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The Rape of Europe Coordinated by José Quaresma Edited by CIEBA – FBAUL




The Rape of Europe

Exhibition

Catalogue

Organization & Project coordination: José Quaresma

Concept: José Quaresma

Curators: BR · Maristela Salvatori ES · Eva Figueras NL · Titus Nolte PL · Krzysztof Wawrzyniak PT · José Quaresma Exhibition Venues: BR · Sala João Fahrion Instituto de Artes da UFRGS Departamento de Artes Visuais ES · Sala de Exposiciones de la Facultat de Belles Arts de la Universitat de Barcelona NL · AG – academiegalerie Faculteit Beeldende Kunst & Vormgeving. Hogeschool voor de Kunsten PL · Galeria Kobro Strzemiński Academy of Art Lodz PT · Galeria e Capela da FBAUL

Proofreading: by the authors Photography: Alexandre Nobre (pp.132 - 138) Dennis Verbruggen (pp.110 - 121) Flavya Mutran (pp. 90-99) Tomasz Matczak (pp.122 - 131) the authors (pp.100 - 109) Design: v-a · studio www.v-a.pt Prepress, printing and binding: DPI Cromotipo – Oficina de artes gráficas Isbn: 978-989-8300-78-2 Depósito legal: 365355/13 © of the works, texts and translations: the authors


Contents

07

Acknowledgments

09

Introduction José Quaresma

11

Texts on Printmaking & The Rape of Europe

12 17 21 25

Expressões gráficas e contemporaneidade Graphic expressions and contemporaneity Maristela Salvatori

29 35

El grabado creativo y multidisciplinar en la era digital. Nuevas propuestas educativas Creative and multidisciplinary engraving in the digital age. New educational proposals Eva Figueras Ferrer

41

The myth of ‘The Rape of Europa’: a dis/comfort place. Drawing this past into the present art context. Bibiana Crespo Martín

45

Bound to be referential Willem du Gardijn

48 55

Graficzna tożsamość Graphic identity Krzysztof Wawrzyniak

Desdobramentos da imagem: algumas visões do Rapto da Europa An image unfolding: some views of the Rape of Europa Maristela Salvatori


The Rape of Europe


62 68

Europejskie drogi grafiki współczesnej European Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art Alicja Habisiak-Matczak

74

A reprodutibilidade instalada – exercícios da gravura enquanto projecto artístico e curatorial. Preâmbulo histórico: a gravura na história da arte contemporânea portuguesa Fernando Rosa Dias

83 Abstracts 86

Author's Biographies

89 Exhibition

Catalogue

90 Brasil Instituto de Artes da UFRGS Departamento de Artes Visuais Porto Alegre 100 Spain Facultat de Belles Arts Universitat de Barcelona 110

The Netherlands Faculteit Beeldende Kunst & Vormgeving Hogeschool voor de Kunsten - Utrecht

122 Poland Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi 132 Portugal Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa 139

List of Works

148

Artist's Biographies

156 Colophon


Acknowlegments

All the Artists All the Essayists The design studio v-a Alexandre Nobre Alicja Habisiak-Matczak Bibiana Crespo Martín Elsa Bruxelas Eugene Jongerius Eva Figueras Ferrer Fernando Rosa Dias Isabel Nunes Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Magdalena Maciaszczyk Maristela Salvatori Paulo Lourenço Peter van dijk Titus Nolte Tomasz Matczak Willem du Gardijn

7

Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi - Poland CIEBA - Lisboa, Portugal Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa Lisbon, Portugal Facultat de Belles Arts Universitat de Barcelona Faculteit Beeldende Kunst & Vormgeving Hogeschool voor de Kunsten Utrecht, The Netherlands Instituto de Artes da UFRGS Departamento de Artes Visuais Porto Alegre, RS Brasil


Introduction

José Quaresma

The Rape of Europe. Back to Agenor’s Demand to his Sons. A Simultaneous Exhibition of Printmaking and Installation. Lisboa, Utrecht, Barcelona, Porto Alegre, Lodz.

“He moved among the cows, more beautiful than they or other bulls, He strolled spring grasses, white as the snow untouched By southern rains or footprint on the ground, Huge, silky muscles at his neck and silvered dewlaps hanging, Horns as white as if a sculptor’s hand had cut them out of pearl. And no one feared his look, forehead and eye were gracefully benign… Agenor’s daughter gazed at him in wonder.” (Ovid, Metamorphoses II. 849-59)

T

his project is an international share of experience and debate on Contemporary Printmaking and Installation. The research required for the art works can be characterized as ABR, we mean an Art Based Research, and the most important in this case was to connect the Agenor’s poetical and mythological demand with our present condition: as if all of us were Agenor’s children (Cadmo, Fénice, Cilix, Tasos, or Fineu) trying hard to find Europe’s place and sense in our days. Continuing the spirit of the last exhibition (Printmaking, Installation and Poetry. The Joy of a Reunion, 2012), this project aims to bring together the contemporary experience and reflection on reproducibility, printmaking and installation, within five art institutions, namely from Portugal, Brazil, The Netherlands, Spain and Poland, by selecting local students and professors and implementing a program about the Europe’s Rape myth and actuality. The central theme of the exhibition consists on contemporary perspectives of the central myth about Europe, giving all sort of printed and installed graphical shapes to the charms and drama of what has happened with Europa in the past, in Crete, and is happening now all over the european continent with the generalized suspension of expectations inside the European Union. 9

José Quaresma


In the beginning of November, the 8th, at the same time, there will take place the opening of five simultaneous exhibitions in the five refered countries, each one represented by ten artists (eight students and two professors of Printmaking). Another inter-relational and inter-institutional peculiarity of these exhibitions will be this one: every artist has the compromise of making five pieces out of his matrix (no matter if it is bi-dimensional or three-dimensional prints) and send them to the other four countries for the simultaneous exhibitions. Once finished the exhibitions, there will be no need to send back the works since all the five Art Institutions will keep the exhibited Art Pieces for their International Printmaking Collections. By doing this the five Art Institutions will enrich their collections in the Printmaking and Installation fields with 50 new Pieces of Art. Besides, we will have an International Cycle of Lectures on the 21 th of October, two weeks before the exhibitions opening. Just like in the last year, the main themes under debate will be: Contemporary Printmaking and its connection with Digital Processes, Installation, and Public Art. We want to end this Introduction by saying that this International Art Academies effort and relationship, connecting Printmaking / Installation and other transversal subjects will continue in the next years, namely: 路 in 2014 with the project Rhinos are Coming. 路 in 2015, with GANDA. 500 years of Printmaking and Science.

Lisbon, 22 September, 2013

Introduction

10


Texts on Printmaking & The Rape of Europe BR Maristela Salvatori ES

Eva Figueras Ferrer Bibiana Crespo MartĂ­n

NL Willem du Gardijn

11

PL

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Alicja Habisiak-Matczak

PT

Fernando Rosa Dias


Expressões gráficas e contemporaneidade

Maristela Salvatori

S

e por um lado, como em todas as áreas do conhecimento, há um vivo e crescente entusiasmo pelas novas tecnologias, este entusiasmo não significou o abandono do ato de gravar e deixar marcas, um gesto fundador tão antigo quanto o homem. Em verdade observamos com frequência, lado a lado, ou mesmo misturadas, tecnologias de ponta e tecnologias que remontam à história da humanidade. Sem representar uma mera substituição, as novas e sedutoras possibilidades de reprodução agregaram avanços tecnológicos que têm sido paulatinamente incorporados ao fazer gráfico e ampliado suas possibilidades. Neste sentido podemos citar, no sul do Brasil, a obra de muitos artistas de sólida carreira, como Maria Lucia Cattani, e trabalhos de jovens que despontam, como os que participam desta exposição. Destacaremos aqui, suscintamente, obras de duas grandes artistas oriundas do Instituto de Artes da UFRGS: Vera Chaves Barcellos e Regina Silveira.

Ampliações e desdobramentos Artista de longa carreira, Vera Chaves Barcellos (Porto Alegre, 1938), que apresenta um trabalho de grande riqueza que lança mão de inúmeros recursos e linguagens, da fotografia à gravura, entre tantas outras possibilidades de apreensão e reprodução da imagem, concluiu Graduação em Música no Instituto de Artes da UFRGS antes de voltar-se à prática das artes visuais. Morou na Europa no início dos anos sessenta e estudou gravura em Londres e Roterdã, antes de retornar ao Brasil e instalar seu atelier em Viamão, na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Logo se destacou no panorama artístico brasileiro com uma vigorosa produção de gravuras, leciona por alguns anos na Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade Feevale, e passa a misturar diferentes linguagens, com grande ênfase na fotografia. Representa o Brasil na Bienal de Veneza, de 1976, com trabalhos de textos e fotografias que propunham interação com o público. Printmaking

12


Algumas de suas obras são séries abertas que são retomadas e apresentadas de forma distinta em diferentes momentos, como ocorre com Epidermic Scapes, iniciada em 1977, onde Barcellos realizou numerosas impressões de pequenos detalhes do corpo humano tendo como ideia central “imprimir o corpo ad infinitum”1. Nesta série, os fragmentos, impressos sobre papel vegetal, foram processados como negativos de fotografia que, ampliados, originaram imensos painéis que têm sido paulatinamente agrupados, rearranjados, e expostos, ora dispostos lado a lado, horizontalmente, ao longo de extensas paredes, como apresentado no Museu de Arte Moderna, do Rio de Janeiro, em 1982, ora justapostos compondo um grande retângulo formado por seis colunas, apresentado em uma parede de grande pé direito, como ocorrido na exposição O Grão da Imagem, no Santander Cultural em 2007 ou dispostos no chão, como na montagem da individual Imagens em Migração, realizada no Museu de Arte de São Paulo em 2009. De forma semelhante, em Os nadadores, obra exposta em 2002, Barcellos retoma imagem de banhistas, tema que já havia sido trabalhado em O Nadador, de 1992. Desta vez, vários recortes de jornal são multiplicados. Estas imagens, fracionadas, manipuladas e fotocopiadas, receberam pinceladas rápidas de pintura acrílica, posteriormente foi criada uma falsa animação através de imagens estáticas sucessivas. As fotocópias pintadas foram fotografadas e, por recurso digital, foram criadas imagens intermediárias simulando corpos que se jogam na água e novamente se levantam, e assim sucessivamente. Com grande atuação na difusão da arte contemporânea, Vera Chaves Barcellos participou do grupo Nervo Óptico (1976-78), fundou o espaço NO (1979-82), a Galeria Obra Aberta, que funcionou de 1999 a 2002, e mais recentemente, em 2004, a Fundação dedicada à arte contemporânea que leva seu nome. Desde 1986, vive entre Viamão e Barcelona.

Projeções e distorções Tendo concluído estudos universitários em Pintura em Porto Alegre, na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, em 1959), Regina Silveira (Porto Alegre, 1939) lecionou alguns anos nesta mesma universidade, deixando sua cidade natal para lecionar na Universidade de Porto Rico antes de estabelecer-se em São Paulo (1973) e atuar como professora junto à Universidade de São Paulo - USP (a partir de 1974), instituição onde realizou mestrado e doutorado. A partir do contato com a obra de Duchamp, nos anos 70, a poética de Silveira amadurece, passa a resgatar códigos anteriormente desprezados para reinventá-los apresentando outras possibilidades de significação2. 13

Maristela Salvatori


Admiradora da ironia de Duchamp e de “suas alegorias pseudocientíficas” 3, realizou inúmeras imagens explorando maneirismos históricos em anamorfoses e fantasmagorias – em que sombras deformadas embutem um caráter ameaçador a objetos corriqueiros. Especialmente a partir de 1980, com a série de gravuras e desenhos Anamorfas, pequenos objetos do cotidiano eram apresentados em grandes distorções perspectivas. Indiciais, as projeções de sombras que, desde então, perpassam a maioria de seus trabalhos, remetem à origem da representação4. Na obra In Absentia: MD, criada em 1983 para a Bienal de São Paulo, a partir de dois pedestais aparecem sombras projetadas em direções opostas, de conhecidos ready-mades de Marchel Duchamp. Constituindo-se num trabalho decisivo no percurso de Silveira, marca sua produção desde então, apresentando não correspondência visual entre sombra e objeto, neste caso ausente, ampliação da escala da obra e referências explícitas a obras icônicas da arte moderna, notadamente apropriando-se de obras de Duchamp e de artistas como Man Ray e Meret Oppenheim, que apresentam o mesmo paradigma duchampiano.5 Na série “Masterpieces/in absentia” (1993), Silveira apresenta sombras de obras inconfundíveis destes artistas, entre outros, mesmo quando tratadas em perspectivas bastante distorcidas. Na instalação de dimensão arquitetônica, Abyssal, realizada na Atlas Sztuki, em Lodz, Polônia, em 2010, através de adesivação de estêncil (vinil adesivo), forjou um espaço virtual sustentado pelo ponto de vista do espectador. É interessante salientar, como aponta Angélica de Moraes, que Regina Silveira dá livre curso à sua imaginação desde o primeiro esboço no papel, onde as sombras “não são obtidas a partir de cálculos. Estes só são convocados depois de a resolução de forma responder ao conteúdo pretendido e apenas para transferir essa cartografia arbitrária ao plano... ou ao espaço... A artista destrói e reconstrói o olhar possível sobre algo antes de lançar mão da régua e dos pontos de fuga que irão objetivar para o espectador a imagem demonstrada e seu conjunto de visões corolárias.”6 Tendo recebido inúmeros prêmios, bolsas de pesquisa, residências de artista e destaques internacionais, Silveira tem apresentado seu trabalho em importantes museus, galerias e centros culturais da Europa, América e Ásia. Cruzamentos Como precisa André Leroi-Gourhan, desde o paleolítico recente, a técnica do gravador ou do pintor conta com seus recursos básicos7. No tocante à gravura, as técnicas desenvolveram-se de modo a tornarem-se mais sofisticadas, porém, seus princípios técnicos básicos Printmaking

14


seguem os mesmos. O que poderia ser tomado como anacronismo, não parece afugentar artistas e amadores, especialmente quando, de mais em mais, os artistas lançam mão de misturas, cruzamentos de linguagens. Conforme Bury, “enquanto os artistas estiverem conscientemente subvertendo ou ampliando as imagens, materiais e métodos [...] qualquer definição de múltiplo vai ser difícil”.8 Menos que um problema, a expansão e permeabilidade de limites para a criação é uma característica que se impõe. Em catálogo de recente exposição no MoMa, Cherix afirma: Enquanto a gravura pode muito bem perder sua distinção como tradicional meio artístico, muitas de suas características – sua reprodutibilidade, capacidade de distribuição, e mesmo sua natureza colaborativa – seguem sendo essenciais no fazer artístico. Olhando o vasto alcance de projetos extraordinários produzidos nas duas últimas décadas, talvez não seja o desaparecimento da mídia impressa que esteja sendo testemunhado mas simplesmente o advento de um tempo onde gravuras serão simplesmente chamadas ‘arte’.9 Considerando os cruzamentos de meios como um fenômeno recorrente, tomamos como exemplo estas duas importantes artistas brasileiras, fazendo um pequeno recorte das extensas e vigorosas produções das artistas enfocadas, nascidas no sul do Brasil, com formação superior no Instituto de Artes da UFRGS e posterior trânsito internacional com ricas vivências na Europa e na América. Estas artistas múltiplas têm forte base e tiveram seu trabalho amadurecido dentro de linguagens gráficas. Em suas escolhas poéticas interessam-se e têm acesso a tecnologias digitais, desbravam fronteiras e executam travessias associando estes recursos à manipulação da matéria. Realizam experimentações, apresentam uma mescla de saberes, conciliando gestos atávicos e novas tecnologias em um eterno fascínio pelas possibilidades poéticas das formas e procedimentos.

Notas 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

15

Depoimento da artista no vídeo documentário da exposição Imagens em Migração, de 2009. CHIARELLI, T. Artista e orientadora, in: MORAES,1996. p.215-216. SILVEIRA Apud ROCA, in: ROCA, 2011, p.9. DERRIDA quando situa a memória como origem da criação, comenta o relato de Dibutade dizendo que este “remonta a origem da representação gráfica à ausência ou à invisibilidade do modelo” (DERRIDA, 1990, p.53-54). ROCA, 2011, p.11. MORAES, A. Sob a pele das aparências, in: MORAES, 1996. p.15-18

Maristela Salvatori


7.

LEROI-GOURHAN, André. Le geste et la parole, I, Technique et langage. Paris: Albin Michel, 1964. p.267 8. BURY, S. 2001. Artists’ Multiples. 1935-2000. Aldershot: Ashgate, p.37: “While artists are consciously subverting or extending the images, materials and methods of other makers of artists’ multiples, any definition of them will be difficult”. 9. CHERIX, Christophe et. al. Print/Out: 20 Years in Print. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2012. p.26: “While printmaking may very well lose its distinctiveness as a traditional artistic medium, many of its characteristics – its reproducibility, capacity for distribution, and even its collaborative nature – remain essential to art-making. Looking at the vast range of extraordinary projects produced in the past two decades, it is perhaps not the disappearance of the print medium that we are witnessing, but rather the advent of a time in which prints will simply be called ‘art’”.

Printmaking

16


Graphic expressions and contemporaneity

Maristela Salvatori

Translation by Nick Rands & Daniela Kern

O

n the one hand, as in all areas of knowledge, there is an active and growing enthusiasm for new technologies, though this enthusiasm has not meant the abandonment of the act of recording and leaving one’s mark, a founding gesture which is as old as mankind. In fact, we often see, side by side, or even mixed, cutting edge technologies and technologies that go back to the history of mankind. Although this is not a mere replacement, the new and enticing possibilities for replication have brought technological advances that have been gradually incorporated into the creation of graphic images and expanded its possibilities. In this regard we can mention the work by several artists who have built a solid career in southern Brazil, such as Maria Lucia Cattani, and pieces by young up-and-comers like the ones featured in this exhibit. We are going to briefly highlight here the work by two great artists trained at the UFRGS Instituto de Artes: Vera Chaves Barcellos and Regina Silveira.

Enlargements and developments Boasting a long career, the artist Vera Chaves Barcellos (Porto Alegre, 1938) shows large pieces that make use of many resources and languages, from photography to printmaking, among the many other possible ways of capturing and reproducing an image. The artist’s began after graduating in Music from the UFRGS Instituto de Artes and then turning to the study and practice of visual arts. In the early 1970s she lived in Europe, studying printmaking London and Rotterdam before returning to Brazil and setting up her studio in Viamão in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, where she soon became known as a Brazilian artist producing important work in printmaking. She taught for some years at the Fine Arts Faculty in Feevale University, and began to investigate different visual languages, with a great emphasis on photography, representing Brazil at the 1976 Venice Biennale 17

Maristela Salvatori


with photograph and text works that involved audience interaction. Some of her pieces are open series that are resumed and presented differently at different times, as with Epidermic Scapes, started in 1977, in which Barcellos repeatedly printed small details of the human body, having the core idea of “printing the body ad infinitum”1. In that series, the fragments printed on tracing paper were processed as photographic negatives which, once blown up, gave rise to huge panels that have been gradually grouped, rearranged, and displayed either side by side, horizontally, along lengthy walls as shown at the Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art in 1982, or juxtaposed to make a large, 6-column rectangle displayed on a very high wall as in the O Grão da Imagem (The Grain of Image) exhibit at Santander Cultural in 2007, or yet set on the floor as part of her individual exhibit Imagens em Migração at the São Paulo Art Museum in 2009. Similarly, in her work Os nadadores (The Swimmers), 2002, Barcellos revisits the image of pool goers, a topic she had worked on in O Nadador (The Swimmer), 1993. This time around, several newspaper cutouts are multiplied. Those fragmented, reworked and photocopied images received brisk strokes of acrylic paint. Then, a pseudo animation was created using successive static images. The painted photocopies were photographed and, via digital resources, intermediate images were created to simulate bodies that plunge into the water only to emerge again, and so on and so forth. She has played an important role in the dissemination of contemporary art, participating in the Nervo Óptico group (1976-78), founding Espaço NO (1979-82), Galeria Obra Aberta from 1999 and 2002, and more recently setting up in 2004 the Foundation that bears her name, devoted to contemporary art. Since 1986 she has divided her time between Viamao and Barcelona.

Projections and distortions Regina Silveira (Porto Alegre, 1939) graduated in painting from the UFRGS Instituto de Artes in 1959 and for some years was a lecturer at the same university, leaving her home town to teach at the University of Puerto Rico before settling in São Paulo (1973) and teaching at the University of Sao Paulo – USP (from 1974), where she also took a master’s degree and doctorate. Following contact with the work of Duchamp in the 1970s, Silveira’s work began to mature, returning to previously rejected codes to reinvent them with other possibilities of signification. 2 Admiring Duchamp’s irony and his “pseudoscientific allegories”, 3 Printmaking

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she made many images exploring historical mannerisms in anamorphoses and phantasmagorias – where distorted shadows convey the threatening nature of everyday objects. From the1980s in particular, with the Anamorfas series of prints and drawings, small everyday objects were presented with huge perspectival distortions. The projections of shadows as indexes referring to the origin of representation4 has since then become a key feature of many of her works. In Absentia: MD, made in 1983 for the Sao Paulo Biennial, presented two plinths, each casting shadows in opposite directions of well known Marcel Duchamp ready-mades. This is a key work in Silveira’s career and has marked her later work, introducing a visual non-correspondence between shadow and object, in this case absent, enlarging the scale of the work and making explicit reference to iconic works of modern art, notably by Duchamp and artists like Man Ray and Meret Oppenheim which present the same Duchampian paradigm.5 Silveira’s series Masterpieces/in absentia (1993) presents shadows of works by these artists and others which are unmistakable even with considerably distorted perspectives. In the architecturally-sized installation Abyssal at Atlas Sztuki in Lodz, Poland, 2010, she used adhesive vinyl stencil to set up a virtual space supported by the spectator’s point of view. This work was created with adhesive stencil to form a virtual space depending on the viewpoint of the spectator. Angelica Morais notes that Regina Silveira allows her imagination free rein from the first sketches on the paper, where shadows “are not based on calculations. These are only brought in after resolution of the form relating to the intended content and then only to transfer this arbitrary mapping onto the plane […] or the space […]. The artist destroys and reconstructs the possible way of looking at something before taking up the ruler and vanishing points that will present the image and its corollary views to the spectator.”6 Regina Silveira has achieved numerous awards, research grants, artist’s residencies and international distinctions, and her work has been shown in important museums, galleries and cultural centres in Europe, America and Asia. Crossroads As André Leroi-Gourhan stated, since the recent Paleolithic, the technique of the engraver or painter has had its basic features 7. Regarding engraving, in fact the techniques have developed and become more sophisticated, but the basic technical principles are still the same. What could be taken as an anachronism does not seem to scare off artists and amateurs, especially when, more and more, artists are resorting to 19

Maristela Salvatori


mixtures, languages ​​crossings. As Bury says, “while artists are consciously subverting or extending the images, materials and methods of other makers of artists’ multiples, any definition of them will be difficult”8. Less than a problem, the expansion and permeability of frontiers is a characteristic that imposes itself to creation. In the catalog for a recent exhibit at MoMa, Cherix says: While printmaking may very well lose its distinctiveness as a traditional artistic medium, many of its characteristics – its reproducibility, capacity for distribution, and even its collaborative nature – remain essential to art-making. Looking at the vast range of extraordinary projects produced in the past two decades, it is perhaps not the disappearance of the print medium that we are witnessing, but rather the advent of a time in which prints will simply be called “art”.9 Considering the intersections of media as a recurring phenomenon, this has been a small cross section of the extensive and powerful work of these artists who were born in southern Brazil, studied at UFRGS Instituto de Artes and later travelled abroad with productive experiences in Europe and America. Their work has its roots and development in the languages of print, while their creative choices involve access to digital technologies, breaking boundaries and associating these resources with manipulation of material. Their experimentations present a mixture of knowledge, combining atavistic gestures with new technologies in an eternal fascination with the poetic possibilities of form and processes. Notes 1. Statement by the artist in the documentary video for her 2009 exhibit Imagens em Migração [Migrating Images]). 2. CHIARELLI, T. Artista e orientadora, in: MORAES, A. de (org.). 1996. Regina Silveira, Cartografias da Sombra. Sao Paulo: EDUSP. p.215-216. 3. SILVEIRA Apud ROCA, in: ROCA, J. 2011. Regina Silveira, mil e um dias e outros enigmas. Porto Alegre: Fundação Iberê Camargo. p. 9. 4. DERRIDA, positioning memory as the origin of creation, mentions the story of Dibutades, saying that it “relates the origin of graphic representation to the absence or invisibility of the model”, in: DERRIDA, J. 1990. Mémoires d’aveugles. Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux. pp. 53-54. 5. ROCA, J. 2011. Regina Silveira, mil e um dias e outros enigmas. Porto Alegre: Fundação Iberê Camargo. p.11. 6. MORAES, A. Sob a pele das aparências, in: MORAES, A. de (org.). 1996. Regina Silveira, Cartografias da Sombra. São Paulo: EDUSP. pp.15-18 7. LEROI-GOURHAN, A. 1964. Le geste et la parole. I. Technique et langage. Paris: Albin Michel. p.267. 8. BURY, S. 2001. Artists’ Multiples. 1935-2000. Aldershot: Ashgate. p.37. 9. CHERIX, Christophe et. al. 2012. Print/Out: 20 Years in Print. NY: Museum of Modern Art. p.26.

Printmaking

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Desdobramentos da imagem: algumas visões do Rapto da Europa

Maristela Salvatori

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or força de nossa imponente extensão territorial, tendemos a um certo auto-isolamento. Também nos reconhecemos como fruto do cruzamento de muitas culturas. No entanto, mesmo se considerarmos a mestiçagem como o traço que melhor define o Brasil, estamos visceralmente vinculados à Europa em decorrência de uma colonização que, entre outros, nos legou uma língua unificadora. O desafio de criar um trabalho gráfico a partir do mito de origem da Europa, este continente ao qual nos sentimos ao mesmo tempo tão ligados e tão distantes, traz muitas questões. Os dez artistas envolvidos, oriundos do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IA/UFRGS) apresentam poéticas, visões e abordagens singulares, com emprego de recursos técnicos e tratamento formal bastante diferenciados. Na obra taurus x virgo, de Maria Lucia Cattani, professora de gravura do IA/UFRGS, as constelações de taurus e de virgo flutuam suspensas entre mar e céu envoltas em traços gestuais – códigos herméticos –, que aparentam ser gravadas a fogo, como a reforçar sagrados scripts. Utilizando recursos variados, misturas atemporais, Cattani aqui se apropria da linguagem fotográfica, realizando impressões digitais, assim como resgata gestos atávicos – rabiscos feitos de forma aleatória – que são gravados a laser sobre o papel. Em algumas áreas, manualmente, raspa o papel expondo sua textura, procedimento que reitera a marca autoral, como uma espécie de assinatura. Egresso do Mestrado, Jander Rama, fiel à sua pesquisa poética atual, utiliza a linguagem dos manuais técnicos para criar um ser híbrido em Europa simbiótica, em linoleogravura. Europa e Zeus, corpos e mentes fundidos, são dotados de nadadeira de golfinho e engenhocas de propulsão que, como asas, os conduzem sobre as águas. Segundo seu depoimento a Europa vive, neste momento, as dores de partes de um corpo que não é seu. A interdependência dos blocos econômicos mundiais prefigura uma justaposição, com partes distintas de diversos corpos. Motores, turbinas e engrenagens ligam-se ao conjunto, gerando a propulsão dos 21

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mercados e a força que mantém a simbiose. Oscilações cambiais na China ou fraudes no sistema financeiro estadunidense, não são mais dores de corpos alheios. Um touro, um golfinho e uma mulher são de realidades distintas, mas no contexto da economia global, fazem parte de uma mesma unidade, como no mito. A Europa é simbiótica.1

Agregam-se a estes cruzamentos a tensão entre um desenho bastante técnico, realizado em cor que remete à cianotipia, e uma impressão artesanal, onde as oscilações da pressão exercida pela mão do artista são evidenciadas na irregularidade da transferência da tinta sobre o papel. Ao conceber o trabalho, realizado em relevo com matrizes de borracha, a graduanda Kárin Meneghetti tomou como base as estrelas que aparecem na bandeira da União Europeia. Uma nova ordenação buscou reiterar a individualidade e singularidade dos componentes do bloco europeu. Conforme suas palavras O bloco, a matriz/borracha, que aparece no alinhamento horizontal intermediário, se desgasta e as impressões de seu desgaste são registradas na sequência de quem lê: ângulos, linhas, faces, arestas, pontos que ora convergem ora divergem... aos poucos, todos se desgastam, se consomem, se gastam, sofrem o rapto. O peão, elemento estranho à matriz que aparece no alinhamento superior, se repete, sugere o giro, o movimento e, delicado como uma renda, representa a sedução. Uma sedução que consome. Meneghetti associa o rapto à vulnerabilidade a que ficam sujeitos os países, quando desconsideradas as características culturais, históricas, sociais, econômicas e financeiras específicas de cada país frente às intervenções de outras economias dentro de um contexto globalizado como o que vivemos. Já a doutoranda Flavya Mutran, que trabalha sobre apropriação e transposição de imagens, tendo a fotografia como mediadora nos processos de impressão que misturam os meios digitais e técnicas manuais, aqui utiliza impressões digitais e calcográficas, destacando no mito o sonho de Europa, às vésperas do sequestro por Zeus, em que duas mulheres brigavam pelo direito de assumir sua maternidade, e encontra numa gravura2 de William Blake uma imagem síntese, uma alegoria para a formação dos três continentes, com mulheres de três etnias diferentes. Para Mutran, “O sonho de Europa e a gravura de Blake parecem antecipar aspectos controversos sobre o antigo projeto de unificação europeia” e a fazem questionar sobre “o quanto a ideia de um território comum ainda pode comportar de mestiçagem cultural e racial, ou de tolerância para diferenças políticas e religiosas.” The Rape of Europe

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Em O rapto de Blake, esta imagem emblemática é transferida e gravada sobre placa de metal, é fotografada para, então, ser impressa e justaposta a imagens de uma escultura grega, um selo em forma de moeda e a trechos do poema ‘O casamento do Céu e do Inferno’(1793), também de Blake, que evocam, de maneiras diferentes, “as contradições entre a matéria e o mundo interior, entre o sonho e os diferentes estados de percepção, sintetizando o conflito entre as duas entidades mitológicas sonhadas por Europa.” A doutoranda Nara Amelia, para abordar este mito, pensou nas relações entre a mitologia greco-romana e a mitologia judaico-cristã, especificamente “nos atributos de seus deuses e de Deus, respectivamente, e nas relações entre Deus/deuses e o homem.” Em um delicado traçado, Gn VI, I-XII apresenta pavões e saguis, na maioria acorrentados a um macaco de maior porte, coberto por uma grande pele e adornado com cornos, tal qual adereços de um grande chefe. Brincam e copulam, com uma indiferença, quase blasé, ao cativeiro. Comumente empregando narrativas identificadas a fábulas, Nara Amelia busca criar metáforas para sugerir suas ideias sobre o mundo. Ao pensar sobre O Rapto, reflete sobre as diferenças entre o deus greco-romano que “age motivado por sentimentos comuns ao homem - como a paixão carnal, e se mistura ao homem,” e “o Deus bíblico, da altura dos céus, se arrepende da sua criação quando vê o comportamento lascivo do homem na terra.” No trabalho do graduando Denis Nicola vemos, em meio a uma vasta pradaria, uma silhueta humana montada sobre um touro e seu reflexo no curso d’água contíguo. A imagem que resulta num tom um tanto metafísico, foi composta pela associação de um registro fotográfico de uma praia no sul do país e da imagem de uma escultura3 em que vemos a Europa cavalgando o touro da mitologia, transferida para placa de metal por meio de serigrafia. Nicola buscou despir o mito de carga dramática, apostando num modo “sereno” onde o romance se perderia, “reconfigurando a história do Rapto de Europa.” Nas visões de Rafael Pagatini e Ana Cândida Sommer Fontoura Europa assume um papel mais ativo, mais atraindo do que sendo atraída, numa ambiguidade que pode fazer parte do jogo de sedução. O egresso do Mestrado Rafael Pagatini, em O rapto da Europa, reflete sobre os “olhares femininos que envolvem a história, desde o olhar de Hera que é enganada por Zeus quando ele se transforma em touro e o de Europa raptada pelo Deus do Olimpo.” Para Pagatini, ambos indicam movimentos opostos, “enquanto um irradia desejo o outro ira, o de Europa a condena a viver em Creta, a beleza viola sua liberdade.” Perfuradas no papel, através do corte a laser, as retículas revelam um olhar cativante, que aprisiona. 23

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A graduanda Ana Cândida Sommer, a mais nova artista do grupo, transpõe o mito à atualidade fazendo uma leitura fragmentária, identificada com a narrativa das Histórias em Quadrinhos. Conforme Sommer, Europa receberia em serenidade seu destino/desígnio, submetendo-se a Zeus por reconhecer nele a divindade e visualizar a importância desta união que deverá gerar filhos que “reinarão sobre a terra.” Propõe um retrato de uma Europa “que faz parte de nossa história, mas que, no entanto, parece sempre tão distante”, no qual “Somos capazes de formar sua imagem juntando as partes, reconhecer sua figura; mas não conseguimos encontrá-la, concreta, ao nosso alcance.” Europa também é tratada como protagonista no trabalho Memórias do rapto, da mestranda Alice Porto, que propõe “Um imaginário delicado e intenso” que “se contrapõe ao mito da mulher seduzida e indefesa.” Realizando pequenos desenhos, registros diários “que cabem na palma da mão”, na interpretação de Porto, fragmentos somados, repetidos e reagrupados, em que “Zeus-touro” é representado graficamente pelo chifre-falo assim como “Formas sinuosas e quentes fazem referência ao corpo e suas pulsões íntimas, à matéria abstrata das lembranças, sensações e sonhos” e compõem “uma narrativa circular e vaga, remetendo a, e ao mesmo tempo borrando, o mito do Rapto de Europa.” Finalmente, para realizar meu trabalho pessoal, cruzaram-se pensamentos, desde o mito primordial do rapto de Europa seduzida por Zeus, sob forma de um touro, aos crescentes povoados surgidos ao longo da história europeia e às trajetórias de tantos imigrantes que buscaram refúgio na América, seguindo um ciclo de deslocamentos e fixação de novos núcleos urbanos, situação como a vivida pela minha própria família. Encontrei, em arquivos pessoais, imagens do pequeno alojamento onde nasceu e viveu meu bisavô e que servia de abrigo aos empregados de uma propriedade rural ao norte da Itália, testemunhos de um percurso errático de meu pai em busca dos traços de seus antepassado e desta Europa que, em anos difíceis, obrigou seus filhos a cruzar mares e desbravar terras desconhecidas. Em Origens VI, a uma representação frontal deste decadente casario, último pouso familiar no velho continente, foram contrapostas uma figura deste imponente touro e traços de sua amada, fundindo vestígios da história de tantos colonos que aportaram no novo mundo a imagens primevas, como símbolo de misturas e migrações. Notas 1.

Todos os depoimentos citados neste texto foram recebidos, por escrito, em maio de 2013. 2. A Europa sustentada pela África e pela América (1796) do artista inglês William Blake (1757–1827). 3. Europa levada embora por um touro, de Lilli Finzelberg (1930)

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An image unfolding: some views of the Rape of Europa

Maristela Salvatori

Translation by Nick Rands

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he imposing scale of Brazil’s territorial landmass has led to a degree of self-isolation. We also see ourselves as the fruit of the mixture of many cultures. But even if we consider a mestizo characteristic as the trait that best defines Brazil, we are still viscerally connected to Europe through the colonisation that, among other things, left us with a unifying language. The challenge of creating a print work based on the myth of the origin of Europe, the continent to which we feel both closely connected and so distant, raises many issues. The ten artists involved, from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Instituto de Artes (AI/UFRGS), present individual creative practices, visions and approaches through the use of a wide range of technical resources and formal treatments. In taurus x virgo by Maria Lucia Cattani, printmaking lecturer at IA/UFRGS, the constellations of Taurus and Virgo float suspended between sea and sky surrounded by gestural marks – hermetic codes – that seem to have been engraved with fire, as if reinforcing the idea of some sacred script. Cattani uses a variety of resources mixed together timelessly, and here adopts the language of photography to make digital prints, while at the same time employing primitive gestures – seemingly random marks – laser cut onto paper. In some areas she physically scrapes the paper to reveal its texture in a process that restates the mark of the author as a kind of signature. Completing his master’s degree, Jander Rama continues his current creative research in adopting the language of technical manuals to create a hybrid creature in the linocut of Europa simbiótica. Europa and Zeus, bodies and minds fused together, acquire a dolphin’s flipper and propulsion devices like wings to carry them over the water. He says of this work: Europe is at the moment experiencing pains in parts of the body that are not hers. The interdependence of global economic blocs 25

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prefigures a juxtaposition with different parts of different bodies. Engines, turbines and gears join the group to generate the propulsion of the markets and the power that maintains symbiosis. Exchange-rate variations in China or fraud in the US financial system are no longer pains in alien bodies. A bull, a dolphin and a woman are distinct realities, but in the context of the global economy they are all part of the same unity, as in the myth. Europa is symbiotic.1 To these connections are added the tension between the technical quality of the coloured drawing that recalls a cyanotype and the handmade print in which the variations in pressure of the artist’s hand can be seen in the irregular transfer of ink onto the paper. Undergraduate student Kárin Meneghetti’s work, made with rubber blocks, is based on the stars in the European Union flag, reorganised to restate the individuality and singularity of the components in the European bloc. As she puts it: The block, the rubber stamp that appears in the central horizontal section, wears down and the prints from this wearing down are recorded in the sequence of reading: angles, lines, faces, edges, points that sometimes converge and sometimes diverge… gradually all wear down, are consumed, spent and plundered. The external element from the block, which appears in the upper area, repeats, suggesting a twisting movement and, as delicate as lace, represents seduction. A seduction that is all consuming. Meneghetti associates the rape with the vulnerability experienced by countries when their specific cultural, historical, social and financial characteristics are ignored in the face of interventions from other economies within the globalised context that we live in. Doctoral student Flavya Mutran works with the appropriation and transposition of images, using photography in print processes mixing together digital media and manual techniques, and here uses digital print and intaglio to highlight the myth of the dream of Europa on the eve of her abduction by Zeus, in which two women fought for the right to maternity, finding a synthesis image in a print2 by William Blake, an allegory of the formation of the three continents, with women from three different racial backgrounds. Mutran says of this work, “The dream of Europa and Blake’s print seem to anticipate controversial aspects of the ancient project of European unification,” and question whether “the idea of a common territory can still support cultural and racial hybridisation, or the tolerance of different religions and political views.” The Rape of Europe

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In O rapto de Blake, this emblematic image is transferred and printed on a metal plate, photographed and then printed and juxtaposed with images of a Greek sculpture, a money-shaped seal and extracts from Blake’s poem ‘The Marriage of Heaven and Hell’ (1793), which in different ways evoke “the contradictions between matter and the inner world, between the dream and the different states of perception, synthesising the conflict between the two mythological entities dreamed by Europa.” Doctoral student Nara Amelia approached the myth by considering the relationships between Greco-Roman mythology and Judeo-Christian mythology, particularly “in the respective attributes of their gods and God, and the relationships between God/gods and man.” The delicately drawn Gn VI, I-XII depicts peacocks and marmosets, mostly chained to a larger monkey, covered with thick skin and adorned with horns like some great chief. They play and copulate, with an almost blasé indifference to their captivity. Nara Amelia often uses fables to create metaphors for suggesting her ideas about the world. Thinking about The Rape, she reflected on the differences between the Greco-Roman god who “acts driven by the feelings of man – such as carnal passion, and mixes with man,” and “the biblical God in heaven repenting his creation when looking down on the lewd behaviour of man on earth.” The work by undergraduate student Denis Nicola depicts a human silhouette mounted on a bull in the middle of a huge prairie, reflected in the nearby watercourse. The image has a sense of the metaphysical and was composed by combining a photograph of a beach in southern Brazil with the image of a sculpture3 of Europa riding the bull of mythology, screen-printed onto a metal plate. Nicola has sought to dismantle the dramatically charged myth in favour of a “serene” approach in which the romance is lost, “reshaping the story of the Rape of Europa” For Rafael Pagatini and Ana Cândida Sommer Fontoura, Europa plays an active role, more attracting than attracted, in an ambiguity that might be part of the game of seduction. Master’s degree graduate Raphael Pagatini has produced a Rape of Europa “that reflects on the female vision involved in the story, from the gaze of Hera who is tricked by Zeus when he changes into a bull to the gaze of Europa raped by the God of Olympus.” For Pagatini they both suggest contrasting movements, “while one radiates desire, the other radiates hatred, Europa condemned to live on Crete, beauty violates her freedom.” Perforations in paper made by laser-cut reticulation reveals an arresting gaze that captivates. 27

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Undergraduate student Ana Cândida Sommer, the youngest artist in the group, brings the myth up to date by creating a fragmentary reading like a comic-strip story. Sommer says that Europa would accept her fate calmly, submitting to Zeus because she recognises his divinity and the importance of the union that will produce children to “rein over the earth”. She offers a portrait of a Europa “who is part of our history, but who always seems so distant”. Where “we can form her image by connecting the parts to recognise her shape; but we are unable to find her, materially, within reach.” Europa is also the leading character in master’s degree student Alice Porto’s Memórias do rapto, which offers “a delicate and intense image” that “contrasts with the myth of the seduced defenceless woman”. Small daily drawings, “that fit in the palm of the hand”, as Porto puts it, to collect, repeat and reassemble fragments in which the “Zeusbull” is depicted graphically by the horns, together with “sinuous warm shapes in reference to the body and its intimate pulsations, and to the abstract matter of memories, sensations and dreams” compose a “wandering circular narrative that both refers to and blurs the myth of the Rape of Europa.” Finally, my own offering to this project involves interconnecting ideas about the ancient myth of the Rape of Europa seduced by Zeus in the form of a bull with the growing settlements of populations throughout European history and the routes of so many migrants seeking refuge in America, following the cycle of displacement and establishment of new urban centres, a condition also experienced by my own family. Personal archives revealed images of the small dwelling where my great-grandfather was born, which served as shelter for farm workers in northern Italy, testaments of my father’s erratic search for his forbears and that Europe which in difficult times forced its children to cross the seas to tame unknown lands. Origens VI is a frontal depiction of that crumbling house, the final family home in the old continent, contrasting with the form of the imposing bull and the traces of his beloved, in a fusion between the signs of the story of so many settlers who arrived in the new world and the ancient images as a symbol of mixtures and migrations.

Notes 1. All the statements in this text were submitted in writing in May 2013. 2. Europa supported by Africa and America (1796) by the English artist William Blake (1757–1827). 3. Europa carried away by a bull, by Lilli Finzelberg (1930).

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El grabado creativo y multidisciplinar en la era digital. Nuevas propuestas educativas

Eva Figueras Ferrer

Como artistas creadores, investigadores y profesores de arte, la mayor parte de nuestra actividad gira en torno a la relación de las personas con la creatividad, la tecnología y los recursos y, a menudo, lo que pretendemos es ofrecer formas nuevas, subversivas y divertidas de interactuar con estos tres ámbitos.

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finales de 1990 y principios de la década pasada, la distribución de la creación artística prometía renovarse con el desarrollo del denominado arte digital. Aunque términos como Net(dot) art o Arte.en.red -refiriéndose a un género de producciones artísticas realizadas ex profeso en y para la red Internet-, impresión digital o realidad virtual ya no resultan ajenos para investigadores, artistas, comisarios y público general, lo cierto es que la promesa de la desmaterialización del objeto artístico1, no parece haberse cumplido: Las exposiciones de arte, como la que se presenta bajo el título “El rapto de Europa”, siguen estando allí. No obstante, las distintas formas de arte, pensadas tanto para la red como para fuera de ella, se han visto subsumidas en el flujo que genera la creciente digitalización, la producción con técnicas digitales y el establecimiento de un bucle de retroalimentación entre lo que está dentro y fuera de línea: “las fronteras se mantienen gustosamente borrosas y las prácticas, tanto analógicas como digitales, parecen reavivarse mutuamente”.2 Son muchos los artistas que han incorporado tecnologías digitales en su producción gráfica analógica para crear nuevos discursos narrativos. Entre los que me gustaría citar -la polifacética Ellen Gallagher o Bruce Conner, las estratificaciones de Seher Shah…- creo que es muy representativa la obra de Christiane Baumgartner. Sus xilografías de gran formato encarnan el equilibrio entre la imagen analógica y la digital. Un sentido de la dualidad que conecta muchos aspectos de su práctica artística, tanto en el proceso de reunir dos tecnologías distintas (la xilografía, como forma primigenia de 29

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reproducción y la tecnología digital, a través de la cual manipula, filtra y prepara la imagen que a continuación será grabada y estampada manualmente), como en el contraste entre el color negro de la tinta y el blanco del papel, entre el relieve de la madera y su ausencia o entre bits 0 1 digitales.3 No cabe duda que la tecnología digital ha cambiado la manera en que nos relacionamos, miramos, nos informamos, compramos, escribimos, leemos, pensamos o, simplemente, “estamos” (conectados, por supuesto). Navegamos, leemos en diagonal, cortamos y pegamos, establecemos y seguimos hipervínculos, nos perdemos por el camino, pero también encontramos “otros caminos”, relacionamos ideas y conceptos y rompemos jerarquías. El artista, no es una excepción, sino todo lo contrario, su agilidad de pensar con imágenes le convierte en un perfecto consumidor de la tecnología digital: Señala, inicia, navega y selecciona, relee, incorpora citas y referencias para generar nuevos discursos expresivos. La tecnología digital modifica la manera en que se producen los procesos de investigación, de gestión, de producción y edición, así como permite una mayor autonomía y, por supuesto, da lugar a cambios en la manera en que se comunica, se distribuye y se consume.4 Nunca hasta ahora hemos estado tan conectados ni hemos tenido tal cantidad de información a nuestro alcance. Estamos en una era de hibridaciones5, en la que fusionamos y compartimos información con los usuarios de la red. Evidentemente esta situación tiene su lado negativo y, quizás no estemos programados para soportar esta avalancha de información. Algunos neurólogos nos advierten de los posibles efectos dañinos que nos pueden afectar en un futuro inmediato como puede ser la falta de concentración, la extenuación… Quizá Paul Válery fue un visionario cuando expresaba la irritación que le producían los museos: “¡Qué cansancio, me digo, qué barbarie! Todo esto es inhumano. No es puro. Esta vecindad de maravillas independientes y enemigas, y más enemigas cuanto más se asemejan, es paradójico […] Pero nuestra herencia nos aplasta. El hombre moderno, extenuado por la enormidad de sus medios técnicos, se ha empobrecido por el propio exceso de sus riquezas […] Un capital excesivo y, por tanto, inutilizable”.6 Ciertamente, la información que viaja por Internet es desmesurada y su obsolescencia es tal que la actualización de contenidos supone una empresa “cuanto menos utópica”. Nicolás Bas Martín lo expresa de la siguiente manera: “Mientras escribo estas palabras soy consciente de que ya mañana habrán quedado desfasadas”, y nos advierte que “lo de hoy ya es antiguo frente al mañana, lo moderno, algo que no nos debe hacer caer en un maniqueísmo sin sentido”.7 Para bien o para mal, la dinámica de la tecnología digital repercuPrintmaking

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te indudablemente en la práctica artística contemporánea. Aparecen nuevas corrientes investigadoras que suscitan relaciones inter, multi y transdisciplinarias basadas ​​en el intercambio de ideas, concepciones, materiales y técnicas, al servicio y en beneficio de la expresión propia del artista. La imagen decimonónica del artista creador, encerrado en su estudio tocado por la inspiración, deja paso al productor de arte que suele trabajar en equipo, compartiendo proyectos artísticos de más o menos envergadura en los que intervienen distintos profesionales -ilustradores, diseñadores, editores, técnicos audiovisuales, etc.- que persiguen un objetivo común. El cambio se produce no solamente en la manera de producir arte sino también en las relaciones económicas derivadas (galeristas, marchantes, museos…). Efectivamente, se abre ante nosotros todo un paradigma de nuevas relaciones económicas y sociales, como el consumo colaborativo de servicios que Internet ofrece: El coche multiusuario, el alojamiento (Airbnb) o la moneda WIR, entre otros.8 Karl Marx utilizaba el término “intersticio” para definir comunidades de intercambio que escapaban del marco económico capitalista por no regirse por la ley de rentabilidad o ganancia. Bourriaud, en su obra Estética relacional9, defiende que la obra de arte, más allá de su valor comercial o semántico, representa un “intersticio social”, es decir, un espacio de diálogo, de relaciones humanas, que ofrece posibilidades de intercambio alternativas a las zonas y sistemas de comunicación impuestos. El concepto de estética relacional de Bourriaud conlleva un cambio en los planteamientos estéticos, culturales y políticos del arte. El autor defiende que el arte actual es relacional en el sentido que se fundamenta en las interrelaciones humanas en relación a una obra, entendida como una duración para experimentar. De este modo, se aleja de la concepción aristocrática del arte como espacio autónomo y privado que el visitante, entendido como un coleccionista, debe recorrer. También se establecerá una nueva dimensión espacio-temporal en el que adquirirá importancia la duración de la experiencia artística (lo que se pone de manifiesto en las performances, en el videoarte…) así como la creación de espacios artísticos no convencionales como pueden ser el street art o el net art, entre otros. Asimismo, se intentará destruir el prejuicio de que la obra de arte debe ser un objeto, alegando que puede corresponder a un acto. Ante este panorama complejo, plural y dinámico, como humildes profesores de arte, nos preguntamos “qué y cómo” enseñar. Los planteamientos metodológicos y la dimensión formativa del Espacio Superior de Educación Europeo (EEES) obliga a las universidades a ofrecer una formación a la vez teórica y práctica, con una vinculación directa con la realidad profesional. Cuando nos planteamos la realidad profesional de un graduado en Bellas Artes aparece ante nosotros un 31

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abanico plural de posibilidades: Artista visual y plástico; Docente en talleres, actividades, workshops internacionales, educación continuada, departamentos pedagógicos y de investigación de los museos y de otra oferta formativa vinculada al arte; Profesionales en actividades de comisariato, o curadores, gestores culturales y gestores del patrimonio artístico; Creativo en los ámbitos de la fotografía, audiovisual y de nuevas tecnologías, en las empresas de las industrias culturales y en las industrias creativas; Experto en cultura visual y asesoría artística; Consultor en materia de arte... Dentro de esta multidisciplinariedad podemos destacar una característica común a todos los perfiles profesionales. Se trata de la capacidad de relacionarse y de trabajar en equipo, entendida como la capacidad de establecer relaciones de confianza y de liderazgo y, al mismo tiempo, de colaborar y aprender mutuamente, de modo que la comunicación resulte productiva para todos los integrantes del grupo colaborador. Con el objetivo de potenciar la formación proactiva y la capacidad para trabajar en equipo, uno de los recursos utilizados en la Facultad de Bellas Artes UB es la participación de alumnos y profesores en actividades de internacionalización10 de la enseñanza artística. Entre estas acciones colaborativas con centros de estudio internacionales destacamos la modalidad del trabajo en red y la utilización del blog como herramienta de comunicación. Dentro de este ámbito, una experiencia importante es la que realizamos juntamente con México, Ecuador y Polonia, para el desarrollo del proyecto de investigación entorno al Libro Arte/Abierto11 (consultable en el blog http://libroarteabierto.blogspot.com/). Otra actividad de internacionalización con la que tenemos bastante experiencia es el Proyecto Expositivo. “El rapto de Europa” que presentamos en esta ocasión entraría a formar parte de este tipo de eventos. Otras experiencias que hemos tenido al respecto podemos citar, por ejemplo, la exposición LiberoLibriEssegi. Rivisitazione di libro, realizada12 en el Mercato Centro Culturale Comunale d’Argenta, en Ferrara en mayo de 2009. En el proyecto participaron profesores y alumnos de la Accademia di Belle Arti di Alarmo (Palermo), la Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, la Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera (Milán), la Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia, la Accademia di Belle Arti di l’Aquila, la Accademia di Belle Arti di Bari y la Facultad de Bellas Artes de Barcelona. Otro ejemplo, es la exposición-intercambio Quelli del Non-Toxic13 entre la Accademia di Belle Arti di Palermo, la Facultad de Bellas Artes de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia y la Facultad de Bellas artes de la Universidad de Barcelona, en 2011. Por último, y para no extendernos demasiado, queremos citar el proyecto expositivo titulado Grafica Contemporanea: Presente e futuro. Quattro visioni a confronto, presentado en el Aula Magna de Bologna durante este curso académico, en la que Printmaking

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participaron la Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (entidad organizadora) y las Facultades de Bellas Artes de Barcelona, Granada y Portugal. El resultado de estas actuaciones pone en evidencia la importancia de la tecnología digital como portal de comunicación y de intercambio de conocimiento, por un lado, y el potencial de creación artística que de ella se deriva, por el otro. Las prácticas analógicas y las digitales se realimentan (feedback) mutuamente y abren unos potenciales comunicativos y expresivos impensable otrora. Cabría decir que las viejas fórmulas que basaban el arte en la creación de belleza o en la imitación de la naturaleza han quedado obsoletas, y en los tiempos en que vivimos el arte es una cualidad dinámica, en constante transformación, inmersa además en los medios de comunicación de masas, en los canales de consumo, con un aspecto muchas veces efímero, de percepción instantánea, presente con igual validez en la idea y en el objeto, en su génesis conceptual y en su realización material. Para concluir, pienso que, como investigadores, profesores y artistas, hemos de ser capaces de vincular tecnología y arte en la aventura del conocimiento con el fin de establecer visiones integradas e integradoras del mundo. Si Donald Kuspit defiende que una obra de arte, tiene que conllevar experiencia estética, emoción y sensibilidad, yo añadiría que una obra de arte, independientemente de la técnica, el formato o el soporte, tiene que fundamentarse en los principios de creatividad, responsabilidad y calidad. Espero que la exposición que se presenta, “El Rapto de Europa”, sea un ejemplo de nuestras proposiciones y deseos.

Notas 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Donald Kuspit, destacado e influyente crítico de arte norteamericano, en su libro Theend of art plantea la desmaterialización del arte y, aunque no comparta la idea de un declive o el fin de la pintura y siendo más bien un defensor de un regreso a las formas tradicionales, es consciente de la revolución plástica desencadenada por el vídeo y el arte digital. Ambos avances tecnológicos proporcionan una herramienta novedosa al alcance, hoy en día, de muchos creadores. Kuspit, D. (2004), The end of art, Cambridge University Press. Herrera, R. (2012) “Perder los papeles: distribución de publicaciones de y sobre artistas en el contexto digital”, en Magazine#104, Editorial A*DESK. [Consultado el 28/2/2013. http://www.a-desk.org/spip/spip.php?article1558]. Para conocer el proceso de la artista ver: Coldwell, P. (2011), “Christiane Baumgartner: Between States”, en Art in Print, 1 (1), pp.2-7. [Consultado el 10/3/2013: http://artinprint.org/index.php/articles/article/christiane_baumgartner_between_states]. En la Editorial del Magazine#104,Editorial A*DESK, oct.2012. [Consultado el 28/2/2013: http://www.a-desk.org/spip/spip.php?article1562].

Eva Figueras Ferrer


7.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

Sobre arte híbrido es iteresante la reflexión de Laura Rosseti en su artículo “Del arte híbrido al arte espectáculo”, en Anuario de Investigación, (UAM), México, 2007, pp. 317-333. Valéry, P. “Le problème des musées”, ahora en Œuvres, París, Pléide, II, p.1290 ss. Bas Martín, N. “Las `abejas’ frente a las `arañas´: un secular debate sobre el futuro del libro antiguo”. Anales de Documentación, 2012, vol. 15, nº 1. [Consultado el 10/3/2013: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesdoc.15.1.132791]. Bendell, J. “L’ús del mòbil traurà el poder monetari als bancs“, en La Contra de La Vanguardia, 27/02/2013. Bourriaud, N. (2006), Estética relacional, Buenos Aires: Adriana Hidalgo editora. Figueras, E. & Crespo, B., “La Facultad de Bellas Artes de la Universidad de Barcelona. Un modelo de internacionalización de enseñanza artística”, en las Actas del Congreso Internacional de Docencia Universitaria e Innovación, CIDUI 2012. Mínguez García, H. (2012), Libro-arte/abierto, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Méxcio: Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez. LiberoLibroEssegi, Rivistazione di libri. Ravenna, Edizioni Essegi, 2009. Quelli del Non-Toxic. Palermo, 2010. http://incisionesostenibile.wordpress. com/2011/02/25/quelli-del-non-toxic-2/ [Publicado: 25/02/2011. Consultado: 4/03/2013].

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Creative and multidisciplinary engraving in the digital age. New educational proposals (English Translation)

Eva Figueras Ferrer

In our capacity as creative artists, researchers and fine arts professors, most part of our activity focuses on the relationships between people and creativity, technology, and resources, and, most frequently, what we aim to offer are new enjoyable and subversive ways of interacting with these three fields.

I

n the late 1990s and the early 2000s, the development of the socalled digital art promised to renew the distribution of artistic creation. Although terms such as Net(dot)art or Arte.en.red – referring to a genre of artistic productions expressly created on and for the Internet -, digital printing or virtual reality are no longer alien to researchers, artists, curators and the general public, the fact is that the promise of dematerialization of the artistic object1 does not seem to have been accomplished: art exhibitions such as the one presented under the title of ‘The Rape of Europa’ are still there. Nevertheless, the different art forms, intended both for and outside of the Internet, have been subsumed in the flow generated by increasing digitization, digital production techniques, and the establishment of a feedback loop between what is found on line and off line: “frontiers are pleasingly kept blurry and the practices, both analogue and digital ones, seem to revive each other”. 2 A great many artists have included digital technologies in their analogue graphic production in order to create new narrative discourses. Among those I would like to mention – the multitalented Ellen Gallagher or Bruce Conner, Seher Shah’s layer superimpositions… I think Christiane Baumgartner’s work is highly representative. Her large format woodcuts embody the balance between the analogue and the digital image. A sense of duality that connects many aspects of her artistic practice, both in the process of joining two different technologies (xylography, as an early method of printing, and digital technology, which she uses in order to handle, filter and prepare the image that will then be engraved and printed manually) and in the contrast between the black of the ink 35

Eva Figueras Ferrer


and the white of the paper, between the wood relief and its absence or between binary digits 0 and 1.3 There can be no doubt whatsoever that digital technology has changed the way we relate to each other, look at each other, gather information, do the shopping, write, read, think, or simply, “are” (on line, obviously). We browse the Internet, skim texts, cut and paste, establish and follow hyperlinks, get lost on the way, but also find “other ways”, relate ideas and concepts, and break hierarchies. The artist is not an exception, on the contrary, their agility to think in pictures turns them into the perfect consumer of digital technology: they tag, log in, browse and select, re-read, add quotes and references to generate new expressive discourses. Digital technology modifies the way in which research, management, production, editing and publication processes are performed, while enabling greater autonomy and, of course, gives rise to changes in the way in which communication, distribution, and consumption are carried out.4 Never before have we been so connected nor have we had so much information at our fingertips. We live in an age of hybridization5, in which we merge and share information with Internet users. Obviously, this situation has its downside since we might not be programmed to bear this deluge of information. Some neurologists warn us about possible harmful effects that we might be confronted with in the immediate future, such as lack of concentration, exhaustion, etc. Paul Válery may have been a visionary when he expressed the annoyance that museums caused him: ‘¡How tiring, I say to myself, how absurd! This is inhuman. It is not genuine. This vicinity of independent and conflicting wonders, the more alike the more conflicting, is paradoxical […] However, our legacy is overwhelming. The modern man, exhausted by the enormousness of their technical means, has become impoverished due to the very excess of their riches […] An excessive capital and, therefore, unusable’.6 Indeed, the information which travels on the Internet is excessive and its obsolescence is such that content updating is “at the very least a utopian” task. Nicolás Bas Martín expresses the idea in the following way: ‘While I am writing these words, I am aware of the fact that they will have already become outdated tomorrow’, and warns us that ‘what is relevant today is already outdated with regard to tomorrow, to the modern, which should not make us yield to senseless Manichaeism’.7 For better or for worse, digital technology dynamics undoubtedly has an effect on contemporary artistic practice. New research trends appear which give rise to inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary relationships based o​n the exchange of ideas, conceptions, materials and techniques, at the service and in the interest of the artist’s own expresPrintmaking

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sion. The nineteenth-century image of the creative artist, confined in their study, touched by inspiration, gives way to the art producer who usually works in a team, sharing major or minor artistic projects which involve different professionals -illustrators, designers, editors, audiovisual specialists, etc. - who pursue the same objective. The change takes places not only in the way in which art is produced but also in the consequent economic relationships (art gallery owners or directors, art dealers, museums, etc). Indeed, a whole paradigm of new economic and social relationships opens up in front of us such as the collaborative consumption of services offered on the Internet: car-sharing, accommodation (Airbnb) or the WIR currency, among others.8 Karl Marx used the term “interstice” to define trading communities that eluded the capitalist economic framework since they were not ruled by the law of profit. Bourriaud, in his work Relational Aesthetics9, defends that the work of art, beyond its commercial or semantic value, represents a “social interstice”, i.e., a space for dialogue, for human relationships, which offers alternative possibilities of exchange with respect to the communication areas and systems imposed upon us. Bourriaud’s concept of relational aesthetics entails a change in the aesthetic, cultural and political approaches of art. The author defends that current art is relational in the sense that it is based on human interrelations with regard to a work of art, understood as a period of time to experience. Thus, he moves away from the aristocratic conception of art as an autonomous and private space which the visitor, viewed as a collector, must cover. A new time-space dimension will also be established, in which the length of the artistic experience (which is evidenced in performances, video art, etc) as well as the creation of unconventional artistic spaces such as street art or net art among others will gain importance. Likewise, attempts will be made to destroy the prejudice that the work of art must be an object, alleging that it may also correspond to an action. In light of this complex, plural and dynamic situation, in our capacity as modest fine arts professors, we wonder “what and how” to teach. The methodological approaches and the educational dimension of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) oblige universities to provide theoretical and practical training at the same time, in direct connection with professional reality. When we deal with the professional reality of a graduate in Fine Arts a wide range of possibilities opens up before us: visual artist; teacher of workshops, activities, international workshops, further education, teaching and research departments of museums and other training offers related to art; professionals of curatorial activities, or curators, cultural managers and managers of artistic heritage; creators in the sphere of photography, audiovisual 37

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arts and new technologies, in cultural and creative industries; expert in visual culture and artistic consultancy; art consultant, etc. Within this multidisciplinary field we can distinguish a characteristic that all these professional profiles have in common. It is the capacity to relate to people and work in a team, understood as the capacity to establish trusting and leadership relationships, as well as to cooperate and learn from one another, so that communication become fruitful for all the members of the cooperating group. With the aim of promoting proactive training and the capacity to work in a team, the participation of students and teachers in activities of internationalization10 of art teaching is one of the resources used in the Faculty of Fine Arts, at the University of Barcelona. Among the collaborative actions with international educational centres we highlight the modality of networking and the use of the blog as a means of communication. Within this field, our collaboration with Mexico, Ecuador and Poland, in the development of a research project regarding the Libro Arte/Abierto11 (which can be accessed in the blog http://libroarteabierto.blogspot.com/) is an example of an important experience. Another internationalization activity that we have gained certain experience in is the Proyecto Expositivo (‘Exhibition Project’). ‘The Rape of Europa’, which we are presenting on this occasion, is part of this type of events. Other examples of experiences that we have had in this regard include the exhibition LiberoLibriEssegi. Rivisitazione di libro, carried out12 in Mercato Centro Culturale Comunale d’Argenta, in Ferrara, in May 2009. The project engaged teachers and students of Accademia di Belle Arti di Alarmo (Palermo), Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera (Milan), Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia, Accademia di Belle Arti di l’Aquila, Accademia di Belle Arti di Bari and the Faculty of Fine Arts of Barcelona. Another example is the exchange-exhibition Quelli del Non-Toxic13 involving the Accademia di Belle Arti di Palermo, the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Valencia, and the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Barcelona, in 2011. Last but not least, we would like to mention the exhibition project entitled Grafica Contemporanea: Presente e futuro. Quattro visioni a confronto, shown throughout this academic year in the Aula Magna in Bologna, which involved the participation of Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (organizer) and the Faculties of Fine Arts of Barcelona, Granada and Portugal. The result of these actions highlights the importance of digital technology as a portal of communication and knowledge exchange, on the one hand, and the potential of artistic creation which derives from it, on the other. Analogue and digital practices reciprocally feedback and give rise to formerly unconceivable communication and expresPrintmaking

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sive possibilities. It might be said that the old formulae, according to which art was based on the creation of beauty or the imitation of nature, have become obsolete, and in the times in which we live art is a dynamic quality, in constant transformation, and, what is more, immersed in the mass media, in the channels of consumption, most times with an ephemeral aspect, of momentary perception, equally present in the idea and in the object, in its conceptual genesis and in its material execution. Finally, I think that in our capacity as researchers, professors, and artists, we should be able to link technology and art in the adventure for knowledge with a view to establishing integrated and integrating visions of the world. Donald Kuspit defends that a work of art must entail aesthetic experience, emotion, and sensitivity; however, I would add that a work of art, regardless of technique, format or support, must be based on the principles of creativity, responsibility and quality. I hope that the exhibition which is now being presented, ‘The Rape of Europa’, will be an example of our proposals and desires.

Notes 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

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Donald Kuspit, a prominent and influential North American art critic, contemplates art dematerialization in his book The end of art and, although he does not share the view of the decline or the end of painting, but rather defends a revival of traditional art forms, he is aware of the visual art revolution triggered by video and digital art. Both technological advances provide a new tool, currently accessible to many creators. Kuspit, D. (2004), The end of art, Cambridge University Press. Herrera, R. (2012) Perder los papeles: distribución de publicaciones de y sobre artistas en el contexto digital (‘Losing control: the distribution of publications by and about artists in the digital context’), in Magazine#104, Editorial A*DESK. [Accessed on 28/2/2013. www.a-desk.org/spip/spip.php?article1558]. In order to learn about the artist and her process, see: Coldwell, P. (2011), Christiane Baumgartner: Between States, in Art in Print, 1 (1), pp.2-7. [Accessed on 10/3/2013: http://artinprint.org/index.php/articles/article/ christiane_baumgartner_between_states]. In the Editorial of Magazine#104, Editorial A*DESK, Oct.2012. [Accessed on 28/2/2013: http://www.a-desk.org/spip/spipphp?article1562]. Interesting considerations regarding hybrid art can be found in Laura Rosseti’s article Del arte híbrido al arte espectáculo (‘From Hybrid Art to Show Art’), in Anuario de Investigación (‘Research Annual’), (UAM), Mexico, 2007, pp.317-333. Valéry, P. Le problème des musées, now in Œuvres, París, Pléide, II, p.1290 ss. Bas Martín, N. Las `abejas’ frente a las `arañas´: un secular debate sobre el futuro del libro antiguo (‘“Bees” versus “spiders”: an ancient debate about the future of the old book’). Anales de Documentación (‘Annals of Documentation’), 2012, vol. 15, nº 1. [Accessed on 10/3/2013: http://dx.doi. org/10.6018/analesdoc.15.1.132791].

Eva Figueras Ferrer


10.

11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

Bendell, J. L’ús del mòbil traurà el poder monetari als bancs (‘The use of mobile phones will take away financial power from banks’), in La Contra, La Vanguardia, 27/02/2013. Bourriaud, N. (2006), Estética relacional (‘Relational Aesthetics’), Buenos Aires: Editor Adriana Hidalgo. Figueras, E. & Crespo, B., “La Facultad de Bellas Artes de la Universidad de Barcelona. Un modelo de internacionalización de enseñanza artística” (The Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Barcelona. A model of internationalization of art teaching), in the Actas del Congreso Internacional de Docencia Universitaria e Innovación (The minutes of the International Congress of University Teaching and Innovation), CIDUI 2012. Mínguez García, H. (2012), Libro-arte/abierto (‘Art/Open Book’), Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez. LiberoLibroEssegi, Rivistazione di libri. Ravenna, Edizioni Essegi, 2009. Quelli del Non-Toxic. Palermo, 2010. http://incisionesostenibile.wordpress. com/2011/02/25/quelli-del-non-toxic-2/ [Published: 25/02/2011. Accessed: 4/03/2013].

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The myth of ‘The Rape of Europa’: a dis/comfort place. Drawing this past into the present art context.

Bibiana Crespo Martín

Myths are made for the imagination inspire. (Camus, 1953)

T

oday, in artistic activities in general, it is absolutely necessary to retrace past paths again: from a strictly objective and not a deliberate subjective point of view. Only in this way it is posible to express the complexity of our time. The importante of recovering the concepts ‘place’, ‘continuity’ and ‘context’, the necessity of historical revision –avoiding any cult of trend and tendency– will produce a vital, synergetic development and a straightening in whatever the artistic expresión. Ideologists subdued by the concept of ‘progress’ (material, intellectual, etc.) have partly increased a sense of ‘discomfortable’ in the human condition. The results of this progress have contributed to the desabilization of people. People are no longer able to find their own centre (both socially or individually) within reality. An indivual is constantly conditioned to achieve accumulation, to acquire wealth, to pursue arid carrers etc. –not only for economic safeness but mostly, to affirm his/her own identity consequently he has lost a certain sense of profound aesthetic pleasure (Pagnes, 2010: 45). An individual wrongly tries to find his own legitimacy exteriorly, but doesn’t find it due to a capitalistic system solidly founded on deprivatation: a necessary assumption needed for its surviving and affirmation. Perhaps, too artificially, contemporary art abusing metaphors even if ripe with evocative values has focused its effort on finding the most suitable symbol. But symbols –apart from a few involuntary, sporadic cases– can’t be configured as autonomous objects. The Rape of Europa is the rape of the other, the rape of the Oriental culture, the rape of the identity, or maybe the definition of an identity (Diez de Velasco, 1998: 36) ‘to justify oriental’s people colonization or expansion towards The West. In this way, the myth of Europa is the 41

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justification of the East men expansion, that gave the name of Europe to all the western lands traversed in their colonization’ (López Monteagudo & San Nicolás, 1995: 384-385) and ‘Grece defines and states its identity facing the others, the rest of the world, and the barbarian’ (Romero, 2004: 15). It is in the contemporary art context where the words identity, place and borders are the main subject goals. And it seems a paradox, but in such a reality, we are facing the emptiness of contents and meanings: already known images and signes are constantly repeated and re-elaborated; copies increase; means of merely mechanical reproduction are often over spoiled: a real, proper exchange of ideas is practically extinguished. If art has always been considered a looking glass of its own times and society, it is now more than evident that today the obtained results are just merely conventional. Then, it may lead to affirm the existence of an ‘international-plural-multicultural art’ while we probably should stand the existence of a transcultural space where identity, place and borders get blur and turn to be an ‘in-between’ state either conceptualy or technicaly speaking, because we all are transforming in people that are no longer of one place or that belong to one culture, or that have a specific way of making art because of an identity or place but between several ones, between cultures, between realities, between artistic disciplines,… At this point seems inevitable to admit that the meaning of Europe as a territorial space –that has given rise to a continent that has been centre and fulcrum of western thought and culture– falls into crisis and the eurocentrism (Bancalari, 2011: 106) loses its missionary and imperialist sense more than ever. Through my research about this ‘in-between’ state I discovered the term liminality1. This singular term, derived from the latin word ‘limen’, meaning threshold, is able to describe the characteristics of any in-between state, regardless of the context that it is part of a place, a time, a situation, a being. In itself or be a part of, or initiate a liminal event. To stay close to the origins of liminality, a threshold is a liminal space in itself, but the crossing of this threshold is also a liminal act. Therefore liminality is defined as a middle ground, a space and time where transformations take place, a transitional state filled with ambiguities and contradictions. Even though, in an indirect way, one can recognize these characteristics in the works of many artists and the writings that exist about them and definitely the art practice done on liminality is becoming a real thematic focus for many artists. For groups, as well as individuals, life itself means to separate and to be reunited, to change form and condition, to die and to be reborn. It is to act and to cease, to wait and rest, and then to begin acting again, The Rape of Europe

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but in a different way. And there are always new thresholds to cross: the threshold of summer and winter, of a season or a year, of a month or a night, the threshold of birth, adolescence, maturity and old age; the threshold of death and that of the afterlife –for those who believe in it (van Gennep, 1960: p.189). Nowadays, contemporary artists have taken the concept of liminality far beyond its original ritual context, and have shown the seeds for liminality to be explored and analysed, discovered and used in many areas of research and practice outside of the anthropological field. Although many contemporary art practices do not overtly involve ritual, practitioners often use personal rituals to prepare themselves to begin work, and see this as an integral and necessary part of their creative process, which could be understood as liminal. For audiences, liminal experience can occur when engaging with any art form, including painting, sculpture, film, photography or installation, when the conditions are right to enter a contemplative state of mind for long enough to be affected by what they have experienced. This is not the same as ‘entertainment’ (Jones, 2008), which offers amusement and distraction, nor is it ‘escapism’, which allows a brief respite from reality, but does not alter it. Liminal experience always transforms, even if this is in small and subtle ways like the subtle transformation of Europe in a dis/comfort place constantly trying to redefine itself.

References Bancalari Molina, A. (2011). El mito de Europa en los textos literarios clásicos. Acta literaria, nº 43, II Sem., pp. 95-109. Available from: www.scielo.cl/pdf/actalit/n43/art07.pdf doi: 10.4067/S0717-68482011000200007 Camus, A. (1953). El mito de Sísifo. Buenos Aires: Editoral Losada S. A. Available from: www.correocpc.cl/sitio/doc/el_mito_de_sisifo.pdf Diez de Velasco, F. (1998). Lenguajes de la religión. Mitos, símbolos e imágenes de la Grecia Antigua. Madrid: Trotta. Jones, R. (2008). Liminal. A place that is not a place and a time that is not a time. Available from: www.shu.ac.uk/faculties/aces/art/liminal.htm La Shure, C. (2005). What is Liminality?. Available from: http://www. liminality.org/about/ López Monteagudo, G. & San Nicolás Pedraz, M. P. (1995). El mito de europa en los mosaicos hispano-romanos. Análisis iconográfico e interpretativo. In UNED (Ed), Espacio, tiempo y forma, Serie II, Hisotria Antigua, tomo 8. Madrid: UNED. Pagnes, A. (2010). The fall of Faust. Considerations on contemporary art and art action. Florence: VestAndPage press. Romero González, D. (2004). El mito del rapto de Europa como punto de partida para la creación de una identidad. Ámbitos. Revista de estudios de ciencias sociales y humanidades, num. 12, pp. 13-18. Available from: http:// helvia.uco.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10396/8749/12.2.pdf?sequence=1

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van Gennep, A. (1909) (ed. 1960). The rites of passage. Chicago: University of Chicago press. Turner, V. (1967) (ed. 1970). The foerst of symbols: aspects of Ndembu Ritual. London: Cornell University Press.

Notes 1.

The term was first introduced as a concept in 1909 by the ethnologist Arnold van Gennep, in his fundamental work Les Rites de Passage (1909). Although it was a unique body of work, it wasn’t until 1960, when it was translated into English (The Rites of Passage (1960)) and elaborated upon by anthropologist Victor Turner (1997), that it received any attention outside the anthropological world, and that the terms ‘liminal’ and ‘liminality’ gained popularity. Van Gennep analyzed that all rites of passage rituals, like the transition from childhood to adulthood, from woman to mother, from elder to ancestor an so on, have the same three-fold pattern: separation, liminality and incorporation, or according to La Shure (2005): separation, liminal period, reassimilation. Arnold van Gennep also showed that rites of passage are not only present at these moments but may accompany any change from one state to another. Rites of passage are universal, they apply to any society in any part of the world, but the level of importance they have varies from nation to nation, society to society, family to family and from individual to individual.

The Rape of Europe

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Bound to be referential

I

Willem du Gardijn

f one would want to say something about the rape of Europe as a theme it is obvious first to reflect on its mythological origins. Europe, the daughter of the king of Phoenicia, Agenor, and the sister of Cadmus, founder of Thebes, was seduced and abducted by Zeus, who presented himself to her as a bull, beautiful, burly and powerful, pretending he was grazing. She caressed him, mounted him, rode on his back among the herds of her father, when he, against her will, with the speed of lightning, suddenly took her to Crete, by doing so once more proving that seducing and abducting are more or less equivalents in Greek mythology. On Crete Zeus presented his true nature as god of the sky and thunder, which was probably not a disappointment at all, and mated her. She could not return, had two children with him and became the first queen of Crete. The story of her name being given to the continent is a long one, but first (according to the Greek geographers) Europe stood for Greece’s mainland, later it extended to the lands in the north. In late roman antiquity Europe became the geographical designation for the Latin-Christian western part of the empire. So Europe is a Phoenician girl, ravished and raped by the head of all the mythological gods, mother of two or three children, finally becoming a powerful and of course beautiful queen of a beautiful island. Nice, but also strange and a quite violent origin for a continent that has been Christian throughout most of its history. A powerful bull with on its back a half naked girl, taken away against her will, but well accommodated afterall. Does this image, with its latest manifestation on the two euro coin of Greece say something about Europe as a culture and a continent? Europe was seduced by an undercover god, hiding his true appearances. If Zeus had not been undercover in the shape of a white bull, would Europe have fallen for him? Can you say Europe fell for a lie, or is this a mythological way of telling a story in which transformations and metamorphoses are daily business and not under suspicion at all? One thing is certain, if Zeus had not raped Europe, our continent 45

Willem du Gardijn


would have a totally different name. Europe and rape are in this sense unavoidably associated. This association is probably a historical coincidence, never the less it works as an accusation. So here we are now, Europe, in modern times, we have our own world wars, we have lots of civil wars, we have our own economic union, we have our own political and social division, we have our freedom, we have our democracies we have our culture, our own civilized heritage. What would that Phoenician girl think of what has happened on her continent? Would she be proud, would she feel betrayed? Behind the European bull, no doubt, Zeus is still hiding. I want to make a big jump and enter into my second reflection. Can the rape of Europe work as a theme for artists and writers? Of course it can. Europe as a mythological figure is inspiring, Europe as a geographical and cultural-historical phenomemon is infinitely interesting, like rape and violence are interesting to artist and writers. Conflict and suffering are the motor of cultural progress. It is possible to look at European history as to one big violent conflict among different undercover gods in the shape of religions, nations and ideologies. The rape of Europe, whether mythologically or historically approached, is unavoidable content to the creative mind. We have seen Goya depicting war almost beyond compare, and no European novel of quality exists without in one way or another showing the violent, pain - and harmful relation between men. Where would the artist be without? Love is beautiful, but would be boring without its counterpart. For example if Europe had not been violently abducted by Zeus the story would have been half as nice. Europe is a heroine because before giving in she struggled with Zeus. Actually, her resistance was a part of the charms Zeus was attracted to. But how can one deal with this content of violence, rape and beauty as a writer or as an artist? For a writer this is not too difficult, he or she creates a new narrative in language. For visual artists it is much more difficult to address the content of a theme, unless the artist uses, like the writer, a narrative approach in which he represents a story or a part of a story by using figuration, symbol, metaphor or other narrative instruments. The point is of course that since the beginning of the twentieth century (or even earlier), in most western countries representation has become a central point of discussion. Art is no longer about an external story to tell. Art is about the question whether we should tell a story at all. And when we still intent to tell a story as a visual artist it is most probably not the classical story that exists independent of the work of art. No, modern art works generally speaking tell their own story by disseminating meaning originating in the specific media used. This meaning may have a referential character, but necessary this is The Rape of Europe

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not. It depends upon your view. Didn’t Donald Judd say that his work had no story at all. References should be avoided, references, according to anachronistic abstractists as Judd and his friends, only poison the true specific goal of modern art and that is to be independent and emancipated from the daily visual and historical appearance of reality. Judd would certainly have refused the participation in the rape of Europe project. Anselm Kiefer, Damien Hirst, Luc Tuymans or Gerard Richter would probably have been more positive. But how would they have responded to this theme? Of course we can only fantasy. Maybe they have responded to it already. In postmodernism the war between the referential and non referential in art is over with. Maybe this explains the open invitation to different artists of different countries (even non European) to reflect on a free basis on the rape of Europe. The works shown in this catalogue and related exhibitions are very implicit, even casual to the theme. They refer and they don’t, it is up to the viewer and his imagination to decide. When I was speaking to the Dutch participants of the exhibition (the HKU fine art students Guy Vording, Roos Hilhorst, Dennis Verbruggen, Janneke Bolt, Liza Nijhuis, Maaike Jaspers, Stan van Remmerden, Lucie von Eugen, Goof Kloosterman, Naama Zusman and Jolijn de Wolf) it became clear to me that the theme mattered to them, that they had reflected on it, but that in the realisation of the art works they were not more than intuitively guided by the starting point of the rape. The question is whether this is an omission. I am not here to tell it is, but I know that if you want to do an exhibition that is strongly coherent, intuition is not the only decisive factor. Strong connection (I mean impact) is more than intuition, it presupposes discipline, self criticism, patience and the utter ability of the artist and the curator to be empathic in a cognitive and affective way. Europe as a Phoenician girl, you can draw her as a classicist, you can produce a metaphor for the fate she experienced, you can create a white or black square or tube, you can erect a landscape and burn it, you can paint a photograph, you can pronounce yourself to be a capitalist realist, be lyrical, analytical, experimental or absurd and still refer to that great thing that once happened in reality and in the minds of people: the experience of rape, the experience of sexuality, the experience of violence. Zeus seduced Europe, Europe may seduce us to create something that matters. Unless the artist gives expression to something that has stirred his soul, he is not free. In the end we are bound to be referential. Works without story do not exist.

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Willem du Gardijn


Graficzna tożsamość

W

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak

Wstęp

ystawy grafik noszące wspólny tytuł „Porwanie Europy” są świetną okazją do ukazania dorobku i potencjału twórczego studentów i pedagogów z różnych ośrodków akademickich. Konferencja naukowa towarzysząca tej wystawie stwarza możliwości życzliwej konfrontacji, wymiany doświadczeń o metodach kształcenia i poglądów z różnych obszarów artystycznej edukacji. Moja syntetyczna forma wypowiedzi uwarunkowana jest ograniczonymi ramami czasu i zapewne nie wyczerpuje w pełni wszystkich poruszanych wątków. Chciałbym podzielić się swoimi wspomnieniami, doświadczeniami oraz refleksjami praktykującego grafika i nauczyciela tej dyscypliny artystycznej wypowiedzi. Za pomaca subiektywnej obserwacji różnych zjawisk i przeżyć szeregu zdarzeń spróbuję odnieść się do spraw szczególnie mi bliskich związanych z własnymi studiami i aktualną pracą w Katedrze Grafiki Warsztatowej. Posiłkując się pamięcią własną oraz historyczną, zaczerpniętą z różnych źródeł, chciałbym przybliżyć specyfikę i cechy grafiki łódzkiej.

Studia 1974-1979 Moje zainteresowania i fascynacje grafiką warsztatową zostały rozbudzone w trakcie trwania studiów w Państwowej Wyższej Szkole Sztuk Plastycznych w Łodzi ( obecnie Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi). Studiowałem tam w latach 1974 – 1979. Wydział Grafiki został powołany w roku akademickim 1971 – 1972 dzięki staraniom i działalności prof. Romana Artymowskiego, prof. Stanisława Fijałkowskiego i prof. Leszka Rózgi. Główny trzon Wydziału tworzyły dwie katedry: Katedra Grafiki Projektowej i Katedra Grafiki Warsztatowej. Zainteresowanie tym kierunkiem było wtedy bardzo duże, popularność grafiki powodowała, że liczba miejsc była ograniczona. O przyjęciu Printmaking

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decydowały oceny z ostatniego semestru II roku i prezentacja własnego dorobku rysunkowego i malarskiego. Pomyślnie zdałem ten wewnętrzny egzamin i zostałem przyjęty w 1976 roku do Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej. Program szkoły nastawiony pragmatycznie na kształcenie projektantów współpracujących z przemysłem był na tyle elastyczny, że stwarzał możliwości edukacji w obszarze sztuki czystej, wtedy w latach 70- tych stojącej na całkiem wysokim poziomie. Katedra Grafiki Warsztatowej była dla mnie, i jak sądzę dla wielu moich kolegów, szczególnym laboratorium sztuk. Patrząc z perspektywy czasu, struktura Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej tamtego okresu była bardzo spójna i przejrzysta. Składała się z czterech pracowni specjalistycznych: Pracowni Technik Drzeworytniczych, Pracowni Technik Metalowych, Pracowni Druku Płaskiego i Technik Litograficznych. Do dyspozycji studentów był Zakład Technologii Grafiki. Program kształcenia nakładał obowiązek studiowania przez okres dwóch semestrów we wszystkich pracowniach specjalistycznych oraz obligatoryjnie wszystkie przedmioty teoretyczne. Wybrałem jednocześnie studia w Pracowni Malarstwa, Rzeźby i w Pracowni Rysunku, w ramach wolnego wyboru były jeszcze Pracownia Fotografii i Filmu i Pracownia Wybranych Zagadnień Plastycznych. Dokonując tej skrupulatnej prezentacji przedmiotów i różnych pracowni chciałem przybliżyć ofertę edukacyjną Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej z tamtych lat. Różnorakie metody dydaktyczne prowadzących pracownie, dawały nam, studentom w tamtym czasie, poczucie bezpieczeństwa i artystycznej wolności. Towarzyszył nam autentyczny zapał do pracy i nieskrywana satysfakcja z własnych dokonań. Częste kontakty z profesorami, przeprowadzane przez niektórych porywające korekty i dyskusje, uświadamiają mi dopiero poprzez dystans przebytej drogi i doświadczeń, że uczestniczyłem wspólnie z kolegami w procesie kontynuowania pięknej akademickiej, artystycznej i intelektualnej tradycji, jaką jest relacja Mistrz – uczeń. W Katedrze Grafiki Warsztatowej w latach moich studiów zajęcia prowadzili wybitni artyści i pedagodzy. Silne, wyraziste charyzmatyczne osobowości posiadające ogromny bagaż doświadczeń wpływały ożywczo na koncepcję kształcenia zawartą w programie Katedry. Malarstwo studiowałem w pracowni prowadzonej przez prof. Stanisława Fijałkowskiego, którego program malarskiej dydaktyki opierał się o studia z natury. Profesor uczył nas, studentów, uważnego obserwowania zachodzących w naturze zjawisk, traktowania natury jako niewyczerpanego źródła artystycznych inspiracji. Problematyka technologiczna warsztatu malarskiego, świadome działanie i posługiwanie się nim w zależności od potrzeb to wiedza, której uczył i wymagał od swoich wychowanków. Techniki litograficzne studiowałem pod opieką znakomitego grafika warszawskiego prof. Jerzego Grabowskiego, który 49

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak


kontynuował program wytyczony przez prof. Romana Artymowskiego. W zasady warsztatu sitodruku, wtedy nowatorskiej techniki, wprowadzał mnie prof. Andrzej Smoczyński. W Pracowni Podstaw Grafiki, prowadzonej przez warszawskiego grafika Stanisława Rzepę, poznałem niektóre techniki druku wklęsłego. Doskonaliłem i wzbogacałem wiedzę warsztatową o nowe sposoby opracowania matrycy w Pracowni Technik Metalowych, którą kierował prof. Leszek Rózga. Swoje zainteresowania i pasje rysunkowe doskonaliłem również korzystając z cennych uwag i fachowej opieki prof. Leszka Rózgi w Pracowni Rysunku. W Pracowni Technik Drzeworytniczych poznawałem warsztat druku wypukłego. Pracownią kierował prof. Andrzej M. Bartczak, uczeń i kontynuator programu nauczania swojego mistrza i nauczyciela, Stanisława Fijałkowskiego. Zapisując się do tej pracowni nie sądziłem, że z miejscem tym zwiążę się na wiele lat. Prof. Andrzej Bartczak, silna osobowość artystyczna, człowiek o ogromnej erudycji, jest twórcą o wszechstronnych zainteresowaniach artystycznych, swoje zamierzenia i pasje twórcze realizuje w różnych obszarach sztuki, korzystając z rozmaitych środków. Jako pedagog obdarzony licznymi umiejętnościami rozbudzania w swoich uczniach autentycznej pasji twórczej, potrafi zachęcić studentów do czynienia wysiłku w zdobywaniu wiedzy, doskonalenia biegłości i rozwijania talentu. Studia w pracowni prof. Andrzeja Bartczaka były dla mnie trzyletnim wytężonym okresem twórczej pracy, w którym to czasie pogłębiły się i ugruntowały moje zainteresowania sztuką i grafiką. W pracowni tej w 1979 roku zrealizowałem cykl grafik dyplomowych i obroniłem pracę dyplomową kończąc studia.

Praca dydaktyczna Z Uczelnią i z Katedrą Grafiki Warsztatowej zetknąłem się ponownie kiedy wygrałem konkurs na stanowisko asystenta w Pracowni Technik Drzeworytniczych prof. Andrzeja M. Bartczaka w 1983 roku. Był to dla mnie kolejny ważny etap graficznej i życiowej przygody, mogłem pogłębiać studia. Towarzyszyłem Profesorowi w pracy dydaktycznej zdobywałem liczne nowe doświadczenia, uczyłem się od niego różnych metod artystycznej edukacji. Miałem możliwość współuczestniczyć przy boku Profesora w trudnym, skomplikowanym, wymagającym cierpliwości procesie nauczania grafiki artystycznej. Doświadczenia zdobyte w tym okresie pomogły mi bardzo w mojej samodzielnej pracy dydaktycznej, wytyczyły drogi i metody postępowania. W latach 1994 – 1997 prowadziłem pracownię rysunku. Program tej pracowni w dominującej części opierał się o studia z natury. Doświadczenia z tego okresu utwierdziły mnie w przekonaniu, że rysunek jest niezbędną bazą, podstawą świadomego działania dla grafika. Printmaking

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Struktura Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej dnia dzisiejszego jest inna od tej, którą ukazałem w swoich studenckich wspomnieniach z lat siedemdziesiątych, obrazuje zmiany i modyfikacje dokonywane w różnych latach. Katedra posiada nowe pracownie specjalistyczne i pracownie kształcenia ogólnoplastycznego. Obok już istniejących, zostały utworzone pracownie dyplomujące: Pracownia Druku Cyfrowego i Pracownia Technik Łączonych. Swoją rolę ugruntowała Pracownia Podstaw Grafiki, rozwijając ofertę programową. Dokonano ważnych zmian w regułach studiowania. Zasada swobodnego wyboru pracowni, dokonana w ostatnich dekadach, była radykalnym przeobrażeniem programu kształcenia studentów naszej Uczelni. Od 1998 roku do chwili obecnej mam zaszczyt kierować Pracownią Technik Wklęsłodrukowych, którą uprzednio prowadzili moi znakomici nauczyciele: prof. Leszek Rózga i prof. Andrzej Bobola Kabała. Pracownię prowadzę w oparciu o własny, autorski program kształcenia technik wklęsłodrukowych. Przedstawiając syntetycznie jego założenia można powiedzieć, że przesłanie programowe zawiera się w trzech elementach: tradycji, innowacji i formie. W złożonym procesie twórczego działania, jakim jest nauczanie grafiki artystycznej niezbędna jest rola intelektu, doświadczenia i intuicji. Pożądana jest odwaga w realizowaniu artystycznych zamiarów. Przyswajana wiedza humanistyczna jak i techniczna – warsztatowa pozwala młodemu adeptowi na budowanie systemów wartości, hierarchizowania i porządkowania Praca nad grafiką staje się narzędziem do identyfikowania, rozumienia i określania rzeczy tak, aby twórcza inwencja studenta potrafiła wyrazić jego stosunek do świata i określić w nim jego miejsce. Poprzez swoje poszukiwania student powinien dokonać próby samookreślenia swojej postawy artystycznej. Praktyka uczy, że student będzie weryfikował swoje deklaracje, poszukiwał nowych rozwiązań i celów, należy zatem wspierać jego wysiłki. Umiejętność twórczego myślenia i działania przejawia się w zdolności tworzenia syntez i uogólnień, ale przede wszystkim to przekraczanie barier i konwencji. Usiłuję przekazać i wpoić swoim studentom konieczność przełamywania zastanych schematów, odważne wkraczanie na obszary nieznane, tworzenie własnych oryginalnych śladów plastycznej ekspresji. Dokonując trudnego wysiłku tworzenia i doświadczania rzeczy nowych, student powinien mieć świadomość, że dzięki temu buduje podstawy swojej niezależności i odrębności artystycznej. Uprawianie grafiki warsztatowej wymaga od adepta szczególnego przygotowania i nabycia umiejętności twórczego łączenia zamierzeń artystycznych i technologicznych w jeden proces, którego wynikiem końcowym jest odbitka graficzna. Poznanie zasad klasycznego warsztatu technik suchych i trawionych jest niezbędne do świadomego działania, ale nie tylko rzemieślnicza biegłość decyduje o 51

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak


zadawalających i przekonujących rezultatach. Poszukiwanie nowych środków technologicznych, eksperymentowanie z łączeniem często odmiennych technologii to niewyczerpane źródło artystycznych wzruszeń. Istotnym zadaniem w artystycznej edukacji jest zapoznanie studenta ze środkami wyrazu i umiejętnością posługiwania się nimi w celu wyrażania treści dzieła graficznego. Powinno się to odbywać przez pogłębianie wiedzy teoretycznej i praktycznej o elementach formy plastycznej i zasadach komponowania treści dzieła graficznego. Student musi zdawać sobie sprawę, że obszar twórczej swobody wymaga od niego samodyscypliny, wytrwałości, pracowitości i odpowiedzialności. Podstawą porozumienia ze studentem jest korekta indywidualna. Rozmowa ma za zadanie uświadomienie studentowi wartości jego pracy i czynionych postępów. W dialogu ze studentem należy uwzględnić jego osobowość, zainteresowania i poglądy. O przebiegu korekty, jej rodzaju decydują zaistniałe problemy. Należy godzić pojawiające się w procesie edukacyjnym sprzeczności. Poczucie skromności, szacunek do tradycji trzeba łączyć ze zrozumieniem postaw awangardowych. Swobodę i tolerancję z pracą i dyscypliną Niewątpliwą satysfakcją i radością każdego nauczyciela są jego absolwenci. Pracownia technik Wklęsłodrukowych może poszczycić się wieloma dyplomantami, których byłem promotorem. Wychowankowie pracowni wykazują znaczną aktywność w obszarze sztuki i grafiki, uczestniczą w licznych wystawach oraz konkursach w kraju i za granicą, twórczość ich jest zauważana i nagradzana, niektórzy swoje pasje artystyczne łączą z pracą pedagogiczną. Zdolna i pełna zapału artystyczna młodzież wyznacza nowe obszary dla grafiki.

Grafika łódzka Rozmaite uwarunkowania na przestrzeni minionych dekad kształtowały cechy grafiki łódzkiej. Istotnym czynnikiem wywierającym wpływ na jej wizerunek w latach trzydziestych ubiegłego wieku była aktywność artystyczna, dydaktyczna i społeczna twórców z grupy a. r. Intelektualne spekulacje Władysława Strzemińskiego, przestrzenne wyliczenia rzeźbiarki Katarzyny Kobro, eksperymenty z heliografią malarza Karola Hillera zostały zawarte w geometrycznych zasadach obrazowania. Racjonalistyczne przesłanki tych koncepcji nadawały grafice łódzkiej ikoniczną odrębność. Niewątpliwie kolejną okolicznością wytyczającą nowe perspektywy grafice łódzkiej było powołanie po II wojnie światowej, w 1945 roku z inicjatywy między innymi łódzkich artystów Władysława Strzemińskiego i Stefana Wegnera Szkoły Sztuk Plastycznych. Działalność dydaktyczna obu artystów oraz Bolesława Hochlingera i grafika Ludwika Printmaking

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Tyrowicza miała niezwykłą siłę oddziaływania na studentów. Uczniowie, absolwenci tej Szkoły: Stanisław Fijałkowski, Stefan Krygier, Antoni Starczewski i wielu innych, byli żarliwymi kontynuatorami idei swojego nauczyciela Władysława Strzemińskiego, twórcy unizmu. Jednocześnie na tej bazie dokonywali znaczących transformacji, tworzyli nowatorskie odmienne koncepcje i rozwiązania twórcze. Oryginalność tych dokonań miała wpływ z kolei na następne pokolenia adeptów grafiki i sztuki, jak również przyczyniła się w latach sześćdziesiątych do znaczenia Łodzi jako ośrodka graficznego. Powołanie w 1971 roku (wspominałem już o tym fakcie na początku wystąpienia) dzięki działaniom profesorów: Romana Artymowskiego, Stanisława Fijałkowskiego i Leszka Rózgi Wydziału Grafiki W Państwowej Wyższej Szkole Sztuk Plastycznych (obecnie Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi) było okolicznością powodującą ugruntowanie się znaczenia Łodzi jako ośrodka graficznego. Działalność dydaktyczna wspomnianych wyżej pedagogów oraz ich znakomitych uczniów: Andrzeja M. Bartczaka, Andrzeja Smoczyńskiego i Andrzeja Boboli Kabały ukształtowała wielu grafików łódzkich. Aktualnie grafika łódzka jest przestrzenią różnorodnych twórczych poszukiwań i eksperymentów. Cechuje ją złożoność w obszarze idei artystycznych oraz w obszarze warsztatu graficznego. Przejawem tego stanu różnorodności twórczych koncepcji są rozmaite sposoby artystycznej artykulacji od realistycznego, poprzez metaforyczne ujęcie do hermetycznego abstrakcyjnego obrazowania. Niektórym przedstawicielom grafiki łódzkiej udało się nawiązać w twórczy sposób do tradycji płynącej z różnych kierunków sztuki współczesnej unikając powtórzeń i niebezpieczeństw imitacji. Dokonania te usytuowane są w różnych tendencjach. Kierunek intelektualnych, racjonalistycznych rozważań wyraża się w zasadach geometrycznej budowy obrazu. Tendencje ukazujące wewnętrzne stany emocjonalne odnajdują się w ekspresyjnej figuracji lub zawierają się w syntezie abstrakcyjnego gestu. Odmienne przesłania wytyczają zabiegi warsztatowe, których celem jest estetyczna zabawa. W grafice łódzkiej obok tradycyjnych, klasycznych technik pojawiają się nowe techniki graficznej wypowiedzi. Obecne są przemysłowe technologie, grafika offsetowa, metoda druku solwentowego, grafika komputerowa, fotografia. Fenomenem ukazującym odrębność stylistyczną w przestrzeni grafiki łódzkiej jest Łódzka Szkoła Drzeworytu, w centrum której tkwi działalność Stanisława Fijałkowskiego i jego uczniów. Cechą charakterystyczną tej formacji jest poszukiwanie i ukazywanie za pomocą warsztatu druku wypukłego relacji między treścią a formą. W grafikach tych twórców widoczny jest element racjonalny, dominuje synteza użytych środków wyrazu. Wielu artystów identyfikujących się z Łódz53

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ką Szkołą Drzeworytu było członkami międzynarodowego stowarzyszenia drzeworytników XYLON z siedzibą w Szwajcarii. Polska sekcja afiliowana była przy Biurze Wystaw Artystycznych, dzisiejszej Miejskiej Galerii Sztuki, instytucji zasłużonej, wspierającej i promującej grafikę łódzką. Ważną działalnością tego kulturalnego ośrodka jest budowanie ogromnej, poważnej kolekcji grafiki polskiej i obcej. Istotną i pożyteczną działalnością jest organizowanie wystaw, konkursów i przeglądów graficznych. Miejska Galeria Sztuki jest organizatorem prestiżowego, cyklicznego, międzynarodowego przeglądu grafiki ‘Małe Formy Grafiki’. Istotną działalność wykonuje Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi, które w swoich zbiorach zgromadziło liczącą się, dużą kolekcję grafiki światowej i artystów polskich. Niekwestionowaną, doniosłą i wiodącą rolę w budowaniu i kształtowani oblicza grafiki łódzkiej pełni Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego. W jej wnętrzu trwa nieprzerwanie trudna sztuka zdobywania wiedzy, dokonuje się wielopokoleniowa wymiana doświadczeń. W trosce o dobro uzdolnionej artystycznie młodzieży kultywowana jest dbałość o zachowanie tożsamości i tradycji przy równoczesnym otwarciu na nowe innowacyjne metody kształcenia.

Źródła 50 Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła im.Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi 1945 – 1995 Łódź 1995.Kronika 60 lat Akademii Sztuk Pięknych w Łodzi. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im.Władysława Strzemińskiego 1994-2005. Kronika Profesor zwyczajny Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego Katedra Grafiki Warsztatowej Program Pracowni Technik Wklęsłodrukowych.

Printmaking

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Graphic identity

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak

Translation by Magdalena Maciaszczyk

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Introduction

he exhibitions of graphic art under the same title ‘Rape of Europe’ provide an excellent opportunity to present the achievements and creative potential of students and teachers from various academic centres. The academic conference which accompanies the exhibition creates a possibility of amiable confrontation and an exchange of experiences concerning teaching methods and views on different areas of artistic education. The synthetic form of expression which I use results from the limited time frame and most likely does not exhaust all the raised issues. I would like to share my memories, experiences and reflections of an active graphic artist and a teacher of that discipline of artistic expression. By using personal observations of various phenomena and events I try to address issues which are particularly close to me and which are related to my own studies and my present work at the Department of Printmaking. Resorting to my own recollections and to historical memory drawn from a number of sources I would like to present the specific character and qualities of Łódź graphic art.

Academic education 1974-1979 My interest in and fascination with printmaking were awoken during my studies at the State Higher School of Visual Arts in Łódź (the present-day Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź) which I attended from 1974 to 1979. The Department of Graphic Art was created in the academic year 1971 – 1972 thanks to the endeavours of Professor Roman Artymowski, Professor Stanisław Fijałkowski and Professor Leszek Rózga. The Faculty consisted of two Departments: the Department of Graphic Design and the Department of Printmaking. At that time there was great interest in these two fields of study and because of the 55

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popularity of graphic art the number of students admitted was limited. The decision about the admission of candidates was based on grades received by them at the end of the last term of the second year and on a presentation of their drawings and paintings. I passed that internal exam successfully and was admitted to the Department of Printmaking in 1976. Although the school’s curriculum was pragmatically oriented toward educating designers cooperating with industry, it was flexible enough to create possibilities of educating students in the field of fine arts, which in the 1970’s remained at a high level. For me, and I am certain that for many of my fellow students, the Department of Printmaking was a special art laboratory. In retrospect the structure of the Department of Printmaking of that time seems very coherent and clear; it consisted of four specialized studios: Woodcut Techniques Studio, Metal Techniques Studio, Planographic Techniques Studio and Lithography Techniques Studio. The Institute of Graphic Technology was at students’ disposal. The curriculum imposed an obligation on students to study in all the specialized studios for a period of two terms and to take all the theoretical classes. I decided to study simultaneously in the Painting, Sculpture and Drawing Studios, but I could also choose the Photography and Film Studio or the Selected Problems of Visual Arts. Thanks to this scrupulous presentation of subjects and various studios I wish to demonstrate the educational offer of the Department of Printmaking of that time. Various didactic methods of teachers from different studios gave us, students, a feeling of safety and artistic freedom. We felt genuine enthusiasm for our work and an evident satisfaction with our achievements. The path I have followed so far and the experiences gathered on the way make me realize that by taking part in frequent meetings with our teachers, artwork presentations and animated discussions held by some of them, me and my fellow students participated in a continuation of a beautiful academic, artistic and intellectual tradition of the Master – disciple relationship. During the period of my studies at the Department of Printmaking classes were conducted by outstanding artists and pedagogues. These people of powerful, vibrant, charismatic personalities had a wealth of experience and a significant influence on stimulating educational concepts included in the curriculum of the Department. I studied painting in Professor Stanisław Fijałkowski’s studio, where the teaching programme was based on painting from nature. Professor Fijałkowski taught us to carefully observe natural phenomena and to treat nature as an unlimited source of artistic inspiration. Painting techniques and the ability to take conscious actions according to the needs were the skills he taught and required from his students. I studied lithography techniques under the supervision of an outstanPrintmaking

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ding Warsaw graphic artist, Professor Jerzy Grabowski, who continued the programme outlined by Professor Roman Artymowski. I was introduced to the art of screen printing, at that time an innovative technique, by Professor Andrzej Smoczyński. I developed and improved my skills in intaglio techniques (some of which I had learnt in the Basics of Printmaking Studio managed by a Warsaw graphic artist Stanisław Rzepa) by learning new manners of preparing matrices in Professor Leszek Rózga’s Metal Techniques Studio. In the Drawing Studio I cultivated my interests and passion for drawing under the expert guidance of Professor Leszek Rózga, benefiting from his valuable comments. In the Woodcut Techniques Studio I got acquainted with relief print techniques. The head of the studio was Professor Andrzej M. Bartczak, a student and continuator of the programme developed by his master and teacher, Stanisław Fijałkowski. When first joining the studio, I did not know I would be bound with it for many years. Professor Andrzej Bartczak, a strong artistic personality and a man of vast erudition, is an artist of versatile interests, who realizes his projects and creative passions in various fields of art by using different means. He is a gifted teacher: he is capable of arousing a genuine creative passion in his students and of stimulating them to make an effort in gaining knowledge, improving their skills and talents. My studies in Professor Bartczak’s studio were a three-year period of intensive, creative work, during which my interest in art and printmaking became deeper and stronger. I realized and defended my diploma, consisting of a cycle of graphic works in Professor Bartczak’s studio in 1979, thus finishing my studies.

Teaching experience I got involved with the Academy and the Department of Printmaking once again in 1983 when I was appointed to the post of an assistant in Professor Andrzej Bartczak’s Woodcut Technique Studio. It was the next significant stage of my artistic and life adventure during which I was able to deepen my knowledge. I accompanied Professor in his didactic work, I acquired new experiences and I learnt from him different methods of teaching art. I had an opportunity to take part in the difficult, complicated and challenging process of teaching artistic printmaking side by side with Professor. Experience gained during that period helped me immensely in my independent didactic work and marked my paths and methods. In the years 1994 – 1997 I supervised a Drawing Studio. Its programme was based largely on studies from nature. The experience of that period confirmed my belief that drawing is the indispensable basis, the basis of conscious activities of a graphic artist. 57

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The present-day structure of the Department of Printmaking is different from the one I presented in my 1970’s recollections. This shows changes and modifications which have taken place over the years. The Department possesses new specialised studios and studios of general artistic education. Next to the already existing units, new studios granting diplomas were created: the Digital Print Studio and the Mixed Techniques Studio. The Basics of Printmaking Studio gained a well-established position by developing its educational offer. Major modifications were made in study regulations. The principle of free choice of studios introduced in the previous decades was a radical change in the educational programme of our Academy. Since 1998 I have had the honour of holding the position of the head of the Intaglio Techniques Studio which in the past was supervised by my excellent teachers, Professor Leszek Rózga and Professor Andrzej Bobola Kabała. I manage the studio using my own teaching programme concerning intaglio techniques. Briefly speaking, it consists of three elements: tradition, innovation and form. In the complex process of creative activity such as teaching graphic art, intellect, experience and intuition play a crucial role. Courage in realizing artistic intentions is important. Knowledge acquired by students, both humanistic and technical, allows them to construct a system of values, hierarchy and arrangement. Working in the field of graphic art helps to identify, understand and define things in a way which allows students to express their attitude towards the world and to find their place in it through their artistic invention. Through their explorations students should attempt to establish their own artistic attitude. Experience shows that students verify their declarations and search for new solutions and goals and so their efforts should be supported. The ability of creative thinking and acting is demonstrated in the skill of synthesizing and generalizing, but first and foremost it means crossing barriers and breaking conventions. I try to instill in my students the urge to break the established patterns, to boldly explore unknown grounds and to create their own, original means of artistic expression. When making the hard effort of creating and experiencing new things students should be aware that in this way they build the foundations of their artistic independence and individuality. Practicing artistic printmaking requires special preparation and the skill of combining the artistic and technical intentions into a single process, whose final result is a print. Learning the principles of classical drypoint and etching techniques is indispensible in the process of conscious creation, but not only skillful craftsmanship decides about satisfactory and plausible results. The search for new technological means and experimenting with combining techniques, which often differ from one another, are an inexhaustible Printmaking

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source of artistic sensations. Equipping students with means of expression and the ability to use them to express the content of a graphic work is an important task in artistic education. It should be carried out through broadening students’ theoretical and practical knowledge about elements of artistic form and principles of composing the contents of a graphic work. Students have to be aware that artistic freedom requires from them self-discipline, perseverance, hard work and responsibility. Individual reviews form the foundations of mutual understanding. Their aim is to make students realize the worth of their work and the progress they have made. Students’ personality, interests and views should be taken into consideration. The course of the review depends on the encountered problems. It is necessary to reconcile contradictions which arise in the educational process. Modesty and respect for tradition should be combined with understanding for avant-garde attitudes, freedom and tolerance should be combined with work and discipline. The greatest pride and joy of every teacher are undoubtedly his or her alumni. The Intaglio Techniques Studio may be proud of many graduates, for whom I acted as supervisor. Former students of the studio show significant activity in the field of art, they participate in numerous exhibitions and competitions in Poland and abroad, their works are noticed and awarded, some of them combine their artistic passions with pedagogical work. Young artists, talented and zealous, break new ground in the field of graphic art.

Łódź graphic art Various circumstances have formed the character of Łódź graphic art over decades. A significant factor which influenced its shape in the 1930’s was the artistic, educational and social activity of the founders of a.r. group. Władysław Strzemiński’s intellectual speculations, Katarzyna Kobro’s spatial calculations, Karol Hiller’s experiments with heliography were all included in geometrical principles of depiction. Rationalistic grounds of these concepts gave Łódź graphic art an iconic distinctness. Undoubtedly the creation of the State Higher School of Visual Arts after the 2nd World War, the foundation of which was an initiative of such Łódź artists as Władysław Strzemiński and Stefan Wegner, was the next circumstance providing new perspectives in the field of Łódź graphic art. The didactic activity of Strzemiński and Wegner, of Bolesław Hochlinger and a graphic artist, Ludwik Tyrowicz had an extremely strong influence on students. Students, graduates of the school: Stanisław Fijałkowski, Stefan Krygier, Antoni Starczewski and many 59

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others were all ardent continuators of the ideas of their teacher, the creator of unism theory, Władysław Strzemiński. At the same time they made significant transformations on that basis, they created innovative, distinct concepts and creative solutions. Originality of their achievements in turn influenced the following generations of artists and helped Łódź become a centre of graphic art in the 1960’s. The afore mentioned creation of the Department of Graphic Art in the State Higher School of Visual Arts (the present-day Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź) in Łódź in 1971 which was made possible thanks to the endeavours of Professors: Roman Artymowski, Stanisław Fijałkowskie and Leszek Rózga strengthened the importance of Łodź as a centre of graphic art. The didactic activity of the above mentioned pedagogues and their excellent students: Andrzej M. Bartczak, Andrzej Smoczyński and Andrzej Bobola Kabała shaped many graphic artists in Łódź. At present Łódź graphic art is a field of various creative exploration and experiments. It is characterised by complexity in the area of artistic ideas and graphic techniques. The state of diversity of creative concepts is manifested in various manners of artistic expression: from realistic through metaphoric to hermetic and abstract depiction. Some representatives of Łódź graphic art have managed to refer to traditions of various trends in contemporary art in a creative manner, avoiding repetition and the dangers of imitation. These achievements have their source in various tendencies. The direction of intellectual, rationalistic reflections is expressed in the principles of geometrical structure of an image. Tendencies which present internal emotional states are found in expressionist figurative art or in the synthesis of an abstract gesture. Different messages call for techniques whose aim is play on aesthetics. In Łódź graphic art traditional, classic techniques appear side by side with new means of graphic expression which include industrial technology, offset printing, solvent printing, computer graphics and photography. What can demonstrate the distinct style of graphic art in Łódź is the Łódź School of Woodcut revolving around the artistic activity of Stanisław Fijałkowski and his students. The characteristic feature of this group is the search and the demonstration of the relation between contents and form by means of relief printing. The element of rationality is clearly visible in the artists’ works – synthesis of the used means of expression is predominant. Many artists who feel bound to the Łodź School of Woodcut were members of XYLON International Society of Wood Engravers which has its seat in Switzerland. The Polish branch of the society was created at the Artistic Exhibitions Bureau, the presentday City Art Gallery, a distinguished institution which supports and promotes Łódź graphic art. Compiling an extensive, comprehensive Printmaking

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collection of Polish and foreign graphic art is an important task of the Gallery. Its significant and valuable activity includes organization of exhibitions, competitions and graphic art presentations. The City Art Gallery is the organizer of the prestigious, international, cyclic presentation of graphic art Small Graphic Forms. An important work is performed by the Museum of Art in Łódź which has compiled a large, significant collection of graphic works from all over the world. The Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź undoubtedly plays a crucial part in building and shaping Łódź graphic art. The difficult art of gathering knowledge, of intergenerational exchange of experiences incessantly takes place inside its walls. Having in mind the well being of artistically talented students, the Academy shows great care for preserving identity and tradition and simultaneously remains open to new, innovative teaching methods.

References Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła im.Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi 1945 – 1995 Łódź 1995.Kronika (The State Higher School of Visual Arts in Łódź 1945 – 1995. Łódź 1995. Chronicle) 60 lat Akademii Sztuk Pięknych w Łodzi. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im.Władysława Strzemińskiego 1994-2005. Kronika (60 years of the art academy in Łódź. Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts Łódź 1994-2005. Chronicle) Profesor zwyczajny Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego Katedra Grafiki Warsztatowej Program Pracowni Technik Wklęsłodrukowych. (Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts Łódź, Department of Printmaking. Programme of the Intaglio Techniques Studio)

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Europejskie drogi grafiki współczesnej

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Alicja Habisiak-Matczak

Pomiędzy Łodzią a Urbino

ódź i Urbino to dwa europejskie miasta odległe setki kilometrów od siebie, o zupełnie odmiennym charakterze. Łódź to nowoczesny ośrodek akademicki (6 uczelni państwowych oraz 22 prywatne) a także kulturalny, położony w równinnej centralnej Polsce. Włoskie Urbino, niewielkie miasteczko uniwersyteckie, malowniczo położone u podnóża Apeninów, to wpisana na listę Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO perła renesansowej architektury. Łódź , choć prawa miejskie uzyskała już w XV wieku, swój rozkwit zawdzięcza dziewiętnastowiecznym fabrykantom i jej pejzaż charakteryzują pofabryczne budynki z czerwonej cegły i eklektyczne wille i pałace w stylu Art Nouveau. Ze względu na swą tekstylną tradycję i industrialny charakter, Łodź zwana jest polskim Manchesterem. Łódź liczy prawie 800 000 mieszkańców, Urbino zaledwie 18 000. Tym, co łączy obydwa miasta jest wciąż żywa tradycja grafiki artystycznej. Z przekonaniem można powiedzieć, że Łódź i Urbino to dwa miasta grafiki. Łódź jest miastem grafiki dzięki mieszczącym się tu licznym instytucjom promującym tę sztukę. Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego od zawsze była i jest ważnym punktem odniesienia dla wszystkich pragnących zajmować się grafiką artystyczną, czy to w Polsce czy zagranicą. Wielu naszych mistrzów i nauczycieli było i nadal jest docenianych na całym świecie, wciąż zyskując międzynarodowe uznanie. Liczne zagraniczne instytucje artystyczne współpracują z naszą akademią, by wymienić Akademie Sztuk Pięknych z wielu miast europejskich, takich jak Berlin, Lizbona, Bratysława, Budapeszt, Wilno, Paryż, Burgos czy Malaga. Poprzez tę współpracę wielu naszych studentów i wykładowców zyskuje nowe doświadczenia i równocześnie rozprzestrzenia łódzką tradycję artystyczną na świecie. Razem z Akademią w mieście działają inne ważne ośrodki kulturalne, takie jak pierwsze w Europie Muzeum Sztuki Współczesnej, Miejska Printmaking

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Galeria Sztuki organizująca prestiżowe Międzynarodowe Triennale „Małe Formy Grafiki”, unikatowe Muzeum Książki Artystycznej, Muzeum Druku czy Galeria Domku Papiernika w Skansenie Muzeum Włókiennictwa oraz liczne galerie sztuki. Wspólna działalność wszystkich tych ośrodków sprawia, że Łódź jest atrakcyjnym światowym centrum grafiki artystycznej. Urbino natomiast jest wciąż aktywnym miastem grafiki za sprawą takich instytucji jak Accademia di Belle Arti di Urbino, Scuola del Libro (Szkoła Książki), Muzeum Grafiki czy też Wyższa Szkoła Projektowania –ISIA, ale również, a może nawet przede wszystkim, dzięki działalności Międzynarodowego Centrum Grafiki Artystycznej KAUS, które każdego roku przyciąga wielu twórców z Europy i spoza niej swoimi inicjatywami graficzno-artystycznymi, takimi jak Letnie Kursy Grafiki Artystycznej, sympozja, warsztaty, wystawy. Pracownia samego Centrum Grafiki Kaus w Urbino mieści się w malowniczym Ogrodzie Wiszącym dawnego Klasztoru Św. Klary, renesansowego kompleksu budynków zaprojektowanego przez Giorgio de Martiniego, nadwornego architekta książąt, projektanta Palazzo Ducale. Jest to magiczne miejsce ścierania sie różnych szkół grafiki, konfrontacji graficznych postaw, metod, doświadczeń. Z Urbino wciąż płynie ożywczy prąd dla europejskiej grafiki współczesnej. To tam wydaje się teki grafik, artystyczne książki, wreszcie – plakaty realizowane w tradycyjnych technikach warsztatowych, tam organizowane są graficzne warsztaty i sympozja gromadzące artystów z całego świata. Sympozja graficzne w Urbino nie mają charakteru teoretycznego, lecz praktyczny; to żywe spotkania artystów grafików z całego świata, którzy realizują wspólny projekt, zachowując autonomiczność swojej wypowiedzi. W 2012 roku artyści z różnych stron świata zrealizowali graficzne plakaty inspirowane operami Rossiniego, włączając się w Festiwal Rossiniego w Pesaro; w 2009 i 2010 roku odbyło się sympozjum poświęcone Rafaelowi pod hasłem „la Continua Fortuna di Raffaello tra gli incisori”; (nieustająca fortuna Rafaela pośród grafików). Tradycja letnich kursów grafiki w Urbino sięga 1966 roku, kiedy to trzej graficy -profesorowie Szkoły Książki: drzeworytnik Pietro Sanchini, litograf Carlo Ceci, i akwaforcista Renato Bruscaglia zainicjowali kursy w pracowniach Szkoły Książki, która wówczas mieściła sie w samym sercu Urbino w salach Palazzo Ducale. Kursy w tej formie były prowadzone aż do 1992 roku. W 2001 roku z inicjatywy Stowarzyszenia Keishiro Arte ponownie odżyły w Urbino Letnie międzynarodowe Kursy Grafiki Warsztatowej. Powołano też Międzynarodowe Centrum Grafiki Artystycznej. Renesans letnich kursów jest zasługą Giuliano Santiniego i kilku grafików urbinackich, takich jak Adriano Calavalle, Alfredo Bartolomeoli, Rossano Guerra e Antonio Battistini, którzy we współpracy z instytu63

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cjami artystycznymi w Urbino i pod patronatem lokalnych instytucji (il Comune di Urbino, la Comunità Montana, la Regione Marche, la Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino, l’Università degli Studi e l’Accademia Raffaello di Urbino) przywrócili kursy do życia. Celem było utwierdzenie roli Urbino jako ważnego, międzynarodowego centrum grafiki warsztatowej, kontynuując tradycję Szkoły Książki (Scuola del Libro), która wykształciła przez lata najsławniejszych grafików i drukarzy włoskich dwudziestego wieku. Liczne kraje, poprzez akademie, wydziały sztuki czy prestiżowe stowarzyszenia artystyczne nawiązały współpracę z kursami. Od 2001 roku do teraz w kursach uczestniczyło 600 studentów z 32 krajów świata. Centrum Kaus współpracuje z takimi instytucjami jak Universitat Politecnica di Valencia, Biblioteka Aleksandryjska w Egipcie, Akademie Sztuk Pięknych w Wilnie czy w Belgradzie. Pośród tych licznych kontaktów, jak pisze Giuliano Santini, „szczególne miejsce w naszej historii z pewnością zajmuje miasto Łódź. Jest to owoc przypadkowej, ale intensywnej przyjaźni z Alicją Habisiak, która pociągnęła za sobą nieprzerwany strumień kolejnych przyjaźni i powiązań artystycznych. Współpraca została rozpoczęta wystawą w 2005 roku w Akademii Sztuk Pięknych im. Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi, której bohaterami byli wykładowcy naszych kursów oraz nauczyciele Akademii.” Wystawa ta, zatytułowana “Drogi grafiki współczesnej z Urbino do Łodzi” prezentowana była także w Domu Narodzin Rafaela w Urbino i w Muzeum Grafiki w Soncino. Łodź i Urbino połączył most graficznej współpracy; efektem tej współpracy są wyjazdy łódzkich profesorów do Urbino, by przeprowadzić tam letnie kursy, wziąć udział w sympozjach czy też zorganizować w gościnnym Ogrodzie Wiszącym warsztaty dla swoich studentów. W ostatnich latach z udziałem studentów Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej łódzkiej Akademii zostały zrealizowane dwa prestiżowe projekty poświęcone dwóm poetom: Paolo Volponiemu i Claudiemu Claudi – zastosowano grafiki do realizacji książek artystycznych inspirowanych poezją obydwu autorów. To wynik współpracy KAUS z literacką Fundacją Claudio Claudi w Rzymie i Parco Lettterario „Paolo Volponi” w Urbino. Obrazem budowanych mostów graficznych są liczne wystawy, które miały miejsce w Polsce i we Włoszech w przeciągu ostatnich lat, by wymienić choćby „Urbino - miasto grafiki” współorganizowane z Miejską Galerią Sztuki w Łodzi czy wystawy „Urbino Dal Giardino Pensile I i II” (Urbino z Wisząego Ogrodu I i II) prezentujące powstałe w Urbino prace studentów i pedagogów łódzkiej Akademii w Galerii Bałuckiej w Łodzi. Współpraca rozciągnęła się także na inne instytucje miasta Łodzi, takie jak Europejskie Centrum Kultury Logos, z którym w 2005 roku została zorganizowana wystawa osiemnastowiecznych miedziorytów pochodzących z Cappella Musicale w Urbino. Printmaking

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W tym roku po raz pierwszy Międzynarodowe Letnie Kursy Grafiki Artystycznej zostały zorganizowane w Akademii Sztuk Pięknych w Łodzi, dzięki artystycznej koordynacji Giuliano Santiniego i piszącej te słowa. Do świetnie wyposażonych pracowni Katedry Grafiki Warsztatowej łódzkiej Akademii zawitali artyści z Włoch, Portugalii, Hiszpanii, Belgii, Danii, a nawet z Kanady, Chin i Japonii. Raz jeszcze zamiłowanie do grafiki zbudowało drogę do nawiązania osobistych kontaktów i ponadnarodowych przyjaźni. Spotkanie mniej lub bardziej doświadczonych grafików z różnych stron Europy i spoza niej dało wyjątkową okazję wymiany doświadczeń i spostrzeżeń. Źródłem wiedzy byli nie tylko wykładowcy łódzkiej Akademii, którzy prowadzili kursy wklęsłodruku, druku wypukłego, litografii i technik łączonych, ale też sami uczestnicy z ich osobistymi bagażami artystycznych doświadczeń. Nowością był interdyscyplinarny kurs poprowadzony we wszystkich czterech pracowniach przez Profesora Yuji Kobayashiego z Tama University w Tokio. Każdy przyniósł swoją przyprawę do graficznej międzynarodowej kuchni. Na koniec zostały przygotowane wspólne uczty w postaci wystaw podsumowującej warsztaty w dwóch miejscach Akademii: w Galerii KOBRO oraz w Tkalni żakardowej- w sercu tekstylnej Łodzi. Letnie kursy grafiki artystycznej, czy to w Urbino czy w Łodzi, są swoistym poligonem doświadczalnym, z którego wszyscy wychodzą wzbogaceni o barwne i unikatowe doświadczenia; to prawdziwy europejski tygiel kulturowy. Adresowane są zarówno do początkujących adeptów grafiki, jak i do doświadczonych artystów. Uczestnikami mogą być studenci i absolwenci Akademii polskich i zagranicznych, jak również wszyscy twórcy pragnący zapoznać się lub rozwinąć swoją znajomość graficznego warsztatu. Pod wrażeniem pierwszej edycji na gruncie polskim, już planujemy podobne spotkanie w lipcu i sierpniu 2014 roku.

Międzynarodowa Kuchnia Graficzna Do wspólnej pracowni graficznej ciekawe rozwiązania techniczne przynoszą nie tylko profesorowie prowadzący letnie kursy grafiki czy zajęcia podczas roku akademickiego, ale również pochodzący z różnych stron świata studenci. Poniżej dla przykładu i ku inspiracji wymieniam kilka sposobów, które zaobserwowałam jako asystentka podczas Letnich Kursów Grafiki w Urbino lub jako gość Centrum i które częściowo zaadoptowaliśmy w naszej łódzkiej pracowni. Warto dodać, że dzięki programowi europejskiej wymiany studentów Erasmus w Katedrze Grafiki warsztatowej naszej uczelni goszczą coraz częściej studenci ze wschodu i zachodu 65

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Europy- w ten sposób nasza Akademia staje się skrzyżowaniem graficznych dróg. W Pracowni Technik Wklęsłodrukowych, gdzie mam przyjemność pracować u boku Profesora Krzysztofa Wawrzyniaka, miałam okazję uczyć i wymieniać doświadczenia ze studentami z Bułgarii, Czech, Włoch i Portugalii. Ciekawe jest, jak w tej międzynarodowej graficznej kuchni różne substancje, również jadalne, znajdują zupełnie nietypowe zastosowania; sól, cukier, olej czy oliwa, sos sojowy czy zużyta kawa - wszystko to może przydać się w pracy grafika. Moją specjalizacją są techniki wklęsłodrukowe, dlatego skupię się tu na procesach związanych z opracowaniem matrycy i odbijaniem grafik w tej technice, choć z boku miałam okazję obserwować twórcze eksperymenty naszych studentów zrzeszonych w kole naukowym Eksperymantarium, podczas których do stworzenia matrycy litograficznej używano folii aluminiowej, a do jej wytrawienia – Coca Coli. Pierwszym etapem pracy nad matrycą wklęsłodrukową jest odtłuszczanie blachy: i tak w polskiej kuchni graficznej znaleźć się musi do tego celu przekrojony ziemniak lub butelka denaturatu, Włoch odtłuści blachę za pomocą kredy szlamowanej dźwięcznie zwanej bianco di Spagna, Amerykański gość Centrum w Urbino w tym samym celu polewa blachę sosem sojowym… Papier graficzny musi być przed odbijaniem odpowiednio namoczony: w Łodzi - moczymy papier w kuwecie z wodą i odsączamy gazetami; w Urbino zwilżone gąbką arkusze układa się w stos i zamyka na noc zawinięte w plastikowy worek; w Belgradzie suszy się papier za pomocą ręczników frotte. Fascynujące jest to, jak znane techniki można odkryć na nowo oczami cudzoziemców, obserwując odmienne metody ich stosowania. Każdy wie, jak odbić akwatintę czy akwafortę, jednak jedni nakładają farbę za pomocą filcowego tamponu, podczas gdy nasi studenci wprowadzili użycie kart telefonicznych, inni używają starych kart kredytowych zamiast profesjonalnych plastikowych włoskich rakli. Do zdejmowania farby używamy gazy wcześniej usztywnionej zwykłą mąką ziemniaczaną, Francuzi używają zapewne gotowej gazy Charbonnel, a Chińczycy wycierają farbę wprost dłonią. W Urbino i teraz też już w Łodzi używamy papieru z książek telefonicznych do zbierania nadmiaru farby, Bułgarzy stosują zwykłe gazety, natomiast poznany ostatnio artysta z Belgii polecał mi bibułę, której używa się do pakowania butów. Jedni artyści, jak na przykład pewien profesor z Litwy, zamiast myć dłonie za każdym razem, gdy chcą chwycić czysty i cenny papier graficzny robią precyzyjne papierowe szczypczyki, inni talkują po prostu dłonie. Na graficznym stole, pośród farb, gazy i szpachelek, znaleźć można nieoczekiwanie patyczki do czyszczenia uszu - Włosi używają ich do miejscowego wycierania blachy na przykład dla zaakcentowania niewielkiej powierzchni Printmaking

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bieli, w łódzkiej pracowni zawsze do tego celu używaliśmy wypalonych zapałek. Zamiast używać toksycznych rozpuszczalników, szwajcarscy artyści zmywają farbę z blachy za pomocą oleju lub oliwy jadalnej, w Łodzi wypróbowaliśmy też z powodzeniem oliwkę pielęgnacyjną dla dzieci. Mycie rąk za pomocą zużytej kawy zmieszanej z mydłem – powstaje idealna pasta do mycia rąk - to metoda którą do Urbino, a co za tym idzie do Łodzi, przyniósł artysta holenderski. Niniejsza relacja z doświadczeń wyniesionych z inspirujących spotkań artystów podczas graficznych warsztatów w Łodzi i Urbino ma na celu ukazanie licznych dróg, jakimi myśl graficzna wędruje po Europie, z jednej pracowni do drugiej, przynosząc coraz to śmielsze rozwiązania, dostarczając estetycznych wzruszeń, ale też zstępując do głębi naszej wspólnej tradycji. Grafika jest łącznikiem, wspólną pasją wielu ludzi, którzy dzieląc to zamiłowanie, nawiązują silne humanistyczne więzi, daleko wykraczające poza jedynie profesjonalny kontakt. Jestem przekonana, że zorganizowane przez Profesora Jose Quaresma święto grafiki w Lizbonie będzie początkiem owocnej wymiany twórczych doświadczeń i źródłem inspirujących graficznych przyjaźni – w Europie i poza nią.

Księgoznawstwo Drogi współczesnej grafiki z Łodzi do Urbino/ The Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art, Akademia Sztuk Pieknych im Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi, Łódź 2005 Emprentes un recorregut per granat contemporani d’ Urbino a Valencia, Kaus Urbino i Universitat Politecnica de Valencia ISBN978-848363-066-2 Urbino - miasto grafiki : działalność Międzynarodowego Centrum Grafiki Artystycznej KAUS Urbino = Urbino - Città degli incisori : l’attività del Centro Internazionale per l’Incisione Artistica KAUS Urbino : Miejska Galeria Sztuki w Łodzi, Łódź 2008 , ISBN 9788389216601 8389216604 Łódź miasto grafiki / Lodz – the City of Graphic Art, katalog wystawy, Miejska Galeria Sztuki w Łodzi, Łódź 2011 Kaus è incisione – Il decennale 2001-2011, Urbino - monografia Kaus z okazji dziesięciolecia działalności, KAUS Urbino 2012 www.kaus.it www.summer.courses.asp.lodz.pl

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Alicja Habisiak-Matczak


European Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art

Alicja Habisiak-Matczak

Translation by Magdalena Maciaszczyk

Ł

Between Łódź and Urbino

ódź and Urbino are two European cities of entirely different character, located hundreds of kilommeters apart. Łódź is a modern academic centre (6 state and 22 private schools of higher education) and a cultural centre situated on the plains of central Poland. Italian Urbino, a small university town, nestled picturesquely at the foot of the Apennines, is a treasure of Renaissance architecture listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Although Łódź gained its municipal rights in the 15th century, it owes its prime to the 19th century factory owners and its landscape is characterised by post-factory, red brick buildings and eclectic Art Nouveau villas and palaces. Due to its textile tradition and industrial character Łódź is referred to as Polish Manchester. Łódź population is estimated at almost 800 000 people, the population of Urbino is merely 18 000. The thing which these two places have in common is the enduring tradition of artistic printmaking. It can be certainly said that Łódź and Urbino are two cities of printmaking. Łódź is the city of graphic art thanks to its many institutions which promote this discipline. The Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź has always been an important point of reference for all wishing to engage in artistic printmaking, both in Poland and abroad. Many of our masters and teachers have been appreciated around the world and have gained international recognition. Numerous foreign artistic institutions, such as the Academies of Fine Arts in Berlin, Lisbon, Bratislava, Budapest, Vilnius, Paris, Burgos or Malaga cooperate with the Academy. Through to this cooperation many of our students and teachers gain new experiences and simultaneously spread Łódź artistic tradition around the world. There are a number of other important cultural institutions in Łódź besides the Academy, such as the Museum of Contemporary Art, the City Art Gallery which organizes the prestigious International Triennial Printmaking

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‘Small Graphic Forms’, the unique Book Art Museum, the Print and Paper Museum or the Papermaker’s Gallery (Galeria Domu Papiernika) in the open-air museum of the Central Museum of Textiles and numerous art galleries. The joint activity of all these institutions makes Łódź an attractive global centre of artistic printmaking. Urbino, on the other hand, is a constantly active city of printmaking thanks to such institution as Accademia di Belle Arti di Urbino, Scuola del Libro (School of the Book), Museum of Printmaking or the Higher Institute for Artistic Industries - ISIA Urbino, but also, or perhaps first and foremost, thanks to the efforts of the International Centre for Artistic Engraving KAUS, which attracts many artists from Europe and beyond with its graphic and artistic initiatives: Summer Course for Artistic Printmaking, symposia, workshops and exhibitions. The studio of the International Centre for Artistic Engraving KAUS in Urbino is located in a picturesque Hanging Garden of the former Monastery of St Clare, a Renaissance building complex designed by Giorgio de Martini, an architect at the court of dukes of Urbino, designer of the Palazzo Ducale. It is a magical place where different schools of graphic art meet, where different graphic attitudes, methods and experiences confront. Urbino is the source of a current which refreshes contemporary European graphic art. It is a place where numerous graphic works, artistic books and posters realized in traditional techniques are issued and where symposia and printmaking workshops, which gather artists from around the world, are organized. Graphic symposia organized in Urbino are not theoretical but practical; they are vigorous meetings of graphic artists from around the world who realize a joint project but retain the autonomy of their expression. In 2012 artists from different parts of the world created posters inspired by Rossini’s operas thus partaking in Rossini’s Festival in Pesaro; in 2009 and 2010 a symposium dedicated to Raphael took place under the banner ‘La Continua Fortuna di Raffaello tra gli Incisori’ (Continuous Fortune of Raphael among Graphic Artists). The tradition of summer courses for artistic printmaking in Urbino dates back to the year 1966 when three graphic artists – professors at the School of the Book: woodcutter Pietro Sanchini, lithographer Carlo Ceci and etcher Renato Bruscaglia initiated courses in the studios of the School which at that time was located in the very heart of Urbino, in the rooms of Palazzo Ducale. Courses in that form were conducted until 1992. In 2001 at the initiative of the Keishiro Arte Association the Summer Courses for Artistic Printmaking were revived in Urbino. The International Centre for Artistic Engraving was also established. The renaissance of the summer courses is the accomplishment of Giuliano Santini and a few graphic artists from Urbino: Adriano Calavalle, 69

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Alfredo Bartolomeoli, Rossano Guerra and Antonio Battistini who in cooperation with artistic institution in Urbino and under the patronage of local institutions (il Comune di Urbino, la Comunità Montana, la Regione Marche, la Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino, l’Università degli Studi e l’Accademia Raffaello di Urbino) revived the courses. The aim was to strengthen the role of Urbino as a significant centre of artistic printmaking by continuing the tradition of the School of the Book (Scuola del Libro) which over the years educated the most famous Italian graphic artists and printers of the 20th century. Numerous countries established cooperation with the courses through art academies, art faculties or prestigious artistic associations. 600 students from 32 different countries have participated in the courses since 2001. KAUS Centre cooperates with such institutions as Universitat Politecnica di Valencia, Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, University of Arts in Belgrade or Vilnius Academy of Arts. As Guliano Santini writes, among the numerous partner institutions ‘Łódź certainly has a special place in our history. This is a consequence of an accidental yet strong friendship with Alicja Habisiak which resulted in a continuous flow of other friendships and artistic relations. Our cooperation began in 2005 with an exhibition held at the Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź, presenting works of our course teachers and Academy tutors.’ The exhibition entitled ‘The Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art from Urbino to Łódź’ was also presented in Urbino in the ‘Casa Natale di Raffaelo’ and in the Museum of Printing in Soncino. Łodź and Urbino have been linked by a bridge of graphic cooperation; as a result of that cooperation Łódź professors visit Urbino to conduct summer courses, to take part in symposia or to organize workshops for their students in the hospitable Hanging Garden. In the recent years students of the Department of Printmaking participated in two prestigious projects devoted to two poets, Paolo Volponi and Claudio Claudi – works of graphic art were used to realize artistic books inspired by poetry of both authors. This was the result of cooperation between KAUS, the literary Claudio Claudi Foundation in Rome and Parco Lettterario ‘Paolo Volponi’ in Urbino. Numerous exhibitions (for example ‘Urbino-Miasto grafiki’ (Urbino – the City of Graphic Art) co-organized with the City Art Gallery in Łódź or ‘Urbino Dal Giardino Pensile I i II’ (Urbino from the Hanging Garden I and II), presenting in the Bałucka Gallery in Łódź works created in Urbino by students and teachers of Łódź Academy) taking place in Poland and in Italy in the recent years, are the effect of the created ‘graphic bridges’. The cooperation has also extended to other institutions in the city of Łódź such as Logos European Centre of Culture, where in 2005 an exhibition of 18th century copper engravings from Cappella Musicale in Urbino was organised. Printmaking

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This year for the first time International Summer Courses for Artistic Printmaking were organised in the Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź thanks to the artistic coordination of Giuliano Santini and the author of this text. Artists from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, and Denmark and even from Canada, China and Japan were the guests of the well equipped studios of the Department of Printmaking in the Łódź Academy. Once again the passion for graphic art has built a straight path to establishing personal relations and interational friendships. Meeting of less experienced and highly experienced graphic artists from different parts of Europe and from other continents was an exceptional opportunity for exchanging ideas and observations. Not only teachers of Łódź Academy who conducted the intaglio, relief print, lithography and mixed techniques courses, but also the participants with their large baggage of artistic experiences were the source of knowledge during the classes. The interdisciplinary course conducted in all four studios by Professor Yuji Kobayashi from Tama University in Tokyo was a novelty in the courses’ programme. Everyone brought his or her spice to the international graphic kitchen. The courses ended with common feasts – exhibitions which were summaries of the courses and were held in two places at the Academy: the KOBRO Gallery and the Weaving Workshop - the heart of textile Łódź. International summer courses for artistic printmaking, whether held in Urbino or Łódź, are a kind of a testing ground which everyone leaves richer in exhilarating and unique experiences; they are a true melting pot of European cultures. They are addressed to both beginners in the art of printmaking and experienced artists. The courses are intended for students and graduates of Polish and foreign Academies and for all artists wishing to learn or further develop their skills in the field. Deeply impressed by the first Polish edition of the courses, we are already planning a similar meeting in July and August 2014.

International Graphic Kitchen Interesting technical solutions are introduced to a graphic art studio not only by professors conducting summer courses for artistic printmaking or classes during the academic year but also by students from different parts of the world. Below I list several methods as an example and inspiration. I have observed them as an assistant during the International Summer Courses for Artistic Printmaking in Urbino and as a guest of the Centre. They have been partly adopted in our Łódź studio. It is worth adding that thanks to the Erasmus European programme of student exchange, 71

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the Department of Printmaking at our Academy hosts students from Eastern and Western Europe more and more frequently – as a result our Academy becomes a graphic art crossroad. In the Intaglio Techniques Studio, where I have the pleasure of working side by side with Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak, I have had an opportunity to teach and exchange experiences with students from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Italy and Portugal. It is interesting how different substances, many of them edible, are applied in a wholly untypical way in this international graphic kitchen; salt, sugar, oil, soy sauces or coffee grounds may all be useful in the work of a graphic artist. I specialize in intaglio techniques and so I will focus on the processes connected with preparing a matrix and transferring images in that technique, although I have had an opportunity to observe creative experiments of our students from the Student Association “Eksperymantarium”, who used aluminum foil to prepare a lithographic matrix and Coca Cola to etch it. The first stage of working on an intaglio matrix is to degrease the plate: in a Polish graphic kitchen a piece of a potato or a bottle of methylated spirits are indispensible tools for that purpose, an Italian artist will use chalk called bianco di Spagna, an American guest of the Centre in Urbino uses soy sauce for the same purpose… The printmaking paper must be soaked before transferring the image: in Łódź we soak it in a tray filled with water and drain it with newspapers; in Urbino sheets soaked with sponges are piled and enwrapped for a night in a plastic bag; in Belgrade the paper is dried with terry towels. It is fascinating how well-known techniques can be discovered anew through a foreigner’s perspective by observing different methods of putting them into practice. Everybody knows how to print an aquatint or etching, but some artists spread ink by means of a felt wad while our students introduced phone cards and others use old credit cards instead of professional Italian plastic squeegees. To remove ink we use starched gauze, the French probably use the Charbonnel tarlatan, and the Chinese simply use the palm of the hand. In Urbino and now also in Łódź we use pages of telephone books to remove the excess of ink, the Bulgarians use ordinary newspapers and the recently met Belgian artist recommends shoe wrapping paper. Some artists, like for example a certain Lithuanian professor, instead of washing their hands each time they want to handle the clean and precious printmaking paper make precise paper tongs, others simply cover their palms with talcum powder. Among inks, gauze and scrapers scattered on a table in a printmaking studio one may unexpectedly find cotton buds – the Italians use them to wipe particular spots on a metal plate for examPrintmaking

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ple to accentuate a small white area. In Łódź studio we have always used burnt matches for that purpose. To remove ink from a plate Swiss artists advise the use of edible oil rather than toxic solvents and in Łódź we have also successfully used baby oil. Washing hands with coffee grounds mixed with soap – an ideal paste for cleaning dirty hands – is a method brought to Urbino and thus to Łódź by a Dutch artist. The aim of the above account of the experiences gained from the inspiring meetings of artists during the printmaking courses in Łódź and Urbino is to present the many routes by which the graphic thought travels around Europe from one studio to another, bringing increasingly bold solutions, arousing aesthetic emotions but also descending into the depths of our common tradition. Printmaking is a link, a common passion of many people, who by sharing it establish strong humanistic bonds going far beyond a strictly professional relationship. I am certain that the festival of artistic printmaking in Lisbon organized by Professor Jose Quaresma will be the beginning of a fruitful exchange of creative experiences and a source of inspiring graphic friendships – in Europe and beyond.

Bibliography Drogi współczesnej grafiki z Łodzi do Urbino/ The Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art from Łódź to Urbino, Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź, Łódź 2005 Emprentes un recorregut per granat contemporani d’ Urbino a Valencia, Kaus Urbino and Universitat Politecnica de Valencia ISBN978-848363-066-2 Urbino - miasto grafiki : działalność Międzynarodowego Centrum Grafiki Artystycznej KAUS Urbino = Urbino - Città degli incisori : l’attività del Centro Internazionale per l’Incisione Artistica KAUS Urbino (Urbino – a city of graphic art: the activity of the International Centre for Artistic Engraving KAUS Urbino): City Art Gallery in Łódź, Łódź 2008 , ISBN 9788389216601 8389216604 Łódź miasto grafiki / Lodz – the City of Graphic Art, exhibition catalogue, City Art Gallery in Łódź, Łódź 2011 Kaus è incisione – Il decennale 2001-2011, Urbino – Kaus monograph to mark the 10th anniversary, KAUS Urbino 2012 www.kaus.it www.summer.courses.asp.lodz.pl

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A reprodutibilidade instalada – exercícios da gravura enquanto projecto artístico e curatorial

Fernando Rosa Dias

Preâmbulo histórico: a gravura na história da arte contemporânea portuguesa

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ste texto procura efectuar uma reflexão sobre possibilidades algo desaproveitadas da gravura na arte contemporânea e na construção de exposições ou de política curatorial, considerando o trabalho dos últimos anos do espaço da gravura das Belas Artes de Lisboa. Por isso, este texto também é um ensaio histórico sobre este mesmo espaço universitário da gravura, não tanto do ponto de vista pedagógico mas, sobretudo, investigativo. Comecemos com alguns aspectos históricos de enquadramento preliminar sobre a gravura em Portugal. Um momento marcante da gravura contemporânea em Portugal foi a criação da mítica Cooperativa Gravura, fundada em 1956. A Cooperativa surgia num panorama pobre e sem expectativa, não existindo comércio de arte, havendo poucas galerias e nenhuma delas com actividade comercial viável. Com controladas excepções, como a Sociedade Nacional de Belas Artes de Lisboa (SNBA), os grandes espaços culturais estavam controlados pelo Estado Novo através do seu órgão criado em 1933: o Secretariado de Propaganda Nacional (SPN), mais tarde Secretariado Nacional de Informação (SNI). Este organismo tinha sido instrumento exclusivo do poder mecenático em Portugal, colocando os artistas ou numa dependência directa do Estado ou em lado nenhum. Este espaço, que fora esperança para os anos 30, perdera o seu protagonismo e dinâmica com as Exposições Gerais iniciadas em 1946, acentuado com a saída de António Ferro em 1950 e o fim das suas Exposições de Arte Moderna no ano seguinte. Se este organismo perdera o seu tempo, acompanhando assim a crise do regime desde o fim da segunda Guerra, a sua fragilização deixava um vazio que realçava o perigo da sua exclusividade. Cronologicamente, a Cooperativa surgia também imediatamente após a última das Exposições Gerais de Artes Plásticas, que, como se adiantou, tinham iniciado em 1946 e que tinha sido o palco do neo-realismo português nas artes plásticas, o primeiro movimento culturalmente organizado de oposição política ao regime fascista. O fim do ciclo destas Exposições Gerais coincide com a criação da Gravura. A décima e última Exposição Printmaking

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Geral tinha sido realizada em Junho de 1956 e efectuara-se com carácter retrospectivo e de balanço, numa intencional despedida. A Cooperativa Gravura era criada logo a seguir, quase como sua sucessora, a 20 de Julho do mesmo ano, como se tudo não fosse mais do que uma passagem de testemunho histórico e ideológico. Entre uma e outra, estava apenas menos de um mês, como se outro ciclo se preparasse como sua continuação. Além disso, convém apontar que a partir da 7ª Exposição Geral, em 1953, tinham começado a surgir algumas experiências no âmbito da gravura que assinalavam o interesse por essa prática em vários dos seus participantes habituais. Portanto, havia no interior das Exposições Gerais, um interesse pela prática e potencialidades da Gravura que importava explorar. A Cooperativa como que dava uma resposta fornecendo essa possibilidade. No registo notarial da fundação da Cooperativa Gravura, vários dos nomes são não só artistas como foram nomes presentes nas Exposições Gerais como alguns são dos mais marcantes do neo-realismo português. A ligação de vários dos nomes da Cooperativa Gravura ao neo-realismo, permite entender a simpatia pela reprodutibilidade da Gravura também enquanto questão ideológica. Tal como se defendera a dimensão pública do mural ou do fresco, em tamanho maior e fixo relativamente à pintura de cavalete, resistindo à propriedade privada e à especulação económica desta, defendia-se agora a multiplicidade em tamanho menor e mais leve e transportável que a pintura de cavalete, que tinha uma dimensão pública através da distribuição mais acessível, resistindo à especulação financeira porque transportava a culpa do múltiplo. Esta ligação ao neo-realismo verificou-se também na abordagem formal e temática das primeiras edições da Cooperativa. No início das produções da Cooperativa era ainda visível um vínculo à iconografia neo-realista, na representação do povo, sobretudo de camponeses ou de pescadores. Como segundo ponto da Cooperativa Gravura, relativo a uma dimensão económica, saliente-se a contribuição da Cooperativa no arranque da emergência de um mercado de arte praticamente inexistente em Portugal, criação esta salvaguardada entre a sua dimensão reprodutiva e uma dimensão exclusiva e única que residualmente se revela e escapa à reprodutibilidade. Enquanto reprodutibilidade, a gravura é o melhor modo de apresentação de uma obra artística, da sua difusão e divulgação. Num espaço com pouco investimento cultural, com pouca dinâmica expositiva e crítica, a gravura podia ser um meio com algum papel de divulgação da produção artística, ou seja, poderia ser outro modo dos artistas plásticos apresentarem a sua produção. A gravura, enquanto técnica artística que relaciona uma acção manual com o apetrecho tecnológico, permite articular a sua inerente 75

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reprodutibilidade com uma dimensão estética. Por um lado, mantém fortes traços de uma aura artística, por outro não é reduzida a um só exemplar. Ela permite vender o que (enquanto τέχνη) retém ainda um assinalável valor artístico com um valor económico mais reduzido, porque reprodutível e de menor tamanho. Foi esta articulação que permitiu, nos primeiros anos, que a Cooperativa Gravura crescesse de modo relevante o número de sócios. Estes podiam adquirir imagens que ainda tinham o estatuto de objecto artístico a preços mais reduzidos. Foi neste crescimento que a Gravura espalhou uma dinâmica comercial, de valor de produções artística, que foi determinante no esboço de um mercado de arte que se construiria ao longo dos anos de 1960. No papel histórico da Cooperativa Gravura em Portugal, convém salientar as possibilidades reprodutivas da gravura enquanto modo de divulgação da prática artística moderna. Os suportes mais leves e pequenos, permitiam outra deambulação. Não exigiam espaços grandes e eram mais fáceis de transportar. Sem grandes despesas, os artistas podiam divulgar a sua produção e, ao mesmo tempo, podiam ser vendidas algumas obras. As itinerâncias de arte moderna entre finais de 1950 e 60, levando-a para fora dos grandes centros, foram exemplares e inéditas até à época. Ou seja, o próprio complexo perante a gravura, enquanto não único e original, contribuiu para que esta fosse um pragmático e importante meio de divulgação da arte moderna em finais dos anos 50. Estas «exposições-pacote», lembrando o Comboio Soviético das Artes, utilizavam paredes amovíveis concebidas por Dassiano da Costa, estruturas facilmente articuláveis e remontáveis agilizando todo o processo. A importância da acção da Cooperativa Gravura acentua-se ao considerarmos a fragilidade de tradição dessa prática, apesar de alguns esforços nos anos 20. A década de trinta tinha esvaziado os lugares de ensino e prática criando um vazio difícil de preencher para os artistas formados nas Belas Artes em Portugal. Essa vazio histórico e pedagógico, fazia destacar o aparecimento da Cooperativa Gravura. Seria cerca de 10 anos depois dos inícios da Cooperativa, que se começava a recuperar o seu ensino e prática na Escola de Belas Artes de Lisboa. Foi decisiva a actuação de Gil Teixeira Lopes ao criar o Centro Nacional de Calcografia e Gravura em Lisboa, concebido com o intuito de efectuar cópias da Gravura Portuguesa antiga mas onde, simultaneamente, desenvolveu um importante núcleo de produção de gravura original e contemporânea. Gil Teixeira Lopes recuperou a gravura de um estranho eclipse na reforma de 1930 que, apesar de ter reaparecido na reforma de 1957, aqui ficara apenas no papel. O trabalho de Gil Teixeira Lopes ao longo dos anos 60 foi o de reinstalar a disciplina nos seus funcionamentos prático-artísticos, o que implicou máquinas e matérias na instalação e activação de tecnologias. A criação do Centro Nacional Printmaking

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de Calcografia e Gravura foi o modo eficaz dessa recuperação, tornando-se o mais destacado espaço universitário de prática da gravura com alguma concorrência à mitificada Cooperativa Gravura. O ensino da gravura da ESBAL nas três últimas décadas do século XX seria marcado pela docência de Gil Teixeira Lopes, coadjuvado pelas professoras Matilde Marçal e Marília Viegas devolvendo a plena autonomia funcional da cadeira prática, integrada como técnica na área da pintura. A sua acção adquiriu respeito nacional e internacional (registáveis no relevante leque de prémios de Gil Teixeira Lopes). As reflexões que iremos desenvolver estão na sequência desta plena recuperação técnica e prática da gravura, a partir da gestão da cadeira pelo exercício do Professor José Quaresma. Além do trabalho de revisão de materiais, introduzindo produtos não tóxicos e de um alargamento a práticas digitais, há outros aspectos que são aqueles que pretendemos sublinhar: o desenvolvimento de um interesse investigativo, prático e conceptual, a partir das questões da gravura e uma prática expositiva na consciência dessas noções que define particulares modos curatoriais de funcionamento a sublinhar.

1.Instalar a Gravura Nos últimos anos, foi possível observar na oficina de gravura da Faculdade de Belas Artes de Lisboa, a necessidade de definir coordenadas teóricas da gravura e de a entender enquanto fenómeno na cultura contemporânea. O primeiro arranque dessa determinação teórica foi o livro Ensaios sobre reprodutibilidade (2008), uma edição da FBAUL e da Universidade de Granada, a partir dos seus espaços práticos de gravura. Os colaboradores repartiram-se, entre professores e investigadores, de ambas as Universidades. Este primeiro livro explorava o prolema da reprodutibilidade (questão tão marcante da nossa cultura contemporânea mas com escassa bibliografia específica), não só enquanto questão inerente à gravura, mas também como marca da cultura contemporânea, apontando linhas diferenciadas de reflexão, mesmo que com recorrências a autores clássicos sobre esta questão como foi o caso de Walter Benjamin. Entendia-se que o olhar sobre a gravura enquanto técnica tradicional, escamoteava a sua importância numa série de paradigmas de funcionamento da cultura contemporânea, como é indiscutivelmente o caso da reprodutibilidade. Se a reprodutibilidade é uma das grandes marcas do nosso habitat cultural, a gravura oferece com a sua tradição a grande estrutura genealógica dessa reprodutibilidade, sendo um campo rico para a sua reflexão (algo escassa) e consciência. Estes ensaios, sempre com coordenação de José Quaresma (embora partilhando com ou77

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tros co-orientadores), continuaram com uma extensão de actualidade ao mundo digital com os livros Circunvoluções Digitais I e II (que alargou as colaborações internacionais) e ajudaram a definir uma constelação de conceitos que poderiam enriquecer a prática da gravura artística para além de uma dimensão técnica, ao mesmo tempo que lhe fornecia parâmetros para operar na arte actual. Além disso, explorou-se nas aulas e em workshops um acompanhamento e proximidade de módulos teóricos, além de se cultivarem conferências1 e exposições2. Em resenha elencamos alguns destes potenciais conceitos, alguns com potencialidades dicotómicas, dialéticas e até ontológicas, tais como matriz, cópia, repetição, série, único, simultaneidade, diferença, marca, impressão, etc. A primeira intervenção com clara intenção de aplicar estes conceitos, com carácter expositivo e artístico, foi a exposição Casa Gravada – Olhares sobre a Casa-Museu Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves (Lisboa: Casa-Museu Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves, Setembro 2009-Janeiro 2010; Granada: Cármen de la Victoria, Sala Ajibe, Fevereiro-Março 2010), projecto concebido com estudantes dos diferentes ciclos de formação em actividade na oficina de gravura da FBA-UL. O projecto foi apresentado pelos Professores José Quaresma e Fernando Rosa Dias à Casa-Museu Anastácio Gonçalves, propondo-se um diálogo entre a gravura e simultaneamente a memória da casa, a biografia do mecenas e a coleccção. A relação com o local onde se instala, com as suas características espaciais ou com a sua memória de lugar, biográfico e cultural, transportando consigo os referidos princípios estratégicos da sua poiesis técnica, entre outros, permitiam explorar soluções particulares a cada acto instalativo individual, fornecendo à gravura uma espessura ontológica que a reprodutibilidade lhe parecia roubar. A gravura reproduz e reproduz-se, desdobra em cada cópia um resíduo diferencial que o acto instalativo pode sublinhar, assumindo aí, nessa extensão, a responsabilidade de sublinhar no seio da sua própria tradição uma das suas marcas maiores – ou seja, estas marcações inerentes à sua prática e tecnologia (tais como reprodutível, cópia, matriz, etc.), e que podem ser vistas apenas como tradições e limitações, a partir da sua consciência e extensão conceptual, podem desdobrar-se com outro alcance instalativo e expositivo que não só invade como pode naturalmente enriquecer as práticas artísticas mais contemporâneas. A partir daí, as características dessa inerência de reprodutibilidade passam a articular-se com outras dimensões. Estruturalmente, diríamos que a dimensão expositiva da arte da reprodução, como diz Walter Benjamin no seu famoso ensaio, tem sempre um rasto da aura, sendo sempre imbuída de marcas desse contexto artístico em que se apresenta. Se o objecto subtrai a aura, o contexto cultural, com a sua dimensão cultual, permite que a aura não se dissolva deixando esse maior ou menor rasto. Este rasto ou traço Printmaking

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(outra expressão de Walter Benjamin) da aura restitui não um ser mas um estar com relativo grau de unicidade. É nesta diferença que se pode facilmente estabelecer uma dimensão instalativa da gravura, utilizando para isso vários processos: além da monotipia, da prova única, que devolvem a ontologia ou modo ontológico (Ser) do único, pode-se utilizar a matriz ou a dimensão expositiva que coloca os elementos (mesmo os da reprodutibilidade) em função do lugar, ou ligar a gravura a outros elementos, numa lógica instalativa, que lhe forneça uma entidade ou um modo ôntico (Estar) único ou exclusivo. Se naquilo a que chamamos modo ontológico (Ser) a obra é única para além da sua presença, no modo ôntico (Estar) a sua exclusividade é restrita à efemeridade do estar expositivo, após a qual a obra se desfaz ou altera. Em resumo, tratava-se de desafiar uma dimensão única à reprodutibilidade. Estas reflexões dão para entender como, a partir das suas próprias características tradicionais, a gravura pode não só estender-se a outras modalidades artísticas, como pode ainda subverter a exclusividade dos seus paradigmas tradicionais, concertando-se a situações bem actuais, despertando um campo rico de conceptualizões e reflexões para a arte contemporânea. Além disso, estas preocupações teóricas que se iam estabilizando em edições, definindo um halo de conceitos operativos da arte e da cultura, próprios à tradição da gravura, despoletaram várias questões em torno das possibilidades expositivas da gravura.

2. Curadoria pela Gravura: 1º movimento – uma itinerância aditiva e em espiral Como vimos, determinadas tomadas de consciência da gravura podem ter uma acção híbrida, sendo uma «constelação» que se pode estender ao mundo digital, à instalação ou à arte pública, ou outros media a partir dos seus próprios pressupostos tradicionais e para lá das suas dependências tradicionais do desenho e da pintura3. Foi com esta consciência estabilizada que um novo momento se desenrolou, com a concepção e organização pelo Professor José Quaresma da exposição múltipla e sucessiva sob o título Estampar Poetas (decorrida de Março a Dezembro de 2012). Apresentemos a construção da lógica expositiva. Em cada lugar, a partir de um espaço de ensino superior de Belas Artes com oficina de gravura, definia-se um grupo de trabalho e respectivos professores coordenadores. Considerando a cultura do país dessa escola de artes, escolhiam-se dois poetas historicamente marcantes. Os poetas e a sua obra serviam de mote para a criação dos trabalhos de gravura que, deste modo, conjugavam a palavra e a imagem, as duas grandes bases das origens da história 79

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da impressão nos preâmbulos da Era Moderna. Na consciência da agilização logística de transporte e da reprodutibilidade definiu-se uma exposição que começava num lugar, passava por outros e regressava ao mesmo ponto de partida. Assim, este projecto expositivo levava características da gravura e conceitos atinentes, a uma dimensão curatorial. Apesar da estrutura itinerante, ela não é convencional. Não se trata de pegar numa mesma exposição que se vai montando e desmontando em cada lugar. Em cada sítio, que era um novo momento expositivo, acrescentava-se a produção desse lugar à da anterior, e o conjunto assim aditado seguia para novo lugar para outros acréscimos, havendo por isso uma diferença expositiva em cada lugar assente num diálogo (ou, porque não, desafio) entre o que vinha e o que se acrescentava. Neste sentido, a exposição ia-se descobrindo e revelando nesse périplo. O lugar do primeiro núcleo expositivo, afinal aquele de onde partia toda a concepção e coordenação geral, recebia o somatório final de toda a adição, como o espólio de uma viagem (espécie de odisseia da gravura). A FBAUL era o seu ponto de partida e de chegada (em colaboração nesta chegada-meta, com a Casa Fernando Pessoa). Este crescimento em espiral do espólio expositivo era agilizado na logística pela maior facilidade da gravura (mesmo apesar de vários projectos se estenderem à instalação e conceptualização) que atenuava despesas e acelerava o processo. Apresentemos a sequência dos lugares expositivos, sendo o último um regresso à mesma cidade: 1. Capela da FBAUL 2. Espanha-Granada (Março e Abril) Fundación Federico García Lorca 3. Holanda-Utrecht (Setembro) Faculteit Beeldende Kunst & Vormgeving. Hogeschool voor de Kunsten Utrecht 4. Dinamarca-Copenhaga (Outubro)Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, Billedkunstskolerne 5. Portugal-Lisboa (Dezembro) Faculdade de Belas Artes de Lisboa e Casa-Museu Fernando Pessoa O projecto Estampar Poetas culminava na conjugação do acervo em crescendo na exposição em dois núcleos, na FBAUL e na Casa Fernando Pessoa, com catálogo e conferências em torno da gravura. O título desta última, Gravura, instalação e poesia – A alegria de um encontro (Printmaking, installation and poetry – The joy of a reunion), sublinhava essa dimensão de meta como reencontro final que juntava o périplo de nove meses que foi integrando as obras. A exposição final era o fim e a súmula de uma viagem de gravura. Mas exponhamos os conceitos que se destacam, também aqui atinentes às gravuras, e que orientaram o espírito da curadoria: Printmaking

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Por um lado, a atenção à fácil mobilidade da gravura que é sua marca. Ao lado do habitual na história das artes plásticas, em que observamos que estas tendiam a fixar-se no lugar para onde eram encomendadas (lembre-se a tradição retabular da pintura), resistindo à itinerância, a história da gravura sempre se fez acompanhar pelo facto de ser a grande produção da imagem que era feita para se deslocar e partilhar. Essa tradição sobrevive no espírito da agilização logística que a exposição pede, nos custos e na celeridade – um itinerário como nas referidas «exposições-pacote» itinerantes da Cooperativa Gravura, mas aqui numa dimensão e intercâmbio internacional e com esse peculiar efeito de acumulação e crescendo de obras cujo efeito nos lembra uma espiral. O diálogo e partilha das obras que se efectua entre as instituições, que é também uma partilha cultural, das imagens aos poetas. Com ainda temos vários diálogos culturais, entre poesia e gravura, entre poetas de diferentes países europeus, entre Instituições de ensino de Belas Artes e entre oficinas de gravura. A dinâmica em espiral, num somatório de criações, que deriva de outro modo do paradigma da reprodutibilidade numa lógica de diferença criativa. A exposição tem um ponto de partida, mas não está definida à partida, para se ir descobrindo nos diálogos entre artistas (e poetas) que se efectuam em cada suspensão expositiva. A dimensão sucessiva e metamórfica da própria exposição, que em cada remontagem se acrescentava a si, nessa incorporação dialogante.

3. Curadoria pela Gravura: 2º movimento – a simultaneidade O último destaque, que é o actual, mas que já se vem processando ao longo de vários meses, apresenta-se como The Rape of Europe. Back to Agenor’s Children Demand (2013), quando também acompanhada de debates e ensaios sobre a gravura, tudo conjugado com a edição de catálogo. A estratégia é outra, embora decididamente possível enquanto projecto curatorial e expositivo a partir da gravura – diríamos que só a partir de uma oficina de gravura (ou, por derivação um estúdio fotográfico) seria possível emergir esta tal concepção. O seu conceito dominante é a simultaneidade expositiva e esta sustenta-se na reprodutibilidade. Se Estampar Poetas tinha a estrutura sequencial e em espiral, pelo acrescimento de momento expositivo a momento expositivo, onde era sempre diferente por adição, agora ela apresenta-se toda ao mesmo tempo em lugares diferentes, a mesma exposição em diferentes lugares expositivos, numa simultaneidade só possível porque não há obra única, mas presenças de reprodutíveis que podem estar ao mesmo tempo em lugares diferentes. Esta vernissage 81

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simultânea, em diferentes lugares da Europa e no Brasil, que a partir dos seus distintos lugares podem ver as mesmas obras, lança assim uma sugestão curatorial muito particular que se imbrica em pressupostos ônticos da gravura (o modo ôntico que apontámos). A dimensão expositiva de Walter Benjamin apresenta aqui uma possibilidade expositiva que seria ontologicamente impossível à dimensão cultual da obra única – portanto, algo só possível a partir do rasto da aura. Se o périplo se fez na estrutura da exposição anterior, numa espécie de avanço no território europeu, como se pudéssemos utilizar aqui o próprio mito do rapto da Europa, agora é como se o território tivesse sido sinalizado, com essa Europa resgatada, e esta pudesse falar em voz única, na pluralidade simultânea de uma manifestação artística – acrescentando-se o Brasil, numa espécie de olhar de fora. Assim, é possível que alguém a partir do seu próprio lugar e, estando aí, esteja a expor noutros pontos da Europa numa colectiva internacional. Tal polifonia expositiva de várias exposições simultâneas de um mesmo núcleo expositivo, só é possível a partir desse carácter inerente à gravura que aqui se exponencia: a reprodutibilidade, que deixa de ser um estigma para ser um modo único de curadoria. A preparação e coordenação de tal projecto não tem a mesma simplicidade desta aparição simultânea em diferentes pontos da Europa (e Brasil). Não tendo ponto de partida e chegada a orientar um périplo expositivo que se estende no tempo, ela não deixa de envolver a necessidade de um demorado acompanhamento e coordenação a partir de um centro que organiza outros centros – no caso, a oficina de gravura da FBAUL.

Notas 1. Refira-se a conferência Criar o Múltiplo sem perder a Aura (Creating the Multiple without Losing the Aura), triplo seminário com José Quaresma, Fernando Rosa Dias (FBA-UL) e António Cadima Mendonça(ESTAL). No âmbito do Programa Sócrates, Acção Erasmus 2, Mobilidade de Docentes, 22-30 Abril 2006, Helsínquia: University of Art and Design Helsinki (UIAH) 2. Além de Casa Gravada (2010) e Estampar Poetas (2012), que avaliaremos particularmente, e de várias colaborações da gravura em colectivas com outras expressões artísticas (Face to Face: Art and Design Exhibitions, 2013; Jornadas Europeias do Património de 2011 e 2012; O Chiado, a Baixa e a Esfera Pública – Ensaios e Exposições de Arte Pública, 2011; Chiado – efervescência urbana, artística e cultural de um lugar, 2010; D’Après Nuno Gonçalves, 2010; Oriente/Ocidente – Miscigenações, 2010; ou Centelhas de Arte, Gosto de Partilha, 2009…), destaque-se ainda Provas, Contraprovas e Outros Testemunhos – Exposição Colectiva de Gravura (2011) 3. Cf. José Quaresma, «Gravura Contemporânea em “estado gasoso”?», in catálogo da exposição Gravura, instalação e poesia – A alegria de um encontro (Printmaking, installation and poetry – The joy of a reunion), exposição itinerante, FBAUL-CIEBA, 2012, p.13.

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Abstracts BR

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each artist participating in this project, all of them teachers and undergraduate, master’s and doctoral students from the UFRGS Instituto de Artes, who responded enthusiastically to this invitation.

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The myth of ‘The Rape of Europa’: a dis/comfort place. Drawing this past into the present art context. Bibiana Crespo Martín

Expressões gráficas e contemporaneidade Maristela Salvatori Em meio à atual profusão de possibilidades de produção e reprodução de imagens, artistas seguem utilizando os artesanais recursos da gravura, ou identificados com aspectos destas mídias, frequentemente mesclados a outros meios. A partir deste pressuposto, este artigo foca obras de duas grandes artistas brasileiras que tiveram sua formação primeira no Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Graphic expressions and contemporaneity Maristela Salvatori Amid the current profusion of possibilities of production and reproduction of images, artists still use the handcrafted resources of printmaking, sometimes identified with aspects of these media, often mixed with other media. From this assumption, this article focuses on works of two major Brazilian artists who had their first training at UFRGS Instituto de Artes. Desdobramentos da imagem: algumas visões do Rapto da Europa Maristela Salvatori Tratamos aqui de dez diferentes visões sobre o mito da criação da Europa abordando a ótica e interpretação de cada artista participante deste projeto, todos oriundos do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, professores e alunos, de graduação, mestrado e doutorado, que responderam com entusiasmo a este convite. An image unfolding: some views of the Rape of Europa Maristela Salvatori We discuss here ten different views on the creation myth of Europe addressing the perspective and interpretation of

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Today, in artistic activities in general, it is absolutely necessary to retrace past paths again: from a strictly objective and not a deliberate subjective point of view. Only in this way it is posible to express the complexity of our time. The importante of recovering the concepts ‘place’, ‘continuity’ and ‘context’, the necessity of historical revision –avoiding any cult of trend and tendency– will produce a vital, synergetic development and a straightening in whatever the artistic expression. And going further, the myth of The Rape of Europa means the rape of the other, the rape of the Oriental culture, the rape of the identity. El grabado creativo y multidisciplinar en la era digital. Nuevas propuestas educativas Eva Figueras Ferrer A finales de 1990 y principios de la década pasada, la distribución de la creación artística prometía renovarse con el desarrollo del denominado arte digital. Aunque términos como Net(dot)art o Arte.en.red, impresión digital o realidad virtual ya no resultan ajenos para investigadores, artistas, comisarios y público general, lo cierto es que la promesa de la desmaterialización del objeto artístico no parece haberse cumplido: Las exposiciones de arte, como la que se presenta bajo el título “El rapto de Europa”, siguen estando allí. El resultado de estas actuaciones pone en evidencia la importancia de la tecnología digital como portal de comunicación y de intercambio de conocimiento, por un lado, y el potencial de creación artística que de ella se deriva, por el otro. Las prácticas analógicas y las digitales se realimentan

Texts on Printmaking & The Rape of Europe


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(feedback) mutuamente y abren unos potenciales comunicativos y expresivos impensable otrora. Creative and multidisciplinary engraving in the digital age. New educational proposals Eva Figueras Ferrer In the late 1990s and the early 2000s, the development of the so-called digital art promised to renew the distribution of artistic creation. Although terms such as Net(dot)art or Arte.en.red, digital printing or virtual reality are no longer alien to researchers, artists, curators and the general public, the fact is that the promise of dematerialization of the artistic object does not seem to have been accomplished: art exhibitions such as the one presented under the title of ‘The Rape of Europa’ are still there. The result of these actions highlights the importance of digital technology as a portal of communication and knowledge exchange, on the one hand, and the potential of artistic creation which derives from it, on the other. Analogue and digital practices reciprocally feedback and give rise to formerly unconceivable communication and expressive possibilities.

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Bound to be referential Willem du Gardijn In Bound to be referential the author Willem du Gardijn deals with the question whether art needs a theme or a certain content as a starting point. The relationship between the physical works of art and a proposed theme (such as The rape of Europe) is often fairly casual, maybe even ornamental. So, the fruitfulness of working with a theme can be and should be debated in order to better understand, one: the way contemporary artists deal with form and content, two: the strange, complex, maybe even preposterous relationship between experiencing art and reflecting on it.

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Graficzna tożsamość Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Tekst składa się z trzech części. Część pierwsza zawiera osobiste wspomnienia autora z czasów studiów w Państwowej Wyższej Szkole Sztuk Plastycznych w Łodzi w latach 1974-1979. Część druga dotyczy doświadczeń dydaktycznych. Rozdział trzeci ukazuje w syntetyczny sposób specyfikę grafiki łódzkiej. Graphic identity Krzysztof Wawrzyniak The text consists of three parts. The first part includes the author’s personal recollections concerning his student days at the State Higher School of Visual Arts in the years 1974 – 1979. The second - refers to his didactic experiences. The third part is a brief presentation of the specifics of Łódź graphic art. Europejskie drogi grafiki współczesnej Alicja Habisiak-Matczak Niniejszy tekst jest moją osobistą relacją z doświadczeń wyniesionych z inspirujących spotkań z artystami z całej Europy i spoza niej w graficznych pracowniach Akademii Sztuk Pięknych im . Władysława Strzemińskiego w Łodzi i w Międzynarodowym Centrum Grafiki Kaus w Urbino. Pierwsza część tekstu ukazuje bogate tradycje graficzne Łodzi i Urbino, które są ważnymi skrzyżowaniami europejskich dróg graficznych. W szczególności przybliżam działalność Centrum Grafiki w Urbino oraz wieloletnią tradycję prowadzonych tam letnich kursów grafiki, które w 2013 roku po raz pierwszy odbyły się w Akademii Sztuk Pięknych w Łodzi. Na koniec zapraszam czytelników do międzynarodowej graficznej kuchni. Z przymrużeniem oka opisuję kilka graficznych sztuczek, by ukazać co czyni grafikę tak twórczą i zabawną.

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European Routes of Contemporary Graphic Art Alicja Habisiak-Matczak The present text is my personal account of the experiences gained thanks to the inspiring meetings with artists from Europe and beyond which have taken place in the printmaking studios at the Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź and the International Centre for Artistic Engraving KAUS in Urbino. The first part of the text shows the rich graphic traditions of Łódź and Urbino, which both are significant crossroads of European graphic routes. I pay particular attention to the activity of the International Centre in Urbino and the long tradition of its summer courses which in 2013 took place in Łódź for the first time. Finally, I invite my readers to the international graphic kitchen. I describe half-seriously several graphic tricks to show what makes graphic art so creative and amusing.

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A reprodutibilidade instalada – exercícios da gravura enquanto projecto artístico e curatorial. Preâmbulo histórico: a gravura na história da arte contemporânea portuguesa Fernando Rosa Dias Este texto procura efectuar uma reflexão sobre possibilidades algo desaproveitadas da gravura na arte contemporânea e na construção de exposições ou de política curatorial, considerando o trabalho dos últimos anos do espaço da gravura das Belas Artes de Lisboa. Por isso, este texto também é um ensaio histórico sobre este mesmo espaço universitário da gravura, não tanto do ponto de vista pedagógico mas, sobretudo, investigativo.

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Author’s Biographies BR

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living things. As humans we often believe we are superior to other species; and although our creative spirit, and our hunger for dominance and power have led us to do great things in the past, our lack of limits can also destroy us. Yet when confronted with natural disasters we are less prepared for survival than other much simpler forms of life. My artwork is a reflection on the interconnections found in nature and how they affect our future. My creative production focuses on the study and use of materials and techniques that take into account occupational health and safety and environmental awareness. www.ub.edu/gravat www.poesiaillibres-art.blogspot.com.es

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Willem du Gardijn (alias Willem Jardin) 1964, Barneveld, The Netherlands. Studied Contemporary History in Utrecht and Berlin. Teaches Cultural History at the HKU University of the Arts Utrecht. Published two fictional books: Monografie van de mond (2008), and Negen raven (2011); Is currently working on his next novel

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Alicja Habisiak-Matczak was born in Piotrków Trybunalski in 1978. Between 1997 and 2002 studies at the Department of Graphics and Painting, Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź. In 2002 she got a diploma with distinction in the Studio of Intaglio Techniques headed by Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. In 2003 she got a grant from the Ministry of Culture and the Italian Government and she took up a six months’ course in graphics at the Academy of Fine Arts in Urbino, Italy. From 2002 till 2011 she was teacher’s assistant at the Studio of Composition Rudiments headed by Danuta Wieczorek (Ph.D.) at the Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź. At present she is an assistant professor in the Studio of Intaglio Techniques headed by Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak at the same academy. Between 2004-2006 she was an assistant during the Summer International Courses of

Maristela Salvatori Teaches at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Arts Institute, where she also coordinated the Postgraduate Visual Arts Programme. She holds a doctorate from Paris I, and held a CAPES senior bursary to Université Laval, Canada. She is leader of the Expressões do Múltiplo research group and was Resident Artist at Cité Internationale des Arts, Paris, and at Frans Masereel Centrum, Kasterlee. She has won awards in Paris, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Porto Alegre and Curitiba, including GRAV’X 1999 in Paris. www.chasqueweb.ufrgs.br/~maristelasalvatori. maristela-salvatori.blogspot.com

Bibiana Crespo Martín (1971, Barcelona - Spain) Dr. Bibiana Crespo is a visual artist and a Professor at the Faculty of Fine Arts at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As scholar she has published and lectured internationally – at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (Bologna, Italy), the National Academy of Arts of Sofia (Sofia, Bulgary), the Faculty of Creative Arts, UWE (Bristol, UK), the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plasticas of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico City)- and participated as an artist in numerous solo and group exhibitions as well as residency programmes, eg: Art and Creation Centre (Lâzarea, Romaia 2008 & 2010), Vyom Art Centre (Jaipur, India 2009), Sixth Kepes Symposium in Nature Art (Noszvay, Hungary 2010), Sandarbh International Residency (Partapur, India, 2011), Slow Film Festival (Eger, Hungary, 2011), Wongol International Residence (Korea, 2011), Taipei Aritst Village (Taipei, Taiwan 2012) and Ecorea Jeonbuk Biennale (Korea, 2012). Eva Figueras Ferrer (Castellterçol, 1963) My artwork includes both intaglio and drawing. I am inspired by nature as the source of life that makes us equal to all

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Graphics KAUS in Urbino. In 2007 she was the finalist of the Grant Program under the auspices of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage ‘Young Poland’ for outstanding Polish artists of the young generation. She organized 11 personal exhibitions in Poland, Italy and the Netherlands. Participated in over 90 international exhibitions of print and drawing all over the world. Winner of 11 Polish and International print and drawing awards. In 2009 she realised her doctorate entitled Perspectives – series of prints and drawings on urban space and obtained the title of doctor of arts. Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Born in 1954. In 1974-1979 studies at the Faculty of Graphic Art and Painting in the State Higher School of Fine Arts and Design in Łódź. Diploma in 1979 in the Department of Printmaking. Since 1983 faculty staff member at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Łódź. In 1986-2000 member of Societe Internationale des Graveurs sur Bois XYLON in Switzerland and the Association International Graphic Art Triennial in Cracow. Pursues drawing and graphic art. Linocut is his preferred technique in graphic art. Since 1979 participated in over 170 group and community exhibitions, the Polish art presentations abroad as well as international exhibitions, ex: in Łódź, Cul-des-Sarts, Couvin, Winterthur, Cracow, Katowice, Kanagawa, Tama, Tokyo. Works presented at 18 solo shows. Many times awarded: Intergrafia 1986 in Katowice - I Prize, International Print Triennial 1991, Cracow - prize by regulations, 1st Polish Print Triennial in Katowice - funded prize, Small Graphic Forms, Łódź ’96 - honorary medal. Works in prestigious collections, ex: in Łódź, Cracow, Cul-des-Sarts, Couvin, London, Vienna and Chicago. Head of the Intaglio Techniques Studio.

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Fernando Rosa Dias (Caldas da Rainha, 1964). Doutoramento em Ciências da Arte pela Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa (FBAUL) com o tema A Nova-Figuração nas Artes Plásticas em Portugal (1958-

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1975). Mestre em História da Arte Contemporânea pela Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCSH-UNL) com o tema Ecos Expressionistas na Pintura Portuguesa (1910-1940), revista e editada por Campo da Comunicação, 2011. Licenciado em Design de Comunicação pela Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa. Professor Auxiliar da Área de Ciências da Arte na Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa. Vice-Presidente do Conselho Científico, coordenador do 2º e 3ª ciclo da Área de Ciências da Arte e do Património e membro da Assembleia da Faculdade. Assistente Convidado (entre 1998-2003) na FCSH-UNL, no Departamento de História de Arte. Investigador integrado no Centro de Investigação e de Estudos em Belas-Artes (CIEBA) – Secção de Ciências da Arte e do Património Francisco de Holanda. Tem organizado colóquios e exposições, editado livros e artigos, e coordenado edições, em torno de questões como a arte portuguesa do século XX, a Investigação em Arte, a Imagem, as vanguardas culturais, entre outros. José Quaresma 1965, Santarém. É licenciado em Pintura pela ESBAL. Mestrado e Doutoramento em Filosofia de Arte pela F.L.U.L. Expõe pintura, desenho, gravura e instalação desde 1982. Tem coordenado publicações nos domínios da Investigação em Arte; Reprodutibilidade e Tecnologia; Esfera Digital; Arte Pública; Chiado e Património. Tem organizado ciclos de conferências nacionais e internacionais sobre os domínios acima indicados. Organiza com frequência exposições de Arte Pública, Instalação, Gravura, Outras.


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Exhibition Catalogue BR Alice Porto Ana Cândida Sommer Denis Nicola Flavya Mutran Jander Rama Kárin Meneghetti Maria Lucia Cattani Maristela Salvatori Nara Amelia Rafael Pagatini

PL Alicja Habisiak-Matczak Dorota Kobos Joanna Aninowska Joanna Kamińska Katarzyna Jagodzińska Katarzyna Klonowska Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Magdalena Wójcik Oskar Gorzkiewicz Tomasz Biskup

ES Anna Brucart Bibiana Crespo Martín Encarna Romero Eva Figueras Ferrer Maria José Botero Marian López Miquel Planas Pilar Rosado Sandra March Xavi Rodríguez

PT Elsa Bruxelas Filipa Camacho Inês Mesquita Isabel Castro Paulo Lourenço Pedro Ramalho Susana Carvalho

NL Dennis Verbruggen Goof Kloosterman Guy Vording Janneke Bolt Jolijn de Wolf Liza Nijhuis Lucie von Eugen Maaike Iza Jaspers Naama Zusman Roos Hilstra Stan van Remmerden Titus Nolte

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Alice Porto Memórias do rapto Silkscreen, 25 × 53 cm 2013

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Ana Cândida Sommer Untitled Woodcut, 31.5 × 10 cm 2013

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Brasil


Denis Nicola Untitled Etching, 30 × 20 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Flavya Mutran O Rapto de Blake Etching and inkjet print 29 × 40 cm 2013

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Brasil


Jander Rama Europa simbiótica Linocut, 48 × 97 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Kárin Meneghetti Untitled Relief print,8 × 36 cm 2013

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Brasil


Maria Lucia Cattani Taurus x virgo Inkjet print, laser and scraping, 25 × 50 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Maristela Salvatori Origens VI Etching, 30 × 39 cm 2013

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Brasil


Nara Amelia Gn VI, I-XII Etching and gilding, 27 × 62 cm 2013

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Rafael Pagatini O Rapto da Europa Perforations in paper, 26 × 50 cm 2013

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Brasil


Anna Brucart Vestige of a myth Silk-screen, 90 × 45cm 2013

Exhibition

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Bibiana Crespo Martín Europa series under the Platanus Digital print, 50 × 50 cm 2013

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Spain


Encarna Romero The 39th Constellation Etching of aluminum and linoleum, 50 × 60cm 2013

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Eva Figueras Ferrer “En tiempos de diluvio, los escarabajos nadan / In times of flooding, beetles can swim� Etching, aquatint and photogravure. Diameter: 40 cm 2013

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Spain


Maria José Botero El Rapto de Europa (The abduction of Europa) Collagraph (relief prints), inkjet printing, 24 × 24 cm 2013

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Marian López The abduction of Europa Dry point engraving and relief prints. Fabriano paper,250gr, 50 × 70cm 2013

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Spain


Miquel Planas Typography and Topography Painting on Japanese paper, 70 × 70 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Pilar Rosado Evolutionary Europe Digital print, 50 × 50 cm 2013

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Sandra March The Abduction of Europa Digital Print, 27 × 144 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Xavi Rodríguez Taste your ass Silkscreen on canvas, 50 × 70 cm 2013

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Dennis Verbruggen Seduice/ Ecstasy Photogelatine Print 2013

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Goof Kloosterman Area Undefined Photopolymer Etching 2013

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The Netherlands


Guy Vording An Unfinished History Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Janneke Bolt Untitled Inkjetprint 2013

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Jolijn de Wolf The Mourning After Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Liza Nijhuis Untitled Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Lucie von Eugen In Between Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Maaike Iza Jaspers Containers Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Naama Zusman Hidden Photopolymer Etching 2013

Exhibition

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Roos Hilstra Nomadic Living Berlin Photopolymer Etching 2013

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Stan van Remmerden Untitled Photopolymer Etching 2013

Exhibition

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Titus Nolte l’Inconnue (the portrait of IJN) Blockprint on silkscreen 2013

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Alicja Habisiak-Matczak The Links Aquatint and etching, plate size 70x100 cm, paper size 74 x 102cm 2013

Exhibition

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Dorota Kobos Fresa jabagosa jugosa a’ la polaca Colour aquatint, plate size 37x52 cm, paper size 51 x 64 cm 2010

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Poland


Joanna Aninowska Existence Etching, plate size 41.5 × 59.5cm, paper size 53 × 78cm 2013

Exhibition

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Joanna Kamińska No title Etching, plate size 39.5 × 60cm, paper size 50 × 70cm 2013

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Poland


Katarzyna Jagodzińska Element and Chaos Aquatint and etching, plate size 30.7 × 62.2cm, paper size 39 × 71cm 2013

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Katarzyna Klonowska No title Colour etching and aquatint, plate size 21 × 48cm, paper size 50 × 70 2013

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Poland


Krzysztof Wawrzyniak No title Linocut, plate size 63 × 85cm, paper size 70 × 100 cm 2012

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Magdalena Wójcik Aprestaureau Mixed technique on handmade paper, plate size 29.7  × 42cm, paper size 39 × 53cm 2013

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Poland


Oskar Gorzkiewicz Pro polis Etching, plate size 30 × 84, paper size 44 × 100cm 2013

Exhibition

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Tomasz Biskup No title Collagraph, plate size 49.5 × 98.7 cm, paper size 80 × 120 cm 2013

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Elsa Bruxelas In the sky I could weave a cloud all black Printmaking, screenprint and monoprint on paper 70 × 150 × 20 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Filipa Camacho Mare Screen printing on polypropylene 100 × 50 × 5 cm 2013

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Portugal


InĂŞs Mesquita Untitled Monotype on rice paper Variable dimensions 2013

Exhibition

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Isabel Lopes de Castro EUROpa? Silkscreen on paper 67 × 100 cm 2013

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Portugal


Paulo Lourenço Rescue of Europe Aluminum, wood and acrylic plats printed it in Silkscreen 50 × 50 × 20 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Pedro Ramalho Périplo Técnica mista sobre papel 9.4 × 100 × 125 cm 2013

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Susana Carvalho Epic Serigrafia sobre polipropileno e PVC 45 × 45 × 45 cm 2013

Exhibition

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Alice Porto Memórias do rapto Silkscreen, 25 × 53 cm 2013

Jander Rama Europa simbiótica Linocut, 48 × 97 cm 2013

Kárin Meneghetti Untitled Relief print,8 × 36 cm 2013

Ana Cândida Sommer Untitled Woodcut, 31.5 × 10 cm 2013

Denis Nicola Untitled Etching, 30 × 20 cm 2013

Flavya Mutran O Rapto de Blake Etching and inkjet print 29 × 40 cm 2013

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List of Works

Maria Lucia Cattani Taurus x virgo Inkjet print, laser and scraping, 25 × 50 cm 2013

Maristela Salvatori Origens VI Etching, 30 × 39 cm 2013

Nara Amelia Gn VI, I-XII Etching and gilding, 27 × 62 cm 2013


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Rafael Pagatini O Rapto da Europa Perforations in paper, 26 × 50 cm 2013 ES

Anna Brucart Vestige of a myth Silk-screen, 90 × 45cm 2013 This work is based on the myth The Abduction of Europa and the mark it left on society. A myth being a legendary story that attempts to explain concerns about the universe and humanity. Each culture needs to recover the past that gave origin or explanation to what surrounds them, and helps them understand the things that make them who they are. Greek mythology provided western culture with a frame of beliefs and, at the same time, influenced its language. Myths were originally passed on orally, yet later they took written form, thus allowing us to have access to them today. A number of linguistic terms owe their origin to Greek mythology. In this case, The Abduction of Europa ultimately gave name to the European continent. In short, the intension of this work is to make tangible the territorial expansion of the myth through language, with the linguistic variations present in each country; thus, becoming engraved in language as well as giving certain unity to countries with diverse cultures.

Bibiana Crespo Martín Europa series under the Platanus Digital print, 50 × 50 cm 2013 The legacy of Greek mythology takes us to the beautiful Phoenician princess, Europa, daughter of King Agenor of Sidon. Zeus, taking the form of a gentle white bull, abducts Europa and plunges into the sea carrying her to the Island of Crete. There, Zeus retakes his human form and seduces Europa under the sacred platanus. Thus, the trunk of the platanus becomes the symbol of this more than doubtful ‘act of love’, and serves in my work as the background tapestry over which the recently issued five Euro bill -a series dedicated to Europa- is placed. These new bills use the image of Europa found in a 2,000+ year-old vase discovered in southern Italy and safeguarded in the Louvre Museum in Paris. All of the above leads us to an ‘abducted’ Europa taken from the East on a missionary journey to the West; an Europa that in spit of being accused of eurocentrism has the capacity of living with others without constraining frontiers.

Encarna Romero The 39th Constellation Etching of aluminum and linoleum, 50 × 60cm 2013 The myth of The Abduction of Europa is used here as a starting point to review

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the current status of the European Union [EU]. The EU is an organization that everyday discusses the lines of action that should be followed or discarded. Regardless of any event or decision, there is one thing that influences us and cannot be changed: The geographical location we share: the territory. The territory is the body; a common body that is perceived by some as a constraint and by others as a liberation. The EU and its 27 members are represented as a great systemic constellation with a common destination, a constellation in constant motion of expansion and contraction. At the time of the opening of this exhibition has added a new member. The transformation of the group as a system is intrinsically related to the individual growth of each of its members.

Eva Figueras Ferrer “En tiempos de diluvio, los escarabajos nadan / In times of flooding, beetles can swim” Etching, aquatint and photogravure. Diameter: 40 cm 2013 While reading works from the Catalan poet Joan Brossa, I ran across the saying “En tiempos de diluvio, los escarabajos nadan” / “In times of flooding, beetles can swim”; this proverb means that under abnormal circumstances people must do what they can to survive, including things that are usually unnatural to them. Proverbs come from an oral tradition and express a common way of thinking, doing, and being of a specific group of people at a given time. Although the origin of this popular saying is unknown, its meaning is still valid today. Proverbs put forth an idea in the form of a statement that expresses an affirmation, a teaching, or a norm of behavior. Let my artwork be an

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affirmation, as a visual metaphor of the precarious situation Europe is presently undergoing. Let it be a criticism of the political actions taken by our leaders in the mist of this political, economic and moral crisis, difficult to surpass if we continue on this path. Let this be a teaching and point of reflection on how we have arrived at this situation, how we can get out of it without much pain, defeat or hopelessness.

Maria José Botero El Rapto de Europa (The abduction of Europa) Collagraph (relief prints), inkjet printing, 24 × 24 cm 2013 The abduction of Europa is a Greek myth relating the kidnapping of a Phoenician princess called Europa. Disguised as a white bull, Zeus approaches Europa and seduces her with his beauty. The bull beckons her to get on his back and plunges into the sea. Europa was never to be found. Her fate, however, was not death but rather rebirth, ultimately becoming queen of the Isle of Crete. This legend filled with symbolism and metaphoric value can be applied to Europe today. Seduced by the financial and economic power of globalization, and mislead by its political leaders, Europe, as she was once known, is no longer. With the graphic design attributed to 1950-60, when globalization began to take hold, this work of mine retells the myth of an Europa abducted by the god of gods, today’s global financial institutions; leaving behind only footprints in the sands of time, the hollowness of a Europe once glorious. Nevertheless, this artwork ends with the same hope as the Greek myth… Europa’s disappearance is not her death, but her rebirth under a different sign, the new era of Taurus.


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Marian López The abduction of Europa Dry point engraving and relief prints. Fabriano paper,250gr, 50 × 70cm 2013 Europa, your past marks our identity Europa, you unite us as a people, as a society Europa, your here and now is stifling us. Europa, you step forward with the loss of our liberty Perhaps, a hidden god is seizing the destiny of Europa Weaving around her an invisible net?

Miquel Planas Typography and Topography Painting on Japanese paper, 70 × 70 cm 2013 To formulate a creative project on The Abduction of Europa, from an Asian point of view, turns out to be a complex. From the very moment that everything that surrounds me becomes strange and incomprehensible, where none of the elements and signs I see, can be perceived intuitively or interpreted in any way, in that precise instant, lines are drafted in my imagination that remind me of the small European frontiers and that become little unintelligible signs once they are reconstructed on paper.

Pilar Rosado Evolutionary Europe Digital print, 50 × 50 cm 2013 Europa, now, it’s you who is trying to seduce us by making us believe that you have no alternative but to be one. Yet, I, who have dreamt you, I have seen amongst shadows how you flow, and know you can change and take on other forms. Europa, I want you to know that you have not fooled me, I know you are one, but you can be a thousand if you change. In Greek mythology Zeus takes the form of a white bull in order to seduce Europa. Today, however, Europe seduces us by adopting and maintaining a predetermined structure. Deceit prevails behind this rigid and out of date configuration blocking the way for new possibilities to emerge in line with the challenges we face today. A Europe that evolves and can adapt to the ongoing demands of change must be possible; as must also be possible a dynamic evolutionary Europe capable of becoming part of the new global order and of facing the challenges of our interconnected world.

Sandra March The Abduction of Europa Digital Print, 27 × 144 cm 2013 Artistic and historical research leave no doubt, what we are really dealing with is the abduction of an Asian cow, who gives its name to the old continent. Etymologically speaking the name Europe

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comes from ‘eur’ wide and ‘or’ eyes.It is impossible to find in nature an animal with broader vision than a cow. In addition to this discovery, the first humans to drink milk, 7,500 years ago, were the inhabitants of Central Europe – today, only 30 % of the world’s population can drink it. These two facts together are, without a doubt, sufficient proof of our initial affirmation.

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Goof Kloosterman Area Undefined Photopolymer Etching 2013 From Sculpture to Installation to Video to Photo to Print

Xavi Rodríguez Taste your ass Silkscreen on canvas, 50 × 70 cm 2013 Europe’s kidnap: taste your ass, it’s a flag / banner for freedom. It arises from the need to reinvent and offer a new logo for those forgotten and those against abuse of political power. Political leaders have been able to snatch our rights and liberties and force us to survive and not live, but they’ll never abduct the certainty of knowing that we can enjoy with our body. Allways claiming what belongs to us by using the only thing they won’t control: our desire: taste your ass! NL

Dennis Verbruggen Seduice/ Ecstasy Photogelatine Print 2013 A combined image about the feeling of helplessness that sometimes accompanies the feeling of ecstasy in a situation that is out of your control.

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Guy Vording An Unfinished History Photopolymer Etching 2013 Losing control may be one of the most frighting fascinations I have. I try to find the tension right before or right after surrendering and search for examples that shows this specific moment. The catastrophe that could follow after losing control always leaves a memory behind that’s ungraspable. In my work that moment keeps developing as an unfinished history.

Janneke Bolt Untitled Inkjetprint 2013 Surficially, the image seems to reflect a real landscape. On further consideration


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however, it appears to be constructed, taking its viewer to a surrealistic inbetween world.

Jolijn de Wolf The Mourning After Photopolymer Etching 2013 The main question that was running trough my head making this work was: Europe seems to be in an economical crisis, but what are the causes of this crisis? I came up with two main reasons: 1. An imbalance between male and female energy. It is a good thing to use the male energy to be purposeful, willing to push forward and aiming to reach further. Too much male energy causes aggression, short term decision-making and putting the ego before the good of the whole. We might be in need of more female qualities like intuition, sensitivity, and a holistic approach to the world. 2. An opaque upper layer. Who are the men working the system? Why can’t they work together for the greater good? The only persons I could think of where men in businesssuits. Men who wear their suits like uniforms, making them anonymous. Stripping themselves from their individual responsibilities to take care of the earth. This is causing them to make short term decisions that are not sustainable for Europe. Raping instead of making love. The mourning after Taking this into consideration, I decided to make a piece about the morning after the rape. The moment when it is too late, the harm has been done. The men in suits are standing in a vacuum: nothing can be done about it and the consequences have not sank in yet. But deep in their hearts, they know they are lost. All that is left to do, is mourning.

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Liza Nijhuis Untitled Photopolymer Etching 2013 Simple and quiet at first, yet can become a complicated image. A historical form outlines this. A game between surfaces and areas, where black and white center and join the core of the image.

Lucie von Eugen In Between Photopolymer Etching 2013 The picture shows a moment of transition.

Maaike Iza Jaspers Containers Photopolymer Etching 2013 To what extend are citizens free to use the possibilities of a border-free Europe, without having to fit into still existing or newly created borders, physical or virtual?

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Naama Zusman Hidden Photopolymer Etching 2013

Stan van Remmerden Untitled Photopolymer Etching 2013

The image is focusing on the moment between being hidden or being seen, a fine balance in which each time the wind is blowing the status can be changed, the fabric can be soft and comforting but can also be dangerous.

Titus Nolte l’Inconnue (the portrait of IJN) Blockprint on silkscreen 2013 The horizontal position of the portrait with a blonde female shows her in peace, shame or hidden lust. The princess Europa could never have been of caucasian background when born in the north African territory of nowaday Libia. She probably is, like Helen of Troy, a myth in the minds of western people. And so probably, the European society will be in near future. She was a beauty though? As if decapitated. As from the French Revolution.

Roos Hilstra Nomadic Living Berlin Photopolymer Etching 2013 Hidden between the empty factory’s, the squats, the sounds of the city, the city that is still working towards a way of progress. Hidden between economy and politics. Hidden in between, there is a secret revolution. Maybe progress is not outside maybe progress only exist inside. No land can be owned, no river can be sold, without air we die and without fire our hearts will extinguish. Maybe we don’t know what will be for dinner tonight, maybe people call me illegal. Maybe I am running, but at least my feet are running on free land. Welcome to the nomadic revolution.

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Alicja Habisiak-Matczak The Links Aquatint and etching, plate size 70x100 cm, paper size 74 x 102cm 2013


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Dorota Kobos Fresa jabagosa jugosa a’ la polaca Colour aquatint, plate size 37x52 cm, paper size 51 x 64 cm 2010

Joanna Aninowska Existence Etching, plate size 41.5 × 59.5cm, paper size 53 × 78cm 2013

Joanna Kamińska No title Etching, plate size 39.5 × 60cm, paper size 50 × 70cm 2013

Katarzyna Jagodzińska Element and Chaos Aquatint and etching, plate size 30.7 × 62.2cm, paper size 39 × 71cm 2013

Katarzyna Klonowska No title Colour etching and aquatint, plate size 21 × 48cm, paper size 50 × 70 2013

Krzysztof Wawrzyniak No title Linocut, plate size 63 × 85cm, paper size 70 × 100 cm 2012

Oskar Gorzkiewicz Pro polis Etching, plate size 30 × 84, paper size 44 × 100cm 2013

Tomasz Biskup No title Collagraph, plate size 49.5 × 98.7 cm, paper size 80 × 120 cm 2013

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Elsa Bruxelas In the sky I could weave a cloud all black Printmaking, screenprint and monoprint on paper 70 × 150 × 20 cm 2013

Filipa Camacho Mare Screen printing on polypropylene 100 × 50 × 5 cm 2013

Inês Mesquita Untitled Monotype on rice paper Variable dimensions 2013

Isabel Lopes de Castro EUROpa? Silkscreen on paper 67 × 100 cm, 2013

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Paulo Lourenço Rescue of Europe Aluminum, wood and acrylic plats printed it in Silkscreen 50 × 50 × 20 cm 2013

Pedro Ramalho Périplo Técnica mista sobre papel 9.4 × 100 × 125 cm 2013

Susana Carvalho Epic Serigrafia sobre polipropileno e PVC 45 × 45 × 45 cm 2013


Artist’s Biographies BR

Alice Porto Visual artist with a degree in Visual Arts from Universidade Federal de Pelotas, specialist studies in Visual Arts from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande and currently taking a master’s degree in Visual Poetics on the Programa de Pós-Graduação do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. (with a grant from CAPES) www.flickr.com/photos/aliceporto Ana Cândida Sommer Visual Arts degree student at Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Denis Nicola Born in Porto Alegre (Brazil) in 1979, he qualified in Advertising and Publicity from PUCRS and took a degree in Visual Arts from Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, where he is currently training as a teacher in Visual Arts. He is part of the Espírito do Sais research group and has shown in several group shows and solo exhibitions. www.denisnicola.com Flavya Mutran From Pará, she is a doctoral student in Visual Poetics at Programa de Pós-Graduação do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (with a grant from CAPES), where she also took a master’s degree, researching into photography file sharing on the Internet. She is part of the Expressões do Múltiplo research group and has shown in several group shows and solo exhibitions. http://flavyamutran.wordpress.com http://territoriosmoveis.wordpress.com Jander Rama Has a master’s degree in visual poetics from Programa de Pós-Graduação do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and has shown in several group shows and solo exhibitions, includ-

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ing at the Goethe Institute - Porto Alegre/ RS (2012) and was awarded an Honourable Mention for works shown at XX Encontro de Artes Plásticas de Atibaia - SP (2011). www.hibridosimprovaveis.blogspot.com Kárin Meneghetti Born in Porto Alegre (Brazil) in 1959, she is a Visual Arts degree student at Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. She has shown in various group shows and solo exhibitions and received 1st prize for Graphic Arts 1988, at the Salão da Câmara de Porto Alegre, 1989 and 1990 and the 1988 MARGS/LISTEL/CRT Acquisition Prize. www.flickr.com/people/karin_meneghetti Maria Lucia Cattani Was born in Garibaldi, Brazil. She studied Fine Art at The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; MFA Pratt Institute, USA; PhD at University of Reading and Post-doctoral research fellow at University of the Arts, London, UK. Initially known as an experimental printmaker in the 1980s, in recent years she has produced work in film and video, installation, artist’s books and painting which has been exhibited widely in Brazil and abroad. She is a lecturer at Instituto de Artes, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, since 1985. www.marialuciacattani.com Maristela Salvatori Teaches at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Arts Institute, where she also coordinated the Postgraduate Visual Arts Programme. She holds a doctorate from Paris I, and held a CAPES senior bursary to Université Laval, Canada. She is leader of the Expressões do Múltiplo research group and was Resident Artist at Cité Internationale des Arts, Paris, and at Frans Masereel Centrum, Kasterlee. She has won awards in Paris, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Porto Alegre and Curitiba, including GRAV’X 1999 in Paris. www.chasqueweb.ufrgs.br/~maristelasalvatori. maristela-salvatori.blogspot.com Nara Amelia Born in Três Passos (Brazil) in 1982, she

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is a doctoral student in Visual Arts at Programa de Pós-Graduação do Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (with a grant from CAPES). She has a master’s degree in Visual Arts and first degree in Drawing and Plastics from UFSM. She has shown in several group shows and solo exhibitions, and has won awards including Prêmio Ibema de Gravura, 2011. Rafael Pagatini Born in Caxias do Sul (Brazil) in 1985, he has a degree in Visual Arts from at Instituto de Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and master’s degree in Visual Poetics at Programa de Pós-Graduação from the same institution. He currently teaches at Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. www.rafaelpagatini. com.br

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Anna Brucart (Barcelona, 1991) She Works with the environment from observation and gaze as a means to carry out artistic practice. Her work revolves around concepts such as memory, storage and overall footprint as a way to understand and document reality. Her projects are based on a review to concepts or images generated or culturally constructed, in order to propose new perspectives to the universal imagination. Often, she leaves of actions or interventions in the territory which later lead to printmaking and sculpture installations. annabrucart@gmail.com Bibiana Crespo Martín (1971, Barcelona - Spain) Dr. Bibiana Crespo is a visual artist and a Professor at the Faculty of Fine Arts at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As scholar she has published and lectured internationally – at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (Bologna, Italy), the National Academy of Arts of Sofia (Sofia, Bulgary), the Faculty of Creative Arts, UWE (Bristol, UK), the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plasticas of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico City)- and participated as an artist in numerous solo

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and group exhibitions as well as residency programmes, eg: Art and Creation Centre (Lâzarea, Romaia 2008 & 2010), Vyom Art Centre (Jaipur, India 2009), Sixth Kepes Symposium in Nature Art (Noszvay, Hungary 2010), Sandarbh International Residency (Partapur, India, 2011), Slow Film Festival (Eger, Hungary, 2011), Wongol International Residence (Korea, 2011), Taipei Aritst Village (Taipei, Taiwan 2012) and Ecorea Jeonbuk Biennale (Korea, 2012). Encarna Romero Artistic practice is a way to revise the personal dimension and to explain what is collective.It is an opportunity to discover the criteria and beliefs that we live by, how we face changes and how handle our emotions. Again, the shift from one to many. Eva Figueras Ferrer (Castellterçol, 1963) My artwork includes both intaglio and drawing. I am inspired by nature as the source of life that makes us equal to all living things. As humans we often believe we are superior to other species; and although our creative spirit, and our hunger for dominance and power have led us to do great things in the past, our lack of limits can also destroy us. Yet when confronted with natural disasters we are less prepared for survival than other much simpler forms of life. My artwork is a reflection on the interconnections found in nature and how they affect our future. My creative production focuses on the study and use of materials and techniques that take into account occupational health and safety and environmental awareness. www.ub.edu/gravat www.poesiaillibres-art.blogspot.com.es Maria José Botero (Bogotá, Colombia. 1954) The imprint as a means to communicate that which is not; the hollowness, or the void left behind. It is the emptiness that speaks about “the story behind the story”, which in turn challenges the individual to view the unperceived. The obvious vestiges or traces left behind give us the clues to what was and what is. My goal and


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means in this work is the use of symbols of the European Community (its star banner, the mapping of its territory), and the astrological and mythological symbol of Taurus (the bull) in colorless and ink relief prints forcing the viewer to use his/her intuition and look beyond the superficial. www.artemjb@hotmail.com

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Sandra March (La Seu d’Urgell, 1974) Understand artistic practice as a way to visit and rethink classic topics. In a procedural level carries out projects that are based on philosophical research, educational and artistic, with the aim to conduct a critical review, pedagogical and ironic. Maintains a permanent willingness to experiment using many different disciplines, with the intention to articulate their proposals in the least restrictive possible. www.sandramarch.com

Marian López Plana (Barcelona, Spain. 1959) Lopez’s art works refers to the different realities that surround her. She takes most of the natural elements (water, fog, spider webs, branches …) in order to express trough metaphors her states of mind. The complexity of structures and spaces that offer us the nature is comparable to the complexity of the humans and to his connection with the environment. She likes relations with her thinking and her gesture, form and color to imagine the environment and space. Any material can be part of her works. She explores an inner world, full of sensations and sentiments on silk material, paintings, screen processes or wires. Paintings, engravings, jewels designs link us to an inner world full of experiences. Miquel Planas (Mallorca, 1961) His artistic work is developed between sculpture and drawing. Nowadays it is focused in the idea of the landscape, the landscape as the element of inspiration, analysis and knowledge; especially in aerial landscapes, analyzing the marks and scars that define those lands, from the natural ones to the most artificial. In his production appears a special interest in the study and use of any type of materials and procedures. www.miquelplanas.eu Pilar Rosado (Barcelona, 1965). She develops her artistic production by exploring the potential of digital image as an artistic material that can be modelled by the software to offer new altered perceptions of reality whose boundaries with the virtual appear increasingly blurred. Currently is working on her thesis in the

Department of Sculpture at the University of Barcelona in the fields of computer vision and generative art. She researches the ability of these technologies to enrich the creative process with the introduction of new criteria for the generation of expressive proposals.

Xavi Rodríguez Martín (El Masnou, 1983) My work focuses on a conceptual level, by rethinking, questioning and redefining the role of the individual in society, enquiring into the concept of individual and personality. Working from a pictorial point of view, I use the resources of multiple reproduction techniques: engraving, screen printing, digital printing, graphic editing ... Art is the perspective through which I see and understand art. www.xavirodriguezmartin.es

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Dennis Verbruggen Vlissingen, The Netherlands, 1961. maildennisverbruggen@gmail.com Goof Kloosterman Veghel, Netherlands, 1989. 2013, April, Improbables ‘t Hoogt, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2013, February, Area Undefined, Gallery 99 kuub, Utrecht, The Netherlands. goofkloosterman.nl Guy Vording Almelo, The Netherlands, 1985. 2013 - Tekenkabinet - Museum Water-

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land Purmerend, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2013 - 5 Years Jan Zumbrink Prize - De Vishal Haarlem, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2013 - Graduation Exhibition Fine Art, Utrecht School of Arts, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2013: Modest Indeed - ‘t Hoogt Utrecht, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2012 - The Joy of a Reunion - Casa Museum F. Pessoa Lisbon, Portugal (group exhibition); 2012 - Impakt, no More Western - ‘t Hoogte Utrecht, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2012 - Collages - ArtUnit Haarlem , The Netherlands (solo exhibition); 2012 - The Joy of Re-encounter - Das Spectrum Utrecht, The Netherlands (group exhibition); 2012 - Conversation Pieces - Academie Galerie Utrecht, The Netherlands (group exhibition). Publications: 2013 - Catalogue Tekenkabinet - Museum Waterland Purmerend, The Netherlands; 2013 - Catalogue 5 Years Jan Zumbrink Prize - De Vishal Haarlem, The Netherlands; 2013 - Catalogue HKU Graduation Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2012 - Catalogue Printmaking, Installation & Poetry - Lisbon, Portugal; 2012 - Lief Lifestyle Magazine The Netherlands; 2011 - Printmaking Book - Utrecht School of Arts, The Netherlands; www.guyvording.com Janneke Bolt Roermond, The Netherlands, 1962. 2013 - Galerie Bart, Amsterdam and Nijmegen Nieuwe Oogst group exhibition; 2013 - Academiegalerie, Utrecht The Rape of Europe, group exhibition; 2013 - HKU, Utrecht, Exposure, graduation exhibition; 2013 - Kunstpodium T, Tilburg, Momentum group exhibition; 2013 - Das Spectrum, Utrecht and Railway Museum, Utrecht, Kubus, group exhibition; 2011 - Kunsthuis Verse Vis, Utrecht, solo exhibition. J.H.Bolt@uu.nl Jolijn de Wolf Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1984. 2013: Lucy live: play, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Jan Zumbrinkprijs , De Vishal, Haarlem, the Netherlands; 3e Friese Miniprent Biennale, exhibition space “De Lawei”, Drachten, The Netherlands; Popart gallery, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Generation Y, Dutch design Hotel Artemis,

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Artist’s Biographies

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Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Tijdelijke Kunst Winkel, Temporary Art shop for Charity, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2012: Modewknd, kunsthal KAdE, museum, Amersfoort, The Netherlands; Modewknd, Old Wool Factory, video installation, Amersfoort, The Netherlands; Cheap art, Loods 6, exhibition space, Amsterdam The Netherlands; Videoholica, video art festival, Varna, Bulgaria; Noordfolkfestival, video installation, Veenhuizen, The Netherlands. www.jolijndewolf.nl Liza Nijhuis Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1991. lizanijhuis@gmail.com Lucie von Eugen Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989. 2013: Exhibition Film Institute ‘t Hoogt, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2012: Colabs, Stichting Hedah, Maastricht, The Netherlands; lucievoneugen@gmail.com Maaike Iza Jaspers Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1991. Call of the Mall (group), Hoog Catharijne, Utrecht, 2013; Drawing Freedom (group), Ubica, Utrecht, 2013; Wild Dreamers Associations, 99 Kuub, Utrecht, 2013; The joy of a reunion (group), Utrecht/Granada/ Kopenhagen/Lisbon, 2012; Color Logics (group), Academie Galerie, Utrecht, 2012. maaike.jaspers@live.nl Naama Zusman Haifa, Israel, 1986. Call of the Mall (group), Hoog Catharijne, Utrecht, 2013; Modest indeed T Hoogt, Utrecht , 2013. www.naamazusman.com Roos Hilstra Leiderdorp, The Netherlands, 1989. roos.hilstra@bkv.hku.nl Stan van Remmerden Amsterdam, The Netherlands. stan.vanremmerden@bkv.hku.nl Titus Nolte s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, 1955. titusnolte@tnstudio.nl www.tnstudio.nl


PL

Alicja Habisiak-Matczak was born in Piotrków Trybunalski in 1978. Between 1997 and 2002 studies at the Department of Graphics and Painting, Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź. In 2002 she got a diploma with distinction in the Studio of Intaglio Techniques headed by Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. In 2003 she got a grant from the Ministry of Culture and the Italian Government and she took up a six months’ course in graphics at the Academy of Fine Arts in Urbino, Italy. From 2002 till 2011 she was teacher’s assistant at the Studio of Composition Rudiments headed by Danuta Wieczorek (Ph.D.) at the Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź. At present she is an assistant professor in the Studio of Intaglio Techniques headed by Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak at the same academy. Between 2004-2006 she was an assistant during the Summer International Courses of Graphics KAUS in Urbino. In 2007 she was the finalist of the Grant Program under the auspices of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage ‘Young Poland’ for outstanding Polish artists of the young generation. She organized 11 personal exhibitions in Poland, Italy and the Netherlands. Participated in over 90 international exhibitions of print and drawing all over the world. Winner of 11 Polish and International print and drawing awards. In 2009 she realised her doctorate entitled Perspectives – series of prints and drawings on urban space and obtained the title of doctor of arts. Dorota Kobos Born in 1983, Zgierz. In 2005-2010 studied at Academy of Fine Arts, Lodz. Academy year 2009/2010 followed in Spain participating Erasmus Program in University of Castilla – La Mancha at The Faculty of Fine Arts in Cuenca. In 2010 graduated in her studies at The Faculty of Graphics and Painting in The Academy of Fine Arts, Lodz, in the Intaglio Techniques Studio of Professor Krzysztof Wawrzyniak. In 2010 she won the Grand Prize for the Best Diploma 2010. Since 2007, Dorota Kobos has shown her art in 10 collective and 2 individual exhibitions in Poland and In Europe, such as: in 2011 „Travelling” Indi-

PL

vidual exhibition of Dorota Kobos artwork (prints, paintings and sketches), inspired by Dorota’s travels to Spain, India and Australia, The Gallery Stacja Nowa Gdynia, Zgierz, Poland and in 2012 Landscapes Made of Water & Colour” ,individual exhibition of Dorota’s paintings and printmaking, 81° Gallery, Warsaw, Poland and the exhibition „Leszek Rózga, Daughter and Granddaughter”, - Exhibition of the family of artists: the printmaker Leszek Rózga (grandfather of Dorota Kobos), the painter Małgorzata Rózga-Kobos and Dorota Kobos, Muzeum of Zgierz, Zgierz, Poland. Joanna Aninowska born in Łęczyca, Poland. In 1997 graduated from College of Design and Advertising in Łódź. In 2011she got diploma in Graphic Design. In 2012 she participated in International Printmaking Symposium at the International Centre for Artistic Engraving KAUS In Urbino in Italy. Author of two individual exhibitions in Leczyca and in Zgierz, participant of numerous group exhibitions.Winner of theSecond Prize in the Competition of Small Graphic Forms for Students, Amcor Gallery , Lodz and of the Prize of International Centre for Artistic Printmaking Kaus Urbino at the XXX Strzeminski Competition for Students. In 2013 graduated with distinction from The Faculty of Graphics and Painting at the Wladyslaw Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź. In August 2013 she completed International Summer Course of Artistic Printmaking conducted by the Japanese teacher Juji Kobayashi from Tama Art University in Tokyo at the Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz. Specializes in painting, drawing and printmaking. Joanna Kamińska Born in 1989 in Poland. Student of the Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź, Poland. She is doing her diploma in painting, illustration and intaglio techniques graphic. Participated in several solo and group exhinitions: 2012 Exhibition of competition entries of 6th small graphic form competition, Amcor Gallery, Łódź; 2012 Exhibition of students from Intaglio Techniques Studio, Gallery of Students’ Graphic “Pomiędzy”, Strzemiński Acade-

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my of Fine Arts, Łódź; 2012 Iluzja i aluzja – Pracownia 71 II, Galeria Biura Wystaw Artystycznych, Skierniewice; 2011 Grafika i malarstwo, solo exhibition, Municipal Cultural Centre, Pabianice; 2011 Exhibition of competition entries of 5th small graphic form competition, Amcor Gallery, Łódź. Katarzyna Jagodzińska Born in 1963 in Łódź / Poland. 2008-2011 studies at the Faculty of Fine and Design Arts, The Academy of Information Technology in Łódź . In 2011 diploma work with award at the Graphic Design Studio of Prof.Marek Herbik . In 2011-2013 she studies at the Faculty of Graphics and Painting, Strzemiński Academy of Art in Łódź, 2013 (September) diploma work at the graphic Digital Techniques Studio of Prof.Grzegorz Chojnacki and Drawing Studio of Prof. Zbigniew Purczyński. The artistic achievements of several exhibitions ( indyvidual and group exhibitions). Prizes and awards, among others: XXX Strzemiński Competition for Students 2013, Łódź Polesie- Gallery, Amcor Gallery. In 2012 -International Printmaking Symposium “The Printmaking School of Lodz – the Intaglio Techniques” in Centro Internazionale per L’Incisione Artistica KAUS Urbino/ Italy. Katarzyna Klonowska born in Olsztyn, Poland. She is a graphic designer and fine artist, working mainly in intaglio and digital media. In 2005- 2008 she studied Art Education at the Uniwersytet Warminsko-­ Mazurski, (University) in Olsztyn, Poland. From February tillJune 2008 she studied at the Academia Albertina delle Belle Arti – Academy of Fine Arts In Turin Italy. In 2013 she got her MFA at the Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz. She was a member of Gowanus Studio Space in Brooklyn. Exhibited in Poland and New York among others at Galeria Kredens March 2013 – solo exhibition „Kasia Klon grafika” Lodz, Poland, in 2012 the Exhibition of Students of the intaglio techniques studio at the „Pomiedzy” Gallery, Łódź, Gowanus Studio Space, October 2012, etching group exhibiton, NY, Parlor Showroom Prism Project, goup exhibition, New York, USA.

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Artist’s Biographies

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Krzysztof Wawrzyniak Born in 1954. In 1974-1979 studies at the Faculty of Graphic Art and Painting in the State Higher School of Fine Arts and Design in Łódź. Diploma in 1979 in the Department of Printmaking. Since 1983 faculty staff member at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Łódź. In 1986-2000 member of Societe Internationale des Graveurs sur Bois XYLON in Switzerland and the Association International Graphic Art Triennial in Cracow. Pursues drawing and graphic art. Linocut is his preferred technique in graphic art. Since 1979 participated in over 170 group and community exhibitions, the Polish art presentations abroad as well as international exhibitions, ex: in Łódź, Cul-des-Sarts, Couvin, Winterthur, Cracow, Katowice, Kanagawa, Tama, Tokyo. Works presented at 18 solo shows. Many times awarded: Intergrafia 1986 in Katowice - I Prize, International Print Triennial 1991, Cracow - prize by regulations, 1st Polish Print Triennial in Katowice - funded prize, Small Graphic Forms, Łódź ’96 - honorary medal. Works in prestigious collections, ex: in Łódź, Cracow, Cul-des-Sarts, Couvin, London, Vienna and Chicago. Head of the Intaglio Techniques Studio. Magdalena Wójcik Magdalena Wójcik was born in 1989 in Brzeziny, Poland. She graduated from the Artistic High School in Lodz. Since 2009 she has been studying painting and printmaking at the Department of Graphics and Painting, at the Strzemiński Academy of Fine Arts Łódź. In 2013 she participated in the Wladyslaw Strzemiński Exhibition in The Municipal Art Gallery in Lodz and she was awarded at the XXX Strzemiński Competition. She was awarded by Poleski Art Centre. She participated in numerous group exhibitions in galleries of the Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz; she participated in three group exhibitions in Art Gallery in Andrzejów and in Municipal Museum in Brzeziny. Oskar Gorzkiewicz Born in 1988 in Koluszki, Poland. Graduate of theTadeusz Makowski Art High School in Łódź.


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He was awarded Bachelors degree at the Faculty of Architecture of Textile on Technical University of Łódź. Currently studies at the Department of Graphics and Painting of the Wladyslaw Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz. Author of two solo shows in 2013: Exhibition of Prints “Point of view” Oskar Gorzkiewicz and Anja Klafki - Rathaus, Stuttgart, Germany and „Oskar Gorzkiewicz - intaglio graphics” at the Kit Karson Gallery - Hammerfest, Norway. Winner of three awards at the 30th Władysław Strzemiński Competition for Students of the Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz: The Museum of the History of lodz Award, the Gallery 526 Award and the Award of the Foundation for Culture and Business. Participant of group exhibitions such as „Urbino dal giardio pensile II”, Municipal Art Gallery in Lodz and the Exhibition of students of the intaglio techniques studio at the „Pomiedzy „ gallery of students’ prints Oskar Gorzkiewicz is interested in classic graphic techniques, especially intaglio. Tomasz Biskup Was born in 1988. Studied at the Department of Graphics and Painting, at the Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts in Lodz. Participant of group exhibitions such as „Urbino dal giardio pensile II” at the Municipal Art. Gallery in Lodz and the Exhibition of Students of the Intaglio Techniques Studio at the „Pomiedzy „ Gallery of Students’ Print. In 2012 participated in the International Printmaking Symposium “The Printmaking School of Lodz – the Intaglio Techniques” in Centro Internazionale per L’Incisione Artistica KAUS Urbino, Italy.

PT

Elsa Bruxelas Bachelor and a masters student in Painting from Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Lisbon. Works in painting, printmaking and video, author of several video art and fiction films, with multiple representations and awards in International films Festivals. Shown in the permanent exhibition at Museu Arqueológico do Carmo, Lisbon, with the video installation, Ulisses. Recently, took part in public art projects and

PT

group exhibitions like: De Santa Apolónia a Saint-Lazare (Institut Français du Portugal, 2013, Lisbon); Chiado em Paris (Maison du Portugal, 2013, Paris); Face to face – The transcendence of the arts in China and beyond (FBAUL chapel and Reitoria da Cidade Universitária de Lisboa); Grafica Contemporanea Quattro visione a Confronto (Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, 2012, Bologna); Printmaking, Installation & Poetry, The Joy of a Reencounter, (roaming in Granada, Utrecht, Copenhagen and Lisbon), among others. Filipa Camacho Lisboa, 1989. Estudante do último ano do curso de pintura na Faculdade Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa. Em 2013 trabalha como assistente de cenografia de Elsa Bruxelas e João Queiroz na peça de teatro Sou o vento, encenação de Diogo Dória e Manuel Wiborg, Culturgest, Lisboa e participa na leitura encenada Nome de Guerra de Almada Negreiros, encenação de Diogo Dória, Casa Fernando Pessoa, Lisboa. Participou nas seguintes exposições colectivas: (2013) Laboratório de Anatomia – Ver e pensar o corpo, Reitoria da Universidade de Lisboa; Face to face – The transcendence of the Arts in China and Beyond, Galeria FBAUL, Lisboa; Encontros Próximos, ISEG, Lisboa. (2010) Onde estás.., Colectivo Cultural Bacalhoeiro, Lisboa. Em 2011 colabora com a Reserva Natural de Lecceta, Torino de Sangro na componente de ilustração e comunicação – Promoção de Áreas Verdes para o desenvolvimento social e económico da juventude, Abruzzo, Itália. Inês Mesquita 1980, Coimbra. Graduated in Drawing by the Faculty of Fine-Arts of the University of Lisbon and in Piano by Lisbon’s Superior Music School. Post-graduated in Piano by Accademia Europea di Musica in Lake Como. As a pianist, she won several prizes, including the 1st prize in the 17th edition of the Young Musicians Award, which led her to play as a soloist with the Gulbenkian Orchestra. Throughout her artistic career she performed in several national and international stages, including New York,

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Washington, Madrid, India, Italy, Belgium and Austria. Nowadays, she spends her life between music and the fine arts. Exhibitions: 2012, GABA - Galerias Abertas Belas Artes, Faculdade de Belas Artes, Lisboa; 2013, 12 x 12, Galeria Travessa, Lisboa; Encontros Próximos, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, Lisboa; Face to Face. The transcendence of the arts in China and beyond, Galeria da Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa e Átrio da Reitoria da Universidade de Lisboa; 9th Biennial Miniature Print Exhibition, Center for Contemporary Printmaking, Norwalk, EUA; ХОРОШО, Galeria da Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa. Isabel Castro Born in 1974, Lisbon. She holds a post graduation in Communication Design and New Media (2011) and a degree in Communication Design by FBAUL (1997). In 2013 she started taking printmaking classes in FBAUL, concluding Engraving Initiation. She has been working as a communication designer since 1997 for several clients, namely José Saramago Foundation, Lisbon City Council - department of culture, Lisbon Convention Bureau, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Leya, MNAC - National Museum of Contemporary Art, Leya. Since 2011 she is lecturer at FBAUL in the subject of Communication Design. Paulo Lourenço Lisbon, 1965. Graduated in Fine Arts in Painting by FBAUL. Since 2001 it has participated in several group exhibitions of engraving, painting and drawing in Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, Denmark and Japan. Solo Exhibitions: 2009 Crossover, Proença-a-Nova (PT); Genius Loci, Diferença Gallery, Lisbon (PT); 2008 Ambientes-Feéricos, AGAF, Lisbon (PT). 2006 Desigual, Teoartis Gallery, Évora (PT). Entre Variáveis, Diferença Gallery, Lisbon. Honors and Awards: 2009 Mention of Honor in the XVII Open Gallery at the Jorge Vieira Museum in Beja (PT); 2007 Third Prize in the I Saloon of Fine Arts in Lisbon (PT); Mention of Honor in the XV Open Gallery at the Jorge Vieira Museum in Beja (PT). 2004 Solo Exhibition Award in

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Artist’s Biographies

PT

the IV International Biennial of Engraving in Évora (PT). Representations: Vereniging Voor Originele Grafiek, (VOG), Amsterdam (NL); Library of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon (PT); Sakimi Art Museum, Okinawa (JP). Pedro Ramalho Born in Lisbon, 1983. Studing in Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon. Finished the first year of the Drawing in Sociedade Nacional de Belas Artes in the year 2000. Partiocipation in the following expositions: Itinerant exhibition Gravura, Instalação, Poesia. A Alegria de um Reencontro, em Granada/ Utrecht/ Copenhagen /Lisboa, in 2012; Exhibition Repensar o Chiado/Reviver o Chiado in Faculty of Fine Arts fom University of Lisbon, and also in Café no Chiado in 2011; Exhibition of contemporary tapestry ARTELab Futuro in the Portalegre Museum of Tapestry-Guy Fino, in 2011; Exhibition de Gravura, Provas Contraprovas e outros testemunhos, in Faculty of Fine Arts in Lisbon in the year 2011. Exhibition D’Après Nuno Gonçalves in Faculdade de Belas Artes from Universidade de Lisboa, 2010; Exhibition of contemporary tapestry ARTELab 21 in Portalegre Museum of Tapestry- Guy Fino, em 2010. Susana Carvalho Lisbon, 1990. Finalist of the superior course of Painting from the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisboa (FBAUL). 2010 - “Bienal de Arte Jovens VaLoures’09”, Galeria Municipal Vieira da Silva, Lisboa; 2010 - “Viagens Pelo Som e Pela Imagem”, Fonoteca Municipal, Lisboa; 2011 - “Concurso Internacional de Ilustração de Dinossauros”, GEAL, Lourinhã; 2011 - “Iniciativa x”, Galeria Arte Contempo, Lisboa; 2012 - “Janela Aberta”, Associação Envolve, Abrantes; 2012 “Abertura Ateliês:3ª edição”, Faculdade de Belas-Artes, Lisboa; 2012 - “Bologna Children’s Book Fair”, Bolonha. 2013 - “Abertura Ateliês: 4ª edição”, Faculdade de Belas-Artes, Lisboa; 2013 - “Laboratório de Anatomia: Ver e Pensar o Corpo”, Alameda da Reitoria, Lisboa. Email: susana.ca25@gmail.com


Colophon The Rape of Europe, catalog coordinated by José Quaresma and published by CIEBA – FBAUL, was designed by the studio v-a and composed in the typeface LL Brown, designed by Aurèle Sack. It was printed by DPI Cromotipo – Oficina de artes gráficas in paper Ollin Regular High White 90gr, in a limited edition of 250 copies, in Lisbon, October 2013. © 2013

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