening statement, I was content and satisfied with my effort of more than a month. However, the struggle began the day after, when I began to realize my lack of knowledge on the proceedings of the court as well as wordings as an attorney. Despite hardships, with unimaginable concentration, effort, and will to learn, I was able to grasp not only the understanding on my topic, but also the proceedings and appropriate wordings at the court. After the case I participated as the Respondent 1 for Pakistan, I shared my SNS with other attorneys including the Applicants because I was really passionate in human interactions: the time when everyone gets to communicate and share ideas on variety of topics. Every 15 people I interacted with in the ICJ was each unique and precious to get to know about. I think it was great in the fact that ICJ had only a few amounts of people compared to other big General Assembly committees. I defended my position of Pakistan on how Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and nuclear disarmament apply to all states as a matter of customary international law since both of these aren’t recognized under two factors: opinio juris and the general practice. Article 38 of the Statute of the Court specifically stated that states should regard the norm as embodying legal obligations, conforming to a pattern of conduct and the international community should accept and follow certain norm through custom in order for something to be recognized as customary international law. At last our team won, but I learned a lot about the Applicant’s perspective in seeing this case which, for them, is devastating to hypothesize the result of nuclear war. After the first case, I participated as a justice for the second case, which was about relocation of U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. This case did not terminate since the last session and the closing ceremony were cancelled due to a sickness that was found the day before. However, it was as interesting as the first case since it was to be dealt with great sensitivity and sophisticate arguments. Based on my previous research, I plan to elaborate more on specific arguments made by both the Applicants and the Respondents with provided evidences. Global Exchange Program (hereinafter referred as GEP) on the second day morning hugely contributed to my development as well. I heard lectures from two prominent Yale University professors during the GEP: Professor Raymond and Professor Klee. It was interesting how Professor Raymond’s lecture went from relationship between human rights and technology to war crimes. Though unprecedented, this lecture provided me further information on the significance of the first UN Peacekeeping Mission in South Sudan, Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), Srebrenica Massacre, RTP of 2005, cyber kinetics, sexual and gender-based violence, etc. On a different note, I was surprised at his skilled Chinese (later he told me he conducted a study in China for years)! After his lecture, GEP was followed by Professor Klee’s lecture: “Searching for a New Deal on Climate? Look to the States”. His presentation provided his opinions specifically about his topic. In order to search for a new deal on climate, he said the states need to set economy-wide greenhouse gas targets, create a national clean energy standard, set a national energy efficiency target, update the utility regulatory mandate, procure grid-scale clean energy, transform the foundation of public transit, create livable, walkable communities, unlock private capital, and more. There are many international movements happening right now; now we need to go national.
Although GEP ended with a keynote speech on studies of malaria, I remember this one phrase well from Professor Raymond: “What you do here will contribute to what matters in the future.” 3 complete days of YALE Model United Nations XLVI was an unforgettable experience of my life as freshman. I gained much more than just knowledge; including cooperation and communication. Thank you, YMUN XLVI for being a part of my bigger journey.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York UNODA As a student who’s going to deal with nuclear issues during the International Court of Justice this YMUN XLVI 2020, I was more than excited to hear from Junhoung Yoo currently working at UNODA. After hearing about the basic information about roles of UNODA and its brief history, I asked a question: “Is the possessing of nuclear weapons, even as a mechanism of Credible Minimum Deterrence, a Customary International Law and a threat to the global society?” I got the answer that the UNODA doesn’t question the legality of nuclear weapons, but rather promotes disarmament in any forms because it surely can be a threat to the current society we’re living in. He said that possessing of nuclear weapons and being obligated to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty doesn’t apply to all states as a matter of Customary International Law because there’s no law that specifically binds every state in the world to not possess nuclear weapons. However, I learned that our world could be a better place where peace and security coexist when there’s no nuclear weapons used as hard powers.
Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations On January 22nd, I heard a brief speech from the Deputy Permanent Representative of Switzerland Mission. Being informed on the stance of neutral and independent Switzerland in the United Nations, I learned how the Switzerland Mission was working hard especially on the “development” section of the 3 pillars of the United Nations. Despite being in the UN for a relatively short time, it has been one of the biggest donors in UN programs and a bridge builder of countries. Being much aligned with the UN Charter and focusing on pragmatism, I further learned about the political context of Switzerland’s UN Policy including geopolitics. After hearing from Mr. Dominique on how we’re the ones who communicate in the future, I was strongly able to feel that the more we’re here interacting with various people and universal issues, the better our world could develop. Last but not least, he told us about 2020 being the 75th anniversary of the UN Charter. After completing successful conference sessions in the Yale Model United Nations XLVI, I highly look forward to contribute my opinion on global issues we need to focus along with possible solutions that I seek.
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund, shortly UNICEF, which is mostly field based, was introduced by Shannon O’Shea after receiving certificates of completion in the Hope to Future Associations. Convention on the Rights of Child and SDGs being inextricably linked, it was true without doubt that child rights and climate change was related. Shannon told us how UNICEF was carrying out specific programs relating to climate-sensitive health, nutrition, education, WASH programming, and Disaster Risk Reduction in ways of promoting this aspect. She further emphasized in improving the collection, analysis, and use of data for more efficient and effective decision making. There weren’t social media when MDGs were first adopted in 2000, but after years, when new forms of
technologies appeared, new forms of data collection were able in finding who is most in need and where they live. It was fascinating how she expressed her interest in micro technology that could be utilized in collecting data and a mechanism of early action or warning. In addition, she told us how UNICEF fosters positive social movements through global awareness, action, and accountability through programs and campaigns such as the World’s Largest Lesson, Comics Uniting Nations, SDG Activate Talks, and more. She further emphasized in the importance of entertainments and arts where it could be approachable and fun for children. When something becomes a social norm, there is time when we can’t imagine something being different than now. I couldn’t imagine anything different than the speech and sophisticated questions answered by Shannon. During the question and answer time, she told us how refugees should be seen as assets, not threats, and how UNICEF need to inform and empower parents as well to help the children get good effects and improvement in their lives. When it was time for her to go, I was deeply able to realize what it means to have dignity in issues rather than just knowing certain SDG goals. I was highly inspired by her speech in the aspects ranging from the contribution of UNICEF to the global society to our impact and our roles in the international community.
Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations As I stepped into the building of Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations, I was overwhelmed by its structure similar to a museum; how it held the theme on the exhibition of Korean artworks. After roaming around freely within the area, capturing the moment with pictures and selfies, the 15 th UN Headquarters Training Team had a conference meeting with the First Secretary of the Permanent Mission, Mr. Sang-deok Na. He briefly introduced us how Republic of Korea has been participating and represented in the United Nations through timeline and sharing some of his own experiences. I further learned how the Mission was participating in all the three pillars of UN—development, peace and security, and human rights. It was indeed fascinating and startling to hear how South Korea had developed in the past decades, from being one of the least represented country in UN to one of the G10 countries. Mr. Sang-deok Na explained Korea was able to develop this much due to its cultural diversity. I further learned how Korea worked as the facilitator that becomes bridges for countries and how its different perspective of seeing certain international issues helped contribute to making new agendas in the forum. Time with the First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations was truly a chance to be proud of my nation once again.
UNESCO “It’s about building bridges, not walls.” This one phrase that shows the purpose of UNESCO said by Lily Gray penetrated deep down into my heart. While UNESCO conducted variety of programs focusing on access to opportunity, new technology, peace in the minds of men and women, and supporting civil societies, it was fresh in getting to know that it also focused on freedom of expression along with education, culture, and science. Lily Gray, a Senior Liaison Officer at UNESCO New York Office, gave a presentation on how UNESCO has been and still is promoting mainly goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals. Through her presentation, I got to know numerous previous actions done by UNESCO after its establishment in 1946 such as the Incheon Declaration, Education 2030 Framework for Action, Global Education Monitoring Report, the Global Action Programme, etc. After listening to her speech, I was suddenly curious; since it’s not just the memorizing and learning certain data and information that’s part of education but also the ethics, and schools are formative in shaping how children view themselves and others, I asked Lily how the UNESCO has been promoting the ethical part of the education. She answered that UNESCO was focusing on how to spread the norm of being responsible to be respectful. This relates back to the topic of freedom of expression because it is sometimes perceived disrespectful or biased when it comes to disseminating the truth to public. She further noted that there was a program called the Global Citizenship Education which helps people realize certain aspects of being not a global citizen itself, but being the global citizen with right mindset. As a student who was interested in issues regarding human rights from young age, I was more than delighted to communicate with Lily and learn how education was a string to many people’s guitars; how UNESCO was a bridge to people’s and the world’s development.
YUMIN KIM ANYANG FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University It was my first time to visit any Ivy League. It was cold but the view of whole campus was so beautiful that fatigue from long flight was clearly forgotten. There were two impressive and memorable things in my visit to Columbia University. First of all, research spaces and curriculum were remarkable. During tour, wherever I went, convenient spaces were prepared for any students of Columbia University to conduct their research freely. From this, I felt the passion for study of them and could be motivated. Meanwhile, I was realized of the importance of physical fitness to be a successful person, because the students must pass swimming test. Also, the balance between art/humanity and engineering was absolutely ideal. Second, a meeting with two Columbia students was so inspired and meaningful to me. Before the meeting, I limited my capability and future dream based on my current scores and situation. The repression of preparing admission to college had me underestimate my possibility and made my vision lower. However, those two students were totally different. They said us to don’t limit ourselves and specialize specific fields that we love so much. Maybe it could be heard unrealistic, but with three true stories of their friends, it was shameful that I put my dream into carriage without marvelous endeavor. In conclusion, I want to introduce two sentences of the students that let me dream big. “There is no late moment in life. If there’s no way, make your way.”
Visiting Brown University Like brown bear, the mascot of Brown University, the whole impression of it was soft but strong and solid. Based on the pride and solidarity of its students, free and lively mood was exactly worth getting huge respect. From the meeting with two seniors, I got several valuable tips and advices for studying and adapting as a student of Brown University. Being able to try various lectures regardless of prior major or current field, students seems to be much more engaged in designing their learning autonomously. Also, familiar and friendly relationship between professors and students, and atmosphere full of passion recharged my willpower and pleasure in study. I became highly motivated to prepare hard to be like many outstanding and well-rounded students of Brown University.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation As a reputation of the biggest Model United Nations with the longest history, capability and high participation of delegates as well as the huge scale of whole committees were overwhelming at first. Also, overcoming my personal fear that has limited confidence and courage to propose my own solutions and opinions to foreign students was challenging and tough but really meaningful.
As a delegation of OAS, Organization of American States, I discussed two topics that I was highly interested in. First topic was promoting democracy in the Americas. It included various concepts such as human rights, transparency of government, corruption, and freedom. However, our committee was focused on dealing with crisis in Venezuela and Nicaragua. Personally, I was really excited to discuss it because I had constantly studied economic crisis in Venezuela and human rights crisis in Nicaragua. Even though it was sad not to have much time to talk about overall democratic issues especially corruption of government Mexico and Brazil, the committee was certainly satisfied and inspired to me. Also, I realized that I should consider refugee problem as well as providing immediate aids and rebuilding economy, dealing with a harsh economic crisis of Venezuela. Second topic was protecting gender equality in the Americas. The committee was focused on three aspects. Promoting political and economic participation of women, eradicating sexual violence, and ensuring human rights especially of indigenous women and young girl. The second committee let me know that specializing into several specific fields for much more detailed and professional solutions would be helpful, dealing with a broad and big issue. Writing resolutions as a signatory in the first topic and a sponsor in the second topic, and having Q&A times about it, I could fundamentally strengthen my solutions for these and skills to persuade others to support my solutions. Also, hearing diverse and unique opinions in multinational conference, it helped me to look at global issues and crisis from various angles, because one social problem, especially in international dimension, brings about another serial and successive problems. The experience of YMUN certainly helped me to broaden international perspectives and develop the skills to build up systemic and specific solutions and policies for global issues and disputes.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I have a valuable dream. It is to be an international officer working for UN and dealing with global issues and human rights problem. My final goal is protecting international peace and security in UN Security Council. For my dream, this UN Training Program was really precious and priceless. I had an honorable meeting with UN experts working in various organizations including the Permanent Mission of Republic of Korea to the United Nations, UNICEF, UNODA, and the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations. Every lecture in each meeting was highly inspired and informative to me. First, in the meeting with the First Secretary of Permanent Mission of Republic of Korea to the United Nations, I became to reconsider human rights issues in North Korea and complex diplomatic relation surrounding North and South Korea, and USA. I thought that maintaining possibility for peaceful resolution with holding peace talks periodically should be fundamentally prioritized. Also, progress in denuclearization issue in North Korea ought to be followed. Meanwhile, in the meeting with Secretary of Embassy from the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN, I could hear the direct and honest opinion surrounding Greece financial crisis and European refugee crisis that I had consistently researched and studied. Second, from the lecture presented by a professional of UNICEF, I agreed the lecturer with the opinion that strengthening the method for preventing those problems, because traffickers are everywhere and ready for trafficking. Therefore, I realized the importance of education and school for protecting children from those pervasive threats. Third, from the specialist of UNODA, I became to know one feature of United Nations. UN is not involved in domestic issues and respects the choices of each nation, so arms sale from government of each country is not illegal, but using for civil purpose such as rebellion is illegal to be regulated by UN. I thought that strengthening
disarmament, but not regulating munitions-supply of government is definitely contradictory regulation that is not appropriate to the ideology of United Nations. Thanks to UN Training Program, I could know valuable information and opinions from highly specialized experts from each UN organization and representative. I realized that I should keep studying various global issues and practicing to devise my own solutions to deal with international problems on diverse fields as an UN expert in future.
SEOYEON PARK JANGHEUNG MIDDLE SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University I met my teacher in front of the library and talked about Columbia University while visiting Columbia University School of Law and Engineering. After the college tour, I went to the lecture room and gave a lot of advice on why and how to go to Columbia college, and it was not important to go to a good university, the study about I want to learn is the most important point in my life and also criticized the test and mindset the teacher had in preparing for Columbia University, and the obsession that Korean society should go to university. And she said how valuable it is to do what I like, and even if I don't get what I like for environmental reasons, it's important to find and practice other ways. Since there are many foreign universities that can learn the courage to get away from cramming education and challenge themselves, I could sympathy more about the teacher's story as I want to go the university abroad.
Visiting Brown University Brown University was a university located between homes. Brown University was modern and simple. After arriving at Brown University, we met two students at Brown University for a meeting. During the meeting, I thought Brown University was the best school for international students. Because there is a center that solves the difficulties international students have and narrows the distance between students who speak English as their native language and international students by reviewing the choice of words when writing essays and submitting assignments. I also thought I could focus on what I wanted to do because I could easily change my major, study what I wanted to do, and have a good relationship with students and professors. Brown University has never thought of it before, but meetings and campus tours changed my thought.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I visited the United Nations and listened many lectures. The whole lecture was interesting. Because I just saw the situation of the United Nations it was told by people who have been working for years, I could learn more new things than I originally knew. The most memorable of them was the UN Officer of the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) and the Greek representatives. The person who came out of the UNODA was a Korean who naturally entered the UN through various experiences rather than having a dream about the UN from the beginning. He talked about the goals that countries around the world should pursue, and how they cope if there is a military confrontation between them. And he told me honestly about working for the United Nations,
so I thought about my dream of becoming a UN official and had a lot of thoughts about the values I should pursue in my life. I think the lecture on the UNODA was the best one I've ever heard because it allowed me to think a lot about where my life should be valued. The second was the lecture from the Secretary of Embassy of the Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN. In fact, I only knew the historical part about Greece, but when I said that Greece went bankrupt because I didn't know the political and economic situation in detail, I thought the situation in Greece was just not good. However, a person from the Greece representatives said that Greece is earning a lot of tourism revenue through various artifacts and that the economy is recovering again. And I, who had a lot of interest in refugees by telling them about the refugee issue that had much to do with Greece, changed my mind about refugees once again as I learned about the situation in Greece and many other countries involved in them. During UN training, I learned and felt many things and furthermore I thought about my dream.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation I learned a lot after I first tried the MUN so I applied to YMUN. Before I start to the YMUN to talk with my friends from various countries, I felt a lot of things as I experienced various cultures of other countries indirectly. And it was hard, but fun, for people with diverse opinions on a subject to come together to reach a compromise. And I was very proud to talk with various friends who were on the committee at lunch and dinner and talk about each other's school and competitions, not as a mock UN as students. I could feel and learn more because the competition called MUN is not about fierce competition with each other but about respecting each other's will, helping each other and admitting their mistakes. And since each theme of the contest is a problem that our society must work together to solve, participating in this contest seems to give us more interest in and willingness to change the problem that the world has.
SUNGSOO JO KOREAN MINJOK LEADERSHIP ACADEMY Visiting Brown University It was an overwhelming moment I first stepped on the ground of Brown University. The sense of small town gave me a strong impression of a relatively small-size college. After hearing the specifics of the school from the undergraduate students and researching in the internet, it didn’t take long for me to fall in love with the university. It is hard not to mention the ‘open curriculum’ when discussing Brown University. Unlike having numerous core curriculums, with the open curriculum system Brown University allows students to focus on their interest. For me, this came to me as a big attraction since I am more than certain of studying areas of philosophy, politics, and economics. I also found the town itself very attractive as well. Located in a suburban area, Brown University is like a small town with many restaurants throughout the area. Brown University is also known for its strong undergraduate class. There’s no doubt that I would be happy to take class in Brown University. Most of all, I feel so fortunate that I got the opportunity to have visited Brown.
KIHUN SONG HANKUK ACADEMY OF FOREIGN STUDIES Visiting Harvard University When Yale Model United Nations was over, I had a chance to visit Harvard University and meet a freshman named Jung Ho Hwang. Jung Ho said that he also took part in this UN training program held by Hope to the Future. While listening to Jung Ho’s general description of Harvard, I entered the university campus. Soon after, I saw a large crowd concentrated in one place: the statue of John Harvard. Although I considered the fact that rubbing John Harvard’s foot will bring luck a superstition, I did it anyway to perhaps receive some luck for my college admission. Indeed, the statue wasn’t the only thing fascinated my mind. The overall atmosphere of Harvard University made me feel like I was in Ancient Rome. Everything in the campus-buildings, statues, and walking paths- was elaborate and beautiful. Especially, the Harvard library looked like the perfect example of stonemasonry and resembled the Parthenon. I became jealous of Harvard students as they were every day given a privilege to enjoy the artistic pleasure that buildings and walking paths give. I again buried a coin to the ground in front of the Harvard library-burying a coin at a college campus was like a tradition to me. Yes, this is a superstition but a buried coin could lead me to Harvard, right? After touring at Harvard University, we went to a Harvard gift shop where we could buy some Harvard goods and souvenirs. Even the gift shop provided us with abundant choices: many different styles of hoodies and tshirts. The college campus also did the same as the gift shop: it provided me a broad spectrum from delicacy to magnificence. At the end of the tour, I thought that becoming a freshman at Harvard would be the blessing. Perhaps, I would work harder to get into Harvard University.
Visiting Columbia University When I got off the bus, I initially didn't realize that I was at Columbia University since there were no clear boundaries between the college campus and the surrounding city environment. When I saw the symbolic statue, Alma Mater, I eventually believed that I was at Columbia University. I felt like Alma Mater would be my tour guide as she held her arms wide open, suggesting me to enjoy the magnificence of the college campus. Soon after, I was able to meet Ji Yeon Kwon, a junior who majors in Data Science. She briefly explained several significant features of Columbia University. As I was touring the university, I saw a lot of different statues in unique locations. First, I saw Rodin’s The Thinker (Le Penseur) around the philosophy hall. Later, I also saw a unique and mysterious statue installed above the entrance of Jerome Greene Hall-eventually figured out that its name was Bellerophon Taming Pegasus. According to Ji Yeon, several ambiguous statues were constructed to make individuals come up with their own interpretations. After touring Columbia University, Ji Yeon gave a presentation about herself, her school, and her life motto. Her genuine words inspired me a lot. During the Q&A session, I asked her a lot about college admission as I was a rising senior. When all schedules were over, I went outside to take some pictures of the night view of Columbia University. While I was taking pictures, I felt myself unconsciously drawn to this university. I promised myself that I could come here as a student of Columbia one day.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation
It was my pleasure to be a delegate of the Yale Model United Nations XLVI. There, I not only debated about global issues but also could form intimate relationships with other delegates. To start, committee sessions at YMUN were challenging but enjoyable. I was assigned to represent the United Kingdom in the European Commission. Interestingly, the first agenda for my committee was Brexit. Throughout committee sessions, I had a lot of opportunities to state the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opinion on Brexit. For example, I could lead the committee when unmoderated caucuses were held. That moment was enjoyable. However, because of representing the United Kingdom, I was bombarded with a lot of rebuttals and questions from delegates of other countries. Although I felt a language barrier at some point, I tried my best defending and arguing the UK's firm stance on Brexit. I still remember that my committee mainly focused a lot on the future economic relationship between the United Kingdom and other EU member states. For the next agenda, Rise of the Far-Right, my deep interest in the right-wing movements helped me coming up with specific and realistic solutions: exit programs and the establishment of the European Security Council. However, there were several delegates continuously doubting the practicality of my solutions. Thus, during unmoderated caucuses, I mainly spent time persuading those delegates. Eventually, they decided to join my bloc. I had to be aggressive throughout committee sessions to explain and persuade my solutions to other delegates. However, I always kept myself not to be aggressive at any time. That way, I could possess a balanced viewpoint toward agendas discussed within the committee. At YMUN, I was provided with several different programs other than committee sessions. On the 2nd day at YMUN, I took part in the Global Exchange Program. In this program, I listened to the lectures of professors from Yale University. One professor talked about solutions to the Malaria crisis; the other professor explained the law of war by using examples such as the case of Sierra Leone and ISIS. Their profound analysis and unique viewpoints provided me with a new perspective. Also, I was able to satisfy my curiosities regarding the tension between the United States and Iran while having lunch with Yale professors. In fact, during lunch and dinner time, I saved some time for touring Yale University and buying Yale goods with some friends I made at the committee. I still remember having dinner with delegates from different countries. Now, I'm back in Korea. Although I couldn't get an award from the conference, I had a lot of invaluable experience from YMUN. I'm sure that what I've experienced and learned from YMUN will continue igniting my passion to solve global issues.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Before the Yale Model United Nations XLVI, I spent most of my time taking part in training programs at the United Nations headquarters. As the first program in the schedule, I visited the Permanent Mission of the
Republic of Korea to the UN. The interior design of this building resembled that of Hanok, a Korean traditional house. Also, this building exhibited several symbols and colors that would represent the spirit of Korea. There, I met First Secretary Na Sang-deok. He mostly told us about South Korea’s effort to keep a peaceful relationship in the Korean peninsula. Also, one thing I learned about the role of the permanent mission was to merely state the country’s opinions on several issues. Later, as a part of training programs, I had a chance to tour the United Nations headquarters in New York. One interesting thing about the main building of the headquarters was that it had several different chambers, paintings, and sculptures from countries all over the world. For example, I heard that Scandinavian countries provided council chambers for the UN headquarters. I felt that the UN headquarters well-represented global cooperation by gathering different paintings and sculptures from different regions of the globe. When I visited the General Assembly Hall, I saw two abstract paintings and a podium made of marbles. I really liked the artistic harmony that the UN headquarters provided me. Throughout UN training programs, I mainly remember two impressive lectures: one was about the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) and the other was about the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). By listening to the lecture of Mr. Abraham Joseph from UN DESA, I thought that previous effort to achieve Sustainable development goals hasn’t been adequate. Especially learning about climate action, I felt that I should have more responsibility for conserving water and natural resources. Also, about Zero Hunger (UN SDG#2), I decided to continue volunteering for programs like Kids against Hunger, which I’ve been working for when I was in the United States. The other lecture was given by Lily Gray from UNESCO. Her lecture was mostly about methods and solutions for providing quality education all around the world. By listening to her lecture, I felt sorry for developing countries that couldn’t have the educational infrastructure to give proper sexual education or quality education. Her last words-Education can’t wait- inspired me as if motivating me to stand for quality education for all. At first, I wasn’t interested in SDGs or UN programs. However, as I was listening to more and more lectures calling for global cooperation, I felt that I could help the globe with my small contribution. Small effort, if accumulated, would change the world entirely. When I go back to Korea, I will continue my passion to make the world a better place.
ANDREW JUNYOUNG LEE BUSAN FOREIGN SCHOOL Overall Reflection I had a great opportunity as I was allowed to visit the most prestigious universities in the U.S. Seeing these universities with my own eyes was very exciting since I wish that one day I will be in one of these universities. The buildings that were built in the 1600s and 1700s was magnificent. It was so large and Yale University had such a medieval feeling to it that it felt like an ancient castle. The professor lunch that I was lucky enough to participate in allowed me to hear such great advice from students at Yale and the professor. I learned about tips on finding your passion from two students of Yale. I believe that this was truly an honorable experience. I really liked Columbia University also, since I heard that you can
get close with the professor’s. The fact that you could get close with the professor’s and the fact that there are not much required courses really made me to start liking Columbia university.
MINSEO JUNG AMERICAN EMBASSY SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University With its high prestige and acknowledgment, Columbia University held an atmosphere of inspiration and collaboration of the past and the present. Placed in the middle of the world’s most diverse and changing metropolitan city, New York, the university seemed to be a great place to observe the quick wavering world nowadays which would be a great opportunity for any students who are interested in global affairs. Yet, what really fascinated me wasn’t the architecture nor the location, it was the people I met there. For sure, listening to a speech about university after 14 hours of flight won’t be the first thing you’ll want to do. However, the speakers’ enthusiastic attitude and their sincere experiences they shared with us were enough to keep me awake. Having been to Columbia University two years ago, I didn’t expect much to have changed in a short period of time. But, meeting one of the undergraduates I have met in the past, and finding out how she had changed her major about 14 times completely wrecked my underestimation. Moreover, it was interesting to see how she was more confident about where she was and what she was dedicated to do as her career. Such changes could be also found in her speech that was perhaps one of the most meaningful sessions I had throughout the program. Although the 3 major pieces of advice she presented was rather practical, the stories she shared in context for the advice were stimulating and priceless. Especially her points regarding making the most out of the things we have were motivating as I wasn’t the person who made the most out of the opportunities I had in the past. Hence, the session was really a moment where I could look back on myself and contemplate the choices I should make. Furthermore, the meeting broadened my perspectives regarding foreign universities and college education in abroad. Until then, even as a student currently living abroad, going to a university or college in the states or any other country besides Korea wasn’t under my consideration. The uncertainty that I held about studying abroad narrowed my view, nevertheless, the freedom and caliber of education that she mentioned allowed me to consider various possibilities and options. Again, as a sophomore that was wavering over a variety of options for the upcoming junior and senior years, the experience itself was very worthwhile for me.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation 1500 competitive delegates were enough to make me intimidated by the huge scale event of Yale Model United Nations. Such agitation was further aroused with my committee being the ad-hoc as the absence of my topic and my roles continuously troubled me. For sure, the experience of debating impromptu was tough but was rewarding. Even at this point when I am writing my reflection, I could vividly remember the moment I entered the dark and shady room listening to the James Bond theme music. Briefly explaining about my committee, unlike any other committee, the committee granted great freedom for the delegates to the point where I began to doubt the choices I made. Also, the stories created for each of our roles and movements reflected the efforts that the chairs had put in to prepare this. While there were conflicts between delegates due to a lack of communication to achieve the goals that each of us had, most of them were embracing and very professional. Though it was highly disappointing that we had to miss our last committee session because of an unexpected occasion, every single
part of the committee session from the midnight crisis to the small lunch breaks I had with fellow delegates felt all very special. Aside from the committee session, the Global Exchange Program was another essential event. The two lectures from professor Adlparvar and Geballe both were different yet inspiring in different ways. Professor Adlparvarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lecture, though being a common type of lecture, granted me a whole different way of viewing the immigrant crisis. On the other hand, professor Geballeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lecture was more like a seminar and encouraged all participants to actively engage in the conversation. Last but not least was the lunch with professors. Even under unorganized circumstances, the professors I have met there all commented on the questions I had with great enthusiasm. Evidently, the 3 days of YMUN enriched my understanding of global affairs to a whole different level and I express my gratitude for all my fellow delegates and professors I have met for their passion and kindness they showed me.
YEONHO JUNG BUSAN FOREIGN SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University As I walked into the gates of Columbia, I immediately noticed majestic structures made of marble. My heart pounded as I set foot on the beautiful campus. Walking, I saw the remnants of snow slowly thawing before the sun. Living by the sea, snow was a rare sight for me, let alone piles of it slowly dispersing. Just when I thought that the buildings that I had perceived were awestriking, I got to a spot where I could see multitudes of libraries and buildings dedicated to a specific field which were all bigger than my whole school campus. The vibes of the college was outstandingly peaceful, something I did not comprehend to be possible in such a metropolitan area. Hypnotized by the beauty, I was not conscious that an hour had passed. I would have stayed in this state much longer if it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t for our tour guide, Ji Yeon, a junior at Columbia. She guided us through the beautiful campus that held more surprises. Our exciting tour finally came to a stop, and we had the amazing opportunity to ask questions about anything. I presumed that I would be drowsy through the whole discussion, but the quality of the information and delivery was so superb that I ended up being engaged for a full hour even with jet lag.
At the end of the day, I was thankful for the opportunity to tour one of the most prestigious universities in the world and get to walk away with so much good insight.
SUNGBIN JO CHEONGSHIM INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY Visiting Columbia & Brown & Harvard University During the UN training and YMUN, I could visit 4 universities, which are commonly known as Ivy League. At the first time, I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have any interest in Ivy League because I have only aimed to enter British universities such as Oxford. Visiting Columbia, Brown, Yale, and Harvard University one by one, however, I realised that my viewpoint was too narrow and I had not thought what I really want to study. Here are the story of my visit to 4 universities and they show how my thoughts were changed. First of all, I visited Columbia University after having a first lunch in America. Since it is the first place I went after arriving America, I was quite excited about what I would see and experience. But the thing that made me really excited and surprised was a huge library centred on the university. We took a picture at the statue in front of it and then, we toured the whole campus following a present student. Every building was sepreated in accordance with subjects and each one has its own symbol respectively. For example, the law school building has a statue which represents a justice; it was grand and magnificent. We also tried to enter the chemistry building, but it was a shame that we couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t due to the vacation. Finishing the tour, we had a time to talk with the present students, and I learned a significant message as well; do what you really want! My first tour gave me a chance to be curious about other American universities. After a few days of trainings in UN Headquaters, I went to Brown University. Brown Univiversity was quite familiar to me rather than other ones because I have heard of it several times in my school. But it made me astonished again; the campus was so large that it looked like a village. I could have a time to talk with the present students as well, and I recognised that Brown Univeristy is also famous for the politics and international relations, wich I would like to major in. In the tour after Q&A time, I was attracted by many factors except that. One of them is the campus was so beautiful. There were grasses here and there and buildings looked nice too. Moreover, the campus is divided into two parts: humanities and natural sceinces&engineering. Two parts seemed balanced, so it is the other merit for me who want to second-major in chemistry. Though this was not a quite long time but a cause to add Brown Univerisity into my dream schools list involving Oxford and Georgetown University. To participarte in Yale MUN, I went to Yale University next. It is the second most American university that I have ever heard next to Harvard. Although there was not much time to tour the whole campus like before two ones, every building and structure were spectacular and impressive. I will talk about Yale in the YMUN below more specifically, but, I think, Yale is most memorable university because I stayed and worked for much longer than others. Lastly, I visited Harvard University that I have always heard when people talk about America and the most once dreamed in youth. As we arrived Harvard University, we took a photo in front of the statue with touching his shoes. I alreadly knew the tale that one touches his shoes will enter Harvard, but I was quite shocked when I realised the errors in the statue. After then, we watched dormitiories with the explanations of the present student. Whenever he said the celebrities who lived in there once, I and most of all were surprised, shocked and admired. And, I felt like, it seemed the red-bricks buildings represented that here, where I am standing is Harvard. It was
not sufficient time to have a look round the whole campus; however, I am sure that it was the most surprising and exciting time among the four univerisites. Though the interest could be different form the universites, I strongly belives that every time was helpful to me. It made me able to esacpe from being a big fish in a little pond. Thanks to the efforts of the sutdents and teachers, I could expand my viewpoint to the world and my future. Moreover, it would become not only an unforgettable experience but a great motivation in my life; I could have also a new goal, Brown University!
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation Since it was my second Model United Nations, I was really expected to particiapted in it. I had a few regrets in my first MUN because I was not active and too cautious. But I think this time was different. The state assinged to me was Iraq and I belonged to ECOFIN. When I checked my committee and country, I was actually surprised and worried because I was not familiar with neither Iraq nor the Economic and Financial Committee. However, I prepared my position papers diligently and investigated my country really hard, and I could find a way. There were two topics: one was the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative and the other was Venezuelaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy. Whichever topics other delegates choose, I thought I have enough words to solve the problem and lead the block at the first time. As the session I began, however, I was shocked at the other delegates, who were completely active and proposed a lot of motions and points. Of course, I was motivated by them firstly, but as time passed I was intimated. Nevertheless, I am sure that I learned many things from them. Firstly, I could have confidence in public speaking. There were some students who spoke confidently regardless of their pronunciation and accent, while other students who spoke well with a good ones. I recognised that the most important thing is the information I want to deliver and confidence, not a fancy pronunciation. And also, by focusing on othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speeches, I learned how to listen, to share ideas, and to debate. In addition, I could improve my speaking and writing skills as well with the position papers and the resolutions. There are still a few regrets about YMUN with my confidence, but less than the first one. I have tried to speak, debate and write the resoultion. Although I became a signatory at the end, one thing that there was my solution in the passed resoultion made me satisfied. It is a shame that the schedule of last day was cancelled due to the coronavirus. However, in terms of enhancing my basic debating skills and making new friends, I strongly believes that YMUN was one of the best experience I have ever had in my life. Three days in YMUN were the most difficult but satisfied duration and they would become a new motivation to participate in the mun again.
YOONSUNG CHO, DONGDUCHEON FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation As a student who is interested in MUN general, you have probably heard about YMUN. YMUN is known for its long history. To widen my perspectives and get to know more foreign friends I have signed up for the MUN. As a MUN that has more than 1000 thousand students all over the world from 50 different countries, I wanted to enhance my opportunity. Therefore, I got an interest in the special committees. There were Tokyo 2020, Ancient Council, Space, Designated Survivor, NGO Forum, Press Corps, International Court of
Justice (ICJ) and Council of Nicaea, 325 ANNO Domini. As I was interested in newspapers and press at that time I submitted my resume, I got chosen as Editor #1. According to the teachers, this was the first time for a Korean student to become an Editor in the Press corps. Therefore, I looked at op-ed articles mainly in the Korean Times, the New York Times and BBC News and other media sources to enhance my writing ability. The main job for me as an Editor was to report other delegates in other committees and write an article that can simplify the basic information for readers. As the committees had different and various types of topics, it was hard for me to find information. However, as time passed on, I got used to the research I had to do. The best thing about the Press Corps committee was that it was free. I used the phrase ‘Free’ to express the freedom I got from other chairs and other delegates. The Chairs respectively appreciated each one’s article and the methods, and in the most peaceful and active atmosphere it was easy for us to write articles. As an Editor in the Press Corps, I recommend the next participants to try Press corps.
EUNJAE BAEK HAKSAN GIRLS’ HIGH SCHOOL YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation I participated in the YMUN held at Yale University. It was my first time in my life to participate in such a big competition, I was very nervous and scared at first. But on the other hand, I was honored to be able to participate in such a big competition. By participating in the contest, I could learn more about the country by taking on a delegate in a country I didn't know very much about. At first, I was worried if I could approach others to work with other countries to make solutions. But later time passed and a bloc formed, I had a little confidence that I could do it when I entered a bloc. After that, I felt that I grew up through the process of talking to the same bloc people, listening about solution, and talking to others about our bloc and receiving signatories. Also, even in the process of making a solution, it was so wonderful to see them expressing their opinions, taking into account the culture and economic conditions of his countries. YMUN was a very meaningful time for me to grow up and to have confidence in talking with others.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I went to the UN and got a training. I also attended a meeting at Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations and attended lectures on the institutions at various organizations, including UNICEF and UNESCO. Instructors have told me about UN agencies that I normally only know shallowly, and I have been able to learn more about things I don't know by giving more details than just looking on the Internet. Also, the lecture was very valuable because I was able to ask questions directly from experts and solve them. These lectures made me realize that it was an experience I would never experience again and have a love for the
United Nations more. I also attended a lecture by a Korean, which was so wonderful and respectful for Koreans to work at the UN I was so happy to make these various and precious experiences at the New York headquarters and will likely remain a memorable experience for the rest of my life.
SOOMIN HONG BUGIL ACADEMY GLOBAL LEADER PROGRAM Visiting Columbia & Brown & Harvard University Two years ago, my first experience at Columbia University was not great at all. Not only did the rain made me irritable but also a tour guide, who was a Columbia student, was not good at selling her school. Therefore, I have never realized the true value of this university beyond its name tag as the Ivy League school. However, today (Jan 19), I finally faced the real value of Columbia thanks to a great mentor Ji Yeon Kwon. Her story and strong personality were so inspiring that it was more than enough to change my perspective on Columbia. She emphasized passionate dedication which would drive oneself unworriedly with clear motivation. Her speech gave me the way to keep walking forward, overcoming the feeling of insecurity and aimlessness. I was glad to meet young mentors who had similar backgrounds with me, learning abroad in order to follow onesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest and passion. Three students from Columbia, Brown, and Harvard, with different interest, have one thing in common. They have their own story. Following their pure passion, they are walking the path for the bigger goal. They are the best students not because of their schools but their own stories with strong messages. This college tour questioned what my story is and how I can most effectively deliver it to the world.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation It was honor to have Yale MUN, one of the most prestigious conference with a long history, as my first formal MUN experience. It was true that during preparation and even committee session, I was an inexperienced student who was trying to learn as much as I can. Yale MUN served as perfect experience to build up not only my MUN
skills but also confidence on English and sociality. Meeting students from all over the world and discussing about international issues were the most precious parts of Yale MUN. I played the role as Hypatius of Gangra in the Nicaea Council, a specialized committee based on Christianity. Since I don’t have a religion, the most difficult part was gaining the basic knowledge on the history of Christianity. Then I needed to understand the concepts of two main topics, Transubstantiation and the Holy Trinity, within the context. Though first I spent hard time absorbing the background, it was exciting to discuss what I had never deeply thought about. During the committee session, I was again surprised how passionately students and chairs with different religious beliefs debated over fundamental doctrine of Christianity. I tried my best to keep my voice up and played an active role. I felt a great sense of accomplishment when I finally passed my resolution, starting as minor bloc but finally getting votes from majority. In addition, I was lucky to be selected for Global Exchange Program and listened to Yale professors’ lectures. Based on the UN SDGs, with three different professors, students and I discussed about “Human Rights and Communication Technologies,” “The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti,” and “Malaria in subSaharan Africa.” Taking lectures from renowned scholars in fields was invaluable experience, widening my view on diverse topics with depth. Professors’ open-minded and discuss-based lectures were also impressive, making me hope to attending Yale like Professor Gordon Geballe mentioned at last, “I hope to meet you all again in Yale freshman seminar.”
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York How many times I have mentioned the UN when someone asked me a dream? Since I was inspired by the speech of Oh Joon former Ambassador to the UN, I introduced to people about my future in the UN New York Headquarters. And finally, here I was! For four days, I commuted to the UN New York Headquarters, receiving the UN training program. I met many staffs from different agencies (UNICEF, UNESCO, UNODA, UNEP, UN Department of Global Communications) and listened to each mission and progress based on the Sustainable Development Goals. I was able to be provided wider and deeper explanation on what was happening under the charge of the UN to make the world better. Also, clear distinction between each agency’s roles was established, and it was interesting how multiple agencies collaborate to solve one problem in diverse perspective. We also made our way to the Permanent Missions of the Republic of Korea and Greece to the United Nations. The briefing, covering the start to the end of the relation between Korea and the UN, provided us a profound understanding of how Korea has established its ground in the international community. In both missions, we dealt with current global issues regarding two countries such as North Korea nuclear sanction and Mediterranean refugee crisis. It was very informative, looking back to the root of problems and how each country had responded. Q&A session was always the most exciting moment. Opportunity to get answer directly from the person in charge doesn’t come often. I tried to make the best use of this chance, asking questions focused on my interests — quality education, gender equality, and use of technology. Endless questions from our students proved the high interest and passion of Korean students toward the UN and its SDGs. Overall, the UN Training Program strengthened my passion toward the SDGs as global citizen, providing profound insights on obscure problems. Every people I met during the training encouraged the hope that the world will be better place with equal human rights in near future, and I am one that can contribute or even lead those changes.
SOOYOUNG JO KOREA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL JEJU CAMPUS Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York The UN lectures reinforced an idea that I found myself coming back to: “The United Nations was created not to take mankind to heaven, but to save humanity from hell.” Gag Hammarskjöld, the second UN Secretary General, summed up my thoughts on the UN more or less perfectly. The UN is hardly a perfect organization; it consists of governments and NGOs, politicians and nations, all of whom are human and are fallible and very much prone to the faults of greed and willful ignorance. What it is is a chance—chance for the international community to come together and pool their resources for a cause greater than the sum of its parts. A chance for nations with opposing interest to stand on the international stage and work together under global scrutiny, while taking all measures to respect the sovereignty of the nations that join there. While some may point out this as a flaw of the United Nations, leading to a lack of decisive action and loss of efficiency, I would argue that this is the best the United Nations can be: an organization that relies on the voluntary efforts of its members believing in the good of humanity, for the good of humanity. And perhaps that is all that we can ask of the UN, because that is all we ourselves are willing to offer.
Visiting Columbia University Our visit to Columbia started off with a basic tour of the college. Being one of the oldest schools in the United States, the campus boasted a fair share of old looking buildings, often made up of red bricks and arched windows and doors. The Library of Columbia University, where our group stopped to take photos, with its imitation of ancient Greek architecture, almost made the campus seem suspended in time. However, a few buildings stood out as distinctly modern. The building that housed Columbia’s law division, for which the school itself is known, had very different architecture, with straight lines and window walls tinted blue. Likewise, the engineering building featured very straight lines, and Columbia Medical School apparently was removed from the campus entirely. I found this as unusual but also useful as it made navigating the campus much easier due to the distinct architecture. After this tour, we were taken to a lecture hall, where our tour guide and her friend told us some more information about Columbia, including about its foreign aid policy and diversity. Then, the two exchanged some life lessons they felt like were most valuable; to be curious and to forge your own path. These two were especially memorable because I felt like I was lacking both of these: I had few genuine interests in my life, and I only felt secure in a planned-out future. While I knew that there had to be something I pursued as a hobby, and that anything could happen in the future, I still had a hard time considering this concept as something that would impact me personally. Even now, I don’t fully grasp it, and probably won’t until it’s staring me in the face. But hearing stories about their constantly changing majors and great successes in spite of them helped me consider it something as more concrete, and furthermore, something that could be positive in ways I didn’t know were possible.
Visiting Brown University The next university we visited was Brown University of Rhode Island. Of all the schools we visited, Brown appeared to have the most visual consistency. While Columbia would have modern-style building between older styles of architecture, and Yale would have a mix of red and grey brick wall buildings, Brown mostly consisted
of red brick buildings, which gave me the impression of a unified school with clear demarcation of where the campus began and ended. To me, this was an invaluable upside of Brown as the school simply seemed easier to navigate and less overwhelming. The smaller size of the school likely contributed to this, giving the impression of a cozy, closely knit community rather than a too-big, cold metropolitan area. However, the most memorable part of our trip to Brown University was the question and answer questions we held with Brown university students, where we could learn more about life at the school. The first thing they made clear to us was that Brown has an Open Curriculum, or lack of required core classes. This piqued my interest as the lack of relation between the required core classes and chosen major was a common critique for Korean seniors studying abroad. Another thing that intrigued me was the “shopping period”, a two week period in which freshmen could dabble in multiple courses to determine which classes they want to take for the rest of the year. As someone that has a very broad idea of what I want to pursue but few intense passions, this period is very attractive to me. I feel like one of my biggest inhibitors from taking risks and making lifechanging decisions is my preference for stability and concern about making the wrong choice, so this shopping period at Brown, should I be able to experience it, will be a valuable part of my college life.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation With a 4 square kilometers large campus, Yale was by far the biggest university we visited. As there was no actual tour of the campus, most of my exploration of campus was voluntary. From what I had seen, Yale was easily the most antique-looking campus, with a mixture of gray, almost castle-like structure, more familiar redbrick residential-esque buildings that called to mind the age of Yale University, but also the most urban, with fast food chains and stores integrated almost seamlessly into the campus making life there presumably very convenient. It was also the place where I experienced the most culture, thanks to the abundance of general stores selling products I had hardly ever seen in Korea, and the Yale Art Exhibit, showing off an abundance of African art I had never seen in Korea. The last time I participated in Crisis, I was constantly worried about betrayed or being found out doing something sinister, in addition to trying to find out what other people were doing. From attempting to reestablish the Russian Empire in the midst of World War Two to the US Air Marshall going against President Roosevelt to bomb France, in my experience Crisis lacked the grounded-in-reality, slow burn negotiation of General Assemblies, and more resembled a highly unusual roleplaying game. However, for YMUN, the first Agenda suspended crisis notes, eliminating the “wild card” element of Crisis. While some delegates resented this, and urged on the return of crisis notes, I found this to be the optimal crisis experience, fostering participation from even the most hesitant of delegates and actual collaboration as all directives needed signatories, while keeping everyone on their toes with the crisis updates and the death toll. Neither having chosen to take on a crisis committee and having implied that I didn’t want to join a crisis committee, this was a welcome surprise, but I worried about the sudden shift in mood when crisis notes would be enabled. Sure enough, during the second Agenda, when this very event occurred, the vast majority of delegates focused their attention almost exclusively on their personal arcs rather than deal with the crisis at hand, and those who had the most powerful positions almost cut out talking to anyone outside their block immediately, which had very concerning implications on the tendencies of humanity during future disasters.
GA HYUN SHIN HANKUK ACADEMY OF FOREIGN STUDIES Visiting Columbia University On January 19, I visited Columbia University on the first day of UNTP. Mentor Kwon Ji Yeon guided us around the Columbia University. Columbia is famous in every field, and every building that went too far was really nice, but most of all, the most memorable building was Law School Building. Since I already knew that Columbia Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law School was the top of the list, looking at it was sufficient to inspire me as a law enthusiast. Not only fame but also the exterior of the building was magnificent. After the college tour, we entered the auditorium and listened to Ji Yeonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lecture. The mentor also taught us a lot about Columbia University, including how she prepared for Columbia University, why she chose it, and the merits of Columbia University, but she taught us a big lesson in life called "stay curious." The curiosity that her friends experienced taught us many examples of how they changed their lives, and it was very helpful for me to get answers to my personal concerns. I got a lot of enlightenment because she told me there was a way to follow what I liked, what I was curious about and what I was interested in. I'll merge my favorite music field with the law field that I'm interested in, thus creating my own field and follow that path. She gave me strong motivation to live a really meaningful life, not a life that only pursues fame. I would like to thank her so much for eating and consulting together until evening, and not only could I feel the majestic dignity of Columbia University's exterior, but I was also overwhelmed by the students' values and standards. It really helped me develop drastically.
Visiting Brown University On the morning of YMUN opening session and the first committee session, Brown University was given to us as a chance to explore. We first conduct a Q&A session with two mentors. I think it was a great opportunity for me who was interested in law and politics because both of the mentors were majoring in the department of political science. In particular, since one of them graduated from Korean high school and went to college, the situation similar to mine, there were many things to learn as well as in the field of college life. The mentors gave practical advice on the merits and demerits of college life, how they worked to get into Brown University, why they came to major in politics. Most of all, what helped me most was information about Brown University. In fact, before the meeting, I heard about Brown University and had no time to search into details, but I became interested in Brown University as I learned about the uniqueness and many advantages of Brown University, such as the operation of a writing center or the formation of a unit system to help freshmen get along. We were able to tour the school after the meeting with the mentors. It was already an attractive school for me at the meeting, but it was a school that seemed to be suitable for Brown students. I thought the whole school was such a cozy and comfortable place to embrace students, and it was so nice to know that both the outside and inside were really nice and warm places.
Visiting Harvard University As YMUN was cancelled due to unforeseen circumstances, we were able to meet Hwang Jung Ho, a mentor who is a 11th senior at UNTP and also a 12th senior at my high school, and visit Harvard University. Although it was
a sudden schedule, I was so honored to see my school-senior again, and most of all, I was so excited and happy to have a chance to actually explore Harvard University, which boasts a level worthy of its reputation. The Harvard University meeting took place simultaneously with a school tour, a moment I felt dignity from him as a Harvard student as well as from the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exterior. We all touched the feet of the statue of founder John Harvard, prayed for the admissions to Harvard, watched the church that rang on time, visited the most famous library, and finally, we could buy a hoodie at a souvenir shop. I could learn from my mentor Hwang Jung Ho about Harvard's school life, its strengths and weaknesses, its values, and Harvard's overall superstitions. Most of all, what was most helpful was the fact that he was able to enter Harvard as a senior in my school, so he could gave me a customized, pragmatic explanation of how he managed his high school life and time, and what kind of activities he did, etc. I got tips on how to use club activities in high school and how to manage school grades and prepare for college entrance at the same time. I was not able to look around for a long time, but it was a valuable time to feel enough about how big a merit is to attend Harvard.
Visiting Yale University (Yale Day and Global Exchange Program) I was able to explore Yale University as a participant in the YMUN competition, but unlike other participants, I think I could learn more about Yale University. It was because I was selected by the Global Exchange Program (GEP) and was able to communicate with Yale students, Chair and President, and most importantly, I was able to meet with the professors of Yale University and have a lecture, talk and debate, and have lunch. There were a total of three courses available through GEP: "A Conversation on Human Rights and Communication Technologies" by Professor Nathaniel A. Raymond, "Searching for a New Deal on Climate?" Look to the States" by Professor Robert Klee, and the Keynote Speech by Professor Sunil Parikh. Upon completing the Yale Day program, I was able to take a class of the Prof. Raymond on human rights and politics, which I am most interested in and passionate about, and he gave really detailed and interesting lecture on war crime and human rights by applying technology, not just looking at human rights from a humanistic perspective. Normally, I have a lot of knowledge of human rights as a youth human rights activist, but I didn't know exactly about the difference and seriousness between war crime and crime without humanity, how to distinguish their intents and purposes, and the procedural difference between International Court of Justice and International Criminal Court, and I found this so new. Professor Raymond had explained the technical aspects of human rights, while Professor Klee gave a lecture on how to express his opinions on practical solutions by merging politics into the field of environment. It was an impressive lecture because he presented the seriousness of environmental problems and explained personal solutions logically, and it was really nice to have a debate with students in between his lecture. Professor Parikh's lecture on biological research and analysis of sub-Saharan African diseases has been a meaningful time because even though it was commonly known as difficult subject to understand, he explained in the most interesting and easiest way. During lunchtime, I was able to talk to another professor about politics, and also hold meetings with Yale students and YMUN President Aki on Yale University. It was a really informative time to get to know about Yale University, and I had a lot of fun talking with Aki. It was a really meaningful and fantastic memory which gets aligned with Yale University's reputation.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation It was a real honor to attend such prestigious competition as the YALE Model United Nations (YMUN) XLVI as a Korean delegation. From the moment I studied about YMUN to prepare for the interview I had to be selected as a representative delegation, I was absolutely overwhelmed by the quality of its huge program, and I thought it was such an attractive program that I came to apply without any trouble. What I especially liked was that unlike other MUNs, YMUN was discussing numerous social issues in various fields, and I thought it would be an interesting contest to challenge myself because I thought it would give me a chance to study not only my field of confidence but also current affairs. Since being selected as a Korean delegation, I really wanted to join the
selective committee, the International Court of Justice. It was because I was very interested in law and politics, but I expected that it would not be an ordinary MUN procedure which would be the biggest difference for the ICJ Committee. Sure enough, the ICJ had a very strong mock trial and debate characteristics rather than MUN's, and although I did not experience much more than MUN in this area, I was fascinated by it because it is a much more interesting and favorite field. I was so happy to be selected by the ICJ and was selected as Advocate #5 to discuss “The Relocation of US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem” from Palestine’s perspective. It was an opportunity to study a new topic because although I was well aware of the Israel-Palestinian conflict, I did not know in detail how the relocation of US embassy was involved in this issue. For more than a month after the topic and team were set, all relevant materials, such as UN resolutions, statutes of the ICJ, news articles and papers, UN charter, speech and so on, have been carefully read and studied. In addition, I shared the materials that I studied with my team members, developing a sense of cooperation in studying and preparing for the debate. In fact, I think it really helped me to make opinions and collect evidence by talking on the phone for two or three hours with team members, asking questions, and refuting each other. In addition to co-council members, we worked with a Witness friend by communicating and looking for data together, and I was able to develop integrated thinking, legal insight, and logic all at once, rather than simply improving my English skills. Being in a ICJ committee also means that we must prepare carefully and meticulously because the process itself is like a mock trial but also has the character of a debate, and it is divided into two cases and both cases must be studied a lot because we must participate as a judge in another case. It was difficult to prepare, but most of all, it wasn't hard for me, who had a dream of becoming an international lawyer, and for me it was just so much fun from the process of preparing the discussion. I think it was more fun and informative than any MUNs or mock trials, model congresses or debates I have ever participated in. If I were to participate again next year, it’s because I was hooked on the attraction of the ICJ and participate in it one more time. YMUN has not only activities within the committee, but also interchanges between other committees, the GEP and the Yale Day program, parties and various affiliated competitions. I was able to participate in every event and it was all meaningful and thought-provoking, but I also remember applying for the YMUN Essay Contest. The theme of Essay Contest was "Diplomacy through the Ages: The Legacy of Soft Power," which was difficult because I didn't have much interest and knowledge in diplomacy. However, I could really learn a lot about soft power, hard power, smart power, while searching articles and papers, and thinking again about the transition and change of power. I wanted to look at soft power from a slightly new perspective of sport, rather than just analyzing it, so I submitted a high-quality essay on analyzing soft power under the theme of the Olympics. Although I didn't win the YMUN competition, it was a very meaningful time because I was able to make unforgettable memories at the ICJ, the most authoritative and prestigious committee, and develop deep insight and thinking skills with the essay contest. It was fun to make a lot of foreign friends, and chairs were really kind to me and they had a deep knowledge of the problem that we could learn a lot. It was a time to feel how exceptional and extraordinary YMUN was.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I was able to experience UN Headquarters training for four days, which is the highlight and central activity of UNTP. I went to New York, and I was able to meet various ministers, mentors, directors, and so on while visiting
the building where the UN headquarters and its agencies are located, and I was able to learn the full information of the UN and the details of what its agencies are doing. I was impressed by the fact that so many mentors gave education and talked with their own thoughtful insights and were answering questions, but if I could pick the two classes that were most meaningful to me, it would be UNESCO and UNICEF. Usually, I have many things to discuss about them because I am a youth human rights activist who has a lot of interest in children's rights and education. In UNESCO’s lectures, I was able to learn in-depth about how international organizations are managing the field of education and striving to improve the quality of education as well as the quantity of education, and what the vision of education will be in the future. I asked if there are any education policies or programs that UNESCO provides to the elderly to cope with an aging society, and I was very grateful for all the details of the program, policy names, and report materials, saying that they are fully aware of the problems and planning to respond with a “life-long education” program. UNICEF also gave a really good lecture about child rights, telling us what areas child rights are being violated and how they are responding to each of these issues. I asked how each individual country can resolve differences in their perceptions or interpretations of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and I was again grateful for the procedural answer that UNICEF was working to fully discuss and negotiate details when it recommends or implements the agreement so that such issues would not arise. Both UNESCO and UNICEF have long admired international organizations from a far, and it was an honor and a meaningful time to listen to their lectures, learn important social phenomena and solutions, answer questions and discuss them. I am so hopeful and thankful that I could use this opportunity as a stepping stone to help me in my future activities.
KIDON SONG HANKUK ACADEMY OF FOREIGN STUDIES Visiting Columbia University Today, I went to one of the most prestigious universities in the world, Columbia University. In fact, it was my second time visiting this magnificent place as I have been there when I was an 8th grader back in the U.S. Looking back, I was unconcerned about college application at that time so I looked around the school campus in a bright mood and even talked to students there for help. Yet, prior to this year’s visit to Columbia, I was quite anxious since I realized that my college application is just around the corner. Even minor details of hallways and lecture rooms grabbed my attention and everything looked quite extraordinarily inspirational, especially the students fervently working on their assignments at the main library. Additionally, we had a private counseling session with a junior at Columbia who is a graduate from SIS about our commitment to studying and overcoming habitual laziness. She even challenged our common sense that some people even decide not to go to universities at all while she was sharing her friends’ anecdotes. When one of the members of the Delegation of Hope to the Future asked about her work ethic, she gave the most condensed and concise answer: Just Do It. I was so surprised at that moment as I was expecting a highly decorated answer with specific guidelines we can try to imitate. Last but not least, she taught us not to rely on others to set our goals and discover our true interests. Although I was not feeling well due to the jet lag and the overwhelming fatigue, I consistently stayed attentive to her invaluable suggestions. I surely believed that my patience brought me the most incomparably important assets to my life. We took a group photo in front of a giant statue and went on a brief campus tour to have the general view of the school. Although we did not have enough time to visit souvenirs shops, I could not be more thankful to our teachers who introduced a mentor for life and injected
optimism to an oblivious rising senior. We even ate out with her and her friend at a nearby restaurant and could meet them in person by having conversations about our current priorities and aims. My tour to Columbia physically ended when I exited the main gate of the school, yet my tour to Columbia is still ongoing inside my mind.
Visiting Brown University On the fourth day of our United Nations Training Program, we visited Brown University in the morning since it was on our way to Yale University in New Haven. Because we had to stay at another hotel for the other four days, we had to get up early and pack everything up. I was so busy on the bus since I had to submit an essay assignment to an academic contest that my teammates and I registered. As soon as I completed the final draft for the essay, I arrived at Brown University. There, I had a chance to meet Hyunjo Koh, who is currently a junior mainly interested in international relations and politics. She graduated from Daewon Foreign High School unlike other students at Brown who mostly graduated from private boarding schools in the United States. When she began introducing herself, she started with her hardships adjusting to a competitive environment and her methods to overcome such obstacles. Specifically, she told us not to feel estranged or isolated throughout conversations with American students as she also could not understand cultural references and unfamiliar concepts that only native speakers could grasp. Plus, she advised us to practice speaking in English more often as everyday life in the United States will be a challenge for international students. She even recommended us to visit an essay workshop to proofread and check any grammatical errors with people there. Once she admitted her shortcomings, she could figure out what to do next and fill in those gaps for another giant leap forward. I asked some questions about how different life at Brown is from life at a specialized high school in Korea. She said that the intensity of competition is cut-throat and even backbreaking since students at Brown seem to be born to study after all. Yet, she also emphasized the importance of our perseverance, tenacity, and diligence which might constantly motivate us to face upcoming challenges in the United States. This may connect to my memories in the United States. I lived in California when I was 13 years old and attended a local middle school there. I thought everything would be fine since I thought everyone would approach me as an international student. Yet, some kids treated me like Americans and had high expectations they had set for their counterparts. I realized that I have to keep my chin up to push myself through.
Visiting Harvard University In the morning, the two people from our delegation relentlessly knocked on our door. Sleep-deprived, almost furious, I opened the door and asked why they were here. They informed that the last dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s schedule of YMUN was canceled and the closing ceremony would be postponed. When I checked my group chats on Kakaotalk, everyone seemed befuddled and surprised by the unforeseen circumstances. Then, our teachers provided an alternative to taking a tour at Harvard University which one of the graduates of the United Nations Training Program was attending. We rented a school bus from a local and drove about three hours to get there. We met a sophomore Jung Ho Hwang at Harvard and listened to his brief introduction about the history of the college. To keep us entertained, he shared some stories about the statue of John Harvard which included stomach-churning ones and leaked some contents he wrote on his college application essays. After looking around some antiquely decorated buildings, we directly headed to nearby merchandise shops and impulsively purchased favorite sweatshirts and hoodies. I bought a hoodie with a large, embroidered Harvard logo in the middle to boast about my visit to Harvard as a tourist. Then, we had some time for a constructive Q&A session at the end to find out more information about life at Harvard. He told us to be honest with ourselves in terms of college application since so many people exaggerate themselves and get caught in their traps. Although it might be demanding as an international student to adjust to a new environment right away, he recommended us to communicate with as many colleagues as possible to foster long-term friendships. As a teenager looking forward to studying overseas, this piece of advice was empowering and insightful. This suggestion even made me look back to what I have
achieved so far since my friends were always there to support me to their fullest extents. Last but not least, I learned that I have to be less reliant to survive when I become a university student since I heavily counted on the comments that my parents and grandparents gave as golden keys. By rejecting some of theirs, I probably need to cultivate this sense of independence to overcome obstacles throughout my college life.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation Throughout the past three MUN conferences I have participated in so far, I was just a mediocre representative whose speeches were not proficiently eloquent and posture was highly questionable as a seasoned delegate. Born and raised in Busan, I could not have many chances to take part in diverse English academic contests such as English debate championships, MUN conferences, and mock trial competitions. So, when I entered the Model United Nations club at HAFS, I was so surprised that the then-president selected me as one of the crew members. Last year, I was elected the president of the club and held seminars and sessions about rules of procedure and methods to draft well-written resolutions, though I mostly preferred debates and discussions. As a junior, I probably was looking for a challenge that could enlighten and awaken myself to cross a threshold in my life. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why I applied for this delegation to Yale Model United Nations XLVI. After successful registration, I received the first assignment from the Secretariat. It was about submitting position papers before the committees would commence. When I securely logged into a website only for the delegates, I could check my committee and the two agendas that the chairs deliberately selected. The name of the committee was Japanese Occupation of Korea. Topic 1 was Korean Resistance (1919~1945) and Topic 2 was Post-War Negotiations (1945~1950). I was familiar with these topics as I studied Korean history in middle school and high school. Yet, I realized that background knowledge did not affect my performance in the committee since MUN did not require a profound understanding of every minor detail of historical events. For the first agenda, I portrayed Cho Man-sik who was a Korean nationalist who demanded a nonpartisan commitment to the restoration of Korean identity. I proposed the creation of the Korean Products Promotion Society to promote economic independence and underground routes to financially assist freedom fighters residing in Manchuria. I even suggested the establishment of Korean-funded civic universities for the public who did not have access to education at that time. Once I discovered a correlation between enslavement and a lack of education, people closely paid attention to my argument about the necessity of education, especially in Japanese colonies. For the second agenda, I portrayed Park Hon-yong who was reproached for his reputation as a war criminal. Although our committee did not have a war simulation, it was plausible to declare war against the government in the South. Throughout the latter half, I raised points about how to revive communism on the Korean peninsula and rekindle socialist sentiments among Koreans. With my comrades in the committee, we thought about disseminating propaganda, publishing manifestos and articles about social maladies under capitalist regimes. After we completed discussing the two agendas, we finally held a referendum which determined the future leader of unified Korea. Koreans chose Cho Man-sik as the president of unified Korea. As one of the three Koreans in the committee, I was moved by the spectacular commencement of the Korean government. I always had reservations about the first Korean government which failed to bring justice by punishing pro-Japanese collaborators. I was so delighted that I could at least remedy this issue hypothetically. North Korea, the most infamous, ill-reputed regime on Earth, even duly penalized traitors after its liberation and nationalized their properties. Countries in Southeast Asia partially succeeded in foreclosing private territories, but they have tried their best. By electing Cho Man-sik as the leader of our nation, I was satisfied with the establishment of a nationalist government on the Korean peninsula.
Putting my personal feelings to history aside, I was so entertained throughout the conference since a lot of competent delegates accelerated the development of our crisis committee. Though it was the first time involved in crisis committees, I could quickly adjust to its fast-paced and unpredictable nature since they led by example. My favorite was invariably the Security Council because of its complicated features which doubled up the amount of suspense and intrigue. However, after experiencing one of the crisis committees, my mind slightly changed and even tilted more toward joining crisis committees. Personal directives functioned as official resolutions somehow. Group directives acted as a compilation of individual resolutions. I fell in love with these interesting features and was engrossed in the dynamic nature. Last but not least, regularly released crisis updates were the cream of the crop. They were double-edged swords and unforeseen, preventing drafting resolutions confined in history. Occasionally, at the Chairsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; discretion, they changed the portion of actual history by narrating Syngman Rhee as a communist to inundate us with insurmountable difficulties. This was unacceptable for me in the beginning but it was such a splendid experience after all. I would like to express gratitude toward all the other delegates who joined our committee sessions. They might have been irritated by my speeches adulating the marvelous feats of Kim Il-sung as Pak Hon-yong and underwhelmed by my remarks reiterating the importance of national unity over and over as Cho Man-sik. However, they frequently sent notes and engaged with my line of logic to bring most out of it. I would like to also thank our teachers who had taken care of us for 8 days in the United States. Although we often threw tantrums like babies and complained about the hectic pace of the pre-assigned schedule, they redressed our grievances in a professional manner. If I have a chance to join this crew next time, I definitely would.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York When I first arrived at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York, I was surprised by its imposing figure and architectural complexity. Some of my friends who visited New York for various purposes had already told me about the enormity of the building, but I did not expect this much of magnificence. Before I could enter the building, there was a security checkpoint where we had to pull out electronic devices for scrutiny. Going through this process every time was a nuisance and some people felt irate. Yet, everyone was delighted after looking around the first basement which was full of amenities such as merchandise shops. For the first few days, we had to frequently visit this place as our lectures were scheduled inside a special room. Official Development Assistance, also known as ODA, was the first subject we immersed ourselves in. As always, a lecturer brought up Korea as an example of a successful transformation from a developing country to a developed country. He not only emphasized the uniqueness of the case of Korea but also strengthened his point about the impossibility of rags-to-riches scenario in the current international community. He suggested that it is not a common phenomenon for a country to rapidly develop and adopt democracy and capitalism at the same time. While referring to China and Russia, he was mainly impressed with Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s marvelous accomplishments. To improve the economic conditions of developing countries, he suggested several roles that others can play for
them. For example, some facilitators connected between developing and developed nations and supporters who funneled their financial assets into countries with unstable economic structures. Plus, he reiterated the significance of agenda-setting since ODA needed a direction and a blueprint to grasp the extent of financial assistance even before giving others some. Throughout a Q&A session, we elaborated on “reciprocity” to explain a deal between North Korea and the United States about the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. From his analysis, I felt that North Korea was not serious in terms of negotiations and not willing to abandon its nuclear arsenals forever. It might be an abdication of the throne of a nuclear regime. Next up was about the global presence of UNESCO, which was an acronym for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. A lecturer named Lily Gray introduced a mandate of UNESCO which elucidated its commitment to coordinating international cooperation in education, science, and communication. Since our school had a club named HAFS UNESCO, I kept close attention to the roles of the institution and the issues it was coping with. The first issue was murdering journalists in conflict areas and developing nations to conceal the truth and justify injustices. Mostly, the media under authoritarian regimes became sycophants to the administrations because they could not ensure their lives after releasing reports exposing corruption scandals. Plus, whistleblowers faced death or confront a heightened level of ostracism which almost deprived of their chance of survival at the end. To keep track of their transgressions, the UNESCO devised ways to protect the freedom of expression of the journalists in vulnerabilities and collected information to dismantle the axis of evil. Moreover, she shared her perspective on the Incheon Declaration and the Education 2030 Steering Committee which served as platforms to harmonize collective efforts toward the growth of global education. She talked about the urgency of implementing global citizenship education all across the globe to cultivate a sense of unity and interconnectedness and grant opportunities to exchange viewpoints on global affairs. Especially, she asserted the necessity of Comprehensive Sexuality Education which instructed girls about negative impacts of early marriage, prostitution, and sexual exploitation and raised awareness about frequently overlooked gender equality in excessively religious nations. Last but not least, she talked about the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development to announce the possible empowerment of the youth. UNESCO’s presentation was groundbreaking, thought-provoking and intriguing. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, also known as UN DESA, was the third topic that entertained our Korean delegation. Mr. Abraham Joseph gave us a lecture about what kind of vested interests does the UN DESA have and initiatives that it implemented to resolve conflicts involving economic crises. He clarified that SDGs, unlike MDGs, require support and attention to both developing and developed nations as they ultimately strive to achieve environmental sustainability. While MDGs primarily motivated the global community to eradicate poverty, SDGs endorsed gender equality, education for everyone and the prosperity of humanity as a whole. Furthermore, he also stated that economic empowerment comes from political participation and equal protection of women in male-dominant societies. He even extended his discussions to ethnic and religious minorities who had been persecuted for their different preferences and children in armed conflicts enlisted as child soldiers. As a closing remark, he uttered that the preservation of diversity is the fastest way to salvage as many people as possible and discard stereotypes that adversely affect our fresh perspectives. After this lecture, we asked various questions to Junhoung Yoo working at the United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs, also known as UNODA. Some inquiries were about the legitimacy of the usage of lethal autonomous weapons and the treaties signed by nations to reduce nuclear stockpiles and strategic arms. Some students were curious about the ulterior motives of countries dramatically decreasing the military expenditure over a short period and skeptical of the practicality of the UNODA in terms of de-escalating military conflicts and addressing concerns related to WMDs. His responses were close to perfect but he could not include minor details into his answers as he was unsure whether certain information was confirmed or not. Although he wanted to reveal specific procedures and approaches to our Hope to the Future delegation, those needed to be validated to be open to the public. Yet, his sincere pieces of advice inspired us.
On the last day of our United Nations Training Program, Shannon O'Shea gave a lecture about the United Nations Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fund, also known as UNICEF. She wanted to foster positive social movements for children through global awareness, action, and accountability. Although its origin was an emergency fund for children living their lives in impoverished regions, UNICEF served as a long-standing institution with its tradition of providing lifesaving assistance and subsistence to children in underprivileged areas. The Conventions on the Right of the Child and the UN Sustainable Development Goals were two established pillars which uphold the righteous cause of the UNICEF and encouraged other NGOs and CSOs to improve the standards of living of children in povertystricken countries. She even commented on the unresponsiveness of humanity toward climate change as a crime committed against children as inaction violated the rights of children to flourish their talents. Plus, she could not tolerate environmental degradations as they affected the environments that children were frequently interacting with. She claimed that the significance of SDGs and their connections to the protection of children may symbolically represent the goal of the entire humanity to combat global issues. I felt grateful that I could learn about the United Nations more specifically from the people working there.
HYUNMIN CHOI BUGIL ACADEMY Visiting Columbia University When I first entered Columbia University, the place I thought about was the square. A garden with beautiful buildings arranged in a spacious garden. I had a lot of imagination about foreign universities, but when I saw the actual campus, I felt like I had a fresh experience. It was windy that day, but it wasn't that cold because of the thrill of being in Columbia University. He wandered around, waiting for senior Kwon Ji Yeon for the campus tour. As I took pictures, I began to get closer to my friends around me, and finally the senior I had been waiting for arrived. Her first impression was full of confidence and high self-satisfaction. As she continued her tour of Columbia University, I felt that her progress was very smooth and stylistic. Later, she asked the lecture and emphasized curiosity and malice, which does not
mean harmfulness. The lecture gave me a second thought to my curiosity. I tend to be curious. I care that I don't bother to care, and I bother to go the way that no one has gone. However, there are quite a few cases in which the curiosity has been put into practice. The case is extremely rare, and considering the number of 100, only two survive. A case in point is the story of immunology. The first time I came across immunology was by anime, where the story of an immune cell came to me and looked for information related to it, and then I became interested and became interested in choosing a career path toward immunology. However, the lecture showed what "execution" really is. Real practice had to flow without ceasing. I have to dig something out again and again, just as the stream rotates. Isn't that what Ji Yeon said? It was a trip to Columbia University that allowed me to think like that.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation It was a real challenge for me to join the Yale MUN. In fact, before participating in this YMUN contest, I was an ignorant person who didn't know much about the UN. It was a difficult experience for me who had experienced only one school MUN conference before to write position paper when I was assigned a new subject, a new country and a new committee. In addition, the committee was ECOFIN, an economy-related committee, and the country was Adrian Arab Public, so I had to solve new problems in new countries in new fields. As a me with no economic knowledge, it was too difficult to find information, reconstruct it and figure out solutions with various platforms, and even calculate the advantages of joining with particular countries. But I completed position paper with a lot of help through the 2nd, 3rd and 5th MUN education. When I had my first position paper in front of me, I could not calm down. Now time has passed and I arrived in the U.S. and made many friends. Then, when I arrived at Yale University, my heart began to tremble. My brain, which I usually said would do well in a calm manner, was stiff and I was nervous at the opening ceremony. When I entered the hall, I couldn't speak properly. Talking to foreign friends was hard in itself and it was an ordeal. I was not good at speaking English like other friends, so I lost a lot of confidence. The first day passed without saying anything. I could tell my opinions sometimes, but that was the Unmoderated Caucus. I told my solutions little by little, but it made me more anxious to see that I was swayed by some of loud delegates. I couldn't say a word or make friends on the very first day. But the next morning dawned and I could finally be interested in YMUN. I took many lectures in the morning because it was a Yale Day session. The most memorable lecture was about studying abroad. The subject of the lecture was Education power of America, where she was introduced to research into allegations that the system was a plan by the United States to expand its power through education, and I was able to meet her at lunch with the professor and talk a lot. Anyway, after the fun Yale Day session, a new friend came to us who came back into the discussion room. She was also Korean, but she was very good at English because she was studying abroad. She was more fluent in English than in Korean, and was in such an important position in the YMUN process that it was like rain in a drought. As we became so close to each other, we formed a bloc and ended up my writing a resolution as a sponsor. After all, the next day, merging problem pushed me to signatory, but it was definitely a very good experience. Especially, I was able to get along a lot with my friends, and I had a good time in delegate dance as a party. Although many regrets remain that the last day was cancelled, it was an experience that helped me a lot in various ways. I have been able to build many competences such as English conversation skills, presentation skills, leadership, writing documents, and economic knowledge, and I think it is both a strange and useful experience to participate in discussions as a representative of a country that I thought was not related to my life. I think this has opened the eyes of the world.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I'm a science major. In other words, scientific and technical knowledge is relatively greater than social and human knowledge. This is also a relative matter, but I have little knowledge of the United Nations. Through world citizen education, I was able to participate in this education, but without SDGs, it was like an unknown world. However, I was able to accumulate a lot of knowledge through this education. In particular, it was a useful time to hear the details of the UN committees. Let's take one by one. The first place I went was the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the UN. Here I could meet a First Secretary. He was able to get information on how South Korea is affecting the UN decision-making process and what posture it is taking. In addition, I also learned the content of the Republic of Korea's actions and status amid various conflicts in the international community, especially about the Republic of Korea's expression of its position regarding sanctions on North Korea. This must have been a very meaningful activity because it comes from an experience that was never found in any article or material. The next place I went was the UN headquarters, and I was overwhelmed by the fact that I entered a place where I could not even enter my life. It was in itself an honor to be able to enter the lecture room and attend lectures to senior UNESCO officials. UNESCO executives mainly explained about education. If I had only been able to see UNESCO related to society and culture so far, I could see a new point through this education. I could see various tactics, such as the UNESCO's dispatch of advisers to various countries to improve the quality of education, and its proposal for various educational systems. Particularly, the Korean education system is considered a successful model from a foreign perspective. We have been thinking only about the evils of the outdated infusion-type education, but have not seen the outcome of the education of the Republic of Korea. Although education still has many problems, there is hope for a better education in the future. The next day, after a tour of UN headquarters, we were able to take lectures from UN DESA and UNODA staff. Both UN DESA and UNODA were new to me. A preliminary study found that UN DESA was involved in SDGs and UNODA was involved in disarmament. It was quite a refreshing experience to learn what was done in this department. The lecture included an explanation of the history of SDGs for UNDESA, efforts to achieve them, and detailed goals for SDGs. The UNODA mainly explained what disarmament is and why disarmament is important and could learn what efforts we should make to that end. Finally, I could experience going to the UNICEF and the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the UN. The UNICEF was making various efforts for children. But the diversity is so full that it can be said to go through almost every field. If there are 17 goals in SDGs, their efforts are extensive to the extent that UNICEF is closely correlated with all of those goals. But that does not mean a shallow policy. "It is important to use a step-by-step strategy without missing either one," said an executive of the UNICEF. After all UN education was over, a graduation ceremony was held. Most of the students looked tired, but everyone looked like they got something. Upon receiving the certificate, I presented my reflection about how I felt about my long work. I believe it was well conveyed in this long story that UN education was a rewarding and meaningful experience for me. I have no regrets. I just feel like I'm getting to know the unknown. To all those who have given me this opportunity, I would like to thank you once again.
SUNWOO KIM JAKARTA INTERCULTURAL SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University On January 19th, 2020, along with the hope to the future association group members, I visited Columbia University. A prestigious university established in 1754 by King George II of England and located in upper Manhattan. After arriving at the university campus, we first visited the Low Memorial Library, where Daniel Chester French’s famous Sculpture, Alma Mater, was built on the steps to the building. The group took pictures in front of the renowned building and sculpture while familiarizing with each other, as this was the first day of the trip. Later, a Columbia university student called Kwon Ji Yeon was kind enough to give us a detailed and informative tour around the beautiful school campus, where there was a mix of both traditional and modern buildings. Some buildings and other features of the university that I found interesting were, the Jerome Green Hall, built for the law department, with a enormous sculpture of Bellerophon taming Pegasus at an entrance, the Havemeyer Hall, built for the chemistry department, where there are state of the art research facilities, but also a most filmed lecture hall that made appearances in movies such as spider-man, and, lastly, the outdoor sculpture called ‘The Thinker,’ which isn’t the original sculpture, but was the work by the original artist, Auguste Rodin. To conclude the visit, Ji Yeon took us to a lecture hall, where she shared her journey, both as a Columbia university student, and a former high school student. In her presentation, the life lesson that she emphasized and I took to heart was to make your way, even if there isn’t. She talked about how her passion was design. Still, since Columbia university did not have that specific subject, she studied is currently studying this subject in her free time at the same pace as university classes that teach this subject. This indeed encouraged me to reflect on my life, and come to the resolution that I should be more resilient and resourceful as well. To elaborate further, I wanted to be more resilient when exploring my interests by using the resources that are available to the full extent. This would help me be the person that I want to be in the future and also someone that is happy with myself. Overall, the visit to Columbia University was an enriching experience that helped me get to know the school better, but also helped me think about me and my future as well.
Visiting Brown University On January 23rd, 2020, along with the hope to the future association group members, I visited Brown University. A prestigious university located in Providence, Rhode Island. After arriving at the university campus, we first listened to two Korean Brown University students on how they ended up in Brown University and their thoughts on being a part of the Brown University community. The key points that I took from the lecture and Q&A session were how diverse the Brown University community is. Also, how much freedom University students get in what classes they can take and interests they can pursue. Another
helpful tip the students gave us was to not look so hard for something to write about ourselves in the university essay. However, to write about something that we enjoy, which makes us unique, therefore, who we are. Later, the Brown University students took us on tour around the beautiful Brown University campus, in which the majority was made out of brick. Some interesting and unique monuments and buildings that I found interesting were the John Hay Library, which holds a vast collection of books of science, poetry, literature, and much more. Another unique monument was a huge blue bear with a lamp on its forehead, created by visual artist Urs Fischer. The statue was lent to Brown University for five years starting from 2016, and a striking bright blue piece of art among the brown bricked buildings surrounding it. The students also took us to the science department buildings, Rockefeller library, and much more. Overall, the visit to Brown University was an exciting and valuable experience that helped me get to know the school better and think about the next step, which is to go to university.
Visiting Harvard University On January 26th, 2020, along with the hope to the future association group members, I visited Harvard University. A prestigious university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. After arriving at the university campus, a Korean Harvard University student took us on tour around the beautiful campus. There were a lot of interesting and great monuments that I found were worth noting. Firstly, we visited the statue of John Harvard that is rumored to grant people acceptance to Harvard University, if one touches the statue’s foot. The interesting fact about the statue doesn’t stop here, the statue is not the portrayal of John Harvard, but a random university student attending Harvard at the time, as all records of John Harvard was burned in a fire. Another impressive building is the Memorial Church, which was built to honor those from Harvard University, who have died in World War 1. We also visited dorms where famous people such as Natalie Portman, or Matt Damon stayed during their years at Harvard. Lastly, we visited the Widener library, which holds millions of books. Later, there was a Q&A session with the Harvard University student, where a variety of questions were asked. The key points that I took from the session were how you should show that you are interested in this particular thing to the university, not just in your academics, however, outside of it through extracurriculars or competitions, etc. Overall, the visit to Harvard University was an exciting and valuable experience that helped me get to know the school’s curriculum and buildings betters.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation Between January 23rd, 2020, to January 26th, 2020, along with the hope to the future association group members, I attended the 46th Yale Model United Nations. Among many others from different places across the world, I was the delegate of Haiti in the CPD (Commission of Population and Development) committee. This was my first time attending YMUN, or even attending a MUN conference in the first place. At the beginning of the conference, I was perplexed by how the MUN conference progressed. Not only that, I was extremely nervous and hesitant to say anything as I was scared to say anything wrong, or rather, anything that other delegates strongly disagree with. Therefore, during moderated caucuses on the different branches regarding the topic (the urbanization of sub-Saharan Africa), I would not volunteer to give Haiti’s viewpoints on the subject. However, I did send notes to the different countries that aligned with Haiti’s views, and this lead to me being able to work with multiple countries (New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Colombia, Kuwait, etc.) in creating
a working paper together. Not only this, I was able to gain enough confidence to give my country’s viewpoints on the issue and also suggestions to fix specific problems that arise when countries urbanize rapidly. Throughout the conference, I became more and more familiar with the structure and progression of a MUN conference. Not only that, but I was also able to gain more confidence to say my country’s viewpoints on the topic as I learned that the other countries do listen to what I have to say and consider it. This allowed me to have a more significant role when making the working paper as my viewpoints and solutions were incorporated in the working paper that, after the third conference, more countries joined. The new bloc formed with many more countries was named the IDEAS bloc (standing for Infrastructure, Development, Education, Accessibility, and Sustainability). The main goal of the bloc being the incorporation of every member countries’ viewpoints, I truly felt that teamwork was essential and, also, very present in our bloc. Towards the end of the conference, the different resolution papers were voted to either be approved or denied. Satisfyingly, the IDEAS bloc working paper was accepted, meaning that the incorporation of the myriad of countries’ viewpoints and solutions of problems were considered and utilized to solve this issue of urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. After the topic was resolved, the next topic to discuss was on building sustainable and stable cities in Southeast Asia. However, we, the CPD committee, did not end up getting the topic resolved as resolving the first topic took the majority of the conference. After the meetings, a dance party took place where I got to have fun with my new friends and bond with them even more. It was a great experience where I got to spend time with people outside of a conference. Overall, the YMUN XLVI was an enriching experience that allowed me to thoroughly explore the issue of urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa with the multiple viewpoints of different countries represented by different people. Through this experience, not only was I able to learn new things and gain more knowledge, but I was also able to meet new people coming from all over the world. Although I couldn’t properly say farewell to the new people I met, the YMUN XLVI conference was an enriching experience where I got to have fun and learn from start to finish.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York I visited the United Nations headquarters, and other various places such as the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations, or the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations. Along with these visits, we listened to a myriad of lectures, covering various topics and parts of the United Nations: A conference from the First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations called Na Sang-deok informed us on Korea’s significant roles in the UN, whether it be funding, putting forth new agenda, or nuclear negotiation. He also taught us on Korea progress as a part of the United Nations, where the country was able to transition from a recipient to a donor country. Overall, the visit to the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations was a great experience as I was able to learn the various roles, impacts, and importance of my own country, South Korea, in a global scale and as a member of the United Nations. A lecture from Political Affairs Officer Lily Gray informed us of UNESCO’s role in helping the global community, especially in education, science, culture, and communication. An interesting fact that I learned about UNESCO was that the organization leads and operates the sustainable development goal number 4, quality education, in the 2030 agenda. Also, that UNESCO has GEM (Global Education Monitor) to assess and decide on which areas need knowledge of better quality or just education itself. Overall, the presentation of UNESCO was interesting as I was able to learn and explore UNESCO, a vital part of the United Nations that thrives on ensuring education for everyone and contributes to the sustainable development goals in agenda 2030. A lecture by Dr. Abraham Joseph taught us the 17 sustainable development goals of the United Nations. The presentation had eight sections, those sections being: 1. International development policies of UN 2. Background
of SDG adoption 3. The final result of MDG 2000-2015 4. UN sustainable development goals 2015-2030 5. How SDG is different from MDG 6. SDG implementation: Progress & Challenges 7. How to be involved in SDG progress 8. UN Vision to achieve the 2030 agenda: Leaving no one behind. The section that I was most interested in was 5. How SDG is different from MDG, as it was an eye-opening to learn that the United Nations have been working on the same issues for a long time and have made the improvements, in their plans, necessary to accomplish their goals better. Ultimately, it has made me realize that the world, as a whole, recognizes certain flaws and makes the necessary changes to eliminate these flaws. Not only that, Dr. Joseph also talked about how UN DESA is guided by the 2030 agenda of sustainable development and other global agreements, showing that UN DESA is strongly related to the 17 sustainable development goals. A lecture by Political Affairs Officer Yoo Junhoung taught us about UNODA. More specifically, what it does and what its different members specifically do. The lecturer also told us about his life in being a member of the United Nations, and also in the UNODA. Mainly, I learned the role of UNODA, which is to deal with disarmament issues such as the usage of nuclear weapons, or a large number of military artillery, etc. An interesting job in the UNODA that the lecturer mentioned was the counting of bullets to check whether certain places followed the correct protocol or whether the number of bullets counted matched the amount they officially reported to have, etc. Overall, the presentation was very informative of the UNODA, which is an essential part of the United Nations that I was able to learn more about. A lecture by Dominique Favre, the Deputy Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations (Federal Department of Foreign Affairs), informed us of Switzerland and the United Nations. More specifically, he talked about the similarities and alignments of Switzerland’s foreign policy goals according to the federal constitution, and the United Nations Charter. Overall, the presentation has allowed me to be more informed and educated on Switzerland’s important role in the United Nations, whether it be funding, promoting respect for human rights, helping to alleviate poverty, and much more. Lastly, a lecture by Ms. Shannon O’Shea, informed us on UNICEF. More specifically, what it does, and the different aspects the organization focuses on. I learned that UNICEF focuses on a myriad of topics regarding child rights, and, similarly, various solutions to solve these problems. An interesting and unique solution for the education of sustainability to children was the creation of comic books for the children to both have fun and learn about issues regarding sustainability when reading these comic books. Overall, the lecture on UNICEF was very informative and interesting as what UNICEF does was explored to a great extent, and solutions to the problems that UNICEF focuses on were creative and unique. Besides the lectures, the group members and I had a guided tour around the New York United Nations Headquarters, where we visited important conference rooms of the building such as the General Assembly Hall, Economic and Social Council Chamber, and Trusteeship Council Chamber. During the tour, the guide also showed us interesting, and unique features such as the 30 articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, designed by the Brazilian artist Octavio Roth, the disarmament section of the tour were particular objects (such as coins, bottles, and statues) retrieved after the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear bombing could be observed, and also, Norman Rockwell’s huge, and beautiful mosaic entitled ‘Golden Rule.’ Overall, the United Nations headquarters training program was an enriching experience. As, through the United Nations headquarters training program, I have gained so much knowledge on the many components that make up the United Nations. Whether it be an organization or a country, these parts allow the United Nations to be what it is currently. Not only that, but I have also learned that the United Nations is not flawless, but the members recognize these flaws and truly work together to fix these problems, thereby allowing themselves to help the world more effectively and efficiently. Lastly, the exploration of the United Nations Headquarters, in the guided tour, specifically the enormous meeting rooms, has truly allowed me to recognize the magnitude of the United Nation’s importance in the cooperation among multiple countries with different opinions.
YOUHA LEE SUWON ACADEMY OF WORLD LANGUAGES Visiting Columbia University Long story short, during the meeting with Ji Yeon, currently a student in Columbia University, not only did I learn about the university but learned about life in general. I’m a very emotional person who cry over squirrels, thus, hearing a speech about life and dreams made me hold up my tears. She stressed the fact that going to university is not something mandatory but something that should be motivated by our passion and what we love and like. The two points that were the most memorable and touching during her speech was “Be curious and make your own way.” “Be curious.” The passion that you have towards something, the curiosity you have for certain things will take you to wards an unprecedented journey and that is what matters when applying for college. These are what Ji Yeon said. Her curiosity was on research initially and as she went through college life, her curiosity took her to a whole new major that she created, design. This take us to her second point, “Make your own way.” In Columbia, the course of design isn’t available, thus she made that course. In other words, she made her own way! While following her passion and curiosity, there were circumstances when she was the first one to walk that path. In this situation, rather than just giving up due to the limits made by her surroundings, she made her own way! These two points were pinned in my brain as it was very relevant to my situation. I am the kind of person who thinks that university is not inevitable in our life. For me, university is something that I choose to go not because someone or the society made me to go. My curiosity and passion for certain areas have motivated me want to go to university. My passion for academics is in that I love thinking and sharing my thoughts with my peers and debating on them which really helps me to widen my perspectives and grow which I think is the most benefit form living in a society and being in school. To follow this passion, currently in school, me and my other classmates have made a small study group that reads, thinks, and debate named ‘Muji’ which means lack of knowledge in Korean. We named it after experiencing our Korean class that was basically what we were aiming for -reading, thinking, and debating- using the book called ‘21 lessons for the 21st Century’. After experiencing this class, we thought we have so much to learn in this world especially out of class using just textbooks. Thus, we named it ‘Muji’ meaning lack of knowledge encompassing the meaning that we as students have so much to learn. The purpose and the lessons I learned from ‘Muji’ is one of the reason why I chose the path for university. My passion for thinking and sharing thoughts with others, the fact that we have so much to learn is what academically motivated me to work hard for university. My passion in life in general is in helping others. I love the fact that I can be helpful to others. When I am in the situation of helping someone, I feel the joy that can’t be described into words. Thus, my dream is to be the person who can be helpful to people especially children in the actual field through God’s words. These passions in academic and in life general have made me to work towards the goal: university. Thus, when I heard the part “Be curious” during Ji Yeon’s speech, it made me very emotional. As a student who is attending a high school following the Korean education curriculum, preparing for American universities was and is still a very challenging path for me. About 98% of students in our school prepares for Korean universities, so all curriculums and activities in schools are mostly headed towards that path. In a nutshell, I had to make my own way like Ji Yeon said. There were and are so many obstacles I face due to the limits the
environment around me puts. However, I decided to try my best to make my own way and walk through as in the end it is my life and I wouldn’t want to regret it because of some choices I was made to do not by my own will. The meeting we had in Columbia University wasn’t just about what SAT scores, GPA, extra curriculums, etc. she had but about life from a more experienced college student. Seeing her, it made me think of another reason I want to head for universities. The people. The people you get to talk to and study with would be an indescribable part of life in universities.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation MUN Conference (UNHRC - Italy) 1. Topic 1: Global Persecution of LGBTQ+ Populations In our committee, we initially discussed about the rights of LGBTQ+ rights. During this discussion, the chairs made sure that everybody was feeling respected and comfortable as this topic is a very sensitive issue. For moderated caucuses, we mainly talked about dealing with religious beliefs, international action vs national action, and national sovereignty. As a result, we had 3 draft resolutions- one stressing national sovereignty, another stressing international cooperation (E.R.A.), the other in the middle of those two contradicting aspects. The bloc that was focusing on national sovereignty highlighted the fact that it is up to each country whether to make action or not regarding the issue of LGBTQ+ rights. They were against the draft resolution stressing international cooperation in that it is forcing other countries to adapt to the solutions western countries (most countries in E.R.A. were western countries) were proposing. Thus, another bloc was formed between E.R.A and those emphasizing national sovereignty as these two blocs were heading way towards the end of each aspect. In my personal opinion, I believe religious beliefs, national sovereignties are something that needs to be respected. However, when it starts violating human rights, we need to see that in another perspective as there are no exceptions regarding human rights. Thus, I thought international cooperation was very much needed. Yet, throughout the conference, I was able to understand the importance of national sovereignty and see the solutions of this topic in another perspective. I believe this is one of the reasons why I love Model United Nations (MUN). Through MUN, you get the chance to see the problems in our society in different perspectives through other students - especially in YMUN, students from all around the world. One thing for sure in regard to this topic is that the rights of LGBTQ+ rights are definite rights of human. All blocs agreed with this fact. 2. Topic 2: Trafficking in Conflict Zones We started discussing the topic about trafficking on the third day of the YMUN XLVI conference. With topic 2, delegates were sharing more common views than topic 1. Delegates agreed on the importance of investigation, rehabilitation of victims, prevention, etc. For these possible solutions, we discussed the root causes, safe immigration, education, raising awareness, prosecution, citizenship, etc. My point of view regarding trafficking is in that victims should come into our consideration and this is why I was very delighted to see solutions for victims being discussed in the room. I have been to 2 other MUN conferences addressing human trafficking and every time, it seemed that for most of the delegates victims were not being considered as important as other parts of the resolution. Thus, seeing other delegates were also highlighting the importance of victims adjusting back to the society was a meaningful approach to this topic for me. In our society, there are many situations other than human trafficking where victims are triggered. When they come back to the society, it seems that rather than the perpetrators, victims are the ones who have to hide behind the doors and struggle having their lives back. Seeing these circumstances, I try to stand on the side taking victims into consideration over other things. I do recognize the importance of other aspects but most of the time, other people recognize them too which rarely happens towards the importance of dealing with victims. Unfortunately, our last session was cancelled so we didn’t get to debate over the resolutions but it was still a fruitful discussion regarding trafficking in conflict zones. It was
great to discuss over world’s serious problems with students form all around the world who all have diverse perspectives.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Transnational Cooperation in Risk Society, SDGs Ulrich Beck is a German sociologist who is known for risk society. He pointed out that risks are intrinsic in today’s society which would lead to global risk society. Beck stresses the effects of technology which triggers new forms of conflicts continuously. One peculiar thing about modern risk society is in that the persistent risks we face due to technology affects the whole world regardless of nations as we are in the era of globalization. They threaten us vigorously. Conflicts such as nuclear weapons, poverty, environmental problems, etc. are becoming more and more of an issue as we approach towards the 4th industrial revolution. Although there are constant dangerous consequences in developing technologies, for convenience and abundance, we people would not stop from developing technologies. Thus, we are now living in a society where there are continuous threats- “Risk Society”. However, one other thing Beck paid attention to is the fact that because people today are modernized, people would come together again regardless of their rank and nation to combat the threats. Moreover, people will think of the negative results of developing technologies and consider alternatives – modernized reflective oneself. As a result, there will be methods to control the dangers in our daily lives through but not limited to laws which is an active move in taking action in the risk society. To sum up, Beck believed that the risks we face in our society are something humans can control. In our society, there is an international cooperation to control the dangers in the risk society- SDGs. SDGs is short for Sustainable Development Goals addressing world’s problems such as gender equality, climate change, poverty, justice and many more. There are 17 goals and they are all linked to each other. SDGs were adapted by all member states of the UN in 2015 calling for a global partnership in dealing with issues that need a hand now. I think SDGs are one of the necessary movements and another example of an active action in our risk society. The fact that all nations whether they are developed or developing held hands to resolve the conflicts makes SDGs valuable enough. Nevertheless, we as components of the society should behave actively to achieve those goals (SDGs) and truly resolve the problems as just recognizing the problems does not enough. “We should all work together until a time comes when all of the aims we are heading for becomes so natural that it would be awkward to set these goals. (Shannon O’Shea, lecturer from UNICEF during our training).” This is exactly why the role of every single person matters in achieving SDGs which is controlling the risks in the risk society which is in the long run, making the world a better place for everyone. Bibliography 1.
Supriya Guru, “Beck’s Theory of Risk Society of Modernity: Definition and Specialty of Risk Society”, Your Article Library, http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/becks-theory-of-risk-society-of-modernity-definition-and-speciality-of-risk-soc iety/39843
Sujaemo, “2015 June Korean SAT Mock Test Non-fiction Passage- Modernity”, Naver Blog, https://m.blog.naver.com/PostV iew.nhn?blogId=magician_e&logNo=220386454295&proxyReferer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F
GYURI KIM PUSAN FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Columbia University This was my second time visiting Columbia University in the City of New York and the second time hearing the inspirational presentation that changed my perspective of living life from now a third-year student, Kwon Ji Yeon. The last time I heard the presentation from her, she emphasized that the people has let her know that there is no right way of living. I thought I understood that the first time I heard it from her. But I realized that I still had the stereotype of the right way of living until now. After hearing her lecture for the second time, I realized that I did not have anything that I was passionate in enough that I would put in as much effort as any Columbia student would. In Ji Yeon’s case, she has only started her major, design, on her second year. She mentioned that when she has found her passion towards design, she realized that she had to catch up with the other design students who already studied a year ahead of her and studied until 3am every day. I was first of all, impressed by her courage to start a new major when there were so many students ahead of her, and also impressed by the effort she put in to follow her passion. As for me, I wanted to major in either international relations, political science, or economics for no specific reason. I have only recently started to find my passion towards international relations ever since I’ve started Model United Nations. And after the second time I heard this inspiring lecture from Kwon Ji Yeon, I realized it is just the beginning for me to pursue my dreams of studying international relations in college.
Visiting Brown University On the first day of the program, Brown University was the second university we went to. In that university, we first had 2 students briefly explained to us how they got into the university and the university itself. We learned that Brown University was significantly less academically pressuring compared to other universities. That was one of the positive traits that students in Brown University liked since they could focus on learning about things they are passionate about. That was also very appealing for me because I usually conflict with my passion which is MUN and my studies. Also, student graduated a foreign language high school but still managed to take the SATs and get a GPA for an overseas college. As a student that is currently aiming for a college in Korea and grad-school overseas, I could really relate to her because I go to a foreign language high school as well. Also, during the campus tour, I overheard many students saying “I’m so glad I came to Brown instead of other universities.” I realized how passionate the students in this university is and was very astonished by it. Brown University became more appealing to me than last year ever since it became one of the schools I’ve wanted to go to for grad school. Overall, Brown University, one of my goal schools for grad school, which was very meaningful to me.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York Our third schedule for this program was training at the United Nations. We first went to the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations which I’ve went in my last visit and the sessions were just as fruitful and I was astonished by all the comprehensive questions asked by other students in the Q&A sessions.
Next, we heard a session from a worker working at UNESCO. On our second day of training at the United Nations, we listened to a session that overall covered all 16 Sustainable Development Goals. The last session we heard on the second day was about disarmament which our group was in charge of for making a report on. Sadly, the session on disarmament was relatively short due to time limit. However, we were very lucky to have the lecturer’s email address and we were very grateful to have our remaining questions answered through email. Our last session was from UNICEF and as much as it was our last session, there were so many complex questions that I was astonished by. All of these sessions I’ve heard has also indicated to me that I’ve developed in many different aspects ever since my previous visit to the United Nations in August because there was a drastic difference between my understanding of what was mentioned in the sessions at my previous visit and my 2nd visit. What’s more, I could also apply the knowledge I obtained from the session on the last schedule of the program, YMUN XLVI which made all the sessions much more memorable. Overall, I believe that all these sessions at the United Nations I’ve heard has helped me develop a step closer towards my numerous goals.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation The last schedule of the program was the one I was most looking forward to which was YMUN XLVI. I have started participating in MUN sessions since my second semester of my freshman year in high school and have been passionate towards MUN ever since. Before YMUN XLVI, I have had a total of 7 experiences as a delegate and each of the conferences had very different ways of debating or writing resolutions. I was thrilled to see what kind of Rules of Procedure YMUN followed and how they wrote resolutions and how the conference would go. First of all, YMUN was different from the MUN conferences in Korea because instead of focusing on the rules of procedure like refraining from using I, you, and we or suspending the rules when using electronics, the whole conference itself was very focused on the pure debate that was going on about the agenda. Also, when making motions for unmoderated or moderated caucuses, the delegates specified the purpose of those motions very precisely unlike my other experiences as a delegate which was a trait I really liked because all the delegates were discussing about the same matter which helped the productivity of the conference. Also, this conference had the most delegates I’ve ever seen, which was 48. A lot of the conferences I experienced had 20 delegates at most and it was astonishing to see almost 50 delegates in one committee room. Because there were so many delegates, there were also many blocs and numerous resolutions for a single topic which was also interesting for myself since most of the time the committees I were in usually only wrote one resolution for each topic. Having numerous blocs was also one of the traits I really liked about YMUN because it was a great way to see each country’s perspective as each resolution had different opinions about the topics which made the debates much more comprehensive. I was also able to meet so many different people at YMUN and widen my perspective and also follow what the lecturers from Columbia University, Brown University, and the people I’ve met at Yale University, has mentioned; hearing life stories from many different people. It was such a great opportunity to meet students from many different countries who go to schools with very different curriculums. It was such a shame that the last session was cancelled because YMUN was such an enjoyable experience for me. This experience was once again an eye opener to the world for me and I am looking forward to go to the 47th YMUN as well.
KIWOONG LEE HOMESCHOOLING Visiting Columbia University We went on a tour to Columbia University as soon as we arrived in the Network. We met Ji Yeon Kwon, who is a junior of the Columbia University. We were so tired because of the long flight time of 14 hours. But in the good atmosphere of school, we forgot our tiredness and enjoyed our tour. This was my second visit to Columbia University, but I still felt new. Last time I came in summer and this time in winter, I had a different feeling. The school buildings were very impressive and especially the school libraries seemed to have really well expressed the atmosphere. After the tour, we heard the presentation prepared by Ji Yeon. The presentation was about the good things of the Columbia University and things she learned from the School. Also she emphasized the people around us are so important. The world demands sociality. Human-to-human relationships are one of the most important factors in living the world. People around us affect us. We learn and feel many things through people. People are born and raised in different environments. So each has different beliefs, ideas, and goals. As we talk to each other, we learn things we didn't know, have new perspectives, and think deeper. We develop ourselves and have a good influence on others. These interactions among the people will have a huge impact not only on our interests but also economically and politically, which will have a good effect on the world. It was a very informative time and I really learned and felt a lot through the Columbia University tour. I was also very happy to meet good people. If I have a chance, I want to come again next time.
Visiting Brown University It was my first visit to Brown University. The campus felt very soft and harmonious like a village. Looking around Brown campus, the atmosphere of the school was so family like. It felt very warm. One of the most impressive things I heard during a question-and-answer session with Hyunjo, who is a senior of the Brown University, was that school activities were conducted in a free atmosphere. Also, various questions about college were solved through the question and answer time with her. She told us she and her friends built a club for international students to help them adjust to school. When I heard this story, I felt that I really wanted to join these clubs when I entered college. It can have a positive impact on people and we will be able to grow and develop further by doing these activities. I want to help people by creating such a club. Since I was young, I wanted to have a good influence on people around me. And since I was a young, my parents wanted me to be such a warm person who can be considerate and understanding others. It's really hard to have a good influence on people around us. To have a good influence on people around us, we must first act right and set an example to others. Based on what I felt at Brown University and what I learned from Hyunjo, I will try my best to develop further and set an example for others. It was a really informative time because my goals became clearer and I got a lot of good information, and I would like to visit again if I have a chance.
Visiting Harvard University After the YMUN, We went on a tour at Harvard University. When I heard that we were going to Harvard University, I felt like I was dreaming. Harvard is the best university in the world recognized by all people. It proved itself to be the best in the world by having a deep history and nurturing a lot of talent so far. Especially, I was looking forward to the Harvard tour because I wanted to study business. My humming didn't stop on the bus on the way to Harvard University. When we arrived at the Harvard, we met Jung Ho Hwang, who is a freshman of the Harvard University. The tour began under the leads of Jung Ho. He took us to the dormitory first. We were so surprised when he mentioned people who lived in dormitories. When Matt Damon, Natalie Portman, Mark Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and Roosevelt were mentioned, we really couldn't calm down because they are called the best in each field. The atmosphere at school overwhelmed us and our mouths could not remained shut during the tour. I thought it would be hard for me to enter this school even though I am person who always think positively. But what Jung Ho told us on the tour, never give up on your dreams and nothing is impossible and if I really try hard toward my dream, you will be there before you know it. It destroyed my negative thoughts. During the tour, he did his best to answer my questions. Despite he was busy, he helped our tour and answering questions as best he could. So I was so grateful for him. I learned and felt a lot from the tour thanks to him. It was a bit disappointing because the tour time was shorter than I expected because Jung Ho was busy, but it was a very informative and happy time. After the school tour, I fell in love with this school. I thought I really want to study at this school. If I have a chance, I want to study at this school in the future.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation This was my first MUN. I was scared. I am both excited and scared when I do something for the first time normally. It was even tenser because the YMUN was the biggest competition of the MUN. I was worried because it was obvious that smart children had gathered from all over the world in the competition. I thought the atmosphere of the competition would also be very aggressive. As soon as we arrived at Yale University, each committee got together and the competition began after opening ceremony. My committee was World Bank, an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of poorer countries for the
purpose of pursuing capital projects. There were two agendas in the contest, and the delegates had too long a discussion on the first agenda, so the second one could only be discussed for a short period of time. It was still an informative time. The atmosphere in the committee was more friendly than I thought and the chairs were so nice as well. On the second day, we got to know each other very quickly and the competition began not in a harsh competition but in a very good atmosphere in which we shared our thoughts on one topic. As the days went by, the atmosphere got better. I prepared for the opening speech very hard, but I felt sorry for not being able to do it. Instead, it was good to talk about my arguments on the subject in moderated Caucus time. Most of all, I was so happy that all the students worked so hard, and I was so grateful and amazed that I was having this contest with these students (delegates). During the competition days, I was able to take classes from Yale professors and also became close with my friends as we ate together and have conversation. So I could adjust quickly to the atmosphere of the campus. During this contest, I made many friends and learned and felt many things. It was a really happy time. If I have a chance, I would like to come and spend some meaningful time with new friends and atmosphere. It was such an honor to be able to attend this contest and have a good experience with these wonderful friends in Yale University.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York It is not common for high school students to come to the UN headquarters and take lectures from officers and doctors. So much so that this program is valuable and meaningful. So I made a tremendous effort to participate in this training program. And fortunately, I was able to participate in the program. We arrived at the UN headquarters, we passed the security belt and got into the headquarters. The lobby was decorated like an exhibition of UN history. We went downstairs and entered the lecture room. The room was like a classroom, so it was kind of familiar to us. The lecture began and we concentrated on the ambassador. The lecture was about the history and work of each committee. Officers came in and taught us the class and the presentations were wonderful. The best thing about this training was that the officers did their best to answer our questions even though they are busy. So our questions about each committee were easily solved. We also had a great chance to tour the UN headquarters. We could see many great places such as General Assembly, SC, and ECOSOC. We also saw a statue, described history of the UN It was a really precious time. Not only the UN headquarters, but also the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the UN and so on, I have learned and felt a lot while visiting many committees and listening to the lectures. I was inspired and got good energy through the training as well. I, moreover, was so happy for the officers and the time I spent with my friends. It was such an honor. It was a really happy time. If I have a chance, I want to come again and get a training.
MINHYEONG LEE DONGDUCHEON FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL Visiting Brown University The tour to Brown University was very interesting and provided a lot of information about the University. The tour consisted of a Q&A session about the university and a tour around the university. The part that I found most interesting about the university is how much freedom the university provides its students. How the university allows students to freely change their courses when they want to. This aspect of the university I felt was one of the best parts of it, since it allowed students to search for the direction that they wanted to take their lives. The campus tour was great as well and the campus itself was beautiful. Overall the tour provided great information about the university and made me consider Brown as one of my options for university.
Training at the United Nations Headquarters in New York The United Nations education program was a very enlightening experience. The program included lectures and Q&A sessions from various branches of the United Nations that provided detailed information on the purpose of their respective organizations. There were also lectures provided by several countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; missions to the United Nations where we could ask questions about the countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; policies, the direction they plan on doing, etc. This experience provided a lot of rich and valuable information that was a huge help towards the preparations for the Yale Model United Nations.
YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation The Yale model United Nations was a unique once-in-a-lifetime experience. The competition was not just a competition, it was a stage for students from all over the world to express their opinions and interact with each other. This was my first time attending an official Model United Nations competition, but the UNHCR council, which was intended for beginners(from my understanding) was very easygoing and did everything they could to make the delegates feel at ease and let them learn the ropes of Model United Nations. This was an unforgettable experience and I hope I can experience it again someday.
SUNGMIN CHOI BUSAN FOREIGN SCHOOL YALE Model United Nations XLVI Korean Delegation The conference at Yale University was an experience like no other. I got the chance to interact with many international students from various countries. Interacting and debating with these students was a very educational experience. I learned more about myself, and my public speaking skills got a lot better. Overall, this experience helped me improve myself in many ways. On the first day, it was very awkward to talk to people, but once I got the courage to do so, I realized how easy it was to make new friends. Just a few conversations with random people helped me improve my social skills, and it proved to me that meeting new people wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t that hard. After the first person I talked to, it became a lot easier. I could comfortably talk to new people and make new relationships. By the end of the Conference I made some relationships that will last. To wrap up, these are the key points where I improved. In this Yale Model United Nations, I improved my public speaking skills and my social skills. Before the conference I was very shy and I wasn't very confident when talking in front of large groups of people, but now I am a lot more comfortable at speaking in front of crowds. For my social skills, before the conference, I was scared to talk to new people, but now I am very comfortable with talking to strangers I just met.
Staff Reflection Nakyoung LEE, Hanyang University Suemin KANG, Korea University
Nakyoung LEE, Intern at Education Department Hope to the Future Association â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am convinced that five months at HFA was a precious time to know my points to be desired and improve myself.â&#x20AC;?
I am proud to have joined Hope to the Future Association. I have learned and experienced so much for five months. I did a lot of education-related activities before I was accepted as an intern of HFA. Based on these experiences, I was confident that I was able to join the current organization and have the ability to treat students effectively. However, when I came to work for the first time, I realized that I still lacked a lot and had a lot to learn. Compared to my early days when I first joined HFA and took over, now I have the overall ability to support some of our skillful training projects. I was able to grow in many ways on my own by taking on a lot of outside work, events and daily work. Hope to the Future Association is an international education organization under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. However, I am not a student at the Faculty of International Studies, and I had no interest in the field of international studies at all. Nevertheless, I seemed to have completed my internship properly thanks to the company staff and my fellow interns who always have taken care of me and helped me to work. Also, working at HFA has allowed me to be interested in international issues. After joining HFA, I did various tasks such as supporting global citizenship education, editing result reports (Bugil, Haneul Academy etc), managing homepage news, volunteering, and manpower management. But my main task was, the 15th UNTP, the most important overseas education program in the first half of 2020. In January 2020, I went on a business trip to the UN headquarters and Yale University in New York for about ten days to conduct our 15th UNTP. As an intern, there were a lot of hard times because of jet lags and tight schedules, but the fact that I led 35 students and completed the training program was a great opportunity for me to change myself. At the UN headquarters, I also had a valuable opportunity to listen to the lectures of several senior officials of UN. Among them, the last lecture from UNICEF was most impressive and I had a great influence on my previous opinion about child rights and protection. And I could help our students produce result reports based on several lectures in the UN. Every day during the business trip, I made notices and announcements to students directly, and I did my best to support the overall programs of HFA abroad. It was also a big asset that I had been in charge as an advisor to the Yale Model United Nations (YMUN), which was attended by students from all over the world. Unlike the four months in the office where I managed 35 participants and helped them to submit their assignments, I could grow and learn a lot by seeing myself doing something actively in different environment with our students. At first, it was awkward and hard for me to be involved in this organization. Looking back on myself, I have been very inexperienced. Nevertheless, thanks to assigning me the great deal of responsibility from the very beginning, I could adapt to the work environment of HFA. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the HFA staff for trusting me and helping me to finish my five-month work in the organization. I would also like to thank the 15th UNTP students who followed me and completed the schedule. I am convinced that five months at HFA was a precious time to know my points to be desired and improve myself. Through this internship, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m sure that I can find a better job and take step closer to my dream.
Suemin Kang (Korea University) Intern at Education Department Hope to the Future Association “Sharing passion for international society with these ardent students was the best part of the entire program.”
Sharing passion for international society with these ardent students was the best part of the entire program. The students’ aspiration, questions, and intensive discussions rewound the tape of my own MUN years, sending me back to 7 years ago. At my first MUN conference, where I had trouble between words ‘caucus’ and ‘cactus’, I realized that while I was complaining about the hot, suffocating weather on my way to academies, younger children on the opposite side of the world did not even have access to the most basic educational ground and water system. Starting from that very aha moment, I realized that even a trifling idea can one day become the most optimal solution if we bring cooperation into the room. The exclusive leverage that the UN has is the process of gathering ideas from all around the world no matter how severe the issue is. I was captivated by the existence of global collectivism built upon respect towards human dignity, rights, and international peace. The UN lectures from this program deepened my understanding of such goals that the UN pursues, and how each committee works efficiently in the actual field. The most impressive lecture was the UNICEF lecture from Shannon O’Shea. The detrimental effects of climate change towards children, the transition of a short term to long term support program when addressing the crisis, and the desirable perspective of perceiving children refugees were fascinating topics that I got to thoroughly question and answer during the lecture. Not only the content itself, but the delivery, passion, and confidence she had with her specific field were also remarkable. As a student majoring in international studies, I do not doubt that the diverse lectures from UNICEF, UNESCO, UN DESA, and UN ODA have made me build up more knowledge and methods of approaching global issues. When giving students meticulous feedback on their position papers, MUN procedures, and opening speeches, I tried hard to communicate with them one by one. By listening to their solutions to cope with issues such as natural disasters in the African region or the apprehensive influences of China’s belt and road initiative, once again I could feel the significance of youth participation in our society. It was an honor to take part in providing an academic opportunity for students to opt-in.
The 7 weeks as an intern at the Hope to the Future Association including this unforgettable trip to New York is once and for all going to be counted as a turning point in my life. Dealing with unexpected situations was a challenge but at the same time a grateful chance. It gave me the strength to take responsibility and self-determined actions. Until just a year ago, as a high-schooler, I used to be in the position of a participant. During this program, reversely, I had to lead the participants and check if they are on the right track. In that process, I learned a crucial lesson of being precise when planning and conducting a program. During personal travels or daily scheduling, making trivial mistakes was not such a big deal. However in the case of official programs, since I was responsible for many students, those minor errors came back as a dark shadow of great inefficiency and mistrust. To prevent such situations, firstly I tried to organize documents as neatly as possible and accurately revised the changed schedules or notifications. In this process, communication was also essential since everyone had to know whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going on and prepare for the next step. Secondly, I was very deliberate with word choice. Even a subtle change in the nuance can give a different impression to receivers, and because this program was studentoriented, the gravity of language choice was especially a huge deal for me. When making a MUN guideline material for students, I chose every word prudently by considering the influence these students may receive. Last but not least I had to have more confidence with my own actions. Even in cases of booking a restaurant, sometimes it was demanding since we had over 30 students. Since students had to follow my decision, although itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s significant to be cautious, sometimes I needed to have the drive and initiative to make things happen at that moment. UNTP 2020 would always be remembered as a delightful and motivating memory. I would like to thank the students and colleagues of HFA for making this memory shine so brightly.
With HFA Delegation, Training at United Nations Headquarters in New york
- Ivy Leagues Tour: Columbia, Brown, Harvard -
Photo Gallery - United Nations Headquarters Guided Tour -
- Completion Ceremony -
Photo Gallery - Visiting Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations -
- XLVI Yale Model United Nations Committee Session -
Organization Overview Hope to the Future Association
NGO Representative at the United Nations Department of Global Communications (UNDGC)
Youth Education Programs and Sponsor Programs supporting the United Nations and its works, Global Citizenship Education Development, and Sustainable Development Goals(SDGS) in both domestic and international level
Hope to the Future Association (HFA) is a non-profit organization registered under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea. HFA has acquired the status of an associated NGO with UNDPI in June 2014. HFA is also registered as an official member of United Nations Academic Impact Korea. HFA is deeply committed to supporting youth around the world. Our core value is sustainable support, voluntary participation, international partnerships, and empowering youth.
Main Programs (1) Training Program at the UN Headquarters in New York and Geneva Youth UN Training held at the UN Headquarters in Geneva and New York Attending Lectures by UN High Officials and International Organization Experts such as the Secretary-General of UNEP and the President of General Assembly Build Professional Knowledge on the SDGs and Global Issues that the UN mainly deals with Discussion with the UN Ambassadors from the UN member states. (2) International Model United Nations – ‘Yale MUN & WFUNA International MUN’
On February 2018, Hope to the Future Association and the Yale MUN Secretariat signed an official MoU and agreed to a collaborative partnership on organizing YMUN Korea Participating in International MUN Competitions as the Selected Korean Representatives and Delegation of Hope to the Future Association Attending Prior MUN Training by UN Ambassadors and experts from International Organizations
(3) SDGs English Contest - ‘Global Leadership Excellence Challenge (GLEC) Korea & Viet Nam’ English Speech and Essay Competition under the theme of SDGs and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Participants: Elementary 5th Grade – University Students from domestic and abroad (4) Donation Campaign for Children in Africa - ‘Container of Hope’ Sending 40ft long container filled with translated English books, shoes, school supplies gathered from donation campaigns raised by students
Cooperation Organization Permanent Mission to the United Nations
In November 1951, the Observer Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations was established. The Mission became a full-fledged Permanent Mission to the United Nations in September 1991, with the Republic of Korea's accession to the UN. The Korean Mission is currently headed by Ambassador Cho Tae-yul, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea. In November 1999, the Korean Mission moved to its present address, 335 East 45th Street, between 1st and 2nd Avenues, in New York City. The Mission's 11-story building is one of the recent works by the world-renowned architect, Mr. I. M. Pei. The building contains exhibition rooms, an outdoor garden and a conference room, all of which carry a traditional Korean touch.
Group Programmes Unit, Visitors Services, United Nations Department of Global Communications Hope to the Future Association has acquired the status of an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Associated NGO with the United Nations Department of Global Communications.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; With kind cooperation and support of the DGC Group Programmes Unit, HFA is able to organize a diversified and a high-quality UN Training curriculum the Korean Youth every year. The Visitor Centre provides UN Expert briefings and guided tours to the visitors from around the world.
The Department of Global Communications, previously known as the Department of Public Information (DPI), was established in 1946, by General Assembly resolution 13 (I), to promote global awareness and understanding of the work of the United Nations. In 2019, The department changed its title from Department of Public Information to Department of Global Communications.
Yale International Relations Association,
After the political turbulence of the 1960s, a group of Yale students came together seeking to promote a better understanding of global affairs. As a result, in 1969, the Yale International Relations Association (YIRA) was founded. The Yale International Relations Association strives to foster conversation about international relations on campus and beyond through conferences, classes, travel, publications, and speaker and social events. We aim to create an inclusive, diverse, and accessible educational space for students, providing resources that enrich public speaking, leadership, critical analysis, and problem-solving abilities so members may best apply their passion for international relations and give back to the world.
â&#x201C;&#x2019; HOPE TO THE FUTURE ASSOCIATION 2020. All Rights Reserved. All images included in this report are copyrighted to Hope to the Future Association, except for particular images noted with references on the pages. Materials can be freely used for informational purposes only.
Produced by the Education Program Department
Production Director : Jung A Chelsea Pyun (firstname.lastname@example.org) Production Assistant : Nakyoung Lee, Hanyang University : Suemin Kang, Korea University Contents Review
: Jeaneyoung Kim, Yonsei University : Bokyoung Kwon, Kyung Hee University
: Hajung Jin, Kyung Hee University
19 February, 2020
Hope to the Future Association
4F Dana Bldg, Bongeunsa-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea 06125 +82-2-6952-1616