Building disaster resilience is everybodyâ€™s business
South Africa as seen from the International Space Station (Image: NASA)
Official Journal: Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa
Volume 1 No 3
International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014
South Africa as seen from the International
Space Station (Image: NASA)
International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014
DMISA President's message
resilient future - by Daniel Brink
Dr Johan A Minnie
DMISA Councillor: Journal 3
Schalk W Carstens
DMISA Council 4
Disaster Management Institute of Southern
Africa (DMISA) councillors: 2014 to 2016
Aurecon â€“ leading the way into a
Upcoming events 31
Disaster and risk reduction events
across the globe DMISA office 32
World Conference adopts new international
framework for disaster risk reduction after marathon negotiations 7
New address for NDMC
Santam partnership for risk and resilience
World Meteorological Congress agrees
priorities for 2016-2019 12
Cameroon government implements disaster
management strategies DMISA Gold Commendation 14
Gold Commendation: Geoff Laskey
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) annual conference 16
The Disaster Management Institute of
Southern Africa (DMISA) annual conference 21
DMISA evening function
Disaster management and river basin organisations 22
Disaster management and river basin
organisations - by Dr Johan Minnie 6th SADC River Basin Organisation (RBO) workshop 25
Strengthening regional cooperation and
resilience in water related disasters
Disaster Management | 1
DMISA President's message the necessary momentum. Real progress has been made and I hope to report back in detail on this initiative at our Annual General Meeting (AGM) in September. I have the distinct feeling that we will have reason for celebration at that meeting.
DMISA President Dr Johan A Minnie Deputy President Bafana Mazibuko Councillor: Portfolio - Journal Schalk W Carstens Disaster Management Journal Editor Lee Raath-Brownie firstname.lastname@example.org Cell 082 371 0190 Journalist Taryn Champion email@example.com Cell 071 641 3884 Advertising firstname.lastname@example.org Cell 071 641 3884 Design and layout Marc Raath email@example.com Finance Noddie Knibbs firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Vicki Jacob email@example.com Secretary Vicki Jacob Administration Mirriam Moroane Contributions Dr Johan A Minnie Daniel Brink Publisher Lee Raath-Brownie FIRE AND RESCUE INTERNATIONAL Tel 011 452 3135/6 Fax 086 671 6920 Box 8299 Greenstone 1616 www.fireandrescue.co Subscriptions 6 editions per annum South Africa R145 per annum incl VAT Non-subscribers R25 incl VAT per issue Southern Africa (airmail) R265 per annum International (airmail) R350 per annum Copyright All rights reserved 2
Dr Johan A Minnie
t is an honour to write a contribution to the Disaster Management Journal as the Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) President and I do so with heartfelt thanks to all who have gone before me, past presidents of DMISA who have made immense contributions to the disaster management profession, and still continue to do so. A specific word of thanks to a true lady, the immediate past president, Dr Mal Reddy, for her leadership and insightful contributions during her term of office from 2012 to 2014. There will be more from Mal elsewhere in this Journal because this issue reports on DMISA’s 2014 conference in Umhlanga, eThekwini, which was hosted by Mal. This issue also precedes DMISA’s Disaster Risk Reduction 2015, which will be held in Hartenbos from 9 to 10 September 2015. Due to the fact that DMISA is a non-profit professional association for disaster management practitioners, our hosting of the biggest annual disaster management conference in South Africa is our premier fundraising event and we are hoping for a very successful conference that will enable DMISA to maintain and expand its efforts to support the disaster management profession. Currently, the main focus of that support is the process of professionalisation that DMISA is driving. Intense efforts have gone into this process and it has been expensive but rewarding. I have to salute the efforts of our executive committee and especially Owen Becker and Mal Reddy, whose early efforts along with the administrator, Karin Muller and DMISA councillor Erika Swart, put us on the right track in our interactions with South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). The past and present chairpersons of the executive committee (EXCO), Andre van Rensburg and Pat Adams, have both recognised the importance of this process and provided
2015 will be a milestone year signifying the end of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005 – 2015 and the transition to a new international disaster risk reduction and resilience framework for the period 2015 – 2025. This framework emanates from the March 2015 Third International Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai, Japan. Our conference will be the first opportunity for southern Africa’s disaster management practitioners to collectively engage with this new international framework and its impact on disaster risk reduction practice in the next decade. We look forward to collaborating closely with others in southern Africa as well as the UNISDR and its partner organisations to translate the Sendai imperatives into action that builds resilience and sustainability. DMISA has been to Hartenbos before, in 2005 and 2006 and we have fond memories of the town and its people. It is here that DMISA presented the freshly heraldically registered Disaster Management Emblem to the National Department of Provincial and Local Government in 2005 for use by all disaster management bodies and it is here that we first discussed the Hyogo Framework 2005 - 2015. It is therefore fitting that we will be back in Hartenbos at the close of the Hyogo Framework period to reflect on the past ten years and look ahead at the challenges we will be facing in disaster risk reduction in the next decade to 2025. DMISA’s goal of supporting the discipline does not allow the Institute to just live from one conference to the next and that is one of the reasons for this publication. We believe this journal is an important learning and networking tool for disaster management colleagues and we hope to expand it over time. Congratulations to Schalk Carstens and our publisher Lee Raath-Brownie for a solid, professional publication with large helpings of food for thought as well as interesting news. It is my sincere hope that you, as reader, will find valuable information in this Journal that will help you with your everyday responsibilities and concerns but will also inspire you to take on bigger challenges with enthusiasm and innovative thinking. Do good, do it good, have good fun while doing good. Dr Johan A Minnie President, DMISA Volume 1
DMISA Councilor: Journal
he Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) is now in the beginning of a new two year cycle. In September 2014, a new council was elected that will have to lead the disaster management fraternity through a very important new era in the Institute’s existence. Dr Johan Minnie was elected as the new president and he will be assisted by Bafana Masibuku as the deputy president. Pat Adam’s portfolio has now changed to that of chairperson of the executive committee (EXCO). These highly competent gentlemen have the huge task and responsibility on their shoulders, to lead the team of elected executive committee-, proportional- as well the national elected councillors into a new era. Congratulations and good luck to Dr Minnie and his team of councillors, who have the very important task of ensuring that, DMISA as an Institute becomes a recognised professional body. If this process is successful, disaster management officials, who are practising in the field of disaster management in South Africa, will then, for the very first time, be able to register as practitioners. It has taken DMISA more than five years to reach this final phase of professionalisation. The professionalisation of disaster management will hopefully result in ensuring that all practitioners employed in the field of disaster management have the required skills, knowledge and practical experience. It will also ensure that only practitioners with the appropriate qualification be appointed in vacant disaster management posts in all three spheres of government. In due course, the disaster management practitioner shall have the same type of professional recognition as medical practitioners with their registration through the Medical Council, nurses as registered through the Nursing Council as well as employees in the security fraternity that has to register at the Security Board. Hopefully, the outcome of this professionalisation process will ensure that only the registered disaster management officials will be able to apply for the appointment as the head of disaster centres on national, provincial and municipal level and that they ultimately have to comply with the necessary minimum requirements, as stipulated by DMISA in its capacity as the professional body for disaster management in South Africa.
On 17 and 18 September 2014, DMISA successfully hosted its annual conference at the Sibaya Lodge Conference Centre in Umhlanga Rocks, Kwazulu-Natal. This event was sponsored by South African Weather Service and the EThekwini Municipality. The conference was attended by 269 delegates and a total of 19 speakers delivered papers. Ten exhibitors had the opportunity to promote and market their organisation/institution’s products at the conference and acknowledgement has to be given to these organisations for supporting DMISA on an annual basis. The organisations are as follows: University of the Free State - DIMTEC, Disaster Management Solutions (DMS), Sysman, SRK, South African Weather Service, The National Disaster Management Centre, UNISA, WITS, Santam and Aurecon. Most of the content of this publication will focus on the conference. I want to mention that a total of 15 draft conference resolutions were derived from the discussion at the conference, which in due course would be made available on the DMISA website. Some of these resolutions are deemed very important and informative for practitioners have been highlighted as follows: - “The conference urges the (NDMC) National Disaster Management Centre to promulgate regulations compelling developers to conduct Risk Assessments and implement Risk Reduction measures.” - “All efforts should be made to streamline and standardise the state of Disaster classification and related process in South Africa and that standardised guidelines and templates be developed by the NDMC to facilitate the speedy and streamlined state of Disaster classification process.” - “Disaster Risk Reduction is the central pillar of effective disaster risk resilient communities” and “The conference urges all stakeholders to form partnerships across many sectors and to adopt a shared approach towards building disaster resilient communities.” - “All organs of state must nominate and evaluate planned implementation according to the Disaster Management Act to develop mature and effective Disaster Management Plans in a more focussed and planned way to reach a level 3 plan.” By perusing the above mentioned 2014 (draft) conference resolutions, it has to be noted that some of the delegates who attended the conference, have shown their concern as well as an urgency regarding the lack of implementation
Schalk Carstens of the disaster management legal requirements. These resolutions have again highlighted the importance of all spheres of government to take up the their disaster management responsibilities as required by legislation and maybe even more important, that all relevant institutions, which have been mandated through the same legislation, to execute their task as stipulated and ultimately, through their activities, to ensure that safe and disaster resilient communities are established throughout southern Africa. In some of my editorial comments in previous publications, I have mentioned the importance of skilled practitioners, the necessity of the provision of disaster management facilities, mechanisms and systems on national, provincial and municipal level. It is of vital importance that the Disaster Management function takes up its rightful place within all the relevant governmental structures, it is functioning within. Hopefully the proposed amendments to the Disaster Management Act as well as DMISA’s endeavour to become a professional organisation would provide some urgency to these processes. Herewith, I wish to convey my sincere appreciation to all whom have contributed toward this edition as well as hearty thanks for our publisher Lee Raath-Brownie, who is making it possible for DMISA to have its own publication platform. Without Lee’s continued support and hard work, this publication would not be possible. To all our members and readers, please submit your articles. Thanks also to all our sponsors as well as members for your continued support. Disaster Management | 3
Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) Council
Councillors: 2014 to 2016 The DMISA Council at the 2014 DMISA conference in Umhlanga DMISA executive committee (EXCO) President: Johan A Minnie Deputy-president: Bafana Mazibuko Immediate past president: Maliga (Mal) Reddy DMISA executive committee - Chairperson: Pat Adams EXCO members Schalk W Carstens - Portfolio: Regional matters and journal production Owen H Becker - Portfolio: Training, skills development, standardisation and tours Mduduzi Nxumalo - Portfolio: Equity, recruitment and website management DMISA councillors Councillor Portfolio AnĂ¨ Bruwer Protocol, legislation and policy writing Anthony R Kesten Finance and administration ES (Shadi) Tsebe Marketing, international relations, public relations and media liaison Lerato M Lehihi Marketing, international relations, public relations and media liaison Sandro L Robbertze Equity, recruitment and website management Hannes Steyn Regional matters and journal production Sifiso Ngubane Regional matters and journal production Frans J Heystek Equity, recruitment and website management Gideon Judeel Training, skills development, standards and tours Johannes A Belle Regional matters and journal production Gerhard Otto Professionalisation of DMISA, partnership with SALGA, conference 2015 and sponsorship Nereema Solomons Finance and administration Andre J van Rensburg Protocol, legislation and policy writing Vonroy de Beer Marketing, international relations, public relations and media liaison Vincent Ngubane Finance and administration Dr Elretha Louw Professionalisation of DMISA, partnership with SALGA, conference 2015 and sponsorship BF (Erica) Swart Training, skills development, standards and tours Solomon S Losabe Equity, recruitment and website management Lunga Mnxulwa Training, skills development, standards and tours Tshepo E Motlhale Protocol, legislation and policy writing Institute administrator: Karin Muller 4
Military and civilian collaboration in African disaster response and recovery missions
6 – 7 July 2015 Pretoria | South Africa
Natural, man-made and technological disasters are an ever present threat. Disaster Management Africa (DMA) will be co-located with Land Forces Africa and provide a separate conference track dedicated to Disaster Management, specifically regarding military and civil collaboration in African response and recovery missions. With the support of our endorsing partner - the South African Military Health Service – DMA will feature case studies about SANDF Disaster Relief operations, the successes and challenges relating to cross border disaster relief, interoperability, multinational and multiagency operations and PPPs. The conference offers a unique learning experience, networking prospects, access to new vendors and suppliers and the opportunity to present yourself as an expert in your field.
Expert speakers on the topic of disaster management include:
Visit the exhibition
Mr Ken Terry, National Disaster Management Centre, Republic of South Africa
Mr Colin Deiner, Chief Director: Disaster Management and Fire/Rescue Services Western Cape Government
Mr Narciso Rosa-Berlanga, Emergency Preparedness and Response Unit, UNOCHA, Southern Africa
Colonel Theo Ligthelm, South African Military Health Service, Republic of South Africa
Brigadier Leonie Ras, Forensic Identification, South African Police Service & Chairman Interpol Victim Identification Workgroup, Republic of South Africa
Lt Col Rob Bedford, Institute for Aviation Medicine
Lt Colonel Danie Wehl, South African Military Health Service
Disaster Management Africa also forms part of the Land Forces Africa exhibition where you can view and test equipment such as: Hazmat, detection systems, medical services, field medical facilities, hospital equipment and decontamination units See the latest products and technologies, network with other visitors, talk to product experts and technical staff and source new suppliers and business partners. Exhibition entrance is free – preregistration at www.landforcesafrica is required. Right of admission reserved
SEATS FOR THE CONFERENCE ARE LIMITED AND AVAILABLE ON A FIRST COME FIRST SERVE BASIS. For more information or to register, contact Carly Ballan on +27 21 700 3540 or Stephan Herman on +27 21 700 3598. Endorsed by:
www.landforcesafrica.com/dmac for more information
adopts new international framework for disaster risk reduction after marathon negotiations
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
he Sendai Framework was adopted by United Nations (UN) Member States on 18 March 2015 at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Representatives from 187 UN member States adopted the first major agreement of the Post-2015 development agenda, a far reaching new framework for disaster risk reduction with seven targets and four priorities for action. The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognises that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders. It aims for the following outcome: The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 20152030 (Sendai Framework) is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action. The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. It is the outcome of stakeholder consultations initiated in March 2012 and inter-governmental negotiations held from July 2014 to March 2015, which were supported by the UNISDR upon the request of the UN General Assembly. Conference president, Eriko Yamatani, Minister of State for Disaster Management, announced agreement on the text, the 6
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 – the new international framework for disaster risk reduction, following a marathon final round of negotiations which went on for over 30 hours. Margareta Wahlström, the secretary-general’s special representative for Disaster Risk Reduction and the head of the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, said: “The adoption of this new framework for disaster risk reduction opens a major new chapter in sustainable development as it outlines clear targets and priorities for action which will lead to a substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health. “Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction over the next 15 years will require strong commitment and political leadership and will be vital to the achievement of future agreements on sustainable development goals and climate later this year. As the UN Secretary-General said here on the opening day, sustainability starts in Sendai.” The framework outlines seven global targets to be achieved over the next 15 years: a substantial reduction in global disaster mortality; a substantial reduction in numbers of affected people; a reduction in economic losses in relation to global GDP; substantial reduction in disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, including health and education facilities; an increase in the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020; enhanced international cooperation; and increased access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments. Conference president Yamatani, said: “Japan’s special relationship with the global disaster risk reduction community has been strengthened by the outcome of this World Volume 1
News Conference. Successful implementation of this new framework will mean a reduction of existing levels of disaster risk and avoidance of the creation of new risk.” Conference main committee co-chair, Ambassador Päivi Kairamo from Finland, said: “Delegates have taken into account the experience gained through implementation of the current Hyogo Framework for Action. We have agreed on four priorities for action focussed on a better understanding of risk, strengthened disaster risk governance and more investment. “A final priority calls for more effective disaster preparedness and embedding the ‘build back better’ principle into recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. These will be the four points of the DRR compass for the next 15 years.” Her fellow co-chair, Ambassador, Thani Thongphakdi from Thailand, said: “I would like to thank all those who have persevered over these last five days to deliver a framework that will guide disaster risk reduction for the next 15 years.” The seven global targets (a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100 000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015. (b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100 000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015. (c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030. (d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030. (e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020. (f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030. (g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multihazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon joins the Children and Youth Forum at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai The growth of disaster risk means there is a need to strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, and ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. The recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures. The World Conference was attended by over 6 500 participants including 2 800 government representatives from 187 governments. The Public Forum had 143 000 visitors over the five days of the conference making it one of the largest UN gatherings ever held in Japan.
New address for NDMC
The four priorities for action Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk Disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be used for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response. Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership. Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment. Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction Volume 1
The National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) has relocated. The new address is: NDMC 1303 Heuwel Avenue, Riverside Park Letaba House Centurion Pretoria Tel: (012) 848 4600 Fax: (012) 334 0810 www.ndmc.gov.za
Disaster Management | 7
Santam partnership for risk and resilience
that the need for fire fighting equipment and training would be prioritised within the first phase of the BAAM programme. Five municipalities were selected based on their vulnerability levels related to government requirements and the potential impact on Santam in terms of fire, flood and storm surge hazards. During 2013, Santam’s BAAM sponsorship delivered fire fighting equipment and training to the value of R2,3 million to these municipalities. Partnership with the Mayors of the five adopted BAAM municipalities
with the University of Cape Town (UCT), the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the World Wildlife Fund South Africa (WWF-SA) to better understand how climate change impacts local communities. The study focussed on the climate risks and levels of resilience within the Eden District Municipality in the Western Cape. Outcomes from the study enabled Santam to identify the key drivers of climate change risks, namely fire, alien invasive plants and degraded coastal areas and to identify and fund projects to address these risks.
The success of Santam’s BAAM initiative has been publicly recognised at the 2014 Presidential Local Government Summit, where President Jacob Zuma and Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs Minister, Pravin Gordhan, acknowledged Santam’s efforts to work with government to mitigate rising systemic risk and to assist in strengthening the capacity of local municipalities through BAAM. Santam has now expanded the programme to include 10 further district municipalities throughout South Africa, together comprising 54 local municipalities, within a second phase of work. The objective of the second phase is to understand the drivers of flooding, evaluate the capacity of the municipalities and communities to deal with the impact of floods effectively and propose recommendations to assist in dealing with these events more effectively.
To date, most of these projects have focussed on building climate resilient communities through better equipping and empowering municipalities to deal with weather related disasters. Through the Business-Adopt-a-Municipality (BAAM) initiative, Santam partnered with the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) and the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) to determine critical needs required for improving municipal disaster risk management. After consultation with numerous municipalities, the parties agreed
In addressing climate change risks going forward, Santam has expanded its disaster risk management approach to a more holistic shared risk management approach that aims to address climate change risks through partnerships with a wider range of stakeholders including business, land owners and local government. Santam has launched this approach at the end of 2014 through partnering with Four Returns, Livinglands and GIZ to undertake an ecosystem restoration programme in the catchment areas that provide water to Port Elizabeth.
Partnership Agreement signed between Santam, SALGA and COGTA
outh African organisations are increasingly realising the importance of adapting to a continually changing market landscape and associated risks, including climate change. Santam’s innovative approach in this regard is an excellent example of how building climate change resilience can create shared value for business, communities and government. Santam noticed an increase in insurance claims, associated with extreme weather events such as fires, flooding, and storm surges. Further to this, the weather-related losses grew faster than insurance penetration. This proved to be a huge business challenge in an already constrained industry. Instead of responding through increasing insurance premiums, which would increase pressure on the availability and affordability of insurance and shift greater risk exposure onto governments and individuals, Santam chose a more pragmatic approach. They realised that a solution lay in better understanding the impact of climate change on local communities. As such, in 2009, Santam partnered
Through the BAAM initiative, Santam has also sponsored an Early Warning Disaster (EWD) system and polycom (electronic sign board) for the Eden Municipality. The system aims to assist with the transmission of warnings of severe weather conditions and provide disaster related notifications. The polycom is linked to the Eden Disaster Management Centre in George and provides local businesses and communities with access to weather-related emergency message alerts in English, Afrikaans and isiXhosa.
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Congress agrees priorities for 2016-2019 prevention. Increased urbanisation, especially in densely populated coastal areas, is exposing more people to multiple risks, including air pollution. Environmental hazards like space weather, volcanic ash and sand and dust storms also have considerable potential to cause economic losses because of the disruption to communications and transport.
Petteri Taalas, director-general of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and Rolf Brennerfelt, director-general, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)
he seventeenth World Meteorological Congress (Cg 17) met from 25 May to 12 June 2015 in Geneva, Switzerland. The Congress discussed the strategic role of WMO and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in the post-2015 new global agenda on sustainable development and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. It also shaped WMO’s contribution to the UN climate change negotiations taking place in Paris in December with aim to reach a new agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions and prevent climate change from reaching dangerous levels. Congress also considered progress in implementing the WMO-spearheaded Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to improve the supply and use of climate services to help adaptation efforts. In this regard a resolution about “International exchange of climate data and products to support the implementation of GFCS” was adopted. On the opening day a welcoming video message from UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon was received. “As the global thermostat rises, meteorological services are more essential than ever. I look forward to working with you to advance bold climate action which will improve the lives of people and the health of our planet,” said the UN Secretary General. The World Meteorological Organisation’s quadrennial Congress ended with the adoption of a new strategic plan and related budget as well as the appointment of a new secretary-general. The strategic plan sets out priorities for the post 2015 global agenda. These include 10
disaster risk reduction; climate services to help climate change adaptation and sustainable development; capacity development; polar and high mountain region research and monitoring and strengthened observing and information systems. It also envisages a more crosscutting urban focus and greater emphasis on marine weather activities. “Even as Congress met, we witnessed a number of extreme events including the deadly heatwave in India and the torrential rain and flooding in the southern United States of America,” said WMO Secretary-General, Michel Jarraud. “High impact weather and climate extremes are likely to occur with greater frequency and intensity due to climate change.” “Rising temperatures, a changing water cycle, record amounts of greenhouse gases, and warming and acidifying oceans are having a major impact on society,” said Jarraud. “We still have a window of opportunity to act and prevent irreversible damage but it is closing fast.” “The demand for services of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services has never been higher. Investment in these services will lead to major socioeconomic benefits,” said Jarraud. Insured losses from natural catastrophes have ranged between $10 billion and $50 billion a year internationally over the past decade. Between 1970 and 2012, nearly 2 million people were killed by hydrometeorological hazards, although the death toll is on a downward trend because of improved early warnings and disaster
“The decisions of Congress have put WMO in a strong position to fully participate in the post 2015 international agenda,” said WMO President David Grimes. “We have charted a clear path forward that will enable Members to better contribute to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction for 2015-2030, the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda and to improve our understanding of climate variability and change through the provision of fit for purpose services underpinned by investments in science and technology,” he said. In recognition of the growing demands upon WMO, Congress approved a regular budget of 266,2 million Swiss Francs for 2016-2019, a two percent increase over the 2012-2015 period. An increased reliance on extra-budgetary contributions is foreseen for a number of programmes. Congress appointed Petteri Taalas, directorgeneral of the Finnish Meteorological Institute, as the next secretary-general for a four-year mandate starting 1 January 2016. He will replace Michel Jarraud (France) who has served the maximum three terms in office. Jarraud was acclaimed as secretary-general emeritus in recognition of his services to WMO. Congress re-elected David Grimes (Canada) as president and Antonio Divino Moura (Brazil), Mieczyslaw S. Ostojski (Poland) and Abdalah Mokssit (Morocco) as first, second and third vice presidents respectively. It also elected 27 additional members of the executive council. Priority areas for the 2016-2019 include: Disaster risk reduction: Improve the accuracy and effectiveness of high quality impact-based forecasts and multi-hazard early warnings of extreme weather, climate, water and environmental events from the tropics to the poles. Global framework for climate services: Improve provision and use of climate Volume 1
DiMTEC – Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for Africa
hen disaster strikes, all living creatures naturally react with fight-or-flight. But what if you’re not strong enough, or have nowhere to run? It is then when suffering sets in. Hunger, death, degradation, loss, damage, destruction, distraught. Since 2001, DiMTEC had the vision to reduce disaster risk – because we can!
Happy birthday DiMTEC! In 2006 DiMTEC became an independent centre within the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural science – therefore we celebrate our 10 year anniversary during 2015! In celebration of this milestone, DiMTEC will address nine key disaster management themes throughout the year by means of workshops, seminars and lectures. The themes are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Disaster droughts and insurance Community capitals framework and disaster risk reduction NATECH disasters & Disaster management financing The media, communication and disasters Disasters and the environment Disaster response Disaster trauma and post-traumatic stress Safety-net financing for disasters Unmanned Aerial Vehicle utilisation Join our mailing list to stay informed about these events. Send your email address to firstname.lastname@example.org
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You will further your knowledge with widespread interdisciplinary analysis on disaster management, as well as doing supervised research on a topic of your interest.
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implements disaster management strategies and follow-up committee on managing relief assistance and assisting flood victims as instructed by the president of Cameroon, Paul Biya on 13 September 2014.
Cameroon is experiencing an increase in floods
ameroon is situated in subSaharan Africa, the region of Africa most vulnerable to disasters due to economic, environmental, physical and social factors. Although natural disasters cannot be prevented, efficient disaster management can prevent many of these becoming disasters affecting people and their assets. Flooding in Bibemi, Cameroon took place in August 2014 resulting in many villages, houses and farms being destroyed, leaving approximately 3 500 people affected. Cholera outbreaks within the same area furthermore have emerged from the floods increasing risk. Steps to prevent the situation from deteriorating any further were noted and urgently actioned. With the increasing amount of floods experienced by Cameroon, government has been taking action with the assistance of partners, ensuring that victims receive prompt and effective assistance. Creation of management committee Minister of Territorial Administration and Decentralisation (MINADT), RenĂŠ Emmanuel Sadi, initiated the coordination
services like seasonal to sub-seasonal predictions, especially for priority areas of food security, water management, health and disaster risk reduction. WMO Integrated Global Observing System: strengthen the global observing and information systems for robust, standardised, integrated, accurate and quality assured relevant observations of the Earth System. Aviation meteorological services: Improve the ability of national meteorological 12
Visits from secretary general of the international civil protection organisation (ICPO), Vladimir Kushinov and the Russian emergency minister occurred from 27 to 31 January 2015. The delegation donated humanitarian assistance and equipment to government while an international colloquium and diplomatic forum on the stakes and challenges of civil protection in countries of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) was also organised. Achievements of management committee The four main areas of focus were humanitarian response, rehabilitation, risk management and international support. Within 10 months of visiting the affected region, positive results were seen by the coordination and follow-up committee. Due to the positive outcomes experienced, a disaster support fund and health response mechanism backed by disease prevention measures have been put into place in affected and disaster prone communities. Educational programmes including television programmes to enhance the publicâ€™s knowledge about disaster prevention are being developed. FCFA three billion was donated in aid of 21 000 flood victims. While FCFC 838,6 million was offered by president Biya, the remaining amount was given by government. International partners involved in assisting with disaster management include the International Civil Protection
services to provide sustainable high quality services to support safety, efficiency and regularity of the air transport worldwide, with due account to environmental factors. Polar and high mountain regions: Improve operational meteorological and hydrological monitoring, prediction and services in polar and high mountain regions, where the scale of environmental change has significant implications on weather and climate patterns worldwide.
Organisation, Morocco, Japan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), World Food Program (WFP), UNICEF, the World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), PLAN Cameroon and the Cameroon Red Cross. With the help of such prestigious organisations rehabilitation work is underway as well as infrastructure projects, while homes are being reconstructed with local material as recommended by the local materials promotion authority, Mipromalo. Future plans Future disaster management plans to ensure resilience and hinder the excessive amount of disasters in future have been put into place. Not only will homes, farms and social infrastructure damaged by the floods be assessed in order to determine costs involved but the coordination and follow up committee additionally aim to resettle those who are homeless as a result of their homes being washed away. The coordination and follow-up committee aim prevent further flooding next rainy season, repair damaged roads and recondition stations for effective monitoring of weather conditions moving forward. In addition proper hygiene and sanitation measures will be put in place, compensation will be paid to victims, reforestation schemes will be undertaken and a civil protection warehouse constructed in the far north region. While public sensitisation campaigns continue, the coordination and followup committee will make it their priority to develop emergency relief plans, conduct first aid training, provide flood victims with logistics and basic necessities for sleeping and drugs and food stock in preparation for the return of the rains.
Capacity development: Enhance the capacity of NMHSs to deliver on their mission by developing and improving competent human resource, technical and institutional capacities and infrastructure, particularly in developing, least developed and small island developing states. WMO governance: Improve efficiency and effectiveness of WMO though continuous improvement measures based on a strategic review of WMO structures, operating arrangements and budgeting practices. Volume 1
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DMISA Gold Commendation
Gold Commendation: Geoff Laskey
Geoff Laskey receiving his Gold Commendation from DMISA president, Dr Johan Minnie
eoff Laskey is a Fellow of this Institute, a true gentleman, a born mentor and an inspiration for many. Throughout a long and continuing career, he has consistently set an example of professional conduct, dedication and hard work while maintaining an irrepressible sense of humour appreciated by all. He has been the quiet confident force in the middle of many crisis situations over many years and has braved many stormy seas with tenacity and style. Geoff has more than 45 years of experience in local government environmental health and disaster risk management. His achievements and service to the disaster management profession are extensive. His career started as environmental health practitioner in 1968 and by 1983 he moved into what was then called Civil Defence as administrative officer. He became regional officer in 1991 and then manager: disaster management at the Cape Metropolitan Council in 1999, a position from which he took early retirement in 2005 to move into private consulting practice. Geoff truly expanded his horizons as consultant and has supported an impressive list of clients across South Africa. Geoff led City of Cape Town Disaster Management structures and other role players in responding to many emergencies and disasters that affected the Cape Peninsula and was the author of the first corporate integrated development plan (IDP) disaster management plan for
a local authority in South Africa. This plan subsequently became the blueprint for the disaster management plans of many other local authorities. Geoff was also the initiator of extensive proactive risk reduction planning for flooding and other hazards in Cape Town. From 1989 to 2001 he served on the executive committee of the International Organisation Local Authorities Confronting Disasters and Emergencies (LACDE) and attended their conferences in Israel, Holland, Chile and Iceland. Geoff is recognised as a leader committed to building the capacity of staff. In 1992 Geoff was at the forefront of developing a DMISA/United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) training programme in disaster management through the then Technicon RSA and the universities of Wisconsin and Cranfield. He was a key tutor in this programme. He recognised the need and was an early implementer of training in risk and vulnerability assessment and project management. He also played a leading role in the development of the City of Cape Townâ€™s Nuclear Emergency Plan and procedures for the area surrounding the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station as well as the Cityâ€™s MultiDisciplinary Incident Management Plan. As a consultant, Geoff has facilitated the development of a National Disaster Management Policy for the South African Red Cross, aligned with the Disaster Management Act and the Disaster
Management Framework. He has participated in establishing the first Skills Education Training Authorities (SETA)accredited event safety management course in South Africa as well as the first registered disaster management learnership in South Africa. He facilitated disaster management training and capacity building sessions for the councillors, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), community development workers (CDWs) and management of district councils and local municipalities throughout South Africa. Geoff has been a tremendous asset not only for the disaster management profession but also for the Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA). As long-standing DMISA councillor, executive committee member and president of the Institute from 1997-1999, Geoff has delivered distinguished service to his fellow DMISA members as well as the women and men working in disaster management across South Africa. Among his many contributions, Geoffâ€™s innovative leadership in training and capacity building is perhaps most impressive. Geoff is a true social entrepreneur and continues to build, educate and capacitate new entrants and old hands in disaster management. It is with great pleasure that this Institute honours a fine man for outstanding service in the execution of disaster management duties and service to the Institute. Volume 1
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa conference 2014
The Disaster Management
Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) annual conference
The annual DMISA conference is the biggest disaster management conference in Africa
he annual conference of The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) was held at the Sibaya – Imbizo Conference Centre in Umhlanga Rocks, Durban, South Africa, in September 2014 and was hosted by eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The annual conference is the biggest disaster management conference in Africa and the theme was ‘Building disaster resilience is everybody’s business’. The conference routinely attracts more than 350 delegates. The 2014 conference was presented in partnership with the Northumbria University, South Africa Local Government Association (SALGA), the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC), South African Weather Service (SAWS)
Prof Andrew Collins, Councillor Zandile Gomedi, Dr Mal Reddy and Dr Johan Minnie 16
and the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) and was followed by DMISA’s annual general meeting. Councillor Zandile Gomedi welcomed attendees on behalf of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality after the traditional candle lighting ceremony done by Dr Mal Reddy, in honour of those who have passed in the line of duty. International speakers included Prof Andrew Collins of Northumbria University in the UK; Sharon Rushu, head of the regional office: Africa of the UNISDR and Dr Bob Alexander, also known as Barefoot Bob, an independent consultant in disaster risk reduction and community resilience strengthening.
Dr Johan Minnie being sworn in as president
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa conference 2014
Bafana Mazimbuko deputy president
The earthquake rap was performed by Dr Johan Minnie and Barefoot Bob
Dr Bob Alexander, AKA Barefoot Bob
The first ‘Art on Disasters’ exhibition was successfully launched by University of the Freestate (UFS) DiMTEC and coordinated by Olivia Kunguma, a junior lecturer and Masters program coordinator at UFS DiMTEC. An ardent Kunguma said, “Let us show the passion for our work by supporting this project.” Resilience and beyond as everybody’s business was the topic of Prof Andrew Collins of Northumbria University in the UK’s discussion. Prof Andrew Collins discussed resilience and the surrounding topography saying, “The condition of resilience is definable in multiple ways, meaning different states of being for varied people and contexts. It has been applied to notions of survivability of societies, economies and environmental systems.” He added that a quest to move beyond resilience is to recognise the potential for wellbeing, security and sustainability of future generations by considering boundaries, flows and outcomes that may apply in the theoretical and practical sense. How you think is how you behave,” added Prof Collins. “Resilience isn’t about just surviving but about thriving. What if someone’s risk reduction actually increases someone else’s risk?” challenged Collins. Anè Bruwer, who spoke on behalf of Ken Terry of the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) discussed the main pieces of legislation that the NDMC is responsible for and the objectives of the NDMC. She continued with defining resilience and describing the resilience framework and discussion the key strategic considerations as well as the key themes derived from its strategy direction. ”Our role includes making sure that all structures are managed effectively,” said Bruwer. She reviewed recent disaster events and said that an increase in Cholera outbreaks is a Volume 1
Disaster Management | 17
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa conference 2014 secondary aspect of disasters. An historical drought hazard overview and a six-month standard precipitation index (SPI) concluded her presentation. South African Weather Services’ (SAWS) Mnikele Ndabambi talked about the future of weather forecasting in supporting increasing resilience against weather related natural disasters. He discussed the improvements in weather forecasting ie numerical weather prediction (NWP), quantity forecast variability, monitoring and nowcasting of severe weather. Ndabambi said that developments such as impact forecasting allow for better services in forecasting the risk of hazardous weather and its consequences in the next few years. What are we managing? Sustainable development through information driven disaster risk management was the topic of Owen Becker of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality’s presentation. Becker questioned current practice of managing mainly the coordination of post disaster relief and advised the importance of information driven disaster risk reduction. He advocated addressing risk and vulnerability at its origin. Becker also highlighted the importance of spatial context and discussed the various benefits of spatial data and the generation of models and scenarios. Sharon Rusu, head of the regional office for Africa of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) overviewed the ‘Progress on Disaster Risk Reduction in Africa’. Rusu said that the impact of disasters, both in terms of frequency and magnitude, is on the increase and that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is recognised as a costeffective means for saving lives and livelihoods ‘building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters’. She discussed the changing disaster paradigms and reviewed the institutional and policy environment. She briefly outlined the steps to Sendai and discussed the importance of risk information and investment. “You are on the right track. Keep it people centred. We need to think globally and act locally,” she advised. Dr Bob Alexander, AKA Barefoot Bob, an independent disaster risk reduction and community resilience strengthening consultant, presented an interesting
The Sysman team
alternative in communicating disaster risk reduction (DRR) and presented a case for the role that music can play in communicating DRR messages. As a recording artist and song writer, Barefoot Bob, showed several video clips of DRR messages performed in song including the women of Tanzania singing about their trees being cut down in an attempt to get the public to take notice and the people of Grenada in preparation of disasters. A music clip of the Philippines showcased self or group efficacy and a song, ‘Be prepared, the earthquake is coming’ performed by the people of Turkey converting intentions to preparedness. A spontaneous joint performance between Dr Johan Minnie and Barefoot Bob resulted in a spirited enactment, which was contagious and uplifting. Dr Minnie supplied the beat while Barefoot Bob rapped. The earthquake message was certainly driven home with a smile! Daniel Simmathamby, regional humanitarian coordinator at OXFAM GM, Southern Africa Regional Management Centre discussed the regional resilience framework developed by the Regional African Inter-agency Standing Committee (RASCO). Simmathamby explained the pathways to 1. Thrive, 2. Bounce back and 3. Collapse and defined the enablers and stressors which lead to the resilience conceptional framework. He also discussed the vision for resilience programme framework and the agreements three pillars ie enhancing production and productivity, access to basic and social services and social protection. “There are three cross-cutting themes”, said Simmathamby. “It must be people centred, address governance at all levels and build capacity.” There were a number of plenary sessions and as such too numerous to cover indepth in one magazine. We will be focussing on some of the papers delivered over a period of time so as to provide a broader coverage. In all, the principal message was clear; disaster resilience is everyone’s business. The 30th annual general meeting of the Institute followed post conference and Dr Johan Minnie was elected as the new president of DMISA, succeeding Dr Mal Reddy and Bafana Mazimbuko succeeded him as deputy president for the 2014 to 2016 term.
Erika Wicomb and John Lomberg, Santam
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The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa conference 2014
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The NDMC Team
The SRK Consulting team
The UFS-DiMTEC team
Wiseman, Dlamini, Francis Mosetlho, Hugh van Niekerk, Eugene Poolman and Johan Stander
The Aurecon team 20
THE DMS team Volume 1
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa conference 2014
DMISA evening function
n evening function was held in the beautiful Durban City Hall, the administrative seat of the eThekwini Municipality. Speaker Cllr Loganathan (Logie) Naidoo spoke on behalf of the mayor, welcoming all attendees to the City of eThekwini. He mentioned recent disasters that included the Tongaat structural collapse and the Nigerian church collapse and the many South African lives lost in disasters in general. He added that eThekwini was a city with a high number of manufacturing plants ie Toyota, two oil refineries, a busy port and a high number of informal settlement fires and as such needed to be geared towards disaster risk reduction and risk management. ‘Every incident is a valuable lesson to increase our preparedness,” said Cllr Naidoo. Dr Mal Reddy reflected on the Hyogo Framework for Action and the various challenges experienced. She said that disaster management was an evolving discipline and that it’s important to strive towards effective disaster risk reduction (DRR). She questioned, “Are we really ready? Do we have the capacity in terms of readiness? It is important that efficient resources are being allocated to disaster risk reduction.” Dr Johan Minnie thanked Dr Reddy for her past leadership.
Disaster Management | 21
Disaster management and river basin organisations
Disaster management and river basin organisations
By Dr Johan Minnie, President: Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa
he importance of the strengthening of river basin organisations (RBOs) and building resilience in river basins against disaster was highlighted at the sixth Southern African Development Community (SADC) RBO Workshop themed, “Strengthening regional cooperation and resilience in water related disasters.” RBOs look after shared river basins, ie river basins including land from two or more countries. There are 15 such shared river basins in the SADC region. Disaster management is everybody’s business. It is your business and it is my business. It is the business of the disaster management professionals among you but it is also the business of every hydrologist, every meteorologist, every river basin commissioner. Every one of us are in fact disaster management practitioners and we are jointly responsible for reducing disaster risk and softening the blow of those risks that cannot be avoided and translate to hazard impacts. We need to look at the relationship between disaster management and river basin management (RBM).
Let us first look at the differences between the two and then the similarities. Firstly, disaster management tends to be focused on political jurisdictions, while river basin management is based on a natural unit. Disaster management is multi-hazard while river basin management is limited hazard. Disaster management needs to be wide while river basin management can be focused. Disaster management needs to be inclusive but river basin management can be exclusive. At government level, disaster management is more concerned with operational management while river basin management probably has more of a science perspective. Those are some of the differences, but what are the similarities? The similarities include that both deal with human vulnerability and natural as well as human-induced hazards and both seek to reduce risk and promote sustainable resilience. River basin management also has a significant influence on disaster risk because depending on how they are managed, river basins not only provide the physical space for disasters to happen but can also generate disaster or mitigate disaster, develop
vulnerability or build resilience. Disaster management units are saying if RBOs fail in their prevention and early warning, then impacts happen that disaster management needs to deal with. So a clear relationship exists between disaster management and river basin management and, in fact, there are significant mutual influences. The practice of river basin management influences disaster management and vice versa. This clearly supports the contention that “disaster management is everybody’s business” and, at the same time, motivates for effective collaboration between the two fields of practice. We have now confirmed that river basin management has a role to play in disaster management, and we can move on to discussing what specifically that role should entail. Let us look at three aspects of disaster management and how they relate to river basin management. These three aspects are planning, preparation and response. All three of these aspects of disaster management can be performed Volume 1
Disaster management and river basin organisations as part of river basin management. River basin organisations can plan for disaster, prepare for disaster, and respond to disaster. River basin organisations can plan for disaster by developing information on what hazards may impact on the basin and then develop risk reduction strategies as well as preparedness and response strategies. River basin organisations can develop high levels of preparedness for the expected hazards, including early warning and the testing and exercising of contingency plans. River basin organisations can also get involved in disaster response by implementing early warning and implementing contingency plans that could include flood defences and evacuation. River basin organisations can do all of this on their own or in close collaboration with disaster management and other stakeholders.
deal with, mainly flooding and drought.
While there is a definite role for River basin organisations in disaster management, it is important to note that there is a real risk in disaster management to fall into a reactive mode. One can easily fall into the trap of doing planning, preparedness and response in a purely reactive manner with a focus on reacting to disaster rather than preventing disaster. Real disaster management is not reactive; it is proactive and is focused on reducing disaster risk before disasters occur while maintaining the necessary resources to respond to those impacts that cannot be prevented.
The annual total and cumulative number of natural disaster events recorded globally between 1990 and 2006 are shown in the figure below and indicate how water-related disasters far outweigh other disasters.
Positive planning is about real proactive planning, not only planning to react but also planning to reduce risk. Comprehensive preparedness is about preparedness not only to respond but also to reduce risk, making sure capacity exists to implement risk reduction. Anticipatory response relates to not only waiting for impacts before response is mobilised but taking action before disaster impacts in order to reduce or avoid that impact. Positive planning, comprehensive preparedness and anticipatory response all contribute to the creation of sustainable resilience in river basins that go beyond the reactive paradigm.
You will probably agree with me that the water sector is where the majority of disasters are made. I was in Yogjakarta in Indonesia in October 2013, an area plagued by flooding, earthquakes, cyclones and volcanoes. They told me their region is the place where disasters are made and exported from. I feel the same about water basins and the water sector. Disasters are made in the water sector because the first order impact of too much or too little water translates to other impacts which combine to create disastrous conditions. Floods, droughts and windstorms are the most frequently occurring natural disaster events and account for almost 90 percent of the 1 000 most disastrous events since 1990.
Floods, droughts and windstorms were the most frequent disaster events in the past century accounting for more than 88 percent of the most hazardous one thousand disasters from 1900 to 2009. The recorded number of waterrelated disasters, especially floods and windstorms, from 1980 to 2009 shows an upward trend. Extreme water-related events have also become more frequent in recent years; for instance, the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Hurricane Katrina in the USA in 2005, Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh in 2007, floods in England in 2007, Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar in 2008, Typhoon Ketsana in the Philippines and Vietnam in 2009 and severe droughts in Australia and Europe in the past few years. I am mentioning this prevalence of
water-related disasters to bring one point home; river basin organisations are positioned on top of a virtual ground zero, the place where disasters come from, the breeding ground of disaster risk. Being positioned at this nexus of water-related risk and vulnerability brings great opportunity to influence disaster risk but at the same time great responsibility. As a river basin organisation, you are positioned in a space where you can really make a difference to the human condition and in future you may be confronted with the question: â€œYou were right there where things happen, did you do enough?â€? This is the question keeping many disaster management practitioners from their sleep and I suppose when we consider our responsibilities in the careers we chose, we should remember who we are doing this for. There is of course hope. The Mozambique floods of 2000 were devastating. Subsequent flooding of the same severity had less impact. This can be explained though only one thing: increased capacity to deal with flooding. We have now spoken about how river basin organisations have an important and in fact critical role in disaster management and we have spoken about how that role should be played. Now we can look at a third perspective â€“ a few practical points that normally present problems in disaster management and should therefore also be challenges in the disaster management role of river basin organisations, which RBOs need to recognise and work with. The first challenge is communication. If you have ever been in a debrief after a disaster response operation, you would have heard that communication was a problem. It always is. Somehow we never get communication totally right. There is a constant problem with information dissemination, how it is packaged,
River basin organisations are therefore cautioned that in playing their role in disaster management, they must actively guard against falling into that comfortable and cosy reactive way of thinking that withholds us from developing creative new ways to reduce disaster risk. I would like to explore a second perspective on the role of river basin organisations in disaster management and resilience building by considering the hazards that river basin organisations Volume 1
Comparison of water and non-water related disasters Disaster Management | 23
Disaster management and river basin organisations The third challenge I want to point out is the moving goalposts of climate change. We are facing increased frequencies of severe weather events and we need to respond. In order to have effective response we need to have better information on what we can expect and such information comes from monitoring and modelling. Good efforts are being made in this regard by the regional approach of SADC with the Climate Services Centre that combines meteorology, hydrology and disaster management. There is a relationship between the climate change challenge and the communication challenge which is founded in the need to have information in order to plan positively, prepare comprehensively and respond in an anticipative, pro-active manner. The communication challenge (from critical success factors for incident management partnerships) how it is distributed, how it is received and interpreted by the community member worried about his livelihood. Another problem is that information such as 1/100 year floodlines might be available somewhere in a file or on computer but is not shared with people who can use it to manage risk, such as planners and disaster management staff. Communication is critical for river basin organisations playing their disaster management - real disaster management - role, specifically downstream information sharing about river conditions.
Such investments can include infrastructure for flood risk reduction and water resource management, such as dams, stormwater defences and access points to ground water in dry conditions. Other investments could include capturing local and indigenous knowledge about risk reduction measures that have worked in the past. Investment in risk reduction can also mean investing in advocacy and education, not only of the public but also of decision-makers who need to be convinced of the merit of considering disaster risk in development and land-use decision.
River basin organisations provide a good vehicle for information sharing on disaster risk, even though we understand that different river basins are at different levels of development in terms of their river basin organisations. And downstream sharing of information is not difficult. As Kenneth Msibi pointed out to me, water in the Zambezi takes two months to flow from the headwaters to the mouth. One can write a letter and post it for the purpose of early warning in such a case.
The argument for investment will frequently need to be based on cost and benefit statements and therefore sound economic support for investment in risk reduction should be shared with those who make such decisions. There is a need to influence land-use and development decisions and development planning upstream (if you will excuse the pun) from decision-making and the relationship between development and disasters should be understood by al role-players.
From my experience disaster managers are saying very simply: tell me what is going to happen here at my level of operations and I will be able to prepare for it. Perhaps river basin organisations should work more closely with disaster management bodies to quantify the localised impacts of climate change. A last point before I conclude. Disasters are not natural. We humans get in the way of nature or tinker with nature and then we blame nature when we get hurt. Disasters, even those we call â€˜natural disastersâ€™ are disasters because of human activities and vulnerability and in river basin organisations we should be focusing not only on water and where it goes or does not go, but also on people and what they do and where they go. In conclusion, I want to argue that river basin management is disaster management. We need to take ownership and accept responsibility within this important sector; as we said, the sector where disasters are made. We are disaster managers to improve the human condition. Let us commit ourselves again to work together towards resilience.
Unfortunately the downstream entity will never have the chance to write back water only flows downhill. So take special care with the communication challenge. (See slide on communication challenge). A second challenge relates to investment in risk reduction. Have you noticed how quickly money flows during disasters and how that flow slows to a trickle when there is no immediate threat? Investment in risk reduction means investment in interventions that influence the construction of disaster risk. 24
Investment in risk reduction: disasters and development Volume 1
6th SADC River Basin Organisation (RBO) workshop
Strengthening regional cooperation and resilience in water related disasters
Attendees and speakers ranged from various member states of SADC across 15 countries
he Southern African Development Community (SADC) secretariat held the 6th SADC River Basin Organisation (RBO) workshop at Birchwood Hotel in Johannesburg, South Africa. Extending over a period of three days in October, the conference was facilitated by the Global Water Partnership-South Africa (GWP-SA). This series of workshops was aimed at building consensus on SADC’s strategic approach to support the efforts of member states with regard to the establishment, institutional development, and strengthening of RBO’s, as well as other trans-boundary water resources development and management mechanisms in the region.
United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In total, 200 people from 15 countries attended the conference.
to come, he stated that water disasters have an adverse impact on economic development and the loss of lives.
The SADC secretariat, Remigious Makumbe set the tone on day one, opening discussions on how to strengthen regional cooperation and resilience in water disasters and the effects of climate change on disasters. With hopes that the lessons learned in the conference will influence business now and in years
Speaking on behalf of the African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW), Secretariat Charles Ngangoue addressed the conference. ‘’SADC is the voice of development in the water sector in South Africa with water at the centre of social economic development of the continent’’ he said. Encouraging SADC to work
Held under the theme, ‘strengthening regional cooperation and resilience in water related disasters’, the initiative was implemented to enhance coordination amongst relevant institutions as well as optimise the readiness of the river basins organisations with regard to floods and other climate change impacts. Attendees and speakers ranged from various member states of SADC including Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Volume 1
DMISA president and key note speaker, Dr Johan Minnie Disaster Management | 25
6th SADC River Basin Organisation (RBO) workshop the Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCOM), Limpopo Watercourse Commission (LIMCOM), Cuvelai Watercourse Commission (CUVECOM) and Incomati/ Maputo. All shared updates on their current activities, challenges and ways forward
Lead international cooperating partners together for the post 2015 agenda, Ngangoue suggested that the SADC be used as an engine to drive development in other countries and areas. ‘’We need water for growth, social economic development and to reduce poverty. It is instrumental’’ he concluded. Presentation of DMISA president, Johan Minnie With the theme, ‘planning, preparation and response’, President of Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) and key note speaker, Dr Johan Minnie, stressed that disaster management is everybody’s business. “There is a mutual influence between disaster management and river basin management”, he elaborated. Minnie gave insight to the role of the RBO in disaster management explaining that, “real disaster management contains positive planning, anticipatory response and is not reactive but proactive. It entails not only waiting for impact but planning and preparing to reduce risks. All of these factors contribute to sustainable development”.
that investment in infrastructure for flood risk, access points to ground water in droughts and education is empirical. Due to the increased frequencies of climate change, there is a stronger need for response. He suggested that river basin managers and disaster managers should work closely together to bring about sufficient results. “Disasters are not normal” highlighted Minnie. “One needs to focus on what people do and where they go as they contribute”. In conclusion, Minnie reemphasised that river basin management is disaster management and is everybody’s business. “Let’s remember why we are here, to improve the human condition”. Presentations to follow included the permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM), the OrangeSenqu River Commission (ORASECOM),
Day two of SADC conference Day two of the SADC conference began with the senior programme officer of the SADC Water Division in Gaborone, Botswana Phera Ramoeli, taking the stand. Stating that flooding disasters are recurrent, Ramoeli explained that they impact vulnerable populations and lead to infrastructure destruction. This in-turn affects economic development and investment. Ramoeli elaborated on the causes of flooding naming localised heavy rainfall, tropic cyclone activity, saturated soil from preceding events and lack of integrated management of upstream dams and wetlands. “We need to move from relief and response, to disaster management” he emphasised. Dr Faka Nsandisa of the SADC discussed the SADC met Programme implemented through the SADC climate services centre (CSC). Explaining that the SADC CSC is mandated to contribute to early warning and mitigation of adverse impacts of severe extreme weather, Nsandisa detailed that the CS makes provision for data, data summaries, statistical analysis and predictions, tailored information products, scientific studies and expert advice delivered with ongoing support and user engagement. The region the SADC encompasses 15 main river basins. Nsandisa emphasised the importance of early warning systems and integrated climate and water resource programmes. ‘’The objective
Minnie furthermore explained that too much or too little water creates disasters. The most frequent disaster events in the past century, making up 88% of all disasters include floods, drought and windstorms. He outlined the challenges faced in the disaster management role to include lack or limited communication, investment in risk reduction, climate change and disasters being an unnatural force. Expressing that communication is critical in RBO’s, specifically downstream sharing of information about river planning, Minnie described 26
ORASECOM executive secretary, Lenka Thamae Volume 1
International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction 2014
International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014
stablished by the United Nations as International Day for Disaster Reduction (IDDR), the 13 October 2014 held much significance throughout the world. With a key focus on older persons and disasters, the IDDR commemoration held in Rustenburg, shed light on reducing disaster risks in South Africa. The Commemoration of the International Day for Disaster Reduction (IDDR) was held by the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, in partnership with the North West Department of Cooperative Governance, Human Settlement and Traditional Affairs and the Bojanala District Municipality. Extending over a period of two days, the commemoration brought senior government figures, DRR officials, International Strategy for Disaster Reduction representatives, political leaders from the North West municipalities and several mayors from across South Africa together,
The commemoration brought senior government figures, DRR officials, International Strategy for Disaster Reduction representatives, political leaders from the North West municipalities and several mayors from across South Africa together
is to develop applications to monitor and forecast water availability and stream flow in the SADC river basins. By including satellite observational networks such as weather satellites, will allow more updated information’’ Nsandisa said. Discussion around the need to improve observational networks, information and decision support tools and knowledge base also took place. Nsandisa was excited to announce that SADC management signed a contract for a telecommunications system which will allow monitoring of what is going on in the atmosphere. He suggests that a training centre be put into place so members can understand how to use the system.
Development Management III (RSAPIWRM) is the third five-year action plan of the initial fifteen year plan that was formulated and approved by the SADC summit in August 1998. The RSAP III serves as a work plan to guide development and implementation of activities in the SADC water sector for five years from 2011 to 2015. It covers the strategic areas of water governance, infrastructure development and water management, and calls for the achievement of three strategic objectives to improve the impact of the plan on the ground, namely capacity development, climate change adaptation and social development.
Concluding day of SADC conference The final day of the conference saw water resources specialist, Phillip Beetlestone taking the stand with a presentation on the Regional Strategic Action Plan (RSAP) and the Evaluation of Protocol on Shared Watercourses (EOP) as well as policy harmonisation in member states.
Overall, comments of the mid-term review on the RSAP programme were positive; however room for improvement was noted. In continuation to Beetlestone’s presentation was the RSAP IV concept and development timeline discussion conducted by SADC-WD, Dr Kenneth Msibi.
Beetlestone explained that the RSAP on Integrated Water Resources and Volume 1
Breakout groups then dispersed discussing topics such as river basin organisation establishment and
strengthening, capacity building and awareness creation, infrastructure and climate change resilience, water supply, sanitation, and groundwater development and management, water economics and financing as well as water resource management. The key outcome of the conference was the call for greater co-operation in the region. Over the three day conference, stakeholders acquired a better understanding of the situation and the failure aspects to be addressed in regional cooperation and resilience in water related disasters. Proposed SADC regional best practices on resilience provided recommendations on appropriate support to the RBOs where needed, and proposals were made on the key elements of the 4th Phase of the SADC Water Programme (RSAP IV). With the aim of enhancing coordination amongst the various institutions towards an identical objective, which is to optimize the resilience of countries and river basins to natural disaster related to climate variability, the SADC conference came to a close with the proposed goal being met. Disaster Management | 27
International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction 2014 the world safer from natural hazards. The main aim of the extension of the campaign’ broader theme is to continue to advocate widespread commitment by local governments to build resilience to disasters and provision of increased support by national governments to cities and municipalities for the purpose of strengthening local capacities. Overall, UNISDR coordinates international efforts in disaster risk reduction and guides and reports on progress of the implementation of the HFA for action. They encourage greater investment in risk reduction to protect people’s lives, assets among other things.
Sharon Rusu and Ken Terry
Toby Porter where a renewed commitment to create communities that are resilient to disasters was made. Attended by honoured guests Toby Porter, CEO of HelpAge International and the head of United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Regional Office for Africa (UNISDR), Sharon Rusu, the commemoration provided detailed background of the UNISDR and how it will reduce human, economic and environmental losses to disasters, thereby contributing to enhancing sustainable development. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Before Rusu stepped forward to address the audience, all were asked to stand in acknowledgment of those who had died in past disasters. Rusu then continued by providing a brief background of the UNISDR. She explained that the UNISDR 28
was established by the United Nations, the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) which serves as a global platform to coordinate disaster reduction and to ensure synergies among the disaster reduction activities of the United Nations member states and associations. It is the vision of the UNISDR to enable all United Nations member states to become resilient to natural and human-induced hazards and disasters, in order to reduce human, economic and environmental losses to disasters, thereby contributing to enhancing sustainable development. The UNISDR implements disaster risk reduction (DRR) programmes to realise such a vision, the annual IDDR commemorations being part of these programmes. The UNISDR additionally serves as a focal point for the implementation of the Hyogo framework for action (HFA), which is a ten year plan of action adopted in 2005 by 168 governments to make
Challenges faced with the increasing number of the elderly within populations Jacob Skhosana, chairperson of the aged, highlighted the challenges faced with the increase in number of the elderly within populations. It was noted that people aged over the age of 60 constitute 11 percent of the population. Developing countries constitute 60 percent of the world’s older population and are predicted to be home to 80 percent by 2050. As the 2014 IDDR commemorations’ theme focused on ‘the elderly and disasters’, challenges brought about by the increase in the numbers of the elderly within populations were seen as a great concern. A larger percentage of the world’s population will be coming from increases in the number of people over 60 years and older and fewer from people under the age of 30. With this said, a major resource challenge was seen, especially of developing countries and their rural areas. Challenges addressed included: • Older persons always have specificassistance needs and most have dysfunction social networks • Older persons are more likely to suffer from chronic illnesses making them more frail • There may be challenges of the inability to strike a balance between ageing and unemployment and the sustainability of pension systems to meet the needs of this class of population • The challenge of minimal resources needed to cater to the number of older persons still remains, especially where resources are scarce Skhosana noted that people everywhere can age with security and dignity, and continue to participate in their society as citizens with full rights. Society, with this in mind needs to recognise positive roles elder persons can and should play in preparation, mitigation and recovery from disasters. Volume 1
International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction 2014 Commissions Following the challenges the economy faces by the increasing number of older persons and by the elderly in terms of disasters, officials acknowledged the importance of integrating older persons in disaster risk management. Modiegi Sethushu of the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) then took the stage to brief the audience on the thematic session and commissions. Three commissions dispersed each discussing an essential topic. Topics included challenges faced by the elderly in the wake of disasters and in general, the role of the elderly in disasters and interventions for the elderly. Subsequently, the commissions addressed the audience, highlighting the key challenges pertaining to their topic as well as a way forward. Points addressed included Infrastructure challenges faced by the elderly, poor health, safety vulnerability, exploitation and abuse, financial over commitments, special requirements needs such as queues in service centres, to name a few. Identified measures discussed consisted of initiating education and awareness programmes among the elderly, introducing robust mechanisms to
All gave input in an effort to establish a way forward engage older persons, maintaining a clear and specific focus on DRR measures, introducing evacuation and simulation exercises and ensuring that all planning is integrated for effective intervention. The fabrication of government old age homes and frail care facilities, with government playing a central role in administration of old age homes were strongly suggested by the commissions.
Challenges encountered by older persons in terms of food security include insufficient grants for food as well as inadequate training in subsistence farming. Recommendations to overthrow these difficulties encompassed the introduction of a food voucher system, the establishment and support of food gardens, as well as grouping older persons according to their vulnerabilities and needs.
Sharon Rusu heading the commission
All stand in commemoration of International Day for Disaster Reduction
Day two of IDDR commemoration
Disaster Management | 29
– leading the way into a resilient future By Daniel Brink 2015 is to be a defining year for the fields of resilience and sustainability in terms of shaping global development objectives. Over the coming years/decades, the international community will be guided by three significant undertakings coming into effect in this year, namely the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Sustainable Development Goals and the COP 21 Objectives. Disaster and climate resilience, as a fundamental component of development, is increasing in prominence and being expedited for inclusion as a critical element of any future development projects. As disaster and climate related risks are becoming increasingly clear to both the public and private sector we are starting to see action on all levels. Smart (policy) choices and decision making will be and are already delivering economic, environmental and social benefits across the globe. Soon all governments, companies, clients and partners will all be striving for more resilient and sustainable solutions in achieving everyday objectives. Aurecon is perfectly
positioned to add value in this regard, with our practical disaster, risk and emergency management experience being unique in the infrastructure and asset management consulting environment. Aurecon Risk and Resilience Advisory Risk and resilience management is an advisory service that complements Aurecon’s considerable multi-disciplinary technical expertise with management science, directed at increasing resilience and sustainability while reducing vulnerability and risk exposure of communities, commerce, industries, institutions and government – our clients. We apply risk management methodologies and management science to explore challenges and opportunities facing our clients, developing strategies, plans and procedures to support risk reduction, adaptation, mitigation, rehabilitation and providing clients with resilient and sustainable management solutions. We add risk management and resilience value to the planning, design, delivery
and operation of assets and services, working independently or as part of an integrated solution. Aurecon Risk and Resilience Advisory’s clients include various local and international, public and private sector entities. Our service offerings include: • Comprehensive disaster risk and vulnerability assessment • Disaster management planning • Climate change risk and impact assessment • Climate change response planning • Resilience auditing (government and industry) • Resilient development planning • Policy and strategy development • Resilient/sustainable development facilitation • Emergency planning • Business continuity and crisis management • Security assessment and planning For more information contact: Dr Johan Minnie - +27 84 220 0074 Daniël Brink - +27 60 583 5393 The pledge which is inspired by Charter14 for Older Persons in Disaster Risk Reduction is promoted by HelpAge International and UNISDR. It reads: “The democratically elected leadership of the government of South Africa pledges to provide a better life for all the older persons of this country. The government of South Africa commits to planning for comfortable aging in the era of climate change and recurring disasters”.
G Phiri from Disaster Management Rustenburg Local Municipality, DS Setshedi of Rustenburg public safety/Rustenburg Fire Service and SD Wolmarans of the Rustenburg Local Municipality The pledge On the second day of the commemoration, senior government and several mayors from across South Africa reunited to sign a unique pledge, to implement minimum standards to both engage older persons in disaster risk reduction and to meet their needs. Among those who took the pledge were the deputy minister 30
of cooperative government and traditional affairs, Andries Nel, the premier of North-West province, Supra Mahumapelo, deputy water and sanitation minister, Pamela Tshwete, MEC for local government and human settlements, Collen Maine, house of traditional leaders representative, Mr Nawa and MMC Councillor, Lucky Kgaladi.
With the aim of reducing disaster risk in South Africa, government states that they will embrace the knowledge and wisdom of older persons by getting involved in disaster risk reduction initiatives. They additionally will address the needs and vulnerabilities of older persons and offer suitable support. Milestones to achieve such a commitment have been put into place and minimum standards with specific timeframes have been drafted IDDR in previous years have focused on children and young people, women and girls, and persons living with disability. With this year focus being on the elderly and disasters, the government aims at intertwining the uniqueness and valuable points noted across the years in light of building a safer community for all. Volume 1
Upcoming Events May - December 2015 12 - 14 May 2015 2nd European climate change adaptation conference The conference will cover a broad range of issues related to climate change adaptation and follows international adaptation conferences in Australia and in the United States. This European conference will place a greater emphasis on understanding and assessing adaptation in action under the theme: Integrating climate adaptation action in science, policy, practice and business. Venue: Bella Centre Boulevard 2 2300, Copenhagen South, Denmark For more information visit: www.ecca2015.eu/ 18 - 22 May 2015 Professional Certificate in Strategic Climate Change Adaptation This programme will equip participants with successful techniques to integrate environmental and sustainability concerns into strategic planning, develop efficient environmental regulatory regimes, and effectively respond to disasters Venue: London, UK For more information visit: www.environment.parlicentre.org/ 20 - 22 May 2015 Disaster Management 4th International Conference on disaster management and human health: reducing risk, improving outcomes Venue: Istanbul, Turkey For more information visit: www.wessex.ac.uk/15conferences/disaster-management-2015 24 - 27 May 2015 ISCRAM 2015 - The 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management This conference will focus on the technologies, procedures, approaches, methods and tools that can be employed to improve crisis response in an increasingly complex and dynamic world Venue: University of Agder, Norway For more information visit: iscram2015.uia.no/ 8 - 13 June 2015 INTERSCHUTZ 2015 Originally conceived as a trade show for the fire services, INTERSCHUTZ has grown to become the worldâ€™s leading exhibition for fire prevention, disaster relief, rescue and safety and security. The 2015 Toughest Fire fighter Alive (TFA) competition to take place at INTERSCHUTZ as part of the world championships Venue: Hanover, Germany For more information visit: www.interschutz.de/home 22 Jun - 2 July 2015 26th International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics general assembly The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is the international organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change Venue: Prague, Czech Republic For more information visit: www.iugg.org/ Volume 1
6 - 8 July 2015 Land Forces Africa incorporating Disaster Management Africa Conference The conference provides an opportunity for organisations involved in military medical and disaster management to gather, share information and discuss past, present and future challenges Venue: Heartfelt Arena, Thaba Tshwane, Pretoria Contact: Stephan Herman email: stephan.herman@ spintelligent.com 7 - 10 July 2015 Science Conference: Our Common Future Under Climate Change The conference will address key issues concerning climate change in the broader context of global change. Organised around daily themes, the conference focuses on moving from present knowledge to future solutions Venue: UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France For more information visit: www.commonfuture-paris2015.org/site/ 15 - 17 July 2015 5th International Conference on Building Resilience Exploring the concept of resilience as a useful framework of analysis for how society can cope with the threat of natural and human induced hazards Venue: Newcastle Town Hall, New South Wales, Australia Contact: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 9 - 11 September 2015 30th Annual DMISA Conference The 30th annual conference of the Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa Venue: Hartenbos, Western Cape, South Africa For more information visit: www.disaster.co.za/ 4 - 7 October 2015 3rd GRF One health summit 2015 The upcoming 3rd GRF One Health Summit 2015 aims to develop an international research and education strategy for One Health and to further develop and strengthen the One Health paradigm and its global movement as a trans- and inter-disciplinary approach Venue: Davos Congress Centre, Talstrasse 49a 7270 Davos Platz, Switzerland For more information visit: onehealth.grforum.org/home/ 30 November - 11 December 2015 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and 11th meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol The meeting will mark a decisive stage in negotiations on the future international agreement on a post-2020 regime, and will, as agreed in Durban, adopt the major outlines of that regime. By the end of the meeting, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, all the nations of the world, including the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, will be bound by a universal agreement on climate Venue: Paris, France For more information visit: climate-l.iisd.org/events/unfccc-cop-21 Disaster Management | 31
DMISA office contact details
The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA)
DMISA office Contact details Tel: 011 822 1634
Fax: 011 822 3563
Email address email@example.com Postal address PO Box 7130 Primrose Hill 1417 Physical address Suite 5 123 Rietfontein Road Primrose Germiston, Gauteng South Africa Office hours 08h00 to 13h00 Website http: www.disaster.co.za Institute administrator Karin Muller Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 will be guiding efforts in disaster risk reduction for the next 15 years.
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