Page 1

BM

• Spennende temaer

• Virkelige møter med mennesker i den engelsktalende verden

Halvor Heger Nina Wroldsen Lindis Hallan

Dette er Crossroads:

• Leseglede og fengende tekster • Grammatikk

• Lyd tatt på alvor Crossroads er et læreverk i engelsk for 8.–10. trinn med følgende komponenter: Elevbok A og B, lydmateriell (CD-er), lærerveiledning og nettressurs. Elevbok A finnes også i digital og lettlest utgave. Crossroads er utviklet etter Læreplanverket for Kunnskapsløftet 2006 og etter justert fagplan i engelsk 2013. Møt menneskene, opplev kulturen og lær språket!

Crossroads

• Et mylder av oppgaver

9|A |A Lettlest www.fagbokforlaget.no ISBN 978-82-11-01549-5

,!7II2B1-abfejf!

Halvor Heger Nina Wroldsen Lindis Hallan

Crossroads 9|A Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet • Lettlest


Halvor Heger Nina Wroldsen Lindis Hallan

Crossroads 9|A Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet Elevbok lettlest ¡ Bokmül


Copyright © 2007 by Fagbokforlaget Vigmostad & Bjørke AS All Rights Reserved 2. utgave / 1. opplag 2014 ISBN: 978-82-11-01549-5 Grafisk produksjon: John Grieg AS, Bergen Grafisk design: Sandvik Design Omslagsfoto: Joseph McNally / Getty Images (øverst), Sam Edwards / Getty Images (nederst) Omslagsdesign: Sandvik Design Illustrasjoner: Breakfast Design / Jens Grönberg, Paulina Mingiacchi Crossroads 9A Lettlest er utviklet etter Læreplanverket for Kunnskapsløftet 2006 og etter justert fagplan i engelsk 2013. Forfatterne har mottatt støtte fra Det faglitterære fond. Spørsmål om denne boken kan rettes til: Fagbokforlaget Kanalveien 51 5068 Bergen Tlf.: 55 38 88 00 Faks: 55 38 88 01 e-post: fagbokforlaget@fagbokforlaget.no www.fagbokforlaget.no Materialet er vernet etter åndsverkloven. Uten uttrykkelig samtykke er eksemplarfremstilling bare tillatt når det er hjemlet i lov eller avtale med Kopinor.


Contents

Getting Started 7

Crossroads 9A and 9B 8

1 The USA 11

A Going to the USA 12

Three Manhattan Neighbourhoods 41 Central Park 43 The Statue of Liberty 44 The Empire State Building 44 F The American Cowboy 46

At Heathrow 12

G The American Indians 50

At the Check-in 13

H Red Shawl Woman 56

At the Customs 16

Language Corner 58

B The USA 20 The Country 20 Wildlife 23 The People 24 The Government 25 C An Early Illustrated History of the USA 28

2 Living in the USA 67

A High School 68

This Is High School 68 B Things You Should Know about High School 71 How to Get There 71

Colonial Times 29

Homeroom 72

A New Identity 30

Classes 72

The Boston Massacre 30

Extra-Curricular Activities 73

The Boston Tea Party 31

The Prom 74

War and Independence 32

Driving 75

Going West 33 Civil War 34

C Going Abroad 77 High School 78

D Images of the USA 36

Teenage Life 79

E The Big Apple 41

Cultural Differences 80


Changing Perspectives 80

4 Film Magic 125

D Growing Up in Little Havana 82

A Hollywood 126

E Navajo Youth 85

B Two Hollywood Stars 129

F A Lifeguard 87

Keira Knightley 129

G On My Own 89

Logan Lerman 130

Language Corner 91

3 Move Your Body 97 A The Academy 98

An Important Part of Culture 98 My Job as a Talent Scout 99 B Pro Touch Soccer Academy 101 The Driving Force 101 Football Is Sort of My Life 103 C Racist Hypocrites or What? 106 D Rugby 107 Two Players 109

C The Actor 132 Few Jobs 132 Instruction 133 Commercials 133 D Welcome to Bollywood 135 At a Bollywood Acting School 136 E Charlie Chaplin 140 F The Stunt Woman 143 Language Corner 149

5 Both Sides of the Law 157 A Restorative Justice 158

E On Higher Ground 112

Laura 159

F Surfing the Waves 115

Ryan and Jeremy 160

Learning to Surf 115

Lauren: It Just Happened 162

Surfboards, Set Waves and Safety 116

Lauren’s Victim 162

Language Corner 119

B The Princes in the Bloody Tower 165


C On Duty 168 Police at Work 168

7 Shadows of the Past 211

A The Ruin of a Culture 212

The Police Car 169

The Trail of Tears 213

My Four-legged Officer 170

The Buffalo 214

On Patrol 171

The Battle of Little Bighorn 216

D The Case of Death in the Drawing Room 173 E Capital Punishment 176 F San Quentin 178 Language Corner 179

6 The Dream of America 185 A Leaving a Country Behind 186 The American Dream 187

The Massacre at Wounded Knee 217 B Tatanka Ohitika 219 Mama 220 C Chains 222 D A Slave Account 224 E Underground Railroad 227 F Discrimination and Segregation 229 G Changes 231

B Hope in My Heart 188

Rosa Parks 231

C The Land Across the Border 197

Dr Martin Luther King Jr 233

D The Border Patrol 198 E Mexican Smuggler 200

H How it all Started 234 Language Corner 236

F Across the Borderline 201 G Two Jamaicans in New York 203 Language Corner 205

Wordlist 242 Photos and Illustrations 253 Acknowledgements 255


Getting Started Velkommen til et nytt skoleår! Vi håper du likte Crossroads 8A og 8B. Nå er det på tide å gå i gang med Crossroads 9. I Crossroads 8A møtte du mennesker fra forskjellige steder i Storbritannia. Steder som London, Liverpool, Cambridge, Belfast og Edinburgh. Du møtte også mennesker fra New York og Los Angeles i USA og fra Sydney i Australia. I Crossroads 9A konsentrerer vi oss først og fremst om USA. USA er et stort og fascinerende land. Det som skjer i USA, får også betydning her i Norge.

7


Crossroads 9A and 9B

La oss se litt nærmere på engelskbøkene. Crossroads 9A 8

Crossroads 9A

Getting Started

Crossroads 9A består av syv kapitler: 1 The USA 2 Living in the USA 3 Move Your Body 4 Film Magic 5 Both Sides of the Law 6 The Dream of America 7 Shadows of the Past Hvert kapittel består av flere deler. I slutten av hver del er det muntlige og skriftlige oppgaver. Noen av dem gjør du alene. Andre gjør dere i par eller i grupper. Hver oppgave er merket med et ikon som viser hvilken type oppgave det er.

Ikoner: = Oppsummeringsspørsmål

= Muntlige og skriftlige oppgaver (i par eller i grupper)

= Muntlige oppgaver (i par eller i grupper)

= Lytteoppgaver

= Skriftlige oppgaver

= Rollespill


På slutten av hvert kapittel er det en samling oppgaver som heter Task Bank. Her finner du varierte oppgaver. Se side 58. Noen oppgaver tar litt mer tid. Dette er oppgaver som skal gjøres som lekser eller som forberedelse til presentasjoner. Slike oppgaver finner du under overskriften Dig Into It. Se side 59.

Crossroads 9A

Hvert kapittel inneholder også noe som heter Language Corner. Her finner du nyttig informasjon om det engelske språket og om språklæring. Se side 58.

9

Crossroads 9B Crossroads 9B er delt i to. Den første delen heter “Enjoy Reading”. Her finner du engelske dikt, noveller, eventyr, utdrag fra en roman og en avisartikkel. Etter hver tekst er det noen oppgaver. Den andre delen av Crossroads 9B er en grammatikkdel. Den er skrevet på norsk. Oppgavene i denne delen er også på norsk. Tips – du kan også øve på grammatikk på nettsiden til Crossroads.

Good luck with your English studies!

Getting Started

Det er viktig å lære seg nye ord på engelsk. Prøv å lære alle ordene i margen. På slutten av kapitlet finner du også Word Quest. Det er en samling av de viktigste ordene i kapitlet. Se side 59.


1 The USA What do you know about the United States of

America? Do you know anything about the landscape or climate? Do you know anything about the animals or people who live in the USA? Read this chapter and find out about this vast nation of nations.

11

climate – klima vast – enorm


Crossroads 9A 12

The USA

A Going to the USA At Heathrow across – over the Atlantic – Atlanterhavet

Patricia and Shana are 21 years old. They have been best friends since they started at university two years ago. They are going on holiday to the USA, but they are feeling a little nervous. Let us follow them across the Atlantic.


Patricia: Shana! Over here! Shana: Hi, Tricia! Patricia: Could you keep an eye on my luggage for a minute. I need to go to the loo. Shana: Sure.

At the Check-in Woman: Good morning. Tickets and passports, please. Shana: Here you are. Woman: How many suitcases are you checking in? Shana: Just these two. Woman: OK. Here are your passports and your boarding cards. Have a nice flight! Shana and Patricia: Thank you! Their passports are checked at passport control. Their hand luggage is screened at a security checkpoint. Finally, they go through a metal detector. This is to check they are not carrying knives, scissors or firearms. You are not allowed to take these onto planes. They sit down at a bar and order two cappuccinos.

13

The USA

When Patricia gets back, they discover they are in the wrong terminal. They take the escalator down to the Heathrow Express. Twenty minutes later they are ready to check in.

arrive – ankomme relax – slappe av flight – flygning suddenly – plutselig spot – få øye på crowd – folkemengde keep an eye on – holde øye med loo (uformelt) – do escalator – rulletrapp security checkpoint – sikkerhetskontroll finally – til slutt carry – her: ha med seg firearms – skytevåpen you are not allowed to – du har ikke lov til å

Crossroads 9A

Patricia arrived at Heathrow an hour ago. She does not like flying. She needs some time to relax before the flight. Suddenly she spots Shana in the crowd.


Crossroads 9A 14

delicious – deilig cinnamon – kanel prefer – foretrekke stewardess – flyvertinne aisle – midtgang packed – her: helt fullt emergency – nødstilfelle weather forecast – værmelding

Patricia: Mm, delicious cappuccino. I just love coffee with cinnamon! Shana: I’m not sure. I think I prefer black coffee. Shana and Patricia show their boarding cards and passports to a man at the gate. Shana picks up a free newspaper and then they go onto the plane. They are welcomed by a stewardess. At first the aisle is packed with people. When all the passengers are seated, the captain turns on the seatbelt sign. Then the stewardess tells them what to do in an emergency. Finally the plane takes off.

The USA

Captain: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome on board this flight to Los Angeles. Our flying time will be 9 hours and 45 minutes. We are now at 33,000 feet and our speed is 650 miles per hour. The weather forecast is good all the way across the Atlantic.


Shana: Are you all right, Tricia? Patricia: Unexpected turbulence? That sounds bad. Shana: Don’t worry. Turbulence isn’t dangerous. Patricia: I wish I was as calm as you, Shana.

Immigration officer: Good morning. May I have your immigration card, please? Put your left finger here and press. Now the right one. Thank you. What’s the purpose of your visit? Patricia: I’m spending my summer holidays here. Immigration officer: OK. Welcome to the United States! The immigration officer scans Patricia’s finger to check if she is unwanted in the USA.

15

The USA

The flight went well. There wasn’t much turbulence. Now Patricia and Shana are at Los Angeles airport.

serve – servere shortly – om kort tid unexpected – uventet calm – rolig purpose – formål

Crossroads 9A

We will serve you breakfast shortly. There will be a hot meal later, as well as a snack just before we land in Los Angeles. You should keep your safety belt on during the flight, just in case of unexpected turbulence. Sit back and enjoy the flight!


At the Customs Crossroads 9A 16

form – skjema exit – utgang L.A. – Los Angeles

Customs officer: Look what we’ve got here! Shana: Oh, they’re just my allergy tablets. Customs officer: No, I mean the apples. You can’t bring fruit, vegetables or dairy products into the USA. Shana: You can’t? Customs officer: Didn’t you read the immigration form, Miss? Shana: I’m sorry. I was a bit tired when I filled in the form. Customs officer: All right. I’ll keep the apples. Have a nice day and enjoy your stay!

The USA

Patricia is waiting at the exit. Patricia: What happened? Shana: Just a routine check. Never mind that now. We’re here, in L.A.! This is going to be so much fun!


5 Match the Norwegian and the English words. a) bagasje 1 seat b) billett 2 security check c) pass 3 luggage d) flyavgang 4 ticket e) sikkerhetskontroll 5 customs f) sete 6 aisle g) midtgang 7 passport h) toll 8 flight

Customs officer: What is this? Passenger: Oh, it’s only a ....... (matvare). It’s a present for my aunt and uncle. Customs officer: You are not allowed to bring that kind of thing into the USA. Passenger: Oh, I thought it was just ....... (en annen matvare) that wasn’t allowed. Customs officer: Didn’t you read the immigration form? Passenger: Well, I read ....... (noe av det/ den første siden). Customs officer: Do you have anything else to declare? Passenger: ....... (ja/kanskje/jeg vet ikke). Customs officer: OK, could you come over here, please?

17

The USA

4 What do you like best – travelling by car, train, ferry or plane? Write down two reasons. Tell a classmate. Does he/she agree with you?

6 At the Customs Fill in the gaps. Then read your conversation aloud with a classmate. Change roles and read your classmate’s version.

Crossroads 9A

1 Why did Patricia get to the airport early? 2 Where is their luggage checked? 3 Fill in the missing letters: im-i-rati-fo-m -pp--s --st-ms


Crossroads 9A 18

The USA

* State capitals • Major cities


Crossroads 9A 19

The USA


B The USA Crossroads 9A

Area: 9,631,420 sq. km. Population: 316,669,000 Capital: Washington, D.C. Major cities: New York City (New York), Los Angeles (California), Chicago (Illinois) Language: English and Spanish Currency: US dollar Highest point: Mount McKinley (6,194 m) Lowest point: Death Valley (-86 m) Longest river: Mississippi River (3,780 km) Largest lake: Lake Superior National Day: Independence Day, 4 July National flower: the rose

20

The USA

The Country D.C. – District of Columbia arctic – arktisk tropical – tropisk face – her: være vendt mot Pacific Ocean – Stillehavet approximately – circa

The United States of America is the world’s third largest country. The capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. The USA has borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The climate is arctic in the north and tropical in the south. The west coast of the USA faces the Pacific Ocean and the east coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 4,000 kilometres from New York in the east to Los Angeles in the west. There are four time zones in the USA.


The weather conditions in the USA can be extreme. There are often tornadoes in the Midwest and hurricanes along the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused a major flood in the city of New Orleans. Many people lost their lives and thousands became homeless.

mountain range – fjellkjede weather conditions – værforhold hurricane – orkan cause – forårsake flood – oversvømmelse

Crossroads 9A

Some of the world’s largest mountain ranges, largest lakes and longest rivers are in the USA. You will also find some of the tallest and oldest trees in the world here.

21

The USA

Man against nature.

Everything is bigger in America.This enormous tree is a Giant Redwood.


Crossroads 9A

1

22

The USA

8 7

5 4

6 3 2


What are the animals on page 22 called? Match the pictures and the names. Grizzly bear Deer Beaver Moose Rattlesnake Raccoon Killer whale Puma

23

The USA

A B C D E F G H

match – sette sammen noe som passer

WARNING! WATCH OUT FOR GRIZZLY BEARS! Hikers, hunters, and fishermen must be extra careful. Wear little bells on your clothes. They will warn the bears that you are coming. Hopefully they will run away. Always carry pepper spray in case you actually meet a bear. And remember to look out for fresh paw prints and scat. Black bear scat has berries in it. A Grizzly bear scat often has little bells in it.

Crossroads 9A

Wildlife

hopefully – forhåpentligvis paw print – fotspor (dyr) scat – avføring (bjørn)


The People Crossroads 9A

immigrate – innvandre multicultural – flerkulturell strong ties to – sterke bånd til arrive – ankomme minority – mindretall

24

The USA The White House in Washington D.C. has been the home of US Presidents since 1800. There is plenty of space for visitors: the house has 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms.

The USA is a nation of immigrants. The first Europeans in America were mostly white Protestants. Gradually people from all parts of the world immigrated to America. Today the USA is a multicultural society – a true nation of nations. Many Americans have two identities. They have strong ties to the country they or their families came from. They are known as African-Americans, Italian-Americans, Norwegian-Americans and so on. Finally, there are the Native Americans or American Indians. They were living in North America long before the Europeans arrived. But now they are just a small minority group.


Crossroads 9A

The USA has always been a republic. This means Americans have always had a president, never a king or queen. But one president was almost like a king: John F. Kennedy was the youngest president ever in the USA. He was also the first Catholic president of the USA. He and his wife Jacqueline were very popular. She was beautiful and elegant. Tragically, John F. Kennedy was shot in Dallas, Texas, on 22 November 1963. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis died thirty years later, in 1994.

25

The USA

The Government The USA is a republic. Political power is divided between: the President the Congress the Supreme Court The President The President is the head of state. A president is elected for four years and can be re-elected for another four years. The President is also the head of one of the two political parties in the USA: the Republican Party or the Democratic Party. The Congress The Congress is divided into the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress controls the money the President needs to carry out his or her policies. Congress also makes the laws of the USA.

head of state – her: statsoverhode elect – velge re-elect – gjenvelge divided into – delt inn i carry out – utføre policy – politikk


Crossroads 9A 26

The USA The Capitol houses the US Congress. It was built in the style of Ancient Greek and Roman architecture.

The Supreme Court Constitution – grunnlov valid – gyldig state matters – saker som angår enkeltstater

How should we understand the laws of a country? The Supreme Court decides what the laws in America mean. Sometimes they find that an old law is against the Constitution. Then they change the law or say it is no longer valid. Federal and State Government The government for the whole of America is called the Federal Government. It is in Washington, D.C. State Governments are governments which decide about state matters. There is one in each of the 50 states. The chief of the State Government is the Governor.


6 Complete the names of the ten states below. Check them with your partner. ---bama ---ifornia ---rida ---aii ---tucky ---nesota New ---ico --io ---as ---hington

8 Match the English words with their Norwegian translations. a) climate 1 orkan b) coast 2 oversvømmelse c) lake 3 kyst d) ocean 4 innsjø e) hurricane 5 fjell f) tropical 6 klima g) mountain 7 tropisk h) flood 8 arktisk i) arctic 9 hav

27

The USA

4 Pick a state from the map on page 18–19. Say the first two letters to your partner. He/she must try to guess which state you mean. Try to guess three states each. 5 Describe two of the animals on page 22 to your partner. He/she will then describe two animals to you.

7 What are the missing words? Write them in the gaps. The USA has always been a ....... . This means Americans have always had a president, never a ....... or queen. But one president was almost like a king: John F. ....... was the ....... president ever in the USA. He was also the first Catholic president of the USA. He and his wife Jacqueline were very ....... . She was beautiful and ....... . Tragically, he was ....... in Dallas, Texas, on 22 November 1963.

Crossroads 9A

1 What is the total population of the USA? 2 Name two states which start with the letter A. 3 What time is it in Los Angeles when it is 6 a.m. in New York?


Crossroads 9A

The Vikings sailed as far as America. This is a typical Viking longhouse in L’Anse aux Meadows. People and cattle lived under the same roof.

28

C An Early Illustrated History of the USA

The USA

navigator – sjøfarer discover – oppdage ancestors – forfedre Native American – indianer ancient – veldig gammel settlement – bosetning in use – i bruk

The name America comes from the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512). He sailed to the New World after Christopher Columbus. You may have read that Columbus discovered America. This is not true. The people who first came to America were the ancestors of today’s Native Americans. They came from Asia more than 20,000 years ago. Did you know that the Vikings came to America about 500 years before Columbus? In 1960 the Norwegian archeologist Anne Stine Ingstad and her husband Helge Ingstad found an ancient Viking settlement on the island of Newfoundland. The settlement was only in use for a short period of time.


Colonial Times

In 1607 a ship full of English immigrants landed in what is Virginia today. The captain of the ship was called John Smith. You may have heard of him. He fell in love with the Indian princess Pocahontas, a story which has been turned into a Disney film.

Britain and France fought many wars in the 1600s and 1700s. They were fighting about who should control North America.

29

settler – kolonist, nybygger land – her: gå i land religious refugee – religiøs flyktning teach – taught – lære bort corn – mais celebrate – feire harvest – innhøsting feast – feste fight – fought – kjempe

The USA

In May 1620, a ship with 102 passengers arrived at Plymouth in Massachusetts. They were religious refugees and became known as the Pilgrim Fathers. Local Indians taught them how to plant corn. In October 1621, the Pilgrims celebrated their first harvest with feasting and games. Americans still celebrate the first harvest on Thanksgiving Day and this is now a national holiday.

Just think: if more Vikings had got as far as America, maybe there would be millions of Norwegian speakers in the USA today!

Crossroads 9A

Settlers from Spain, France, Sweden, Holland and England began to arrive on the East Coast of America at the beginning of the 17th century.


Crossroads 9A 30

altogether – til sammen gradually – gradvis independent – uavhengig tax – skatt civilian – sivilperson

The British army fought against the French and against North American Indians between 1754 and 1763. The British won. By this time, there were 13 colonies altogether: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

A New Identity

The USA

In the eighteenth century, the colonists gradually started to feel like Americans. They wanted to create an independent country. The British, however, wanted to keep control of North America because they made a lot of money from the colonies.

The Boston Massacre In 1770 there was a demonstration against British taxes. Five civilians were killed. After that, the colonists disliked the British even more.

The Boston Massacre, Paul Revere, ca. 1770. Five civilians were killed.


The Boston Tea Party

31

The USA

On 16 December 1773, a group of men boarded some ships in Boston loaded with British tea. They were disguised as Mohawk Indians. More than five thousand people watched them. The men threw more than $50,000 worth of tea into the harbour water. That is about the same as $1,102,000 today.

reduce – sette ned board – her: gå om bord loaded with – lastet med disguised as – kledd ut som throw – threw – kaste harbour – havn

Crossroads 9A

The colonists had to pay tax on tea from Britain. They drank a lot of tea! Some began to drink Dutch tea instead of British tea. So the British reduced the price of the tea they sent to the USA. The colonists felt it was still wrong to drink it. They were not British. Why should the British force them to pay taxes to Britain?


The Declaration of Independence, 1776 (Wikipedia.org).

Crossroads 9A 32

The USA

War and Independence sign – undertegne Declaration of Independence – uavhengighetserklæringen separate – her: skille

On 4 July 1776, the colonists signed a document called the Declaration of Independence. This said that they wanted the colonies to separate from Britain.


Going West In 1804, two famous explorers, Lewis and Clark, set off to map the USA from the East to the West Coast. They and their team spent nearly two and a half years travelling and drawing maps. They also studied the geology, botany, wildlife and the American Indian tribes they saw on their expedition.

In 1848 a lucky person found gold in California and soon hundreds of thousands headed for the Pacific Coast.

take part in – ta del i give – gave birth to – føde negotiate – forhandle survive in the wild – overleve i villmarken

33

The USA

Sacajawea or “Bird Woman” took part in the Lewis and Clark expedition. She was an Indian woman of the Shoshone tribe. Sacajawea gave birth to a son two months before the expedition. She carried her baby on her back and walked to the Pacific Ocean and back. Sacajawea helped Lewis and Clark to negotiate with Indian tribes. She also helped them to survive in the wild.

set off – dra av gårde map – her: kartlegge botany – plantelære tribe – stamme

Crossroads 9A

In 1783, the eight-year long Revolutionary War ended. In 1789, the American Constitution became a reality. It is the oldest constitution in the world.


Moving towards a better future. Hundreds of thousands of people moved west in the 19th century.

Crossroads 9A 34

The USA

journey – reise however – imidlertid agree – her: bli enige abolish – avskaffe civil war – borgerkrig put an end to – gjøre slutt på

Some businessmen then decided to build a railway across the USA. This made the journey from east to west quicker and more comfortable. There were Europeans all over the USA now. The Native Americans, however had lost much of their land.

Civil War The Northern States and the Southern States did not agree about slavery (see chapter 7). The North wanted to abolish slavery, but the South said that they needed slaves in the cotton fields. This led to the bloody American Civil War (1861–1865). After four years the North won the war and put an end to slavery in the USA.


5 Choose an event in American history. Draw a cartoon of it. 6 Match the English and the Norwegian words. a) tribe 1 skatt b) emigrate 2 flyktning c) immigrate 3 avskaffe d) refugee 4 innvandre e) tax 5 stamme f) abolish 6 utvandre cartoon – tegneserie

35

The USA

2 Choose one of the pictures on pages 30 and 31. Describe it to your partner. Your partner will draw what you describe. Start like this: There is a … / There are some …

3 Pick seven words from the text on page 28–34. Write them down on a piece of paper. Ask your partner to translate the words. 4 You are one of the people in the pictures on page 34. What is your life like? Write a couple of paragraphs about this together with a partner.

Crossroads 9A

1 Choose the right answer. 1 Who were the first Europeans to settle in America? a) the Vikings b) the French c) the Italians 2 Where in the USA did the English set up colonies in the 17th century? a) Texas b) Virginia c) Alaska 3 Was the “Boston Tea party” a) a tea smugglers’ party? b) a protest against the high price of tea? c) a protest against the French government? 4 What was the main purpose of Lewis and Clark’s expedition? a) to study the West Coast b) to make a map of the USA c) to travel for at least two years


D Images of the USA Crossroads 9A

pleasant – behagelig stretch – strekke seg skiing resort – skisted go hiking – dra på fottur wheat – hvete grow – grown – dyrke

36

The USA Above: Sunny California: golden sand and beautiful palm trees by the Pacific Ocean. Could you ask for more? Right: Los Angeles (L.A.) means The Angels in Spanish. L.A. was part of Mexico before California became a US State.

Los Angeles is the biggest city in California and the second largest in the USA. It is the centre of the American music and film industries. The climate is pleasant all year round and the beaches are always full of people. “The Rockies” is a mountain range that stretches from British Columbia in Canada to New Mexico in the USA. This is a distance of nearly 5,000 kilometres. It has some of the best skiing resorts in America. People also go hiking here. The Great Plains is an enormous area to the east of the Rocky Mountains. This used to be the homeland of the Great Plains Indian tribes. There were many buffaloes here before the Europeans came. Nowadays a lot of wheat is grown on the Great Plains.


Crossroads 9A 37

The USA

Top left: A herd of buffaloes grazing by the Rocky Mountains. Top right: Montana, a mountainous state. Middle left: Rural America – a dusty country road and cornfields. Middle right: The USA is the land of mighty rivers. One of them runs through Yellowstone National Park. Below: The incredible landscape of Monument Valley is on the border between Arizona and Utah.


Crossroads 9A

Right: The Grand Canyon is one of the top ten tourist attractions in the USA. Below: This alligator may be small, but it has powerful teeth! The swamps of Florida are full of alligators.

38

The USA

desert – ørken several – flere swamp – våtmark marsh – myr wetland area – våtmark rafter – en som driver med rafting

There are deserts in several parts of the United States. The largest is the Chihuahuan Desert in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. There are some Indian reservations in this desert. The swamps and marshes of Florida are wetland areas. There are up to a million American alligators here. The Grand Canyon is 446 km long, 1.6 km deep and up to 29 km wide. Millions of tourists visit it every year. The river in the canyon is very popular with rafters.


The Inuits of Alaska traditionally live close to the sea. Fishing and hunting whale, walrus and caribou have always been part of their culture.

Crossroads 9A 39

The USA

Wyoming is known as “The Cowboy State”. They have raised cattle here for more than a hundred years. Many people wear blue jeans, boots and Stetson hats in Wyoming. Large areas of the south-western part of the USA used to belong to Mexico. This is one reason why there are many people of Mexican origin in southern California. About 16 per cent of the Alaskan population are native Inuits. Some of them still make a living in the traditional way, hunting and fishing. However, most people in Alaska now live in cities. In the old days they used to wear clothes made of sealskin and caribou skin.

cattle – kveg wear – ha på seg Stetson hat – cowboyhatt origin – opprinnelse population – befolkning Inuit – inuitt caribou – nordamerikansk villrein


Crossroads 9A 40

1 Which is the second largest city in the USA? 2 Where can you go skiing in the USA? 3 What is an Inuit?

4 Pick one of the pictures on page 36 to 39. Tell your partner why you like it. Start like this: I like this picture because … or: This picture is interesting. It shows …

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5 Look at the words below. Check the words you don’t understand in your dictionary. Which is the odd one out? unusual, interesting, boring, beautiful, ugly, landscape, frightening, old-fashioned, modern

6 A You are a student on holiday in the USA for two weeks. You are at a travel agency in Los Angeles. Ask what there is to do and see in L.A. Useful phrases: Excuse me, can you help me? I’m interested in … I don’t really like … Thank you. B Your name is Ellen. You work at a travel agency in L.A. A student asks you what there is to do and see here. Suggest a few things. Useful phrases: Are you interested in anything particular? What kind of things do you like? You could go to … You must see … You’re welcome. odd one out – som skiller seg ut


E The Big Apple d

hat ta

n

r ve

ri

ens

que

new upper yor kb ay

man

hud

so n

rive r

st

ea

er low k bay yor w ne

a

a tl

n

c ti

o

a ce

n

nickname – kallenavn multi-ethnic – flerkulturell borough – bydel major – her: viktigst tourist attraction – turistattraksjon neighbourhood – nabolag community – her: lokalsamfunn, område tortellini – liten fylt pasta panini – italiensk brød settle – bosette seg

41

The USA

at

st

is

brooklyn

d an

l

en

Crossroads 9A

an isl ng nd lo sou

the

bronx

New York’s nickname is The Big Apple. It is probably the most multi-ethnic city in the whole of the USA. New York City has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island and The Bronx. The major tourist attractions are in Manhattan.

Three Manhattan Neighbourhoods Little Italy Little Italy is home to New York’s largest Italian community. The smell of delicious Italian food is everywhere – pizza, tortellini, panini – mama mía! More than five million Italians immigrated to the USA in the 1900s. Many settled in this neighbourhood.

You will find yellow cabs everywhere in New York. If you need one, just extend your arm.


Chinatown Chinatown in New York is just like a real Chinese city. There are many Chinese restaurants here. Often they have a roast duck hanging in the window. Harlem

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The most famous black neighbourhood in America is Harlem. It is famous for jazz musicians and for some great writers. In the past Harlem was a rough neighbourhood with a high crime rate. People who lived there were relatively poor. Many did not have a job.

The USA

Crossroads 9A

roast duck – stekt and rough neighbourhood – farlig nabolag crime rate – hvor mye kriminalitet det er relatively – relativt although – selv om still – fortsatt

Now Harlem is a popular multi-ethnic neighbourhood, although most of the people living there are still African-Americans.

Above: A lazy Sunday morning in Harlem. Left: You cannot go to New York without visiting some of the ethnic neighbourhoods, such as Chinatown and Little Italy. Right page: Central Park, also known as the “lungs” of New York. The perfect place for a relaxing break.


Central Park

Before, Central Park was unsafe at night. Now there is much less crime there and people walk their dogs in the park day and night.

baseball pitch – baseballbane tennis court – tennisbane skating rink – skøytebane bench – benk less – mindre

Crossroads 9A

Central Park is right in the middle of Manhattan. More than 25 million people a year use the park. There are baseball pitches, tennis courts and skating rinks. The park is also a very popular area for jogging and cycling. For those who just want to relax, the park has 9,000 benches as well as plenty of cafes and restaurants.

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The USA


The Statue of Liberty Crossroads 9A

landmark – landemerke Statue of Liberty – Frihetsgudinnen gigantic – kjempestor

44

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observatory – her: utsiktsrom

One of the most famous landmarks in New York City is the Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island. This gigantic statue was a gift from the people of France to the people of America in 1886. About 4 million tourists visit Liberty Island every year. Facts about the Statue of Liberty: Height: 151 feet Weight: 225 tons Length of right arm: 42 feet Length of nose: 4 feet 6 inches Width of eyes: 2 feet 6 inches

The Empire State Building The Empire State Building in Manhattan is 443 metres high. Until the 1970s, it was the tallest building in New York. On a clear day you can see about 80 miles from the top floor observatory. This building is also well known because of a film. In King Kong, a giant ape holds a young woman on top of the building. Most people take the elevator to the top floor, but you can also take the stairs. Guess how many steps there are? 1860!


Crime in Decline

1990

1995

2000

2005

2011

Murder

2,571

1,150

952

874

774

Rape

5,368

4,290

3,530

3,636

2,752

Robbery

112,380

72,492

40,539

35,179

28,396

Burglary

208,813

146,562

87,946

68,034

65,397

4 Do you like big cities? Tell your partner why or why not. 5 Translate these words with a classmate. Then check your suggestions in a dictionary. a) nickname b) neighbourhood c) landmark d) skating rink e) baseball pitch

6 New York is called “The Big Apple”. Work with a partner. Try to think of a good catchphrase for the town you live in or the nearest town. Use humour if you want. For example: “Oslo – ugly city, beautiful scenery. We have it all!”

7 Change the measurements of the Statue of Liberty into cm. Have a look at page 186 in Crossroads 9B first. catchphrase – slagord scenery – landskap, natur measurement – mål

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The USA

1 What is New York’s nickname? 2 What is Little Italy? 3 Why is Central Park popular?

decline – her: tilbakegang

Crossroads 9A

There used to be a lot of crime in New York City. Today it has the lowest crime rate of the 25 largest American cities.


Crossroads 9A

8 Read the text “The Big Apple”. There are 12 words hidden in the word grid. Can you find them?

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The USA

F The American Cowboy actually – egentlig brief – kort plains – prærie rounded them up – drev dem sammen breed – rase

Who were the American cowboys and how many were there? There were actually only 40,000 of them and they existed for one brief period, from 1867 to 1887. To be a true cowboy you needed cows, a horse and the right kind of clothes. First, how did they get their cows? Simple. After the Civil War (see page 34) there were millions of wild cattle on the southern plains. Many were Texas Longhorn cows. The cowboys just went there and rounded them up. They did not cost anything. Texas Longhorns are a good breed. They come in all sorts of colours. They weigh about 180 kg and their horns can be over


Crossroads 9A 47

The USA

two metres from tip to tip. They are tough animals. They can survive blizzards, fight off wolves and they can stand extreme heat. What kind of horses did the cowboys have? The Spaniards were the ones who brought horses from Europe to Mexico. Later they brought them up to New Mexico and to Texas in the USA. Some of them escaped and became wild horses, known as Mustangs. This was the type of horse the cowboys captured. What did cowboys wear? First of all they needed a hat because of the burning sun. One day in 1865, a hat maker called John Stetson made a big round hat with a brim from beaver leather.

blizzard – snøstorm fight off – kjempe mot og vinne over stand – her: tåle capture – fange brim – brem leather – skinn


Crossroads 9A

wear – wore – ha på seg scarf – tørkle high-heeled boots – høyhælte støvler stirrups – stigbøyler otherwise – ellers six-shooter – kallenavn på revolver (med seks skudd) stampede – vill flukt

48

The USA Cowboys on the prairie, a symbol of America.

At first his friends laughed at him. They thought it was a funnylooking hat. But then a cowboy asked to buy a hat like his. That was the start of the Stetson hat business. Cowboys also wore a scarf to protect them from dust. But why did they wear those high-heeled boots? That’s because the heels stopped their feet from coming out of the stirrups. Otherwise they could have fallen off their horses and been killed. Finally, one of the most important things a cowboy had was his lasso. It was used to catch cows. He would throw the lasso around the cow’s neck to catch it. There is quite a lot of fighting in cowboy films. It is true that cowboys had a lasso and a six-shooter. But in real life cowboys mostly used guns to shoot snakes and to turn the cattle in a stampede.


Across: 3 land sør for USA 5 stigbøyle 6 kveg 7 støvler

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Down: 1 dyrerase 2 snøstorm 4 cowboyhatt 1

4 John Stetson created a special type of hat. Now it’s your turn. Draw something new you can wear. Show it to your partner. Explain what is special about it.

3

4 5

6

7

2

The USA

3 Invent a conflict between two cowboys. The argument could be about a girlfriend, a horse, a gun or something else. Write a short dialogue. Act it out with a partner.

5 Solve the crossword puzzle. Crossroads 9A

1 What was the name of the horses the American cowboys used? 2 The Texas Longhorn is a tough breed. Give an example of how tough these animals are.


say – her: si meg Crossroads 9A

A cowboy rode into town and stopped at a saloon for a drink. When he went back outside, his horse wasn’t there. He went back in and shouted, “All right, I’m gonna get another drink. When I go back out, I want my horse to be there. Otherwise I’m gonna do what I did in Texas!” The cowboy had another beer and walked outside. His horse was back. The bartender asked, “Say, partner. Before you go, can I ask what happened in Texas?” The cowboy turned and said, “I had to walk home.”

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Treat the Earth well: It was not given to you by your parents,

The USA

it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth

from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children. Ancient Indian Proverb

G The American Indians treat – behandle inherit – arve proverb – ordtak prefer – foretrekke

Michael Nephew is the president of the American Indian Society of Washington, D.C. He is Seneca-Cayunga and Cherokee and grew up on a reservation in New York State. – Michael, do you prefer the name American Indian or Native American? Native American and Indian are both wrong, really. Anyone who was born in America is a native of America. And an Indian is really a person from India. Sometimes we use First Americans or Native Americans. I prefer American Indian, myself.


51

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– Tell me, Michael, are any of the old Indian languages still in use? Some native languages have only a few speakers. And some have already been lost. There are several reasons why many Indian languages are in danger of dying out. Indians were often taken to boarding schools. There they were treated badly and punished for speaking their language. As a result, they often did not want to teach their own children the language.

off the reservation – utenfor indianerreservatet advantage – fordel disadvantage – ulempe unemployment – arbeidsledighet health care – helsehjelp housing – her: boforhold lose touch with – miste kontakt med tribal culture – stammekultur in danger of – i fare for å boarding school – internatskole punish – straffe

Crossroads 9A

– Do most American Indians live on reservations? About 50 per cent of American Indians live on reservations and 50 per cent live off the reservations. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. There is much more unemployment on the reservations. Many Indians move to the cities to find a better job, better education and better housing. On the other hand, food, health care and housing are also more expensive in the cities. And it is easy to lose touch with tribal culture there.

Michael Nephew lives in Washington D.C., but was raised on a reservation in the state of New York. He often goes back to visit his family.


Crossroads 9A 52

The USA Indian reservations in America: On this map you can see where some of the major Indian tribes are located today. Have a look at the map on pages 18–19. Which states are the reservations in?


– Can speakers of different Indian languages understand each other? The native Indian languages were often quite similar. But sometimes you needed to know where a person came from to understand him or her. The same word could have different or even opposite meanings. For example, the same word means salt in Seneca and sugar in Mohawk.

– Could you tell me something about the old Indian religions, Michael? Many people think that Indians had many different gods, but most of the native religions only have one god. They had respect for everything the Creator made. The Europeans thought we were praying to the animals when we killed them. But we were really thanking the Creator for allowing us to kill the animal. We were also thanking the animal for allowing us to take its life so we would be able to survive.

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The USA

In Indian languages words are often descriptions. For instance, the word for deer in one of the Iroquois languages says something about how the deer can see at night. The word for hawk means, “it dives at things”, and for police “they grab people”.

day care centre – barnehage/park quite similar – nokså lik different – forskjellig opposite – motsatt description – beskrivelse hawk – hauk dive – stupe grab – slå kloa i, gripe tak i Creator – skaper, Gud pray – be really – egentlig allow – tillate survive – overleve

Crossroads 9A

In a lot of areas now they are trying to find ways to teach the kids the languages. They often start at the day care centres. This is because to speak a language well, it is important to start as early as possible.


funeral – begravelse

Crossroads 9A 54

deer – rådyr amazed – forbløffet track – dyrespor, jernbanespor clothes torn – klær som er revet i stykker

Some of these religions have died out, but some of them are still very active. Even if the Indians are Christians they still do all the traditional funeral things. For example, they have a ten-day feast, which is a feast they have ten days after a person dies. They also have a one-year feast.

The USA

Two Lakota guys and a guy from New York are on a hunting trip. On the first day, one Lakota guy goes out, and less than an hour later returns with a deer. The guy from New York is amazed. “How did you get your deer so fast?!” “Easy,” says the Lakota guy, “I looked for tracks, found them, followed them, and got my deer.” The next day the second Lakota guy goes out and less than an hour later returns with a deer. The guy from New York is amazed again. “How did you get YOUR deer so fast?!” The Lakota guy says, “I looked for tracks, found them, followed them, and there was the deer.” On the third day, the New York guy goes out. He doesn’t return, so the two Lakota guys go looking for him. They find him with clothes torn and his bones broken. “What happened to you?” they asked. “I did just what you told me to do. I looked for tracks, found them, followed them, and the damn train ran me over.”


2 Why does Michael prefer the name American Indian to Native American?

After ten days and after one year. They were punished. Many languages have similar words. About 50 %.

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The USA

3 Write four short sentences about American Indians – three true sentences and one false sentence. Read them to your partner. Can he/she guess which is false?

a) b) c) d)

Crossroads 9A

1 Match the questions and the answers. 1 Are Indian languages similar? 2 How many Indians live off the reservations? 3 What happened to Indians at boarding school? 4 When do Indians have funeral feasts?


H Red Shawl Woman Crossroads 9A

Fancy Shawl dancer – kvinnelig urfolkdanser av en type Powwow-dans powwow – seremoni hos indianere

Hi! My name is Isabella. My Dakota name is Sheena Duta Wee. In English that means Red Shawl Woman. I live in St. Paul, Minnesota, and go to Mounds Park All Nations School. They teach us Lakota and Ojibway. We also have drum and dance class every Friday where everyone can dance.

56

I like to dance the Fancy Shawl. I’ve been dancing since I learned how to walk. I started out as a Jingle dancer and now I am a Fancy Shawl dancer. Both of these are dances from powwow.

The USA

My dream is to become a well known Fancy Shawl dancer and travel to many powwows to compete. My brother Chaske does that. He is a Men’s Traditional dancer.

Traditional dances help to maintain American Indian cultural identity. The costumes have beautiful details.


sweat lodge – sauna med seremoniell og kulturell funksjon make fun of – gjøre narr av, erte

My friend has two half-sisters who are Indians from Red Lake, a reservation in northern Minnesota. People make fun of them on the reservation for looking white, and in the city people make fun of them for looking Indian. That’s just the way it is in America. We’ve still got a lot to learn.

3 The American way of life has changed Native American culture. How does American culture affect Norwegian culture? Discuss with a partner. Key words: film, music, TV, language, business, superpower

4 Change these adjectives into adverbs of manner. Example: soft – softly slow, sad, curious, confusing, bad, interesting mixed-race people – folk av blandet etnisk herkomst

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1 What happens at a powwow? 2 Life can be difficult for mixed-race people. Give an example from the text.

Crossroads 9A

It can be difficult living in two cultures because in some ways you want to believe in God the way the Christians see him. The other side of you just wants to smoke the pipe and go in the sweat lodge.


LANGUAGE CORNER Crossroads 9A

An adjective says something about a noun. Examples: noun

adj.

noun

adj.

The ball is blue

adj.

noun

I like sweet oranges.

The man is kind. 58

The USA

An adverb says something about a verb. Adverbs can give answers to questions starting when, where and how.

A very common type of adverb is the adverb of manner (how you do something). Most end in -ly. Examples: He ran quickly. I work thoroughly. She sang beautifully. Read more about adverbs on page 162 in Crossroads 9B.

verb adverb (where)

Examples: I ran to my office. verb

adverb (when)

I saw an eagle this morning.

TASK BANK 1 Patricia is afraid of flying. What are you afraid of? Tell your group. 2 How many US presidents have you heard of? Make a list with your partner.

3 How have American Indians been treated by the whites? Share examples in a group.

4 Last summer you went fishing in Alaska. One day you turned around and found yourself looking straight into the eyes of a grizzly bear. Write a couple of paragraphs about what happened next.


DIG INTO IT 4 Find out something about John F. and Jacqueline Kennedy. Use books or the Internet. Tell your partner. 5 Use a presentation tool to present the life and history of one of the following Indian tribes: Apache, Comanche, Sioux

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The USA

WORD QUEST abolish (v) [əˈbɒlɪʃ] avskaffe across (prep.) [əˈkrɒs] over actually (adv.) [ˈœktʃuəlı] egentlig advantage (s) [ɘdˈvɑːntıdʒ] fordel agree (v) [ɘˈgriː] her: bli enige aisle (s) [aıl] midtgang allow (v) [ɘˈlaʊ] tillate although (konj.) [ɔːlðəu] selv om altogether (adv.) [ˌɔːltɘˈgeðɘ] til sammen amazed (v) [ɘˈmeızd] forbløffet ancestors (s) [ˈœnsestəs] forfedre ancient (adj.) [ˈeınʃnt] veldig gammel approximately (adv.) [əˈprɒksımətlı] circa arctic (adj.) [ˈaːktık] arktisk arrive (v) [əˈraıv] ankomme

Crossroads 9A

1 How big and how old can giant redwood trees get? Find out and tell the class. 2 Anne Stine and Helge Ingstad found the remains of a Norse settlement in America. How did they discover it? Search for information on the Internet. Make a poster. 3 Look at the map on page 18–19. Pick one state and find information about it.

baseball pitch (s) [ˈbeısbɔːl pıtʃ] baseballbane bench (s) [benʃ] benk blizzard (s) [ˈblızɘd] snøstorm board (v) [bɔːd] her: gå om bord boarding school (s) [bɔːdıŋ skuːl] internatskole borough (s) [ˈbʌrɘ] bydel botany (s) [ˈbɒtni] plantelære breed (s) [briːd] rase brief (adj.) [briːf] kort brim (s) [brım] (hatte)brem


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calm (adj.) [kɑːm] rolig capture (v) [ˈkœptʃɘ] fange caribou (s) [ˈkœrɪbuː] nordamerikansk villrein carry (v) [ˈkœri] her: ha med seg carry out (v) [ˈkœri aʊt] utføre cartoon (s) [kaːˈtuːn] tegneserie catchphrase (s) [ˈkœtʃfreız] slagord cattle (s) [ˈkœtl] kveg cause (v) [kɔːz] forårsake celebrate (v) [ˈsɛlibreit] feire cinnamon (s) [ˈsınəmən] kanel civil war (s) [ˈsıvl wɔː] borgerkrig civilian (s) [sıˈvıliən] sivilperson climate (s) [ˈklaımət] klima community [kɘˈmjuːnɘti] her: lokalsamfunn, område Constitution (s) [ˌkɒnstıˈtjuːʃn] grunnlov corn (s) [kɔːn] mais Creator (s) [kriˈeıtɘ] skaper, Gud crime rate (s) [kraım reıt] hvor mye kriminalitet det er crowd (s) [kraʊd] folkemengde D.C. [diːsiː] District of Columbia day care centre (s) [deı keɘ ˈsentɘ] barnehage/-park Declaration of Independence (s) [dɛkləˈreiʃən əv indiˈpɛndns] uavhengighetserklæringen decline (s) [dıˈklaın] tilbakegang

decline (v) [dıˈklaın] takke nei deer (s) [dıɘ] rådyr delicious (adj.) [dıˈlıʃəs] deilig description (s) [dıˈskrıpʃn] beskrivelse desert (s) [ˈdezɘt] ørken different (adj.) [ˈdıfrənt] forskjellig disadvantage (s) [ˌdısədˈvɑːntıdʒ] ulempe discover (v) [disˈkʌvəʀ] oppdage disguised as [dısˈgaızd əz] kledd ut som dive (v) [daıv] stupe divide into [dıˈvaıd ıntɘ] dele inn i elect (v) [ıˈlekt] velge emergency (s) [ıˈmɜːdʒnsi] nødstilfelle escalator (s) [ˈeskɘleıtɘ] rulletrapp exit (s) [ˈeksıt] utgang face (v) [feıs] her: være vendt mot Fancy Shawl dancer (s) [ˈfœnsi ʃɔːl ˈdɑːnsɘ] kvinnelig urfolkdanser av en type Powwowdans feast (v) [fiːst] feste fight – fought (v) [faıt – fɔːt] kjempe fight off [faıt ɒf] kjempe mot og vinne over finally (adv.) [ˈfaınli] til slutt firearms (s) [ˈfaıɘrɑːms] våpen flight (s) [flaıt] flygning flood (s) [flʌd] oversvømmelse form (s) [fɔːm] skjema funeral (s) [ˈfjuːnərəl] begravelse gigantic (adj.) [dɜaıˈgœntık] kjempestor


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leather (s) [ˈleðə] skinn less (adv.) [les] mindre loaded with [ləʊdıd wıð] lastet med loo (s) (uformelt) [luː] toalett lose touch with [luːs ˈtʌtʃ wɪð] miste kontakt med major (adj.) [ˈmeıdʒɘ] her: viktigst make fun of [meık fʌn ɒv] gjøre narr av, erte map (v) [mœp] her: kartlegge marsh (s) [mɑːʃ] myr match (v) [mœtʃ] sette sammen noe som passer measurement (s) [ˈmeʒɘmɘnt] mål minority (s) [maıˈnɒrəti] mindretall mountain range (s) [ˈmaʊntɪn reɪndɜ] fjellkjede multicultural (adj.) [ˌmʌltiˈkʌltʃrl] flerkulturell multi-ethnic (adj.) [ˌmʌltɪ ˈeɵnɪk] flerkulturell Native American (s) [ˈneıtıv əˈmerıkən] indianer navigator (s) [ˈnœvıgeıtɘ] sjøfarer negotiate (v) [nıˈgəʊʃieıt] forhandle neighbourhood (s) [ˈneıbəhʊd] nabolag nickname (s) [ˈnıkneım] kallenavn observatory (s) [əbˈzɜːvətri] her: utsiktsrom odd one out [ɒd wʌn aʊt] som skiller seg ut off the reservation [ɒf ðə ˌrezəˈveıʃn] utenfor indianerreservatet

Crossroads 9A

give – gave birth to (v) [gıv – geıv bɜːɵ tə] føde go hiking [gɘʊ haıkıŋ] dra på fottur grab (v) [grœb] slå kloa i, gripe tak i gradually (adv.) [ˈgrœdʒuəli] gradvis grow – grown (v) [grəu – grəun] dyrke harbour (s) [ˈhaːbəʀ] havn harvest (s) [ˈhɑːvɪst] innhøsting hawk (s) [hɔːk] hauk Head of State (s) [hed ɘv steıt] statsoverhode healh care (s) [hɛlɵ kɛəʀ] helsehjelp high-heeled boots (s) [ˌhaıˈhiːld buːts] høyhælte støvler hopefully (adv.) [ˈhəʊpfli] forhåpentligvis housing (s) [haʊzıŋ] her: boforhold however (konj.) [hauˈɛvəʀ] imidlertid hurricane (s) [ˈhʌrıkən] orkan immigrate (v) [ˈımıgreıt] innvandre in danger of [ın ˈdeındʒər əv] i fare for å independent (adj.) [ˌındıˈpendɘnt] uavhengig inherit (v) [inˈhɛrit] arve Inuit (s) [ˈınuıt] inuitt in use [in ˈjuːs] i bruk invent (v) [ınˈvent] finne opp, dikte opp journey (s) [ˈdʒəːni] reise keep an eye on [kiːp ən aı ɒn] holde øye med L.A. (s) [el eı, lɒsˈœndʒɪliːz] Los Angeles land (v) [lœnd] gå i land landmark (s) [ˈlœnmɑːk] landemerke


Crossroads 9A 62

The USA

opposite [ˈɒpəzıt] motsatt origin (s) [ˈɒrıdʒın] opprinnelse otherwise (adv.) [ˈʌðəwaız] ellers Pacific Ocean (s) [pəˈsıfık ˈəʊʃn] Stillehavet packed (adj.) [pœkt] her: helt fullt panini (s) [ˈpɑːnıni] italiensk brød paw print (s) [pɔː prınt] fotspor (dyr) plains (s) [pleınz] prærie pleasant (adj.) [ˈpleznt] behagelig policy (s) [ˈpɔlisi] politikk population (s) [ˌpɒpjəˈleıʃn] befolkning powwow (s) [paʊaʊ] seremoni hos indianere pray (v) [prei] be prefer (v) [prıˈfɜː] foretrekke prove (v) [pruːv] bevise proverb (s) [ˈprɔvəːb] ordtak punish (v) [ˈpʌnıʃ] straffe purpose (s) [ˈpɜːpɘs] formål put an end to [pʊt ən end tə] gjøre slutt på quite similar [kwaıt ˈsımılə] nokså lik rafter (s) [ˈrɑːftə] en som driver med rafting really (adv.) [ˈrıəli] egentlig reduce (v) [rıˈdjuːs] sette ned re-elect (v) [ˌriː ɪˈlekt] gjenvelge relatively (adv.) [ˈrelətıvli] relativt relax (v) [rıˈlœks] slappe av religious refugee [rıˈlidʒəs ˌrefjuˈdʒiː] religiøs flyktning roast duck (s) [rəʊst dʌk] stekt and rough neighbourhood [rʌf ˈneıbəhʊd] farlig

nabolag rounded them up [raʊndıd ðəm ʌp] drev dem sammen say (v) [seı] her: si meg scarf (s) [skɑːf] tørkle scat (s) [ˈskœt] avføring (bjørn) scenery (s) [ˈsiːnri] landskap, natur security checkpoint (s) [sıˈkjʊɘrɘti ˈtʃekpɔınt] sikkerhetskontroll separate (v) [ˈsepɘreıt] her: skille serve (adj.) [sɜːv] servere set off (v) [set ˈɒf] dra av gårde settle (v) [sɛtl] bosette seg settlement (s) [ˈsetlmənt] bosetning settler (s) [ˈsetlə] kolonist, nybygger several (pron.) [ˈsɛvrəl] flere shortly (adv.) [ʃɔːtli] om kort tid sign (v) [saın] undertegne six-shooter (s) [ˈsıksˌʃuːtə] kallenavn på revolver (med seks skudd) skating rink (s) [skeıtıŋ rıŋk] skøytebane skiing resort (s) [skiːŋ ˌriːˈsɔːt] skisted spot (v) [spɒt] få øye på stampede (s) [stœmˈpiːd] vill flukt stand (v) [stœnd] her: tåle state matters [steıt ˈmœtəz] saker som angår enkeltstater Statue of Liberty (s) [ˈstœtʃuː ɘv ˈlıbɘti] Frihetsgudinnen Stetson hat (s) [ˈstetsn hœt] cowboyhatt


vast (adj.) [vɑːst] enorm wear – wore (v) [weə – wɔːʀ] ha på seg weather conditions (s) [ˈweðɘ kɘnˈdıʃnz] værforhold weather forecast (s) [ˈwedə ˌfɔːkɑːst] værmelding wetland area (s) [ˈwetlɘnd ˈeɘriɘ] våtmark wheat (s) [wiːt] hvete you are not allowed to [ju ə nɒt əˈlaʊd tə] du har ikke lov til å

Crossroads 9A 63

The USA

stewardess (s) [ˈstjuːɘdıs] flyvertinne still (adv.) [stil] fortsatt stirrups (s) [ˈstɪrəps] stigbøyler stretch (v) [stretʃ] strekke seg strong ties to [strɒŋ taız tə] sterke bånd til suddenly (adv.) [ˈsʌdnli] plutselig survive (v) [səˈvaıv] overleve survive in the wild [səˈvaıv ın ðə waıld] overleve i villmarken swamp (s) [swɒmp] våtmark sweat lodge (s) [ˈswet lɒdʒ] sauna med seremoniell og kulturell funksjon take part in [teık pɑːt ın] ta del i tax (s) [tœks] skatt teach – taught (v) [tiːtʃ – tɔːt] lære bort tennis court (s) [ˈtenıs kɔːt] tennisbane the Atlantic (s) [ði ətˈlœntık] Atlanterhavet throw – threw (v) [ɵrəʊ – ɵruː] kaste tortellini (s) [ˌtɔːtlˈiːni] liten fylt pasta tourist attraction (s) [ˈtʊərıst əˈtrœkʃn] turistattraksjon track (s) [trœk] dyrespor, jernbanespor treat (v) [triːt] behandle tribal culture [ˈtraıbl ˈkʌltʃə] stammekultur tribe (s) [traıb] stamme tropical (adj.) [ˈtrɒpıkl] tropisk unemployment (s) [ˌʌnımˈplɔımɘnt] arbeidsledighet unexpected (adj.) [ˌʌnıkˈspektıd] uventet valid (adj.) [ˈvœlıd] gyldig


Crossroads 9A

64

The USA


Crossroads 9A 65

The USA


BM

• Spennende temaer

• Virkelige møter med mennesker i den engelsktalende verden

Halvor Heger Nina Wroldsen Lindis Hallan

Dette er Crossroads:

• Leseglede og fengende tekster • Grammatikk

• Lyd tatt på alvor Crossroads er et læreverk i engelsk for 8.–10. trinn med følgende komponenter: Elevbok A og B, lydmateriell (CD-er), lærerveiledning og nettressurs. Elevbok A finnes også i digital og lettlest utgave. Crossroads er utviklet etter Læreplanverket for Kunnskapsløftet 2006 og etter justert fagplan i engelsk 2013. Møt menneskene, opplev kulturen og lær språket!

Crossroads

• Et mylder av oppgaver

9|A |A Lettlest www.fagbokforlaget.no ISBN 978-82-11-01549-5

,!7II2B1-abfejf!

Halvor Heger Nina Wroldsen Lindis Hallan

Crossroads 9|A Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet • Lettlest

Crossroads 9a lettlest utdrag  
Crossroads 9a lettlest utdrag