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Perspektiv Tidsskri f t fo r Ge o g r af i s k I nfo r matio n de ce mb e r 201 5

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TEMA: Smart City


Perspektiv

Indhold

Geoforum Perspektiv ISSN 1601-8796

Leder - Smart City og geografisk information

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Gode data er fundamentet for Smart Cities Bente Steffensen, Tina Svan Colding, Louise Albæk Jensen, Lasse Borum Lunding

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© Geoforum Danmark samt forfatterne. Ikke-kommercielle ­udnyttelser er tilladt med tydelig kilde­angivelse.

Kan busdata beregne trafik? Erfaring fra Aalborg Kommune med busdata Stine Sørensen

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Making Digital Elevation Models Acces­sible, Compre­hensible, and Engaging through Real-Time Visualization Thomas Kim Kjeldsen, Peter Trier Mikkelsen, Jesper Mosegaard

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BIM & GIS Connectivity paves the way for really Smart Cities Ulf Månsson

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Perspektiver og udfordringer ved at etablere SMART CITY og SMART COMMUNITY-løsninger Thomas W. Møller, Sine Dyreborg

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Smart Cities – 50 mia. ”ting” på internettet – og det skal styres! Jes Bruun Olsen

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Towards smart city democracy Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard, João Fernandes, Mirko Alexander Presser

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Open Data DK skaber vækst og transparens Anna Katrine Mathiassen, Michelle Bach Lindstrøm

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Ements of a Successful Big Data Hackathon in a Smart City Context Thorhildur Jetzek

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Smart Cities Around The World Maria Skou, Nicklas Echsner Rasmussen

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Pris 120 kr. Ansvarshavende redaktør: Line Hvingel COWI LTHV@cowi.dk Redaktionsmedlemmer: Martin Rudbeck Jepsen, KU Peder Klith Bøcher, AU Per Grau Møller, SDU Thomas Theis Nielsen, RUC Per Knudsen, DTU Thorhildur Jetzek, CBS Jakob Fredslund, Alexandra

Geoforum Perspektiv er tidsskrift for G ­ eoforum Danmarks medlemmer Henvendelse om medlemskab mv. kan ske til: Geoforum Danmark Kalvebod Brygge 31, 1560 Kbh V Tlf. 3886 1075, geoforum@geoforum.dk www.geoforum.dk www.geoforum.dk/­ perspektiv

2 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


leder

Smart city og geografisk information En af de helt store nye trends inden for byudvikling er det såkaldte Smart City-begreb. Med de eksplosivt voksende mængder af tilgængelige data om snart sagt alle forhold vedrørende borgernes brug af deres by åbnes der i disse år op for hidtil usete muligheder for at skabe effektiviseringer, forbedringer, vækst, energibesparelser og bedre trivsel via nye digitale services. Rigtig mange af de nye data er georefererede. Og eftersom en stor del af den potentielle værdi, som ligger gemt i alle disse data, forventes at blive realiseret gennem sammenstillingen af forskellige datasæt, så vil der blive brug for netop et samlende element på tværs af data; en fælles nøgle eller et fælles

Jakob Fredslund Redaktør Alexandra Instituttet jakob.fredslund@ alexandra.dk

sprog at tale i. Dette fælles sprog vil meget ofte være geografien. Hvad enten det er i det geografiske aspekt, at værdien i sig selv ligger, eller geografien bruges som understøttende værktøj til fx visualisering, så vil der i de kommende år blive større efterspørgsel på løsninger og kompetencer, som indeholder stavelsen ”geo-”! I dette temanummer af Geoforum Perspektiv har vi derfor sat Smart City-begrebet under lup. De forskellige artikler belyser begrebet fra forskellige­­­perspektiver, og vi synes i redaktionen, at vi er kommet godt rundt om emnet. En afgørende enabler for Smart Cities er data – tilgængelige data.

Line Hvingel Ansvarshavende redaktør COWI LTHV@cowi.dk

Danmark er et foregangsland, når det gælder om at åbne op for de offentlige data, og derfor har vi bidrag fra de initiativer, der er søsat i Geodatastyrelsen og Københavns Kommune (”Gode data er fundamentet for Smart Cities”), Aarhus Kommune (”Open Data DK skaber vækst og transparens”) og Ålborg Kommune (”Busdata kan beregne trafik”). En gennemgående tanke, som ligger til grund for åbningen af det offentliges data, er, at man via åbne data vil inddrage borgere og virksomheder i værdiskabelsen. Borgerne som dem, der kan få mere direkte indflydelse på beslutninger gennem en større bevidsthed om beslutningsgrundlaget, og virksomheder som dem, der kan realisere øget vækst og beskæftigelse gennem de gode nye idéer. Disse perspektiver belyses via cases i henholdsvis ”Towards smart city democracy” og ”From Hackathon to Big Data Startup Elements of a Successful Smart City Initiative”. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 3


Der skabes også i disse år mulighed for at

Men udviklingen er også gået stærkt andre

udstille realtidsdata. At kunne tilbyde borgere et

steder, og i ”Making Digital Elevation Models

opdateret billede af tingenes tilstand kan helt

Accessible, Comprehensible, and Engaging

indlysende give en værdi. Læs om en konkret case

through Real-Time Visualization” demonstreres

om trafikinformation i ”Perspektiver og udford­

det, hvordan det nu er muligt at lave visualise-

ringer ved at etablere SMART CITY og SMART

ringer af meget store, geografiske datasæt i en

COMMUNITY­-løsninger”.

almindelig webbrowser.

Én ting er visionen, en anden praksis. Skal

I andre lande er Smart Cities selvfølgelig også på

forhåbningerne indfries, skal teknikken også spille

dagsordenen, men interessant nok går man til

med, og der skal være opmærksomhed både på

værks på meget forskellige måder og lægger sit

governance – hvordan forankres fortsat vedligehold af

fokus forskelligt. Temanummeret rundes derfor af

og adgang til de nødvendige data i de relevante

med et perspektiverende kig ud i verden i artiklen

organisationer – og på at sikre størst mulig integrati-

”Smart Cities Around The World”.

on mellem forskellige understøttende platforme og standarder. Det sidste er emnet for ”BIM & GIS

God læselyst!

Connectivity Paves the Way for Really Smart Cities”, mens governance behandles i “Smart Cities – 50 mia.

Jakob Fredslund, Alexandra Instituttet

ting på internettet – og det skal styres!”.

Line Hvingel, COWI

Når det gælder om at få de nye løsninger ud til folket, så er smartphone apps det typiske svar.

4 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Gode data er fundamentet for Smart ­Cities Lasse Borum Lunding Styrelsen for Dataforsyningen og Effektivisering lablu@sdfe.dk Bente Steffensen Styrelsen for Dataforsyningen og Effektivisering beste@sdfe.dk Tina Svan Colding, Styrelsen for Dataforsyningen og Effektivisering tisha@sdfe.dk Louise Albæk Jensen Styrelsen for Dataforsyningen og Effektivisering loaje@sdfe.dk

Grunddataprogrammet er sat i verden for at løfte kvaliteten af offentlige data og sikre en let­­­­­­til­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­gæn­­­­ge­­­­­­­lig og stabil datadistribution. Det kommer private virksomheder, den offentlige sektor og borgerne til gavn i mange sammenhænge. Et eksempel på dette er Smart Cities, hvor data og teknologi kombineret med borgerinddragelse danner grundlag for intelligent byudvikling. Keywords: Grunddata, grunddataprogrammet, datafordeler, Københavns Kommune, Copenhagen Solutions Lab, byudvikling, Smart City, Minecraft

Grunddataprogrammet forbedrer den offentlige sektor og skaber værdi i private virksomheder Formålet med grunddataprogrammet er at sikre frie, ajourførte data, som er nemme at tilgå og som anvendes på tværs af sektorer og brancher. Visionen er, at grunddataprogrammet bidrager til effektivisering, moder­ nisering og bedre forvaltning i den offentlige sektor. Derudover understøtter­­­de frie data af høj kvalitet innovation, vækst og nye arbejdspladser i den private sektor. Grunddata er de grundlæggende oplysninger, som det offentlige registrerer.­­­ Disse oplysninger er: • Geografiske data • Adressedata • Ejendomsdata • Virksomhedsdata • Persondata De offentlige grunddata er frit til rådighed for alle offentlige myndigheder, private virksomheder og borgere (dog med undtagelse af personfølsomme Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 5


Figur 1. Grunddataprogrammet: Data og anvendelse

oplysninger). Dermed er grunddata en fælles digital

webservices med geodata. Alle interesserede fik

ressource, som kan anvendes til kommerciel eller

dermed for første gang mulighed for at afprøve den

ikke-kommerciel brug.

tekniske integration og få indblik i datamodellerne.

Grunddataprogrammet er organiseret i en række projekter, der forbedrer kvaliteten af grunddata, leverer en ny, fælles datamodel og en fællesoffentlig datafordeler, der distribuerer data hurtigt og pålideligt til brugere. Projekterne forventes at være fuldt implemen­ teret­­ i 2017. Datafordeleren er i luften med de første data Den 30. juni 2014 blev kontrakten med den tekniske

De første data udstilles i følgende webservices: •T  re webservices fra Danmarks Administrative Geografiske Inddeling, DAGI. DAGI-datasættet er et standardiseret referencedatasæt, som beskriver og viser landets administrative geografiske inddelinger. •E  n webservice fra Danmarks Højdemodel. Danmarks Højdemodel er en digital model af landskabet i tre dimensioner. • En webservice med Skærmkortet. Skærm­

leverandør underskrevet, og dermed lød startskud-

kortet er et digitalt topografisk kort over

det til at bygge den fællesoffentlige datafordeler.

Danmark velegnet til visning på skærm med

I efteråret 2015 nåede projektet en vigtig milepæl.

zoomfunktion, baseret på de topografiske

Den 30. oktober kunne datafordeleren nemlig slå

grunddata i GeoDanmark (tidligere FOT

dørene op for eksterne brugere, der fik adgang til fem

Danmark).

6 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


De næste trin i datafordelerens

sektorer, som når data om luftkvalitet bruges til at

udvikling

tilrettelægge trafikken rundt i byen, så der så vidt

I løbet af 2016 etableres de resterende grunddata

muligt tages hensyn til byens luftkvalitet.

på datafordeleren, heriblandt adresse- og ejendoms­

Det er en tilgang til byudvikling, der tænker den

data (delprogram 1 og 2 i grunddataprogrammet)

samlede, sammenhængende datamængde som en

samt CPR og CVR.

del af byens infrastruktur. Det kræver tilgængelige,

Og når datafordeleren er i fuld drift i første

nøjagtige og ajourførte data, som er meningsfulde i

halvår 2017, vil der være adgang til alle grunddata

de forskelle sammenhænge, de anvendes i.

via online-opslag, hændelser/abonnement og

Grunddataprogrammet er sat i verden for at skabe

fildistribution. Brugere vil til den tid kunne hente

det grundlag af data, som udviklingen mod Smart

grunddata ét sted på en lettilgængelig, sikker og

Cities kan bygge på.

stabil platform. Desuden vil der være adgang til services, der sammen­stiller data på tværs af datasæt.

Udvikling med borgere, virks­­­o m­

Efterfølgende udfases de nuværende, eksisterende

heder og vidensinstitutioner

distributionsløsninger.

En Smart City består ikke kun af teknologi og data.

Datafordeleren bygges i første omgang med

Et vigtigt parameter for byerne er at inddrage

henblik på at distribuere grunddata. På længere

borgerne, så man udvikler den by med de services

sigt forventes det, at datafordeleren kan anvendes

og løsninger, som efterspørges, og som er forståe-

til distribution af andre typer data.

lige og nemme at anvende. For at opnå det arbejder Copenhagen Solutions Lab med at skabe såkaldte

Samspillet mellem den digitale og ­fysiske infrastruktur Gennem grunddataprogrammet får Danmark en

Triple Helix-partnerskaber. Triple Helix-partnerskaber er, når det private erhvervsliv møder de behov, der er i den offentlige

infrastrukturmodel, der definerer, hvordan

sektor, sammen med fageksperter og universiteter-

grund­data, genbrug af data og sammenhængen

ne, der har pulsen på, hvor forskellige teknologier

mellem data i den digitale forvaltning ser ud. Med

er på vej hen. På den måde skabes de bedste, mest

datafordeleren får vi en fælles distributionskanal,

innovative løsninger.

der bl.a. muliggør anvendelse af data på tværs af

Resultatet af partnerskaberne ser man bl.a. i

datasæt. Dette skaber nye muligheder for effektiv

Copenhagen Solutions Labs Smart City Street

dataudnyttelse.

Lab, der tager de første spæde skridt mod en

København Kommunes Copenhagen Solutions

Smart City. Smart City Street Lab er København

Lab udnytter dagligt data til at forbedre forvalt-

Kommunes testområde for intelligent byudvik-

ningen. Med henblik på at skabe en mere

ling, baseret på det prisvindende koncept

intelligent byudvikling bruger Copenhagen

Copenhagen Connecting. Midt i Indre København

Solutions Lab data som den infrastruktur, der dan-

afprøver de den nyeste teknologi inden for

ner rammen om udviklingen mod København som

byudvikling. Det kan f.eks. være sensorer, der

en Smart City.

måler luftkvaliteten eller detekterer ledige

Mange af de data, der er brug for i forbindelse med f.eks. trafikregulering, skybrudshåndtering og

parkeringspladser i byen. Således kan virksomheder se deres løsninger i

affaldshåndtering, er realtidsdata, der viser, hvad

funktion i byrummet og lave proof-of-concept,

der sker i byen. Det er data, som kan bruges i

inden teknologien skaleres til hele København eller

handlingsrettede sammenhænge, og som kan

andre store byer. Og borgere, politikere og andre

bruges til at forudsige, hvad der sker i fremtiden.

kan få et konkret og fysisk billede af, hvad

Og det er data, der går på tværs af typer og

intelligent byudvikling egentlig er. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 7


Geografisk dataanvendelse i

trafikal regulering, der mindsker trængsel af biler,

forvaltningen

cykler og mennesker. Det vil betyde øget trafiksik-

Grunddataprogrammet og datafordeleren har fokus

kerhed og mobilitet og mindre miljøbelastning.

på at anvende og genbruge grunddata på tværs af

Den type digitale løsninger kombinerer gode,

forskellige offentlige myndigheder. Derved kobles

ajourførte og tilgængelige grunddata og data skabt

grunddata på tværs af fagområder og sektorer og

af kommuner, virksomheder, borgere mv. Samtidig

bliver det fundament, mange offentlige og private

forudsætter det en infrastruktur, der samler,

digitale løsninger bygger på. De digitale løsninger

beriger og behandler de store datamængder, som

får deres specifikke udtryk, når andre typer data

eksempelvis grunddataprogrammet og datafor­

kobles på: Realtidsdata, domænedata, ustrukture­

deleren gør det.

rede data og mange andre typer data er de bygge-

’Der er ingen tvivl om, at der er spændende perspekti-

klodser, som de nyeste teknologiske løsninger inden

ver i offentlige data, som kan bidrage til at løse en række

for intelligent byudvikling er bygget af.

store samfundsudfordringer, som den offentlige sektor står

Intelligent brug af data til udformning af nye

overfor. Dette gælder blandt andet inden for områderne

digitale løsninger vil i fremtiden bl.a. ske ved brug

forsyning, energi, trafik og sundhed. Vi vurderer, at der

af geografisk information. Dynamiske trafikinfor-

her er potentiale i at tilgængeliggøre og udnytte de data

mationer, der kombinerer geografiske grunddata

den offentlige sektor allerede er i besiddelse af, men at det

og positionsdata fra trafikanters GPS eller mobil­

også er vigtigt at have fokus på nye og hidtil uudnyttede

telefon, kan åbne for udviklingen mod smartere

kilder til data’, siger Laura Poulsen, kontorchef i

8 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


og trafik med en storskærm og Minecraft. Det er en løsning, der håndterer og formidler store og komplekse datamængder og informationer på en lettilgængelig og forståelig måde, så kommunen kan gå i dialog med borgerne om de rigtige løsninger. Et mere hjemligt eksempel er Viborg ­Kommune, der har fået lavet en interaktiv

Læs mere På Digitaliseringsstyrelsens hjemmeside, digst.dk, kan du læse mere om visionerne og planerne for grunddataprogrammet. På datafordeler.dk finder du mere info om de fem første webservices, der er i prøvedrift . Du kan følge den videre udvikling på twitter.com/datafordeler og gruppen Datafordeler på LinkedIn.

3D-model af hele kommunen i computerspillet Minecraft – ­altså deres eget Vibcraft. Hertil er der blandt andet anvendt grunddata i form af data fra Danmarks højdemodel og udvalgte GeoDanmark-­data. Vibcraft anvendes både til undervisning i mate­matik, geografi/geologi og byplan­lægning, samt til borgerinddragelse. Her udnytter man 3D-data til at øge borgernes rumlige forståelse af potentielle projekter, som dermed bedre kan komme med input, eksempelvis­­­ til byplan­lægning.

Politik og Vækst, Styrelsen for Dataforsyning og Effektivisering (SDFE), og tilføjer: ’Noget af det der er afgørende for, at den data, der bliver produceret, skaber værdi, er, at vi arbejder for at skabe de rette rammer både for frembringelse og for anvendelse af data. Dette betyder blandt andet, at vi skal have fokus på at samarbejde på tværs af den offentlige sektor om at gøre data tilgængelige, og at vi samtidig husker at realisere de mange nye perspektiver for øget anvendelse af datadrevet forvaltning’. Et eksempel på, hvordan frie grunddata med en geografisk komponent kan tages i anvendelse, er det danske Minecraft-projekt, hvor Danmark ligger som en virtuel verden i størrelsesforholdet 1:1 i selve Minecraft. I Holland har man ladet sig inspirere og lavet en crowd sourcing-løsning, hvor børn og unge kan bidrage til byens udvikling gennem leg. I Holland har de koblet en klassisk GIS-løsning med geografiske informationer om bl.a. støj, lugt

Figur 2. 3D Urban Planning i Holland med Minecraft

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 9


Kan busdata beregne trafik? Erfaring fra Aalborg Kommune med busdata

Stine Sørensen Aalborg Kommune ss@aalborg.dk

Dagligt transporteres tusindvis af passagerer fra busstop til busstop. Både busser og bilers hastighed afhænger af de samme trafikale forhold og ved at kombinere geografisk data, om blandt andet busstoppesteder, og data fra bussernes sensorer, kan man få nogle meget interessante resultater. Bussernes hastighed kan nemlig bereg­nes ud fra disse oplysninger og benyttes som indikator for den generelle hastighed i trafikken. Derudover kan der let kobles mere data på, som gør beregningerne endnu mere nøjagtige. Dette er bare ét eksempel på, hvordan kom­mu­ nale data kan bruges til at gøre vores byer smartere og mere intelligente. Vi har så meget data i de danske kommuner, og vi har endnu ikke set det fulde potentiale heraf. Keywords: Smart City, geografisk information, intelligente trafiksystemer

Indledning Vi skal tænke smart, når vi arbejder med data – vi behøver eksempelvis ikke at indsamle ny data, for ofte kan det data, vi allerede har, benyttes til at gøre vores byer smartere. I kommunerne har vi rigtigt meget data – og meget af det data bliver i stigende grad stillet frit tilgængeligt via åbne dataportaler, som tilfældet blandt andet er i Aalborg Kommune. Det betyder, at enhver kan bruge data og til et hvilket som helst formål. Det 10 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figur 1. Distancen mellem ­stoppestederne Vesterbrogade ­ og Jomfru Ane Gade

kan der være stor værdi i, både for erhvervslivet,

vi faktisk via eksisterende data kan beregne netop

kommunen og for borgere. En undersøgelse fra

dette. Vi skal bare huske at tænke smart.

2011 viste, at der er et indtjeningspotentiale på op imod 25 milliarder kroner på at udlevere data

Busdata beregninger

fra det offentlige til erhvervslivet (Zangenberg &

I Aalborg Kommune samler vi data om ankomst og

Company, 2011).

afgangstider på vores busser – det gør vi for hvert

En af fordelene ved at udgive data er, at andre

enkelt busstoppested og for hver eneste buslinje.

kan få adgang og bruge kommunale data til noget

Dataene holdes op mod køreplanen, hvorved vi kan

helt nyt. Data er et af det vigtigste elementer i

analysere om busserne er forsinkede. Ved at sammen-

Smart City, da data kan udnyttes til ny viden, nye

sætte disse to datasæt kan det udregnes, om en bus

ideer, løsninger og services. Vigtigst af alt, så kan

generelt er 2 minutter forsinket eller for tidlig i

kommunale åbne data kombineres med andre

forhold til køreplanen. Det er helt normalt, at data

datakilder, hvilket kan give nye og hidtil usete

bruges til netop det formål, således vi hele tiden kan

muligheder.

optimere den offentlige transport. Og det er også

En af de ting, der optager rigtigt mange mennesker, er, hvornår der er kø på vejene. Når

baggrunden for at indsamle akkurat disse data. Netop data om ankomst og afgangstider gav vi

folk kører hjemmefra, vil de gerne vide, om der er

til en studerende fra Aalborg Universitet. Vi

kø – eller endnu bedre: vil de gerne kunne

forventede, at han ville udarbejde en dybde­

forudsige, hvornår der er kø. Det interessante er, at

gående analyse omkring vores ankomst- og Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 11


afgangstider, og på den baggrund komme med

vil vi med garanti kunne spotte nogle generelle

ændringsforslag. Den studerende brugte dog

tendenser. Ved at koble data om tidspunkt på

vores data helt anderledes.

dagen, årstid og ferietid bliver udregningen

Via geokoordinater for to busstoppesteder

endnu mere interessant, da vi således kan se,

kunne den studerende beregne den distance,

hvornår der er mest trafik på vejene. En

som bussen kørte. Ud fra vores busdata vidste

yderligere­­­dimension er vejret – hvis det regner,

han præcist, hvornår en bus var afgået fra et

kører busserne så langsommere, fordi flere

busstoppested og hvornår denne bus var ankom-

vælger at tage bilen og antallet af køretøjer på

met til næste stoppested. Med disse to tal kunne

­vejene derved øges?

bussens gennemsnitshastighed beregnes. I dette tilfælde er der 950 meter imellem

En anden faktor, som er vigtig at tage forbehold for, er vejens forløb. Eksempelvis er det

stoppestedet på Vesterbrogade og Jomfru Ane

vigtigt at vide, om der er mange lyskryds på

Gade. Ved Vesterbrogade afgår bussen kl 13.59.00.

strækningen, ligesom antallet af sving kan være

Ved Jomfru Ane Gade stoppestedet ankommer

afgørende for bussernes hastighed. Kobles alle

bussen kl 14.03.05. Det betyder, at gennemsnits-

disse nævnte data, kan vi efterhånden sige ret

hastigheden er 14.0 km/t. Sammenligner man

meget om bussens hastighed. Ud fra disse

dette med f.eks. en bus, der afgår kl 08.42.44 fra

beregninger kan vi således vide, om der er meget

Vesterbrogade og ankommer ved Jomfru Ane

eller lidt trafik på vejene. De første resultater

Gade kl 08.49.20, så kan vi se, at gennemsnits­

viser, ikke overraskende, at der generelt er mest

hastigheden er 8,6 km/t. To tilfælde er

trafik i morgen- og eftermiddags­timerne.

selvfølgelig­­­ikke nok til at kunne sige noget

Resultaterne er endnu ikke tilgængelig for

fuldstændigt om den generelle trafik, men laves

borgerne, men netop dette data, vil måske indgå i

disse beregninger ud fra alle buslinjer hele året,

trafikbrergninger fremadrettet.

12 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Forudsigelser af biltrafik – ud fra busdata Som udgangspunkt følger busserne trafikken – i hvert fald i byerne. Bussernes hastighed er dog ofte lidt langsommere end bilernes, men vi kan stadig, via ovenstående beregninger, finde ud af, om der er meget eller lidt trafik. Det er dog stadig kun et historisk billede af trafikken. Det meste data kender vi på forhånd, og det er nærmest kun data om vejret, som kan variere. Ved at sætte det hele sammen vil vi således kunne estimere trafikken fra dag til dag. Det vil ikke kun være en fordel for dem,

Figur 2. Angiver afgangstid og ankomsttid for to stoppe­steder samt distancen mellem stoppestederne

der rejser med bus, det vil i høj grad også være en fordel for øvrigt trafikanter. På sigt vil vi sand­ synligvis kunne modtage livedata fra busserne og dermed få et realtime billede af trafikken. Det er nemt at forestille sig, at der kan kobles

• Eksisterende data kan kombineres på nye måder og skabe nye løsninger Generelt er der rigtig meget data, som vi endnu ikke har taget i brug, men som kan hjælpe os med

yderligere data på, hvilket blot vil gøre

at forstå trafikken. Og kobles det med noget af alt

trafikbilledet­­­mere nuanceret. Eksempelvis vil vi

det geografiske data, vi har, eksempelvis geokoordi-

også kunne forudsige trafikken, hvis der skal være

nater på p-pladser for både cykler og biler, så syntes

en større kultur- eller idrætsbegivenhed – blot vi

mulighederne nærmest uendelige.

ved det finder sted. Det kan også være, at vi ved, at

Når der forhåbentligt bliver åbnet op for data

universitetet holder en større forelæsning, og ud

fra rejsekortet, så vil vi med garanti se utallige

fra data om vores buspassagerer ved vi, at det

eksempler på, hvordan data kan benyttes til

typisk er studerende, der tager bussen. Det er dog

løsninger, som vi slet ikke havde forestillet os.

åbenlyst, at der er begrænsninger for forudsigelser-

Med rejsekortdata vil vi kunne koble bussens

ne, f.eks. ved pludseligt opståede hændelser,

data med data om vores passagerer, og dermed

eksempelvis et trafikuheld. Men ikke desto mindre

vil det være muligt at udregne langt mere

så kan vores data om bustrafik være en meget

præcise data om trafikken. En simpel ting som

præcis indikator for trafikken.

rejsekortdata vil kunne sige noget om er, hvor passagerer kommer fra, og hvor de skal hen. Det

Konklusion og perspektivering

vil sige, at vi ved hjælp af data kan finde ud af,

Der er rigtig meget data, som kan bruges til

om vi har passagerer, der rejser igennem tæt

mange ting. Ved hjælp af forskellige datakilder

trafikerede strækninger, uden behovet måske er

kan man blandt andet blive i stand til at

der. Det vil ikke alene være banebrydende for

forudsige trafikken endnu bedre i Aalborg

den kollektive trafik, men også få betydning for

Kommune. Det er dog ikke det, der er den

al anden trafik – og så har vi ikke en gang set på

væsentligste pointe med denne artikel. Dette lille

fordelene for miljøet.

eksempel rummer mange perspektiver, hvor åbne data er et vigtigt element; • Vi behøver ikke nødvendigvis at indsamle nye data for at få smarte løsninger

Kilder: •Z  angenberg & Company, kvantificering af værdien af åben offentlig data, 2011. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 13


Making Digital Elevation Models­­­ Acces­sible, Compre­hensible, and Engaging through Real-Time ­Visualization

Thomas Kim Kjeldsen Alexandra Institute thomas.kjeldsen@ alexandra.dk

In this paper, we present our initial experiments with the new high-quality digital elevation model, “Danmarks Højdemodel-2015” (DHM) exposed as an interactive 3D visualization on web and in virtual reality. We argue that such data has great opportunities to spawn new business and new insight for the individual citizen if it is accessible, comprehensible and engaging. Keywords: WebGL, Visualization, DHM

Introduction In recent years, a large amount of spatial has been made available as open data Peter Trier Mikkelsen Alexandra Institute peter.trier@alexandra.dk

(Regeringen and KL, 2012). The data is of ever-increasing quality and resolution, but the true value comes from usage. The authors are fascinated by the idea of interactive visualization pushing the possibilities within current hardware and software. We believe this can create new business opportunities for companies offering new experiences and new knowledge from data. In this paper, we give an introduction to some of our experiments with the new height model of Denmark (DHM) (The Danish Geodata Agency, 2015), and the possibilities that arise with fully interactive 3D available in modern web browsers and virtual reality hardware.

Jesper Mosegaard Alexandra Institute jesper.mosegaard@ alexandra.dk

Data in itself is tedious to work with – and cannot do anything in itself. The larger the data set, the more difficult it becomes for human beings to make sense of anything at all. On top of that, many software packages suffer extreme performance penalties when data does not fit into memory. The software slowdown can partially be alleviated by constructing sophisticated algorithms that scale better with regard to input/output (I/O)

14 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figure 1. Denmark’s Height Model in 3D on a webpage (http://Denmark3D.alexandra.dk)

operations – one variant being the streaming

Making data accessible

algorithms used in the present work. When the

To be fair, DHM is actually easily accessible for

questions that need to be answered through data

someone with a bit of a technical background, but

queries are known, the data can be crunched –

can be almost impossible for a novice within IT.

i.e., pre-processed in a way so that answers to the

Users need to be registered, data downloaded, new

given and known types of questions can be given

hard disk drives bought, data downloaded again,

relatively quickly. However, there are many

software found that can read data, software

situa­tions in which the question is not clear or

installed, and finally looking at GIS related

known – and where the human observer needs to

functionality without knowing what to do.

inspect, observe and experience the data in

There could be so many opportunities for the

context. This is especially true in situations with

individual citizen to understand or comment on

strong visual and emotional aspects, for instance

larger decisions of infrastructure within the

“How does that wind turbine affect my home?”

context of their own home, city and region.

We argue that those personal perspectives and the

Examples could be wind turbine projects, city

exploration of data needed can be achieved if data is

planning, highway construction, and geo-located

available as interactive 3D. We believe that those

statistical data.

visualizations should ideally be made easily accessible

Most people are used to simply clicking on a

through simple HTML5 web pages – and that further

new link that someone sent through an e-mail, or

immersion into full virtual reality allows users to

launch that smartphone app that others recom-

fully grasp scale and impact of (changes in) reality.

mend. That is why we decided that DHM should be made easily accessible through a simple web page,

Is DHM data for everyone?

see Figure 1. Visualizing 3D within the browser as

We firmly believe that data such as DHM has a

part of a web page has been made possible recently

basic level of usage for anyone, ranging from “let’s

through the WebGL standard that enjoys wide-

find our house” to “let’s find new business

spread support in all major browsers – even on

opportunities”. Even though the data is available,

mobile devices such as Android and iOS. WebGL

it is not readily accessible, engaging and compre-

allows an application programmer to access the

hensible for the broad audience.

hardware accelerated graphics card through an API Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 15


Figure 2. Caching and Level of Detail in rendering. The upper right corner shows the height map tiles that are streamed into the graphics card memory.

in javascript. And, it allows us to deliver an

is that the height map is only needed at full

experience close to that of a desktop program, with

resolution in a small region close to the camera

the added benefit that no application has to be

position, while the vast majority of the visible

installed or updated, and data can be loaded

terrain can be rendered with a much lower

on-the-fly without requiring huge datasets to be

resolution without affecting the final image

downloaded manually.

quality. When the camera moves through the

Naturally, the large amount of data is still an

world, we continuously stream in new high-­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

issue that needs to be addressed, and high

reso­­lution data on demand. The height map data is

performance is still a challenge to reach. The main

arranged in a standard Web Map Tile Service layout

problem is that the total amount of data is by far

which makes it easy to request a chunk of data as a

too large to fit in both system memory and

map tile at a certain level of detail. The data tiles

graphics card memory. For example, a height map

that have been streamed in are then stored in

of Denmark (approximately 45.000 km2) with a

graphics card memory in a large unordered pool as

pixel density of 2500*2500 km-2 stored in 4-byte

shown in the top right corner of Figure 2. The main

floating-point format requires around one terabyte

task of the rendering algorithm is then to keep

of memory. However, it is of course not necessary

track of where each tile is located in the pool and

to store the full resolution map of the whole

to fetch height data from the correct tile,

country in order to create highly detailed terrain

depending­­­­on world position and level of detail

rendering locally.

(Mittring, 2008).

Our solution exploits this fact to stream in chunks of the height map in a level of detail

Making data comprehensible

depending on what can be seen at the current

Visualizing data is sometimes thought of as a

zoom level. Figure 2 shows a wireframe model of

direct mapping of spatial data to 3D projections –

the geometry used for terrain rendering. Notice

without any intermediate “manipulation”. Nothing

that the mesh resolution varies with the distance

could be further from the truth. Artistic and

from the observer. The advantage of this technique

technical choices are at the heart of visualization

16 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figure 3. The image shows stereoscopic rendering for each eye. When viewed through the lenses of a VR helmet, sizes, distances and colors will appear as if they were real.

and always include a level of interpretation and

world. Consequently, we also ported our DHM

presentation. One such set of choices concerns the

visualization to the Oculus VR.

more or less realistic shading of surfaces arising from reflections, materials and light. We argue

Making data engaging

that this is one important aspect of giving the user

To engage users, they need to see, explore and

the illusion of seeing something real – which then

experience things that matter to them. One such

becomes comprehensible to him or her.

thing is the construction of wind turbines near

Ideally, we would like the users to be fully

one’s home. We did a prototype utilizing the DHM

immersed in the virtual environment to compre-

dataset to visualize the impact of a wind turbine

hend the environment and really be able to feel the

construction for the individual citizen, see Figure 3.

visual impact and size of large changes in buildings,

This is one case where VR has a great potential

nature and infrastructure. An important upcoming

impact beyond images, videos, and interactive

trend, driven by the computer game industry, is

applications. No screen can give the impression of

virtual reality (VR) where users see a virtual

being there, but VR can. VR allows the user to

environment through head mounted glasses. The

judge true size and distance – and can present the

first VR equipment was built by Ivan Sutherland in

users with scenarios that can otherwise only be

the 60’s, but was never really successful due to

imagined. Thus, we believe that digital modelling

severe limitations in display technology. Since the

of proposed constructions combined with the DHM

successful Kickstarter of Oculus VR in 2012 and the

data and VR can be a useful platform for public

later acquisition by ­Facebook in 2014, the field has

evaluation of environmental impact assessments. A

been re-booted with new promises of total immersi-

key challenge in the widespread use of VR is that

on in photorealistic virtual environments. As

users are required to purchase head-mounted

computer graphics geeks we finally believe the hype;

displays. These are expected to be adopted widely

the new generation of VR has the necessary low

by gamers but probably not by the average

latency, lightweight headset, and wide field of view

consumer. There are, however, several low cost

in a high resolution to realize a believable digital

products available today, e.g. Google Cardboard Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 17


and Samsung Gear VR, that transform a regular

embracing truly interactive applications with

smartphone into a VR system. Thus, the target

real-time feedback made possible through tech-

audience with access to VR equipment can be

niques such as the those we have described here,

expanded significantly with such products.

and not accept the performance of sluggish desktop applications that try to import gigabytes of

Conclusion & Future work

data for presentation. Finally, we suggest that

Our current VR visualization of the DHM dataset is

Virtual Reality may hold unexplored opportunities

a stand-alone application, not integrated with the

to present “larger-than-life” scenarios in training,

web-based WebGL visualization. A key issue is the

simulation and construction – and that visual

current lack of support for VR in browsers. A new

effects from computer games can be embraced as

standard, WebVR, is available in nightly/

very effective means of visual communication.

experimental­­­builds of Firefox and Chrome and suggests that we might have an easily accessible VR platform in the very near future. Our recommendations for working further with the DHM data are to adopt web-based visualizations as a means to make it easily accessible for people to explore this impressive dataset – and further, to empower both private citizens and businesses with the ability to utilize the dataset as a canvas for many other applications. We also recommend

18 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

References •T  he Danish Geodata Agency (2015). Danmarks Højde­ model, DHM/Terræn. Data version 2.0 – Januar 2015. ­Geodatastyrelsen. • Mittring, M. (2008). Advanced virtual texture topics. In SIGGRAPH ’08: ACM SIGGRAPH 2008 classes, pp. 23–51. ACM. • Regeringen and KL (2012). Gode grunddata til alle – en kilde til vækst og effektivisering. Rosendahls – Schultz ­Grafisk.


BIM & GIS Connectivity paves the way for really Smart Cities

Ulf Månsson, Project Manager, SWECO, ulf.mansson@sweco.se.

Today, we see several good examples of Smart City and Geodesign initiatives around the world. They often depend on BIM data (Building informa­ tion modeling/Bygnings Informations Model­­lering) and spatial data. However, interoperability is a challenge that must be adressed in a more efficient way. More generally, the question is what is required to take the leap from good examples to broad and mainstream application in urban and regional­­­development? In this article, some key success factors for this development and described and the important challenges outlined. The V-Con innovation project addressing these challenges is described as a possible solution. Keywords: Geodesign, BIM (Building information modeling), GIS (Geographical Informa­tion Systems), Internet of things, Semantic Web, Smart Cities

Connectivity Way back in time, when I started studying GIS and Remote Sensing, I remember discussions like ”Are you vector or are you raster?”. The idea of combining these features would have been considered revolutionary at the time. Also, if you did choose a GIS-tool, you committed yourself to the vendor of the chosen platform and the system´s proprietary file-storage format. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 19


Figure 1. Achieving connectivity between GIS and BIM, Ulf Månsson

Exchanging data between platforms was hard - if

Smart Cities

even possible at all.

There are many different definitions of Smart City

Since the introduction of connectivity to standard databases and the evolving of the Internet - the GIS industry has come a long way. We have standards like GML, WMS and WFS (Reichardt, Mark E. 2012). Interoperability tools are considered a must in most organizations. ”We do not want vendor lock in” is a common phrase heard in many organizations. The official reasons for the fear of ”vendor lock in”

but the fundamentals are (Wikipedia 2015): •E  nhancing quality and performance of urban services. •R  educing costs and resource consumption – thus achieving sustainability. •M  ore effective engagement with its citizens. A typical future scenario in a Smart City is often

may vary (Verstraete, C. 2015): It can be an economic

exemplified with emergency response (Enbysk, L.

motive. If we invest heavily in a platform from vendor

2013). In a really Smart City, the ambulance

A - the cost can skyrocket if the vendor changes the

personnel not only gets notifications about the

license-model. Also you may be too dependent on a

fastest route to the correct building, considering all

certain expertise. … It can also be a decision about

current traffic-related data. They would also get

Open Source or Proprietary. You may feel safer with

live instructions on which entrance to use and

either side when thinking of the long time aspect.

finding a fire safe way to the correct floor as fast as

Personally, I think the most important fact to consider is none of the above. Focus should be on

possible. To achieve the above, all kinds of data must be

connectivity. Data created, collected and stored by

connected between many different sources and

an organization has greater value if it can be

systems leading to useful information and

connected and combined with other data - coming

knowledge. With regards to spatial areas, cities

from any place. Connectivity is a cornerstone in two

have huge spaces and functionality inside buil-

trending fields, Smart Cities and Geodesign.

dings. As an example, Dan Campbell at the City of

20 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


The Smart City as visualized by August Wiklund, Sweco

Vancouver, explains that just one BIM-model uses

’A design and planning method which tightly couples

¼ of the space of the 3D GIS-model of the entire

the creation of design proposals with impact simulations

city (Safe Software 2015). This means that in many

informed by geographic contexts’ (Flaxman M. 2010)

Smart City scenarios, most data will have to come

Within the geodesign discipline, some of the

from BIM Systems (Building Information Models)

steps in planning and implementing a new

and connect to GIS. Therefore, BIM databases will

residential area could be:

have to evolve to the same state of openness as GIS (Figure 1) to make this feasible. Figure 1 explains how GIS and BIM have evolved during time and how different areas have been embraced. Today, the use of Open Spatial Databases can be considered a de facto standard within GIS. However, BIM focus today is very much on WEBenabling it and not yet on using Open BIM Databases.

• Gather information based on existing data such as road-networks, traffic-information, building information, geology etc. • Perform analysis and simulations. (For example; How will traffic be affected with more residents?). • Create proposals based on evaluation models and communicate these for feedback among stakeholders and citizens. (Steinitz C. 2012)

Geodesign

In these steps, we need current data, we also create

Once again, there are many definitions. The

new data and when something eventually is built

following definitions is short and concise enough

we should evaluate on the accuracy of the simulati-

for this context:

ons and predictions. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 21


Relationship between Geodesign and Smart Cities One can see that a well-performed Geodesign-­ process would benefit from existing Smart City information for well-informed decisions. For example, getting information about traffic-­ statistics and all kinds of sensors and other Big Data sources. On the other hand, one could also see a well-performed Geodesign-process as funda­ mental­­to a Smart City. If the designs coming out of the Geodesign process are not stored, updated and kept accessible - they won’t help the vision of

Figure 2. Graph model

the Smart Cities. In regard to data, achieving connectivity in these

IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) to be able to

fields has many barriers, both technical and legal.

exchange information in an efficient way (buil-

Fortunately, as more organizations open their

dingSMART 2015). However, it is still very rare that

datasets, there are now less legal barriers. The

you have storage in open databases where data

technical challenges still remain. Many of these are

lives. In the GIS-industry, it can be considered best

well known to the GIS industry, and are linked to the

practice to have a database that owns the informa-

difficulties of combining data from different sources.

tion, and different platforms can access this

Examples of challenges:

database with modern tools such as version-control, integrity rules etc. Other, non-spatial systems

• Reading and writing from different formats

can directly connect to the databases as they use

and sources (including open standards and

the same technology. This can be exemplified by

proprietary).

Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle - databases that

• Combining different types of geometry types.

are widely used and shared between many types of

• Co-ordinate systems and precision.

systems – spatial or not.

• How data is layered or have attribute­schemas. The more complex BIM-platforms have not come as far as the GIS-platforms regarding connectivity. This is quite understandable as these models are so complex with their high level of detail and 3D-capabilities. In reality, most BIM-data live in their proprietary systems, and exchanging information is cumbersome. The challenges ahead

The BIM-industry is far from this point. Software tools exist - but they are rarely open for integration (Isaac S et al 2013). Using BIM-data together with GIS-data in reality mostly means: •Y  ou export a subset of your BIM-model to your GIS database. •Y  ou import a subset of your GIS database into your BIM-model. You very rarely connect these sources on an object level directly.

The vision of smooth Geodesign processes and blooming Smart Cities will benefit greatly if two

Systems understanding systems

specific areas will be addressed.

When we traditionally think of GIS, it is often in the context of seeing and relating to maps

Accessibility of BIM Data

produced for the human eye. That is, the data is

A lot of effort is being made in standards such as

presented in a form that allows a human to make a

22 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


well-informed decision. This also affects the way

object model where you define tables or classes and

data is stored.

relate them together according to predefined rule

BIM is often ”more” intelligent as one of the major purposes is to keep track of details and of

sets or schemas – as most GIS solutions do. However - a key element for the semantic web

how objects are interconnected describing the

is that you store and send information as graphs

topology of a building or complex infrastructu-

(Figure 2). You have nodes, edges and properties.

re-projects. But still - it is humans making most

Communicating in this triplet-way adds meaning

decisions based on what is displayed.

for machines interpreting these connections. As

The Smart City concept relies on complex

a graph can be dynamic, it can evolve during

chains of systems communicating with each other.

time and become more or less complicated. This

In the ambulance example above, several systems

is something that works very well with BIM-­

would need to interact. Traffic-information,

models, for instance the IFC-standard that in its

navigation, BIM with building layouts and elevator

complete implementation is very extensive. In

systems would need to understand each other.

most implementations, only subsets of the

The traditional way of achieving this is through

IFC-standard are used. However, during a projects

standard protocols. That is, you ”hard wire”

life cycle, different subsets and parts are being

intelligence into systems to understand what other

adopted. To support these dynamics in an

systems mean. A protocol can both describe the

IFC-model with a relational database is almost

physical means of communications and also the

impossible but far more possible with a dynamic

standards describing the logic of data. So if two

graph database.

systems understand the same protocol - they can

The idea of achieving better connectivity

communicate. The drawback is that operating on

between BIM and GIS systems with help of the

new types of data demands new protocols. So a

above technique is based on the assumptions that:

Smart City getting smarter by connecting new data would demand a lot of new protocols. An exciting alternative to using predefined protocols is the ”Linked Data” approach. Linked Data describes a method to communicate data so it can be interlinked and become useful through semantic queries. The approach uses standard Web technologies but instead of serving web pages it can be read and understood automatically by computer systems. The semantic web

• It’s easier to model BIM-data as a graph than in a relational model • BIM-models change over time – something that is possible to handle with new links in the graph. • Connections between specific BIM and GIS-objects can be maintained with links in the model. (The actual geometries could be stored in the model or it can be links to external storage as physical files. Something called “Hybrid Approach”).

The semantic web concept is complicated so it will

Communicating with a Semantic Web enabled

just be touched upon briefly. A cornerstone is the

system can be done with special query-languages

use of Linked Data. ’The Semantic Web is not a separate

like SPARQL. These languages provide a way to

Web but an extension of the current one, in which

query graphs over the Web and can be utilized by

information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling

different systems.

computers and people to work in cooperation’ (Tim Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila, 2001). The more traditional way of storing and communicating information is through the relational or

V-Con paves the way The author is currently participating in the PCP-part of the V-Con project (The Virtual ConstrucPerspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 23


tion for Roads) that aims to improve the efficiency

the chances of the Linked Data approach to be

and effectiveness of the National Road Authorities

adopted throughout the industry.

in Europe. (Read more at http://www.rws.nl/english/ highways/v-con) PCP is an approach for procuring R&D services

If the prototype meets the challenges in phase 2 it might be a candidate for pre-production testing towards the end of 2016. After this it can be

and consists of a funnel of three phases: challenge

released as a solution for the market.

solution design, challenge prototype and pre-pro-

The V-Con project is one example that may pave

duction testing.

the way to broad application of Smart Cities and

This project is managed by the Dutch National

Geodesign solutions. We need more such initiatives

Road Authority at the Ministry of Infrastructure &

in all affected sectors of our society in order to

the Environment. Other participators are the

make BIM and GIS databases better connected and

National Swedish Road & Rail Authority and research

help the vision of really Smart Cities.

institutes from France and the Netherlands. The ground breaking idea in this project is to keep using existing standards in GIS & BIM but also keep the information linked. The foundation for achieving this is envisioned to be via a linked data approach through the semantic Web. It is a very ambitious project and is very technically challenging. V-Con aims at enabling national road authorities to introduce software tools for exchanging/sharing comprehensive road information with commercial parties in the sector. The author is responsible for designing SWECO’s solution idea that was selected in competition with 14 proposals and further developed in phase 1 of the PCP-process. The solution idea has now qualified for phase 2 of the project - meaning that challenge prototyping will begin January 2016. In short, the solution design consists of designing modules adding Semantic Web capabilities to a standard Spatial Data Integration platform (FME by Safe Software). This platform already supports reading and writing most BIM and GIS standards but currently doesn’t have Semantic Web functionality. Adding these new Semantic Web capabilities to an already wide spread integration platform will hopefully increase

24 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

References •b  uildingSMART (2015). IFC Overview summary, at http:// www.buildingsmart-tech.org/specifications/ifc-overview • Enbysk, Liz (2013). How smart transportation systems reduce emergency response times, saves lives. Smart­ Citiescouncil, at http://smartcitiescouncil.com/article/ how-smart-transportation-systems-reduce-emergency-response-times-saves-lives • Flaxman, Michael (2010), quote from Geodesign Summit, Redlands, California. Amended by Stephen Ervin (2012) • Isaac S., Sadeghpour F., and R. Navon (2013), Analyzing building information using graph theory, Proceedings of the 30th ISARC, Montréal, Canada at http://www.iaarc. org/publications/proceedings_of_the_30th_isarc/analyzing_building_information_using_graph_theory.html • Reichardt, Mark E. (2012). Driving geospatial inter­ operability - communities of interest, 2012 NGAC Meeting, at https:­­­//www.fgdc.gov/ngac/meetings/april-2012/ open-geospatial-consortium-activities-reichardt.pdf • Safe Software (2015), How to Create BIM & GIS Interope­ rability, http://www.safe.com/webi • Steinitz, Carl (2012). A Framework for Geodesign, ­Redlands, Esri Press • Verstraete, Christian (2015). You don’t want vendor lockin...but aren’t you always lockedin?,ITPeerNetwork,at https­­­://communities.intel.com/community/itpeernetwork/blog/2015/03/11/you-dont-want-vendor-lock-inbut-arent-you-always-locked-in • Wikipedia (2015). Smart city, at https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Smart_city


Perspektiver og udfordringer ved at etablere SMART CITY og SMART COMMUNITY-løsninger Erfaringer fra Vejdirektoratets projekt om realtidstrafikdata baseret på bilisters GPS-oplysninger.

Thomas W. Møller Devoteam Consulting A/S thomas.moeller@ devoteam.com

Danmark har igennem mange år haft en føren­de position inden for digitalisering, og de første SMART CITY-initiativer er ved at blive realiseret. Vejdirektoratet har sammen med Devoteam siden 2014 arbejdet for at etablere en SMART CITY-trafikløsning med realtidsdata fra billister. Denne artikels ambition er at dele vores erfaring­er fra projektet med andre, der står – eller kommer til at stå - med de samme udford­ringer. SMART CITY eller SMART COMMUNITY (herefter: SMART CITY) er nogle af de termer, der anvendes til at beskrive en trend i de store internationale bysamfund såsom Rio, London, Barcelona, München, Tokyo og København. Trenden går ud på at gøre bysamfundene mere ”intelligente” ved at opsamle, analysere og anvende information om og fra byrummene. Et af fundamenterne i SMART CITY er digitalisering. 1

Sine Dyreborg Vejdirektoratet sjl@vd.dk

Keywords: Smart City, digitalisering, geografiske information, intelligente trafiksystemer

1

SMART COMMUNITY betegner anvendelse af smarte teknologier til at fremme vækst og udvikling i landdistrikter og mindre byer

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 25


SMART CITY – definition af begrebet

organisatorisk muligt at skabe smarte løsninger,

og den aktuelle udbredelse af SMART

der giver gevinster. Det sker ved tilrettelæggelsen af

CITY i Danmark

en strategi, der identificerer de forretningsmæssigt

Begrebet, SMART CITY, er et rummeligt begreb, der

”rigtige” udviklingsprojekter og dernæst etablerer

indeholder alt fra smarte cykelparkeringer, skæve

den grundlæggende datamodel og infrastruktur.

skraldespande, bycykler, trafikstyring, effektiv

Et eksempel på et udviklingsprojekt, der ligger

affaldshåndtering, parkeringssystemer, energiplan-

indenfor ambitionen i SMART CITY, er realtidsdata-

lægning mv. Ambitionen i SMART CITY er at skabe

projektet i Vejdirektoratet. Devoteam har hjulpet

et godt bysamfund med økonomisk vækst, der

Vejdirektoratet med at indkøbe data til pilotprojek-

anvender optimal ressourceudnyttelse, yder god

tet. Pilotprojektet har til formål at optimere

borgerservice og samtidig er bæredygtig samt

trafikinformationen ved at opsamle realtidsdata

omstillingsparat i forhold til forandringer.

fra billister for at skabe et større overblik for både

Mange teknologier såsom stedbestemte

trafikanterne og Vejdirektoratet.

realtidstrafikdata, tracking systemer og sensorer, der indgår i SMART CITY-initiativer, er nu tilstræk-

Anvendelse af bilisters realtidsdata

keligt modne til at kunne omsættes kommercielt i

Vejdirektoratet gennemførte, med hjælp fra

de løsninger, som markedet udvikler. Der er i

Devoteam, henover vinteren 2014/15 et EU-udbud

Danmark stort fokus på at skabe SMARTE byer og

med formålet at indgå kontrakt med en leverandør

landområder - i 2014 viste en analyse fra Ministeriet

om realtidstrafikdata. På baggrund af en konkur-

for By, Bolig og Landudvikling , at hovedparten af

rencepræget dialog med tre bydende blev der i juni

kommunerne i større eller mindre grad allerede

2015 indgået kontrakt med Inrix der kunne levere

arbejder med SMART CITY-initiativer (Ministeriet

det økonomisk mest fordelagtige tilbud. Inrix

for By, Bolig og Landudvikling, 2014).

leverer GPS-baserede realtidstrafikdata, statistiske

Mange private og offentlige aktører har i de

data for det strategiske vejnet og for de øvrige

seneste år været med til at sætte SMART CITY på

statsveje. Aftalen indeholder en option hvor

dagsordenen. For eksempel har Realdania haft et

kommunerne kan købe de samme data de næste to

strategisk fokus på SMART CITY klimatilpasnings­

år. Kontrakten kan forlænges i to gange et år.

initiativer, hvilket har igangsat udvikling af mange

Trafikdata har tidligere været baseret på bl.a.

nye byrum i kommunerne. Tendensen ses også hos

statistisk information fra trafikanternes køretøjer

private parkeringsudbydere, hvor f.eks. EasyPark

- indsamlet via vejsideudstyr eller spoler i vejen få

har skabt sammenhængende parkeringsløsninger

steder i Danmark (København, Århus og i Trekant-

på tværs af næsten alle kommuner, der har

området), se figur 1 på side 27. Data fra dette

resulteret i landsdækkende standarder samt

vejudstyr har givet nogle meget præcise data om

datamodeller for parkering og afregning. Nu er der

antallet af biler samt hastigheden. Disse statiske

også erfaringer fra arbejdet med bl.a. smarte

data har givet Vejdirektoratet mulighed for - på

hospitaler og smart trafik, hvor Region Hoved­

disse få strækninger - at lave analyser af motorvej-

staden og Vejdirektoratet har designet, gevinst­

strafikken, undersøge trængselspletter osv., som

estimeret, udbudt, indkøbt og implementeret store

kan anvendes statistisk og i fremtidig planlægning

mobility-, sporings- og positionsdatasystemer.

af vejstrækninger og vejarbejder.

Projekterne har alle til formål at skrabe atraktive

Målet med at indkøbe og anvende realtidsdata er

bysamfund, med optimal ressoruceudbyttelse og

at få en bredere dækning af trafikdata og hermed et

god bogerservice.

mere dækkende billede af, hvordan trafikken

Erfaringerne fra både de offentlige og private

forløber. Som det fremgår af højre side af figur 2 på

projekter viser, at det er teknologisk, økonomisk og

side 28 – skaber realtidsdata for det statslige vejnet

26 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


De udvidede muligheder med realtidsdata­ projektet er følgende: •

information om rejsetid

rejsetidsprognoser

trafiktilstande

ekstraordinær kø

hændelsesdetektering

Vejdirektoratet prioriterer højt, at trafik­ information om ekstraordinære kødannelser kan komme hurtigt frem til trafikanterne, så de tidligst muligt kan blive adviserede om kødannelser, der normalt ikke kan forventes på det pågældende tidspunkt. På denne måde vil trafikanterne få et ret præcist billede af deres rejsetid og mulighed for at Figur 1. Eksempel på nuværende dækning.

søge alternative ruter. Realtidsdataene om hastigheder vil kunne

bedre mulighed for Vejdirektoratet for hurtigt at

bidrage til, at Vejdirektoratet kan yde en bedre

agere – alt sammen med henblik på at forbedre

indsats ved f.eks. uheld på motorvejene.

fremkommeligheden. I tillæg til realtidstrafikdata

Vejdirektoratet­­­kan meget hurtigere end tidligere

får Vejdirektoratet også flere data om trafikken til

sende beredskabet og genskabe fremkommelig­

statistiske anvendelser f.eks. til analyse af trængsel

heden på f.eks. et ulykkessted.

og hvordan trafikken omkring større vejarbejder

Planen er, at realtidstrafikdataene skal flyde ind

bedst kan forløbe – g ­ enerelt giver flere statistiske

i Vejdirektoratets Trafikcenter primo november

data forbedret grundlag for analyser.

2015, hvor der køres test på dataene. Her er målet,

Realtidstrafikdata modtages fra en bred flåde af

at det stilles til rådighed for trafikanterne via

køretøjer, som har indgået aftale med Inrix. Det kan

Vejdirektoratets trafikinformationstjenester inden

eksempelvis være data fra erhvervsdrivende med

udgangen af året.

større flåder af køretøjer, bilister med smartphones, udbydere af GPS-baserede smartphonenavigations-

Ny læring/udvikling i Vejdirekto­

tjenester og leverandører af navigations­udstyr til

ratet­­ som følge af projektet

køretøjer og bilfabrikanter. Vejdirektoratet har

For at Vejdirektoratet kan modtage de nye realtids-

sikret, at persondatalovgivningen overholdes ved at

trafikdata, har direktoratet skullet udvikle nogle

lægge strenge krav ind i kontrakten om, at alle

nye webservices og systemer for at kunne modtage

kilder skal være anonymi­serede.

og parametersætte disse data. Vejdirektoratet har

Som det ses på figur 2 modtages data fra et

hele grundsystemet og servere på plads, da

større geografisk område end tidligere, men nu

Vejdirektoratet tidligere har modtaget statistiske og

kun for en delmængde af køretøjerne på stræk­

live-data fra vejsideudstyr.

ningen. Dermed adskiller data sig væsentligt fra

Vejdirektoratet har mange års erfaring i at

traditionel detektering via vejsideudstyr, hvor al

modtage og analysere statistiske data fra vejsideud-

trafik måles fra ét punkt.

styr, hvilket har givet et bredt vidensgrundlag i

Dataene dækker det strategiske vejnets tre

forhold til hvilke krav, der skal sættes til dataenes

niveauer 1, 2 og 3 samt øvrige statsveje i 2015 - ­

kvalitet. Vejdirektoratet har udviklet et omfattende

og fra 2016 udvalgte væsentlige kommuneveje.

testsystem til datakvaliteten med mulighed for Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 27


Figur 2. Eksempel på fremtidig dækning.

bod, hvis Inrixs data ikke lever op til de stillede krav. Inrix og Vejdirektoratet har arbejdet intensivt på

Fotogrammetriske geodata har i mange år været indkøbt på markedet hos en leverandør som følge af en veldefineret specifikation for data og

at få alle tekniske systemer til at fungere og ser frem

omfattende kvalitetssikring. Så erfaringerne herfra

til, at data flyder ind til gavn for de danske bilister.

dokumenterer, at det er muligt. Fotogrammetriske

De næste to år er et pilotprojekt, hvor der skal laves

data har dog en lang statisk horisont (flere år) og

grundlæggende analyser og evalueringer. Disse skal

kan i den sammenhæng ikke direkte sammenlig-

vise, om dette er løsningen for en fremtidig kilde til

nes med realtidsdata.

hændelsesdetektering og trafikinformation.

Realtidsdata, der indkøbes via en leverandør, som måske trækker på mange underleverandører,

Perspektiver for SMART CITY, realtids­

minder på mange måder om en crowd-sour-

data og den offentlige sektor

cing-model. Crowd-sourcing på dette område går i

Teknologiske perspektiver

grove træk ud på, at mange bidrager med indsam-

Både realtidsdata og SMART CITY-initiativer stiller

ling, ajourføring og vedligeholdelse af data. På

teknologiske krav til håndtering af data. Som

denne måde kan man indsamle og vedligeholde

erfaringerne fra Vejdirektoratet viser, er der

massive mængder af data for meget små omkost-

løsninger til rådighed. Modenheden i de anvendte

ninger og på relativt kort tid.

systemer og hos leverandørerne er fuldt ud til stede ift. Vejdirektoratets løsning.

De nye måder at anskaffe data stiller krav om fast og sikker overvågning af datakvaliteten i forhold til de aftalte standarder/dataspecifikatio-

Datakilder og perspektiverne

ner. For at kunne opretholde autoritative myndig-

I forhold til SMART CITY-udviklingen kan man

hedsdata, der gør en forskel i forhold til ikke-auto-

forestille sig, det ikke kun er én leverandør men

ritative data – bliver det afgørende at kunne

potentielt mange leverandører, der leverer data til

dokumentere kvaliteten.

en løsning. Ydermere kan data være realtidsdata eller statiske data. 28 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

Erfaringerne fra realtidsdataprojektet bliver spændende at følge. Det er kun fantasien, som


sætter grænserne for, hvilke datakilder der kan anvendes til SMART CITY-initiativer.

I traditionelle Business Case-modeller er mindskede udgiftsbudgetter/besparelser en forudsætning for at få en positiv business case, men

Organisation og ledelsesperspektiver

man kan også have en tilgang, hvor man ser den

Nye datakilder og eksterne dataleverandører kan

samfundsmæssige nytte af at gennemføre et projekt.

potentielt stille krav til en ny organisatorisk

Her vil det typisk kræve en business case-model, der

selvforståelse og rolle for den organisation, der

medregner gevinsterne for samfundet som helhed

udstiller data. F.eks. at en organisation går fra at

– en Business Case hvor f.eks. sparet rejsetid hos

være dataproducent til at være en organisation, der

borgerne skaber et øget nytte for samfundet eller

distribuerer en ekstern leverandørs data. Dermed

hvor ny frie data om trafik og rejsemønstre giver

foregår produktionen af data ikke længere inhouse,

virksomheder mulighed for at forbedre logistikken

hvor man kan følge, sikre og garantere kvaliteten i

og dermed sikre en øget vækst i virksomhederne og

form af nøjagtighed og aktualitet. Og at håndtere

i samfundet som helhed.

det giver nye organisatoriske udfordringer. Medarbejdere og brugere af data træffer på

Konklusion

daglig basis beslutninger på baggrund af de

Som ovenstående case om realtidsdata viser, findes

offentlige data. Hvis der er en risiko for, at data kan

der eksempler på SMART CITY-teknologier, hvor

give f.eks. forlængede rejsetider, uforudsete

organisationerne/ledelsen, datakilderne og økonomi-

kødannelser og dermed øgede udgifter, så stiller det

en - og dermed den samlede løsning – er veltestede og

krav til en ny kommunikation og formidling af de

modne, og at der kan realiseres flere nye løsninger.

forudsætninger, der ligger til grund for data. Det er i

Mulighederne er mange og potentialerne store.

den forbindelse centralt, at data får en større

Der kan de kommende år være behov for en større

dækning og kommer i realtid på tværs af hele landet

koordinering af indsatserne, således at den ”dybe

– og at der samtidig opnås en høj kvalitet af data.

tallerken” ikke skal opfindes på ny hver gang af alle myndigheder – i staten, i regionerne og i kommuner-

Økonomi og business case i SMART

ne. Koordineringen kan være på mange niveauer og

CITY-projekter

på mange måder – det kan være som fælles løsninger,

SMART CITY-initiativer har været beskyldt for at være

som læringsnetværk, som fælles arkitektur eller som

politiske ”trofæprojekter”, hvor business casen nogle

fælles standarder og datamodeller.

gange har været mindre troværdig. Eksempelvis en bænk i Københavns Kommune til 1 mio. kr. (BT, 2012) Rationaliteten i realtidsprojektet i Vejdirektora-

Hvor SMART CITY initiativer tidligere har været teknologisk drevet – er der nu en begyndende trend mod en bredere tilgang. En tilgang hvor både

tet er dog baseret på det faktum, at Vejdirektoratet

organisation, økonomi, data og teknologi sammen

ønsker at udvide dækningen af realtidstrafikdata

skaber SMARTE løsninger - der giver gode bysam-

inden for en overskuelig økonomisk ramme. Dette

fund med økonomisk vækst, med optimal ressour-

var ikke muligt med de nuværende systemer, så

ceudnyttelse, god borgerservice og samtidig er

som vejsideudstyr og spoler, da dette er dyrt at

bæredygtige og omstillingsparat.

opstille og vedligeholde. Derfor var man nødsaget til at undersøge nye muligheder for at få tilvejebragt data - og en ekstern leverandør endte med at blive løsningen. Fagligt er det vigtigt at understrege, at med de rigtige værktøjer og modeller er det muligt at lave

Referencer •B  T, 2012 http://www.bt.dk/danmark/pris-for-denne-baenk-1-mio.-kroner Ministeriet for By, Bolig og Landudvikling, 2014, SMART CITY I DE DANSKE KOMMUNER - STATUS OG INITIATIVER

business cases for alle projekter. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 29


Smart Cities – 50 mia. ”ting” på internettet – og det skal styres!

Jes Bruun Olsen Atkins A/S Jes.Olsen@atkinsglobal.com

Smart Cities er det nye sort i større byer og er sat på dagsordenen i et stort antal kommuner på tværs af Danmark. Visionerne og målene er mange, og projekterne er mangfoldige. Som med alle andre hypede tiltag fører det en masse ny teknologi med sig, nye platforme, nye gadgets, dinge­ noter, sensorer, nye applikationer og et nærmest uendeligt behov for kapacitet. Vi skubber data­ generering og dataopsamlingen ud i omgivel­ serne­­­og i det yderste af vores organisation. Men er vi, som organisationer, klar til at håndtere denne udvikling i de eksisterende organisationer med de nuværende roller? Keywords: Smart City, Geografisk information, IoT, governance

Indledning Smart Cities er det nye sort i større byer og er sat på dagsordenen i et stort antal kommuner på tværs af Danmark. Visionerne og målene er mange og projekterne er mangfoldige. Som med alle andre hypede tiltag fører det en masse ny teknologi med sig, nye platforme, nye gadgets, dingenoter, sensorer, nye applikationer og et nærmest uendeligt behov for kapacitet. Vi skubber datagenerering og dataopsamlingen ud i omgivelserne og i det yderste af vores organisation. Men er vi klar til at håndtere denne udvikling i de eksisterende organisationer med de nuværende roller? Artiklen er blandt andet skrevet med udgangspunkt i mine erfaringer og refleksioner om, hvordan vi fremover skal håndtere de udfordringer, vi står 30 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


overfor, med den accelererede udvikling som

• I nternet of Things, hvor ting, redskaber,

Internet of Things repræsenterer. At problemstil­

sensorer, tøj og biler m.v. kobles til internettet

lingen er reel, og at det er nødvendigt seriøst at

med henblik på at etablere grundlaget for nye

adressere den nye kommende kompleksitet, har jeg

services, anvendelser m.v. Dette flytter

fået bekræftet gennem arbejdet med kvalitets­

dataindsamling til et hidtil ikke set decentralt

sikring af et projekt omkring etablering af en

niveau. Det forventes, at der er 50 mia. ting på

intelligent parkeringsløsning i Norge. Resultatet af

internettet i 2020 – altså lige om lidt.

mine refleksioner er desuden blevet præsenteret i et oplæg på Kortdage 2015. Som digitaliserings- og forretningsansvarlige

På et lidt andet niveau er der fra den kommunale organisations side fokus på at øge effektiviteten og

omgiver vi os med denne til stadighed mere

skabe nye værdifulde services, opgaveløsninger m.v.

komplekse virkelighed. Dét sætter vores evne til at

gennem anvendelse af:

styre og koordinere udviklingen under pres. Samtidig skal det alt sammen give en betydelig gevinst til vores organisation. Denne artikel gennemgår nogle af de styrings– og koordineringsmæssige udfordringer, kommunerne står overfor, og anviser en model til en start på denne, for mange, påkrævede forandringsrejse: En ny governancestruktur, der

•V  elfærdsteknologier, som fokuserer på at understøtte opgaver, forpligtigelser og services over for borgerne gennem anvendelse af nye teknologier (blandt andet mobile platforme, internettilsluttet udstyr og sensorer) •D  esign, projektering, udførelse og drift og

modner processer og organisation i forhold til

vedligeholdelse af bygninger og anlæg

systematisk at arbejde med strategisk alignment,

gennem anvendelse og integration af Cad, GIS

værdigenerering og styring, sikkerhed og risici,

og Asset Management løsninger.

styring af ressourcer og performance.

•M  obilitet. Udvikle og flytte borgernes egen service og støtte til de mobile platforme

Fremtiden – er nu! Der er en række teknologiske principper/mega

Generelt set øger disse trends kompleksiteten i

trends, der i øjeblikket er med til at definere og

kommunernes IKT-anvendelse, da initiativ,

danne grundlaget for udviklingen af nye services:

udvikling og anvendelse flyttes fra centrale

• Mobile platforme (Smartphones, tablets etc.), hvor services for borgere og medarbejdere udvikles og implementeres i en lind strøm både som en supplerende adgang (udover eksisterende pc-baserede løsninger) og som serviceudvidelser. Teknisk betyder udvik­ lingen en markant stigning i antallet af applikationer (apps), udvidelser i grænse­ flader og integrationer, nye platforme m.v.

initiativer til et meget decentalt niveau – ud i den skarpe ende af organisationen. Det er her effekti­ viseringsdagsordenen skal løses. Udfordringen I gennem de senere år har vi set fremkomsten af nye teknologier, koncepter for teknologiudnyttelse m.v. som har medført et nødvendigt opgør med den vante måde at håndtere og styre IKT-anvendelsen på. Dels er initiativet flyttet fra

• Big data, hvor sammenstilling og behandling

en central styring (de fælles administrative

af store, tilgængelige mængder af data giver

kerne- og infrastrukturløsninger) til et mere

mulighed for udvikling af nye services,

forretningsdrevet perspektiv, hvor forretnings­

effektivisering af servicekanaler m.v. Frigivelse

enhederne selv tager initiativ til afprøvning,

af grunddata er et af eksemplerne på denne

udvikling og implementering af nye IKT-baserede

trend.

løsninger. Udviklingen inden for anvendelse af Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 31


velfærdsteknologier er et godt eksempel herpå. Man havde egentlig meget godt styr på infra-

IKT-afdelinger. Deres udbredelse kom især fra det pædagogiske område, hvor de i starten var et

strukturen. Man havde et fåtal af leverandører af

individuelt redskab, men hurtigt blev gjort til et

kommunale IKT-løsninger og alle udviklet til at

strategisk pædagogisk læringsværktøj. I mange

kunne understøtte den kommunale sikkerheds- og

kommuner var Skole-it allerede en del af den

driftsmodel. Dette kom under pres og i det efter­

centrale IKT-afdeling, og her havde man så

følgende gives et par eksempler til at belyse dette.

pludseligt en ny udfordring med et nyt produkt, på

PDA’er gjorde fremtiden håndholdt, og man så

en selvstændig platform, som ikke passede ind i det

hurtigt en måde at understøtte decentrale,

normale sikkerheds- og driftsmiljø. Det gjorde det

steduafhængige opgaver på med en IT-baseret

ikke nemmere, at der også bredte sig et ”behov” fra

løsning. De udgjorde kun en begrænset udfordring

byrådene om at kunne anvende disse tablets til

i IKT-mæssig forstand, da de ofte var ”født” som

effektivt at understøtte byrådsarbejdet. Det betød

frontend for en given systemløsning (eksempelvis

hurtigt, at de kommunale ledergrupper tog tablets

til opslag og registrering af informationer i

til sig for at kunne være med på den samme

borgernes sundhedsjournaler m.v.) og dermed var

platform som byrådene.

en del af sikkerhedsmodellen. SmartPhones tog over og var i starten et anarki-

I løbet af relativ kort tid var man nødt til at bruge ressourcer på at etablere en ny serviceplat-

stisk redskab dels på grund af deres mangfoldighed

form (og -arkitektur) for at kunne understøtte både

og deres tilgængelighed (udbredelse,­­­grænseflade,

SmartPhones og tablets.

pris etc.). Udover at være mobile telefoner er de

BOYD (Bring Your Own Device) I sidste halvdel af

født til at kunne benytte et utal af app’s, specialud-

00’erne og i starten af 10´erne tog anvendelse af

viklede applikationer, informationssøgning,

digitale medier fart i de danske skoler, og presset

internetopkobling, GPS og et utal af styresy-

på anvendelse af netværk m.v. blev hurtigt en

stems-platforme. Man så dem hurtigt som en måde

flaskehals mange steder, som følge af de mange

at få de decentralt organiserede medarbejdere

elever der skulle på ved starten af hver lektion. I

(lærere, SOSU-personale etc.) understøttet i forhold

mange kommuner havde IKT-afdelingen overtaget

til deres administrative opgaver (tidsregistrering,

driften af skole-it fra de enkelte skoler, og havde i

kørselsregnskab, mail, kalendere, informations

effektivitetens navn og for at reducere investe­

tjenester m.v.), og som en platform til ”smart” at

ringerne i området koblet dem på kommunens

understøtte deres opgave­løsning. En konsekvens

netværk. Resultatet var en sikkerhedsmodel, der

var, at IKT-afdelingen kom under pres, da disse

gjorde det umådeligt tungt med pålogningstider

enheder blev anskaffet decentralt og ikke var født

på 5-10 min. Absolut uacceptabelt. Næste skridt,

som en naturlig del af kommunes sikkerheds- og

som følge af nationale mål om at styrke anvendelse

adgangsregler, ligesom opdatering, distribution og

af it i undervisningen og sikre hurtigt Internet, var,

vedligeholdelse af applikationsporteføljen ikke var

at de fleste kommuner indførte den såkaldte

standardiseret og dermed krævede ekstra ressour-

BOYD-model, hvor eleverne ikke nødvendigvis

cer. Det tog et par år og så var IKT-afdelingen klar

skulle forsynes med it-udstyr men kunne med­

til at lukke dem inden for i den sikre verden, som

bringe og benytte deres eget. Det ændrede behov

er et grundlæggende paradigme i den kommunale

udløste en massiv investering i trådløse netværk

IKT-anvendelse. Som en konsekvens fik man i

med høj kapacitet, frigjort fra den kommunale

forretningsenhederne måske ikke realiseret den

sikkerhedsmodel. Og igen startede initiativet

forventede nytte af teknologien, så tidligt som man

decentralt og blev en udfordring for IKT-afdelingen.

havde forudset. Og det gav frustrationer. Tablets kom på tilsvarende måde bag på de fleste 32 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

Fra få til mange – og komplekse anvendelse af sensorer (og internetkoblet udstyr - Internet of Things) i


forhold til indsamling af data, styring af aktiviteter

ningerne og lokale specialapplikationer m.v. Selv med

m.v. eksploderer i disse år. Mobiltekno­logien har

nye veldefinerede arkitekturer vil det blive en opgave

gjort anvendelse af sensorer billig og tilgængelig. Vi

af holde styr på alignment mellem løsninger og

anvender stort set alle sensorbaseret teknologi i dag

integrationer, kontrakter m.v. Dette arbejde bliver

i større eller mindre grad på hjemmefronten, i vores

ikke mindre i fremtiden i forbindelse med den øgede

fritidsliv m.m.. Det har givet nogle udviklingsper-

kompleksitet.

spektiver (og et marked) som kan udnyttes og som

Alt i alt eksempler på hvordan IKT-afdelingens

kan medvirke til at øge effektiviteten i vores

politikker, strategier og handlingsplaner, samt

serviceudbud (opsamling af data i forbindelse med

økonomiske finansieringsmodeller, er blevet (og

sundheds- og omsorgsydelser, driftsovervågning af

stadig bliver) overhalet af en udvikling, skabt i

anlæg, bygninger, arealer m.v., anvendelse af

forhold til at løse problemstillinger andre steder i

faciliteter, opsamling af miljødata). Værdien vil

organisationen, eller hvor en forretningsenhed ser

komme fra anvendelsen af mange forskelige typer af

en værdimæssig (effektivisering) fordel i at tage nye

sensorer installeret fysisk i natur, beklædning,

teknologier etc. i brug.

apparater, bygninger, køretøjer m.v. Men data skal være tilgængelige, behandles, analyseres, og anvendes. Og deri ligger også en række udfordringer. Endelig har monopolbruddet, hvor kommunerne

Fra forretningsenhedernes side er der ikke altid den store fokus på helheden. Ofte er fokus primært på at optimere i forhold til egne mål. På tilsvarende­­­ vis er erfaringerne med forretnings­områdernes

under KOMBIT-paraplyen i de kommende år udskifter

pilotprojekter, at de er gode til at starte dem, men

store dele af deres kerne-løsninger fra én leverandør

knap så gode til at bringe dem i mål og få dem

(KMD) med løsninger fra nye leveran­dører medført et

modnet til drift. Så alt i alt må der være et fælles

øget behov for at kommunerne opruster i forhold til

behov for at ændre på tingenes tilstand.

styring af kontrakter, integrationer mellem kerneløs-

I forbindelse med kvalitetsikring af et SmartCity Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 33


projekt, der drejer sig om etablering af en ny samlet

• Den fremtidige service- og supportmodel

løsning omkring styring af trafik og parkering i en

herunder, hvem der har ansvar og hvilke

stor norsk by, kan man konstatere disse udfordrin-

roller der skal varetages. Også mere specifikt;

ger i højeste grad. Pilotprojektet gennemføres af en

hvordan skal support- og servicemodellen

projektgruppe i en faglig enhed (By og Miljø).

indrettes for de teknologikomponenter, der

Projektet er teknisk i front og adresserer – isoleret set, alle de relevante emner, for at kunne gennemføre pilotprojektet og sikre, at der ligger en realiserbar løsning, eksempelvis: • Kortlægning og digitalisering af parkeringsmuligheder • Klassifikation af parkeringspladser, steder m.v. • Anvendelse af nye teknologier: sensorer, intelligent skiltning m.v. • Udvikling af relevant forretnings og it-arki­tek­ tur, for egne mål • I ndsamling og bearbejdning af data – realtid m.v. • Udvikling af parkeringspolitikker og strategier i en større miljøpolitisk kontekst • Udvikling af en Business CaseHvad projektet ikke umiddelbart adresserer er: 34 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

ikke naturligt i dag er en del af IKT-afdelingen • Sikkerhedsaspekter (kobling til kommunens netværk, uønsket adgang m.v.) • Integrationer og snitflader til andre relevante løsninger (eks. Vejområdet, private p-operatører, administrative løsninger) • Udvikling af apps (value-added service fra marke­det etc.) • Realisering af nytte/benefit m.v., herunder hvem tager investeringen, og hvem og hvor realiseres nytten/gevinsten • Kompetencer i forhold til de fremtidige opgaver. • Overensstemmelse og sammenhæng med kommunes øvrige digitaliseringsstrategier og initiativer. Det er forhold, som rækker ud i den resterende del af organisationen og eksternt, herunder også


IKT-afdelingen, som det nødvendigt at have styr på,

Forandring i roller og ansvar -

hvis projektet skal realisere sine mål og blive klar

starten på den nye rejse

til drift.

Det er givet, at forandringen må ske ved, at alle par-

Man må forudsætte, at udviklingen vil

terne i denne udvikling erkender deres nye roller

accele­rere og tage betydelig fart efterhånden, som

og ansvar. Det gælder både forretningsenhederne

implementering af de nævnte megatrends

og IKT-afdelingen, men i højeste grad også

modnes. Det vil øge kompleksiteten og behovet for

beslutningstagerne (ledelsen og politikerne).

en fleksibilitet, der kan understøtte denne udvikling. Vi kan opsummere de områder, hvor IKT-afde­ lingen vil være udfordret i fremtiden:

Strategisk set sker der et paradigmeskifte i fokus fra i dag, hvor man leverer services (provider), til man fremover i højere grad også skal tænke på at muliggøre services (enabler). Dette gælder i

• Overblik over initiativer og drivere af

relationen mellem IKT-afdelingen og forretnings­

digitali­seringen, der udspringer fra

enhederne men også i relationen mellem forret-

forretningsen­hederne (eksempelvis Miljø,

ningsenhederne og eksterne parter (borger,

Veje, Sundhed og Omsorg, Park og Anlæg,

virksomheder, serviceleverandører m.v.). Trenden

Transport)

ses blandt andet udmøntet i åbning af adgang til

• Antallet af leverandører (af data, services, ”ting”, applikationer etc.) • Integration fra og til andre løsninger, inhouse og eksterne, udstilling af services • Vedligeholdelse og opdatering m.v. der er alignet • Sikkerhed – formål, segmentering af nettet, sikkerhedsmodeller, nye netprotokoller • Kompetencer – forretning, teknologi, anvendelse m.v. • Realisering af benefits – hvor og hvem skal realiserer gevinsten, og hvordan sikres IKT-afdelingens økonomi • Investeringer – i platform/infrastruktur og udstyr • Kontraktstyring (mere udstyr, flere typer, apps etc. og flere leverandører) • Strategier og arkitektur, som understøtter lokale formål, men som skal hænge sammen med de overordne strategier.

grunddata, hvor der i dag er mange serviceud­by­ dere (ikke offentlige virksomheder), der bygger løsninger oven på de tilgængelige data og udstillede­­­ services (eks. DinGeo). For forretningsenhederne handler det specifikt om at få sat fokus på nedenstående områder for at blive i stand til at udnytte de nye muligheder og sikre fleksibilitet i forhold til det fremtidige samarbejde om effektiviseringsdagsordenen: • Infrastruktur: arkitektur, båndbredde, standarder • Integration og grænseflader til interne og eksterne services • Sikkerhed (adgang) • Kontraktstyring • Service- og supportstruktur og tilgængelighed • Driftsstabilitet og -sikkerhed • Kompetencer For IKT-afdelingen er behovet at konsolidere og

• Modningsprocesser fra ide, pilot til drift

koordinere forretningsenhedernes og eget behov

• Kultur (Hvor træffes beslutningerne centralt

på følgende områder, hvis det skal være i stand til

eller decentralt, koordineret eller ikke) Alt i alt vil kompleksiteten stige betragteligt, og hvis ikke IKT-afdelingen skal være en hindring for forretningsenhedernes realisering af nye

at understøtte udviklingen: • En opdateret arkitekturmodel for at sikre support af fremtidige forretningsbehov • Øget fleksibilitet i netværksstruktur og

effektive tiltag, eller at der opbygges parallelle

segmentering (forskellige netværk, sikkerheds-

(IKT-)organisationer, skal der ske noget.

niveauer, stabilitet, tilgængelighed m.v.) Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 35


Figur 1. Governance Model

• Styring af leverandører, kontraktstyring m.v. • Håndtering af øget kompleksitet i forhold til drift, service m.v. • Kompetencer

forskelligartede behov. Samlet set er der behov for: • F orbindelse mellem forretningsområdernes ønsker og behov og IKT-afdelingens muligheder - alignment •E  n fælles proces for behandling af IKT-udvik-

Forretningsdrevet IKT-Governance

ling og aktiviteter og forretningsudvikling,

En umiddelbar løsning på problemstillingerne er

herunder realisering og fordeling af gevinster,

at udvikle og etablere en (ny) governancestruktur, der modner processer og organisation i forhold til samlet og systematisk at arbejde med de problemstillinger, der er nævnt ovenfor. Dette skal ske i en mere struktureret og tematiseret form eksempelvis ved at adressere strategisk udvikling og alignment, værdigenerering (business cases, gevinstrealisering etc.), sikkerhed og risici, styring af ressourcer (investeringer og menneskelige), samt opfølgning og evaluering af resultater. Mange kommuner har allerede Governance-modeller på plads, men de er fokuseret på, at det er på

investeringsmodeller etc. •B  alance mellem anvendelse af IKT og ressourcer, kompetencer m.v. •V  eldefinerede og klare ledelses- og styringsmål og strukturer •E  n ansvarlig og effektiv udnyttelse af IKT-ressourcer •H  åndtering af risk og sikkerhed i et forretningsmæssigt perspektiv Ovenstående figur er et eksempel på en model, der beskriver de nødvendige styringsområder. Strategisk aligment: Sikre at der er ovensstem-

IKT-afdelingens præmisser, hvor det ofte handler

melse mellem organisationens strategi, ikt-strategi-

om at styre udviklingen i takt med IKT-afdelingens

en og forretningsenhedernes strategier, koordinere-

ressourcer og behov, og i mindre grad om at være i

de handlingsplaner, at roller og ansvar er forankret

stand til at håndtere forretningsområderne meget

og implemeteret.

36 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figur 2. Tilpasset governance model

Gevinstrealisering: Behandling af Business Ideas, Business cases, styring og koordinering af gevinstrealisering, fokus på en effektiv udnyttelse af den samlede IKT i organisationen. Sikkerhed og risikostyring: Behandling af risici

governanceproces, så man sikrer et modent fundament for at kunne møde de nye tendenser. Det er ikke nødvendigvis afgørende hvordan man organisatorisk indretter sig, men derimod er det væsentligt at man fastlægger et forløb (årshjul),

og sikkerhedsproblematikker med udgangspunkt i

der sikre at der er en systematisk forberedelse og

organisationens behov, vedtagelse af sikkerhedspo-

behandling af de relevante teamer, og at der er

litikker, drift og vedligholdelsesplaner m.v.

seriøs og konsekvent deltagelse af de tre parter i

Ressourcer: Fokus på organisering og processer, forretnings- og ikt-arkitektur, behandling af investeringsportefølje(r), kompetencer, styring af leverandører og kontrakter (koordninering m.v.) Performance: Opfølgning på resultater og

governancestrukturen: Ledelsen, IKT-afdelingen og Forretningsenhederne. Erkendelsen af behovet for at skabe de rammer, der skal til i form af politikker, samarbejdsfora, understøttende processer for koordination og

fremdrift af IKT-projekter, gevinstrealisering,

opfølgning, vil hjælpe den enkelte organisation med

forbedringstiltag m.v.

at øge paratheden til den fremtidige nye orden:

Realisering af modellen sker ved at styringsom-

forandringsparatheden, nye roller og ansvar, agilitet

råderne (de fem temaer) omsættes til politikker,

i forhold til nye teknologier, en fælles rammearki-

metoder og standarder, som alle forretningsenhe-

tektur, håndtering af kompleksitet.

derne arbejder udfra, også IKT-afdelingen. En sådan model vil kunne anvendes som skabelon for en

Og så er 50 mia. ting på nettet ikke længere en helt så stor trussel, - men en mulighed!

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 37


Towards smart city democracy

Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard Alexandra Instituttet A/S lasse.vestergaard@ alexandra.dk

JoĂŁo Fernandes Alexandra Instituttet A/S joao.fernandes@ alexandra.dk

In this article, we discuss the current state of smart cities from a technological perspective. We argue that smart city developments are in a state of transition going from being technology-focused to now putting emphasis on the humans living in the cities. The transition is still latent in the smart city deployments, and we argue that quite a few existing as well as new smart city deployments are still relying on the old technology-focused approach to smart cities. We elaborate our own experiences in this particular field, and provide two concrete cases on how we are approaching citizen-empowering smart city technologies. Finally, we discuss how smart city technologies should respond to citizen needs. Keywords: IoT, Smart city, empowering citizens, empowerment

Introduction The Smart City concept has been around for some years now, aiming at establishing a digital layer alongside the urban infrastructure to make data Mirko Alexander Presser Alexandra Instituttet A/S mirko.presser@ alexandra.dk

about the city available to citizens, city authorities and industry. This digital layer allows the different city stakeholders to improve and create new innovative city services that ultimately aim at improving the experience and the way citizens live in the city context. The core digital layer is important as it gives the basis for building and improving these city services. The process

38 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


of creating these services must be as “democratic”

deployment of sensors and building of IT infra-

as possible, i.e. with the close involvement of the

structures has been in focus. This approach can be

city stakeholders including its citizens. This way,

seen in cities like Barcelona in Spain, Chicago in

the impact of the envisioned services is optimised

US, and Songdo in South Korea. However, this

as we are addressing the real needs of the end-users

technology-driven approach has proven not to

of such digital services.

reach its expected impact, as it lacks a bottom-up approach where the city stakeholders have a much

Humans emerge in smart cities

more close involvement in this process. Cities

In recent years, the term smart city has emerged

should not just be instrumented with sensors or

and is now widely (world-wide) used as a branding

smart technological infrastructures, if there is no

and marketing concept. The Smart City Expo in

assessment of the citizens’ needs/barriers and

Barcelona is the latest example of this trend (Expo

therefore no certain impact on their quality of life.

2015). Up until now, the concept of smart city has

Lately, this technology-focused approach has

primarily been evolving around technology, where

been shifting its focus into including the citizens Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 39


as a key element causing a change in the way we

emptied. Intelligent street lighting is all about

understand and approach smart cities. In essence,

reducing municipal costs, by replacing light bulbs

we have begun to initiate smart city activities by

with LEDs, and sensing people roaming the streets.

approaching citizens, and take this point of

The latter is another cost reduction feature, that

departure in a citizen participation paradigm. This

makes lampposts only use electricity when it is

particular approach is already on the European

mostly needed, i.e. when a human is near.

agenda, and several EU projects are now getting

One could argue that the existing smart city

funding for doing research into this neo smart city

infrastructures act mostly as cyber physical systems

approach. The Horizon2020 project OrganiCity

(a network of interacting technological devises

(OrganiCity 2015) is a relevant example.

reacting to in- and output from each other), where

In the early days of smart city development, a

the only innovative part is that technology has

large number of sensors have been deployed for the

succeeded in reducing humans to objects that can

typical Smart X application, e.g. smart parking,

be measured, and used as inputs for the system to

smart irrigation or smart transportation (eg.

react according to a predefined behaviour. A

around 20.000 sensors in the city of Santander in

natural consequence of this is that citizens actually

Spain), and numerous IT infrastructures have been

become disempowered. Before intelligent street

built. Some people have marked this “first wave” of

lighting was deployed, citizens could rely on

smart cities as “smart city classic”, and it actually

lighting; if the street was lit, then it would stay

seems that quite a few cities now have a valuable

that way, and if it was dark it would stay like that.

Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. Recognising

As a human, it was possible to make a decision

that a lot of effort has been put into deployment,

based on the visual information, and one could

we can now move into the domain of how to actual-

decide whether one would take the risk of walking

ly exploit the smart cities for the common good. As

in the dark – or one would maybe even prefer

a consequence, we have chosen to focus on the the

walking in the dark (for some this might feel more

human-centered approach to smart cities in this

secure – ’if I cannot see them, then they cannot see

article. We argue that we are currently in a

me either’). This type of decision-making is no

transition phase, where the smart city classic

longer possible. The street can be pitch dark when

approach is still prevalent in most of the existing

looking at it from a distance, but it will light up

and new smart city initiatives. In the following we

when a human approaches – the city becomes

elaborate this argument further, and discuss

completely unreliable, as the system reacts in a

pitfalls and opportunities.

default way without taking into account the preferences of each of the citizens. And, what

Humans in cyber physical

about the person who wanted to walk in the dark?

smart cities

He would be “caught” by the light. Being placed at

In the neo smart city paradigm, one of the main

the epicentre of a light source can actually make

points is citizen empowerment – how do we make

you more vulnerable, because it becomes harder to

cities better for citizens on their terms. Looking at

see what is going on in the dark while people in

existing smart city technologies that have found its

the dark easily can locate you.

way into the built environment, like intelligent

This is of course an extreme view of the smart

street lighting and trash bins, it becomes clear that

city deployments, but most of the current deploy-

the smart city classic approach has been the way to

ments primarly consider humans as binary inputs

go. A trash bin do not take humans into account, it

to the system - not necessarily adding direct value

only focuses on whether it is full or not, and sends

to the citizens’ everyday life. Our critique is not a

a notification to the utility when it should be

novel discovery, and Rob Van Kranenburg already

40 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


in 2008 referred to the tale of two cities: The story

into the realm of humans, and provide two

elaborates two possible outcomes of instrumenting

examples of our approach.

the city with technology. One is how technology can be used to create a city of surveillance – the

Power to the people

all-seeing eye – which monitors and autonomously

As already discussed in the previous sections,

adjusts the society. The other is about how

citizen empowerment has come into focus, but

technology is used as a support and help for the

technology developers are still caught up in the

citizens themselves – e.g. they can access street

smart city classic paradigm. We therefore have a

cameras directly and scout for missing kids or

gap between smart city deployments, and citizen

check if someone is hiding around the corner

empowerment. From our experiences we have

(Kranenburg 2008).

learned that user empowerment emerges through

Researchers and companies have started

transparency, flexibility, and adaptation to

working on solutions that fit better the human­-

individuals’ needs. This means, that a user should

centric smart city approach. Concrete examples are

be able to understand what is going on, the

the open source Geiger counter from Safecast

technology should be capable of taking into

(Safecast 2015), which empowers citizens to

account the heterogeneity of the environment, and

measure and make background radiation from e.g.

it should be possible for the user to adjust a

Fukushima publicly available, and the recent

specific technological deployment. The latter is not

emergence of open data platforms (Ckan 2015).

just about enabling users to change color on a

Despite the fact that the human-centric approach

screen or subscribe to a newsletter - it is way more

of smart cities is emerging and becoming stronger,

profound. Users should be able to make the

we still see quite a few technology deployments

technology support their explicit needs here and

that adhere to the smart city classic approach. In

now. This means that a user should be able to turn

the following section, we will discuss how to move

on or off the street lighting, right now at this Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 41


specific location. He should be able to get the route

this particular case, users can participate by sharing

home following the path of least pollution (not

and being notified of events happening in the city

predicted pollution, the actual real-time pollution

(Pulse of the City), as an example sharing informati-

measurements). And it should be possible for him

on about a cultural event in a particular location in

to seamlessly tap into the abundance of infrastruc-

the city, a traffic jam or even a problem that needs

tures and services right at hand (ex. using car

to be fixed. Also connected to this event-based

sharing or couch-surfing).

platform are the Municipality of Santander and a

We need to go to the next level of smart city

local newspaper, which in the first case are

technologies and now focus on citizens as being a

connected to the platform in order to collect

rich reflective resource, and we need to co-create

information about complaints/problems happening

future solutions with them, not for them. It is the

in the city and react upon it by sending someone to

citizens who constitute the cities, and they should

investigate and fix it. For the second case, the

also have the key to unlock and manage it. At the

newspaper uses the platform both to publish the

Alexandra Institute, we are focusing on how to

local news, as well as to retrieve the information of

empower users through technology, and we are

relevant events published by others as sources of

actively engaged in creating applications that

information that can lead to new news articles. This

foster real power to the people. In the following

application, called ”Pace of the City” (SmartSantan-

­sections, we will elaborate further on two examples

der 2015a), is available for both Android and iOS

of projects and applications that demonstrate the

platforms and has been used actively by many

work that has been carried out in the scope of our

citizens of Santander. What is most interesting and

smart city activities.

unique about this approach is the involvement of the citizens by giving them a voice to participate in

SmartSantander

the city’s maintenance and development. They are

As mentioned above, SmartSantander is an FP7 EU

essential in the smart city context and have the

project (SmartSantander 2015b) proposing a

empowerment and the responsibility of participa-

city-scale experimental research facility that also

ting in a democratic way in their cities.

supports applications and services in a smart city context. The project envisioned the deployment of

Vote a lamppost

20.000 sensors among different cities such as

The concept Vote a lamppost (vlp) evolves around

Belgrade (Serbia), Guildford (UK), Lübeck (Germany)

citizen empowerment, and our preliminary

and Santander in Spain. Different services and

prototype is evolving around a voting system. A

applications have been developed during the

user can connect to the Vlp system, and provide a

project. The different covered use cases (Santander

suggestion for changing the state of a lamppost. All

2012) include for instance smart parking, environ-

other users can then vote the suggestion up or

mental monitoring and augmented reality

down. If more than 50% votes up, the lamp will

scenarios.

change state. By empowering citizens through

One of its most relevant services that has had a

providing a democratic ability to control street

large impact has been the ”Participatory Sensing

lighting, the aim of vlp is to foster a different way

Service” (Gutiérrez et al. 2013). In this service,

of thinking about and acting in the city. It

mobile phones of citizens are considered as

transforms the existing street lighting infrastruc­

resources that can both provide sensory data, such

ture from something that just exists in the

as accelerometer, noise, temperature and location,

back­ground to an active platform that shifts the

but also the users can feed the system with their

current municipality-citizen relationship, and in

input/knowledge, all in a fully anonymised way. In

this manner moves away from the service provider-­

42 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


consumer relation to making it more equal

in the asphalt of a bike lane, the municipality need

(Brynskov et al. 2014), which again fosters hyper­

to act reasonably fast and fix the problem. This trust

local social engagements. When people get power

and credibility relationship needs to be built (this is

they also get responsibilities, which forces them to

especially the case in southern Europe) and is

reflect and act intelligently (Foucault 1977). Since

paramount for the future developments of smart

vlp is democratic there has to be an agreement on

cities.

the state of a unique lamppost. One neighbor

As an addition to the citizen-municipality

might want the light turned off (he is going to bed)

relationship, smart city technologies can be seen as

while another wants it turned on because her

support for the citizen engagement. By adapting to

daughter is coming home late. Decision-making is

individual needs, and by providing direct control

not only a question about optimization (reducing

to the citizens, ownership and responsibility will

power consumption or making the streets safer),

emerge. A consequence is a shift in the municipa­

but also about human convenience.

lity-citizen relationship, which results in levera-

Vote a lamppost is yet another intelligent street lighting application. The difference is that we have

ging the, yet unexploited, resource of reflective and acting citizens.

chosen to move the intelligence away from the lamppost, and instead put it into the hands of the citizens. We argue that street lighting should respond to immediate needs of citizens, and not just an intelligently thought out algorithm. Now that street lighting is becoming truly intelligent we can hand over the power to citizens – they can decide when they want their hyper local lamppost to be on, off or just dimmed. Towards technological democracy in smart cities The two above-mentioned applications are examples of developments that focus on the citizens as being reflective individuals who act and live in the city. What has become clear to us during our work is that there might be a gab between how decision-makers and citizens perceive the city. From the municipal perspective, it seems that focus is on efficiency – how to reduce costs. From the citizens’ perspective, it seems to be more about convenience and liveability. Through different smart city projects, we have seen that citizens actually care about their city, and they like participating in the making of the city if it creates an actual impact. By giving citizens a voice in the city, they become more engaged. This also puts quite a lot of responsibility back on the municipa­lity, since citizens need to feel that they are making a difference. If a citizen reports a crack

References •B  rynskov, Martin, Juan Carlos Carvajal Bermúdez, Manu Fernández, Henrik Korsgaard, Ingrid Mulder, Katarzyna Piskorek, Lea Rekow, and Martijn de Waal. 2014. Urban Interaction Design - Towards City Making. Urban IxD Booksprint. • Ckan. 2015. “Ckan - The Open Source Data Portal Software.” Accessed November 25. http://ckan.org/. • Expo, Smart City. 2015. “Smart City Expo World Congress | Home.” Accessed November 24. http://www.smartcityexpo.com/en/. • Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage Books. • Gutiérrez, Verónica, JoseA. Galache, Luis Sánchez, Luis Muñoz, JoseM. Hernández-Muñoz, Joao Fernandes, and Mirko Presser. 2013. “SmartSantander: Internet of Things Research and Innovation through Citizen Par­ ticipation.” In The Future Internet SE - 15, edited by Alex Galis and Anastasius Gavras, 7858:173–86. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38082-2_15. • Kranenburg, Rob Van. 2008. The Internet Og Things. ­Amsterdam: Network Notebooks. • OrganiCity. 2015. “OrganiCity.” Accessed November 24. http://organicity.eu/. • Safecast. 2015. “Safecast.” Accessed November 25. http://blog.safecast.org/. • Santander, Smart. 2012. “D4.2 SmartSantander – WP4 Working Document D4 . 2 Description of Implemented IoT Services.” • SmartSantander. 2015a. “Participatory Sensing Applica­ tion.” Accessed November 24. http://www.smartsantan­ der.eu/index.php/blog/item/181-participatory-sensing­application. •2015b. “SmartSantander.” Accessed November 24. http://smartsantander.eu/.

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 43


Open Data DK skaber vækst og transparens

Anna Katrine Mathiassen Aarhus Kommune ankm@aarhus.dk

Michelle Bach Lindstrøm Aarhus Kommune mbm@aarhus.dk

Vores digitale verden består af nuller og et-taller og i takt med den øgede digitalisering, bliver mængden af data større og større. Derfor er et af de nyeste buzzwords Open Data, som åbner for et helt nyt forretningsområde, hvor kernen er tilgængelig data. Men hvad er Open Data, hvad kan det bruges til og af hvem? Det offentlige har enorme mængde data, og det kan være en god ide at dele dem. I juni 2015 blev Open Data DK samarbejdet lanceret. Det har til formål at sætte Open Data på den nationale dagsorden, understøtte datadreven vækst og fremme transparensen i det danske samfund. Denne artikel vil beskrive Open Data området og tydeliggøre fordelene ved arbejdet gennem eksempler. Derudover beskriver vi, hvordan der bliver arbejdet med Open Data i Danmark. Keywords: Open data, geografisk information, smart city, digital forvaltning

Open Data Open Knowledge Foundation (www.okfn.org) er en non-profit organisation for personer, der arbejder med eller er interesserede i Open Data. De definerer begrebet åben således: ’...the data must be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable

44 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


reproduction cost, preferably by downloading over the

Open Data kan anvendes til at få indsigt i,

internet. The data must also be available in a convenient

kopiere/ distribuere, mixe/ genbruge data i andre

and modifiable form.’

sammenhænge eller helt modificere dem til at

De uddyber deres føromtalte definition med, at

eksempelvis indgå i et produkt.

dataejere ikke må lave restriktioner på, i hvilke sammenhænge dataen må bruges, eksempelvis at

Open Data som en del af Big Data bølgen

det ikke må bruge i reklamesammenhæng eller

Open Data er ikke nødvendigvis det samme som

kun må bruges til undervisning.

Big Data, men mange ideer/tanker samt erfaringer

Danmark er et af de lande i verden, hvor der er

overlapper, og således influerer begge begreber

mest gennemsigtighed i den offentlige sektor i

hinanden. I denne artikel defineres Big Data som et

forhold til informationer - for eksempelvis fra

begreb, der udspringer af den eksplosive vækst i

byrådsmøder, møder i Folketinget, national statistik

data, der følger af digitaliseringen af data. Big Data

og offentliggørelse af økonomi - og dette har i

beskrives som oftest som forholdsvis store datasæt

mange år været en tradition i den offentlige sektor.

eller med udgangspunkt i de tre V’er: Volume

Alle interesserede har mulighed for at overvære

(mængde), Velocity (hastighed) og Variety (mangfol-

møder hos beslutningstagerne eller hente oplysnin-

dighed).

ger om indholdet af deres møder. Dette er tidligere

Når virksomheder kombinerer egne Big Data

foregået manuelt på arkiver, men i takt med

med Open Data, understøtter Open Data Big Datas

digitaliseringen er al information blevet tilgænge-

indflydelse i samfundsøkonomien. Det sker, fordi

ligt i andre formater. Det er den tradition, Open

Open Data skaber gennemsigtighed, udstiller

Data DK er med til at bygge ovenpå ved at skabe over-

variationsmuligheder kombinationsmuligheder og

blik over al tilgængelig åben data på én platform.

gør det muligt for virksomheder og andre aktører

Eksempler på Open Data kan være kommunale datasæt om trafikinformation, oplysninger om

at eksperimentere med data forholdsvis omkostningsfrit.

begivenheder i byerne, oversigter over kommunale bygninger og tilbud, tilbud i naturen, oplysninger

Open Data som en del af delekulturen

om sundhedsverdenen, kommunernes arealer, virk-

Internationale succeser som boligleje- og boligbytte-

somheder i kommunen mv.

ordninger er eksempler på fremvæksten af en ny Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 45


delekultur, der ændrer den måde, vi som samfund

Potentiale ved Open Data

forbruger, arbejder, rejser og lever på. Specielt i

Der er mange forskellige måder, hvorpå data kan

byerne vækster delekulturen, og deletendensen ses

bruges, samt forskelligartede former for vækst det

som værende den nyeste trend i byerne, hvor det at

afstedkommer. Nedenstående er en række

udnytte ejendele og information på den bedst

eksempler­­­ på dette.

mulige og mest effektive måde er blevet gjort muligt på baggrund af den øgede digitalisering, den

Open Data afføder social og økonomisk vækst

teknologiske udvikling samt fokus på nye forret-

Open Data har indvirkning på den økonomiske

ningsmodeller.

vækst, hvor eksempelvis transportsektoren kan

Et eksempel herpå er organisationen Creative

nyde godt af at tilbyde nye services om transport-

Commons, der tilbyder en række simple værktøjer,

planlægning, parkeringspladser, vejfinding m.m.

der giver kunstnere, forskere og andre mulighed for

– services som også har en positiv social betydning

– helt eller delvis – at dele deres værk med andre.

i samfundet, idet det giver bedre fremkommelig-

Creative Commons har lavet en licens, hvor afsende-

hed for borgere og bilister.

ren kan skræddersy en ophavsret efter behov. Dermed deler afsenderen sit værk/arbejde med brugerene. Dette stemmer overens med definitionen af

En ny type firmaer, der tilbyder databehandling og konsulentarbejde ser også dagens lys, og firmaer af alle størrelser begynder at kombinere åbne data

Open Data, da tankegangen om deling er den

med egne data til at forbedre deres produkter og

samme (jf. definitionen fra www.okfn.org.).

udviklingsarbejde.

Modtageren skal således have fri mulighed for at

Dette ses fx hos firmaet Geoboxers (http://www.

arbejde med data, og på den måde kan Open Data

geoboxers.com/), som bruger en frittilgængelig 3D

siges at arbejde for delekulturen.

model af Aarhus i computerspillet MineCraft, og

Open Data som genstandsfelt placerer sig

spillerne kan således gå rundt i et virtuelt Aarhus.

således i mellemrummet mellem Big Data og

GeoBoxers har hentet oplysningerne til den

delekulturen, og erfaringer med disse to felter kan

virtuelle by på Aarhus Kommunes Open Data

anvendes i arbejdet med Open Data.

platform www.odaa.dk.

46 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Et andet eksempel er EU-projektet RADICAL5,

Flere rapporter viser, at der er enorme poten­ tialer i Open Data: • Europakommissionen beregnede i 2012 et

som sætter fokus på affald i hele Aarhus Kommune.­­­Dette projekt er også baseret på

årligt økonomisk potentiale på 140 mia. € i de

affaldsdata, som er tilgængelige på Open Data

27 EU-lande i form af vækst for erhvervslivet

Aarhus 6. Her kan alle finde oplysninger om affald

og effektivisering 1

efter postnummer, ligesom der er forskellige

• I Danmark forventes det danske grunddata-initiativ at have en samfundsmæssig gevinst på 800 mio. kr. om året fra 2020, når initiativet er fuldt indfaset 2 • En finsk undersøgelse viser, at IT-virksom­ heder i lande med en vedtaget Open Data­ politik har en omsætning, der er 13% større end i lande, der ikke har 3 Erfaringer og analyser fra udlandet viser

oplysninger om renovation i byen med en forhåbning om, at bedre viden om miljø på sigt skaber bedre adfærd. På Miljøportalen.dk finder vi endnu et eksempel på, at Open Data forbedrer resultatet af et arbejde. Digitalisering og udstilling af data om spildevand og vandprøver har betydet, at udarbejdede vandplaner er blevet bedre, hvilket igen betyder et bedre miljø, idet medarbejderne har et bedre udgangspunkt. Læs mere om projektet her 7.

således, at jo mere Open Data er forankret, desto mere værdi kan der skabes.

Ovenstående viser, at Open Data skaber nye tiltag, innovation, nytænkning og udvikling rundt

Data er interessante for erhvervslivet, fordi de

om i byerne, hvor borgerne har mulighed for at

kan bruges som råstof i udviklingen af eksempelvis

tage initiativ til udvikling af services baseret på

applikationer, tjenester og ydelser. Data er således

deres behov. Derved påvirker Open Data borger­

en ressource, der kan anvendes både til at skabe

inddragelse i en positiv retning.

nye services eller en mere effektiv forretning med vækst og arbejdspladser til følge. Qua de sidste års digitalisering af den offentlige

Open Data styrker demokratiet Open Data giver borgerne mulighed for at følge

sektor samt samfundets brug af sociale og digitale

med i, hvad det offentlige bruger dets ressourcer

medier er den samlede mængde af data steget. For

på og skaber mere transparens. Ligeledes kan de få

erhvervslivet kan man se data som et råstof, vi har,

informationer om, hvordan Folketinget og

og som vi skal bruge til at udvikle nye services

regeringen er struktureret, læse lovforslag eller

baseret på bl.a. vores digitale vaner.

følge folketingsmedlemmernes stemmehistorik. Virksomheden Buhl & Rasmussen har udviklet en

Open Data muliggør nye offentlige services

hjemmeside baseret på åbne data fra Folketingets

Open Data kan også skabe nye og mere effektive

egen hjemmeside (www.hvemstemmerhvad.dk ),

services inden for det offentlige. Det offentlige kan

hvor man kan se afstemninger og stemmefordeling

eksempelvis udnytte åbne data til effektivisering af

inddelt på parti, alder, køn eller storkreds. Niels

interne processer myndighederne imellem, lave

Erik Kaaber Rasmussen fra Buhl & Rasmussen

oversigt over kommunale legepladser eller

udtaler om projektet:

4.

’Arbejdet med folketingets data er et forsøg på at skabe

trafikken i byen . Sidstnævnte er udarbejdet af Aarhus Stiftstidende baseret på data fra www.odaa.

øget politisk transparens og lette adgangen til vigtige

dk, og viser trafikken i Aarhus.

politiske data’.

1

(European Commission, 2012) (Regeringen, 2012) 3 (http://www.etla.fi/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/dp1260.pdf) 4 (http://www.opendata.dk/viden-om/use-cases/saadan-ser-trafikkenud-lige-nu)

5

2

6 7

 ttp://genbrug.smartaarhus.dk/recycling.html h http://www.odaa.dk/dataset/affald-fra-genbrugsstationer (http://www.opendata.dk/blog/aabne-data-bekaemper-miljoesvineri)

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 47


Arbejdet med data kan bruges aktivt i forhold til folketingsvalg, og efter valget om patentdomstolen i maj 2014 afholdt interesseorganisationen Open

IKT, i Innovation og Forskning fra Region Midtjylland og medlem af Open Data DK siger følgende: ’Det offentlige sidder på en lang række data, som

Knowledge Denmark en workshop med stemmere-

potentielt kan medvirke til at øge væksten hos virksom­

sultaterne. Til deres overraskelse fandt de frem til,

heder, skabe mere transparens og bedre services for

at der på Taarbæk Skole var byttet rundt på ja og

borgerne samt bedre løsninger til/af myndighedsopgaver’.

nej svarene, da den endelige indberetning blev

Han placerer dermed Open Data som en ny

sendt af sted. Fejlen blev rettet, men det ville måske

måde at tænke data, hinanden og byens ressourcer

ikke være blevet opdaget, hvis ikke workshoppen

på. Open Data DK tror på, at åbenhed og gennem-

havde fundet sted 3.

sigtighed i den offentlige sektor skaber mulighe-

Overstående eksempler viser, at arbejdet med Open Data eksempelvis kan bruges til at give nem adgang til det offentlige arbejde samt kontrollere selvsamme, hvilket i sidste ende styrker demokratier.

der, så borgere og virksomheder kan blive mere aktive medspillere i lokaldemokratiet. De førnævnte kommuner er alle i gang med Open Data arbejdet, og samtidig arbejdes der på statsligt niveau med bl.a. at fritstille grunddata jf.

Open Data DK – en by er ikke et

kommunernes fælles digitaliseringsstrategi, som

marked

bliver udgivet i 2016.

I foråret 2015 startede portalen www.opendata.dk

Open Data DK er baseret på Open Source

som er et tværkommunalt samarbejde mellem

software-platformen CKAN, som er et datamanage-

Aarhus, København, Vejle, Aalborg og Odense

mentsystem, der muliggør deling og søgning,

Kommune samt Region Midtjylland med et formål

ligesom platformen kan kommunikere med andre

om at sætte Open Data på den nationale dagsorden

sider, som bruger CKAN. Således kan kommuner og

samt at skabe en landsdækkende portal, hvor data

andre organisationer, der har egne CKAN-installati-

fra offentlige instanser og private virksomheder

oner, integreres på én fælles platform og dermed

samles. Bo Fristed, Formand for Open Data DK og

skabe et overblik for brugerne. Systemet er

IT-chef i Aarhus Kommune udtaler følgende om

internationalt anerkendt og anvendes af et flertal

samarbejdet:

af andre internationale Open Data initiativer som

’Open Data DK er et stort og vigtigt skridt for arbejdet med Open Data i Danmark og er med til at sikre en sammenhængskraft kommunerne imellem. Det er

eksempelvis data.gov.uk, Englands nationale Open Data indsats. Open Data DK er en ny form for netværk for

skelsættende, at Danmark nu får en samlet portal for Open

videndeling og samarbejde på tværs af kommunale

Data - og helt uden sidestykke internationalt’.

grænser og sektorer. Open Data er således et helt

Tanken bag Open Data DK er at skabe overblik over tilgængelig data i landet på én national platform, hvor interesserede borgere eller virksom-

nyt mindset både i forhold til brug af data og tværkommunalt arbejde. Bo Fristed fortæller: ’Samarbejdet er begyndt som uformelle møder mellem en

heder kan hente data til fri afbenyttelse, som kan

række Open Data-entusiaster og er et billede på, at der kan

danne rammen om nye applikationer, tjenester,

opnås væsentlige resultater ved at arbejde nedefra og op’.

services eller være afsæt i analyser mv. På denne

Samarbejdet er således udsprunget af en fælles

måde bliver der dannet nye, uforpligtende

interesse for Open Data, hvorfor deltagerne

partnerskaber med iværksættere/ virksomheder/

arbejder mod et fælles mål. Det er ikke kun til gavn

borgere og landets kommuner.

for de respektive byer, men ligeledes for hele

Jesper Algren, Projektleder for Digitalisering og

3

landet. Arbejdet med at gøre data frit tilgængelige

http://www.version2.dk/artikel/aabne-data-afsloerer-valgfejl-ja-og-nej-stemmer-blev-byttet-om-58873

48 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


er i høj grad både på den internationale og den nationale dagsorden. Open Data DK er således med i Open & Agile Smart Cities (OASC) et netværk af nationale by-samarbejder. Formand Martin Brynskov siger følgende: ’Visionen er at skabe et globalt Smart City marked bygget på behov, styrke konkurrenceevnen og skabe løsninger med respekt for lokale faktorer og jobskabelse’. Hermed er målet et internationalt netværk af Smart City byer, som alle arbejder med individuelle samt skalerbare løsninger, der passer til deres egen by. OASC fordrer således videndeling og sparring byerne imellem. Alt arbejde i Open Data DK er drevet af initiativer både i kommunerne og blandt de virksomheder, som er med. Således bæres arbejdet frem af lysten til arbejde med Open Data, dog er der enkelte barrierer som kan hæmme virksomheder-

afholder vi gerne, i samarbejde med andre

nes og kommunernes motivation til at arbejde med

partnere, såkaldte hackathons, hvor data bringes i

data. De beskrives i det følgende.

spil. Alt sammen for at udbrede viden om data og brugen heraf.

Manglende tilgængelighed og overblik Datadreven forretningsudvikling er tæt forbundet

Manglende information om

med adgang til data. Erhvervsstyrelsen beskriver, at

sikkerhed/privacy

der er mulighed for yderligere vækst i det danske

For at kunne udvikle services, applikationer og

erhvervsliv, såfremt tilgængeligheden af åbne

kunne skabe forretning baseret på Open Data

offentlige data øges. Offentlige data kan supplere

kræves der fra virksomhedernes side en ensartet

virksomhedernes egne data - eksempelvis kan data

rådgivning om brug af data samt en gennemsigtig

om personer og geografi bruges til at segmentere

og klar licens. Open Data DK tilstræber qua

og analysere virksomhedernes kunder. Ved at have

samarbejdet med OASC at ensarte brugen af

én portal, der giver overblik over Open Data i

licenser, og som udgangspunkt opfordres de

Danmark, understøtter Open Data DK data som

deltagende dataejere til at benytte dokumentet

vækstfaktor i det danske erhvervsliv.

”Vilkår for brug af danske offentlige data” lavet af Digitaliseringsstyrelsen. Vilkårene er i overensstem-

Manglende viden om data

melse med PSI-loven (Lov om videreanvendelse af

Danmark er et digitalt foregangsland, og der findes

den offentlige sektor informationer). Open Data DK

en række data- frontløbervirksomheder, men på

vil vejlede virksomheder og organisationer om den

trods af det, er der stadig en stor usikkerhed om de

bedste brug af data.

potentielle gevinster ved datadreven forretningsud-

Når der arbejdes med Open Data, er det vigtigt

vikling. Flere virksomheder har et behov for at

at have styr på de nødvendige love og regler, der

databegrebet afmystificeres. Open Data DK

gør sig gældende ved offentliggørelsen af data.

afholder løbende workshops og arrangementer,

Flere kommuner udtrykker en usikkerhed, når de

ligesom der deles alle de gode og relevante use

skal fritstille data, fordi de nærer frygt for at frigive

cases, der gør brug af Open Data. Derudover

personfølsom information. Data på Open Data DK Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 49


frigives inden for Persondatalovens rammer,

vores lokaldemokrati. Sammenholdt med rappor-

ligesom vi løbende undersøger nye muligheder for

terne fra EU og Erhvervsstyrelsen er det således

at sikre og anonymisere data - eksempelvis har vi

tydeligt, at Open Data er en del af fremtiden inden

udviklet en CPR-scanner der sikrer, at CPR-numre

for nytænkning af data og jobskabelse, og arbejdet

ikke kommer ud. Vi har yderligere udarbejdet en

er godt på vej.

rapport, hvor dataejere kan læse om de lovmæssige

I skrivende stund er der over 340 datasæt på

aspekter, der er relevante at have for øje; juridisk

Open Data DK-portalen fra hele Danmark omhand-

dokumentation om persondataloven, licenser,

lende alt fra natur til trafik, begivenheder m.m.,

personhenførbare oplysninger og ophavsret.

som alle er klar til at blive anvendt til applikationer og services. I øjeblikket arbejder Open Data DK

Opsummering

på at frigive så mange sammenlignelige datasæt fra

Der er flere potentielle gevinster for kommuner og

medlemmerne af Open Data DK som muligt. Det

virksomheder i at arbejde med Open Data.

gøres ved at inddrage virksomheder, uddannelses-

• Overblik over egne data på tværs af organisati-

institutioner m.fl., så der i fællesskab kan findes de

onen: Ved at få indblik i, hvilke ressourcer

data, som giver bedst mening at stille til rådighed

kommunen bruger hvor, kan de effektivisere

for offentligheden.

og optimere brugen af disse. • Optimering ved at kombinere egne og

Kunne du tænke dig at høre mere om Open Data DK eller være med?

eksterne data: Kommunernes egne data om fx

Så følg med på www.opendata.dk

trafik kan kombineres med trafikforskning,

og på twitter @OpenDataDK

hvilket kan bruges i byens fremtidige trafikplaner og -udvikling. • Datadreven innovation: På baggrund af kommunernes egne data kan borgere udvikle services baseret på borgernes egne behov, hvilket kan resultere i innovative løsninger, som dataejerne ikke selv ville have udviklet. • Øget vækst og forretningspotentiale blandt virksomheder: Før beskrevne eksempler om GeoBoxers og Buhl & Rasmussens brug af Open Data viser, at private kan skabe ydelser og produktioner af tilgængelige data, som i sidste ende kan afføde vækst. Open Data som borgere og virksomheder i hele Danmark nemt og gratis kan tilgå, vil altså kunne bruges som råstof i udviklingen af applikationer, tjenester og services eller være afsæt for analyser, tendensvurderinger, forskning osv. Samtidigt vil Open Data kunne understøtte gennemsigtigheden i den offentlige forvaltning, så borgere og virksomheder kan blive endnu mere aktive medspillere i

50 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

Referencer • European Commission (2012), Digital Agenda • Regeringen/KL (2012), Gode Grunddata til alle • www.hvemstemmerhvad.dk • www.version2.dk/artikel/aabne-data-afsloerer-valgfejl-­­­­­ ja-og-nej-stemmer-blev-byttet-om-58873 • www.erhvervsstyrelsen.dk/sites/default/files/big-data-som-vaekstfaktor.pdf • www.opendatanow.com/2013/11/new-big-data-vs-opendata-mapping-it-out/#.VhznNyuVAaI • www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/open_ data_unlocking_innovation_and_performance_with_ liquid_information • http://www.opendata.dk/viden-om/use-cases/saadanser-trafikken-ud-lige-nu • http://genbrug.smartaarhus.dk/recycling.html • http://www.opendata.dk/blog/aabne-data-bekaemper-miljoesvineri • www.okfn.org • www.geoboxers.dk Yderligere • www.opendata.dk • www.odaa.dk


reviewed

Elements of a Successful Big Data Hackathon in a Smart City Context

Thorhildur Jetzek Department of IT Management, Copenhagen Business School tj.itm@cbs.dk

This paper presents a case study of a Smart City initiative in Lyngby-Taarbæk municipality, which has successfully applied the triple helix model to create an informal collaboration between academia, government and private industry. The study recounts how a group of university students, participating in a big data hackathon, managed to create a Smart City solution prototype based on open data in only 48 hours. The solution offers to make the municipality more cost efficient and improve citizen services, while simultaneously contributing to reduced CO2 emis­ sions, thus addressing a difficult societal challenge. A special attention is paid to how the Smart City vision, based on the triple helix model, is used to align interests and enable an informal collaboration between heterogeneous stake­holders. This collaboration represents an underlying value network, where value generation is moving beyond the simple profit-driven mechanisms of the markets. The paper identifies three main roles in the triple helix based value network: The Influencer, the Facilitator and The Implementer. Keywords: Smart city, big data hackathon, innovation contest, energy efficiency, ­spatial data

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 51


Introduction

while simultaneously addressing a societal

For the past two decades, information and

challenge, namely climate change. The case data is

communication technologies (ICTs) have been

based on 5 interviews with participants from

exerting a growing influence on the nature,

different sectors, including follow-up; as well as

structure and enactment of urban infrastructure,

analysis of online content and documents provided

management, economic activity and everyday life

by the interviewees. A list over organizations

(Kitchin, 2014). This has led to a growing interest in

interviewed is provided in Appendix A. The case

the concept of Smart City. The Smart City concept

context is that of a Smart City, however the case

can be viewed as an overarching concept that

includes many other new and interesting concepts

describes a city’s ability to use data and technology

such as big data, innovation contests and open

for improving the livability and wellbeing of its

government data. The case offers insight into how

citizens1. Concurrently, there has been an increa-

different motivations can be aligned through the

sing focus on societal challenges that are reflected

triple helix model, i.e. how to motivate and enable

in our societies’ inability to sufficiently address

heterogeneous stakeholders to collectively

complex problems, such as the refugee crisis and

contribute to a common goal. Moreover, I discuss

climate change (OECD, 2011). I propose that Smart

how value can be created in a value network,

City initiatives based on informal collaboration

moving beyond the simple profit-driven mechanis-

between stakeholders in different sectors offer a

ms of the markets towards a complex network of

new model for solving these grand challenges. The

aligned interests.

key to success is a Smart City project’s ability to encourage and activate more members of society to

Urbanization and the Smart City

collectively address societal challenges. History

Urbanization, the demographic transition from rural

tells us that silo structures, which oftentimes

to urban, is associated with shifts from an agricultu-

characterize governmental organization, are poorly

re-based economy to mass industry and more

suited to tackling complex problems across sectors.

recently, technology and service. If these trends

Moreover, the market by itself lacks the incentive

continue as projected, the percentage of people living

structure and appropriate business models needed

in urban areas will increase to 70% before 20502. The

to solve societal challenges. And stakeholders with

trajectory of the rapid urban population growth is

interest and drive, such as civil society or universi-

not just an interesting fact but also requires a

ties, might lack the capital, skills and resources to

demanding imperative for sustain­able development

take promising ideas to scale (Murray et al., 2010).

and better livability (Nam and Pardo, 2011). As an

In order to successfully address societal

example, although cities currently occupy less than

challenges, it is necessary for all of these stakehol-

two percent of the landmass of the earth, urban

ders to leverage their individual strengths and

residents consume over 75% of the world’s natural

capabilities. However, in order to incentivize a

resources and are primarily responsible for gre-

diverse group of people to collaborate on finding

en-house gas emissions (Marceau, 2008). Urbanization

and implementing solutions, it must be acknowled-

is also changing how we need to approach problems.

ged that their motivations and goals may vary

Multiple diverse stakeholders are now sharing a

widely. In this paper, I study a case where a loosely

physical space, which results in high levels of

organized collaboration between different

interdependence, competing values, and social and

stakeholders and sectors has succeeded in enabling

political complexity­­­(Dawes et al., 2009; Weber and

individual participants to create and capture value,

Khademian, 2008).

1 2

http://tti.tamu.edu/group/transit-mobility/files/2013/05/3-Definitions-of-livability-handout.pdf http://www.who.int/gho/urban_health/situation_trends/urban_population_growth_text/en/

52 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Making a city smart is a novel way to approach

municipality. Lyngby-Taarbæk is a host to many

such challenges (Nam and Pardo, 2011). But what is

technology and information driven companies as

a Smart City? Bolici and Mora (2015) define Smart

well as one of the most respected technical

Cities as urban areas in which information and

universities in Europe, The Technical University of

communication technologies (ICTs) are used to

Denmark, DTU 4. The municipality has identified

solve their specific problems and support their

Lyngby-Taarbæk as a City of Knowledge & Urban

sustainable development in social, economic and/

Development. Their City of Knowledge vision

or environmental terms. The Lyngby-Taarbæk City

includes attracting and retaining knowledge-based

of Knowledge initiative defines Smart Cities as

businesses, developing Lyngby-Taarbæk into a

digital and inclusive cities that seek to optimize

university town, creating urban life, forming

how the city functions by creating synergies

networks, furthering social innovation and

between the physical and the social in the digital

internationalization, inspiring entrepreneurship,

space. According to their definition, a Smart City

and broadening municipal services to the busines-

should support relationships between authorities,

ses and citizens in Lyngby-Taarbæk 5.

businesses, organizations and citizens, mainly

The City of Knowledge initiative is designed as a

through sharing of data and information across

triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 1993; Etzkowitz and

organizational boundaries. Wikipedia3 offers this

Leydesdorff, 1995; Ranga and Etzkowitz, 2013). The

definition: A Smart City uses digital technologies

Triple Helix thesis is that the potential for

or information and communication technologies

innovation and economic development in a

(ICT) to enhance quality and performance of urban

Knowledge Society lies in the hybridisation of

services, to reduce costs and resource consumption,

elements from academia, industry and government

and to engage more effectively and actively with its

to accelerate production, transfer and application

citizens. It is safe to say that a Smart City is an

of knowledge. The City of Knowledge & Urban

emerging phenomenon and as such has no precise

Development includes stakeholders from all three

definition. However, what all of these definitions

sectors and is governed by an independent

have in common is a focus on the digital space and

organization that is jointly funded by all of the

how new technologies and new means of collabora-

sectors. The participating stakeholders all agree on

tion can facilitate and accelerate how we address

the common vision for the City of Knowledge &

many of the societal challenges that result from

Urban Development, and presumably expect to

increased urbanization.

benefit from this collaboration. However, their motivations for collaborating vary considerably.

The City of Knowledge: Lyngby-­

The key to success in the triple helix model is to

Taarbæk‘s Smart City Vision

create a win-win-win situation where each of the

There are a number of Smart City initiatives in

partners can focus on their own benefits while

Denmark. Perhaps the most prominent one is

their individual contributions will add value to the

Copenhagen Smart City Initiative which has won

larger ecosystem in which they operate. Figure 1

awards like the World Smart Cities Award in 2014.

shows an example of a triple helix model.

Additionally, various smaller municipalities have

Academia­­­mainly contributes through knowledge

started their own Smart City initiatives, although

creation which is disseminated through teaching

some of them might not explicitly use the Smart

and research. Government contributes to a healthy

City concept. One of them is Lyngby-Taarbæk

environment for innovative collaboration, creating

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city DTU is listed number 43 in Thomson Reuter’s list of the World’s most innovative Universities, and counts number 7 of all the European Universities on the list. See: http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/15/idUSL1N11K16Q20150915 5 http://www.vidensby.dk/English.aspx 3

4

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 53


policy and supplying necessary services, e.g. through funding organizations or open data platforms. Industry contributes through wealth generation, and provides the capital and work processes, necessary for scaling up promising ideas and introducing them to markets. The Big Data Hackathon The independent City of Knowledge & Urban Development organization governs and facilitates different networks where members develop ideas and common projects. One of these networks has a focus on climate and green technology. Network members showed an interest in gaining improved access to Lyngby-Taarbæk’s data for supporting the

Figure 1. The Triple helix model. Loosely adapted from Farinho and Ferreira, 2013.

development of data-driven smart city solutions, such as Intelligent Energy Systems. The idea to

and provided many interesting solutions. Intere-

support an innovation contest, or big data

stingly, an emerging literature on innovation

hackathon, was originally raised by DTU Compute

contests in the open data literature has shown that

department but the City of Knowledge agreed to

such contests are in many cases poorly attended

partner in the organization of the event, together

and do not produce sustainable solutions

with representatives from Lyngby-Taarbæk

­(Hjalmarsson et al., 2014). However, for this

municipality and IBM, which provided IT tools to

hackathon, the results were considered as a huge

the participants. Lyngby-Taarbæk municipality

success by all participating stakeholders. Thus, I

agreed to give the hackathon participants access to

have attempted to extract the potential success

some of their data, as well as providing a descrip­

factors of this hackathon from the interview data:

tion of some of the problems or challenges the

•T  here was an introductory meeting where

municipality was faced with, in a hope for a

students could show up and form teams. A

potential (partial) solution. The hackathon was

positive result of this event was that the

hosted by DTU Compute in the new DTU Skylab

meeting gave the students a chance to meet

building on the18th and 19th of November 2014.

others with complementary qualifications

Simultaneously, DTU hosted a big data conference

and the resulting teams offered more diversity

where the prizes were to be awarded. The first three winning solutions were to get prizes of a

of knowledge and skill. •T  he municipality not only contributed data

total of DKK 55.000, which were sponsored by

but also formalized some questions or

Danske Bank, a private company in the munici­

problems they were facing. An overarching

pality. Moreover, the EU climate innovation

theme was to create a solution which would

initiative, Climate-KIC, contributed a special prize

make the lives of the citizens in Lyngby-Taar-

of DKK 10.000 for the idea providing the most

bæk easier and contribute to a more sustai-

climate friendly solution.

nable environment (special prize). This gave

Invitations were extended to university students

the participating students, who had little or

in various Danish universities, mainly through

no prior knowledge of the societal challenges

Facebook sites and student organizations. In short,

faced by municipalities, a starting point from

the hackathon was a success with 65 participants

where to develop their solutions.

54 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


• The technical and business related requests

data to the Danish elevation model, which is

for the solutions also helped the students

provided as open data by the Geodata Agency

think more broadly in terms of future

(Geodatastyrelsen). The geolocation thus has a very

applications. The solutions were required to

important function as a key identifier, making

make use of big data, have a novelty value, be

diverse sets of data interoperable.

user-friendly, scalable and have commercial potential. • The students were somewhat motivated by the

Having access to the property data gave them information about the age of the building and from that they extrapolated the type of insulation

cash prize but even more motivated by the

in different houses. From the thermal images they

fact that prominent members of industry

could draw conclusions on the relationship

were a part of the panel of judges. Other

between the insulation and how well the house

industry stakeholders were supporting the

retained heat. Based on (openly available) data

hackathon with IT solutions and prizes. As

from several providers of insulation material they

many of the participating students were just

could calculate the potential cost of insulating an

about to finish their studies, they needed

old house to a modern standard. They looked at

industry contacts.

(provided but closed) data on heating sources and expenses for the properties owned by Lyngby-­

From Hackathon to a Startup Company

Taarbæk, and from combining all these data, they

The winning team consisted of 6 individuals, 2

could deduce how cost-efficient it would be to

with computer science skills, 3 with mathemati-

insulate different houses and the magnitude of

cal modelling and machine learning skills (all

possible environmental effects (reduced CO2). The

five from DTU) and one student from CBS with a

interesting thing about how these students

business administration background. They had

approached this task is that they did not only

an opportunity to meet once before the hackat-

utilize a single dataset provided by the municipali-

hon to brainstorm, but all of the real work

ty as has been shown to be the case in many open

happened in the 48 hours of the hackathon

data applications, but rather combined the

itself. In the following, the solution itself is

datasets provided with openly available data from

described.

other sources.

Lyngby-Taarbæk provided a number of data

Afterwards, the winning team calculated for

sources from different departments in the

each property whether or not it would be

municipality. The choice of data was more or less

cost-efficient to implement solar panels. For this

ad hoc, based on which data could easily be

they used the elevation model to find the angle

provided. The winning team arrived to the contest

and orientation­­­of the roof, information about

with a semi-structured idea in mind from the

yield based on angle and orientation (from

brainstorming meeting. They started by looking at

various sources), open data on yearly solar

data on buildings owned by the municipality and

radiation from Danish Meteorological Institution

thermographic images of houses in Lyngby-Taar-

(DMI) and available information from different

bæk. Next, they created a program that could link

solar panel vendors (prices pr. m2, efficiency pr.

the addresses of buildings owned by the municipa-

m2, efficiency guarantees etc.). From their

lity (provided in an excel spreadsheet) to a geo­­­lo­

knowledge about roof sizes (provided open data),

cation. From this geolocation they could link the

energy costs (open data) and composition of

addresses to the map of thermographic images and

energy sources (provided closed data), they could

see which houses were losing most heat. They

also calculate the eco footprint for individual

could also use the geolocation to connect these

houses. As the group had access to data on Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 55


Figure 2. The winning team (Source: www.DTU.dk)

current energy sources for the municipality´s

open data literature shows that many of the

own buildings, they could present a solution that

solutions that have been developed in open data

could make the municipality more cost- and

innovation contests are not sustained, in the sense

energy efficient. While they did not have such

that they fail when it comes to scaling up and

detailed data for all the privately owned property

developing the solution for the market. A

in the municipality, they could calculate the

suggested reason for this is that the public sector

energy efficiency of solar panels based on the roof

participants that often plan and execute such

size and direction and then calculate estimated

contests do not have the capabilities or the funds

energy savings. Hence, the solution delivers

required to function as innovation incubators

openly available content, which can help the

and/or accelerators. While Lyngby-Taarbæk

citizens of Lyngby-Taarbæk municipality make

municipality has committed some funding to

informed decisions about how to influence their

further the development of the product for use in

own energy costs and eco-footprint. The solution

the municipality, the winning team‘s dream was

was simultaneously addressing the need for more

to develop the solution further and make it ready

cost efficient municipality, the need for improved

for general marketing. However, such develop-

citizen services and the ability to improve energy

ment requires f­ unding and support. The winning

efficiency­­­ and reduce CO2 emissions.

team founded a company, Picodat, and continue

One of the sponsors of this contest was

to develop their solution. They are currently

Climate-KIC, EU’s main climate innovation

working on a more general solution which can be

initiative. Climate-KIC has an acceleration

marketed for other municipalities in Denmark

program for entrepreneurs in Denmark and their

and hopefully later in Europe as well.

representative encouraged the winning team to apply for funding so they could develop their

Discussion and Findings

ideas further. This is a very important element for

In this section, I discuss some of the main findings

further development of data-driven products. The

that emerged from the case data analysis.

56 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figure 3. A screenshot of the winning solution. (Source: Picodat)

Different roles of stakeholders in the triple

minate knowledge to society. Accordingly, they like

helix model

to test some of their new ideas and methods with

The idea that the university, industry and govern-

real data and applications. DTU acted as the thought

ment are relatively equal interdependent and

leader or the driver behind the hackathon, mostly to

interacting institutional spheres is the basis of a

raise awareness of how data and data science could

triple helix society (Etzkowitz et al., 2007). However,

contribute to society. While the other partners (from

these spheres are not only autonomous but

the municipality and industry) did not previously

overlapping, not entirely distinct but not completely

have any structured data-related initiatives, they

merged either (ibid). Thus, I conceptualize three

were happy to go along with ideas and initiatives

stakeholder roles, moving away from the instituti-

leading in this direction. Thus, in this triple-helix

ons themselves and their roles in society, and

constellation, the academic stakeholder has the role

towards the individual stakeholders that represent

of Influencer.

these organizations within a triple helix collaborative initiative. Doing so, I propose, will provide an

Government

extra layer to the triple helix model, representing a

Lyngby-Taarbæk does not yet have an open data

value network of aligned interests, where roles can

strategy or a specific open data initiative, so they did

be switched or spheres can provide more than one

not function as influencers in this particular triple

role, which can explain how they overlap.

helix setup. However, the municipality was willing to experiment and provided access to data in the

Academia

hackathon and information on problems in need of

The academic partner in this particular triple helix

solving. Moreover, the role of Lyngby-­Taarbæk’s City

model was the stakeholder that originally came up

of Knowledge organization as a coordinator between

with the idea of a big data hackathon. The Universi-

the different stakeholders was very important for

ty’s organizational role is to do research and to disse-

keeping all the partners aligned. For this case, I Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 57


propose that government acted as the Facilitator as

ment data, and perceived the hackathon as a

their contribution was important for creating the

potential venue to raise awareness to this issue.

right environment, including aligning the incenti-

The stakeholders from the municipality were

ves of different participants.

interested in seeing a practical example that could demonstrate how their own (siloed) data

Industry

could be used more effectively, for increased

The presence of industry in the panel of judges in the

efficiency and improved services. The stakeholder

hackathon itself, as well as industry’s contribution to

from Climate-KIC was primarily motivated by the

winning prizes, clearly created an incentive for the

prospect of supporting solutions that could

students to participate. However, industry played a

contribute to reducing CO2. Other industry

larger role in the development of the final product.

sponsors were motivated by having access to

The panel of judges contributed important knowled-

future talent or present their products and/or

ge regarding commercial potential and scalability of

services. The participants in the hackathon were

the solutions presented. Moreover, Climate-KIC

mainly university students. While cash prizes and

ultimately provided the funding necessary to take the

just having fun were most likely strong motivatio-

idea to the next level, contributing to a sustainable so-

nal factors, some of them were motivated by the

lution6. I propose that industry played the role of

prospect of getting industry contacts and others

Implementer. Hjalmarsson et al. (2014) argue that only

by their wish to start their own company. The

a limited number of results from contests successfully

members of the City of Knowledge & Urban

reach the end user market. Having implementers on

Development were motivated by the potential of a

board increases the chance of promising ideas being

successful outcome, which could also promote

implemented in practice, thus, this role might have

Lyngby-Taarbæk as a Smart City.

been missing in some earlier open data hackathons

Interestingly, while different stakeholders

that did not provide sustainable solutions. Moreover,

exhibited different motivations and drivers, they

after a company is founded (in this case Picodat), the

collectively addressed a societal challenge through

participants in the hack­at­ hon become Implementers

the hackathon, i.e. climate change. As this wasn’t

themselves.

the primary goal of any of the stakeholders besides Climate-KIC, this finding is presented as evidence

Value network

of the usefulness of such a triple helix setup for

Through this case study I want to contribute to

creating an environment where complex societal

knowledge on how a constellation of heterogene-

challenges can addressed through synergies that

ous partners in a Smart City context can collecti-

arise when strengths of individual sectors are

vely generate new value from existing data. One of

combined. The City of Knowledge and Urban

the findings is that different stakeholders in a

Development has created an environment where

triple-helix constellation not only have different

the interests of different stakeholders with

roles, they are also differently motivated. The

different motivations are successfully aligned,

academic stakeholders were interested in

ultimately creating a win-win-win situation, which

stimulating interest in big data, in order to

made the resulting outcome possible. Ultimately,

further research, develop new methods and

all of the interviewed stakeholders shared the

contribute to knowledge. Moreover, they were

notion that the success of the winning team,

interested in getting access to more open govern-

Picodat, equaled their own success.

6 It might be controversial to include Climate-KIC in the Industry category as they are a PPP which include industry partners, academic partners and public/not-for-profit organizations, thus representing a triple helix setup on their own. However, as they are 50% business, 30% academic and 20% public and not-for-profit, they are included with industry. http://www.climate-kic.org/about/how-we-are-organised/

58 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Other findings related to use of open/big data

they utilized calculations that require some

Research has pointed out that there are five

in-depth knowledge of concepts such as energy

main dimensions that contribute to the state of

efficiency. Moreover, they used a variety of

openness of individual datasets (Jetzek, 2015).

available information to draw conclusions

These are: strategic dimension (availability),

(increase their knowledge) about the cost-efficien-

economic dimension (affordability), legal

cy of different approaches. The team needed to

dimension (reusability), conceptual dimension

pitch their solution to the committee of judges

(interoperability) and technical dimension (usabi-

and explain why it had potential to generate value

lity, accessibility and discoverability). In the case

for the municipality. Besides technical skills, they

of Picodat, the availability dimensions is quite

also needed, and made use of, business perspecti-

important as the team could find a number of

ves. It is encouraging to see how the students

available datasets online that were not provided

managed to capitalize on the diversity of their

by the Hackathon. The same goes for affordabili-

group and utilize this diversity in their efforts to

ty, it would have been a barrier if they had been

generate a solution that is both easy to under-

forced to pay for access to these data. As for the

stand but at the same time quite sophisticated.

other dimensions, Picodat did not comment on

Hopefully their solution will not only help reduce

open licenses or lack thereof. However, their

CO2 emissions in Lyngby-Taarbæk, but all around

dependence on open licenses might increase

Europe in the future. I personally hope that this

when they start to commercialize their solution.

will be one of many initiatives that will drive

Interoperability between heterogeneous datasets

more open access to an increasing number of data

did not seem to be a barrier in this case either, as

sources, which can later be used to address

all the different datasets were linked through

societal challenges through improved information

the geolocation, which functioned as a common

dissemination and scientific knowledge, as well as

identifier. The technical dimension did not seem

commercial products and services.

to be very important for this prototype work, although some of the data that were used were

Conclusion

discovered through web searches and therefore

The case of Picodat is a case of a successful

depended on the discoverability of the respective

hackathon that resulted in a new big data startup

data sources. Some of the data weren’t provided

company and a solution that offers a potential for

or available in very user friendly formats,

Lyngby-Taarbæk to increase their own energy

however this did not discourage Picodat from

efficiency and improve citizen service. Moreover,

using them. Admittedly, this sentiment might

the solution contributes to the important goal of

change when they try to scale up their solution

addressing climate change by reducing CO2

and make it more re-usable across different

emissions. The City of Knowledge and Urban

municipalities. Moreover, it should be noted that

Development managed to align the interests of

Picodat had direct access to the custodians of

different stakeholders through use of the triple-­

most of the data, which might not be the case

helix model, despite quite different motivations

when they develop the solution for other

and goals. In this case I have identified three

countries.

stakeholder roles for the triple helix model: The

Picodat made good use of all the talent in their

Influencer, the Facilitator and the Implementer.

team and their ability to use complex mathe­ma­

For future research, it could be interesting to

tical modelling is considered as an important

analyze and compare successful and unsuccessful

factor in the success of their solution. Moving

big data hackathons and search for existence of

beyond the mashing-up of different sets of data,

these different roles. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 59


REFERENCES •B  olici, R. & Mora, L. (2015). Urban regeneration in the digital era: how to develop smart city strategies in large European­­­ cities. TECHNE: Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, 5(2) [in press] • Dawes, S. S., Creswell, A. M., & Pardo, T. A. (2009). From “need to know” to “need to share”: Tangled problems, infor­mation boundaries, and the building of public sector knowledge networks. Public Administration Review, 69(3), 392-402. • Etzkowitz, H. (1993). The Triple Helix: A North American Inno­­vation Environment. Available: http://taisurpjoe.tripod.com/NIS-PDF/America3.html • Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (1995). The Triple ­Helix--University-industry-government relations: A labora­ tory for knowledge based economic development. Easst Review, 14(1), 14-19. • Etzkowitz, H., Dzisah, J., Ranga, M., & Zhou, C. (2007). The triple helix model of innovation: University-industry-government interaction. Asia Pacific Tech Monitor, 24(1), 14-23. • Jetzek, T. (2015). Managing Complexity across Multiple ­Dimensions of Liquid Open Data: The Case of the Danish ­Basic Data Program. Government Information Quarterly, in Press: doi:10.1016/j.giq.2015.11.003 • Kitchin, R. (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal, 79(1), 1-14. • Marceau, J. (2008). Introduction: Innovation in the city and innovative cities. Innovation: Management, Policy & ­Practice, 10(2-3), 136-145.

60 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015

•N  am, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011). Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times (pp. 282-291). ACM. • Murray, R., Caulier-Grice, J. & Mulgan, G. (2010). The Open Book of Social Innovation. Available: http://www.nesta. org.uk/publications/open-book-socialinnovation • OECD: Fostering Innovation to Address Social Challenges. Workshop Proceedings (2011), http://www.oecd.org/sti/ inno/47861327.pdf • Ranga, M., & Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Triple Helix systems: an analytical framework for innovation policy and practice in the Knowledge Society. Industry and Higher Education, 27(4), 237-262. • Weber, E. P., & Khademian, A. M. (2008). Wicked pro­ blems, knowledge challenges, and collaborative capacity builders in network settings. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 334-349. Conducted interviews • Interview 1: CEO, Picodat • Interview 2: Project Manager, Lyngby-Taarbæk City of • Knowledge and Urban Development • Interview 3: Entrepreneurship Lead, Climate KIC • Interview 4: CIO, Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality • Interview 5: Associate Professor, DTU (Follow-up also ­included a professor at DTU)


Smart Cities Around The World

Maria Skou Innovation Centre Denmark in Seoul Ministry of Foreign Affairs marisk@um.dk

Nicklas EchsnerRasmussen Innovation Centre Denmark in Seoul, University of Copenhagen, nicech@um.dk.

Smart Cities are much more than fast internet connection, big data, and interlinked applications. The key is to set the human – both as a user and a citizen – at the core of the smart solutions, and keep the local context firmly in mind in order to gain most from the technology. In order to unleash the potential of Smart Cities in Denmark, it is obvious to learn from experiences from abroad in relation to what it means to be a smart and digital city, and where the synergies with Danish strongholds are to be found. The Innovation Centre Denmark is located in six of the biggest and most technology-oriented mega hubs in the world: Silicon Valley, Shanghai, Munich, Sao Paolo, New Delhi and Seoul. We have spent some time investigating how smart cities develop, which policies are implemented and who the major stakeholders are. This article outlines some trends and policies taking a point of departure in North American, South Korean and ­German projects and decisions. Keywords: Smart City, Spatial Data, Innovation, ICT, Infrastructure, Energy Efficiency, Government, Policies, U-city

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 61


Introduction

hosting 325 headquarters of IoT companies,

Just like cities are not made up by the bricks but by

smaller start-ups as well as enormous tech

its inhabitants, Smart Cities are much more than

companies such as Cisco, Google, Apple and Intel.

fast internet connection, big data, and interlinked

Forecasts predict that no less than 75 billion IoT

applications. The key is to set the human – both as

units will be connected in 2020, pushing the

a user and citizen – at the core of the smart

development of city 2integration . The decreasing

solutions, and keep the local context firmly in

price of sensors as well as improved wireless and

mind in order to gain most from the technology.

cloud-based solutions has let the technologies

Smart Cities has been a buzzword for a number

diffuse into people’s everyday lives.

of years, and it is stated to contain endless

In terms of innovation capability and technolo-

opportunities for growth and welfare. Although

gical research, the U.S. is clearly the nation

full-scale Smart Cities and real market opportuniti-

spearheading global R&D and innovation. The

es are only emerging slowly, it is an area that not

development is driven primarily by the private

only Denmark seeks to exploit and benefit from; it

sector, which underlines the key characteristic

is also an area within which Denmark has better

behind the American leading position: Innovation

conditions for excelling than most other countries.

has been achieved on the background of beneficial

In order to unleash the Danish potential,

legislation enabling conducive public-private

develop, and capitalize from smart city technolo-

partnerships and a thriving entrepreneurial

gies­it is paramount that we understand how the

community. Nowhere is this more evident than in

rest of the world positions itself in relation to what

Silicon Valley.

it means to be a smart and digital city, and where

At the same time, however, the greater San

the synergies with Danish strongholds are to be

Francisco area is also the best example of the

found.

paradox that the US presents us with. New

The Innovation Centre Denmark is located in six

technologies, smart solutions, and innovative

of the biggest and most technology-oriented mega

business models are abundant, but Smart City

hubs in the world: Silicon Valley, Shanghai,

infrastructures are conspicuously few. In terms of

Munich, Sao Paolo, New Delhi and Seoul. We have

the ICT infrastructure, only 7,7 % of the population

spent some time investigating how smart cities

in the US has optical fiber internet (the fastest and

develop, which policies are implemented and who

highest quality available), and San Francisco ranks

the major stakeholders are. This article will outline

a low number 208 out of 408 cities in terms of city ­

some trends and policies taking a point of

3

departure in American, South Korean and German projects and decisions.

connectivity . The potential has been recognized by the

Obama administration in the latest Smart Cities Initiative, released in September 2015, wherein

Case 1: USA

“the opportunity to be a global leader” is acknow-

In many ways the US is the absolute leader within

ledged. In terms of federal spending, $ 45 million is

the field of smart cities technologies. One of the

allocated to new grants and proposed investments

most prominent trends is using Internet of Things

to build a research infrastructure for Smart Cities

(IoT) as the next level in smart cities development.

by the National Science Foundation and National

1

According to IoT Analytics seven of the top-10

Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as an

Internet of Things (IoT) cities in the world are

additional total of $ 115 million to find new

located in the US, with San Francisco as no. 1

solutions to public policy challenges. Also,

http://iot-analytics.com/top-15-internet-of-things-cities/ http://www.slideshare.net/GridPoint 3 http://onesanfrancisco.org/wp-content/uploads/Agenda-Item-4-DT-Connectivity-Presentation-Revised.pdf 1 2

62 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figure 1. The World’s Leading IoT hubs

initiatives and policies including investment grants

impeccable ICT infrastructure. Ultra-fast LTE

dedicated to Smart Grid projects totaling $ 3.4

network (4G) is accessible in most of South Korea,

billion have been launched by the current admini-

making it the most connected country in the

stration. The grants follow an industry matching

world. There is a 100 % LTE penetration rate in

model, meaning that every private investment

Seoul with 831 free wi-fi zones provided by the

made will be matched by federal grants. This is an

local government, and one of the major banks in

unparalleled investment scheme and one that

South Korea has funded mobile phone chargers at

underlines the fact that the current government

these Wi-Fi spots, so everyone can access the

wishes to maintain and develop the American

internet and get their phones charged at designa-

leading position within smart cities. As the

ted spots in the city. In January 2014, the South

U.S.-model represents the most market driven

Korean government announced that it will

approach to smart cities, it will be of huge interest

upgrade the country’s wireless network to 5G by

to see what solutions and business models will be

2020 making downloads about 1,000 times faster

developed in the coming years, both in large

than with the current LTE (4G) network. Moreover,

corporations as well as in small and medium sized

in September 2014, the European Union and South

companies. This will have a global impact on the

Korea agreed to cooperate on developing ultra-fast

perception and development of smart cities.

fifth-generation wireless communications networks, i.e. 5G. The agreement covers govern-

Case 2: South Korea

ment, research and educational institutes and

Since 2003, South Korea has retained its top spot in

private companies, and aims to forge a consensus

the United Nations E-Government Development

on key functionalities for the new standard by the

Index, which among other things is due to its

end of 2015. The big telecommunications compaPerspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 63


U-City

Smart City

Purpose

Solutions to urban problems, improvement of quality of life, job creation, use of data, system efficiency

Solutions to urban problems, improvement of quality of life, job creation, low-cost and high efficient space

Concept

Physical capital ICT centric Digital city

Physical + social capital Digital + knowledge city Intelligent city

Target

New towns System integration basis Service system

Old & new towns Solution basis Smart grid

Agent

Central and local governments

Private firms (Cisco, IBM, etc.), institutions and universities

Means

Government driven U-city world forum U-city road show

Global city alliances Governments, academia, NGO, City protocol society

Tabel 1. The different U-city and Smart City concepts

4

Source: Korean Planning Association

nies­and the South Korean government agreed on a

national development and national safety measu-

roll-out plan for 5G network starting from 2017.

res. Additionally, the second plan seeks to support

Thus, South Korea will maintain its technological

private companies in developing U-city technologi-

front runner status and prepare for future ICT

es and promoting overseas business through

functionalities, also in the smart cities’ area.

international cooperation. Target countries are

Unlike the smart city concept, which originated

among others Mongolia and Malaysia.

in Western countries, the South Korean U-city

The most prominent U-city example is the

(Ubiquitous City) is driven by establishment of

creation of the U-city Project in the Incheon Free

ubiquitous ICT systems in new towns mostly

Economic Zone (“IFEZ”), also called New Songdo

through government/local government top-down

City. The gross area is total 209 km2 including

measures; Smart city is a concept centered around

Songdo, Yeongjong and Cheongra, which are all

physical, intellectual and social capital in existing

areas reclaimed from the shallow waters of the

cities (see table below). This implies that the South

Yellow Sea. Each area has a different development

Korean central government and local governments

concept, such as international business and

are the main drivers to U-cities development in

high-tech industry for Songdo, logistics, tourism

South Korea.

and leisure for Yeongjong, and international

The South Korean Government established a

finance and sport leisure for Cheongra. IFEZ is the

first phase of the U-city plan from 2009 to 2013,

leading U-city project and runs from 2006- 2020

and a second phase plan is running from 2014 to

with a budget of approximately $ 490 million. The

5

New Songdo City is built to be smart from the

2018. The first plan focused on setting up the

basic infra-structure for U-city, the second plan is

beginning. A key element is the Operations Centre

trying to combine U-city with various national

which manages a large number of wireless CCTV’s

agendas such as urban regeneration, balanced

to monitor and overview the city in terms of for

4 5

http://cityprotocol.org/ Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation

64 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


Figure 2. Infrastructure in Seoul, Korea

instance safety and security (disaster, fire and crime), traffic and transportation information. Many other U-city projects in Korea are heavily

results in uncertainty of on-going projects. The viability of the Korean U-city concept will be tested in the coming years with the emerging IoT

focused on the traffic sector. Bus information

technologies, the focus on healthy living and

service applications are common and are created

citizens, as well as the efforts to export to countries

via using open data. A well-known example is the

where lack of ICT infrastructure is a key factor.

Daum Kakao’s taxi app Kakao Taxi, which has

Most importantly, however, is Korea’s ability to

proven to become the ‘Korean Uber’. Kakao Taxi

keep being the main developer of future ICT

finds the fastest available cab based on the

infrastructure, which is widely considered to be

distance, traffic, and ETA. After identification, it

the main competitive advantage of the Korean

sends the driver’s name, photo, phone number and

U-city concept.

car information to the passenger. The passenger can also send notification messages to friends

Case 3: Germany

telling the ride information. As the ride is finished,

In Germany, the main element of smart cities is

both the passenger and the driver can rank their

sustainable growth and transportation, and how

service and experience. In the near future, Daum

smart solutions can improve energy management

Kakao is planning on adding its payment service

and achieve energy-efficiency. The Federal govern-

Kakao Pay or Bank-Wallet Kakao to Kakao Taxi.

ment launched the 2010-plan to phase out nuclear

The challenge with the Korean U-city concept is

power, which puts heavy emphasis on developing

that it is mainly driven by the government. Several

renewable energy technologies as well as energy-ef-

Korean ministries are involved in the national

ficient solutions. Grounded in historical reasons,

U-city scheme and they sometimes fail to coordina-

Germany has a huge interest in privacy and data

te their planning of policies and budgets. Moreover,

protection – perhaps to the furthest extent in the

U-city projects are highly up to political decisi-

world. Hence, this is a prerequisite for the develop-

on-making, thus a possible change of government

ment. Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 65


Figure 3. Map of Smart cities and energy efficient regions

Thus, ”Efficient Energy Use” plays a crucial role

counties, municipalities, regional associations and

in Germany’s smart cities’ conceptualization. Many

cities in Germany that are following this goal. The

municipalities and regions in Germany have set

project supports committed actors in the regions

the goal of Renewable Energy Self-sufficiency

through communication, transfer and networking

(RESS). Main drivers are Munich, Berlin, Hamburg,

services. In addition, the contest ”Energy-Efficient

and Mannheim. The Federal Ministry of Economics

City” of the Federal Ministry of Education and

and Energy therefore promotes research on energy

Research aims at increasing the target energy

efficient cities and energy efficient heating and

efficiency in cities and municipalities geared

cooling networks. In addition to the energetic

towards the climate protection targets of the

optimization of individual buildings, the aim of

Federal Government and the relevant municipal

raising energy efficiency depends crucially on a

structures and functions.

comprehensive approach to urban areas as well as

“Elektromobilität” (e-cars) is another major

to local and district heating networks. This

focus area for the German government. It is

potential is improved significantly via intelligent

expected that Germany will have one million

use and networking of innovative technologies

e-vehicles by 2020 and 6 million in 2030, meaning

with research and pilot projects.

that Germany will be a leading provider and a

Germany launched a project called “100 %

leading market for electric mobility by 2020.

Erneuerbare-Energie-Regionen”. This project

Germany had 24,000 electric vehicles on its roads

identifies and monitors regions, municipalities

in 2014. The Federal Ministry of Transport,

and cities that want to convert their future energy

Building and Urban Affairs has implemented a

supply entirely to renewable energy. At present,

program named “Electro-mobility model regions”

there are already more than one hundred and forty

in Germany. The electric mobility scheme is

6

https://us.drive-now.com/#

66 • Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015


financially supported in eight German metropoli-

only vaguely opened the black box that the concept

tan regions and the funding comes from funds

of Smart Cities constitutes. However, we see some

from an economic stimulus package. Another

distinct characteristics of the continents embodied

aspect of smart transportation and ‘Elektromobi-

by the three countries.

lität’ is the DriveNow software 6program . The

While the U.S. is heavily favoring the involve-

connected car integration enhances the consumer

ment of the private sector in development of smart

experience by connecting the DriveNow users’ daily

cities, the South Korean U-city approach is much

needs across content categories as well as providing

more top-down and government controlled.

access to real-time information and a personalized

Expanding the view to include a wider range of

view of their surroundings. This interactive

Asian countries one would find that South Korea is

solution dovetails with BMW’s overarching goal to

actually very liberal compared to China or Japan.

become the leading provider of electric mobility.

Germany also has a strong government

The program received recognition from media

involvement in Smart City initiatives but with a

outlets including Wired.

specific aim to reduce energy consumption and

On the R&D side, the research foundation

generate a shift from fossil fuels to renewables. A

Fraunhofer has launched the Fraunhofer Morgen-

bold strategy backed by the industry and research

stadt, which is a large-scale project addressing the

institutions paving the way for many comprehensi-

various challenges and opportunities of Smart Cities.

ve solutions with a potential global impact. The

The Morgenstadt program explores how district-level,

article has furthermore highlighted the difference

municipal and regional demonstration and innovati-

between an infrastructure and application focus.

on projects, which integrate clean technologies with

Again, this is a distinction that would stand out

business models, can result in Cities of the Future

even more if we include for instance India or

with net-zero emissions, minimal waste and

Brazil, where basic infrastructure still is a major

7

maximum quality of life for its citizens .

challenge. In a country such as the U.S. the ICT

In Munich, the “Smart Cities and Communities

backbone is still not aligned between urban and

solutions integrating energy, transport, ICT sectors

remote rural areas, whereas South Korea has an

through lighthouse (large scale demonstration

impeccable infrastructure and a strong focus on

– first of the kind) projects” started in 2014-2015.

functionality and technical systems, and now needs

The total budget for the projects is approximately €

to shift their priorities and put the user at the core.

200 million. The plan stems from the Munich City

This is where the Danish focus on user-friendliness

Council decision “Climate Protection Program

and human utility comes into the picture. Danish

2013”, which includes more than 60 individual

smart city solutions are unique and the leading

measures in eight actions fields. The scope is to

principle seems to be that the more inclusive we can

identify, develop and deploy replicable, balanced

make our solutions the better they will fare.

and integrated solutions in the energy, transportati-

This is something valuable that Danish busines-

on sectors, and ICT actions through partnerships

ses, municipalities and researchers can bring to the

between municipalities and industries. The projects

table, if they want to collaborate internationally.

will be lighthouse projects as identified by the Com-

Likewise, the private initiative, the strong strategic

munication on Smart Cities and 8Communities .

aims and the focus on ICT systems from the three countries described are strongholds that also Danish

Conclusion

partners could learn from. The combination and

This brief presentation of policies and trends has

innovation of smart cities has only just begun.

7 8

http://www.morgenstadt.de/en.html http://www.muenchen.de/rathaus/Stadtverwaltung/Referat-fuer-Gesundheit-und-Umwelt/Klimaschutz_und_Energie/Klimaschutzstrategie/IHKM.html

Perspektiv nr. 25 • 2015 • 67


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Perspektiv 25  

Smart City

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