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hayandforage.com

November 2018

Bales with bales pg 6 Profit with hay barns pg 20 NAFA Alfalfa Guide center insert Managing through drought pg 26 Published by W.D. Hoard & Sons Co.

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November 2018 · VOL. 33 · No. 6 MANAGING EDITOR Michael C. Rankin ART DIRECTOR Todd Garrett ONLINE MANAGER Patti J. Hurtgen DIRECTOR OF MARKETING John R. Mansavage ADVERTISING SALES Jan C. Ford jford@hoards.com Kim E. Zilverberg kzilverberg@hayandforage.com ADVERTISING COORDINATOR Patti J. Kressin pkressin@hayandforage.com W.D. HOARD & SONS PRESIDENT Brian V. Knox

6 These Bales make bales

EDITORIAL OFFICE 28 Milwaukee Ave. West, Fort Atkinson, WI, 53538 WEBSITE www.hayandforage.com EMAIL info@hayandforage.com PHONE (920) 563-5551

A hay farm outside of Phoenix, Ariz., has built its reputation on a quality product and customer service.

14

Haystacks are home to profit loss Don’t discount the losses that are realized after the stack is made.

Set yourself up for alfalfa winter survival

This Missouri cattleman made it though the drought but doesn’t want a repeat of 2018.

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16

18

28

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DEPARTMENTS 4 First Cut 10 Feed Analysis 12 Forage Gearhead 16 Beef Feedbunk 18 Dairy Feedbunk 28 Pasture Ponderings

TRIP OF A LIFETIME

FORAGE MINERAL CONTENT DICTATES SUPPLEMENT PLAN

MAKING REDUCED-LIGNIN WORK

They managed through the drought

Alfalfa is a resilient plant, but weather and management can lead to brown fields.

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REFLECTING ON THE 2018 HARVEST SEASON

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SILAGE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

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HAY BARNS CAN BE A PROFIT CENTER

32 33 46 46

Research Round-up Machine Shed Forage IQ Hay Market Update

DON’T LET DROUGHT CRIPPLE YOUR GAME PLAN

25

MY EXPERIENCES WITH ALFALFA-GRASS MIXTURES

ON THE COVER Trevor Bales is the sixth generation at Bales Hay Sales in Buckeye, Ariz. Most of the alfalfa acreage is made into three-tie bales that are retailed to area livestock and horse owners. Read more about this unique operation starting on page 6. Photo by Mike Rankin

HAY & FORAGE GROWER (ISSN 0891-5946) copyright © 2018 W. D. Hoard & Sons Company. All rights reserved. Published six times annually in January, February, March, April/May, August/September and November by W. D. Hoard & Sons Co., 28 Milwaukee Ave., W., Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin 53538 USA. Tel: 920-563-5551. Fax: 920-563-7298. Email: info@hayandforage.com. Website: www.hayandforage. com. Periodicals Postage paid at Fort Atkinson, Wis., and additional mail offices. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: Free and controlled circulation to qualified subscribers. Non-qualified subscribers may subscribe at: USA: 1 year $20 U.S.; Outside USA: Canada & Mexico, 1 year $80 U.S.; All other countries, 1 year $120 U.S. For Subscriber Services contact: Hay & Forage Grower, PO Box 801, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538 USA; call: 920-563-5551, email: info@hayandforage.com or visit: www.hayandforage.com. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to HAY & FORAGE GROWER, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W., Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin 53538 USA. Subscribers who have provided a valid email address may receive the Hay & Forage Grower email newsletter eHay Weekly.

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F YOU’RE like me, there’s still a good part of each day that is spent thinking. Just the other day, I was thinking about how many great ideas humanity has lost because, rather than thinking, time was being spent perusing a cell phone screen. Fortunately, there are still those people not surgically attached to their phones and ample driving time to keep our think tank capacity functional. Recently, while driving down the road, I was contemplating why more ballplayers don’t bunt against the shift, then frustration and a herd of cows turned my reflections to the new world of genomics and gene mapping. I can’t help but think that we will soon be able to identify livestock, or more specifically their genes, that best fit a specific forage system. When that happens, livestock selection will be based in part by the forages being fed. We already have evidence that individual cattle utilize feed differently. In other words, given the same amount and type of feed, some animals will produce more milk or gain more pounds than other animals. However, scientists and producers have also demonstrated that it’s more complicated than simply good cows and not-so-good cows. Individual cows differ in their ability to adapt and thrive when fed certain types of feeds or under different forage systems. Up until now, these cattle were found and developed through years of breeding and selection within a confined feeding and management regime. Tom Kestell’s dairy herd in Waldo, Wis., has a rolling herd average of near 46,000 pounds of milk. According to his nutritionist, Steve Woodford, Kestell’s cows don’t fit the average model for feeding cows. They make much more milk than the “book” tells you they should given the amount and quality

Managing Editor

of feed that they eat. In other words, Kestell’s cows are genetically superior at converting forage into milk. Chuck Backus owns and operates Quarter Circle U Ranch in the Superstition Mountains of Arizona. This is a rough, mountainous, “horse only” ranch that by most measures has no business being home to beef cattle, at least those that you want to live. Backus’ ranch consists mostly of rocks, brush, and cactus, yet he markets steers that grade 100 percent choice or better. Like Kestell, he has accomplished this feat through years of breeding and genetic selection for adapted cattle. Toxic tall fescue has been a forage species that has held back cattle performance for years. You mitigate it, replace it, or take your lumps. Even so, we know that some cattle are less susceptible to the evils of Kentucky 31 than others. A group in Missouri, AgBotanica, thinks they have identified at least some of the genes responsible for this degree of tolerance. Researchers at several Western universities have identified the genes that give cattle a preference for climbing hills. Such cattle are more likely to graze range areas that typically are more difficult to fully utilize. What all of this points to, in my opinion, is reaching the day when livestock can be identified and bred for specific forage systems and feeds. Whether you hang your hat on mechanically-harvested alfalfa or corn silage, grazed tall fescue or other cool-season grasses, or range brush and forbs, there will be a way to select cattle, based on their genotype, that thrive on those feeds . . . at least that’s what I’m thinking. •

Write Managing Editor Mike Rankin, 28 Milwaukee Ave., P.O. Box 801, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538, call: 920-563-5551 or email: mrankin@hayandforage.com

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S:7.875 in

Roundup Ready ® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC, used under license by Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® is a registered trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® Alfalfa with Roundup Ready® Technology and Roundup Ready® Alfalfa are subject to planting and use restrictions. Visit www.ForageGenetics.com/legal for the full legal, stewardship and trademark statements for these products. America’s Alfalfa, America’s Alfalfa logo and Traffic Tested are registered trademarks of Forage Genetics, LLC. © 2018 Forage Genetics International, LLC.

T:10.875 in

S:10.375 in

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Bales Hay Sales in Buckeye, Ariz., is home to a constant flow of Phoenix-area customers looking to buy 95-pound, three-tie bales to fill their livestock needs. Many of their customers are local horse owners.

by Mike Rankin

HIS was too good to be true. A long-standing hay business owned and operated by a family named Bales. “People always ask us if we changed our name to fit the family business,” chuckled Trevor Bales, who is the sixth generation on the farm. “There was no name change involved; it’s just the way it worked out.” Worked out it has. Currently, the Bales family operates 1,000 acres of their own land and

custom harvests an additional 1,000 to 1,500 acres. Ninety percent of that acreage is alfalfa. Wheat, barley, cotton, ryegrass, sudangrass, and bermudagrass are also grown, helping to break the rotation of continuous alfalfa. Bales Hay Sales is located in Arizona’s Buckeye Valley, located just southwest of the Phoenix metro area and situated directly north of the Gila River, which provides water for the flood-irrigated crops. “Though we’ve been growing alfalfa here for over 50 years, our retail hay business started about 20 years ago,”

All photos Mike Rankin

These Bales make bales Trevor said. “It started small but continued to grow.” These days, a seemingly constant stream of pickups, cars, and trucks with trailers drive onto the farm’s headquarters to purchase anywhere from a single bale to a semi load of the 95-pound, three-tie bales. The hay inventory is stacked by quality in one of several large hay barns, and Bales employees help with loading. “I’m still amazed at what some people drive in here with to pick up hay,” Trevor said. “One guy tied a bale to the back of his motorcycle; then there was

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the time when a person came in and loaded the back of a hearse.” William Beloat initially homesteaded the current Bales farm in 1891. Steve Bales Sr., Trevor’s grandfather who is still active on the farm, is Beloat’s great-grandson. Steven Bales Jr. (Trevor’s father) owns and manages the business, while his first cousin, Brian Turner, acts as the farm manager and is responsible for many of the day-to-day decisions. How does a brown desert become a green mecca of forage? “Initially, this land was settled with mostly cattle ranchers,” explained Steve Sr. “There wasn’t a good water supply at that time. Eventually, the Buckeye Irrigation Project was developed and, with the building of dams, a stable water supply became a reality. Currently, the irrigation district also has 54 wells to supplement the surface water,” he added. In the 1940s, the Buckeye Valley was mostly comprised of cotton farms. At one time, there were also many small dairies and feedlots in the area. Now, much of the land base is used to grow feed for the large dairies that populate the desert countryside. The Bales, however, have chosen to grow hay for the many horse and cattle owners in the region. Alfalfa acres in the Buckeye Valley have expanded considerably over time. “They always grew it to some degree to supply the cattle feedlots,” Steve Sr. said. “When the water supply became stable and we started to get adapted varieties in the ‘30s and ‘40s, that’s when alfalfa really became a more prevalent crop. Even so, there’s never been as much alfalfa as there is today,” he explained. Though the bulk of hay production from Bales Hay Sales goes out in small lots and is sold by the bale, the operation also sells semi loads (over 500 bales) by the ton to retail stores in several states and to larger farms. “We picked up a lot of permanent customers during the Texas and Oklahoma drought that began in 2011,” Steve Sr. said. “We also move a lot of hay to New Mexico.” To round out their customer base, the Bales often sell one or two winter cuttings of alfalfa as greenchop to dairies that are within a 10-mile radius. They hire a custom operator to harvest those crops. Many of these same dairies will purchase baled hay as well. In addition to alfalfa hay, Bales Hay Sales cuts and bales bermudagrass, ryegrass, and straw, both barley and

wheat. A mixture of alfalfa and ryegrass hay is also sold. “Some of our customers prefer the grass or the mixture for their horses,” Trevor said. “They’ve been really good products for us.”

Desert alfalfa Growing alfalfa on the Sonoran Desert is not without its challenges. Though most of the Bales’ water originates from the Gila River, which makes it less costly than deep well-derived water, there are still summer thunderstorms to navigate and untimely gusty winds that will push windrow on top of windrow. Brian Turner heads up the production side of the business. He noted that they deal with many of the same types of pests as most other alfalfa growers. That list includes gophers, aphids, wee-

vils, stem nematode, and an assortment of weeds. “Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become a real problem,” Turner said. “We don’t use Roundup Ready alfalfa, so we have to rotate conventional herbicide mode of actions to keep the resistance in check.” The Bales seed their alfalfa in the fall using nondormant varieties. Alfalfa stands are usually kept four years and cut 9 or 10 times per year. The desert climate allows for year-round harvesting, though plant growth slows considerably in the winter. According to Turner, average yields are 9 to 10 tons per acre. “There’s a big difference in making hay during the summer versus the fall or spring,” Turner explained. “During the summer, we can get the crop to dry continued on following page >>>

Customer service is a big part of Bales Hay Sales’ success. High school students comprise a part of the employee work force who load hay for customers.

The management team at Bales Hay Sales (from left): Trevor Bales, Steven Bales, and Brian Turner.

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Trevor Bales discusses the day’s plans with Arturo Gonzalez. Gonzalez has been running a bale wagon for the past 32 years, the last 18 for Bales.

>>> continued from previous page in three days and most of our baling has to occur at night or very early morning when we have a little dew on the crop. In the fall or spring, it may take 7 to 10 days to get the crop dry enough to bale; this is when we get a lot of dew and there are extreme temperature swings between night and day,” he added. Unless water supplies become limited, alfalfa fields are f lood irrigated two times between cuttings. Fertilizer applications are made twice per year with phosphorus being the most limiting nutrient. For some of their older alfalfa stands, the Bales will interseed ryegrass in the fall. This allows them to get three cuttings in the spring of an alfalfa-grass mix. The Bales cut their hay in a wide swath to expedite drying, then rake before the crop gets too dry. The exception to this approach is when the winter cuttings are made for dairies as greenchop. In that case, the hay is cut into narrow windrows. The hay is baled with five Massey Ferguson three-tie balers. Hay bales are accumulated using a New Holland bale wagon, then picked up with trucks designed to match the accumulator stack size or loaded with a bale squeeze onto semitrailers. The hay inventory is stored by hay type, cutting, and forage quality. Each stack is clearly marked. “Because most of our customers are horse owners, we don’t routinely test our hay,” Trevor said. “We do have our own grading system based partly on leafiness and color, two of the primary criteria that most horse owners seem to care about.” The Bales often try to educate horse owners on the type of hay that is best for their animals. “We try to tell them that they don’t need our absolute best alfalfa for their pleasure horses,” Trevor said. “More and more horse owners are finding that they really like the alfalfa-ryegrass mix or even the pure

bermudagrass hay.” That visual evaluation approach is in contrast to hay sold to large dairies. “Often, they know what they want and will request a forage test,” Trevor said. Turner also noted his pleasure with the strong hay export market in recent years. “Those strong exports have really buoyed hay prices in the West,” he said. “It’s really helped us even though all of our hay is retailed.”

It’s an experience Make no mistake; Bales Hay Sales is a big operation by any definition. After all, they have 21 full-time employees who range from hay loaders to mechanics and irrigation workers. But going to the farm to pick up one bale or a trailer load somehow still offers the feel of a small family-run business. It’s a unique experience that people seem to look forward to. It’s almost as if you’re a customer, you’re a part of the family. “We have two priorities here,” Trevor explained. “The first one is safety for our employees and customers. A 95-pound bale can do a lot of damage if it hits you on the head or rolls up your leg. It’s not easy loading these bales when it’s 110°F outside.” The second priority is customer service. This one isn’t surprising given the multitude of people who roll onto the farm daily to pick up their hay supplies. Each spring, Bales Hay Sales also holds a Customer Appreciation Day that features a lunch, product discounts, and giveaways. At the farm’s office and small retail store, customers can pick up other feed supplies such as bagged grains for their horses and chickens. The store also

sells dog food, beet pulp, mineral, salt blocks, and unique items from the 1891 Homestead clothing line. The latter is a side business that Trevor started “for fun.” The farm also offers a small petting zoo for visitors and customers. In addition to customer service, the Bales family is also actively involved in the community that their family has called home for over a century. Earlier this year, the Arizona Agricultural Education/FFA Foundation named Steve Jr. their state’s Agriculturist of the Year. Trevor, who was recently married and is a graduate of Texas Christian University with a degree in business communications, is the next generation of Bales to service Buckeye Valley livestock owners. It’s no surprise that the amiable young farmer plays a lead role in the business’ customer relations. “We’re always learning,” he said. “Every year we try to implement something new.” Farming is often cited as being difficult because of the multitude of hats that need to be worn . . . from manager to mechanic to manure shoveler. Dealing with the public on a retail level is not a business component that most farmers or ranchers would necessarily welcome or want. But the Bales family has done just that. They’ve embraced the opportunity and by all measures created a successful business model, turning hay buying from a necessary task into a pleasurable experience. •

Learn more about Bales Hay Sales on Facebook (@baleshayfarms) and on their website at baleshay.com.

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FEED ANALYSIS

by John Goeser

The more pointed and economically relevant focus of this article is corn silage. Though corn silage dry matter was relatively consistent in the West, the story is quite different and complicated for the Midwest and Northeast. A late-season spike in dry matter occurred beginning in September (see Figure 2). In addition to a delayed harvest resulting in drier silage, fungal infestations may have enhanced crop dry down in many areas. Greater dry matter will contribute to silage stability concerns as this feed is more difficult to pack and ferment. Potentially making matters worse, there appears to be a considerable antinutritional component to many 2018 silages. Vomitoxin levels are trending up again, as was the case with the 2016 corn and corn silage crops; however, the extent of the contamination is unknown at this time. We are also recognizing an upward trend in yeast counts during a time of the year when yeast levels should be trending down with cooler temperatures having a refrigerator effect.

Hay and haylage We now have several years of data to review and speak from within our Rock River Laboratory’s database. From our 2018 hay and haylage samples, the eastern and western U.S. had slight downward trends for relative forage quality (RFQ, Figure 1). Conversely,

Figure 1. Hay and haylage relative forage quality (RFQ) for Eastern, Midwestern, and Western growers from 2016 through 2018 harvest seasons East

Midwest

Northeastern U.S. 40

40

40

35 30

Jan

200 175

Jul

Oct

Midwestern U.S. 35 30

Jan

Apr

Jul

Oct

Jul

Oct

Date

150

Western U.S.

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Apr Date

West

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RFQ

Figure 2. Whole-plant chopped corn dry matter (%)

Lab dry matter

Corn silage

Lab dry matter

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Midwestern growers recognized gains in RFQ over prior years. These observations are likely a result of the environment and growing season experienced in the respective regions.

HE 2018 corn silage crop is largely in storage. As of the time this article was written, the USDA crop reports had nearly 70 percent of the corn crop rated as good or excellent, which was slightly above last year. Even so, new fungal and bacterial corn plant pathogens and/or historically wet and tumultuous weather conditions throughout forage growing regions made headlines from Iowa to Pennsylvania. On the other end of the growing conditions spectrum, drought conditions dominated portions of Missouri and Kansas. The nutritive (and antinutritive) quality to the corn silage crop is unfolding as growers test feeds. Reflecting back now, the growing and harvest season highlighted the need to be more proactive, monitor crop conditions and fields, and continue learning from one another and our experiences. Lessons learned from this season will prove meaningful for crop improvement in 2019 and beyond.

Lab dry matter

Reflecting on the 2018 harvest season

In regions east of the Mississippi River, many experienced challenging harvest conditions and may also recognize challenges in nutritive quality. Bear in mind that nutritive value (value per pound or ton) is a combination of both nutrient content such as fiber to starch ratio and nutrient digestibility. Fiber is always about half the digestibility of starch (45 versus 90 percent total-tract nutrient digestibility for fiber and starch, respectively). Thus, the less fiber in feed, the more energy per pound. Quality is further influenced by both fiber and starch fraction digestibility. We’ll assess fiber digestibility here using the total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility measure (percent of aNDF; TTNDFD). Compared to last year, starch content is trending up while fiber digestibility is trending down strongly as the 2018 crop begins to be analyzed at Rock River Laboratory (Figure 3). There are likely several factors at play here. The crop had adequate heat and moisture through the time period when plant lignification is determined. It was also maturing ahead of “normal” due to better than average growing conditions earlier in the year, and then harvest was delayed in many forage-growing areas. Mother Nature is strongly at play here. This is the reason why proactive

2016

2017

Crop year

2018

35 30

Jan

Apr Date

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crop monitoring about 45 days postsilking is imperative (check dry matter and kernel maturity).

Monitor the situation

Figure 3. Whole-plant corn silage starch content (% of DM) and total tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD, % of aNDF; Combs, 2016) East

In summary, do not stress or panic given the points discussed here. Rather, consult with your nutritionist, crop adviser, and veterinarian, and heighten your collective awareness as we get into feeding this crop. There are areas of great silage out there, yet the average appears to be less than spectacular. Consider phasing 2018 silage into diets and avoid quick transitions so as to have opportunity to take a proactive mitigation strategy, if needed. Check the silage silos (silo, bag, pile, bunker, or pits) more frequently and monitor silage temperature upon feedout for yeast growth. Infrared camera assessment can also help find “hidden” heating. Look for further discussion on the 2018 corn crop quality in the months to come. •

Midwest

West

40

Starch

35 30 25 20

TTNDFD

45

JOHN GOESER The author is the director of nutrition research and innovation with Rock River Lab Inc., and adjunct assistant professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Dairy Science Department.

40

35

30 2016

2017

2018

Crop year T:7.5”

T:4.875”

STARVE THE COMPETITION. FEED THE COWS. When weeds compete with your stand, you lose. Lost quality. Lost yield. Lost dollars. Eliminate weed competition and improve your crop’s potential throughout the life of the stand with Roundup Ready® Alfalfa. © 2018 Forage Genetics International, LLC. Roundup Ready® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC, used under license by Forage Genetics International, LLC. Roundup Ready® Alfalfa is subject to planting and use restrictions. Visit www.ForageGenetics.com/legal for the full legal, stewardship and trademark statements for these products. 

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Proof #:

JOB #: 61833-1

Print Scale: None

Bleed: None

Cyan

Date: 6-28-2018 11:26 AM

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FORAGE GEARHEAD

by Adam Verner

Preselling equipment has several benefits

F

OR most of us, the long days in the hayfield and on the silage pile have come to an end, and just like every year, it seems new challenges were presented for us to conquer. We began the year hoping for higher milk and beef prices, but those markets still remained flat. Moreover, input expenses always seem to be on the rise along with the cost of producing a gallon of milk or a pound of beef. One of the main factors involved is the cost of equipment needed to provide livestock feed. Some people point to the new tariffs causing around a 4 percent boost in new equipment prices. This is true in many cases, though most manufacturers have about the same yearly spike in their list prices when their new models for the upcoming year are released. We are told this is to keep up with inflation and to help maintain used equipment values. Though some equipment auctions have been strong this year, premium prices are usually only being paid for select equipment that customers specifically desire. On many dealer lots, there is still old, stale inventory that is highly functional but is not in great demand currently. This has led a lot of dealers to take different strategies when it comes to selling both new and used equipment.

Different approaches These new sales strategies affect the end user. Some stores have resorted

to only wholesale figures, or whatever the auction company will give them, while others seek out the specific trade machines they want and will not take others. Yes, there are a few dealers that will still take anything that runs in a trade. My dealership falls into a category, too, though not just one answer or plan works for every deal. We are very fortunate to have some loyal customers who are vocal about their equipment needs and wants. We, in return, are as open as we can be about our current options that will suit their needs. Sounds simple, right? The issues usually come with determining trade values. In some scenarios, our customers have told us what they owe on a piece of equipment, and we tell them what we can pay, which is sometimes a $20,000 to $30,000 difference. Neither of us can take a hit like that on a trade-in, so we both have to walk away from the deal.

Work with your dealer It is not in our core values to “pad” our trade-in values and then move that inflated number onto the new piece of equipment; this only pushes the problem down the road. The numbers may look good on paper, but now the values of both pieces of equipment have been artificially inflated. Aren’t you better off with the real numbers or values? The best answer for everyone in the

current market is to work with your dealer to sell your trade-in on the open market. Why would you want to do that? From the customer’s side, by working with your dealer to presell you can set the price that you want for your trade. Keep in mind, however, that there has to be someone out there willing to pay your asking price, and finding that individual may take some time. Your dealer can help in this regard. Such a transaction will help ensure that you can get the money you have earned by taking care of your equipment, and the dealer will not inflate the price of your new unit to make the trade value look good. As such, the customer is purchasing the new machine at the true current value. From the dealer’s point of view, this will enable them to keep fresh trades listed and know what is available in the area for sale; this helps to find buyers for both the new and used equipment faster. Preselling removes the risk of losing tens of thousands of dollars on a bad chopper or tractor deal. One key to preselling equipment is to keep the lines of communication open with your dealer. More communication between customers and dealers means better equipment and better prices for everyone. So, give this some thought over the next month while finishing up harvest and cleaning up your equipment. Which is the next piece you need to upgrade, or what is the missing link to your harvest puzzle? You never know what your local dealer may find if you give them time to present you with options. Those options may be on their lot or in a machine shed close by. There are many more pieces of equipment for sale than what is listed on the internet. Let your local dealer find them for you in your backyard. Speaking from experience, we have presold many pieces of equipment with happy customers on both ends and a grateful dealer in the middle to put it all together. • ADAM VERNER The author is a managing partner in Elite Ag LLC, Leesburg, Ga. He also is active in the family farm in Rutledge.

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T:8.375” S:7.875”

DAIRY FARMER.

ADVANCED ALFALFA SEED VARIETIES plantnexgrow.com Roundup Ready® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC, used under license by Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® is a registered trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® Alfalfa with Roundup Ready® Technology and Roundup Ready® Alfalfa are subject to planting and use restrictions. Visit www.ForageGenetics.com/legal for the full legal, stewardship and trademark statements for these products. NEXGROW is a registered trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC. © 2018 Forage Genetics International, LLC

T:10.875”

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S:10.375”

BULL MENTALITY


Haystacks are home to profit loss by Glenn Shewmaker

W

E HAVE all seen the effects that weathering causes when hay is stored outside. Most of the deterioration is on the outer layer of the bale and particularly where it rests on the soil. However, rain and spoilage will usually travel two to three layers deep with rectangular-shaped bales, regardless if they are two-string or 4 by 4 by 8 feet bales not stored under cover. These losses are dependent on the amount of rainfall, temperature, length of storage, and ability of the bale to shed water. Losses with large bales stored outside on the ground are about three times greater than with bales stored inside. Several factors affect the storage and preservation of high-quality hay: forage species, maturity, harvest management, and storage strategies. The weathering effects of sunlight, heat, and precipitation can all be controlled with preservation materials and proper storage management. Hay loses weight (mass) and degrades in quality with the passage of time. The magnitude of storage losses is not well recognized by hay producers due to the difficulty of measurement. Harvested hay must be stored properly to minimize further degradation. Even in barn storage, shrinkage during several months is typically from 5 to 10 percent weight loss from fresh-baled hay. About 5

percent is in dry matter while the remainder is in moisture loss.

Location matters Moisture content will reach an equilibrium level in relation to relative humidity. Relative humidity during July in Madison, Wis., averages 85 percent in the morning and 56 percent in the afternoon. Comparatively, the humidity is 58 percent in the morning and 23 percent in the afternoon for Pocatello, Idaho. Location will dictate the optimum hay storage strategy. Hay moisture will stabilize in summer at about 10 percent in arid climates, and about 15 percent in humid climates. I have measured the external surfaces of bales on sides of stacks at 19 percent moisture during winters in Idaho. I decided to document the changes in an arid Western environment. The effects of several months of storage for hay was studied in 2013 to quantify changes in forage quality parameters. This report provides preliminary infor-

mation about the magnitude and causes of hay losses in storage and how management can minimize the losses. These first data sets will be supplemented with results during subsequent years.

Sampling procedures At least two haystacks of first- through third-cutting alfalfa were sampled monthly by coring 10 bales on each side of four haystacks at chest height. Cores from five consecutive bales were composited as one replication, thus four replications per stack. We took samples with a Star Quality Probe (0.5-inch diameter) to a depth of 14 inches in the butt end of bales. This was done soon after baling and stacking, and then monthly until the stack was gone. Subsequent cores were extracted from the same bales about 6 inches from the previous core. What error is expected for sampling and forage quality analyses? The sampling and laboratory error (SLE), assumed to be 5 percent, is used to estimate errors for several of the primary forage quality parameters in the

Table 1. Sampling and laboratory error (SLE) in forage quality analysis Forage quality parameter

Concentration, percent

At 5 percent error

SLE

Crude protein (CP)

20

1

0.6

Acid detergent fiber (ADF)

30

1.5

1.2

Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)

40

2

1.5

Relative feed value (RFV)

160

8

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Initial stack moisture concentrations in 2013 were all below 8 percent, probably because of very dry baling conditions and limited precipitation during most of the storage period. Crude protein did not change in most stacks. A small amount of crude protein was likely degraded, however, since the soluble carbohydrates (sugars and starch) are used by microbial respiration, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin increase in concentration. Although the absolute amount of protein may decline a little, the loss of total dry matter results in a slightly higher concentration of crude protein. The ADF jumped from 2.7 to 5.3 percent from the initial sampling to the final sampling times across all hay types. The change in neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) was more inconsistent in the four stacks we tested. The relative feed value (RFV) index did not change in one stack, but declined by 14, 21, and 11 units in the other three alfalfa stacks. The NDF digestibility in 48 hours (NDFD48, as percent of NDF) declined an average of 2.9 percent across the four haystacks. The net energy for lactation (NE/Lact), digestible dry matter, RFV, and relative forage quality (RFQ) declined about the same magnitude across the four stacks. Lignin, an indigestible fiber fraction, increased an average of 4.3 percent across the four haystacks. We also examined the rate of forage quality decline. The first-cutting alfalfa stack showed some consistent trends among the measured parameters (Figure 1). The crude protein and NDF did not change significantly, but

wants to speculate on a rising hay market, one must consider the added storage costs of dry matter and quality loss, realizing that these can be considerable. • GLENN SHEWMAKER The author is an extension forage specialist with the University of Idaho based in Kimberly.

Figure 1. Forage quality rates of change during haystack storage (Kimberly, Idaho, 2013) 45 40

Concentration, %

What we found

ADF slowly climbed with each day of storage. In fact, the number of days of storage explained 89 percent of the variation in ADF conditions. If barn or shed storage is not available, place haystacks in sunny, breezy locations, on an elevated pad of rock, and cover stacks with tarps. Well-formed, tight bales, and the proper moisture content will minimize storage loss. The best situation for marketing hay is to sell the hay in the field at its highest quality and pass the storage and management costs on to the buyer. If a grower

ADF, %

35 y = 0.024x + 31.3 R2 = 0.89

30 25 20 15

Crude protein, %

Linear (ADF, %)

10 0

aNDF, %

Lignin as % NDF

y = 0.0353x + 8.62 R2 = 0.63

5 0

50

100

150

Linear (ignin as % NDF)

200

Days of storage

Figure 2. RFV and RFQ rates of change during haystack storage (Kimberly, Idaho, 2013) 180

y = 0.057x + 153.2 R2 = 0.69

160 140

Relative Feed Value

y = 0.080x + 148 R2 = 0.72

120

Index

table. The standard laboratory error for near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis is also given in the table. If the change in parameter values from this study is greater than the potential error for sampling and laboratory analysis, or the SLE listed in the table, there is some assurance the change is significant.

100

Relative Forage Quality TDN EST., %

80 60

Linear (RFV)

40

Linear (RFQ)

20 0

0

50

100

150

200

Days of storage

Hay storage recommendations •P  osition uncovered stacks to take advantage of prevailing winds to blow snow off top bales and to dry them. A single row in a north-south position is usually best, but stacks should also be positioned up and down slope, or have a good drainage system.

•A  llow at least 3 feet between stack rows. Stacks too close can become a trap for livestock.

 tack yards should be well drained. An •S elevated rock pad of 1- to 3-inch rock is best.

•S  eparate stacks of 100 tons by at least 50 feet so that the loss will be minimal if a fire starts. Check with your insurance company for their criteria on haystack coverage.

•M  esh covering (net wrapping) for round bales will reduce the weathering effects on bales and stabilize the hay better than twine.

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BEEF FEEDBUNK

by Ashley Wright

six macrominerals important for cattle (calcium, phosphorous, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, and potassium) and 10 microminerals (iron, manganese, copper, zinc, selenium, cobalt, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel). Of these, phosphorous, copper, zinc, selenium, and magnesium are of significant importance to cow health and reproduction. The University of Missouri Cooperative Extension has an excellent article discussing the importance of each mineral and their function in the body, as well as information on how much of each mineral cattle in different stages of production require (bit.ly/HFG-minerals).

Test your forage

Forage mineral content dictates supplement plan

M

INERALS are naturally occurring, inorganic compounds that are utilized by nearly every living thing on earth. In the cow herd, minerals are vital for a wide variety of bodily functions, especially immune function and reproduction. Mineral supplementation can be a significant cost to producers; however, that cost needs to be balanced with the potential losses due to subclinical deficiencies affecting production, or disease caused by a deficiency or toxicity. It’s important to know the minerals present in your forage when formulating a supplement program. We want to avoid over supplementing with minerals that are present in abundance. For example, many parts of the country deal with excess levels of selenium, which can quickly become toxic at relatively low levels. Other parts of the country have the opposite concern with significant selenium deficiencies; thus, supplementation with selenium is a necessity to prevent reproductive issues and white muscle disease. The mineral content present in forage is primarily based on the geology of the land, but it can be influenced by a number of factors, including the forage species and rainfall or irrigation. Moreover,

the type of complex a mineral is present in can impact its bioavailability to the animal, as can antagonistic effects from other minerals present in the diet. Bioavailability, which is the difference between the amount consumed and the amount that is absorbed and reaches its target, and antagonistic effects are very difficult to measure scientifically. Additionally, the cow’s current production status (open, pregnant, or lactating) will influence her needs, and some cows will over or under consume a free choice supplement. Despite these challenges, understanding what minerals are severely lacking or are overabundant in a forage system should be the first step in developing a mineral program for an operation.

The players Minerals fall into two main groups: macro and micro. This doesn’t necessarily mean “most” and “least” important; rather, macrominerals are required in much higher amounts than microminerals, which are sometimes referred to as trace minerals. A deficiency in a micromineral can have just as large of an impact as a deficiency in a macromineral. The National Research Council (NRC) has established requirements for

If you are grazing pasture, sample your forage at several points during the year to develop an overall picture of your operation’s mineral curve. Be sure to hit at least the “highs and lows” of the peak growing season and the worst time of year (typically midwinter, if your cattle graze year-round). Some minerals remain fairly stable throughout the year, while others can fluctuate significantly with rainfall or stage of growth. For example, grass tetany is caused by a deficiency in magnesium due to the higher water content of lush, growing forages and typically becomes an issue in early spring. In Arizona, research has indicated that copper levels can vary considerably from year to year correlated with rainfall and drought conditions, becoming more available in dry years and declining during wet ones. In addition to sampling throughout the year, be sure you have sampled all available forage or feedstuffs your cattle will be consuming. This includes supplemental hay or grain that cattle may receive at various times of year. Those grazing native pastures will want to sample the species their cattle most commonly utilize and leave out species that are not typically grazed. One sampling site we are currently conducting research on in Arizona includes a large number of browse species that cattle use heavily during certain times of the year. These species have significantly different mineral profiles than grass species and are consumed in different amounts. If your pasture has both, sample them separately and consider the proportion that each is typically utilized. Additionally, sample water sources as these minerals contribute to the overall picture of

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Once you have an overall picture of the minerals present in your feedstuffs and water supply, begin to select a mineral product that fits your needs or have a custom mix formulated. It is especially important to consider if a mineral package meets livestock needs for supplying minerals that are low or may be significantly affected by the antagonistic effects from another mineral. Also look for mixes that don’t add additional levels of minerals you have in abundance. This helps to lower costs, and depending on the mineral can help to lessen the antagonistic effect it could be having. Several of the native pasture samples we have taken include extremely high (300 to 800 parts per million) iron levels. These levels are likely contributing to the existing copper deficiency, and including more iron in a mineral supplement for this pasture would be counterproductive. The effects of an antagonistic mineral can be overcome by boosting the level of the mineral it is affecting in the diet above what is needed, or by choosing an organic mineral product. These products, also called chelated or proteinated, have the mineral bound to an organic carrier molecule (such as an amino acid) to enhance their bioavailability. These types of minerals may also be less affected by antagonistic minerals; however, these products come at a higher cost than the typical inorganic mineral complex form. In conclusion, mineral supplementation is a careful balancing act. Commercial products have been formulated to maintain those balances. If you will be having a custom mix made, consult a professional to ensure you are maintaining important ratios, avoiding potential toxicity issues, and providing your herd with the mineral nutrition to be successful and productive. • ASHLEY WRIGHT The author is an area assistant livestock agent with the University of Arizona based in Cochise County.

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(877) 560-5181 | alforexseeds.com * Improved Hi-Gest® alfalfa leafiness, as documented by Alforex Seeds replicated trials at West Salem, WI and Woodland, CA, versus the following commercial alfalfa varieties: America’s Alfalfa Brand AmeriStand 427TQ, Croplan Brands LegenDairy XHD and Artesia Sunrise, Fertizona Brand Fertilac, S&W Brands SW6330, SW7410 and SW10 and W-L Brands WL 319HQ and WL 354HQ. ** The increased rate of fiber digestion, extent of digestion, and crude protein data was developed from replicated research and on-farm testing. During the 2015 growing season at West Salem, WI and Woodland, CA, the following commercial dormant, semi-dormant and non-dormant alfalfa varieties were compared head-to-head with Hi-Gest® alfalfa for rate of digestion, extent of digestion and percent crude protein: America’s Alfalfa Brand AmeriStand 427TQ, Croplan Brands LegenDairy XHD and Artesia Sunrise, Fertizona Brand Fertilac, S&W Seed Brands SW6330, SW7410 and SW10 and W-L Brands WL 319HQ and WL 354HQ. Also during the 2015 growing season, 32 on-farm Hi-Gest hay and silage samples were submitted to Rock River Laboratory, Inc., for forage analysis. The results for rate of digestion, extent of digestion and percent crude protein were averaged and compared to the 60-day and four-year running averages for alfalfa in the Rock River database which included approximately 1,700 alfalfa hay and 3,800 silage 60-day test results and 23,000 hay and 62,000 silage tests results in the four-year average.

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DAIRY FEEDBUNK

by Randy Shaver

A representative forage sample is the foundation of an accurate laboratory silage analysis.

Silage sampling and analysis

S

ILAGE sampling and analysis provide the foundation for dairy nutrition consulting and ration formulation programs. Sampling during feedout for determination of silage nutrient composition at commercial feed analysis laboratories, and the use of these analyses for ration reformulation had traditionally been done once monthly. However, this sampling protocol is inadequate on today’s larger dairy farms. Researchers at The Ohio State University recommend different silage sampling protocols depending upon herd size. An analysis was performed using their software program. The optimum sampling schedule for a 50-cow herd was the same as what has been done traditionally. As herd size grew at increments from 50 to more than 1,500 cows, the sampling frequency greatly intensified to an interval between samples of only four days. In other words, the large herds needed to be sampling about seven times per month. Full adoption of on-farm near-infrared system (NIRS) technology could allow this level of analytical frequency, or even sampling/analysis

done daily or by feeding within the day, in the future. Lack of accuracy and precision for NIRS equation calibrations for key nutrients beyond dry matter (DM) and in-line sensor challenges, however, have thus far limited farm-level application for nutrient composition.

Another approach In the meantime, a more practical sampling/analysis approach for large herds has been suggested by the University of Wisconsin-Extension. With the interval between samplings set at 10 days and the number of samples per sampling day per silage limited to two, this results in six samples per month per silage. Also, the amount of a specific type of silage included in the ration and its variation in nutrient composition can influence the necessary sampling and analysis frequency. Because it has less variation in nutrient composition than haycrop silage, corn silage can usually be sampled less frequently. This may not be the case, however, in years when crop growing and harvest conditions result in larger variations in corn silage starch and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) within

and across silos. Frequent sampling and analysis does not dictate that rations need to be reformulated each time. Frequent silage sampling protocols are for detecting changes in nutrient composition early or during a period of change. Ration reformulation is needed only when differences in nutrient composition appear significant. If differences are small between samples, then reformulation of rations may not be necessary. When ration reformulation is performed it should be based on a rolling average of three samples rather than on an individual sample; this avoids random sampling or analytical errors greatly influencing the consistency of the feeding program.

Get a good sample It is critical that representative samples be collected for subsequent nutrient analysis. Because corn silage is a mixture of grain and stover fractions, special care must be taken to obtain a homogeneous sample to send to the testing lab. Don’t take a grab sample from a bunker silo face as it is unsafe and does not result in accurate or precise determination of DM content or nutrient composition. Wisconsin Extension workers provide detailed protocols for sampling silages from bunker silos, silo bags, and tower silos that are available to readers on the internet (bit. ly/HFG-sample). On-farm determinations of silage DM content are typically done using either a microwave oven, Koster tester, or food dehydrator drying methods as described by Wisconsin Extension (bit. ly/HFG-moisture). As costs for equipment and equation calibration updates decline and accuracy and precision of DM determinations improve, the on-farm use of NIRS continues to climb. The major analyses for nutrient composition performed at commercial feed testing labs include crude protein (CP), NDF, starch, crude fat (ether extract), total ash, and individual macrominerals. A calculated value for nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC; 100 percent minus CP percent minus NDF percent minus Fat percent minus

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developed by The Ohio State University researchers, is used to calculate total digestible nutrients at a maintenance level of intake (TDN1x) using CP, NDF, NFC, and crude fat or fatty acid concentrations along with either assumed or assayed digestibility values for those nutrients (Dairy NRC, 2001). From TDN1x, net energy values are calculated for lactation (NEL; adjusted for a productive level intake [for example, three times maintenance energy intake or NEL-3x]), gain (NEG), and maintenance (NEM). Comparative forage indexes, such as milk per ton for corn silage and relative forage quality (RFQ) for haycrop silages, are also calculated values that utilize nutrient composition results along with NDFD measurements.

Beyond the basics The most common digestibility parameters reported by the commercial feed-testing laboratories are in vitro NDF digestibility after a 30-hour incubation in rumen fluid, ivNDFD, and undigested NDF after a 240-hour incubation in rumen fluid (uNDF240). Other incubation time point measurements, such as 24-, 48- or 120-hour, can also be requested. When multiple incubation time points are used, the lab reports include rate of digestion estimates for use in kinetics-based models by nutritionists for diet evaluation and formulation. The fiber digestion measurements are typically

Propionic acid

Total acids

Range of DM%

2

4.4

0

0 >6

.1 50

.1 -

% of DM

4.6

55

4

50

4.8

45

60 .1 -

5 55

.1 -5 50

.1 -5

0

5 45

-4 .1 40

35

.1 -

40

35 .1 30

25

.1 -

30

0

6

45

3.5

5.0

.1 -

1

8

40

2

5.2

.1 -

3 3.8

10

35

4

Total acids

5.4

.1 -

5

4.0

Butyric acid

12

30

6

Silage pH

7

4.3

% of DM

Concentration, %

8

30

9

Acetic acid

5.6

.1 -

Propionic acid

Lactic acid

NH3--N

<2 5

Acetic acid

pH

Lactic acid

4.5

The author is a professor and extension dairy nutritionist in the department of dairy science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Alfalfa silage fermentation analysis benchmarks

25

NH3--N

RANDY SHAVER

40

Corn silage fermentation analysis benchmarks pH

performed using NIRS because of its lower cost and faster lab turn around compared to the wet chemistry digestion incubations. For evaluation of starch digestibility, a 7-hour feedstuff incubation, either in vitro in rumen fluid or in situ (Dacron bags inserted in rumen-cannulated cows) is the most common assay. Although this test can be performed on both corn silage and high-moisture corn samples, the sampleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s particle size and length of time ensiled prior to analysis confounds any relationship that might exist between kernel endosperm properties and the results obtained from the assay. Finally, a fermentation profile can be requested from commercial testing labs to assess silage quality. For sample benchmarking, see accompanying graphs. These data are summarized over a six-year period for a commercial testing lab based on the relationship between the DM content of corn and alfalfa silages (from Kung and co-workers, 2018, Journal of Dairy Science). â&#x20AC;˘

35

Ash) along with analytical values for acid detergent fiber (ADF), NDF- and ADF-insoluble CP, lignin, water-soluble carbohydrates (sugars), and soluble-CP concentrations are also typically reported. Wet chemistry procedures and results serve as the basis for NIRS equation development and calibration and for troubleshooting outlier results from NIRS analysis. Compared to wet chemistry, the NIRS analyses are lower cost and can be performed much more quickly, thereby resulting in a faster turnaround time for nutritionists using the results for ration reformulation. Although some nutrient analyses may be less precise with NIRS than wet chemistry, this can be partially offset by more frequent sampling and analyses with NIRS made possible by the lower cost. For standard corn silage analyses where the NIRS equation calibrations have been improved over many years, DM, CP, soluble-CP, NDF, ADF, and starch, the laboratory NIRS results are generally thought to be very acceptable. These are the same nutrients being explored for on-farm NIRS determinations, with DM being the most commonly accepted determination thus far. Feedstuff energy values provided on laboratory analysis reports are calculated from nutrition composition results. Typically, the summative energy equation, which was originally

Range of DM%

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Hay barns can be a profit center by Larry Moorehead

W

HEN I began my career as an extension agent in 1977, there was not a round baler in my county. By the mid-1980s, with the shortage of labor and the amount of hay we harvested, round balers became standard equipment on most of our farms. Cattle producers in Moore County, Tennessee, feed a lot of hay. That’s partially because many of them feed stillage from the Jack Daniel’s distillery located in Lynchburg. Such a by-product requires it be fed with a lot of dietary fiber. Storage of bales was often done in the fencerow or on the edge of a field. During the winter, I often observed that bale ring feeders got moved frequently because they were full of damaged, poor-quality hay that the cows wouldn’t eat. I met with our agricultural engineers at the time and got plans for open hay barns that would work well for storing round bales. We even developed plans for farmers to build their own barn trusses. In the late 1980s, our state forage

specialist encouraged us to do some demonstrations on hay storage. I accepted the challenge, trying different ways to keep hay dry. I used old tires to get bales off the ground, put some on the ground covered with plastic, and put some in the barn. This hay was stacked in June. Tennessee’s state beef specialist, Warren Gill, offered to help check the storage losses in January, which was three months before the end of our hay-feeding season. This was less than seven months after storage. Our dry matter losses ran from 6 percent in the barn to 30 to 40 percent stored outside without a cover or not stored off the ground. Bales were losing 15 to 20 percent of their dry matter and quality from the top and about the same from the bottom, which was sitting on the ground. These results got producers’ attention, and this prompted new barns to be built throughout the county. During the following year, the trial was repeated with similar results. Our study tracked closely with similar experiments done at other universities

and the Noble Research Institute. In a beef herd, the biggest expense is feeding cows during the winter. If we can save 30 to 40 percent of that cost, it might mean the difference between an annual profit or loss.

A five-year payback Using our trials’ storage loss data, an economic analysis was developed for building a hay barn. The results showed that a barn could be paid for in five years. Over the years, producers have built some barns 150 to 200 feet long with both or only one end open. We quickly learned that this type of design is impractical because of the distance needed to drive for stacking hay, and LARRY MOOREHEAD The author is an extension agent with the University of Tennessee based in Moore County.

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it’s difficult to separate different cuttings or forage qualities; you have to feed it as you come to it. I now recommend side-loading barns that are 30 to 40 feet wide where good and poor-quality hay can be segregated, and then fed appropriately to different livestock classes. If possible, it’s better that farms build multiple smaller barns instead of one or two large ones. This will prevent loss of the majority of a farm’s winter-feed supply in the event of a barn fire caused by hot hay. In other words, don’t put all your eggs in one basket. I also like to see smaller barns put up close to where the hay is made or fed to reduce hauling time and expense. In our humid area of middle Tennessee, hay needs to be baled under 18 percent moisture to reduce the risk of hay heating. If weather permits, I suggest leaving bales outside for two to three days before stacking them the barn. If it looks like rain, bales can be put in the barn in single layers and then stacked higher at a later time. The safest approach is to let bales go through their normal heating process and then get below 120°F before stacking them in the barn. There are a couple of options for stacking round bales in a barn. Some people have suggested that if you stack hay end on end that they are less likely to heat. I did three different tests at three different farms, comparing stacking as a pyramid versus end on end. We stacked the bales three high and checked the temperatures for two weeks. There was no difference in how soon bales returned to the ambient temperature after normal heating.

hay losses, a local equipment dealer demonstrated a net wrap baler, which I included in my study. The net wrap did a great job protecting the top of the bale by shedding rain and snow; however, we still measured a 20 percent loss from the bottom where bales sat on the ground. We’ve also evaluated the use of plastic covers. The combination of a plastic cover and bales set off the ground had less than a 10 percent feed loss, which was only 3 to 4 percent higher than the

barn. But tarps cost money, they are hard to apply, and they make it difficult to get your hay out during the winter. The biggest expense in the cow herd is wintering the cow. With hay being the biggest cost, any waste that can be prevented will favor your bottom line. Hay storage is one opportunity to reduce waste that has been addressed here, but harvesting and feeding also are areas where significant hay losses can be prevented. •

If outside — do it right If hay must be stored outside, there are several proven practices that will reduce losses and waste. When storing hay outside but under a tarp, it is important to put gravel down as a base to keep moisture from migrating out of the ground and into the bales. The stack location needs to be well drained. If you stack hay outside without covers, align rows north and south, letting the sun go up and over the bales so they dry faster after a rain event. Keep bales out of shaded areas so the bales get full sun, and leave a space between rows so that water has a place to go. Always place round bales end-to-end, and never let the sides of the bales touch. During my first test of documenting November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 21

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The best defense against drought is long-term pasture stewardship before dry conditions persist.

Don’t let drought cripple your game plan by Hugh Aljoe

P

ERIODS of favorable rainfall make every livestock producer look smarter. Periods of drought sort out the smartest among us. Many philosophical statements come to mind when considering pasture management during drought. One of my favorites of all time came from Wayne Hamilton, one of my range science professors at Texas A&M during my college years: “The time to start planning for a drought is when it is raining.” He followed that statement up immediately with: “And the time to start planning for a rain is during a drought.” There is no substitute for planning ahead. This entails a documented strategy for “typical” conditions and also contingency procedures, which includes those actions that need to be taken in the event of drought.

Think ahead The best means to prepare pastures for drought is good long-term pasture stewardship before the drought. The fact is that well-maintained pastures are more resilient during stress and recover more rapidly after stress. In application, this means pastures are managed for long-term residual and litter cover, adequate growing season rest and recovery, soil fertility, and stocking rates that do not exceed carrying capacity. If these are performed well during favorable moisture conditions, the pastures will be in good condition

when unfavorable conditions occur. In today’s world, drought conditions in a region are usually forecast and certainly easily monitored as conditions change. The Drought Monitor is an excellent tool to track soil moisture conditions. Local weather data is also readily available and easily accessed in most locations. Weather and climate tools such as these allow producers to stay informed about regional weather conditions, which helps with the planning process; therefore, informed producers should not be caught off-guard as a drought materializes.

Prepare for the worst When preparing for a drought, include an appropriate contingency plan that involves strategies and activities that can be executed in an orderly fashion as adverse conditions persist. Inventory your cattle by class, stored forages and standing forage to be grazed, and make an assessment of livestock water quantity and quality. It is also important to determine the period of time that the herd could be maintained if drought conditions persist and the length of time the herd could be retained if the stocking rate is incrementally reduced. You must answer these questions: • What do I need to do to get to the next season of anticipated rainfall? • What do I need to do to get to the next spring growing season?

• How can I accomplish this while limiting the long-term damage to the pastures caused by grazing livestock?

Take action Once drought settles on a region, you need to begin implementing the plan. Your first thoughts should be on assessing the available and projected forage production over future time points, developing a destocking plan to allow for a marketing strategy of existing livestock if forage demand exceeds projected supply, and determining the critical dates when decisions will need to be made. Typically, destocking strategies include: • Early weaning of calves • Marketing of growing cattle • Marketing of open and problem cows • Marketing of less uniform and poorer-performing cows with the intent of maintaining the most productive and uniform cows as the core herd Relocating the core herd to other regions of the country that are not under drought conditions is also an option. Rarely is feeding through an extended drought a wise economic decision, but it is an option. However, early identification and purchase of required hay supplies in bulk before drought is fully realized is usually much more cost-effective than waiting until hay prices become inflated. Next, assess livestock water supplies. Graze those pastures with unreliable or less dependable water supplies early while water is not limited in quantity or quality. Maintain adequate residuals in all pastures, especially the native grass pastures, where recovery is longer and more difficult to achieve than in introduced pastures. If pastures are to be grazed harder or shorter, or used as a “sacrifice area,” target introduced

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pastures such as bermudagrass, which with fertilization, weed management, and moisture can recover quickly. Avoid overutilization of native pastures.

Rotate and monitor Regulate grazing by rotating the remaining cattle through pastures, monitoring closely the projected number of grazing days (weeks) ahead of the herd and the recovery rate of the pastures. If grazing expectations are not being met without overutilizing the pastures (grazing into the desired residual), implement destocking protocols and avoid “throwing open” all of the gates. Monitor the grazing, recovery, and residuals in the pastures throughout the duration. If drought conditions manifest during the peak rainfall periods of spring and early fall, early and timely implementation of drought mitigation practices are of greater importance to meet projected production goals. Apply fertilizer, especially nitrogen, early at an adequate but conservative rate. Also, perform establishment practices early in the season, and only on the amount of acres that can be well-prepared ahead

of planting. Apply herbicide only if the target weeds are actively growing and not drought-stressed, usually early in the season. Make weed control a priority over soil fertility on introduced pasture if one must be chosen over the other. Unfortunately, many livestock producers learned too late that it’s a good practice during drought to plow and maintain fire guards or breaks along fence lines around the perimeter of your property. The same can be done around pastures, hay storage locations, and barns. This is especially effective along the southern borders that adjoin roads. With prevailing southerly winds, the south boundaries are the most likely to be threatened with wildfires. Finally, the regular planned use of prescribed fire on native pastures helps reduce buildup of plant material for wildfires to consume, aiding in suppression.

Have a safety net Finally, participating in USDA Risk Management Agency’s Pasture, Rangeland, and Forage (PRF) insurance program can provide B:7.5”some assistance during droughts. The PRF insurance T:7.5” program is designed to provide cover-

age on your pasture, rangelands, and grazed forage crops. It gives producers the ability to cover replacement feed costs when a loss of forage for grazing or harvest is experienced because of lack of precipitation, not just during extreme drought. Sign-up for the program is annually and occurs in the fall preceding the year of coverage. PRF insurance is supplied by local and regional independent insurance agencies and is well worth considering if you are a producer with grazing livestock and hay. It may not alleviate drought conditions, but it can make them easier to live through. That said, keep in mind that the best drought insurance for pastures is good long-term pasture management before and during the drought. • HUGH ALJOE The author is the director of producer relations for the Noble Research Institute in Ardmore, Okla.

S:7.5”

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© 2018 Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® is a trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC. Roundup Ready® is a trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC, used under license by Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® Alfalfa with Roundup Ready® Technology is subject to planting and use restrictions. Visit www.ForageGenetics.com/legal for the full legal, stewardship and trademark statements for these products. 

Proof #: Nov 2018 JOB #: 61832 3 F4 22_23 Drought.indd

CLIENT CODE: FGIN06

Print Scale: None Version: None

Bleed: None Trim: 7.5” x 4.875”

Cyan Magenta

Date: 7-11-2018 11:04 AM User Name: Hortsch, Marc

OVE

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OPEN YOUR CUTTING WINDOW. AND YOUR LIFE.


Set yourself up for alfalfa winter survival by Dan Undersander

S

UMMER and winter alfalfa are different in structure. The change occurs during the process of hardening in the fall to allow the alfalfa plant to survive colder temperatures. During hardening, the membrane of fatty acids around each cell becomes more unsaturated (more double bonds between carbon atoms). A saturated membrane allows for freer movement of carbohydrates out of the cell and minerals into the cell; this is better for summer growth and reserve-building in taproots. However, an unsaturated membrane can survive colder temperatures without solidifying, which would cause cell death. The hardened cells also have a higher sugar content. These sugars act as an antifreeze, allowing the cell contents to remain liquid at lower temperatures. This is the same reason regular Coke or 7-Up freezes at colder temperatures than the diet versions with less sugar. Alfalfa does this by breaking down root and crown starches to produce sugars that accumulate in cells. This allows supercooling of the cell solution (cooling below 32°F without freezing). The elevated cell sugar content and other changes cause ice formation in spaces between plant cells rather than inside the cell. Water loss from inside cells is reduced with extracellular freezing (most winterkill is actually due to desiccation, or water loss, from cells). The hardened cells stabilize larger molecules and membranes within the cell.

Genetics matter Hardening begins in the fall when the plant crown temperature is 60°F. Maximum hardening occurs when the air temperature is between 40 and 50°F. The process is enhanced by fluctuating

temperatures with highs around 50°F and lows near freezing. How much the plant hardens depends both on the plant’s genetic potential and proper weather conditions. We can think of hardening as a sliding scale with 100 percent of genetic potential developed with two to three weeks of cool days and near freezing nights. Less of the genetic potential for winter hardening develops with a shorter period of fluctuating temperatures. Thus, alfalfa hardening of a given variety and its ability to survive winter will be greater in some years than others depending on the fall weather. In 1992, Wisconsin alone lost over 1 million acres of alfalfa when temperatures were 70°F until December 1 and a killing frost occurred before any winter hardening.

Other factors Previous crop management also affects the degree of hardening. Low soil fertility reduces winter survival, particularly low soil pH and low levels of soil potassium and sulfur. More frequent cutting regimes require more winterhardiness because plants have less time between cuttings to replenish root carbohydrates. While short intervals are necessary for the high-quality hay/haylage needed by the dairy industry, a longer cutting interval is why alfalfa often survives longer if it is harvested at later stages for beef cattle. Additionally, late fall cutting, while often recommended, puts more stress on alfalfa and requires a higher level of winterhardiness. Although fall dormancy is no longer strongly linked with winter survival, it still can have an impact. Fall dormancy is determined by the height of growth

during September. Less fall dormancy (higher numbers) relates to earlier spring green up and faster green up after cutting; this often results in more yield. However, more dormant cultivars harden up to three times faster than less dormant cultivars and tend to have deeper crowns that protect plants against cold weather in the absence of snow. Dehardening and the initiation of shoot growth occurs when the air temperature is greater than 60°F during the day and when the soil temperature at 2 to 4 inches is above 40°F. Dehardening may take five to six days of these conditions for a fall dormancy 3 variety and three to four days for a fall dormancy 4 to 5 variety. Thus, if you farm in an area that has periods of warm days over winter with lack of snow, be wary of less fall dormant types as they will lose dormancy quicker. In addition, shoots from buds formed in the fall will start to grow using root reserves intended for spring growth. An alfalfa plant can usually survive one such growth period if it went into the winter healthy. However, spring green up will be slow because the alfalfa must develop new buds for spring growth because the fall buds started to grow and died during the colder weather.

Evaluate during spring It’s relatively easy to determine if you lost some of the fall-established buds on the plant by looking at the pattern of spring growth. If growth is of uniform height, then most buds survived the winter. If, on the other hand, spring growth starts with only a few shoots and others develop later, then winter injury occurred. The later shoots will tend to be 2 to 4 inches shorter than the shoots from buds that survived the winter. Alfalfa is an amazing plant with dormant types allowing it to survive most winter conditions. Selecting proper genetics for the region and using good agronomic practices will generally allow the alfalfa to come through the winter healthy, change its physiology for the growing season, and ready itself for rapid growth in the spring. • DAN UNDERSANDER The author is an emeritus professor and retired extension forage specialist with the University of Wisconsin.

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may suffer by cutting earlier to achieve grass forage quality. An earlier cutting will result in lower yields per cutting and higher harvest costs. Finally, you need to cut grass higher; it doesn’t have crown root reserves and needs adequate leaf area to recover in the field.

Options exist

My experiences with alfalfa-grass mixtures by Matt Lippert

T

HROUGHOUT the United States, a lot of alfalfa is grown with grass. This is sometimes done by design, but other times it occurs unintentionally. In some areas, grass is very well adapted. It is less prone to winter damage, although this past winter we found that grass, too, can die over winter. There has been expanding interest in growing grass in alfalfa mixtures. Why? Especially on fields that are variable, yields can be higher and more consistent with grass. Grass, if harvested at the right stage, will have higher fiber digestibility than alfalfa. Typically, it will dry down faster for haylage or hay. Since there has been more interest, my family’s dairy has dipped its toe into the grass-growing pool, but we have found grass is not without its challenges. Growing multiple species at the same time will always be more complicated. Hardly ever will the fertility needs, harvest requirements, and other management considerations be identical for both species. What are some of the hazards that can be found along the alfalfa-grass mixture road? Here are some of the things we’ve found to be important and some issues we’ve encountered.

Cut for the grass Conditions at planting affect the ratio of alfalfa to grass that will establish, even if the same seeding rate is used from year to year. Dry conditions will tend to favor the alfalfa, while wetter

years will allow the grass to dominate. You never know for sure what you will get until it comes up, and even then it’s best to wait until it goes through a winter. If you like predictable results, pure stands may be the choice for you. Good genetics are important. Fescue, orchardgrass, timothy, and smooth bromegrass are not created equal. In general, grass matures faster and moves out of quality faster than alfalfa; look for later maturing varieties within a species. Also, look for varieties selected for forage quality; a reason why grasses once moved out of favor was the challenge with quality. Some grass plant genetics are simply not suitable to feed to lactating dairy cows. Some species play nicer together. Tall fescue has been appreciated as a tough, high-yielding species, but it may not be the best choice to grow with alfalfa. Rather, consider meadow fescue; we’ve found that it’s a species that offers similar yields, is less competitive, and has much higher forage quality. Use a different gauge stick for when to cut mixtures as compared to straight alfalfa. To optimize yield and still have dairy quality, you need to cut when the alfalfa is less mature than you would when just managing alfalfa alone. The saying “When you see the head, the quality is dead” is very true. Some grass species only develop a seedhead once per year, but even in subsequent cuttings when no seedhead is present, the grass will decline in quality more quickly than the alfalfa. This means alfalfa stand longevity

Soil fertility is more complicated with an alfalfa-grass mixture; this is especially true for potassium. Alfalfa has a deep taproot, which offers drought tolerance. Grasses have a dense, fibrous root system. If potassium is limited, the grass is going to win because it extracts potassium more efficiently. If the alfalfa struggles, you may decide to manage the mixture for the grass by applying nitrogen, which will further nudge the advantage to the grasses over the alfalfa. Alfalfa and grass don’t have to be grown in mixes. You could seed pure stands of grass and alfalfa, then mix the two forages in a total mixed ration (TMR). Rye and triticale have become more popular in recent years; these are added to the ration as pure grass. Perennial grasses can be managed this way to avoid the problem of feed variability. When growing the grass and alfalfa in separate fields, seed the grass on fields that aren’t suited for alfalfa. Cutting schedules will become more complicated if you have different start dates and average intervals for the grass and alfalfa. Feed inventory management will also be more complicated. However, if you are able to manage these things, you may have the best of both species — higher fiber digestibility from the grass and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and higher protein from the alfalfa. There are many potential advantages of adding grass to the ration over alfalfa alone. There is a possible yield advantage and better resiliency against adverse conditions. Fiber digestibility may be improved, but total fiber may go up. As with other practices, continuous tweaking and experimentation will be needed to find the “sweet spot” for each individual farm. • MATT LIPPERT The author is an agriculture agent with the University of WisconsinExtension in Wood County and is involved in his family’s dairy farm.

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While many U.S. regions suffered from torrential rain this past summer, much of Missouri was a giant cloud of dust. Keith Baxter, Rogersville, Mo., rolls up some hay that proved beneficial as a partial solution to the drought conditions.

Kassidy Buse

They managed through the drought by Kassidy Buse

U

PON seeing the first armadillo of the day, I realized my internship had taken me beyond the boundaries of the Upper Midwest. I was following a flatbed truck down an oil-paved road that was as hot as it was black; it was leading me to my destination, a hayfield. I couldn’t help but notice the sign that stated, “Road closed when water levels are high.” How ironic for this area in southern Missouri that was crying for such a “road closed” condition. This past growing season was less than ideal for many producers in southern regions; Missouri was hit especially hard. Limited rainfall put a damper on forage production, which left many producers scrambling to find ways to feed cattle. Even more troubling than the need for forage was the question of what would be available for stored forages to use as feed through the nongrazing season. One producer facing this crisis and the difficult decisions that come with it was seventh-generation farmer Keith

Baxter of Rogersville, Mo. Baxter and his uncle, Kevin, run K&K Cattle Farms, which is based out of Rogersville but operates in several southern Missouri counties. It was Baxter that I met in the hayfield. He was rolling up hay that was as dry as the soil it grew in. Drought conditions had taken a major toll on pasture forages. When I was there in late June, Baxter noted that some producers he knew were starting to supplement hay for their cows on pasture. But of course, finding hay to feed wasn’t that easy. “You’d be hard pressed to find someone with leftover hay,” Baxter said under the shade of his straw cowboy hat.

A diversified operation In March of 1849, Baxter’s family homesteaded the farm near Rogersville. Throughout the years, beef cattle have been present on the operation off and on. Dairy had been the major livestock species up until a decade ago when Baxter and his uncle started to grow

the beef herd. Prior to 2005, Baxter and Kevin ran separate operations and traded labor and machinery to help get work done. In 2005, they came together and made a partnership to form K&K Cattle Farms. Baxter’s cousin, Ben, and nineyear-old nephew, Lucas, help out in the summer. His father, Lane, is semiretired but still helps out in the shop to keep machinery running. K&K Cattle Farms consists of a herd of 250 crossbred beef cows, 37 Holstein dairy cows, 600 acres of pasture, and around 1,200 acres of farmland that is used to grow hay, corn, and soybeans. The beef cows are kept on pasture near Rogersville. Two-thirds of the herd calves in the spring, while the rest calve in the fall. About 240 calves are born each year.

Pretty lucky While others have been “running scared for hay,” Baxter said that they

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sell to neighbors who are coming up a bit short and need a few more bales to get them to spring,” he added.

A hands-on approach K&K Cattle Farms includes around 600 acres of Kentucky 31 tall fescue pasture with 500 of those acres used for grazing beef cattle. The remaining acres are grazed by the Holstein cows on Kevin’s dairy. Typically, the grazing season runs from mid-April until the end of November. None of Baxter’s pastures are irrigated due to the rocky composition of the soil. “It’s great for drainage, but not so great for holding water,” noted Baxter in his usual “to the point” manner of speaking. Despite the dry and hot

Kassidy Buse

dy Buse

had been lucky. “We’ve been fertilizing hay late in the spring; part on accident and part on purpose,” Baxter specified. “We fertilize later than we used to mainly because we believe nitrogen is not as stable as it used to be. We want the grass to be actively growing and be ready to use it when we apply it,” Baxter added. “The cold spring was a big challenge for us this year. Grass just didn’t grow; we had to feed stored hay until May,” Baxter stated. But this cold spring played a key role in K&K Cattle Farms’ luck. “Not fertilizing until late April paid dividends this year because we didn’t lose our nitrogen like others did,” Baxter said. He also noted that the growing season for a majority of their grasses didn’t last long before conditions became hot and dry. “Having the nitrogen there when the grass could use it was a plus,” Baxter surmised. Hayfields at K&K Cattle Farms are typically fertilized with nitrogen once temperatures are high enough to promote grass growth; potassium is also applied to accommodate for the removal of biomass. Herbicide is applied as needed to keep weeds at bay. In addition to the 200 acres they custom harvest each year, Baxter and his uncle harvest 800 acres of hay that is harvested on shares with other landowners. Baxter identified the biggest two challenges for harvesting hay under a crop-share agreement is time and steel. “We have to cover more acres to get the amount of hay we need for our herd,” explained Baxter. Not only do more acres take more time, it also leads to more wear and tear on their equipment, which means more maintenance and possibly early replacement. The advantage of a crop-share lease is that the land doesn’t have to be owned or rented. The nephew-uncle team grow and make hay from tall fescue, orchardgrass, alfalfa, wheat, and foxtail millet. Each year, they produce 4,000 to 5,000 bales, including those that go to their share partners. During an average year, Baxter feeds 1,200 to 1,500 bales to his beef herd through the nongrazing season. “We will sell extra hay if we have it, but we won’t sell any until the end of January when we get a feel for the winter we are going to have,” Baxter specified. “When we do sell, we mostly

Keith Baxter is a seventh-generation cattleman who farms with his uncle and pastures 250 crossbred beef cows.

conditions of 2018, Baxter didn’t experience any problems with fescue toxicity. He attributes this to his aggressive mineral program. “I’ve used the same mineral program from Cargill for years, and it does a good job,” Baxter stated. Microminerals, such as copper and zinc, bind to compounds that form in response to fescue toxicity; binding helps render the compounds unavailable to the animal. This is why symptoms of fescue toxicity tend to be analogous to symptoms of copper deficiency. Similar to what is done with the hayfields, pastures are fertilized once temperatures are favorable for plant growth. Weeds are controlled through a combination of mowing and herbicide application. Aside from pasture forages, cattle are

supplemented with 2 pounds of corn per head per day for energy. Baxter grows 60 to 80 acres of conventional corn to meet the herd’s needs. Corn is fertilized in accordance to soil test with twothirds of the needed nitrogen applied at planting and the remaining applied side-dress when the corn reaches about 2 feet tall. A unique aspect of this operation is how they make their own feed on-site and hand feed their herd with the corn instead of letting them only graze grass or eat hay. Baxter believes this practice reaps several benefits. “We feel it allows us to get a little more life out of a cow, and helps with temperament,” Baxter explained. “We find at weaning time it seems like the calves take to feed a little faster as well.” He also noted that in dry and lean forage years, much like the one of this past summer, they are able to feed lower quality forages without sacrificing body condition. Baxter could easily be consumed with his 250 head of beef cattle, 600 acres of pasture, 1,200 acres of cropland, and 200 acres of custom cropping, but he’s also actively involved in the Missouri Cattlemen’s Association. Baxter currently serves as the chairman of the Missouri Cow/Calf Council where he represents the interests of cow-calf producers on the Missouri Cattlemen’s Association executive committee. He is also one of the Missouri board members for the Federation of State Beef Councils. On a more local level, Baxter sits on his county farm bureau board. Droughts are never easy, but K&K Cattle Farms has some built-in safeguards and will accept luck anytime they can. Baxter figures you can’t win a battle that you don’t plan for. On my return trip from the hayfield, the armadillos were still cruising the landscape, and I was warned once again of “high water.” Unfortunately, only the dust was deeper. •

KASSIDY BUSE The author was the 2018 Hay and Forage Grower summer editorial intern. She is currently working toward a master’s degree in ruminant nutrition at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

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PASTURE PONDERINGS

by Jesse Bussard

Trip of a lifetime

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ACK in late July, an energized and eclectic group of 22 Australian producers stepped off a plane in Dallas, Texas, to embark on a 3,500-plus mile, three-week learning journey across the United States. Known as the “Aussie graziers,” the group was comprised of students of the KLR Marketing School, a class that teaches the livestock marketing principles developed by the late Bud Williams. Ranging in age from 11 to 69, the students came from small farms and large cattle stations alike, as well as sheep outfits. In addition, a livestock veterinarian and the 2016 champion of the Mongol Derby, a 1,000-kilometer race across the Mongolian steppe on semiwild horses, were also among the party. Led by Grahame Rees, KLR Marketing co-founder, the group visited 17 ranches and attended the International Bud Summit in Springfield, Mo., over the course of their multi-week trip. Rees organized the tour to give his students the opportunity to learn from progressive farmers and ranchers using regenerative agriculture principles, as well as Bud Williams’ stockmanship and livestock marketing methods in the United States. An interesting fact that Rees pointed out about the Aussie graziers on the trip is nearly 75 percent were experiencing drought to some degree on their own operations back in Australia. “While a lot of farmers are sitting back taking government subsidies to get through the drought, this group decided to go on a learning tour instead,” Rees said. Among some of the ranches that the group visited were Pharo Cattle Company in Burlington, Colo., the Padlock Ranch near Sheridan, Wyo., and Sieben Live Stock Company just north of Helena, Mont. Called the “trip of a lifetime” by many who traveled on the tour, the experience proved valuable through many of the stories and lessons learned that members shared.

Many lessons learned “I did not expect the trip to have such a deep and profound effect on my life in the way it has,” said Charlotte Bronson, one of the tour attendees and overseer of a mixed organic farming operation

in South Australia. “The passion and energy that our hosts had for their landscape, their connection to their country, the people, and animals were something that I felt was a very special thing to be part of.” Bronson recalled some valuable insights she learned from Oklahoma-based regenerative agriculture proponent, Walt Davis, on the detriments of tillage to soil biology. In her recount, Davis said with just one pass of a plow, 10 to 12 years of pasture improvements can be undone, and more importantly, mycorrhizal fungi communities are severely damaged in the process. Instead, Davis recommended producers’ focus should be to work with nature to preserve and continue to improve soil health. Matthew Doyle of Yass, New South Wales, pointed to his time spent with Gail Fuller and Michael Thompson in Kansas learning about multispecies cover cropping as a key learning experience. From his time spent on their operations, Doyle recalled that Fuller was able to boost his soil organic matter from 2 percent in 1997 to 7 percent in 2011 through the use of multispecies cover crops. Currently in the process of moving to a more perennial cover crop system, Fuller’s soil water infiltration has also improved from a 1/2-inch per hour to 6 inches per hour over time. Thompson’s operation saw similar results including a reduction in necessary inputs and improved profit potential. After this trip, Doyle said, “Changes at home for me will include the introduction of multispecies cover cropping for soil health and fertility build up. I didn’t think it suitable for my operation previously, but now I see them as fertility and diversity builders.”

Work with nature Perhaps the most powerful experience of the tour, however, was the group’s stop at Sieben Live Stock Company in Adel, Mont. Many of the participants recounted how inspirational their visit to this ranch was, and more importantly, meeting ranch manager, Cooper Hibbard. “This young man will be a legend,” said Matthew Tonkin of Goondiwindi, Queensland. “His passion for his environment and commitment to making the

world a better place was truly awe-inspiring. To hear him speak of his dreams and ambitions with a waiver in his voice while sitting in the grass at his spiritual home, brought the emotion forward in all of us.” Katie Collins of Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, agreed, noting Hibbard was the perfect illustration of the passionate nature of those they met involved in regenerative agriculture on their trip. “I know we all appreciated his strength and vulnerability in sharing so openly with us of his personal journey,” said Collins. Collins went on to add, “The simplest and most obvious theme of this entire trip was to work with nature, not against it.” From examples of multispecies cover cropping to calving in spring and not in winter, to moving stock regularly (not using a set stocking rate), and increasing soil cover, this thesis reigned true. Livestock veterinarian, Jo Ward, from western Victoria, agreed, noting that the entire experience was well worth the time and expense. “From meeting so many different and passionate ranchers and learning from their operations, to seeing some absolutely magnificent country, to experiencing American cowboy culture, the whole experience was just fantastic,” said Ward. “Overall, the ranches we visited in America were outstanding. Most had amazing interpersonal relations within their businesses. The calmness of the stock we saw spoke volumes for their livestock handling techniques and the open-minded attitude of most of the ranchers was refreshing.” •

Connect with the Aussie graziers and learn more about their journey in their Facebook group: www.facebook.com/groups/ USARanchTour/. JESSE BUSSARD The author is a freelance writer from Bozeman, Mont., and has her own communications business, Cowpunch Creative.

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by Kassidy Buse

L

OW-LIGNIN forages are a hot topic in agriculture. With high digestibility and improved milk yield, it’s easy to understand why BMR (brown midrib) corn hybrids and reduced-lignin alfalfa varieties are getting so much attention. But perhaps most important with today’s milk prices, low-lignin forages offer the ability to produce high-quality feedstuffs while improving income over feed costs. That said, they should not be viewed as a “silver bullet.” “Whether you have low NDF (neutral detergent fiber) or high NDF, you are not going to get 100 pounds of milk just from NDF digestibility,” stated Jim Barmore, a nutritionist at GPS Consulting, during the 2018 Four State Dairy Nutrition and Management Conference. “There are other factors that need to be considered.”

A delay is okay Reduced-lignin alfalfa introduces flexibility into harvest by allowing a seven to 10 day delay while still maintaining acceptable forage quality. A delayed harvest may also reduce the number of cuts needed per year and the

amount of traffic in the field. “We’re going to cause damage, we don’t harvest with a helicopter,” explained another conference speaker, Ev Thomas, who is president of Oak Point Agronomics in Hammond, N.Y. Repeatedly harvesting at the bud stage exhausts stands. “Frequent harvest has a negative impact on the rhizobial nodules in the plant and even on the root hairs,” Thomas explained. But, delaying harvest allows more time for plants to restore root carbohydrates. “Harvesting at the bud stage never allows the alfalfa to fully recover root carbohydrates; neither does delaying harvest by seven to 10 days,” Thomas explained. “But, it’s closer to ideal.” With a schedule that involves three or more cuttings, every plant in the field will be run over at least once, which results in crown damage. Damage makes a plant more susceptible to disease and lessens its ability to retain water. A study conducted by the University of Wisconsin found that there was an improvement of 15 to 20 percent in yield for three cuttings versus four cuttings. Some of this was attributed to less traffic. By delaying harvest to the bud stage, alfalfa-grass becomes a possibility. “A combination of meadow fescue and reduced-lignin alfalfa harvested at the

Kassidy Buse

Making reduced-lignin work

bud stage can result in excellent forage quality,” Thomas indicated. Thomas also assured that if a producer normally harvests alfalfa at the bud stage, doing so with an alfalfa-grass stand will not impose a change into the producer’s regular schedule. While one of the drawbacks of alfalfa-grass is that grass matures faster than alfalfa, the benefits are hard to ignore. To start, a higher milk production potential is also seen when comparing alfalfa-grass to straight alfalfa. Alfalfa-grass has also been known to out-yield stands of straight alfalfa. Thomas doesn’t recommend going “all-in” with reduced-lignin alfalfa. “Seed a portion of the alfalfa acreage to reduced-lignin alfalfa or alfalfa-grass, and choose your best alfalfa land,” advised Thomas. “If you go to a seven to 10 day delay and get a better recovery of root reserves, you may find that you’re going to be able to get at least an extra year on your alfalfa stand,” he explained.

Cut alfalfa-grass first When it’s time for harvest, Thomas advised to cut alfalfa-grass first followed by conventional alfalfa and then reduced-lignin alfalfa. “The goal is to

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have as close to ideal forage quality from the first harvest until the last,” explained Thomas. This strategy is the best accommodation since grass matures quickly, and reduced-lignin alfalfa quality isn’t compromised with a delay. From his 15 years of experience working with BMR corn, Thomas has learned a thing or two. At the top of the list is to plant BMR on your best corn ground. “BMR hates ‘dry feet,’” Thomas specified. “BMR just doesn’t like to get dry.” While a yield drag of 10 to 15 percent is still to be expected, avoid thin, drought-prone soils to prevent further yield loss. If you desire a “good looking” crop, you best look elsewhere. “BMR isn’t pretty. If you care what the boys at the coffee shop say, plant the guard rows to a leafy hybrid. Then they’ll think the whole field looks that way,” Thomas said with a grin. BMR has also gotten the reputation of being easily lodged due to its low levels of lignin. Since it has less lignin, it will often bend but not break during storms and high winds. BMR will also recover from incidences like these quickly. As put by Thomas, “If you can go through the field and harvest it, it isn’t lodged.”

BMR is different Because of the reduced-lignin content, the cell walls in BMR corn are more fragile. To compensate, a longer chopping length might be needed to get sufficient physically effective fiber. Cows need to spend a certain amount of time chewing their cud to maintain optimum rumen function, so feed a high percentage of forage when feeding BMR corn. Several chewing studies have been done that compare BMR to conventional corn silage. Cows that ate BMR consumed more silage and spent less time ruminating per pound of NDF consumed. Also, cows spent 5 to 10 less minutes eating, which adds up to about 30 minutes less spent eating per day. This allows for more resting time. In order to see a milk yield response, Thomas noted that the total ration must consist of at least 20 percent BMR on a dry matter basis. Optimally, the ration needs to be 30 percent or more BMR. “When fed at the right rate to

Brown midrib corn comparison Trait

BM3

BM1

Non-BMR

Yield, ton/ac (35% DM)

20.5

20.9

21

NDF, % of DM

35.6

33.5

35.2

NDFd 30-h, %

62.3

58.7

54

uNDF240, % of DM

7.8

8.9

11.9 23.4

pdNDF, % DM

27.9

24.6

NDF yield, ton/ac

7.3

7

7.4

pdNDF yield, ton/ac

5.7

5.1

4.9

the right cows, BMR should result in 3 to 5 pounds in milk response,” Thomas detailed. “That 3 pounds of milk will pay for a 20 percent yield drag,” he added. Can half of the field be planted BMR and half conventional to make up for the BMR yield drag? “You can, but you shouldn’t,” Thomas stated. “Either plant BMR or don’t plant BMR. But, don’t plant BMR and conventional corn in the same field or in separate fields and put them in the same silo. Just don’t do that.” He added, “Store silage in separate silos and give priority to cows that will most benefit from it like transition and high-producing cows.” Thomas also recommended that if BMR inventory is low, withhold BMR completely during the winter and feed it during the heat of summer. The high digestibility of BMR will help maintain production in cows experiencing heat stress. “Measuring BMR on wet tons per acre is a very poor leading metric indicator,” stated Barmore. “Think about it. Why did we plant it at the beginning? It wasn’t for tons; it’s got a yield drag. We planted it for digestible fiber. So, shouldn’t we measure the yield in potentially digestible fiber versus wet tons? It’s going to lose the wet ton contest,” he added. Barmore recommends focusing on the conceptual flow where wet tons start out on top and filter down (see table). “When you get to NDF, NDF digestibility, uNDF (undigestible NDF), and pdNDF (potentially digestible NDF), you get it to a point where it can be expressed on a potential yield basis of digestible fiber. That’s the way I think we need to be looking at BMR. When you do that, it really starts to tell the

story,” he explains. “If I get asked, ‘Should I use low-lignin alfalfa or BMR silage?’ almost without exception my answer would be BMR because it’s usually a larger proportion of the diet,” Barmore stated. “As such, it’s going to have the most likely impact on milk production.”

Too much? Is there such a thing as too much high-quality forage? What if reduced-lignin alfalfa and BMR corn silage are both being used? Is it going to cause any problems with rumen health? “It could, but I think that would be an exception if you were on top of your game,” Barmore said. He further explained that any possible issues might be attributed to other factors such as cow comfort, feeding management and consistency, proper processing, and chopping length. Barmore said that sometimes low-lignin forages aren’t the answer. “It doesn’t do any good to put high-quality gas in a car with an engine that’s going to go really fast but has low-quality tires,” he explained. “If you have cow comfort limitations or high days in milk with a herd producing 78 pounds of milk, there are other things that will be more impactful than feeding highly digestible forages.” • KASSIDY BUSE The author was the 2018 Hay and Forage Grower summer editorial intern. She is currently working toward a master’s degree in ruminant nutrition at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

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RESEARCH ROUND-UP

Seeding legumes into warm-season pastures Establishing legumes into an existing warm-season grass pasture is often a challenge. To determine if alternate methods of seeding legumes into warm-season grasses could improve legume establishment and animal production, researchers at the University of Arkansas solid- and strip-seeded red, white, and subterranean clover into a mix of bermudagrass, crabgrass, and dallisgrass. The results of the study were reported in Crop, Forage, & Turfgrass Management. The clovers were seeded in solid stands across the entire pasture plot using a recommended seeding rate of 2, 8, and 11 pounds per acre for white, red, and subterranean clover, respectively. Within the strip treatment, those seeding rates were doubled, resulting in the same amount of seed being used but on half of the total grazed area. Preconditioned heifer calves grazed the paddocks during the course of the summer. Stand percentage and forage mass in May was greatest for red clover, regardless of seeding method. Red and white clovers had similar stand percentages in June and were greater than subterranean clover for both the strip- and solid-seeded plots. In July, both seeding methods of red clover and solid-seeded white clover had the greatest stand percentage with subterranean clover having the lowest. All three solid-seeded clovers and strip-

seeded red clover had the greatest forage mass in July; stripseeded subterranean was the lowest. At the end of the grazing period in September, there was little to no subterranean or white clover, while red clover had a stand of around 8 percent. Animal performance, as measured by bodyweight, did not differ with clover species or seeding method at the beginning or middle of the grazing season. At the end of the grazing season, however, animals on red clover pastures gained more weight than those on white and subterranean clover. Average daily gain (ADG) was not affected by seeding method across the entire grazing season. Animals grazing red and white clover gained weight more rapidly at the beginning of the season. Late in the season, animals on red clover had better ADG. Overall, animals on red clover had the best ADG, and animals on subterranean clover had the lowest ADG. In summary, the method of seeding had little to no effect on stand percentage or animal performance. Red clover persisted longer into the summer and offered the most utility for improving forage quality and animal performance. White clover also seems to be a viable alternative and is widely adapted. Subterranean clover, a winter annual, does not seem to be a practical option for late-summer forage.

Seeding rate has little impact on fall-grown oats USDA researchers at the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center in Marshfield, Wis., examined the effect of seeding rate and cultivar of oats on dry matter (DM) yield, potential lodging, and forage nutritive value. A mid-maturity, graintype cultivar, Ogle, and a later-maturing, forage-type cultivar, ForagePlus, were evaluated at the seeding rates of 64, 96, 128, and 160 pounds per acre during two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). Plantings were made on August 8 and August 12 for year one and year two, respectively. Agronomic responses to seeding rate were variable across years and mostly had little bearing on plant performance. In year one, lodging scores rose slightly as the seeding rate was increased and was most pronounced for ForagePlus. No differences in lodging occurred in year two. Seeding rate also had no significant impact on DM yields in either year, but Ogle had the highest yield of the two varieties in both years (signifi-

cant in only the first year). Seeding rate had little to no effect on nutritive value in year one. A decline in ash and a rise in nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) as the seeding rate inclined were only observed. A tendency for the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) to decline in response to a rise in seeding rate was also seen. Minimal significant effects on nutritive value were observed in 2015. A rise in concentrations of NDICP (neutral detergent insoluble crude protein) was the only observation. While they werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t significant in 2015, other trends relating to nutritive value and seeding rate were observed. As seeding rate rose, CP, NDF, ADF, and NDF digestibility worsened. RFQ (relative feed quality) dropped 21 units between 64 and 160 pounds per acre seeding rates. Cultivar maturity rate affected nutritive value as well. Ogle exhibited a lower concentration of crude protein

(CP) as well as higher levels of NDF and ADF (acid detergent fiber). NDF digestibility was high for both cultivars. In 2015, the effect of cultivar was stronger and more consistent than what was seen the previous year. ForagePlus, the later-maturing variety, had the overall highest quality at the time of harvest. The researchers concluded that the effect of seeding rate on lodging is likely to be inconsistent from year-to-year. The same is true for nutritive value, though varietal maturity rating will have a profound impact on quality if harvested by the calendar date rather than the maturity stage. There was no compelling evidence to suggest DM yield can be improved by exceeding recommended seeding rates. Overall, the seeding rate has little importance on DM yield, lodging, and nutritive value, and there is little evidence to suggest that seeding rates should exceed the recommended 70 to 90 pounds per acre.

32 | Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018

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MACHINE SHED

Deere unveils 9000 series forage harvesters High-capacity forage harvesting without sacrificing forage quality is the mantra of John Deere’s new line of self-propelled forage harvesters (SPFH). In corn, the all-new 9000 series provides up to 400 tons of throughput per hour, along with optimum corn silage processing that’s independent of the length of cut. The four models, all with final Tier 4-compliant engines, include: • 9600 - 616 horsepower (hp) from a John Deere 6 cylinder 13.5 liter (L) PowerTech engine • 9700 - 759 hp from a Liebherr V12, 24L engine • 9800 - 858 hp from a Liebherr V12, 24L engine • 9900 - 957 hp from a Liebherr V12, 24L engine Compared to its predecessor, the 9000 series is 10 percent more productive per horsepower and offers a 10 percent improvement in kernel processing. Up front, a new 772 12-Row, Big Drum corn header consumes up to 7 tons of forage per minute. Fuel consumption has also been improved by 10 percent per ton when compared to the 8000 series, and each of the 9000 series machines has a 396 gallon fuel tank. Wear parts on the new forage harvesters are built to last three times longer. As a partner with Scherer Inc., Deere customers can pair their harvester with the new XStream kernel processor (KP), which comes standard on the 9900 and is an option for other models. With 250 mm (millimeter) diameter rolls and 50 percent speed differential, this KP delivers consistently processed kernels and stover. Processing scores are maintained regardless of the length of cut. Integrated John Deere technology solutions can be found throughout the 9000 series. Each model comes equipped from the factory with John Deere Connected Support that includes a five-year JDLink subscription and a year of JDLink Connect with wireless data transfer. Optional technology that can be integrated into the machine includes John Deere AutoTrac RowSense, Active Fill Control with rear unloading, HarvestLab 3000, and AutoLoc.

When ordered guidance-ready, AutoTrac, RowSense, or AutoTrac RowSense guidance can be field activated. AutoTrac RowSense keeps the machine in the right row, regardless of conditions, and helps maximize time in the field by improving harvest efficiency and yield while reducing operator fatigue. Active Fill Control with rear unloading can be factory or field installed and provides automated truck and trailer filling while allowing operators to harvest day or night with less stress and fatigue. When mounted to the SPFH, John Deere HarvestLab 3000 with constituents sensing, provides moisture levels and yield data, and it helps operators get a read on forage nutrient levels on the fly. When teamed with AutoLOC, the collected data can be used to make informed decisions and adjustments to improve feed quality. Several display options are being offered by John Deere for the 9000 series. A GreenStar 3 CommandCenter is included as base equipment. An optional GreenStar 3 2630 can be mounted on the armrest, or mounted on the armrest along with an optional Gen 4 4640 display mounted to the side rail. The Gen 4 display provides an improved operating experience with complete data merging, collecting, and transferring capabilities. For more information, visit JohnDeere.com/SPFH.

Haybuster offers new bale processor Haybuster recently announced the release of their new blower-type bale processor. The new model 2574 is an upgrade of the 2564 model. The main upgrade is the belt-drive system that powers the blower and the rotor. This makes the 2574 smoother and quieter, and it makes maintenance a much easier task. The new version also has a replaceable drive shaft and blower fins. The 2574 is available with an optional additional axle

to keep tongue weight at a minimum and also helps with compaction, especially in erosion control applications. The 2574 retains the proven 360-degree hydraulic spout rotation for ease in straw or bedding placement. It also retains the two-stage bale loader for ease in loading bales and carrying two bales to get the job done efficiently. This model can process bales in any condition into bunks, feeders, and windrows, and is great for

covering soil for erosion control. For more information, visit Haybuster.com.

The Machine Shed column will provide an opportunity to share information with readers on new equipment to enhance hay and forage production. Contact Managing Editor Mike Rankin at mrankin@hayandforage.com.

November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 33

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ProAG stacker touted ProAg recently introduced a bale stacker that will handle either large square bales or bundled small square bales. This versatile stacker can go from picking large square bales to the bale bundles within minutes in the field with a few minor adjustments. The new ProAG 12SR PLUS Stacker will pick and stack the following: • 12 – 3 by 3 feet dry bales per load • 6 – 3 by 4 feet dry bales per load • 4 – 4 by 4 feet dry bales per load • 8 bundle packs of 21 small square bales per pack, per load • 168 small square bales per load For more information, visit www.morris-industries. com/proag.

Vermeer launches trailed mower line Vermeer introduces its new line of 10-series smalltrailed mowers for hay and forage producers seeking proficient cutting, simplicity, and ease of use. The TM610/TM710/TM810 trailed mowers feature the built-in protection of a rubber torsion suspension for smooth mowing performance in many conditions, including rough and uneven terrain. The TM610/TM710/TM810 trailed mowers give operators three sizes to choose from with 8.1 feet, 9.2 feet, or 10.5 feet cutting widths. The hookup procedure is straightforward — after the hitch, PTO, and hydraulics are connected, it’s ready to go to the field. Toolless adjustments allow users to set the suspension between fields. The mowers are equipped with Vermeer’s Quick-Clip blade retention system. Horsepower requirements (50 hp) are an average 20 percent lower than comparable three-point disc mowers. For more information, visit vermeer.com.

Massey Ferguson introduces silage baler AGCO Corporation recently debuted their new Massey Ferguson RB series silage baler. The RB series silage baler is a heavy-duty choice for producers baling corn stover, and it is ideal for small dairy operations and small to midsized cow-calf operations who want to bale high-moisture forages. The RB series silage baler is the first silage-specific baler to be offered by Massey Ferguson. This heavy-duty premium baler is engineered to deliver the throughput and reliability required for making bales from heavy, high-moisture crops and dry, coarse material such as corn stover or wheat straw. The camless pickup needs no cam track, so there are fewer moving parts, which makes the pickup quieter, less sensitive to wear, and more reliable. It also means less maintenance and fewer adjustments to save operator’s time and increase productivity in the field. The compact pickup is positioned close to the rotor, ensuring smooth, consistent crop flow into the bale chamber. It has an 84-inch tine-to-tine pickup width and a five-tine heavy-duty bar design that ensures clean pick up of wet forages and smooth intake into the bale chamber. Long, heavy-duty tines feature a large coil for added flexibility that reduces the chance of tines breaking when picking up heavy crops. These variable-chamber balers feature the Constant Pressure System (CPS), which raises the pressure as the surface of the bale grows, so density stays consistent through the entire baling process. Four continuous belts, made of multiple layers of rubber and synthetic material, have great tensile strength for a firm grip on the crop and significant pressure on the bale. The belts are manufactured with substantial overlap rather than joined with a seam. The bale chamber has two rollers above the feed system and large CPS springs help the belts flex, allowing a quick start but ensuring that plenty of pressure is put on the crop right from the beginning as the core of the bale is formed. A crop press roller helps to pick up feed in smaller volume crops. It also levels out large quantities of crop to prevent lumps. Both models are equipped with the exclusive HydroFlex Control twostage antiplugging protection system that minimizes downtime. The automatic mechanical floor can flex downward underneath the rotor so that a rock or crop bunch can pass through. In addition, the hydraulically controlled floor can be lowered by the operator from the cab, to clear crop from the chamber before a plug occurs. The RB series silage balers also feature the Xtracut 17 with two sets of hydraulically operated knife banks, giving operators the option of not chopping or having 8, 9, or 17 knives engaged, allowing for smaller cuts and adjustable cutting lengths up to 2.65 inches. The Xtracut 17 also is controlled from the cab for quick adjustment. Varionet wrapping ensures the net wrap is applied evenly across a bale and wraps over the edge. The easy load system (ELS) carries two spare rolls on the baler, so roll replacement can be done in a matter of minutes. For more information, visit masseyferguson.us.

34 | Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018

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PĂśttinger adds baler-wrapper combo Case IH upgrades disc mower-conditioners The latest updates to Case IH 2019 disc mower-conditioners provide more efficiency in the hayfield. The new 9- and 10-foot side-pull models combine fast cutting with high-quality conditioning and are perfect for lower acreages and narrow gates. Additionally, a new quick-change knife system allows for fast blade replacement to save maintenance time. The new machines have an optimal cut and crimp system and a narrow cutterbar design with improved flotation. Combined, these deliver a high-quality cut and more even windrows for consistent and faster dry down. A new fourpin hydraulic cylinder tilt provides more cutting height flexibility for improved cut quality, and no tools are required to adjust the tilt. New adjustable skid shoes are also available for additional cutting height flexibility. The fully modular cutterbar system provides superior lubrication and eliminates cross-contamination if an internal failure were to occur. A shock protection system protects the cutterbar from expensive field failures if an obstacle is encountered. A new heavy-duty curtain also adds operator protection. A nearly one-to-one cut width to conditioning roll width ratio provides even and thorough conditioning for faster dry down. With no tools needed to adjust windrow formation, cutting height, and conditioning roll pressure, operators can quickly make changes to adjust to changing crop conditions. For more information, visit www.caseih.com.

Claas baler and hay tool additions Claas extended its range of large square balers with the introduction of the Quadrant 5300 square baler. The Quadrant 5300 is a 3 by 4 feet baler that includes automatic pressure control, a longer bale chamber, new HD II single knotters, and a knotter monitoring system option. The hydraulically controlled feeding chambers can be operated from the cab or directly on the machine. Quadrant 5300 also has the option of three different rotors â&#x20AC;&#x201D; roto feed, roto cut, or fine cut system. The automatic baler pressure control system ensures total bale tying reliability. CLAAS also introduced the Rollant 540, a fixed-chamber round baler that is a heavier-duty replacement for the Rollant 375. It features an updated design, a stronger chassis and 15 newly-designed heavy-duty rollers. The rollers feature a 4 mm (millimeter) wall thickness with shafts bolted to 15 mm thick flanges for improved strength and durability when baling tough crops. The Rollant 540 is specifically designed for wetter crops and larger applications

such as commercial silage baling. The new Disco 3600 F/FC/FRC Move front mower offers improved linkage, better ground contour following, better visibility, and compatibility with larger tractors. The mower gives the operator more flexibility from a front mower and is ideal for professional-grade mowing operations. The efficient Disco 3600 C Contour rear mower gets an added tine conditioner, which completes the 3600 series offer with a tine, roller, or no conditioner. Central hitching ensures perfect ground-contour following, and the 120-degree road transport position makes the machine compact and safe on the road.

PĂśttinger expands its IMPRESS round baler line with the new baler/wrapper combination. Bales can now be wrapped immediately after compaction, which has a positive effect on the quality of the silage. The baler/wrapper combination is available as a fixed-chamber baler (IMPRESS 125 FC PRO) and a variable round baler (IMPRESS 155 VC PRO). All functions can run automatically or from the tractor control panel. The wrapping arms on the compact wrapping unit take the bale from below and move upwards, a unique technical concept ideally designed to meet the requirements of the high-capacity baler. A further advantage of the system is its low height. The double-wrapping arm works at 36 rpm (rotations per minute). The film-stretching unit is easily adjusted by switching the drive chain for 50 or 70 percent stretch. Bales are safely transferred to the wrapping table by a transfer unit that moves linearly. With this concept, bales can safely be placed on gradients of up to 40 percent. The baler-wrapper combination is also fitted with the FLEXCUT 32 retractable short-chop chopping unit consisting of 32 reversible knives with an individual knife protection system and a theoretical chopping length of 36 mm (millimeters) along the entire width. The baler-wrapper combinations also feature the LIFTUP rotor. Thanks to the patented spiral configuration of the rotor tines, the forage enters the bale chamber across the whole width and at an ideal angle. In addition, any material that does fall through is fed back into the flow by the cleaning rotor. The combination of the LIFTUP rotor and the EASY MOVE retractable knife bank ensures unique ease of maintenance of the chopping unit, which can be performed ergonomically in the standing position and outside the hazardous vicinity of the round baler. For more information, visit www.poettinger.at/en_us.

November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 35

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BUYERS MART

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Now in its 48th year, the Symposium is a comprehensive and educa�onal program for anyone with an interest in important issues related to alfalfa and forages. Economics and Markets, �egula�ons, �est Management, Forage Quality, Water Management and �roduc�vity are �ust a few of the topics that will be covered in this year’s Symposium. �n op�onal Soil �ealth � Fer�lity Workshop will also be o�ered, combining lectures and hands�on demonstra�ons.

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Serving hay growers since 1978! www.hoelscherinc.com 620-562-3575 38 | Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018

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The Anderson RB200 offers quality and dependability for small farm operations. The RB200 , a simple way to get peace of mind. Stay in touch to discover #smarterfarms.

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November 2018 | hayandforage.com 39 17-03-08 | 10:40


BUYERS MART

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SteffenSystems.com // 1.888.STEFFEN or 503.399.9941 40 Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018 “No one gets hurt” print ad for Steffen Systems 503-399-9941 One-sixth page horizontal — 4.875” x 2.375” THIS ARTWORK SUPERSEDES ANY OTHER PREVIOUSLY RECEIVED


BUYERS MART

ELIMINATES Burrowing Rodents

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Some say our equipment is “over-built”. We say there’s no such thing!

• The most effective and safe way to control burrowing rodents. • Saves time, gopher mounds are probed, not dug out. • Control ground squirrels-gophers-prairie dogs. • Low operating cost and simple to use. • Preserves turf and landscaping. Gopher Control Manufacturing & Sales 855-667-5181 • 530-667-5181 or cell# 530-640-3981 www.hmgophercontrol.com

See The Weiss Master Difference

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Follow us on social media! Keep current & track the pulse of the forage industry! Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube & LinkedIn.

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November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 41


BUYERS MART

Double “R” Bale Covers

Keep dry hay dry.

• Reusable • Semi-rigid plastic sheets • Apply safely at ground level by one person

www.rrbalecovers.com CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

Available models 17, 19, 25 & 27 with rubber mounted teeth

$2.50 per word per issue.10 word minimum. 920-563-5551 ext. 125

ALSO YOUR #1 CORNSTALK RAKE

HELP WANTED

12 Wheel Side Delivery Rake Capable of merging 12, 14 or even 16’ windrows together. Available with Rubber Mounted or Tine Teeth

16 & 18 Wheel Rubber Mounted Tooth V-Rake Using the same great features of our standard V-Rake we have added the rubber mounted tooth wheels from our Ultimate Rake for a cost effective rake that will rake 6 different crops. From Cornstalks to Green Chop to Dry Hay. 84504 HWY 11 • BURWELL, NEBRASKA (800) 445-9202 www.rowserakes.com

FIRST RESPONSE

FARM EQUIPMENT

Baler Applied Product

A Proven, Non-Corrosive Forage Treatment Alternative to Acid! Check out our Cutter Applied Products: Raincoat / Hay PT Untreated

Treated - First Response

Innovative Forage Solutions

and our Silage Products: Silage Si / Silage PT / Ensile www.NURTURITE.com

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www.innovativeforage.com

42 Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018

ATTENTION FARM EQUIPMENT SERVICE TECHNICIANS: Krone Hay and Forage Equipment Company has great job opportunities for you! Krone has job openings for qualified Service Technicians at our Wisconsin dealerships in Platteville and Kaukauna, and at our dealership in Turlock, California. Work for Krone and your career will thrive in a downto-earth, customer-focused dealership work environment. And you’ll be part of a growing $2+Billion global equipment manufacturing company. Krone offers an excellent compensation package, including medical/dental benefits and 401k. Apply online at careers@krone-na. com, or call 901-410-7036 and ask for Reuben Lowrey. KRONE/95

Made In USA

BALEWAGONS: New Holland selfpropelled & pull-type models/parts/tires/ manuals. Can finance/deliver. 208-8802889, www.balewagon.com JAWIBA/15 BEST PIVOT TRACK CLOSER FOR ALFALFA! Right amount of soil moved and packed with weight of your tractor. Tracks stay shallow. 402-750-2199. www.tracpacker.com TRACPA/23

HAY PRODUCTS

ROORDA HAY INC. INCREASING YOUR PROFITS IN 2019. Hay armor preservative stops mold, stops heating, extends storage. Baler twine. Netwraps. Call for pre-season discounts and bundles. 208-573-3779. Roordahay.com ROHAIN/29


BUYERS MART

Green is the New Gold S&W Alfalfa Seed is bred to perform to higher standards so growers can realize maximum returns. SW4107: High quality forage yield, FD4. Tops the charts for multi-race aphanomyces resistance. SW5213: High yield variety, FD5. Excelled in University trials. Superior resistance to root rots and stem nematodes. SW9720: S&W’s most popular non-dormant variety with high forage quality and high yields even in salty soils.

Now Seeking New Dealerships! For information about S&W varieties or dealership opportunities contact Rob Fox at 605.270.9033. SWSEEDCO.COM 916-554-5480 ext 605

Mid-America Forage Expo

January 8–9, 2019

Adam’s County Fairgrounds Hastings, Nebraska

AlfalfaExpo.com Nebraska-Alfalfa.com

800-743-1649

Trade show featuring everything forage!

Nebraska Special Hay Auction January 9TH at 6 pm CST Live Online Video • Guaranteed quality • Secured transactions • Transportation assistance from farm to your door! View hay tests, videos, and register to bid:

Visit www.tubeline.ca/silage.php to download our free high moisture hay guidebook.

High moisture hay can be referred to as haylage, baleage, and silage. It is <60% moisture hay that has been wrapped air tight and allowed to ferment. There are numerous reasons to produce high moisture hay these include:

• • • • • •

Minimizing harvest loss Reducing harvest time Increaseing ADG Minimizing storage loss Reducing feed cost Reducing weather risk

AMERICANAGVA.COM (605) 717-5888 November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 43


BUYERS MART

HIGH QUALITY CROP PACKAGING PRODUCTS NET WRAP • High UV stabilization • Maximized bale coverage • Heavier build offers added strength and longevity • Will work well in any properly adjusted baler • Red warning stripes towards end of each roll

Can’t depend on mother nature for your moisture requirements?

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• High quality twine • High UV Stabilization • Consistency and Strength Our line of products also include: Bunker Covers / 2 in 1 Forager Silage Film Crusher Hay Conditioning Rolls Nurturite Forage Treatments

Innovative Forage Solutions

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Jan Ford Jford@hoards.com Kim Zilverberg Kzilverberg@hayandforage.com

44 Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018 Buyer's Mart .indd 1

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BUYERS MART U.S. Postal Service STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

15.

16.

16.

17. 18.

Publication Title: Hay & Forage Grower Publication No.: 021-713 Filing Date: September 28, 2018 Issue Frequency: January, February, March, April/May, August/September and November No. of Issues Published Annually: 6 Annual Subscription Price: $0 Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 28 Milwaukee Avenue West, PO Box 801, Fort Atkinson, Jefferson County, WI 53538-0801. Contact Person: Brian V. Knox, Telephone: 920-563-5551. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: 28 Milwaukee Avenue West, PO Box 801, Fort Atkinson, Jefferson County, WI 53538-0801. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher, Editor, and Managing Editor: Publisher: W. D. Hoard & Sons Company, Brian V. Knox, 28 Milwaukee Avenue West, PO Box 801, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0801. Editor: Managing Editor: Michael C. Rankin, 28 Milwaukee Avenue West, P.O. Box 801, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0801 Owner: Hay & Forage LLC, 28 Milwaukee Ave. W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538; Paris M Knox 1990 Educational Trust, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538; Gillian V. Knox 1990 Educational Trust, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538; Brian V. Knox II 1992 Educational Trust, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538; Gregory J. Mode, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538; Gina L. Mode, 28 Milwaukee Ave., W, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538 Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other Securities: None Tax Status (for completion by non-profit organizations authorized to mail at non-profit rates: N/A Publication Title: Hay & Forage Grower Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: August/September 2018 Extent and Nature of Circulation: Average No. Copies Each Issue During Preceding 12 Months: a. Total Number of Copies (Net Press Run): 63,346 b. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Distribution (By mail and outside the mail): 1. Outside County Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541. (Include direct written request from recipient, telemarketing, and Internet requests from recipient, paid subscriptions including nominal rate subscriptions, employer requests, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies.): 43,865 2. In-County Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS From 3541.(Include direct written request from recipient, telemarketing, and Internet requests from recipient, paid subscriptions including nominal rate subscriptions, employer requests, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies.): 0 3. Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales and Other Paid or Requested Distribution Outside USPS®: 0 4. Requested Copies Distributed by Other Mail Classes Through the USPS (e.g. First-Class Mail®): 0 c. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Sum of 15b (1), (2), (3) and (4)): 43,865 d. Non-requested Distribution (By mail and outside the mail) 1. Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include sample copies, requests over 3 years old, requests induced by a premium, builk sales and requests including association requests, names obtained from business directories, lists, and other sources): 18,327 2. In-County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include sample copies, requests over 3 years old, requests induced by a premium, bulk sales and requests including association requests, names obtained from business directories, lists, and other sources): 0 3. Nonrequested Copies Distributed Through the USPS by Other Classes of Mail (e.g. First-Class Mail, nonrequestor copies mailed in excess of 10% limit mailed at Standard Mail® or Package Services rates): 0 4. Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail (Include pickup stands, trade shows, showrooms, and other sources): 488 e. Total Nonrequested Distribution (Sum of 15d (1), (2), (3) and (4)): 18,815 f. Total Distribution (Sum of 15c and e): 62,680 g. Copies not Distributed (See Instructions to Publishers #4 (page #3): 666 h. Total (Sum of 15f and g): 63,346 i. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (15c divided by 15f times 100): 69.98% Extent and Nature of Circulation: No. Copies of Single Issue Published Nearest to Filing Date: a. Total Number of Copies (Net Press Run): 64,214 b. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Distribution (By mail and outside the mail): 1. Outside County Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541. (Include direct written request from recipient, telemarketing, and Internet requests from recipient, paid subscriptions including nominal rate subscriptions, employer requests, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies.): 45,346 2. In-County Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS From 3541.(Include direct written request from recipient, telemarketing, and Internet requests from recipient, paid subscriptions including nominal rate subscriptions, employer requests, advertiser’s proof copies, and exchange copies.): 0 3. Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales and Other Paid or Requested Distribution Outside USPS®: 0 4. Requested Copies Distributed by Other Mail Classes Through the USPS (e.g. First-Class Mail®): 0 c.Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Sum of 15b (1), (2), (3) and (4)): 45,346 d. Non-requested Distribution (By mail and outside the mail) 1. Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include sample copies, requests over 3 years old, requests induced by a premium, builk sales and requests including association requests, names obtained from business directories, lists, and other sources): 17,119 2. In-County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (Include sample copies, requests over 3 years old, requests induced by a premium, bulk sales and requests including association requests, names obtained from business directories, lists, and other sources): 0 3. Nonrequested Copies Distributed Through the USPS by Other Classes of Mail (e.g. First-Class Mail, nonrequestor copies mailed in excess of 10% limit mailed at Standard Mail® or Package Services rates): 0 4. Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail (Include pickup stands, trade shows, showrooms, and other sources): 865 e. Total Nonrequested Distribution (Sum of 15d (1), (2), (3) and (4)): 17,984 f. Total Distribution (Sum of 15c and e): 63,330 g. Copies not Distributed (See Instructions to Publishers #4 (page #3): 884 h. Total (Sum of 15f and g): 64,214 i. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (15c divided by 15f times 100): 71.60% Electronic Copy Circulation: Hay & Forage Grower. Average No. Copies Each Issue During Previous 12 Months: a. Requested and Paid Electronic Copies: 0 b. Total Requested and Paid Print Copies (Line 15C) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a): 0 c. Total Requested Copy Distribution (Line 15f) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a): 0 d. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Both Print & Electronic Copies) (16b divided by 16c X 100): 0%. Electronic Copy Circulation Hay & Forage Grower. No. Copies of Single Issue Published Nearest to Filing Date: a. Requested and Paid Electronic Copies: 0 b. Total Requested and Paid Print Copies (Line 15C) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a): 0 c. Total Requested Copy Distribution (Line 15f) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a): 0 d. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Both Print & Electronic Copies) (16b divided by 16c X 100): 0%. I certify that 50% of all my distributed copies (electronic & print) are legitimate requests or paid copies. Publication of Statement of Ownership for a Requester Publication is required and will be printed in the November 2018 issue of this publication. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including civil penalties).

Consider a custom harvester Controlling input costs in farming operations is one way to manage risk caused by commodity price variances. A successful farmer constantly looks for options that reduce production costs and increase margins. A common ailment among farmers is hardware disease. All farmers work daily for the reward in the harvest, but does it make economic sense to own large harvest equipment? In some surveys, as many as 70 percent of farmers who responded could improve profits by hiring custom harvesters instead of doing the work themselves. Custom rates are often lower

than actual farm machinery costs because custom harvesters use equipment over more acres per year than most farmers. Absence of debt on harvest equipment can have a profoundly positive effect on the balance sheet. The right decision depends on the nature of the individual farm, but hiring a custom harvester is worth considering. With the decision to hire in place, obtain recommendations from other producers who use custom harvesters. Then, contract with custom harvesters who have good reputations for meeting time commitments and harvest efficiency.

U.S. Custom Harvesters, Inc. P.O. Box 148 Turon, KS 67583 620-200-1381 office@uschi.com www.uschi.com

BY ROBERT FEARS FOR USCHI

NEW RELEASE Feeding Guide 4th Edition

by Mike Hutjens hoards.com/bookstore

Crop Specific Inoculant Haylage & Small Grains Dry Hay Hay--up to 26% moisture Corn Silage Hi Hi--Moisture Corn

Full line of applicators. Exceptional customer service. Organic certified. Custom Operators Wanted N4852 County Road C ~ Ellsworth WI 54011 Office: 715-273-3739 Cell: 612-812-7939 www.multisile.com deatonnutrition@dishup.us

Brian V. Knox, Publisher September 28, 2018

November 2018 | hayandforage.com | 45


FORAGE IQ Iowa Forage and Grassland Conference November 26 and 27, Des Moines, Iowa Details: http://iowaforage.org

California Alfalfa & Forage Symposium November 27 to 29, Reno, Nev. Details: http://calhay.org/symposium/

7th National Grazing Lands Conference December 2 to 5, Reno, Nev. Details: grazinglands.org

Kansas Forage and Grassland Conference December 11, Emporia, Kan. Details: ksfgc.org

American Forage & Grassland Conference January 6 to 9, St. Louis, Mo. Details: afgc.org

Mid-America Alfalfa Expo January 8 and 9, Hastings, Neb. Details: alfalfaexpo.com

Northwest Hay Expo January 16 and 17, Kennewick, Wash. Details: www.wa-hay.org

Vermont Grazing & Livestock Conference January 18 and 19, Fairlee, Vt. Details: bit.ly/HFG-VGLC19

Heart of America Grazing Conference January 22 and 23, Ferdinand, Ind. Details: www.indianaforage.org

Southwest Hay & Forage Conference January 23 to 25, Ruidoso, N.M. Details: www.nmhay.com

Western Alfalfa Seed Growers Assn. Winter Seed Conference January 27 to 29, New Orleans, La. Details: www.wasga.org

Cattle Industry Convention NCBA Trade Show January 30 to February 1, New Orleans, La. Details: www.beefusa.org

HAY MARKET UPDATE

Hay season comes to an end With hay balers now parked in the shed, the winter-marketing season begins with mixed signals. The good news is that hay prices remain as good or better than a year ago, even with dismal milk prices and a slower alfalfa export pace. As is often the case, inventories of

high-quality hay will be tight, but overall stocks appear to be more than adequate in most regions. The prices below are primarily from USDA hay market reports as of the beginning of November. Prices are FOB barn/stack unless otherwise noted. •

For weekly updated hay prices, go to “USDA Hay Prices” at hayandforage.com Supreme-quality hay California (northern SJV) California (Intermountain) California (Sacramento Valley) Colorado (southeast)-ssb Kansas (all regions) Minnesota (Sauk Centre) Missouri Montana-ssb New Mexico (southeastern) New Mexico (southern)-ssb Oklahoma (western) Oregon (Lake County) South Dakota (East River) Texas (Panhandle)) Texas (north, central, east) Utah (all regions) Washington (Columbia Basin) Premium-quality hay California (Sacramento Valley) California (southeast) California (southern)) Colorado (northeast) Idaho Idaho Iowa (Rock Valley)-lrb Iowa Kansas (all regions) Minnesota (Sauk Centre) Missouri Nebraska (east/central)-lrb Nebraska (western) Oklahoma (central/western) Oregon (Crook-Wasco)-ssb Oregon (Lake County)-ssb Pennsylvania (southeast) South Dakota (East River) Texas (west) Utah (northern) Wisconsin (Lancaster) Wyoming (eastern) Good-quality hay California (Intermountain) California (Sacramento Valley) Colorado (northeast) Idaho Iowa (Rock Valley)-lrb Kansas (all regions) Missouri Montana Nebraska (Platte Valley)-lrb Nebraska (western) New Mexico (eastern) New Mexico (southeastern)

Price $/ton 275 210 300 260-275 185-210 195-220 180-225 200-250 210-220 275 220-250 210-225 200-230 325 310 150-185 170-200 Price $/ton 200 220-230 265 210-240 150-160 200 173 280 170-195 150-190 150-200 115-125 170 200-220 225 200 225-230 160-170 275-280 130-155 205-210 175-193 Price $/ton 160-180 185 175 140-155 140-158 160-170 120-160 125-140 100-125 150-160 210 180

Oklahoma (central/western) (d) Oregon (eastern) Pennsylvania (southeast) (d) South Dakota (Corsica)-lrb South Dakota (East River) Texas (Panhandle) Utah (central) Wisconsin (Lancaster) Wyoming (central and western) (d) Fair-quality hay California (Intermountain) California (Sacramento Valley) Iowa (Rock Valley)-lrb Minnesota (Sauk Centre)-lrb (d) Missouri (d) Montana Nebraska (east/central)-lrb Oklahoma (central) Pennsylvania (southeast)-ssb South Dakota (Corsica)-lrb South Dakota (East River) Utah (northern) Wyoming (all areas) Bermudagrass hay (o) Alabama-Premium lrb Alabama-Premium ssb Texas (Panhandle)-Good/Premium lrb Texas (south)-Good/Premium lrb Bromegrass hay Kansas (southeast)-Good lrb Missouri-Good Orchardgrass hay California (Intermountain)-Premium California (northern SJV)-Good Oregon (Crook-Wasco)-Premium ssb Washington (Columbia Basin)-Premium Timothy hay Montana-Premium ssb Montana-Good-ssb Pennsylvania (southeast)-Premium Washington (Columbia Basin)-Fair Washington (Columbia Basin)-Premium ssb Wyoming (central/western)-Premium ssb Oat hay Idaho-Good Kansas (southeast) Straw California (Sacramento Valley) Iowa (Rock Valley) Kansas (north central/east) Minnesota (Sauk Centre) Montana (d) Pennsylvania (southeast) (d) South Dakota (East River)

180-200 190 185-200 98-115 135 250 (d) 80-100 165-200 150-165 Price $/ton 140-160 180-185 128 90-100 100-120 90-120 65-75 140-160 170 73 125 60-90 130 Price $/ton 100-133 180-300 180 (d) 120-170 Price $/ton 125-135 120-150 Price $/ton 240-250 200 230-235 225-245 Price $/ton 225-240 160-180 280-300 164 250-260 200 Price $/ton 95 150-160 Price $/ton 100-115 120 100-110 55-95 35-40 185-235 115

Abbreviations: d=delivered, lrb=large round bales, ssb=small square bales, o=organic

46 | Hay & Forage Grower | November 2018

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Take advantage of year-end discounts up to $2,000 on select new mowers and mower conditioners from KUHN and Cut a Great Deal.

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S:7.875”

SINCE 1958

WE’VE BEEN PLANTING FOR THE FUTURE SINCE OUR FIRST BAG OF SEED. In 1958, the founders of W-L Alfalfas saw something no one else did: the future of the industry. Throughout the six decades since, we have been focused on one thing: bringing you the highest-producing, highest-quality alfalfa seed in the world.

wlalfalfas.com

HarvXtra® Alfalfa with Roundup Ready® Technology and Roundup Ready® Alfalfa are subject to planting and use restrictions. Visit www.ForageGenetics.com/legal for the full legal, stewardship and trademark statements for these products. W-L Alfalfas is a registered trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC. © 2018 Forage Genetics International, LLC

T:10.875”

S:10.375”

Roundup Ready® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC, used under license by Forage Genetics International, LLC. HarvXtra® is a registered trademark of Forage Genetics International, LLC.


Alfalfa Variety Ratings 2019 Winter Survival, Fall Dormancy & Pest Resistance Ratings for Alfalfa Varieties

This National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance publication is intended for use by Extension and agri-business personnel to satisfy a need for information on characteristics of certified-eligible alfalfa varieties. NAFA updates this publication annually.

2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 1

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WINTER SURVIVAL, FALL DORMANCY & PEST RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR ALFALFA VARIETIES % Resistant Plants 0-5% 6-14% 15-30% 31-50% >50%

RESISTANCE RATINGS Resistance Class Susceptible Low Resistance Moderate Resistance Resistance High Resistance

FD Rating 1 2 3 4 5

FALL DORMANCY (FD) RATING DESCRIPTIONS Description FD Rating Description Very Dormant 6 7 Semi-Dormant Dormant 8 9 Non-Dormant Moderately Dormant 10 11 Very Non-Dormant

FD is the degree of fall alfalfa growth, as a response to temperature and day length. Lower dormancy ratings exhibit less fall growth, while higher dormancy ratings indicate greater fall growth. FD ratings are indices assigned by comparing the height of fall growth with standard check varieties, and tested across locations and years to accurately represent dormancy response across environments.

WINTER SURVIVAL RATINGS Category Check Variety Extremely Winterhardy ZG 9830 Very Winterhardy 5262 Winterhardy WL325HQ Moderately Winterhardy G-2852 Slightly Winterhardy Archer Non-Winterhardy CUF 101

Class Abbreviations S LR MR R HR

Score 1 2 3 4 5 6

FD 3 - DORMANT

FD 2 - VERY DORMANT

2 HR HR HR HR HR R

Ladak II

Allied

PGI 212

R HR

R

M

MR

R

HR

2 HR MR HR MR R

R

R

HR

Alforex Seeds

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

Spredor 5

Nexgrow Alfalfa

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

Spyder

BrettYoung

HR R HR R

54VQ52

Pioneer

HR HR R HR HR HR HR R

6305Q

Nexgrow Alfalfa

AFX 429

Alforex Seeds

AmeriStand 433T RR America's Alfalfa

R

R

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R 2 HR R

R

MR

R

R

HR

H

R

L

R

R

R

R

R

R

HR

ForeGrazer V

Legacy Seeds

HR R HR HR HR HR R

FSG 329

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Graze N Hay 3.10RR

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Hi-Gest 360

Alforex Seeds

Lariat

J.R. Simplot

R

R

R HR HR HR

HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR L

R

R

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R MR R 1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR M

MR R

R

BrettYoung

G

G

R

Concept

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

Farm Science

R

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

FSG 229CR

HR HR HR HR HR HR R

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

BrettYoung

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

Foothold

R

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR MR

Northern Root Knot Nematode

BrettYoung

Southern Root Knot Nematode

3010

Stem Nematode

2 HR HR HR HR HR R

Potato Leafhopper

BrettYoung

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

2010

Pea Aphid

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

Bacterial Wilt

Winter Survival

Information is obtained from the Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies (AOSCA) and the National Alfalfa Variety Review Board (NAVRB) report. Blank spaces indicate the variety has no approved rating through AOSCA.

HR

R R

M R

G

H

2019 VL - 2 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 2

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Alforex Seeds

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR MR

Survivor

BrettYoung

4HVXR100

LG Seeds

54HVX42

Pioneer

54Q14

L

R HR

MR

H

HR

MR

R

R

R

R

HR HR HR HR R HR MR R

R

R

Pioneer

HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

R

54Q29

Pioneer

HR HR R HR HR HR R

R HR

54VR10

Pioneer

HR HR MR HR HR HR HR R HR

54VR70

Pioneer

428RR

Farm Science

430RRLH

HR R

R

R HR R

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

Rugged

HR

R

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

H

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

Croplan

R

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

RR Presteez

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

MR MR MR R MR S

Northern Root Knot Nematode

Allied

Southern Root Knot Nematode

Ranger II

Stem Nematode

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

R HR

Potato Leafhopper

BrettYoung

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

Octane

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Pea Aphid

Croplan

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

Bacterial Wilt

Winter Survival

LegenDairy XHD

G

G Y

R

G

R H

RX RX

R HR R

R

MR

HR

R

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

MR

H

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR MR

H

R

440HVXRR

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

H

RX

4010BR

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

HR R HR

4020MF

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

HR MR HR

4030

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R MR HR

6401N

Nexgrow Alfalfa

6409HVXR

Nexgrow Alfalfa

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

6422Q

Nexgrow Alfalfa

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

6424R

R

R

R

R HR HR R

R

R

R

HR MR

R

H

R

R

H

Nexgrow Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR MR R

R

H

R

6427R

Nexgrow Alfalfa

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

H

R

6472A

Nexgrow Alfalfa

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

R

H

G

6497R

Nexgrow Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

H

G

Adrenalin

BrettYoung

HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

R

HR H

AFX 457

Alforex Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

R

R

L

AFX 460

Alforex Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

R

R

H

AFX 469

Alforex Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

R MR R

HR

L

G

AmeriStand 409LH

America's Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

AmeriStand 415NT RR America's Alfalfa

HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

HR

HR H

G

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR

H

G

HR R

HR

HR M

R

HR H

America's Alfalfa

AmeriStand 445NT

America's Alfalfa

HR R HR HR HR R

R

G RX

R

G

HR R

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

AmeriStand 457TQ RR America's Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR

R

H

R

AmeriStand 480 HVXRR America's Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

H

RX

R

G

R

AmeriStand 455TQ RR America's Alfalfa

R

FD 4 - DORMANT

HR

MR R

HR M

G

R HR

AmeriStand 427TQ

HR HR HR HR HR R

R

FD 3

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

R

2019 VL - 3 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 3

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FD 4 - DORMANT

MR HR HR

Camas

LG Seeds

HR R HR HR HR HR

HR R

DG 417RR

Dyna-Gro

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

H

DG 4210

Dyna-Gro

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR R

R

H

DKA40-16

Dekalb

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR

H

DKA40-51RR

Dekalb

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R

DKA43-13

Dekalb

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

DKA44-16RR

Dekalb

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

FSG 403LR

Farm Science

FSG 408DP

Farm Science

FSG 420LH

R HR

G/F

HR M R G

R R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

2 HR R HR HR HR R

R

R

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR R

FSG 421LH

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

HR MR

FSG 423ST

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR R HR R

R

FSG 426

Farm Science

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR MR HR

GA-409

Preferred

GrandStand II

Dyna-Gro

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R HR

HVX Driver

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HVX HarvaTron

HR HR R HR HR HR R

M

R

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

HR HR HR HR HR HR

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

BrettYoung

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

Barricade SLT

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

Northern Root Knot Nematode

Southern Root Knot Nematode

Stem Nematode

Potato Leafhopper

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

Pea Aphid

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

Bacterial Wilt

Winter Survival

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

R R

H H

G

R

R HR L R HR

G/F H

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

M

R

R

H

RX

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR MR R

R

H

RX

HVX MegaTron

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

H

RX

HybriForce-2400

Dairyland

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HybriForce-2420/Wet Dairyland

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

HybriForce-3400

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR MR

Dairyland

HR R HR

R

HybriForce-3420/Wet Dairyland

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR MR R

HybriForce-3430

Dairyland

HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR R

Integra 8420

Wilbur-Ellis

HR HR HR HR HR HR

Integra 8444R

Wilbur-Ellis

R HR HR HR HR R

L-446RR

Legacy Seeds

L-449Aph2

Legacy Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

L-455HD

Legacy Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

LG 4R300

LG Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

Magnitude

Growmark/Allied

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Magnum 7

Dairyland

Magnum 7-Wet

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

F

H

HR R HR

H

HR R HR

H

R

L

H

HR

L

H

HR R

HR

HR M

HR

HR

R

R

M

G/F R

R HR

R

H

R

HR HR

HR

M

R

R

HR

H

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

HR R HR

Dairyland

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

HR HR HR

Magnum 8

Dairyland

HR HR HR HR HR HR R

Magnum Salt

Dairyland

2 HR HR HR R HR R

R

HR R HR

Mariner IV

Growmark/Allied

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

HR HR HR

R

R MR R

R

G

L G/F

2019 VL - 4 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 4

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Optimus

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

MR HR R

Rebound 6XT

Croplan

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR

RR AphaTron 2XT

Croplan

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

RR Stratica

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR R

RR VaMoose

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

MR R

Scimitar

Growmark/Allied

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

SGS 47M

J.R. Simplot

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Shockwave BR

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

MR

HR R HR

Stockpile

BrettYoung

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

HR R HR

SW4107

S&W

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR MR R

R

55H94

Pioneer

HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR R

HR R

55Q27

Pioneer

HR HR HR HR HR HR R

R

R

HR

55Q28

Pioneer

HR HR R HR HR HR R

R

R

HR

HR

55V50

Pioneer

HR HR R HR HR HR HR R

R

R

HR

55VR08

Pioneer

5010

BrettYoung

HR HR HR HR HR HR

MR HR R

6516R

Nexgrow Alfalfa

HR

HR HR

6547R

Nexgrow Alfalfa

HR R HR HR HR HR

6585Q

Nexgrow Alfalfa

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

505005

HR

HR M R

M H

HR

R

H

R

H

R G

R

G

R

FD 4

HR MR HR

R

R

R HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR HR HR HR HR

R

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

HR R

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

3 HR HR HR HR HR R

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

Union

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

Medalist

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

Northern Root Knot Nematode

Southern Root Knot Nematode

Stem Nematode

Potato Leafhopper

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

Pea Aphid

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

Bacterial Wilt

Winter Survival

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

H

R

R R

R R

L

HR M

R

HR

HR H

R

HR

H

S&W

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R

HR MR

AFX 579

Alforex Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR R

AmeriStand 518NT

America's Alfalfa

HR HR HR HR HR HR

AmeriStand 545NT RR America's Alfalfa

R

R

R

HR

L

HR

HR

HR H

R HR R HR HR HR

HR HR

HR

HR M

HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

HR

H

HR

R

G

R

G/F R

G R

DG 5315

Dyna-Gro

DKA50-17

Dekalb

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

Evermore

Allied/SS/TFC

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR R

R

MR L

FSG 524

Farm Science

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

H

GA-497HD

Preferred

HR HR HR HR HR HR

GA-535

Preferred

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

R

GUNNER

Croplan

1 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

HR H

L-450RR

Legacy Seeds

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

MR HR

R

M

R

LG 5R300

LG Seeds

HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR HR

HR

M

R

MasterPiece II

J.R. Simplot

HR HR HR HR HR HR

HR

HR

MPIII Max Q

J.R. Simplot

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R HR

HR

H

Nimbus

Croplan

HR R HR HR HR HR

HR

HR

HR M

R

R

FD 5 - MODERATELY DORMANT

HR

H

H F

2019 VL - 5 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 5

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FD 5 - MODERATELY DORMANT FD 6 - SEMI-DORMANT FD 7 - SEMI-DORMANT FD 8 - NON-DORMANT

MR R MR

R

PGI 557

Alforex Seeds

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR

HR L

Premium

Union

HR HR HR R HR HR

HR R

HR

HR H

Quail

Blue River

HR HR HR HR HR HR

RR NemaStar

Croplan

HR HR HR HR HR HR

RR Saltiva

Croplan

RR Tonnica

R

L

R MR

HR

R

M

R

HR

R

M

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R HR MR

HR

M

Croplan

2 HR HR HR HR HR HR

R

R

H

Slingshot

BrettYoung

2

SW 5213

S&W

6010

BrettYoung

6610N

Nexgrow Alfalfa

Alfagraze 600 RR

America's Alfalfa

ArtesianSun 6.3

Croplan

Cisco II

R HR HR HR HR HR

R

HR HR

HR

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR R HR

HR

2 HR HR HR HR HR R HR

HR HR HR R HR R

R

R HR HR

HR H

Alforex Seeds

2 HR HR HR R HR MR

HR

R

FSG 639ST

Farm Science

3 HR R HR R HR MR

R

Hi-Gest 660

Alforex Seeds

R MR HR HR R

HR HR R

HybriForce-2600

Dairyland

2 HR R HR HR HR R

R

Integra 8600

Wilbur-Ellis

Revolt

Nexgrow Alfalfa

RR 6 Shot Plus

Croplan

R HR HR HR HR R

HR HR

HR

L

RRALF 6R200

LG Seeds

R

HR HR R

HR

HR M

SW 6330

S&W

R LR R

6829R

Nexgrow Alfalfa

R

R

R HR HR

HR HR R

AFX 779

Alforex Seeds

R

R

R

AmeriStand 618NT

America's Alfalfa

HR HR HR

R R

R R

MR MR HR R HR

MR H R HR

F

HR

G

R

HR

R

R

R R

G

R

HR HR R

R

G

HR HR HR

HR

MR R

M

HR

CW 704

Alforex Seeds

R

R HR HR HR

HR HR HR

HR HR R

LG 7C300

LG Seeds

HR HR

HR

Magna 715

Dairyland

R

R HR HR R

SW 7410

S&W

R

HR MR R

AmeriStand 803T

America's Alfalfa

MR

HR MR HR

HR HR R

R

G/F R

M

R

MR R LR

R HR HR

HR

HR HR

R MR HR LR R

HR HR HR

HR

GrandSlam

Dyna-Gro

R

HR HR HR

R

Integra 8800

Wilbur-Ellis

Magna 801FQ

Dairyland

PGI 801

Alforex Seeds

R HR HR R

M

R HR HR

AmeriStand 835NTS RR America's Alfalfa

MR R HR HR HR

G

HR

R HR MR

HR HR

R MR HR MR HR

H

R

R HR HR HR

HR R HR

H

G

R

R HR R HR

G/F

HR R HR

AmeriStand 715NT RR America's Alfalfa

HR R HR HR HR

R

G

HR R HR

HR R HR HR HR R HR HR R

G

R

HR

R MR

R R

MR HR HR HR

R

G

R HR

R HR HR HR HR HR

MR R

G

HR H

HR

R

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

1 HR R HR HR HR HR

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

Alforex Seeds

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

PGI 529

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

Northern Root Knot Nematode

Southern Root Knot Nematode

Stem Nematode

Potato Leafhopper

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

Pea Aphid

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

Bacterial Wilt

Winter Survival

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

HR R

HR HR HR

R

HR H R

M

R HR HR HR HR HR

2019 VL - 6 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 6

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R HR

HR

R

R

MR R HR

S&W

HR

HR

R

HR R

6906N

Nexgrow Alfalfa

MR

HR R

R

HR HR HR

HR

G

AFX 960

Alforex Seeds

LR MR HR HR R

HR HR HR

HR

G

AmeriStand 901TS

America's Alfalfa

R MR HR R HR

R

HR R

R

R

F

R

HR

G

HR

G

R MR R

R HR

HR HR HR

R

DG 9212

Dyna-Gro

LR R HR HR HR

HR HR HR

HR

LG 9C300

LG Seeds

MR

R

R

Magna 995

Dairyland

LR LR HR MR HR

HR R

PGI 908-S

Alforex Seeds

R

R HR HR HR

HR HR HR

R HR HR

RR Desert Rose

Croplan

R

R HR HR HR

HR HR HR

R

RRALF 9R100

LG Seeds

R

R HR R HR

HR HR HR

HR

G

Sun Quest

Croplan

HR HR HR

HR

G

SW 9215

R

S&W

R

HR

SW 9628

S&W

LR

SW 9720

S&W

MR

SW9215RRS

S&W

6015R

R HR R

H G

HR R HR G/F R

HR R HR

HR

R LR R

HR R

R

HR

R

R

HR HR R

MR HR

R MR R

S HR MR

HR

Nexgrow Alfalfa

R MR R

R

R

HR HR HR

HR

AFX 1060

Alforex Seeds

LR R

R

R

R

HR R

HR

SW 10

S&W

MR

R

R

HR HR HR

R

F F G/F R

R

HR

G G

R

R

FD 10

MR

R LR

R

FD 9 - NON-DORMANT

AmeriStand 915TS RR America's Alfalfa

HR R

R-RRA; X-HarvXtra; H-75-95% Hybrid

Salt Tolerance (G-Germination/F-Forage)

Standability Expression (R-Resistance)

Continuous Grazing Tolerance (Y-Yes)

Multifoliolate Expression (H-High/M-Mod/L-Low)

Northern Root Knot Nematode

Southern Root Knot Nematode

Stem Nematode

Potato Leafhopper

Blue Alfalfa Aphid

Pea Aphid

Spotted Alfalfa Aphid

Aphanomyces Race 2 Root Rot

Aphanomyces Race 1 Root Rot

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose Race 1

Fusarium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt

SW 8421S

Bacterial Wilt

LG Seeds

Winter Survival

RRALF 8R100

FD 8

Variety

Contact for Marketing Information

This publication provides ratings of alfalfa varieties eligible for certification by seed certifying agencies. It does not list all important characteristics to be considered in the selection of alfalfa varieties. With the exception of some varieties listed as checks, all varieties listed can be purchased in the United States.

NAFA HEADQUARTERS OFFICE

4630 Churchill Street, #1 St. Paul, MN 55126 Phone: (651) 484-3888 • Fax: (651) 638-0756 nafa@alfalfa.org

NAFA WESTERN OFFICE

6601 W Deschutes Ave, #C-2 Kennewick, WA 99336 Phone: (509) 585-5460 • Fax: (509) 585-2671 agmgt@agmgt.com

VISIT NAFA AT WWW.ALFALFA.ORG

2019 VL - 7 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 7

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MARKETERS

Varieties are submitted by marketers and listing does not imply NAFA endorsement. Variety information in this publication is that which is submitted for certification.

AgReliant Genetics

DEKALB

Preferred Alfalfa Genetics

Leaflet Listing: LG Seeds

Leaflet Listing: Dekalb

Leaflet Listing: Preferred

Westfield, IN 46074 254-761-9838

St. Louis, MO 63167 800-833-5252

Story City, IA 50248 515-733-2203

www.lgseeds.com

www.dekalb.com

brendale@outlook.com

Alforex Seeds

Farm Science Genetics

S&W Seed Company

Leaflet Listing: Alforex Seeds

Leaflet Listing: Farm Science

Leaflet Listing: S&W

Jordan, MN 55352 877-560-5181

Nampa, ID 83686 888-252-7573

Five Points, CA 93624 916-554-5480

www.alforexseeds.com

www.farmsciencegenetics.com

www.swseedco.com

Allied Seed, LLC

GROWMARK FS

Southern States Coop

Leaflet Listing: Allied

Leaflet Listing: Growmark

Leaflet Listing: SS

Nampa, ID 83686 888-252-7573

York, PA 17402 717-854-3818

Richmond, VA 23230 804-281-1000

www.alliedseed.com

www.fsseed.com

www.southernstates.com

America’s Alfalfa

J.R. Simplot Company

Tennessee Farmers Coop

Leaflet Listing: America’s Alfalfa

Leaflet Listing: J.R. Simplot

Leaflet Listing: TFC

Nampa, ID 83653 800-873-2532

Boise, ID 83707 208-780-2728

LaVergne, TN 37086 615-793-8011

www.americasalfalfa.com

www.simplot.com

www.ourcoop.com

Blue River Organic Seed

Legacy Seeds LLC

Union Seed

Leaflet Listing: Blue River

Leaflet Listing: Legacy Seeds

Leaflet Listing: Union

Ames, IA 50014 800-370-7979

Scandinavia, WI 54977 715-467-2555

Nampa, ID 83653 608-786-2121

www.blueriverorgseed.com

www.legacyseeds.com

dwhalen@foragegenetics.com

BrettYoung Seeds

NEXGROW Alfalfa

Wilbur-Ellis Company

Leaflet Listing: BrettYoung

Leaflet Listing: Nexgrow Alfalfa

Leaflet Listing: Wilbur-Ellis

Winnipeg, MB R3V 1L5 800-665-5015

Pocahontas, IA 50574 855-4NEXGROW

Ames, IA 50014 515-292-1300

www.brettyoung.ca

www.plantnexgrow.com

www.integraseed.com

Crop Production Services

Pioneer

WinField United

Leaflet Listing: Dyna-Gro

Leaflet Listing: Pioneer

Leaflet Listing: Croplan

Meridian, ID 83642 612-419-5274

Johnston, IA 50131 715-223-7390

St. Paul, MN 55164 800-426-8109

www.dynagroseed.com

www.pioneer.com

www.croplan.com

Dairyland Seed Leaflet Listing: Dairyland

NAFA is proud to collaborate with Hay & Forage Grower on the distribution of its “Winter Survival, Fall Dormancy & Pest Resistance Ratings for Alfalfa Varieties” 2019 Edition.

West Bend, WI 53095 800-236-0163 www.dairylandseed.com

“Winter Survival, Fall Dormancy & Pest Resistance Ratings for Alfalfa Varieties” 2019 Edition is a publication of the National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance and cannot be reproduced without prior written permission from NAFA.

VISIT NAFA AT WWW.ALFALFA.ORG 2019 Variety Leaflet.indd 8

10/15/2018 12:41:14 PM


M OW . CONDITION. BALE. BETTER.

FIND YOUR DEALER AT masseyferguson.us

© 2018 AGCO Corporation. Hesston and Massey Ferguson are brands of AGCO Corporation. AGCO®, Hesston® and Massey Ferguson® are trademarks of AGCO. All rights reserved. AG18N001FC

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