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Contents ISSN-0835-605X September • 2008 Vol. 21 No. 4 Issued September 2008
ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.
FEATURES 7 10 12 14 16 18 22 24 28 34 36 38 42 46 50 52 54 55 56 58 60 68 73 76 78 82
Horror stories of past obscured by romantic images of rustic living - Editorial comment by Tom Davey Stormwater bypass and treatment project protects sensitive cold water stream – Cover story Alberta company develops novel wastewater treatment system Moncton undertakes major new water supply project Innovative culvert reline project protects Québec’s Mount Orford National Park Japan’s wastewater systems tailored to its unique requirements The greatest value of forests is sustainable water supply Energy self-sufficiency for Toronto’s Exhibition Place An overview of Legionella analyses An alternative flowmeter for wastewater treatment A natural water supply solution – catching rain in Guatemala Federal government unveils its climate change action plan Sludge pelletization plant continues to perform well 13 years after startup Upflow sludge blanket filtration used at BC ski resort Evaporators increasingly used for zero liquid discharge facilities BCWWA annual conference sets attendance record Windy City to host WEFTEC 2008 Charlottetown to host 61st Atlantic Canada Water Works Association’s annual conference Assessing arsenic treatment residuals in drinking water Project recovers wasted energy from mill wastes Remediating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents Over 17,000 vortex valves now control stormwater detention system flows Decanter centrifuges used for industrial wastewater treatment DEPARTMENTS Mining industry adopting new wastewater treatment processes Improving EHS performance through integrated management systems Product Showcase . . . . . 84-89 Improved clarifier operation by eliminating sludge dilution Environmental News . . . 90-98 Professional Cards . . . . . 90-96 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5 | September 2008
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Comment by Tom Davey
Horror stories of past obscured by romantic images of rustic living cience, chemistry, and engineering were the cutting edges of the Industrial Revolution which was initially undeniably brutal. Child labour, worker exploitation, dangerous working conditions, and environmental degradation were all part of this revolution which reshaped our world forever. Twelve-year old boys went down coal mines, while the girls went into cotton factories, working 12 hour days. Charles Dickens brilliantly captured urban squalor in his fiction, written in the 1800s. Social scientist Peter F. Drucker, in a 1994 essay: “The Age of Social Transformation” noted that, while industrial workers were indeed poorly paid at first, they were still paid better than most farm or household labourers. Moreover, factory workers worked specified hours, unlike servants and farmhands who were often kept working at the whim of employers. Drucker noted that infant mortality rates dropped immediately when farmers and domestic servants moved into factory work even though many toiled amid toxic air or dust. It should be added that technology led directly to the emancipation of women as knowledge and intellectual skills increasingly displaced brute muscle power in the industrial marketplace. Ultimately, the development of a skilled working class, along with the wealth generated by mass production, freed a longabused rural class from centuries of misery and deprivation. The development of canals, roads, ships, railways, and planes increasingly slashed the costs of food, goods, and services in economies previously serviced by packhorses and camels. To the economies of scale were added the economies of scope, as advances in transportation technol-
The Leeds & Liverpool Canal is shown passing by Wigan Pier in the early to mid 1900s. Cotton mills are seen in the background.
ogy rivaled that of manufacturing. A packhorse carrying cotton goods from Yorkshire to Liverpool could only haul about 60 kilograms as it wound along Lancashire’s hilly terrain. The same horse pulling a canal barge could move several tonnes directly into the great port. Indeed, it was a canal that converted Manchester from an inland city, into a port with a global reach. The barges later brought back foods from around the world to feed the factory workers, completing a cycle in the revolution that was to encircle the world. Fifty percent of Britain’s economic growth following the Industrial Revolution was due to better nutrition, according to economist and Nobel laureate Robert Fogel. But nutrition alone does not always lead to better health. Crowded slums around the factories led to lethal outbreaks of disease until the development of sanitary engineering drastically improved public health. Many diseases, which tragically are still endemic in the Third World, are now found only in the history books of modern societies, a direct benefit of the Industrial Revolution. Perhaps the biggest benefit is the one most overlooked: that
democracy usually displaces despotism when citizen empowerment replaces feudal systems. The dynamic that gave the workers manufacturing skills also gave them political power. Drucker noted pointedly that the three most destructive people of the age – Hitler, Stalin and Mao – produced little in their lifetimes except chaos. Despite technology’s sterling record of producing wealth, food and longer life expectations, technology is often contemptuously abused by ill-informed critics. To these people, the works of the remarkable Frenchman, Fernand Braudel, should be required reading. Conventional history tells us much about Pharaohs, Caesars, Kings and Queens but surprisingly little about the lives of average people. However, in his Structures of Everyday Life, the French historian rectified this vacuum by showing how ordinary people lived and worked over the ages. Braudel wove an intricate tapestry from historical facts, which dispels many of the romantic illusions that some environmentalists have of pre-industrial society. He ignored the more regal focus of his literary contemporaries and recontinued overleaf... 7 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).
Comment by Tom Davey searched births, marriages, and life expectancies in society at large. He also examined energy sources and uses, economics, social change, and urbanization – areas commonly neglected by many orthodox historians. Some ecologists and environmentalists have emotionally linked acid rain with William Blake’s “Satanic Mills” and some regard all industry and technology negatively. They would undoubtedly be shocked by Braudel’s findings. In pre-industrial societies, millions laboured in appalling conditions so that a few might live in luxury. Even at the turn of the 19th century it was said that Britain was heaven for 30,000 people but a living hell for millions. However, to read Braudel is to reveal that even the rich in the middle ages lived in conditions that would disgust modern Canadians. If the stench of the nobility’s houses centuries ago would nauseate us today, the hovels of the poor, by far the overwhelming majority, must have been unbearable. As Braudel so eloquently puts it, the world, prior to industrial development, was a brutal, disease-ridden, and hungry place for its inhabitants. Every human being born before the 20th century was actually lucky to have lived. Most babies simply
Tom Davey is the editor of Environmental Science & Engineering.
The Law of Business Wise words about the hazards of low bid ethos are not only not new, they have been emoted by legendary writers in the past. For example:
“When you pay too little, you sometimes lose everything because the thing you bought is incapable of doing the thing you bought it to do.”
“There is hardly anything in the world that someone cannot make a little worse and sell a little cheaper, and the people who consider price alone are that person’s lawful prey.”
“The common law of business balance prohibits paying a little and getting a lot…It can’t be done.”
“It is unwise to pay too much, but it is also unwise to pay too little.” “When you pay too much, you lose a little money, that is all.”
8 | September 2008
did not survive and those hardy ones who did, for the most part, had short lives punctuated by crippling diseases. Without contemporary science, there were no drugs to ease the pain, or machines to diagnose many medical conditions that can easily be treated today. The most comfortable inhabitants of those times were the fleas, lice, rats and other vermin which infested the houses of rich and poor alike. But some of our militant activists seem unaware that many less fortunate countries, lacking our technology, relentlessly continue a protracted and unequal battle with nature. Even more tragic is that most poverty-stricken people are politically powerless, unable to protest their miserable conditions. Unclean drinking water is said to have killed more people than all the wars of recorded history. Today, scientists and engineers in both the US and Canada are doing sterling service through Water for People. All donate their expertise to bring clean water to Third World villages without using complex treatment equipment.
“If you deal with the lowest bidder it is well to add something for the risk you run. And if you do that you will have enough to pay for something better.”
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Stormwater bypass and treatment project protects sensitive cold water stream
The main challenge was to design, install and commission a system that would handle flows ranging from 76 litres to 7,600 litres per minute.
quatech Dewatering was recently retained to intercept, bypass and filter exceedingly turbid stormwater passing through a large drainage ditch, which ran through an area under construction before entering a natural water course, located in the Greater Toronto Area. The main challenge was to design, install and commission a system that would handle flows ranging from 76 litres to 7,600 litres per minute (depending on weather conditions). Aquatech also had to design the filtration system to handle varying flows and water quality to ensure that discharges always met the stringent water quality guidelines of a natural creek deemed a “cold water fisheries habitat”. Another major challenge was to install this large system quickly on a site with very limited footprint.
needed equipment, without accessing the privately owned adjacent property. The private landowner granted access permission after being contacted by Aquatech’s staff. Then the general contractor immediately constructed an access road and a staging area. Once this work was completed, Aquatech started installing the pumping and filtration equipment. Working round the clock enabled startup of the pumping and treatment systems within a few days. Once started, the system was able to convey stormwater through the bypass pumping and filtration system as planned. After startup, numerous adjustments were made to accommodate higher rain event flows. Fine tuning the filtration system has continued to significantly improve water quality results to levels that now far exceed expectations and the stringent guidelines.
After startup, numerous adjustments were made to accommodate higher rain event flows. The system was designed quickly by Aquatech, but it was discovered that there was insufficient space to install the 10 | September 2008
This bypass and filtration system employs numerous fully automated electric and diesel powered pumps, gen-
Aquatech equipment used on-site included: • three 2” (gst 10) submersible pumps • one 3” (gsp 25) submersible pump • one 4” (gsp 80) submersible pump • four cd150 6” diesel silenced pumps • one cd103 4” diesel pump • five automatic float panels (a91) • one 26kw generator (ghp26kw-rc) • two 20kw generators (ghp20kw-rc) • two light towers (glt416) • two 18,000 gallon weir tanks • two 4-pod sand media filters • four pressurized micron filter canisters
erators, light towers, integral organic flocculent, weir tanks and micron filtration (sand media and pressurized micron filtration filters). It has been very successful and effective, lowering nephelometric turbidity units levels from 800 NTU to 2 NTU. These results were thought by many as being unattainable on this project, without the use of non-organic methods.
For more information, please E-mail khoa@AquaTD.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Alberta company develops novel wastewater treatment system By Jan Korzeniowski, M.Sc., P.Eng. n Alberta company has developed a new wastewater treatment system, which can be adapted to small, medium and large size plants. Aeration is accomplished by using a wastewater recirculation pump and a patented air aspirator-mixer. It largely takes place outside the biological reactor, although some aeration does take place inside it. Air blowers are not used. The air aspirator-mixer is a combination of a venturi type air aspirator and screw type mixers and is designed for long-term non-plugging operation and high oxygen transfer efficiency. It can handle fluctuating wastewater, air flow, mixing and oxygen transfer rates. To extend the life span of the device and for throat size flexibility, the venturi has a replaceable throat liner. Air supply to the bioreactor can be monitored and adjusted by controlling the air inlet to the air aspirator-mixer.
Aqueous Operational Services Inc. Aqueous Operational Services Inc. provides water and wastewater operational support services to customers throughout the Ontario region. Our specialty is the operation, troubleshooting, and start-up of wastewater treatment plants and small water supply systems in the industrial, commercial, institutional and public sectors. Due to our flexibility and expertise, Aqueous can generally provide contract services with lower overhead and administrative costs than the client can manage for themselves. Tel: 519 851- 8303 E-Mail: email@example.com
www.aqueousoperational.com 12 | September 2008
Access manholes to underground primary settling tank, aeration tank, clarifier and effuent tank. Internal components of the control panel.
The aeration system performs the following functions: • Wastewater aeration. • Sludge recirculation from the secondary clarifier to the bioreactor and transferring waste sludge back to the primary settling tank. • Wastewater recirculation from the bioreactor to an anoxic, or anaerobic tank. • Wastewater recirculation to the upper zone of the bioreactor as a supplemental organic carbon source for denitrification. A multi-functioning recirculation pump minimizes the number of pumping units required. The system is usually preceded by a primary settling tank. One aeration unit and one bioreactor are used in small plants. Two to three aeration units and dual bioreactors are preferred in medium size systems. A modular design, with several bioreactors and aeration units, is used in large systems. The aeration system and the bioreactor can operate in several different modes: • Continuous aeration and mixing. • Intermittent (cyclic) aeration, without mixing, between the aeration cycles. • Intermittent (cyclic) aeration and mixing between the aeration cycles.
Recirculation is done by a centrifugal wastewater effluent pump. Using the recirculation pump for sludge return and waste from the secondary clarifier eliminates the need for mechanical scrapers. This design also ensures a denser secondary sludge is returned to the bioreactor and to waste. This treatment system can operate as an activated sludge secondary treatment process. Or, it can operate as an activated sludge tertiary treatment process, with the bioreactor providing nitrification only, or nitrification and de-nitrification. Phosphorus removal can be accomplished within a cyclic aeration and mixing mode. The treatment process is controlled by a computer program which operates control valves. It receives inputs from flow, suspended solids, sludge depth, and oxygen level meters. The system is compact and easy to maintain, due to the location of the aeration system, outside the bioreactor. The air aspirator-mixer is fabricated, shop tested and supplied by J.K. Engineering Ltd. Two small, site-assembled systems are currently in operation. Jan Korzeniowski is with J.K. Engineering. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Moncton undertakes major water supply project oncton City Council has retained Touchie Engineering, a division of R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd, to provide design and construction services for the proposed Tower Road Dam and Reservoir in Turtle Creek, New Brunswick. Background and project history Raw water supply for the Cities of Moncton and Dieppe and the Town of Riverview is currently obtained from the Turtle Creek watershed, which has a catchment area of 170 km2. Previously, surface water supplies were obtained from the McLaughlin Road reservoir, on a tributary of Halls Creek. The existing Turtle Creek Reservoir was designed and constructed between 1963 and 1966, to act as the primary water supply source for the City of Moncton. Since 1963, 129km2, or 76 percent of the watershed draining to the Turtle Creek Reservoir, has been gauged by Environment Canada to measure the stream flow. As a result of very dry summers and falls in 1989 and 1994, the city experienced drought conditions. The reservoir did not fill until December 8, 1989 and January 15, 1995 respectively. As a result, gates were installed at the existing dam in 1996 and 1997 to raise the water level by 2.1 metres, thus providing an additional 1.8 million cubic metres of storage. In 2000, the city experienced another dry summer, and the drought conditions resulted in the reservoir not being filled until October 31, 2000. A very dry summer was once again experienced in 2001, with the reservoir not filling until March 1, 2002. The City wishes to ensure that an adequate supply of water is available to meet the current and future needs of the tri-communities. Proposed Tower Road dam From a comparison of the average and minimum stream flows, and the yield values in the watershed, there is a potential to increase the Turtle Creek watershed yield substantially by providing additional reservoir capacity to store runoff, which is now discharged over the existing spillway. A second dam is to be constructed at
14 | September 2008
The proposed Tower Road Dam will be developed similarly to the existing Turtle Creek Dam (pictured here) incorporating the earthen dam, reservoir, spillway, and bridge.
Tower Road, approximately 5 km upstream from the existing dam, near the existing roadway bridge. A total storage of 16.5 million cubic metres may be developed at this site. The proposed Tower Road Dam may be developed using a concept similar to the existing Turtle Creek Dam. Development is expected to be completed in two stages, by adding gates at a later date to increase the storage from an initial storage of 10.0 to 16.5 million cubic metres. Availability of funding, demand for water, and the final design of the reservoir and spillway will determine when the total available ultimate storage is developed. A pre-design report will determine the physical size and construction materials used for the construction of the
Diagram shows where the new reservoir will be installed, relative to the old reservoir.
dam, but it is anticipated that the main dam would be approximately 20 m in height, and extend 1.2 km along Tower Road. It would be constructed of either a homogeneous section of compacted impervious fill, or a central core of impervious fill with quarried rock or gravel upstream and downstream. An estimate of the equivalent population served from the watershed, from the existing and proposed reservoirs, has been developed based on the calculated yields. The equivalent population that could be served from the increased storage increases from 80,510 to 175,450 with the addition of the Tower Road Dam. Allowances for commercial, industrial, and institutional users have been included.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Water Supply A second catchment area provides additional reliability and security for a continuous supply of water to the Moncton Water Treatment Plant. If, for any reason, the existing dam, intake structure, tunnel, low lift pumping station, or forcemains to the treatment plant were out of service, or the existing reservoir became contaminated, there would be no means of maintaining an adequate water supply to the Moncton Water Treatment Plant. A future pumping station and forcemain from the proposed Tower Road Dam to the water treatment plant would provide a second supply line. Schedule Collection of data and site surveys will commence immediately. The predesign report is scheduled to be completed in early 2009. A project web site will be maintained throughout the design and construction phases. Public information sessions will be held on completion of the pre-design report. Detailed design will be completed by the summer of 2009, and it is expected construction will commence in the spring of 2010. Construction on the current scope of work is expected to be completed by the summer of 2012. Cost estimates Cost estimates for the proposed project were presented to the City of Moncton in 2002. It was estimated in April 2002, that for Tower Road Dam, pumping station, and gates for additional storage, costs would be approximately $18.5 million dollars. Land acquisition (an ongoing program by the city), legal surveys and legal costs were not included in those estimates. With the busy state of the construction market, and the understanding that the construction of the project would begin in the spring of 2010, it is anticipated that the costs for construction of the dam, spillway, and reservoir would be approximately $19-20 million dollars. Construction of the future pumping station, forcemain and gates would be $6-8 million dollars.
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15 | September 2008
Culvert reline at Mount Orford National Park he innovation and ingenuity that is exhibited by some of Québec’s highway and bridge engineers and contractors is as refreshing as the waters that tumble from the pristine parklands of Mount Orford National Park. The stream under Ministry of Transportation (MTQ) Route 220 in Québec’s Eastern Townships passes through a large culvert. The culvert that had already been extended once was now approaching the end of its design service life. It needed to be replaced or rehabilitated. With eight metres of fill over the existing culvert and an environmentally astute and involved local community, non-obtrusive rehabilitation was the most obvious choice. A major challenge that MTQ designers faced was maintaining sufficient end area in the new liner to carry the mountain runoff. The original culvert with 5.7 metre span by 3.3 metre rise was 41 me-
by David J. Penny
Challenges of eight metres of cover and a flowing stream. Inlet end of completed reline. 2800 mm diameter corrugated steel pipe liner in place showing capped grout fittings.
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16 | September 2008
tres long and situated under the highest cover. It had been extended on both ends at some point in time with 8 and 9 metre lengths of 2970 mm diameter round pipe. It was calculated that a corrugated steel pipe (CSP) with a 2800 mm inside diameter, a length of 58 metres and 125 x 25 mm corrugations could be slipped inside, carry the flow and maintain barrel velocities that the natural fish population could navigate. Madame Dany Lambert, owner and engineer of the highway and bridge contractor, Lambert & Grenier Inc., met with representatives of CSPI to discuss the project. Relining construction methods, tips and challenges that have been learned from many years of experience were reviewed. Like so many relining projects it became clear that this one had unique challenges that would require creative new solutions from the contractor. The relatively large “inner chamber” would require large amounts of grout to
fill the void between the host pipe and liner pipe. This introduced challenges for grout delivery as well as increased risks for excessive pressure, floatation, liner shifting and venting. The small entrance and exit portals were only 70 mm larger than the new liner pipe. This left little room for error and the inverts of the two host pipes were not fully aligned with one another. To add excitement, the fast-flowing stream could not be stopped or diverted. Generally operations would be carried out in wet conditions with the risk of flooding from mountain storms always a factor. The pipe insertion took 18 hours and the grouting was completed a little faster than planned in just three days, in advance of an approaching summer rainstorm. The project was completed in 20 days. David Penny is with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute. E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater & Globalization
Japan’s wastewater systems tailored to its By David Theobald and Toshiro Otowa unique requirements enjamin Franklin famously listed death and taxes as the only two certainties in life. He could have mentioned two others: wastewater and globalization. We should go easy on Franklin for failing to foresee the inevitability of our current economic reality. However, it is puzzling to understand why the man credited with inventing the flexible catheter missed the fact that humans will certainly produce waste. It remains to be seen whether globalization is an ultimate good. However, it is undeniable that one of the benefits of heightened global connectedness is what former Bank of Japan governor Toshihiko Fukui called the “international spillover of knowledge.” Along these lines, celebrated executive Jack Welch once remarked that globalization changed General Electric into a company that “searches the world, not just to sell or to source, but to find intellectual capital – the world’s best talents and greatest ideas.” One of the world’s greatest ideas is the Japanese solution to the ubiquitous challenge of wastewater treatment. Japan has plenty of reasons to protect its environment through proper wastewater management. Among these is the fact that the island’s 30,000 km of coastline harbours one of the world’s largest commercial fishing fleets, which hauls in nearly 15% of the world’s catch. It has long been recognized that untreated waste contains numerous organic pollutants and leads to the eutrophication of water bodies – a condition that has deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. The challenge of environmental protection through wastewater treatment is compounded by Japan’s significant space limitations. In fact, if all the people in Canada lived in Newfoundland, Japan’s population density would still be greater. Two-thirds of the population lives in densely inhabited districts (DIDs) - defined as those regions having more than 4,000 persons per square kilometer. Thus, there is no space for additional treatment through soil absorption. Furthermore, the high cost of infrastructure and mountain-
18 | September 2008
A contractor prepares to attach access risers to the first Jokaso installed in North America.
ous topography limit the fast expansion of traditional sewers in Japan. These challenges would require the solution to be a sophisticated and compact treatment unit allowing surface discharge. The solution was the Japanese Jokaso (pronounced “Joe-ka-so”). This article chronicles the history of the Jokaso in Japan, describes its treatment process and performance, and announces the advent of this technology to the North American market. Jokaso history Modern sewerage systems were first constructed in Japan during the Meiji Restoration Era (1868-1912). Borrowing European technology, the Japanese laid pipes that carried only storm drainage and greywater. Human excrement, which historically had been separated in vault toilets and used as agricultural fertilizer, was excluded from this primitive sewer. In the early 20th century, new sanitation laws banned the flushing of excreta into ditches and other public water bodies. Instead, the waste was to be treated in a government approved tank. A precursor to the modern Jokaso, the unit served as combination septic tank/trickling filter and was dubbed a “filth treatment tank.” The term “Jokaso,” which is literally
translated “purification tank,” first appeared in the 1944 Standards for Building Site Sanitation Facilities. The Jokaso’s modern history began in the wake of World War II. The rapid industrialization of Japan during this period resulted in cities densely populated with residents seeking modern Western amenities, such as flush toilets. In areas not served by sewers, the tandoku-shori Jokaso was developed to handle the blackwater generated by these flush toilets. Since “tandoku” means exclusive and “shori” means treatment, the terminology itself testifies to the fact that the early Jokaso was only capable of treating the waste generated from toilets. Other domestic waste, discharged directly as untreated greywater, was soon recognized to significantly contribute to the pollution of public water bodies. In the 1970s, Japanese researchers Masayasu Kusumoto, Takane Kitao, and others developed the small scale gappei-shori Jokaso. This was a “combination” treatment tank, capable of treating the full range of domestic wastewater. With this development, the Jokaso system began to spread rapidly throughout the country. It soon became evident that the proper
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater & Globalization manufacture, installation, and maintenance of Jokaso systems had to be established through standardization and regulation. To this end, the “Jokaso Law” was established in 1983. The law is a government initiative that qualifies and registers Jokaso manufacturers and operators and establishes construction, performance, and maintenance standards. In 2000 and 2001, Japan’s Ministry of the Environment made important revisions to the Jokaso Law. One change outlawed the installation of primitive tandoku-shori systems, rendering the term “Jokaso” synonymous with the gappeishori style. Another revision elevated the importance of performance standards over structural standards. This change led to the proliferation of unique Jokaso designs such as compact models and those optimized for the removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. In 2006, the Ministry of the Environment reported that nearly 11 million people were served by Jokaso technology in Japan. In other words, in unsewered areas of the country, this effective treatment system is relied upon almost exclusively. Thus, the technology is well established, regulated, documented, and proven. Treatment process In Japan, over 50 manufacturers produce hundreds of different Jokaso models. Though these models differ greatly in terms of size and treatment capability, they all share a common basic structure. The country’s most prolific Jokaso manufacturer is Fuji Clean Co., Ltd. The company possessed a share of over
a quarter of the country’s Jokaso market in 2007. Fuji Clean’s CS series Jokaso serves as an example of a standard residential treatment unit. The unit is a fiber-reinforced plastic tank and contains four functional chambers. The first compartment is a sedimentation chamber wherein the raw wastewater settles into distinct sludge and scum layers under anaerobic conditions. The relatively clear effluent flows through twin baffles into the next chamber. This second chamber is the largest in the unit, providing residence time for the slow process of anaerobic biodegradation. In contrast to a standard septic tank, the anaerobic treatment process in the Jokaso is enhanced with the use of filter media. Retained in the bottom half of the chamber, these media are designed to provide surface area optimized for biofilm development. The result is a biologically rich elevated sludge blanket through which the water flows and is treated. The water is baffled again as it flows into a third chamber, the site of aerobic treatment. Air, supplied by a linear compressor, travels through a perforated piping system and escapes into a column of smaller propylene media. These media are also designed for optimal biofilm formation. The action of the air constantly circulates the media in the top two-thirds of the chamber, creating a fluidized bed. Aerobic bacteria thrive in this rich, oxygenated environment, resulting in a high degree of treatment. Media in the chamber’s lower third
Vigorous aeration occurs in the Jokaso’s third chamber, resulting in a high quality effluent. www.esemag.com
remain stationary and filter suspended solids. The programmable compressor automatically backwashes the whole column of media for 5 or 10 minutes, one or two times each day and transfers residual solids back to the head of the system for further digestion. The fourth chamber stores the treated water awaiting discharge. In addition, an air lift pump (powered by the compressor) recirculates a specific amount of treated water into the head of the system for denitrification and flow equalization. Finally, the treated water is disinfected as it flows past a tablet chlorinator, before being discharged to a storm sewer or a nearby body of water. Treatment performance The fact that treated effluent empties directly into Japan’s public water bodies without resulting in contamination is a testimony to the high degree of treatment achieved by Jokaso technology. To verify that systems are performing properly, the Jokaso Law stipulates that newly constructed systems must submit to an annual performance analysis. Table 1 presents data obtained from all 46 provincial health departments in Japan, with reference to the performance of Fuji Clean’s CS Jokaso. Samples were collected from 34,739 different sites and underwent a thirdparty laboratory analysis to determine the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), a standard waste quality index. Collection and analysis protocol conformed to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These data are important for a number of reasons. First, the results are obtained from nearly 35,000 data points – a huge sample size that is surely representative. Second, the way the data are presented provides a picture of how secondary and tertiary treatment devices operate in the real world. Manufacturers of advanced treatment units in North America tend to publish “static” performance data. For example, we may read that a certain North American aerobic treatment unit (ATU) achieves 15 mg/L BOD5 and 10 mg/L TSS (total suspended solids). These published numbers are typically the average results given by a single continued overleaf... 19 | September 2008
Wastewater & Globalization Table 1
third party test. However, they are often published in such a way as to indicate that the ATU performs to that degree every single day in every single application. Without taking into consideration variables such as homeowner habits, climate, and influent characteristics, “static” performance presentations are simplistic and unrealistic at best and dishonest at worst. The Japanese present much more “dynamic” results. For example, the data in Table 1 indicate that at any given time,
20 | September 2008
67.3% of Fuji Clean’s CS units are treating wastewater to under 15mg/L BOD5. Of these, 10,666 units (nearly a third of the sample) achieved under 5 mg/L BOD5. These realistic results also demonstrate that, at any given time, 15% of the units sampled are not performing within the secondary standards of 30 mg/L BOD5. The primary reason for this is the variation in the influent waste stream – a factor with which all onsite systems in the world must contend. The right side of Table 1 shows Fuji
Clean’s own data for their CS units at 165 sites. It is clear that 165 units serve as a representative sample, since Fuji Clean’s results approximate those obtained by the local health departments. Most North Americans are slow to embrace a fact that the Japanese have long understood: Performance of onsite wastewater systems is directly proportional to the priority placed on regular system maintenance. Thus, in Japan, Jokaso are inspected every four months and undergo an annual desludging of the anaerobic chambers. Jokaso in North America Over the last few years, this Japanese wastewater technology has been introduced to the North America market, largely through the partnership and efforts of Fuji Clean, Ltd. and the Louisville, Kentucky-based Zoeller Pump Company. Branded the Fusion Series Wastewater Treatment Systems, Zoeller’s three Jokaso models (ZF-450, ZF-600, and ZF-800) are designed for the daily flow (in US gallons per day) designated by the model’s numerator. The Jokaso is distributed throughout much of northern and western Canada by Polywest Ltd.
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Wastewater & Globalization As well as enjoying NSF Standard 40, Class 1 certification, the Fusion units have received a number of individual state, county, and provincial approvals. Dozens of units are now installed throughout the continent, and data obtained from regular monitoring and sampling reveal performances consistent with the Japanese counterpart. To ensure optimum performance, the units are inspected and maintained at six-month intervals. The simple maintenance procedures can be performed in approximately 30 minutes, and a pump out is indicated only when the sludge reaches predetermined levels in the anaerobic chambers. Since direct discharge of treated effluent is uncommon in the United States and Canada, the Jokaso is typically used in conjunction with standard soil disposal methods, such as leaching chambers, shallow buried trenches, and low pressure pipe networks. Because of the high quality of the treated wastewater coming from the unit, many jurisdictions allow for drainfield size and vertical separation reductions. In addition, the effluent quality allows for alterna-
Cut-away schematic of Jokaso unit.
tive disposal methods, such as subsurface drip distribution. The recent spillover of Japanese wastewater treatment expertise into North America is one effect of globalization for which we ought to be thankful. In time, Jokaso technology will be recognized as a simple and reliable means of obtaining advanced wastewater treatment in the
United States and Canada. As Ben might have said, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inevitable. David Theobald is with Zoeller Pump Company. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Toshiro Otowa, Ph.D. is with Fuji Clean Co., Ltd. Contact: email@example.com
21 | September 2008
The greatest value of forests is sustainable water supply By David Stauth
he forests of the future may need to be managed as much for a sustainable supply of clean water as any other goal, researchers say in a new US federal report. Even so, forest resources will offer no “quick fix” to the insatiable, often conflicting demands for this precious resource. This new view of forests is evolving, scientists say, as both urban and agricultural demands for water continue to increase, and the role of clean water from forests becomes better understood as an “ecosystem service” of great value.
Preserving and managing forests may help sustain water supplies and water quality from headwaters in the future, but forest management is unlikely to increase water supplies, they conclude. “Historically, forest managers have not focused much of their attention on water, and water managers have not focused on forests,” said Julia Jones, a professor of geosciences at Oregon State University, and vice chair of a committee of the National Research Council, which released the report (dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/forest_hydrology_final.pdf) on the hydrologic ef-
fects of a changing forest landscape. “But today’s water problems demand that these groups work together closely.” The science of how forest management affects water quantity and quality, Jones said, has produced a solid foundation of principles. But forests in the United States are changing rapidly, and additional research may reveal ways to provide a sustainable flow of fresh, clean water. Among the findings of the report: • Forests cover about one-third of the US land area, and although they have roles in timber production, habitat, recreation and wilderness, their most Se Bo W e u ot EF s h T a # E t 27
22 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Ecosystems important output may be water. • Forests provide natural filtration and storage systems that process nearly twothirds of the water supply in the US. • Demand for water continues to rise due to population growth, while forest acreage is declining and remaining forest lands are threatened by climate change, disease epidemics, fire and global climate change. • Forest vegetation and soils, if healthy and intact, can benefit human water supplies by controlling water yield, peak flows, low flows, sediment levels, water chemistry and quality. • Increases in water yield after forest harvesting are transitory; they decrease over time as forests re-grow, and in the meantime water quality may be reduced. • Impervious surfaces such as roads and road drainage systems increase overland flow, deliver water directly to stream channels, and can increase surface erosion. • Forest chemicals, including those used to fight fire, can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems, especially if they are applied directly to water bodies or wet soil. • One of the biggest threats to forests, and the water that derives from them, is the permanent conversion of forested land to residential, industrial and commercial uses. The report also outlined a number of research needs for the future, especially to improve specific predictions about the implications of forest harvests, disturbances by fire, insects and disease, climate change, land development, and shifts in forest species composition. Modern forest practices have helped to protect streams and riparian zones, but more needs to be learned about the implications of such practices as thinning or partial cuts. Development of “best management” practices could help balance timber harvest with sustainable water flow and quality. Global warming, which affects timing and amount of snowmelt runoff, wildfires, and insect and disease outbreaks, is a huge variable. The study also cited the value of watershed councils and citizen groups in getting more people involved in water, stream and land management issues at a local level, increasing the opportuniwww.esemag.com
ties for all views to be considered, and conflicts avoided. Support for this project, which involved numerous representatives from academia and private industry in the U.S. and Canada, was provided by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. “Times have changed,” the authors wrote in the report. “Thirty years ago, no one would have imagined that clearcutting on public lands in the Pacific Northwest would come to a screeching halt; or that farmers would
give up water for endangered fish and birds; or that climate change would produce quantifiable changes in forest structure, species and water supplies.” Those changes demanded a new assessment of current conditions, an understanding of rising tensions, and an evaluation of future needs, the researchers said.
For more information, E-mail: David.Stauth@oregonstate.edu
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23 | September 2008
Energy self-sufficiency for Toronto’s Exhibition Place By Jack Simpson xhibition Place in Toronto enjoys a long and proud history. Consisting of 200 acres of parkland with a variety of modern and historical buildings owned by the City of Toronto, it hosts more than a hundred special events every year and, in the process, attracts some 4.5 million people. It is home to the Canadian National Exhibition, which has been running for 129 years and is the largest annual fair in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It also hosts such events as the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair and the Molson Indy car race, not to mention major trade and consumer shows. On the energy front, Toronto Hydro Energy Services (TH Energy) has worked with Exhibition Place on a number of significant firsts. Back in January 2003, the TH Energy wind turbine went into service on the grounds. The first grid-scale urban wind turbine in North America, it stands 92m tall and generates 1,050 MWh annually, which is equivalent to the electricity needs of over 200 homes. This wind turbine’s production capacity helps displace up to 380 tonnes of CO2 annually and provides a unique interactive, educational experience for thousands of Ontario school children groups each year. TH Energy designed and constructed this $1.8M project, which is jointly owned and operated with WindShare, a Toronto-based community investment co-operative. This high-efficiency wind turbine utilizes a direct-drive, variable pitch, variable speed design optimized for inland wind resources. The wind turbine is a beacon visible to the thousands of commuters traveling into downtown Toronto every day. The tri-generation system is another significant first at Exhibition Place. It is the first such system for a municipality anywhere in Canada and can serve as an energy model for other municipalities, businesses, industrial facilities, schools and hospitals where substantial thermal loads exist. Tri-generation, or tri-gen, involves integrating cooling, heating and power systems, utilizing multiple technologies,
24 | September 2008
Tri-generation, or tri-gen, involves integrating cooling, heating and power systems, utilizing multiple technologies.
in order to achieve greater energy efficiency. It is an economic way to improve energy efficiency, improve reliability, and decrease demand on an already heavily stressed electricity grid during peak times. TH Energy provided concept development, engineering design and construction management for the tri-gen system, delivering the system in under 12 months from project approval with an in-service date of July, 2007. System basics This is how it works. Tri-gen replaces or augments fuel-fired boilers and electric chillers, which are the most common systems in use today, for heating, domestic hot water, and cooling. With trigen, natural gas is utilized to produce both electrical energy and thermal energy, and it is the thermal energy that meets the heating and cooling needs. The system at Exhibition Place uses
a 1.6MW natural gas reciprocating engine to generate electricity and either space heating or space cooling for buildings at the east end of the grounds. With tri-gen, the engine’s electrical output displaces grid-supplied electricity and waste heat is recovered, either to drive a 220 ton absorption chiller during summer, or to augment hot water boilers during winter and shoulder seasons. In this way, Exhibition Place’s electrical load demand is reduced during periods of high electricity prices (generally 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. weekdays) by displacing some of the work done by the electric chillers. System dispatch is based on prevailing market electricity and natural gas pricing and coincident facility loads. Meeting the energy demands at a facility like Exhibition Place is no simple continued overleaf...
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Antique midway swing ride at the Canadian National Exhibition.
feat. Along with those 4.5 million visitors a year are individual venues ranging from 4,500 square feet to one million square feet, not to mention parking for 7,400 vehicles. It is a year-round facility and the energy needs are substantial because of the high air change volumes and large buildings. When announced in 2007, the tri-gen system at Exhibition Place established a benchmark in high-efficiency generation, exceeding 80 per cent overall efficiency, versus only 40 per cent with conventional systems. In the summer, trigen’s waste heat is transformed into cooling energy with an absorption chiller; in the winter, waste heat is used for space heating loads. This provides the tri-gen system’s high overall efficiency. In contrast, a conventional largescale, simple-cycle gas combustion turbine is approximately 40 per cent efficient, before distribution losses, which can account for an additional loss of 5 per cent. This translates into lower energy costs and greater energy security for distributed generation plants like trigen, which is located at the customer’s load. The cost of the project was $4.4M, with projected energy savings of $30 million over the 30-year life of the system. The simple payback is ten years, based upon projected market rates for electricity and natural gas. An additional benefit of the tri-gen system is the annual greenhouse gas savings of 7,400 tonnes of CO2. How much is that? It’s the equivalent of taking almost 1,500 cars off the roads every year. 26 | September 2008
Lessons learned We have learned some important lessons at Exhibition Place in commissioning, weather resiliency and chiller operation. The first is that the commissioning of a system takes longer than planned in retrofit construction, up to six months, in order to ensure that all controls are harmonized and coordinated with the various systems involved. This is because existing systems need to be integrated with the new tri-gen system to efficiently transfer heat energy. Commissioning through both summer and winter seasons has further optimized the system and corrective measures for existing valves, instrumentation, control software and metering have been completed. The system’s weather resiliency was tested this past winter with the very heavy snowfall in Toronto. Small features and details make a difference; for example, we have installed a snow shield above the system’s remote heat radiator, to better protect against snow sliding off adjacent structures. Another lesson is that system training should be ongoing because of natural staff turnover and communication of any system operating protocols or upgrades. We have also revised the control algorithm for the new absorption chiller, valves and pumping to provide more stable operation as the absorption chiller will shut itself off to protect itself from solution freeze if wide load variations are experienced. Market optimization Projects like this are subject to market conditions, specifically the spark
gap between prevailing gas and electricity prices. The tri-gen’s first year of operation faced fairly low electricity prices with the Hourly Ontario Electricity Price (HOEP) averaging $56/MWh on-peak. Natural gas was stable and prices averaged $9/GJ at burner tip through the same period. This has provided lower savings than anticipated. Two new market opportunities are arriving to improve the economic picture for Exhibition Place. This tri-gen system is designed to accommodate either Demand Response 3 (DR3) or Clean Energy Standard Offer Program (CESOP). Both DR3 and CESOP are capacity building initiatives from the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) to support the electricity grid. OPA announced these two initiatives to encourage the business sector and institutions to invest in distributed generation electricity projects. CESOP is limited to project capacity of 10 MW or less, reduces barriers to small generators who generate power using clean fossil fuels or under-utilized energy streams. It supports small, cleanenergy generating alternatives including heat, power and electricity generated as a by-product of another process. Tri-gen qualifies as an embedded, behind the meter generator, with all requisite approvals obtained. CESOP provides a premium payment above market electricity prices for eligible, small cogeneration projects. DR3 provides a capacity payment to be “available” for load curtailment or peak-shaving during 1600 peak hours per year. In addition, a utilization payment is provided when capacity is actually dispatched, which is expected to average only 100 or 200 hours within that 1600 hour annual window. It is expected that DR3 will provide the best match, given the event-driven operation of the Exhibition Place site. Without question, tri-gen is a technology that is of great benefit now, and will be of even greater benefit in the future. It contributes to Exhibition Place’s security and energy self-sufficiency, and is environmentally friendly and environmentally sustainable. Jack Simpson is the Vice President of Generation, Toronto Hydro Energy Services
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An overview of Legionella analyses he first recognized outbreak of Legionnnairesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Disease occurred in the US at the American Legion Convention in Philadelphia during the summer of 1976. There were several hundred people who were stricken; thirty four people died from the disease. As a result of the efforts of the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), this was the first time the bacteria were cultured and identified. Earlier outbreaks of the disease went undiagnosed. Since that time, there have been many identified outbreaks, prompting professional organizations and health departments worldwide to implement guidelines for diagnosing and reporting the disease, and monitoring the organism. Transmission and epidemiology Ubiquitous in all aquatic environments, Legionella bacteria are found in groundwater as well as fresh and marine surface waters. The bacteria enter our plumbing systems, whirlpool spas, and cooling towers via these water sources.
28 | September 2008
Unless control measures are conducted properly and routinely, the biofilm, scale, and corrosion that builds up over time in these systems will protect the organism and allow it to multiply. Contaminated aerosolized water from cooling towers, whirlpool baths, nebulizers, faucets, and showerheads becomes airborne. When a susceptible host inhales the contaminated aerosol, legionellosis can occur. It can cause a severe form of pneumonia (Legionnairesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Disease), often accompanied by serious long-term health effects, or the mild flulike illness called Pontiac Fever. Other infected organs, and asymptomatic infections may occur. Risk factors include age, gender, compromised immune systems, and pre-existing medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and diabetes. Men over 50 years of age who are heavy smokers and drinkers are at greatest risk. However, there have been cases of the disease in healthy, younger people. Premature, immuno-compro-
By Diane Miskowski mised, or ventilated neonates are also at risk from hospital acquired infection. For these reasons, many health departments have guidelines that recommend routine monitoring of Legionella in critical care hospitals and nursing home facilities. Although the disease is under-reported, travel (cruise ships), hotel, and resort related outbreaks are reported each year. These are mostly associated with the use of whirlpool spas. While community-acquired outbreaks involving cooling towers and whirlpool spas receive the most media attention, studies indicate that potable water sources account for most of the infections. Choosing sampling methods Proper methods for collecting and analyzing samples are necessary to ensure defensible results. Since the bacteria in water are present in very low levels, 1000 ml potable water samples are recommended by the CDC. This sample size allows for the bacteria in the water to be concentrated, providing a more sensitive detection and quantita-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Public Health tion limit. Many professional guidelines recommend semi-annual sampling for potable water sources. In non-potable water sources such as cooling tower water, a 250 ml sample size is sufficient. Professional guidelines suggest these sources be monitored quarterly. Sampling should be conducted in a way that maximizes recovery of the organism and mimics the route of exposure. Legionella samples should be collected wherever water aerosolization may occur. Sampling aerosolized water alone, however, will likely miss the real source of the organism. This source is the biofilm or slime that is often found in our plumbing systems, cooling towers, and whirlpool baths. Biofilm consists of other bacteria, blue-green algae, amoeba, and protozoans. Biofilm protects Legionella from direct exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, desiccation, and the chemicals used to control its growth. In addition, the Legionella bacteria are ingested by the protozoans and amoeba and will continue to multiply inside these organ-
Outbreaks of Legionellosis on cruise ships are reported each year.
isms. Once these organisms die, large numbers of Legionella bacteria will be released into the surrounding environment. Because biofilm protects the organism and enhances Legionella multiplication, incorporating swabs in your sampling protocol is very important. Very often, biofilm swab samples
demonstrate the presence of Legionella undetected by water sampling alone. While collecting air samples for Legionella mimics the route of exposure, it is generally not recommended for routine monitoring purposes. Legionella are unlikely to survive the exposure to UV light and dessication for long pericontinued overleaf...
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Legionella bacteria can enter whirlpool spas.
ods of time. During air sampling, the bacteria will likely be killed from the impaction of the bacterial cells on the collection media. When taking samples, a high efficiency particulate respirator, safety glasses, and gloves should be worn.
Take care not to generate any aerosols when collecting the samples. Only sterile, appropriately preserved bottles and swabs obtained from your lab should be used. Potable water bottles should be preserved with sodium thiosulfate to neutralize chlorine in the water sample.
After collecting a water sample, be sure to leave an air space in the bottle. Since Legionella require oxygen for their survival, an air space in the bottle will ensure that aerobic conditions are maintained during shipment to the lab. Samples should be packed and shipped to minimize the multiplication of non-legionella bacteria. Since Legionella remain viable at low temperatures, using an insulated cooler with freezer packs is recommended. Samples should be shipped overnight to the lab. Analytical methods - culture Legionella are aerobic, fastidious bacteria; they have very strict requirements for growth. Two of these requirements are iron and L-cysteine. They are weakly gram negative and grow slowly compared to other bacteria. Legionella are often overgrown by faster growing bacteria, inhibited by some bacteria, or will not grow on standard microbiological media. For this reason labs should use methods that are selective for isolating and identifying the organism. Currently the definitive method worldwide for identifying Legionella in clinical and environmental samples is
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30 | September 2008
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Public Health the culture method. This method uses an improved procedure developed by the CDC when it first isolated the organism after the American Legion outbreak in Philadelphia in 1976. The method uses buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE) as the base formulation. For potable water, the samples must be concentrated in order to enhance the quantitation limit. This is usually done by filtering the entire 1000 ml through a sterile membrane filter. The filter is then vortexed in 5 ml of sterile, distilled water. Non-potable water often has a large concentration of bacteria that surpasses or inhibits the growth of Legionella. Since Legionella are more resistant to acidic pH levels, these samples are pretreated with a buffered acid solution to eliminate the non-legionella bacteria. Equal sample aliquots are then plated onto the BCYE agar containing iron and L-cysteine (BCYE+), BCYE agar with Polymixin B, Cycloheximide, Vancomycin (PCV), PCV with Glycine (GPCV), and PCV without iron and Lcysteine (PCV - ). These plates are incubated at 35 - 37Ë&#x161;C. Because the Legionella bacteria from environmental samples may grow slowly, the plates are incubated for 10-14 days. After 72 to 96 hours, the colonies are examined using a dissecting microscope with UV light. Legionella colonies appear as convex, circular white colonies having a center that resembles ground glass. The edges of the colonies often exhibit a blue, green, purple or red autofluorescence. These suspect Legionella colonies are streaked onto BCYE plates that do not contain iron and cysteine. If these colonies do not grow on the BCYE plates, they are presumptively identified as Legionella. The presumptive colonies are then analyzed using direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) technique to confirm the identification of species and identify the sertotypes. Since Legionella in environmental samples grow slowly, a confirmed nondetected sample result should be provided only after the tenth incubation day. Due to cross reactivity and the potential for false positive and false negative results, DFA should be used only on pure colonies obtained after incubation. DFA should not be used directly on en-
vironmental samples as some laboratories claim. While 90% of the outbreaks in the US are caused by L. pneumophila serotype 1 or 6, there are other serotypes of L. pneumophila and even other Legionella species that can cause the disease. Not all labs employ the same method for isolating the organism. Ascertain whether your lab uses the method to give you the level of identification and quantitation you need. The results for the culturable method
are expressed as colony forming units (CFU)/ml or per volume sampled. While it is standard microbiological convention to express results as CFU/ml, this can sometimes be confusing to non-microbiologists who are taking samples many times larger than 1 ml. For this reason, some labs prefer to express the results as CFU/volume sampled. Analytical methods polymerase chain reaction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a continued overleaf...
31 | September 2008
Public Health genetic test which looks for the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is specific for Legionella. While PCR is not considered the â&#x20AC;&#x153;gold standardâ&#x20AC;? for Legionella analysis, it may be very useful for quickly determining the presence or absence of Legionella in a sample. Since same day qualitative results can be obtained, the quick turnaround time can be useful for confirming the presence of Legionella during an outbreak when time is critical. PCR may also be useful for rapid assessment of the effec-
tiveness of a treatment program. Unlike culture analysis where inter and intra-laboratory variability is high, PCR results are reproducible, accurate, precise, and very sensitive. The detection limit is theoretically a single DNA fragment. PCR measures the DNA associated with both viable and non-viable Legionella. (The culture method only measures viable bacteria which will grow on the selective media.) The primary disadvantage of PCR is the potential for sample matrix effects.
The presence of common divalent cations in the sample such as calcium, magnesium, or silver, and the divalent form of copper will cause false negative results unless the samples are processed properly. This requires that the lab have a strict Quality Assurance program that includes positive, negative, and sample matrix controls. Another disadvantage of PCR is that it is a species specific test. While most PCR labs can identify L. pneumophila, there may be other species colonizing your water system or causing the disease that you would like identified.
The analytical method used determines the type and accuracy of the results.
Non-microbiologists often confuse the terms genus, species, serotype and strain. These are independent terms for the identification of organisms and each is used to reach a successively more specific level of identification. (i.e., Legionella pneumophila, serotype 1, Philadelphia 1 is the identification of the bacteria that caused the 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia.) The culture method provides quantification and identification of Legionella species and serotypes. Currently, the limited number of commercial labs using PCR will only identify to species level. Species and serotype identification is insufficient for determining the actual source of the
32 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Public Health contamination during an outbreak. During an epidemiological investigation, it is necessary to employ strain identification to determine if the bacteria in the clinical samples match the bacteria found in the environmental samples. Currently in the US, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is most commonly used to identify strains within L. pneumophila serogroup 1. However, a newer molecular technique, sequence based typing (SBT), is used by CDC and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) for subtyping L. pneumophila serogroup 1. EWGLI has proposed the use of SBT as the standard method for strain identification for travel-related outbreaks in the European Union. Intent of the risk assessment The intent of your Legionella risk assessment will determine the type of data you need. Proactive monitoring is conducted to determine the effectiveness of an existing maintenance program in the absence of suspected cases of legionellosis. With this type of monitoring a qualitative, present/absent result or a quantitative result of Legionella spp. is sufficient. Species and serotype identification is optional. Strain identification or subtyping is not needed. Reactive monitoring is conducted when a suspected or confirmed case of legionellosis occurs. In this situation, species and serotype quantification and identification is necessary. If the case or outbreak was diagnosed as L. pneumophila serotype 1, strain identification will be useful to link clinical isolates to the environmental samples to identify the source. Whether your risk assessment is proactive or reactive, the results should indicate non-detectable amounts of the bacteria. This is the OSHA recommended performance goal. The actual concentration provides useful information concerning the degree of contamination. However, it should be understood that the concentrations are relative and are not an absolute number. Bacterial populations are in always in flux; bacterial cells are multiplying, dying, or dormant. Since bacteria multiply logarithmically, an order of magnitude difference (10x) in the results is significant. A difference of a few
CFUs or a low single digit multiplication of results is not significant. The goal is to demonstrate a history of non-detectable results over time. To recap, the analytical method used determines the type and accuracy of the results. While using BCYE agars to isolate Legionella is the recognized â&#x20AC;&#x153;gold standardâ&#x20AC;? worldwide, there are still some labs using other methods. Also, the reagents and methods used for Legionella identification are not standardized. This makes comparing lab results
very difficult. Be sure to identify the isolation method the lab is using. This will ensure you obtain the information you need. Diane Miskowski has 30 years experience in the areas of microbiology, laboratory management, and industrial hygiene with a focus on aerobiology and exposure to pathogens. She is with EMSL Analytical, Inc. New Jersey. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
33 | September 2008
An alternative flowmeter for wastewater treatment By Steve Pagano low measurement in the wastewater industry often represents a difficult application because of the presence of solids, fats, grease, and other debris in the processing streams. A variety of metering technologies are found at many different points in the process, providing the performance levels required by local and national regulations. Regardless of the flowmeter used, erosive conditions, high solid content, and high viscosities can result in inconsistent readings, unwarranted maintenance costs, and general mistrust of the measurement. While no meter will provide complete immunity to all adverse conditions, the ABB WedgeMeter II flowmeter claims advantages worth considering. This flow measurement device places a V-shaped restriction into the flow to generate a differential pressure. The flow sees a measurement bore profile like that of a segmental orifice. The differential
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Typical connection arrangement for wedgemeter and DP pressure transmitter.
pressure generated follows the square root relationship of Bernoulli’s theorem for computation of flow rates, using established state-of-energy equations. Coupled with the ability to measure at Reynolds numbers as low as 500, the wedgemeter may be an ideal solution for some slurry and high viscosity processes. Wedgemeters do not rely on sharp edges or machined bores for accurate measurement. Solids and other debris easily pass through the meter, while the inherent ruggedness of the restriction resists damage to the measuring edge. The ABB flowmeters also have the advantage of employing large diameter, remote pressure seals to eliminate impulse line plugging. Depending on the static pressure limits and erosive nature of the process stream, differential pressure transmitters with remote seals can either seat flush to the process piping (chemical tee type) or be raised off the run pipe (wafer type). The wafer type seals suit the more aggressive and erosive applications. Flush seals keep the process fluid contained within the pipe profile with no
dead zones under the seal area for sludge and waste buildup. When sized to the proper velocity, a natural washing over these seals and restriction occurs, keeping the meter in a clean condition for maintaining performance. For fluids near the end of the treatment processes that are relatively clean, one-half inch NPT pressure taps on ABB WedgeMeters connect to standard DP transmitters. Just as an orifice bore can be related to a calculated beta ratio, wedgemeters are characterized by the H/D ratio, where H is the height of the opening for fluid flow and D is the pipe inside diameter. These H/D ratios come in fixed steps (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, etc.) that allow a wide range of flowmeter sizing within a particular pipe size. The ratios can be mathematically equated to an equivalent bore and beta ratio. The manufacturer determines the meter coefficient, identified as Kd2 within sizing equations, by calibrating with water. The resulting accuracy is +/-0.5% of flow rate or better. Applying wedgemeters to wastewaters Waste treatment processes vary from plant to plant and region to region and from heavy industrial to low-level residential. Not all subsystems of a wastewater treatment system are suitable for measuring flow with wedgemeters, but what follows are relatively common points within the wastewater process with comments on their use and installation. Plant influent (raw sewage) As this is the beginning of the process and may contain anything and everything, this process point is not recommended for wedge installation. The problem is possible damage to remote seals. Full bore meters are usually the measurement choice at this stage. Sludge Sludge that settles to the bottom of the primary clarifier typically contains 5-6% solids and 2-3% grease/fats with material pumped to a digester. Because the amount of liquid is high, the wedgemeter with 3-inch wafer type seals may be a good choice at this process point as these seals reduce the chance of damage from solids. Fluid ve-
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Wedge restriction creates a differential pressure that is a function of fluid flowrate.
locities should be maintained at 5-10 ft/sec, and temperatures should be such that grease and fats do not coagulate and build up in the area under the seals. Added protection of a purge ring under the wafer seal, along with periodic cleaning, is recommended. As the sludge thickens and contains high concentrations of solids, grease, and fats, flow measurement becomes difficult for any flow measurement device. While use of a wedgemeter is possible at this process step, periodic cleaning and inspection of the seals will raise maintenance costs. The ability to maintain recommended fluid velocities may become difficult, which will affect flow readings. Plugging of pressure taps can occur. Wedgemeters are a last resort on thickened sludge. Digester re-circulation Re-circulated sludge will be high in solids content, but concentrations of fats and grease are lower than in previous stages. Temperatures are generally higher, typically 95F. The higher temperatures will aid in preventing grease build up; however, as in previous process steps, using a wedge requires attention to periodic cleaning of 3-inch wafer seals. Fluid velocities should be kept above 5 ft/sec, and the wedge restriction should be no smaller than half the inside pipe diameter. Digester supernatant liquor, mixed liquors Supernatant liquor, being removed from between the top scum layer and the sludge layer, is relatively low in solids content. These conditions point to use of the flush (chemical tee type) remote seal. But fluid velocities should be kept above 5 ft/sec. The higher the velocity, the less likely the seals will coat, even if the fluid is still saturated with grease and fats. Seals can be inspected and cleaned during normal www.esemag.com
maintenance shutdowns. Mixed liquors afford even more versatility in the selection of a wedgemeter as the fluid is relatively free of solids, grease and fats. In this case, meters with simple ½-in NPT pressure taps make sense, reducing both installed and maintenance costs. Properly installed, the DP transmitters can be isolated from impulse lines, eliminating a need to shut down process flow to service the transmitter. Return activated sludge, waste activated sludge As both of these process points will be low in grease and fat, either the pipe tap or flush remote seal will satisfy the application. Velocities can be as low as 2-3 ft/sec. Plant effluent Because these flows are generally clean water to EPA rules, this is most likely the easiest of all measurements within the wastewater process. A wedgemeter using ½-inch NPT pipe taps will generally perform well. However, to keep process fluid within the piping structure, the flush remote seal version may be more suitable a choice. Chemical feeds Introduction of chemicals at various points in the process stream requires flow measurement and associated control. Some chemicals fall within the range of nearly all flow measurement technologies with the exception of nonconductive fluids. Given the versatility of wedgemeters, almost any additive can be measured using either pipe threaded pipe taps or flush remote seals combined with a suitable differential pressure transmitter.
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35 | September 2008
A natural solution - catching rain in Guatemala By David Stevenson
n the midst of a light but constant sheet of rain, two young smiling Mayan girls stand in the middle of the schoolyard. Leaning toward each other, hands joined, they form a bridge for all the pushing, squealing smaller children to squirm playfully through below. Off to the side two young boys play tag, slipping and sliding as they shift directions in the mud. Nearby the rain falls on the corrugated tin roof of their schoolhouse, rolls down into a gutter that collects and funnels it into a pipe that gravity feeds it into the cistern that sits below by the school building. Filled, the cistern holds more than 500 gallons of water that can be used for drinking and washing children’s muddy hands, as well. Here in the small village of Visivan, Guatemala, rain is an almost daily reality. The village is situated high in the mountains, 11,500 feet above sea level, and receives more than 100 inches of rain per year. But before the recently
completed Water For People-supported rain catchment project (and associated cisterns), when the rains came, the waters were lost, rolling freely down the mountainside. To meet family needs for drinking, washing clothes, dishes, and bathing, villagers often walked 20 to 30 minutes each way carrying heavy jugs of water gathered from natural springs. These trips might be made as many as five times a day. Unfortunately, the water they collected was often unsafe and carried microbiological contaminants that could cause diarrhea and other debilitating, and even deadly, diseases. Searching for a solution Mayan people have populated the rich, rugged mountains and valleys of the Cuchumantes Mountains in Guatemala’s Western Highlands for centuries. Like the rains, disease and death were felt to be natural as well, until last year. That’s when the village leaders contacted Water For People partner, Aqua Para la Salud, (a local NGO) to support them in pursuing a practical, affordable solution to help meet Visivan’s water needs. Various political candidates had promised the people of Visivan a water system for years, but a lack of ground-
water and uncooperative landowners meant the promises never came true. Following a study, it was determined rainwater catchment tanks would be the most effective technology for the community. The rain catchment solution was as natural as it was simple. It involved attaching PVC gutters to the roofs of individual homes (and the school) to catch rainwater during the rainy months. A PVC pipe was attached to the gutter to feed the rainwater to a closed concrete cistern that was constructed next to each house. The cistern could hold up to 530 gallons of water and would have one or more faucets. The rain catchment solution provides a plentiful, convenient supply of water during the long rainy season and helps bridge supply needs during the dry months. As a precaution, villagers are encouraged to boil collected rain water for drinking and cooking to ensure its safety. The rain catchment solution reduces the community’s reliance on unsafe, remote water sources and enables villagers to concentrate on more productive endeavors. Building it together Together the community and Aqua Para la Salud representatives developed a Water for washing clothes, washing hands, cooking and drinking is close at hand, giving villagers more time for family, work, school, and play.
Visivan children take the hygiene education portion of the project to heart.
A natural part of Visivan village life – playground giggles, games, and rain.
36 | September 2008
A natural solution: the rain flows down the roof, is captured in a gutter and flows through a pipe into a cistern near each house. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
project proposal. The proposal included a work plan that identified how community members would be involved, what contribution they could provide, and how the community would help maintain the system once installed. Aqua Para la Salud would provide technical assistance, materials, hygiene education training, and skilled labor. Visivan residents were to provide additional local materials, construction labor, and participate in hygiene education training. Water For People was contacted and agreed to help fund the project and assist with its implementation. The project began January 3, 2007, and was completed May 4, 2007. Aqua Para la Salud masons began by training various Visivan residents to help train other village participants. Each homeowner was involved in the construction of their rain catchment gutters, pipes, and cisterns. Everyone pitched in, including the children, to complete the rain catchment system for the school. Rain catchment and more Now, all 31 families and the school have a convenient water source at their fingertips all year long. The hygiene education program helped school children learn the impor-
tance of hand washing, and how and when to wash their hands effectively. The hygiene component was important for teaching villagers the basic steps (boiling, solar disinfection) to follow during dry season, when the cisterns run low, to ensure the water they gather from other sources is clean and safe as well. Families learned the importance of household cleaning, dishwashing, and personal hygiene. Additionally, they learned more about sanitation, various common diseases, and how to recognize them. With less time spent gathering water and armed with more knowledge about hygiene, families are spending less money on healthcare and more on food, education, and clothing. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re sure the laughter of little children will continue to echo through these high mountains far into the future. And we know that their simple, natural rain catchment solution will continue to enhance their quality of life.
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37 | September 2008
Federal government unveils climate change action plan By Mark Madras and Ian Richler
n March 11, 2008, the federal government released details concerning its strategy to "turn the corner" on climate change. The two main components of this strategy are (1) mandatory emissions targets for certain industry sectors, and (2) an offset system enabling non-regulated businesses to earn carbon credits by voluntarily cutting emissions, which could then be sold to regulated businesses to help them achieve their targets. Although the broad contours of this strategy have been known for some time, the announcement provides both regulated and non-regulated businesses with greater certainty and provides a strong impetus to begin taking immediate action in anticipation of the climate change regulations which are expected to come into force at the beginning of 2010. Regulatory Framework for Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions The centrepiece of the announcement is the "Regulatory Framework for Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions" which elaborates on the "Regulatory Framework for Air Emissions" unveiled in April 2007. It is the government's blueprint for achieving the previously announced target of an absolute 20% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 2006 levels by the year 2020, which translates into a reduction of 330 megatonnes below projected levels. (The Framework and supporting documents are available on Environment Canada's website at www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=75038EBC1#m10.) The Framework applies to the following industry sectors: electricity generation; oil sands; petroleum refining; upstream oil and gas; natural gas pipelines; pulp and paper; iron and steel; iron ore pelletizing; base metal smelters;
38 | September 2008
cement; aluminum and alumina; lime; titanium; potash; chemicals; fertilizers. These sectors will be required to reduce their GHG emission intensity (i.e. the amount of GHGs emitted per widget produced) to 18% below 2006 levels by 2010. In every subsequent year, emission intensity must improve by 2%. There will be a three-year grace period for new facilities, i.e. those opening in 2004 or later. After the third year, they will be required to improve their emission intensity by 2% annually. Where an existing facility undergoes a major expansion or transformation in 2004 or later, the expanded or transformed portion of the facility would be subject to the rules for new facilities. The targets for new facilities would be determined in accordance with a "cleaner fuel standard", the details of which have yet to be fully articulated. This is meant to encourage new facilities to adopt the least GHG-intensive fuels. Both existing and new facilities would have a 0% target for fixed process emissions, which are emissions tied to production and for which there is no alternative reduction technology (the revised Framework now includes a more precise, technical definition of fixed process emissions than what appeared in last year's version). Regulated industries would have certain options for compliance. In addition to making operational changes to achieve their targets, firms could obtain compliance credits by contributing to a technology fund that would invest in GHG reduction technology. The fund would be administered by "a third-party entity, at arm's length from government". The cost of contributing to the fund would be set at $15 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent for the period 2010 to 2012, rising to $20 per tonne in 2013, and subsequently rising annually at the rate of Canada's economic growth. Contributions would no longer be permitted after 2017. Instead of contributing directly to the technology fund, firms could earn cred-
its by investing in certain large-scale projects that were pre-certified by the government. The Framework states that the government will consider pre-certifying carbon capture and storage projects in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Until 2018, firms in the oil sands, electricity, chemicals, fertilizer and petroleum refining sectors will be allowed to make contributions of up to 100% of their regulatory obligation in these pre-certified carbon capture and storage projects. As a further alternative to making direct contributions to the technology fund, firms could invest in other funds with an equivalent mandate to the technology fund. These could include funds established by provincial governments and possibly private sector funds. In order for the firm to earn credits for such contributions, the fund would need to be accredited by the federal government for this purpose. Firms that went beyond their targets would obtain credits which could then be sold to other regulated firms or which could be banked for future use. The Framework also contemplates an offset system whereby non-regulated entities could voluntarily undertake GHG emission reduction programs and earn offset credits which could then be sold to regulated entities. In addition, regulated entities could purchase Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) credits under the Kyoto Protocol. Each firm would only be allowed to meet up to 10% of its target with these CDM credits. Finally, firms that took action between 1992 and 2006 to reduce GHG emissions could apply for a one-time credit for early action. The purpose is to avoid penalizing firms that voluntarily undertook climate change initiatives before the development of the federal regulatory regime. The government would only allocate 15 megatonnes worth of credits for early action; if demand were greater, the 15 megatonnes would be divided between the applicants in proportion to their contribution to total emission reductions.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Climate Change The revised Framework includes an important innovation from the original 2007 version. This is the introduction of additional rules that apply only to the oil sands and coal-fired electricity sectors and will effectively require these sectors to establish carbon capture and storage mechanisms for new facilities opening in 2012 or later. Although the details concerning these rules have yet to be released, the government indicates that "growth in the oil sands must occur responsibly", and that the rules "will effectively end the construction of dirty coal-fired plants". Another new commitment is to establish a "clean electricity task force" to
work with provinces and industry to achieve a further reduction of 25 megatonnes from the electricity sector by 2020. The revised Framework is short on details, but does say that: "Specific measures could include: development of an East-West transmission grid and sub-sea cable on the Atlantic coast; development of further major hydroelectric projects, such as Peace River C and Lower Churchill; inwww.esemag.com
troduction of new nuclear reactors; and retirement of fossil-fuel electricity generation facilities at the end of their expected life." The revised Framework recognizes the specific challenges faced by the cement and fertilizer sectors. The Framework says that the cement regulations will include an incentive to use waste material from other industries instead of clinker. It also promises a task force comprising a Member of Parliament and an industry representative to make recommendations for fertilizer emission targets that take these challenges into account but are "consistent with the overall framework". GHG emissions reductions from the oil sands and electricity sectors are expected to account for 55% of the total reductions from industry by 2020. The reductions from industry as a whole will only go halfway towards meeting the national 20% target by 2020. The rest of the reductions will come from other regulatory initiatives, including new fuel consumption standards for cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles, and new energy efficiency requirements for certain commercial and consumer products, such as dishwashers and commercial boilers. In addition to GHGs, the initial version of the Framework in 2007 also addressed emissions of air pollutants such as sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. The revised draft deals exclusively with GHGs, saying only that the regulatory framework for other air pollutants will be finalized in spring 2008 and that the regulations will reflect this. It is important to recognize that the revised Framework is still just an outline. The actual draft regulations will be published in the Canada Gazette in the fall of 2008. The regulations are expected to be finalized the following year and to come into force on January 1, 2010. The full impact on industry, including the penalties for missing emission targets, will not be known until the regulations are unveiled. Canada's offset system for GHGs In addition to the final Regulatory Framework, the government has released a discussion paper regarding the design of the offset system. This indicontinued overleaf...
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Climate Change first step will be to register the project with Environment Canada. Before accepting the project for registration, Environment Canada will ensure the project meets eligibility requirements and will post information about the project on an offset system website. Next, the proponent will implement the project and measure the actual GHG reductions that ensue. These reductions must be verified by an independent third party. Environment Canada will then issue electronic offset credits which are deposited into the proponent's account. The proponent can then sell the credits to a regulated entity (e.g. a fertilizer company) which could apply it towards its mandatory GHG target or bank it for future use. Alternatively the proponent could sell the credits to any willing buyer, such as a bank or investment fund, which could treat the credits much like any other tradable financial instrument or else "cancel them (withdraw them from circulation) for the benefit of the environment". The value of offset credits will be determined by supply and demand. The actual transfer of credits from one person to another will take place electronically; every participant in the carbon market will have an account in the "unit tracking system". Initially, the offset system will not be linked to other carbon markets (e.g. the EU Emission Trading Scheme). However, the offset paper notes that: "If formal linkages are established with other regulatorybased systems in North America or abroad, arrangements will seriously be considered for the transfer of credits among systems. Especially, if a greenhouse gas regulatory regime and offsets system is developed in the United States, cross-border trading in emissions credits and offsets will be pursued." Only projects that comply with an approved quantification protocol will be eligible to earn offset credits, and only for reductions achieved after January 1, 2008. A project proponent may submit a protocol for any given type of project (e.g. landfill gas capture) for approval. Protocols will be expected to cates that the offset system will be administered by Environ- comply with the international standard developed by the ISO, ment Canada under the authority of the Canadian Environ- namely ISO 14064 Part 2. One of the principles enshrined in mental Protection Act, 1999. The paper outlines the basic this standard is the use of conservative assumptions to ensure requirements for registering an offset project, reporting and that GHG reductions are not overestimated. verifying the emissions reductions, issuing the offset credits, The paper also notes that "where possible, quantification and trading the credits. approaches should build on best practices. Existing peer-reThe paper enumerates five principles on which the offset viewed protocols (for example, Clean Development Mechasystem is built: nism methodologies) may provide a good basis on which to 1. Environmental benefits - Offset projects achieve greenbuild a Base Protocol." house gas reductions and a net environmental benefit. Registration of an offset project is effective for eight years, 2. Reductions occur in Canada - greenhouse gas reductions beginning from the date the project is actually registered or are domestic. the date the project is commissioned, at the proponent's op3. Maximum scope - the system promotes projects in as tion. The registration can be renewed for a further eight years. many sectors and for as many project types as practical. In order to register a project, the proponent must satisfy the 4. Administratively simple - the system is as simple and following six eligibility criteria: cost-effective to administer as possible, and the burden for 1. Scope: participants is minimized. • the project must take place in Canada; 5. Build on experience - the system builds on the experience • the project must achieve reductions in one or more of the gained from the Canadian pilot projects and project-based following greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, crediting systems in other jurisdictions. nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluoro carbons, The proponent of a GHG reduction project will be responand sulphur hexafluoride; sible for steering the project through the offset process. The • the activity must be included in the federal GHG inventory 40 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Climate Change which is prepared annually in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (forest management projects that are not included in the inventory will nonetheless be considered). 2. GHG reductions must be real: • the project must result in a net reduction of GHGs; • each quantification protocol will contain guidance on this criterion. 3. The project must be incremental: • the project must have started on or after January 1, 2000; • credits may be issued for reductions achieved after January 1, 2008; • reductions achieved must go beyond the baseline defined for the project type in the quantification protocol; • reductions must be surplus to all legal requirements (e.g. provincial operating permits); • reductions must be beyond what is expected from receipt of other governmental climate change incentives. 4. The GHG reductions must be quantifiable: • the reductions must be quantified in accordance with an approved quantification protocol. 5. The GHG reductions must be verifiable: • the reductions must be verified by a recognized third party verifier. 6. The GHG reductions must be unique: • offset credits will normally not be issued for GHG reductions that have already earned credits through another mandatory or voluntary system; • each credit will be assigned a unique serial number. The paper says that "proponents may aggregate similar projects and bundle projects with similar effects (for example, projects that together impact total fuel consumption)". This will provide an incentive to invest in multiple small projects that, on their own, might not attract carbon financing. There is intended to be an active Canadian carbon market to propel GHG reduction projects outside the directly regulated industry sectors. The types of projects that could potentially earn offset credits include, among many others, carbon capture and storage projects, renewable energy projects, energy efficiency and demand-side management projects, and projects to convert vehicle fleets to hybrids. A number of guidance documents concerning the offset system will be published later this year. In the meantime, comments on this general scheme are being solicited by Environment Canada. Other climate change documents The government has also released a paper outlining how credits will be issued for early action. It sets out, in general terms, the eligibility rules and the process for allocating credits. Firms wishing to apply for credits had to submit initial information by June 27, 2008, and the credits will be allocated in July 2009. Finally, the government has released a paper outlining the economics of its climate change strategy. The paper concludes that the Framework combined with other federal and provincial climate change measures will be enough to achieve the target of reducing GHGs by 20% by 2020. The paper also concludes that there will be an economic cost to these measures. By 2020, the paper estimates that these measures will erode GDP by www.esemag.com
0.4% annually. In other words, GDP in 2020 will be 0.4% below where it would have been in the absence of these climate change initiatives. The paper acknowledges that some industrial sectors will be harder hit than others. Conclusion Although the actual regulations to put the federal climate change plan into action will not be published until this fall and will not come into force until January 1, 2010, the announcement in March has provided companies in the targeted industry sectors with greater confidence in the government's regulatory direction. The plan is designed to create incentives for these companies to act now. Waiting until the regulations are in force before undertaking GHG mitigation could prove costly. Similarly, the plan provides a clear signal to non-regulated companies that they ought not to wait for the finalization of the offset system rules to begin exploring possible offset projects - GHG reductions achieved after January 1, 2008 are eligible to earn credits. The opportunity to gain a foothold in the carbon market not only for potential project proponents such as electricity plants, landfills, farms, and trucking firms, but also for investors, brokers, financial institutions, technical consultants and credit aggregators - has already begun. Mark Madras and Ian Richler are with Gowling Lafleur Henderson LLP, Toronto, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
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41 | September 2008
Sludge pelletization plant continues to perform well 13 years after startup By Valera Saknenko and Thomas Maestri ike many large municipalities, the long-term biosolids management plan established by the City of Baltimore, Maryland, is based on a variety of technologies. Utilizing land application, composting and heat drying, the City has developed a reliable and sustainable program that will serve the community for the foreseeable future. Critical to this program are two longterm service contracts, both between the City of Baltimore and Synagro–Baltimore L.L.C., for heat drying and pelletizing at the Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Patapsco WWTP. The Back River WWTP has a design capacity of 680,000 m3/day and produces between 68 to 90 dry tonnes (metric) per day of biosolids via two eggshaped anaerobic digesters. The Back River and Patapsco facilities are each de-
signed to process 100 dry tonnes per day. By contract, however, the City of Baltimore provides 50 dry tonnes daily to each facility, thereby providing 100% excess capacity at each plant.
The plant began commercial operations in 1995, and has been in successful operation for 13 years, remaining the only facility in North America that utilizes this type of indirect dryer. This article describes the pelletizer facility at the Back River WWTP that utilizes the Seghers indirect drying system (referred to as the Pelletech®
Process), which was delivered under a design/build/operate procurement process through a long-term service contract between the City of Baltimore and Baltimore L.L.C., a Synagro subsidiary. The plant began commercial operations in 1995, and has been in successful operation for 13 years, remaining the only facility in North America that utilizes this type of indirect dryer. The other two installations of the same type of dryers are currently in the final stage of commissioning. One is at the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant in Toronto (with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited as the City of Toronto’s representative), and the other is at the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant in Chicago. Both are being delivered under designbuild contracts by Veolia Water North America.
Looking to make your mark? Are you looking to join an organization that builds bridges, roads, water treatment plants and other municipal infrastructure? Are you concerned about doing it right and building green? Then you’re the type of engineer or technician Earth Tech is looking for. For more information on entry-level through to senior positions with Earth Tech, visit us online. We are now a member of the AECOM Technology Group with more than 40,000 employees world-wide.
42 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
During the visit to the Pelletech Facility in June 2008, Valera Saknenko (right) met with (left to right) Thomas Maestri, Joe Hurt and Karl von Lindenberg of Synagro Technologies Inc.
Heat drying and pelletizing facility overview The Back River heat drying and pelletizing facility utilizes the Seghers indirect drying system, a process in which biosolids are heated to a temperature and dried to a moisture level that satisfies the United States Environmental Protection Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements for Class A pathogen reduction and vector attraction reduction. As a Class A product, processed biosolids from the Back River facility are approved by the USEPA for use as an organic fertilizer for farms, park land, mine reclamation, and other uses without restriction. The process The Pelletech Process consists of three totally independent process trains, each capable of processing approximately 34 dry tonnes daily. In Step 1, anaerobically digested biosolids material at approximately 2.7% dry solids is received by the facility in liquid form, screened and dewatered via centrifuges to about 24% dry solids. Following dewatering, the biosolids drop to a live bottom receiving bin located beneath the continued overleaf...
43 | September 2008
centrifuge floor. In Step 2, the biosolids are conveyed to a twin shaft mixer where the 24% dry biosolids are mixed with previously dried material (~ 92% dry solids) in ra-
tios that result in a mixed material at approximately 60% to 70% dry solids. Importantly, it is in the mixer that the pelletizing process occurs. Dried particles of biosolids form the nuclei of the
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44 | September 2008
pellets which, in turn, become coated with the wetter biosolids cake and gradually grow to the desired size, much the same way as a pearl is formed around a grain of sand. The blended material exiting the mixer is conveyed (Step 3) to the top of the Seghers dryers where the process of evaporating moisture begins. Because the pelletizing activity occurs in the mixer as described above, the drying process itself (Step 4) requires that only the outside coating of each pellet be dried. The Seghers dryer used at the Back River facility consists of a series of heated trays of alternating large and small diameters. Externally heated circulating thermal oil is the source of heat for the trays. The newly formed pellets are fed to the top tray of the dryer and are swept in a spiral pattern by rotating rake arms. The pellets fall to the next tray and similarly to each succeeding tray until exiting the bottom of the dryer. By the time it exits the dryer, the material has reached Class A status in terms of pathogen reduction and vector attraction reduction. The dried pellets then are transported via a bucket elevator to be screened and classified (Step 5) according to pellet size. Through use of a vibrating screen, pellets are separated into properly sized (roughly 2 to 3 mm in diameter) pellets, oversized pellets and fines. The oversized pellets are sent to a crusher, mixed with the fines, and sent to a recycle bin to be used to form pellets in the mixer as described in Step 2. As evident from this process description, any given pellet may be returned (or recycled) and run through the mixer and dryer a number of times. With each successive pass, the pellets grow in size until they are able to pass through the screen. Such properly sized pellets are sent to a storage silo for ultimate transport to the marketplace. Air pollution control Air pollution control for Synagroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Back River facility is achieved through the following process. The dryer air, containing various odours and the water vapour evaporated from the biosolids, is treated in a condenser where WWTP effluent cools and condenses the moisture in the air stream. The dry air then flows to a ven-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Biosolids Management turi scrubber where particulate matter is removed. Finally, the dry, clean air is sent to the burner of the thermal oil heater where it is used as combustion air, thereby destroying any volatile organics and odorous components contained in the air stream. Pellet marketing Pellets produced at the Back River facility typically contain around 4% nitrogen and traditionally have been marketed to fertilizer blenders as an organic fertilizer. To realize maximum value within this market, it is important that the pellets exhibit certain qualities. In addition to nutrient value (primarily in the form of nitrogen), pellets must be of uniform size (2 to 3 mm in diameter is desirable) and with consistent bulk density of about 640 to 720 kg/m3. Odours must be kept to a minimum (note that the Back River WWTP digestion process provides important stabilization and consequent low odour level) and dust levels must be as close to zero as possible. Synagro has expanded its market for
pellets by becoming active in the field of renewable fuels. Over the past several years, Synagro has provided pellets from its various facilities, including its
Synagro has expanded its market for pellets by becoming active in the field of renewable fuels. Over the past several years, Synagro has provided pellets from its various facilities, including its Back River and Patapsco facilities, as a fuel alternative to coal and natural gas. Back River and Patapsco facilities, as a fuel alternative to coal and natural gas. Introducing pellets as an alternative fuel component provides Synagro with an-
other market for its product and can assist the facility utilizing the pellets in reducing its carbon footprint, improving emissions, and saving on fuel costs. Summary Synagroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Back River WWTP heat drying and pelletizing facility was not without startup issues and various challenges, both minor and major, along the way. Without exception, however, each challenge was addressed successfully. The facility now has been in a stable operating mode for almost 13 years, producing a Class A product that is in high demand as an organic fertilizer and as a potential fuel alternative to coal and natural gas. Valera Saknenko is Senior Associate of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Toronto. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas Maestri is Director of Business Development of Synagro Technologies, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. Contact: email@example.com
45 | September 2008
Upflow sludge blanket filtration used at BC ski resort he upflow sludge blanket filtration (USBF) wastewater treatment system is a single sludge denitrification biological treatment process that incorporates all processes required for biological treatment in a single circulation loop. It utilizes fluidized bed filtration as a method of mixed liquor clarification. The process delivers high treatment efficiency, including biological nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, and avoids a commonly encountered problem of the conventional biological plant â&#x20AC;&#x201C; gravity separation. Over one hundred plants have been installed in Canada, the United States and the Caribbean. The plant at Sun Peaks Resort, Kamloops, British Columbia, was one of the first in 1999. Sun Peaks Resort is situated at the base of Tod Mountain, approximately 40 kilometres northeast of Kamloops, BC. Tod Mountain, with a summit elevation of 2,152 metres, was originally developed as a ski operation in the early 1960s. In 1972, the former operator decided to develop a few residential lots and formed a private utility to operate a simple community water supply and wastewater leaching field that was replaced in 1987 with a simple lagoon system. While the permit granted a maximum disposal of 230 m3/day, discharge was intermittent, if at all. In 1992, the property was purchased
Plant expansion - 2003. 46 | September 2008
Sun Peaks wastewater treatment plant â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Phase 1
by Nippon Cable Company Limited and the resort's name was changed to Sun Peaks. Nippon's strategy for Tod Mountain was to upgrade the ski lift and trail system and transform the area into a major four-season, mountain resort with all the amenities. In 1993, the resort operator, Sun Peaks Resort Corporation completed the Tod Mountain Master Plan and entered into an agreement with the Provincial Government to take the resort from a winter-only ski hill to a year round community that will eventually support as many as 24,000 residents and visitors during any period. Sun Peaks' base development has been rapidly expanding since 1993. As a con-
sequence, wastewater flows at the Sun Peaks Utilities' treatment facility have been steadily increasing. Sun Peaks Utilities Co. Ltd. (SPUCL) has made a number of improvements to the lagoon system to keep pace with the increasing hydraulic and organic loading. These improvements range from surface aeration mixers to subsurface fine bubble diffusion piping. After the 1998 Christmas period when the holding time in the 6,000 cubic metre lagoon dropped to under six days, Sun Peaks Utilities decided to replace the lagoon with a system that could deal with the growing flows. After evaluating a few alternatives, SPUCL decided to go with the upflow sludge blanket filtration (USBF) system supplied by Ecofluid Systems Inc. The design/build contract was awarded to Knappett Construction Ltd. in the latter part of July 1999, the construction began on August 24, 1999 and the plant started receiving wastewater on November 19, 1999. By December 15, the effluent was below 10 mg/l BOD5 and 10 mg/l Total Suspended Solids. Phase 1 The design had to be flexible and allow for flows that change ten-fold within a month and double on weekends from weekdays. Additionally, the design had to be modular and expandable to allow for the resort and the population growth. The first phase installed in 1999 included two bioreactors with three sludge blanket filters and a waste sludge storage tank.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Plant upgrades and expansions The resort’s growth required a number of upgrades and expansions. In 2001, a fourth sludge blanket filter was added, and in 2002 a sludge dewatering centrifuge was installed. However, the flows kept increasing. (See Table 1) Consequently two additional modules were installed in 2003 and in the summer of 2008 another module was added. Flows vary dramatically from winter to summer. Each beginning of the winter season is like starting up a new plant when the plant flow triples from mid to the end of December. Ski resorts (and this may apply to resorts in general) are not ‘typical wastewater’ generators. Flows change dramatically from day to day and holiday period to holiday period. At Sun Peaks, a plumbing code was implemented for water conservation and the average daily flow per person is currently 220 litres and dropping (the Canadian average is 375 litres). Day visitors add about 40 litres per person per day (very high ammonia content). The Utility has learned to track lift tickets sales and occupancy rates, holidays and weather trends. It is surprising how powder ski or rainy days affect flows. Influent characteristics To get a better reading of the incoming influent, 24-hour composite samples collected every hour throughout the day were taken and analyzed. The results illustrate a very uneven pattern of influent characteristics throughout the day as demonstrated by one such sample in Table 2. The highly variable biological loading throughout the day is only one of the challenges. The water in the resort is from wells and it has poor buffering capacity to begin with. Up to 3,000 day skiers add a lot of ammonia to the wastewater stream, resulting in reduced alkalinity during the treatment process. Possibly due to the type of cooking oils and cleaning detergents used in the resort’s restaurants and hotels, uncommonly high COD is encountered at times. Very high peak hourly flows, and the fact that the influent temperature may change 5-7 degrees C within a matter of days, complete the picture. Plant operation To cope with the variable biological www.esemag.com
loading, the air blowers are controlled by a continuous DO monitor/VFD (variable frequency drive) system. To ‘control’ alkalinity as much as 100 kg/day of slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) has been added into the anoxic and aeration compartments. (In the 2006-07 season close to one hundred 25 kg bags of lime at $11 per bag were used). Effluent parameters The permitted effluent parameters are at 30 mg/l each for BOD5 and TSS,
which is not very demanding and the plant delivers much better. BOD5 is typically less than 10 mg/l, TSS from 5 to 20 mg/l, ammonia less than 1 mg/l and total nitrogen in the 10 to 20 mg/l range. When the supernatant from the sludge dewatering process is not returned back into the influent, the total phosphorus is biologically reduced to 2 to 3 mg/l. Table 3 records an analysis of grab samples taken at about 11 am on March continued overleaf...
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Wastewater Table 1 – Annual Flow Increases
2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005
2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008
24-hour High mg/L
6:30 am 5:30 am 1:30 pm
590 1300 107
9:30 am 9:30 am 8:30 am
385 813 61
Table 2 - Influent Characteristics Variation
BOD5 COD N-NH4
120 310 30
7, 2007, immediately after the highest flow of the day period and after US President’s week (2nd highest annual occupancy). BOD was not analyzed; however, based on the rest of the numbers, it is safe to assume that it was less than 10 mg/l. Together with averages of 5.7 mg/l for TSS, 0.074 mg/l for ammonia, and 7.9 mg/l for total nitrogen the results would satisfy most very stringent requirements. The average total phosphorus of 7.1 mg/l is much elevated from what has been experienced before the centrifuge installation. Almost all ‘biologically up-taken’ phosphorus returns to the system with the centrifuge supernatant recycle to the equalization tank. Capital costs The total capital cost from 1999 to 2007, including the initial construction of the plant, the expansions and the sludge dewatering system, all work out cumulatively to approximately $2,500 per m3/d, or $7,500 per kg BOD/d. Operating costs Total operating costs include many contributing costs of which the main
‘direct costs’ are electricity, wages and benefits, chemicals, waste sludge disposal, and lab analysis. The operating costs are year-round average costs and they are, of course, negatively affected by the high seasonality of the operation. General operating experience One of the challenges in the past was coping with the resort’s fast growth. To allow for better planning of the plant expansions, Sun Peaks Resort has developed ‘per bed factors’ to gauge both water demand and the biological loading. There are many restaurants in the resort and fat, oil and grease (FOG) has entered the plant in the past. Upstream management of FOG has become very important and SPUCL is working with the restaurants to become more proactive in dealing with their grease traps and oil trapping systems. Another challenge is the effluent disposal. The current use of rapid infiltration (RI) trenches allows for a maximum daily discharge of 850 cubic metres only, and since the resort is built on the mountainside, land for additional RI trenches
is limited. Options currently under study include stream augmentation, snow making and golf course irrigation. The challenge with the last two options is weather. One of the key challenges at Sun Peaks is that, in addition to the wastewater treatment plant, the utility operates three water treatment plants and a gas distribution system. Like many small utilities, getting, training and keeping operators is an increasing challenge, no matter what type of system one operates. The ownership of the resort is very happy with the modular expansion options of the USBF system and its ability to expand the system as needed. After all, expansion costs are paid by new users being added to the system rather than by the existing customers. This article is based on a presentation by Pat Miller, Sun Peaks Utility Corp., at the BCWWA 2007 Annual Conference. For more information E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 3 - Grab Sample Analysis
TSS Ammonia (as N) Nitrate (as N) Nitrite (as N) Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Chloride pH Conductivity 48 | September 2008
mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l
Bioreactor 1 5.7 0.067 6.75 0.0504 8.1 6.86 110 7.99 853
Bioreactor 2 9.7 0.077 4.17 0.0969 7.6 9.87 111 7.70 900
Bioreactor 3 3.7 0.073 7.42 0.0545 8.9 5.78 112 7.78 900
Bioreactor 4 3.7 0.079 6.58 0.0468 6.96 6.04 109 7.80 880
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
NEWS ITT Watermark to help provide safe water for schools ITT Corporation has announced a new corporate philanthropy program, ITT Watermark, which includes an initial three-year, $3 million commitment to help provide safe water, sanitation and hygiene education to 300 schools in the developing world â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a pledge that will ultimately improve the lives of more than 100,000 children and their families. ITT, a global leader in the transport and treatment of water, will work through its strategic partner, Water For People, a non-profit international development organization, to improve water and sanitation conditions in schools in Latin America and Asia. Working with Water For People, ITT will provide support to enable the development of new local infrastructure to bring water and sanitation to remote schools, provide resources to repair existing systems, and assist in the creation of innovative hygiene education initiatives. During the balance of 2008, ITT will support 50 schools in Latin America and Asia, including schools in West Bengal, India; Quiche, Guatemala; and Yoro, Honduras. It will extend its support to an additional 100 schools in 2009, and another 150 schools in 2010. ITT and Water For People will deploy a sustainable model that creates local water committees in the communities where the schools are located. The committees will take ownership for the projects and maintain the facilities long after the infrastructure is built. In addition, both ITT and Water For People will return to each school one year after implementation to monitor the safe water systems and three years later to evaluate their success. ITT learned much about the needs of natural disaster victims from its experience in Sri Lanka following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience led to the deployment of mobile water treatment units capable of producing safe drinking water from surface water sources in emergent conditions where there is an absence of electricity.
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Evaporators increasingly used for zero liquid discharge facilities ith the high importance of water quality and conservation, zero liquid discharge (ZLD) regulations are becoming more common in many plants around the world. Many of these plants use spray dryers, or crystallizers, to evaporate and dispose of wastewater generated by the facility. However, by using a wet surface air cooler (WSAC) as a first stage evaporator, the quantity of wastewater to be disposed of can be reduced, while at the same time cooling or condensing liquids or gases. According to the Niagara Blower Company, the WSAC can significantly reduce initial capital cost, operating cost and total input energy required to meet ZLD requirements. In an upcoming project, the company will engineer and manufacture a WSAC to be used in a ZLD regulated plant. The design calls for 100% of the plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s discharge water to flow into the WSAC for
first stage evaporation. The WSAC will evaporate a portion of the total discharge stream in order to reduce the downstream flow to the spray dryer equipment. At the same time, it will produce cold water for use elsewhere in the plant. The WSAC will evaporate and concentrate the majority (about 80%) of the wastewater, by spraying it over the outside of specially designed closed-loop tube bundles. For a heat source (on the inside of the tubes) water that would otherwise be cooled in the primary cooling tower is used. Highly concentrated blowdown (pre-concentrated wastewater) from the WSAC is then sent to spray dryers for final evaporation and disposal. Since WSAC parasitic power usage is from low head pumps and fans, the total energy required to treat the same amount of wastewater is reduced. Compared to the original design, the WSAC/spray dryer combination requires far less energy than operating the spray dryer by it-
self. The dryers use heat energy, usually in the form of natural gas or electricity. With the new combination, the operating cost is reduced by 75%, based on a cost per GPM evaporated. Also, because the total flow to the dryers is reduced, the overall capital cost to purchase the dryers is less. The WSAC for this project will feature alloy tubes and special materials of construction to resist the aggressive low quality concentrated spray water. Even with the relative high cost for materials of construction, the net result is a 50% reduction in the total capital cost for cooling and wastewater disposal equipment. Not only will the wet surface air cooler evaporate wastewater, but it also produces cooling water for the facility, about 85Ë&#x161;F at design conditions. The WSAC operates thermally, as a direct approach to the wet bulb temperature. In a WSAC, the process fluid to be cooled is pumped through the tube bun-
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
dles. The basic principle of this technology is that heat is rejected directly from the process stream by means of latent (evaporative) heat transfer. A WSAC operates in lieu of a cooling tower and heat exchanger combination. Warm process fluids, or vapours, are cooled in the closed-loop tube bundles. Open-loop water is sprayed and air is induced over the tube bundle, resulting in the cooling effect. The process
fluid being cooled never comes in contact with the environment. Since circulating spray water is not pumped through a heat exchanger (as in an open tower), higher cycles of concentration can be achieved, with lower quality water. There are a wide variety of material and component configurations that can be optimized for each heat transfer application, based on the stream to be cooled or condensed (inside the tubes)
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BCWWA annual conference sets attendance record
Keynote Speaker Bob Sandford.
he British Columbia Water and Wastewater Association’s annual conference, held this past April in Whistler, BC, was the largest ever, attracting 1,364 delegates. The event featured 127 presentations and 28 sessions. One of the keynote speakers was Bob Sandford, Canadian Chair of the United Nations International Decade ‘Water for Life’, and Director of the Western Watersheds Climate Research Collaborative. He also sits on the Executive Committee for the Alberta Water Research Institute. Mr. Sandford cited several reasons why it has been difficult to convince the public that climate change is happening. One is that the most rapidly occurring and accelerating changes are taking place where there are the fewest people, i.e. at the poles and in the highest mountain ranges. He also noted that more of the population lives in urban settings and are far less likely to be in daily contact with changes in natural rhythms. People spend more time than ever inside and are isolated from these changes by man-made infrastructure projects. He also said that humanity’s unprecedented level of mobility makes it hard to see if a place is changing over an extended period of time. An energy efficiency technical transfer session was co-hosted by BC Hydro Power Smart and the Utility Quality Assurance Committee, and featured discussions on recent Power Smart Programs and offers available to munic-
52 | September 2008
Past Fuller Award recipients gather around 2008 winner Eric Bonham (centre bottom).
ipal customers. As operation costs for municipal facilities continue to increase, there have been increasing efforts to look for ways to become more efficient. Power consumption is a major component of facility operation costs and has become a growing focus for water and wastewater system owners, managers and designers. The technical transfer session provided an overview of industry trends in energy efficient design and operation of water and wastewater systems. BCWWA’s SCADA and IT Committee organized SCADA 101 for Water and Wastewater. To enhance the learning experience, the session featured a ‘live’ pumping station with instrumentation and control equipment, including a video surveillance system. A workshop entitled Our Climate is Changing… Now What? included presentations from scientists, policy-makers and practitioners who addressed the issue and challenges of climate change from their perspectives. A documentary entitled Adapting to Climate Change in Metro Vancouver identified the issue of sea level rise, and the implications it may have upon land use planning and infrastructure in BC’s Lower Mainland,
William D. Hatfield Award Rudy Palsenbarg, Metro Vancouver
including the potential impact upon the Fraser River Flood Control System. Award winners James Tomma of the Little Shuswap Indian Band was recognized with the Victor M. Terry Award for Operator of the Year. The Water Environment Federation’s William D. Hatfield Award went to Rudy Palsenbarg, the former Metro Vancouver Deputy Manager of Wastewater Operations and Management. The American Water Works Association’s George Warren Fuller Award was presented to Eric Bonham of Victoria.
For more information, visit www. bcwwa.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
If itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s about water, it will be at
If you can only attend one water quality event during the yearâ&#x20AC;Ś make it WEFTEC and discover why it is the largest water quality event in North America. WEFTEC offers the best water quality education and training available and is the leading source for water quality developments, research, regulations, solutions, and cutting-edge technologies. Collection Systems | Facility Operations | Membrane Technologies | Microconstituents/EDCs Nutrient Removal | Residuals and Biosolids | Stormwater Management | Sustainable Practices Utility Management | Wastewater Treatment | Water Reuse | Watershed Management
WEFTEC.08 is just around the corner. Register online today at www.WEFTEC.org
81st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference
McCormick Place | Chicago, Illinois, USA Conference: October 18-22, 2008 Exhibition: October 19-22, 2008
Visit www.weftec.org for more details
Windy City to host WEFTEC 2008 ohn Anthony Allan, the 2008 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate and a professor at King’s College London in England and the School of Oriental and African Studies, will deliver the keynote address at WEFTEC.08, which will take place October 18-22, in Chicago, Illinois. Professor Allan was recognized for introducing the concept of “virtual water” which measures how water is embedded in the production and trade of food and consumer products. This concept has major impacts on global trade policy and research, especially in water-scarce regions, and has redefined discourse in water policy and management. WEFTEC’s technical program of 115 technical sessions, 31 workshops and tours to several facilities, is categorized into more than 20 technical education focus areas, ranging from collection systems and leading-edge research to sustainable water resources manage-
54 | September 2008
ment and water reclamation and reuse. To keep attendees up-to-date on the most pressing water quality challenges and solutions, the program also includes several “hot topic” workshops and “featured” technical sessions throughout the five-day event: Hot topic workshops • Green Infrastructure: The Windy City and Beyond • Wastewater Treatment in Tomorrow’s Climate Change-Driven World • Strategic Workforce Planning for Leaders at All Levels • The Big Picture: Reclaimed Water as a Water Resource • Nutrients Removal: What the US EPA, WERF, and Others are doing to help address this Challenge Featured technical sessions • Water Scarcity and the Potential Role of Distributed Wastewater Management • Lab Practices Detection and Quantitation: New Methods and
Perspectives of US EPA’s Federal Advisory Committee • Clean Water Policy 2008 • Protecting Our Nation’s Most Critical Asset: US EPA’s Collaborative Approach to Water/Wastewater Resiliency and Security • Global Sanitation: Current Situation and Innovations for the Future • Addressing Water Quality Standards in Long-Term Control Plans WEFTEC will offer the expected 18,000 attendees a 900 exhibitor tradeshow and a number of tours including: Collection Systems Tour: Chicago's Deep Tunnel; John G. Shedd Aquarium; Chicago River Tour. Industrial Tour: Abbott Laboratories Wastewater Pretreatment Plant; Jardine Water Purification Plant; Chicago Center for Green Technology; and the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant. For more information, visit www.weftec.org
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Charlottetown to host 61st Atlantic Canada Water Works Association’s annual conference r. David Scott’s keynote presentation to the 2008 ACWWA annual conference will focus on achieving excellence both as an individual and as a member of a team. He encourages strategies that embrace ideas such as preparing for change, dealing with setbacks, motivating and regulating thoughts and behaviour, and working with others. Dr. Scott is an Associate Professor of Sport Psychology in the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick. Technical session topics for the event, which will take place October 1921 in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, include: • Lead Occurrence following New Canadian Lead Guidelines for a Nova Scotian Community • Greater Grand Sudbury Project • Sustaining Water Supplies for the Developing World
• Choosing BNR for the New Summerside WPCC • Drinking Water Source Protection the Ontario Example • Validation and Commissioning a Drinking Water Pilot • Monitoring GUDI Sources a Case Study • HRWCs Application of Technology to improve Meter Reading and Customer Service • Full-Scale Evaluation of Manganese Removal during Biological Filtration • Active Leak Detection using District Meter Areas (DMAs) • Tracer and Fluid Dynamic Studies of Water Treatment Plants • Molecularly-Oriented PVC Pipe • “Bump in the Road; adjust your Thinking” - Adjustable Street Casting Applications The fourth annual Top Ops Competition will be held on October 21. This is
an opportunity for Atlantic Canada’s finest operators to test their skill and knowledge in all aspects of water distribution and treatment. Teams of three operators from water utilities in Atlantic Canada will compete against each other in a competitive, fast-paced, question and answer tournament. A tradeshow, sponsored by ACWWA in cooperation with the Atlantic Branch Equipment Association, will also be held on October 21. The event will also feature tours of the Charlottetown Thermal Generating Station and the Charlottetown Wastewater Treatment Plant. For more information, visit www.acwwa.ca, or E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
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55 | September 2008
Assessing arsenic treatment in drinking water WWA’s Water Research Foundation has released a report entitled “Assessment of Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Analysis and Stabilization Techniques”. The objectives of this research were to conduct a general physical and chemical characterization of arsenic-contaminated residuals generated in the laboratory and at operating water utilities, evaluate en-
vironmental and chemical factors impacting the release of arsenic from residuals, and evaluate methods to stabilize arsenic against release from a variety of residual materials. A recent reduction in the maximum allowable contaminant level for arsenic in municipal drinking water in the US has increased the need for effective strategies to remove arsenic from drinking water, and www.cwre.ca
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has led to the increased generation of arsenic-contaminated residuals from water treatment systems. Arsenic is commonly removed by adsorption onto oxides or hydroxides of iron or aluminum. These materials must be disposed of in a manner that ensures that arsenic will not be released after disposal. According to the report, the release of arsenic from water treatment residuals was lower from iron-based residuals, compared to aluminum-based residuals or residuals produced by lime/soda ash treatment. Arsenic release was determined by residual composition and predominant arsenic species, but was also highly impacted by pH, counter-ion, and the presence of competing ligands. More favorable arsenic retention was generally achieved with iron-based residuals, with arsenate compared to arsenite, and at pH values approaching neutrality. Increasing desorption of arsenate was observed at pH values greater than 8; however, this pH effect could be largely eliminated with calcium instead of sodium as the counter-ion. The research team undertook the following steps, during the course of the project: 1. Produced residuals in the laboratory and contaminated them with arsenate or arsenite. 2. Measured the release of arsenic under conditions of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test and over a range of pH and concentrations of phosphate, sulfate, or chloride. 3. Examined the ability of residuals to maintain pH in regions of low arsenic release. 4. Measured the effect of calcium on arsenic release. 5. Determined arsenic release from residuals from water treatment plants and pilot plants in TCLP tests and in the presence of phosphate. 6. Treated two residuals by Portland cement, lime, fly ash, and ferrous sulfate and measured arsenic release from them. Key findings of the report 1. Sorption/ desorption studies - The extent of arsenic release decreased in the following order: iron-based was greater than aluminum-based, which
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
was greater than calcium carbonate residuals. Release was affected by pH, with higher release at extreme pH values within the range of pH 4 to 10, probably due to dissolution of the solid phase. The presence of sulfate or chloride had little effect on arsenic release, but phosphate increased release. 2. Buffering capacity of residuals Residuals can affect the pH of leaching solutions, and thereby affect the amount of arsenic released. Models can be developed to predict this effect.
3. Inhibition of desorption by calcium The presence of calcium reduced the release of arsenic, whether the calcium was present during the formation of the residuals, or whether it was added only during the desorption experiment. This effect could be due to formation of solid phases containing calcium and arsenic, or by interactions between calcium and the surfaces of the residuals. 4. Analysis of field samples - Phosphate stimulated arsenic release, but sulfate and chloride had little effect. Arsenate release
was greatest at pH 10, while arsenite release was greatest at pH 4. 5. Stabilization techniques - The addition of lime resulted in reduced arsenic release, probably by forming calcium arsenate solid phases. Impact of residuals According to the report, both laboratory generated and field residuals retained arsenic well under typical environmental conditions of pH and water quality. However, increased leaching at extreme pH indicates that such conditions should be avoided. Arsenic release was associated with dissolution of solid phases in the residual, so an intact residual is evidence that arsenic will be retained well. The detrimental effect of high pH can be mitigated by also providing sufficient calcium. Solidification/stabilization processes using Portland cement/lime can be effective. The presence of chloride and sulfate had little effect on arsenic release, so their presence in landfill leachates should not promote arsenic release. For more information, visit www.awwarf.org
57 | September 2008
Project recovers free wasted energy from an OSB dryer while eliminating a hog boiler By André Normandin, Stéphane Lévesque,Yves Laflamme and Rémi Charron ith today’s increasing energy costs, mills now have new project opportunities involving heat recovery and process efficiency that are becoming more and more cost-effective. Considerable amounts of recoverable energy are wasted to the atmosphere through stacks when this could be used in various process steps. This is what the Mesar/Environair team has succeeded in doing by recovering the heat from the stack of an OSB dryer to heat the log ponds and eliminate the need for an old, out of spec hog boiler. Many oriented strand board (OSB) mills produce sufficient wood waste (bark, fines) to supply their hog boilers with cheap valuable fuel. An OSB plant located in the province of Québec decided to optimize its energy balance with the installation of a Flue Gas Heat Recovery system (FGHR) developed by Mesar-Environair inc. Process engineering The challenge of this project was not only to capture the energy from a considerable volume of waste heat, but also to find an application in the process to re-valorize it. In mid 2006, the company was asked to review the overall OSB plant energy balance. The plant was using three hog boilers to heat thermal oil for their
Figure 1 - Schematic of the energy recovery project design.
Figure 2 - Process schematic of the energy recovery system.
process. However, only the newest hog boiler was meeting particulate emissions levels; the other two were out of compliance. The mill had several options, including downsizing the hog boiler combustion chamber or the installation of a new electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Mesar-Environair inc. revised the plant’s energy balance and identified an opportunity to save tremendous operating costs for the mill. Figure 1 summarizes the overall energy balance. Process description A direct contact heat exchanger was designed to meet the mill’s requirements. The process consists of pumping
Gas out of the condenser Flow Temperature Humidity
SCFM oF %V/V
58300 231,0 32,2
58300 125,6 13,7
Water flow to log ponds Recirculation flow Water Temperature
Dryer operating Conditions Dry wood flow
Table 1- Typical operating conditions of the FGHR process. 58 | September 2008
the log pond water through showers in a vessel in a counter-current direction to the humid OSB dryer flue gas. The energy is transferred from the gas to the water, essentially through the condensation of the vapor. The hot gas from the chip dryer is intercepted at the stack through ductwork to the FGHR condenser which was specifically engineered for the application. Since pressure control in an OSB dryer is critical, an exhaust fan was installed at the vessel’s outlet to compensate for pressure loss through the condenser. The customized equipment recovered most of the wasted heat and trans-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Figure 3 - Typical performance of the FGHR process.
ferred it to the plant’s log ponds. Cool process water from the log ponds is recirculated through the condenser to catch the wasted energy. Figure 2 shows the process schematic. The main hog boiler and the chip dryer efficiency was around 80%. The FGHR process was designed to recover 85% of the wasted energy that was directed to atmosphere. Instead of letting that energy dissipate, the FGHR process uses a cool process water spray to transfer the heat from the flue gas back into the OSB process. Typically, this heat recovery unit can generate temperatures of 70 to 80°C depending on flue gas flow, temperature and humidity. The piping for the new system was installed in June 2007, the FGHR condenser was installed in July, and the commissioning was completed in September 2007. The overall construction schedule was around eight months. Results All operation parameters were monitored during the commissioning period on the plant’s distributed control systems and with local gauges. Flue gas temperatures, dew point, and static pressure at the dryer outlet were monitored via a pitot tube and standard instruments following method 1/RM/8 from Environment Canada. On the water side, temperature was measured and the flow was induced from the pump supplier’s curve. This data alwww.esemag.com
lowed Mesar/Environair to close the energy balance around the FGHR system. Table 1 demonstrates the enthalpy balance, between recovered energy and the sensible/latent heat loss from the flue gas at a ±0.5% tolerance. Consequently, heat loss through the condenser is negligible since it is insulated. Figure 3 presents results from eight trials made after the commissioning in September 2007. The dotted line shows the old hog boiler heat production to warm-up the log ponds (16 MM BTU/h). The FGHR process is able to recover over 32 MM BTU/h, twice the old hog boiler capacity. The main benefits of the FGHR system installed at this mill include heating process water without additional fuel input and shutting down an old hog boiler. Environmentally, there will be less carbon dioxide emission and less NOx going out the stack as well as less warm air being released. The project capitalization is around one million dollars. Based on a recovery rate of 20 MM BTU/h, the equivalent cash flow represents around $480,000/ year based on $6/MM BTU and 4,000 hours per year.
André Normandin, Stéphane Lévesque, Yves Laflamme and Rémi Charron are with Mesar/Environair inc. Contact: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 59 | September 2008
Remediating groundwater contaminated with By John Vogan and Kerry Bolanos Shaw chlorinated solvents hlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater is a recognized barrier to both potable water use and brownfield site redevelopment in Canada. Several high-profile trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant issues such as those in Cambridge, Ontario, and in Shannon, Québec, have increased public awareness of this problem, and also stimulated the Canadian consulting community to consider the use of in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) technologies to address this type of contamination. In particular, zero-valent iron based ISCR remedies, while established worldwide since the mid 1990s, have only recently been recognized as a viable remedial alternative in the Canadian marketplace. In the early 1990s, the use of granular zero-valent iron (ZVI) to degrade chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater was first suggested by researchers at the University of Waterloo (Gillham and O’Hannesin, 1992). Under highly reducing conditions and in the presence of metallic surfaces, certain dissolved chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater degrade to non-toxic products such as ethene, ethane and chloride via abiotic reductive dehalogenation. The iron metal serves to lower the solution redox potential (Eh) and as the electron source in the reaction. Using granular iron as the reactive metal, reaction half-lives (the time required to degrade one half of the original contaminant mass) are commonly several orders of magnitude lower than those measured under natural conditions. At roughly the same time (Seech et al., 1992), integrated particles of iron, other multi-valent metals, and plant derived carbon particles (Daramend®) were being developed to treat chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in soil. In this reactive media, iron is used to establish a low redox potential to facilitate anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds, as well as contributing to contaminant degradation via direct contact with the iron.
60 | September 2008
Figure 1. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at an Industrial Site in Toronto.
The fibrous organic carbon component of Daramend is nutrient rich, hydrophilic and has high surface area; thus, it provides ideal support for growth of bacteria. As the bacteria grow on the carbon particles, they ferment the carbon and release a variety of volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), which stimulate degradation of the contaminants in the soil. These independent lines of research have led to the development of powerful technologies to promote the degradation of common chlorinated solvents in groundwater such as trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. Zero-valent iron PRBs The University of Waterloo discovery, which became known as iron permeable
reactive barrier or PRB technology, has been described as ‘leading a paradigm shift in groundwater remediation’ (OCE, 2006). In situ PRB technology involves the construction of a permeable wall or barrier, containing appropriate reactive materials, across the path of a contaminant plume. As the contaminated groundwater passes through the PRB, the contaminants are removed. To date, granular iron PRBs have been installed at over 150 sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia. These PRBs have been installed at Superfund sites; as part of brownfield site redevelopment; at various active manufacturing, DOD and DOE facilities; at former dry cleaning continued on page 64...
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Remediation continued from page 60 facilities; and at landfills. The earliest commercial application occurred in California in early 1995, and has now been in operation successfully for the past 13 years. Warner et al. (2005) presents 10 years of geochemical data from this application. The first Canadian application did not occur until 2004, at a former industrial facility in Toronto, Ontario. Since then another five PRBs have been constructed in Canada, predominantly as part of brownfield redevelopment where there was a desire to halt the movement of these contaminants across property boundaries. A good example is at an industrial site in Toronto (Przepiora et al., 2007) where a shallow PRB was emplaced to prevent migration of VOCs off the property (Figure 1). While four of the five PRBs have involved excavation of native saturated soils and installation of a mixture of iron and sand across the plume to depths of 10m or less, a pilot-scale system installed at a Canadian Department of National Defense site in Valcartier, QuĂŠbec (Tossell et al., 2007) involved
64 | September 2008
To date, granular iron PRBs have been installed at over 150 sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia.
injecting iron using pneumatic fracturing methods to a depth of over 20 m. Combined carbon and iron treatment technology Through several years of research, the integrated particles comprising Daramend soil treatment media have
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Figure 2. CT plume before and after EHC injection.
been modified into a finer grained material (EHC®) suitable for injection into contaminant plumes. Unlike a discrete wall or treatment zone of iron particles, EHC is injected in small percentages (normally less than 1% by weight) throughout the zone of contamination.
The treatment material is mixed with potable water into a slurry and injected using direct push technology, mixing, hydraulic fracturing, pneumatic fracturing, or soil mixing. Following placement of EHC into the subsurface environment, processes anal-
ogous to those occurring in Daramend media combine to create very strong reducing conditions that stimulate rapid and complete dechlorination of organic solvents (and immobilization of certain metals) in the groundwater environment. As they grow on the particle surfaces, indigenous heterotrophic bacteria consume dissolved oxygen, thereby reducing the redox potential in groundwater. The volatile fatty acids diffuse from the site of fermentation into the groundwater plume and serve as electron donors for other bacteria, including dehalogenators and halorespiring species. The small ZVI particles (<5 to 45 μm) provide substantial reactive surface area that stimulates direct chemical dechlorination and an additional drop in the redox potential of the groundwater via chemical oxygen scavenging. The fibrous organic carbon and ZVI or other reduced metal that comprises EHC will remain in the location where it is injected. It will not only treat contaminants that migrate into the treated area, but it will also have a ‘halo’ or ‘zone of influence’ of low redox and elcontinued overleaf...
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65 | September 2008
Remediation evated dissolved organic carbon conditions that will extend beyond the injected media itself, increasing its effectiveness. This combined carbon and ZVI material was first demonstrated in the field at a former agricultural facility to treat a carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume in the southern US in late 2003. The injection of this material successfully degraded the CT present as well as its breakdown products, trichloromethane and dichloromethane (Mueller et al., 2006). (Figure 2). The first Canadian EHC injection occurred at an industrial facility in southern Ontario in the spring of 2006. This combined carbon and ZVI treatment material has since been applied at three other locations for chlorinated solvent remediation, and at two other sites for precipitation of copper, cobalt and nickel (McGregor et al., 2008). Most installations to date have been performed using Geoprobe direct push technology, although one installation was completed as an excavation backfill. Figure 3 shows the contaminant concentration in groundwater both before
Figure 3. Full scale removal of CVOCs in groundwater using EHC.
and after EHC injection at a Department of Defense site in the US. Six months following the injection (0.08% soil mass application rate), performance monitor-
The first Canadian EHC injection occurred at an industrial facility in southern Ontario in the spring of 2006. ing showed that trichloroethene (TCA) levels decreased by 94% (from 24,000 to 1,400 ppb) at the hottest area at Building
B, without accumulation of problematic intermediates. TCA levels remained nondetect at Building A. TCE levels decreased by 91% (from 49,000 to 4,400 ppb) at Building A, with a slight increase in DCE levels (from 3,027 to 5,819 ppb). TCE levels decreased by 84% (from 7,400 to 1,200 ppb) and total DCE levels decreased by 72% (from 5,300 to 1,488 ppb) at Building B. Both ZVI PRBs and EHC injected treatment zones share the following advantages: • Low maintenance costs; • No operating costs; • Long-term passive treatment; • Absence of waste materials requiring treatment or disposal; • Absence of invasive surface structures and equipment; and • Conservation of groundwater resources (no pumping required). Although other types of amendments (e.g. molasses) have seen some use for stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, none has the benefit of ZVI in promoting contaminant destruction. In particular, in these ZVIbased remedies, chlorinated compounds are degraded with production of few, if any, hazardous (chlorinated) organic byproducts. Three iron PRB installations and four EHC injections are scheduled to occur in various locations in Canada later in 2008, indicating that these types of ISCR technologies are rapidly gaining acceptance in the Canadian marketplace.
John Vogan is with EnviroMetal Technologies Inc Kerry Bolanos Shaw is with Adventus Americas Inc. E-mail: email@example.com
66 | September 2008
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Over 17,000 vortex valves now control stormwater By Robert Y.G. Andoh, Mike Faram and Dave Scott detention system flows ater industry officials throughout Europe â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and in a growing number of municipalities in North America â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tend to think of vortex valves as a novel technology for outlet flow control on a stormwater detention system. Most of these 17,000+ valves installed around the world are, in fact, implemented on stormwater detention schemes because use of a valve can reduce the required storage volume by up to 50% while still meeting the maximum discharge requirement. But vortex valves actually have many other uses in stormwater, wastewater and combined sewer systems, including erosion control, re-oxygenation of water and flow equalization in wastewater treatment plants. Inlet control for inflow reduction A common use of vortex valves is to alleviate overflow problems prevalent in combined sewer and stormwater drainage
68 | September 2008
systems. Many older communities in Canada, Europe and the United States struggle with outmoded combined sewer systems that carry sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipes. During dry weather or light rain, the combined flows
are conveyed efficiently to the wastewater treatment plant. However, during heavy rains, the total combined flow may exceed the capacity of the treatment plant and cause discharge to overflow untreated into nearby rivers and streams.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Stormwater Management This means that pathogens, suspended solids, toxins, and floatable matter – essentially untreated sewage and other debris – is being washed right into the receiving water. To allay fears about water degradation and health effects to those in contact with the receiving water after a period of overflow or discharge, the US Environmental Protection Agency mandated that all communities with CSOs either eliminate or minimize the number of sewer overflows to prevent sewage from discharging into bodies of water untreated. The problem is that digging up city streets and separating these pipes is an extremely costly endeavor that most communities cannot afford to undertake. That’s where vortex valves come in. CSO communities such as the City of Ottawa are using these devices to control the flow of stormwater that enters the combined sewer system. The valve operates on simple fluid hydraulics. Designed with a snail or conical shape, high stormwater flows initiate a vortex within the valve that restricts the flow of water that can pass
Assembled S-Type Vortex Valve.
through the device. When head pressure builds, water circulates in a vortex pattern, allowing an air core to form within the device to prevent surging of water to the combined conveyance system. Under low-flow conditions, the valve
acts as a large orifice where water and debris pass directly from the inlet to the outlet. As flow increases and reaches the flush flow point, high peripheral velocities start to throttle. As pressure increases, an aerated core, accompanied by substantial backpressure, effectively restricts the flow through the outlet aperture. Attenuated flow can be temporarily stored in underground tanks, surface ponds or on the street for slow release into the sewer system, thereby preventing overflow of the treatment system. A recent report released by the City of Ottawa revealed that 730,000 cubic metres of combined sewer water overflowed from 18 overflow points in the ninemonth rainy period of 2007. The City is currently working on a $25 million plan that will eliminate most of the overflows. Phases I and II of the plan, to be implemented over the next two years, incorporate approximately 1,000 vortex valve units in catch basins around the City to prevent excess stormwater from entering the sewer system and causing overflows. continued overleaf...
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Stormwater Management Flood control The incidence of major flooding has increased around the world as global urbanization has continued apace. Consequently, major flood prevention schemes are being engineered all over the world, from California to Europe and Asia. Many of these schemes utilize dams to create a storage reservoir upstream of a community at risk of flooding. Vortex valves are becoming an increasingly common outlet flow control for such dams because they can re-
70 | September 2008
quire less than half the area of land being submerged upstream of the dam during times of heavy rainfall. A number of these flood storage reservoirs incorporating vortex valve outlets on dams have been built in the UK, with the largest to date built in 1999 in Weedon, England. Larger vortex valve flow controls will be used on the City of Glasgow, Scotlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ongoing ÂŁ50 million White Cart Water Flood Prevention Scheme, designed to protect 1,750 homes and businesses in Glas-
gow. Five vortex valves, the largest of which will stand more than six metres tall, will be used to control the discharge from dams which will be constructed to create the flood water storage areas. Erosion control The flow control capabilities of vortex valves also makes them ideal for preventing erosion where outlet pipes release water to a channel bed. During low flow conditions, a vortex valve acts as a large orifice and slowly conveys water from a pipe into a receiving channel. As flow increases, water spins around in a vortex pattern, allowing an air core to form within. As the head continues to increase, the air core stabilizes, throttling back the valve discharge to a flow rate equal that of a smaller orifice. Thus, the flow of water released to the channel is reduced. Due to the air core in the valve, the discharge from the valve at its exit is in the form of a fan-shaped spray with much less erosive velocity than a jet stream of flow exiting an orifice. This helps to prevent dangerous sinkholes from occurring near drainage pipes. Another advantage of the resulting water spray is the re-oxygenation of emitted water. When stormwater is stored underground, its oxygen levels begin to get depleted, diminishing the water quality. High oxygen levels are necessary to support aquatic life. Thus, it is detrimental to nearby animal and plant life to merely discharge water stored underground right into a river or stream without first improving the oxygen quality. As flow is released from systems using vortex valves, the resulting water spray helps to reintroduce oxygen and improve water quality. Capture and control of floatable trash Vortex valves can also be tied to inlet control systems to prevent trash from entering a drainage system. This is particularly beneficial for drainage systems that discharge into nearby water bodies. Typically, municipalities install a technology called a hood or snout (which looks much like an oven hood). This device acts like a baffle, keeping floatable trash in the catch basin instead of allowing it in to clog pipes. Vortex valves offer an alternative to hoods or snouts, but with more effective
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Stormwater Management flow control and water quality benefits such as the re-aeration of flows. Flow equalization These innovative devices are also useful within treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants must contend with surges in flow during peak usage times, such as early morning hours when many residents are taking showers. Combine these peak usage times with large amounts of rain and the plant will see a huge surge of flow that overwhelms treatment processes, causing the loss of solids from clarifier tanks and washout of activated sludge from aeration basins.
Outlet control Vortex valves are most commonly applied to alleviate the high cost of storing stormwater runoff. Typically, green space is a natural filter for absorbing and cleaning stormwater. However, as more and more land succumbs to development of impervious structures such as homes, buildings and parking lots, managing stormwater becomes more difficult. Thus, developers are required to install stormwater detention systems whenever developing or redeveloping a
This is also an effective means of combating flow surges from saturated groundwater, high water tables, or illegal hookups to the drainage system.
property. One of the most common stormwater treatment and detention systems is the retention pond. However, in urban settings where land value is at a premium, a stormwater pond is often uneconomical or physically impossible. Thus, developers often must use underground storage vaults to capture stormwater runoff. This was the problem facing Chevy Chase Bank when it began planning the continued overleaf...
Aquatech is a complete service provider of specialized Pumping & Environmental Equipment for ďŹ&#x201A;uid handling & testing applications. While mostly known for Dewatering, Bypass Pumping and related services, we also offer Rental and Turn-
With flow equalization, excess stormwater is diverted to temporary storage, and the maximum allowable flow is sent directly to the treatment plant. Once the storm subsides, the excess flow is directed back to the treatment plant. This approach ensures that water receives the appropriate level of treatment and does not by-pass the system without receiving adequate levels of treatment. Vortex valves are now being used to control the flow through each stage of the treatment system, thereby preventing hydraulic overloading. This, for example, prevents flows from being pushed forward from the primary treatment stage to the secondary treatment stage before they have received adequate levels of treatment. This is also an effective means of combating flow surges from saturated groundwater, high water tables, or illegal hookups to the drainage system. Since municipalities often have no way of knowing where illegal hookups are connected to their drainage system, it is often difficult to predict when unexpected flow surges will occur and will overload the system. Properly placed vortex valves control this flow to prevent unexpected surges from taxing the system. www.esemag.com
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71 | September 2008
C-Type Valve in a CSO Application.
creation of a new branch in Darnesville, Maryland. Initially the site engineer was recommending the use of a 826 cubicmetres storage tank to keep the depth of water in the tank shallow enough so that the head pressure didn’t drive too much water out of a 51 mm diameter orifice,
the minimum allowable outlet size in most American and Canadian stormwater storage applications. However, in the end, the firm used a 76 mm vortex valve in place of the 51 mm orifice. The valve passes more flow at low head and throttles the flow back
under higher head conditions. Thus, the engineers could increase the depth of the stormwater storage tank without causing the system to over discharge. By reducing the volume of the tank and associated construction labor costs, the vortex valve saved over $150,000 (US) on the project. Conclusion The ability of vortex valves to control the flow of water and provide optimal discharge flow makes them a versatile device for a range of stormwater and wastewater applications. These valves alter their behavior automatically in response to low and heavy rain conditions, improving flow rates while preventing troublesome system overflows. The innovative ways vortex valves are being applied is helping communities tackle some of the most vexing flooding and pollution challenges they face today. Robert Y.G. Andoh, Mike Faram and Dave Scott are with Hydro International. For more information E-mail: email@example.com
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Decanter centrifuges used for industrial wastewater treatment orth American industrial wastewater discharge is heavily regulated, and enforced with surcharges, fines, and the threat of permit rejections. Some manufacturers are modifying their production processes to produce the minimum wastewater possible, thereby reducing the volume and/or severity of treatment required downstream. But, at the end of the day, there remains a significant amount of industrial wastewater that cannot be discharged “as is”. Furthermore, in many plants the wastewater is circulated and re-circulated in other areas of the facility. There may be equipment in place to remove coarse materials, but a significant amount of solids can remain in the circulating water volume. If the solids are abrasive, the result can be expensive as instruments, pumps, right angle pipe elbows, nozzles, etc., can experience severe erosion over a brief period of time. Some plants shut down for one month each year to repair this erosion damage as well as for other annual preventive maintenance work. Eliminating erosion damage, or at least reducing the erosion damage, could limit plant “down-time” and increase productivity. The measures required to treat industrial wastewater are as varied as the industries themselves. Oil, grease, emulsion, complex organic chemicals, biodegradable organics, heavy metals, acids and alkalis are but a few of the undesirable wastewater contents that industrial manufacturers must eliminate or reduce in order to remain in business. Chemical and mechanical methods are
commonly employed to remediate wastewater streams, and often both methods are required to attain acceptable discharge clarity. The following list is an attempt to provide a starting point for an interested party’s investigation: Removing coarse to very fine solids: Screens (drum, static, vibratory) ..... Flocculation Polymer injection ................ Precipitation Coagulation ........................ Settling Flotation (DAF) .................. Centrifugation
Sludge treatment: Dewatering .......................... Stabilization Thickening ...........................Drying
Super cleaning: Membrane filtration Oxidation (chemical, ultraviolet, wet air)
Solids removal from industrial wastewater This article will focus on the use of decanter centrifuges in the treatment of industrial wastewater. The centrifuge is fed as shown at the far right of Figure 1. The heavy phase (solids) is almost immediately g-forced to the outside of the chamber where it is
Feed stock Particle Size Dist. d10 d25 d50 d75 d90 MAX Microns Solids %
conveyed to the right, up the Beach, and out the solids discharge ports. The liquid, which is collecting closer to the centrifuge centerline, travels to the left where it is finally discharged through the liquid weirs, and returned to the process, or to the water authority. The difference in speed between the bowl (outer vessel) and the conveyor (helical interior scroll) can be adjusted to optimize the separation result. A high differential speed removes the solids quickly and is often used when the solids are very dense and plentiful, which helps to avoid packing the machine with solids and forcing a shutdown. A low differential speed is used when the specific gravity is low and cake dryness is difficult to achieve. Liquid discharge weirs and pump feed volume can also be adjusted to maximize the performance of the centrifuge. Depending upon the contents of the feed liquid, the following process parameters can be met:
Post centrifuge Particle Size Dist. d10 d25 d50 d75 d90 MAX
Microns 4.342 9.702 34.25 230.1 658.8 1041 21-40 10%
41 - > 48%
Microns < - 2 Solids % 62%
Microns 0.244 0.392 1.625 2.562 4.448 11.83 11-20 0.1%
21 - > 0.0% 73 | September 2008
Wastewater â&#x20AC;˘ Feed stock from 3 to 12% solids. â&#x20AC;˘ Remove particles greater than 6 to 10 microns. â&#x20AC;˘ 24% to 50% solids discharge. Typical industrial applications 1. Steel manufacturing: Decanters are currently in use at steel plants where they separate grit, slag, and other heavy solids from water waste streams. Due to the extreme abrasive characteristics of the feed stock, the centrifuges are fitted with sintered tungsten carbide wear protection, and monitored often for wear. Down time for centrifuge reconditioning is minimized by keeping a spare rotating assembly (bowl and conveyor unit) on site. When required, the rotating assemblies are swapped out, the repair of the worn-out rotating assembly is performed, and the reconditioned rotating assembly is returned to the site. The centrifuges produce a cake which is transportable, and an effluent which, while not crystal clear in appearance, is essentially free of the abrasive components of the feed stock. The cost benefits of the separation include: reuse of the water, reduced solids dis-
74 | September 2008
posal cost, and reduced instrument, pump and piping repairs (annually). 2. Plastic recycling: Plastic recyclers consume an enormous volume of water per day. The water is mainly used to clean the raw incoming plastic stock material, which varies from load to load and from plant to plant. Some plants accept everything: plastic bottles of all sorts, plastic pallets, plastic park benches, trash bins, etc. Other recycling plants are more selective about what they will treat. With the stock material comes varying amounts of un-consumed milk, soda, and other food residue, as well as labels, dirt and unidentifiable substances. Similar in nature to municipal waste dewatering, the liquid/solids separation often requires the addition of coagulant and polymer. The economic drivers for implementation of waste clean-up systems are the regulatory limits which local/regional water authorities place on BOD and water discharge volumes. 3. WESP flush line clean-up: As with steel manufacturing, the main benefit of cleaning WESP (wet electro
static precipitators) flush lines is to reduce maintenance costs. WESPs are used to clean smoke discharge from boilers used for power generation. The fuel source from the boilers can be coal, wood, or other flammables. When the fuel source is dirty, such as when wood bark is used, the cost benefits in centrifuging the flush water are extremely attractive. ROI can be realized within one year. Selected test results Table 1 and 2 show the before and after results of running a diatomaceous earth and water slurry through a decanter centrifuge. Removing solid contaminants from industrial wastewater quite often is an overwhelming undertaking full of surcharges and fees. There are several types of equipment that can help you with this process, and with the proper equipment and the appropriate knowledge you may be able to eliminate a lot of those costs. For more information E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Library of congress announces new“learning from Katrina”web page oday marks the third anniversary of Hurricane Katrina’s devastating impact on New Orleans and the Gulf Coast. In commemoration, and in light of the current hurricane season, the Library of Congress announces a Web site titled “Learning from Katrina,” which provides insights for better responses to record and artifact damage by hurricanes. On this site, www.loc.gov/preserv/ emergprep/katrinarespond.html, visitors can hear seven interviews with professional conservators who helped salvage collections affected in August 2005. In the interviews, responders discuss the lessons learned, their motivations, expectations and preparations, and their experiences. The interviews were conducted in 2006 at the Library of Congress by the Preservation Directorate, in collaboration with the Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) and the American Folklife Center. Hurricanes can damage collections in several ways. High winds, flying debris, driving rain and rushing and rising waters can break windows, blow papers around, scatter and tear documents, and knock over bookshelves. Water can dissolve inks, colorants and other components of letters, prints, photographs and books. More importantly, floodwaters arising from a hurricane’s pelting rain are often contaminated, depositing soil, mud or toxins on precious family treasures. Following rain or flooding from hurricanes, residual dampness can lead to the growth of mold, which can cause health problems for humans and disfigure books and papers. Some papers, such as clay-coated illustrations, can also stick or “block” together. Despite these dire possibilities, there are actions that can be taken to salvage collections of hurricane-damaged papers, prints, books and even audiovisual materials such as films, tapes, CDs and DVDs. The Library's Preservation Directorate's Emergency Preparedness webpage links to many helpful publications and organizations. The Family Treasures page on “Preserving Treasures After Disaster” includes information on dry-
ing wet materials and video clips on handling damaged objects. Other video clips can be found at the Heritage Preservation Foundation. Other experts can be found through the "Selecting a Conservator" page of the American Institute of Conservation. The Library's collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution, National
Archives, and National Park Service has created “A Primer on Disaster Preparedness, Management and Response: Paper-Based Materials”. Recommended links for flood-related emergencies are given at the Library’s Flood Response Web page, www.loc.gov/preserv/emergprep/flood. html.
Supplier of Water & Wastewater Treatment Equipment
Chain & Flight Sludge Collectors NRG Collector Components
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Call: 1-800-570-8779 C & M Environmental Technologies Inc., Barrie, Ontario Tel: 705.725.9377 • Fax: 705.725.8279 • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.cmeti.com 75 | September 2008
Mining industry adopting new wastewater By Dr. David Kratochvil treatment processes
Precipitated metals and treated water are pumped to a clarifier tank.
hile industrial wastewater can be treated for reuse, or discharge to the environment, in most cases it does not meet standards for potable consumption. As the world becomes â&#x20AC;&#x153;drierâ&#x20AC;?, government and industry alike are looking closely at water usage practices and water recycling/reuse options. One of the most voracious consumers of water is the mining industry and many within the industry are taking on a leadership role in adopting technologies to improve water recycling processes and treat contaminated water for safe discharge. Major mining operations in China, South America and the U.S., where excessive water usage and impending shortages abound, have been extremely proactive in advancing water treatment practices. There are technologies in place that have been relatively effective in treating wastewater from mining activities. Lime treatment, for example, has been used for years in treating acid mine drainage. However, this process can create a toxic sludge that requires costly remediation
76 | September 2008
efforts. Reverse osmosis has been in use for some time but the systems can be expensive, and a large percentage of the water processed can still end up in waste streams. Newer sulphide and ion exchange technologies can allow operations to recycle well over 90% of the water used in processing at less cost. A single mining facility in the western United States using this type of technology, for example, is now able to reuse 2.8 billion litres of wastewater per year. One of the main contaminants of water in the mining industry is acid mine drainage, a phenomenon that occurs at about 70% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mine sites. This naturally occurring process is a result of water and oxygen reacting with exposed sulphide minerals in waste rock, tailings, rock cuts and underground workings. In the process, the acid wastewater picks up a variety of heavy metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and arsenic, resulting in a toxic cocktail of water and dissolved metals. Sulphide and ion exchange technolo-
gies are now being adopted that allow industrial and resource industries to meet regulatory requirements, minimize environmental impact, and increase recycling capacity to near 100% levels. They also address the newer requirements for sulphate removal. In both cases, these technologies not only produce clean water that can be safely discharged to the environment or to municipal treatment systems for processing, they also enable the recovery of metals and other by-products from contaminated water for resale. The sulphide process uses hydrogen sulphide gas generated biologically at the treatment site to selectively remove and recover metals from contaminated water. Where a biological sulphide source is not
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
warranted, a chemical sulphide process can be used. In both cases, the sulphide reagent is introduced to a contactor tank that contains the contaminated water to be treated. Solution chemistry in the tank is adjusted to selectively precipitate metals as pure metal sulphides. Precipitated metals and treated water are pumped to a clarifier tank where clean water is separated from the metal solids and either discharged to the local environment, or recycled. Metal solids are then filtered to remove excess water, producing a high grade metal product suitable for refining. Metals that can be recovered include copper, nickel, zinc, and cobalt. Other
toxic metals, such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, lead, selenium, molybdenum and manganese, can also be removed from the water. This metal recovery technology is now fully deployed at four operating and/or closed mine sites in the United States, Canada, Australia, and China, with new projects in development in Mexico and Chile. Ion exchange processing is specifically designed to remove sulphate to very low levels and produce clean water that meets tightening regulations for sulphate discharge. In addition, this process creates a saleable gypsum byproduct that can be used in fertilizer manufacturing and building products.
Ion exchange can be deployed at comparatively low capital and operating costs. In addition, there is no residual product that requires special disposal. The process employs two different resins to remove calcium and sulphate ions from water. The complete process cycle includes resin loading, regeneration and rinsing, and can be applied to treating any process stream or wastewater high in total dissolved solids (TDS) or hardness caused by calcium or magnesium. Future prospects Increasing our ability to reuse and recycle wastewater is becoming a paramount issue. With the proper technologies in place, a significant percentage of current wastewater reserves can be treated for reuse in industrial applications. Alternatively, water can be properly treated for safe discharge to the environment and/or reuse for agricultural and municipal purposes. David Kratochvil is the President and Chief Operating Officer of BioteQ Environmental Technologies.
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w w w. c o n t o r. c o m 77 | September 2008
Improving EHS performance through integrated management systems By Philippe Tesler nvironmental Health and Safety (EHS) management no longer means simply addressing narrow issues of compliance. It now encompasses the entire enterprise, affecting – and threatening – every aspect of a company’s business. In the regulatory and legal arena, poor EHS performance can mean high costs of compliance, regulatory penalties, and potentially ruinous litigation. On the operations side, EHS performance directly figures into the costs of production, materials handling, remediation, and product safety. In the marketplace, greener competitors stand ready to take market share. And with the public, which simply expects socially-responsible products, a reputation for corporate irresponsibility risks degrading the brand and, ultimately, the value of the company. With the entire enterprise at risk, the stakes could not be higher. Companies
78 | September 2008
will, therefore, have to create a comprehensive, integrated system for organization-wide EHS management. It can be achieved in three steps: 1. Breaking down departmental silos. EHS and corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues cut across departments and functions. For example, the sourcing function wants to find the lowestcost suppliers, while CSR tries to reduce the environmental and social impacts of the company’s supply chain; these goals can be at odds. Only an organizationwide EHS system can align such potentially competing interests. 2. Replacing inefficient information systems. Excel, financial reporting and consolidation tools, and local environmental management systems are simply inadequate to meet the requirements of today’s comprehensive, global, real-time management of EHS. A new breed of software and technology solutions is now
available to provide the technological infrastructure for an integrated system. 3. Creating an EHS culture. Leadership must make it clear that EHS management must be seen as a shared responsibility at all levels of the company and must ensure that rewards and incentives are designed to reinforce that culture. It sounds daunting but the good news is that integrated EHS management generates significant business benefits; achieving it is not as difficult as it might appear; and there are some proven best practices that have evolved among companies that are doing it successfully. The business potential In most companies, the most important and potentially valuable EHS information is found at the local level. Local EHS managers and other front-line employees know EHS issues through first-hand experience; they see the consequences of poor performance up close; and they often
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
EHS Fig. 1 - Example of an integrated management platform.
Enablon Integration EHS Management Platform
have great insight about how to prevent incidents and improve operations. But there is much that they don’t know: what other facilities are doing to address similar issues, how local performance fits into company performance and objectives as a whole, and how best to meet the new requirements that seem to be heaped on their shoulders daily. They have neither the means to share their data and knowledge with the wider company in a timely fashion nor a way to benefit from such information from other facilities. Meanwhile, corporate executives, lacking real-time reporting, monitoring, and information from widely dispersed facilities struggle to coordinate companywide EHS management and thereby improve EHS performance. But with an integrated system to collect and consolidate data, automate reporting, and allow enterprise-wide information sharing, companies can tap the full potential of data that currently languishes in outmoded information systems at the local level. Integrated systems can enable the company to: • Identify best practices and share them throughout the organization. • Set performance targets and monitor progress toward meeting them. • Assess compliance at all sites and at the company level. www.esemag.com
• Identify risks and mitigate them. • Gain a thorough, in-depth view of performance. • Benefit from more reliable, auditable, and readily available EHS data.
Getting started While many companies have devoted enormous energy to mastering environmental science and engineering in order to improve their EHS performcontinued overleaf...
79 | September 2008
EHS ance, they are often laggardly at mastering the systems necessary to make sure that those efforts aren’t wasted by poor management of EHS data. These companies may be unaware that an entirely new generation of software and technology solutions has brought fully integrated EHS management systems within easy reach. Or they may fear that such technology projects entail time-consuming and costly implementations on the scale of enterprise resource planning systems (ERP). In fact, integrated system solutions are not only readily available, but they can also be up and running – and generating immediate benefits – in as little as three to four months with immediate return on investment (ROI). The flexibility, ease of implementation, and resulting high ROI of these new solutions stem in part from their modular design, which allows companies to adopt only the modules they need to address their specific needs. The best of these solutions are also comprehensive, offering modules for virtually any need: audit management, compli-
ance management, performance management, and incident management, all resting on a shared technology platform across the company (Figure 1). Armed with the knowledge of the design and capabilities of this new breed of solutions, you can easily and efficiently establish an integrated EHS
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80 | September 2008
management system by following these key steps: 1. Prioritize your requirements: Not all companies have identical needs or identical priorities in EHS management. Depending on their industry, the structure of their organization, the regulatory environment, and the state of their current EHS management system, different companies will emphasize different aspects of EHS. Some companies may need greater transparency in their data; others may focus on reducing supply chain risk or environmental costs, while still others concentrate on information sharing or reducing non-compliance risk. For example, a company in the industrial sector will be more concerned with issues of environmental compliance, CO2 emissions tracking, or site remediation. A consumer goods company might be more interested in product safety across its supply chain. In any case, these priorities should be reflected in the modules and functionalities of whatever system you create or acquire. 2. Assess the existing system: Inventory your current EHS management system and, if it meets most of your priorities or could be made to do so through a little tweaking, then by all means keep it, assuming, of course, that you have also assessed its capabilities against those of the new generation of solutions. If, however, a process map of your current system looks like a Rube Goldberg device or depicts a hodgepodge of disconnected and inconsistent processes, you
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
EHS likely need to plan on some fairly extensive changes that could range from intensive integration with your legacy systems to getting rid of them entirely. Compare the cost of replacing your system with the cost of integrating it with a new solution. It is often cheaper and faster, with less drain on IT resources, to replace the system altogether. 3. Weigh running the system in-house versus a subscription service: Each alternative has its advantages. Outsourcing through a subscription service enables you to get up and running more quickly and requires less capital expenditure up front. But, if a great deal of integration with the existing system is required, it is usually easier to do it internally. 4. Select a solution: The most effective way to sort through the inevitably competing claims of solution vendors is to ask your peers at other companies about their experiences. In those conversations and in your own evaluations of different solutions, keep in mind that it is the frontline user at the facility level who holds the key to unlocking the hidden value in your EHS operations. If those users don’t like the solution and don’t see the value in it, they won’t use it effectively and your investment will be wasted. 5. Pursue a phased implementation: Attempting to implement the new system throughout the company at once can be highly disruptive. It is far better to begin with a pilot project that allows you to get a feel for the full potential of the solution and to make sure that it fits the needs of all levels of the company,
not just corporate. Once you have successfully piloted it, you can then roll it out more widely, being sure to allocate adequate resources of people and time to set-up and full-scale implementation. For the most efficient use of people resources during rollout use a “train the trainer” approach rather than training the end-users individually. It is not only more
efficient and less costly but also, if you find it necessary to train the end-users individually, the solution you’ve chosen probably isn’t user-friendly enough. Philippe Tesler is the co-founder of Enablon, a sustainable development reporting and management software solutions provider.
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81 | September 2008
Improving clarifier operation by eliminating sludge dilution ulse transfer thickening (PTT) is a term developed by FLS Dorr-Oliver Eimco, which describes the capability of its airoperated diaphragm pump (ODS) pump to eliminate dilution, when sludge is withdrawn from a clarifier. The company says this pump has the ability to match the pumping rate to the settling rate in pulse transfer thickening. Pump transfers at low flow rates enhance the ability of the solids to settle in the clarifier, maximizing efficiency. An ODS pump operates by displacing its pumping cavity in less than two seconds, which generates scouring velocities equal to electrically driven pumps, moving in excess of 200 gallons per minute through the piping. The pulsing action of the pump prevents piping from plugging, says the company. Standard practice in designing pumping systems for withdrawing primary sludge has been influenced by the following parameters:
82 | September 2008
ODS pumps displace their operating cavities in less than two seconds.
1. With a waste stream containing 200 ppm of suspended solids, typically an accumulation rate of 2400 gallons per day of 5% primary sludge is sought for each MGD of influent, or 1.67 gallons per minute on a continuous basis. 2. Piping of 6 to 8 inches in diameter is generally mandated. 3. It is common practice to design for a minimum veloc-
ity of 2.5 feet per second withdrawal rate to prevent clogging. Because the sludge accumulation rate in the clarifier is low, it is standard practice to use some kind of timed cycle withdrawal, where the pumps operate at high rates for several minutes at a time, somewhere between 50 and 200 gallons per minute, to prevent clogging of pipes. The pulse transfer thickening capa-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater bility of the ODS pump enables it to remove sludge continuously from the settling tank, pumping sludge from the bottom of the sludge blanket at the rate at which it accumulates. In other words, the pumping rate is automatically matched to the sludge accumulation rate. Required velocities are maintained automatically, without any loss of the turbulent scouring velocity to keep solids in suspension and without risk of clogging the pipes. PPT works efficiently, no matter how low the sludge accumulation rate, says the manufacturer. Based on the experiences encountered by treatment plants utilizing PPT, the company claims an average increase in sludge consistency of about 60%. This is because rather than drawing off hundreds of gallons of sludge in a timed cycle, as in conventional pumping systems, with the ODS pump only 4.5 gallons of sludge is withdrawn with each pulse. For more information, contact Bev House, ICR Water Technologies Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NEWS Evaluating water contaminant warning systems AWWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Water Research Foundation has published a new report on a simulation tool to assess the performance of contaminant warning systems for water utilities. The Foundation co-sponsored the study, on which the report is based, with Sandia National Laboratories, to provide water agencies with a method to evaluate contaminant warning system designs before purchasing and installing. Contaminant warning systems provide water utility personnel with early detection of potential chemical or biological contaminants in their water distribution systems. The simulation method developed in the study models different contamination scenarios, so that various sensor types and locations within a water distribution system can be evaluated. The simulation tool allows utilities to realistically gauge how different operational parameters influence overall system performance. By using the tool, specific sensor attributes can be configured in the simulation so that different
commercial sensor options in a utilityspecific contaminant warning system design can be compared. To obtain a copy of the report, visit www.awwarf.org
Siemens to help restore China's Taihu Lake The Chinese city of Wuxi, in Jiangsu province, has selected Siemens to help upgrade its municipal wastewater plant and help restore the water quality of Taihu Lake. An important water source for 30 million people, the lake has been heavily polluted by municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. Siemens will supply a Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR) system for the upgrading of Wuxi Xincheng Wastewater Treatment Plant, one of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s three main wastewater treatment plants. The MBR system will treat 30,000 cubic meters of wastewater per day, and will play an important role in helping the city to treat more than 90 percent of its wastewater by 2010. The system is scheduled for commissioning at the end of 2008.
83 | September 2008
Odor control systems
Bioscrubber and biofilter
The HAWK line of radial flow odor control systems is designed to be a low cost, highly effective system for removing H2S and other compounds from municipal wastewater applications. The system utilizes radial flow operation, with the foul air entering from the outside, then diffused through the media bed. Contaminates are then removed and the clean air is collected in the inner portion of the vessel and exits the exhaust stack. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com
Bay Products OdorDigest DuO systems are a line of staged compartment systems capable of removing odorous compounds from a variety of sources. Air is pulled or pushed from the source to the bottom of the system whereby odorous air enters the bioscrubber section and diffuses up through the BPI’s BioScrub-XL foam. Humidified and hydrogen sulfide free air exits the top of the bioscrubber section and is transferred to the bottom of the biofilter compartment plenum. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.acgtechnology.com
AQUATECH is a complete service provider of specialized dewatering, bypass pumping and environmental equipment for all fluid handling, filtration and testing applications. Aquatech also offers a complete line of specialized pumping equipment including diesel, hydraulic and electric powered centrifugals, electric submersibles, wellpoint pumps and emergency response services. Tel: 905-907-1700, Fax 905-907-1701 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.aquatechdewatering.com
Aquatech Dewatering Co., Inc.
Concrete arch bridges
Product & Service Showcase
Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Québec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.armtec.com Armtec
Phoenix Underdrain System
• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm • Manufactured from corrosion resistant stainless steel • Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution. Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI 84 | September 2008
Environmentally responsible solutions
Phoenix Panel System
Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater runoff. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.armtec.com
• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Removal of existing underdrain not required • Eliminates the need for filter gravel • Improves backwash distribution • Longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.awifilter.com
BakerCorp specializes in vapour and liquid, organic and inorganic, high flow and low flow filtration solutions and services for temporary and permanent applications. Baker’s product line includes 10K filtration systems, high and low pressure carbon and specialty media vessels, sand filters, duplex cartridges, duplex bag filters, odor control systems and auxiliary equipment. Tel: 905-545-4555, 1-800-BAKER 12 Web: www.bakercorp.com BakerCorp
Manhole barrier New “All in One” manhole barrier with built-in tripod from Pelsue is small, lightweight yet offers the 5000 lb rating for fall arrest. It can be used with man-rated winches and/or self retracting lifelines. It was designed to fit inside most Pelsue one piece pop-up tents for inclement weather. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. They are ideal for use in copper mines, coal power plants, saltwater fish farms, shipyards, etc. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: PB@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps
Portable steel buildings
Contor has become an industry leader in the design and manufacture of quality built, portable steel buildings and container modifications. Contor builds custom enclosures for a wide range of industrial applications, including electrical and mechanical rooms, portable water filtration housing, fuel cell and generator enclosures. For more information visit www.contor.com Contor Terminals
Dissolved air flotation system
The Handbook of Steel Drainage & Highway Construction Products has been reprinted and is once again available (January 2007). There are minor changes to the 2002 version. Most significant are design examples for large soil steel structures that illustrate procedures using Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.cspi.ca
The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. The AquaDAF is a hybrid of conventional DAF and optimally designed system components. It is highly effective for the treatment of a range of raw water characteristics including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, color and algae. Web: www.infilcodegremont.com
Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
DeWind provides one-pass installation of gravel filled trenches with simultaneous installation of horizontal HDPE screens near trench bottom; also, trenches for groundwater collection, free-product recovery, or air-sparging applications. Dewatering is generally not required. Depths to 35 feet building up to 57 feet in key trenches. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: dewinddewatering.com DeWind Dewatering & Trenching
With DeWind's One-Pass trencher technology, deep environmental horizontal collection trenches, reactive barriers, and slurry walls are installed in a single pass directly into contaminated water and soil. There is no need to dewater or remediate. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: email@example.com Web: dewinddewatering.com DeWind Dewatering & Trenching
Engineering Student Awards
CSPI has announced the winners of its National Team Design Competition for 2007-2008. First place ($2,500) goes to C. Hartford, C. Thibert, and C. Carriere, while 2nd place ($1,500) goes to J. Dukovcic, I. Khan, J. Toth and (W.Clements), all from the University of Windsor. It is part of CSPI’s Educational Outreach Program. For entry in this year’s program, visit www.cspi.ca Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.densona.com Denso
New calibration facility
Endress+Hauser Flowtec AG in Switzerland, the company’s new calibration facility, sets standards worldwide. The facility produces measurements that deviate no more than ±0.015 percent from the reference value – equivalent to about the contents of one champagne glass in one thousand litres of water. Endress+Hauser operates in accordance with internationally accepted standards for the accreditation of its products. Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress + Hauser 85 | September 2008
Product & Service Showcase
New stainless steel pumps
Firestone MultiLiner is a reinforced polypropylene-based membrane that enhances the physical properties of the membrane by inserting a strong, polyester fabric (scrim) between the top and bottom plies. This combination gives it its extremely high breaking/tearing strength and puncture resistance. It is ideal for geomembrane applications. Tel: 888-292-6265, Fax: 877-666-3022 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.firestonebpco.ca Firestone Building Products Canada
Product & Service Showcase
Glentel provides integrated MSAT and VSAT solutions for real-time mission critical communications and data management. SCADA solutions allow for monitoring and controlling vital water flows, and sending data from and control signals to PLCs, meters, valve and pump controls. Tel: 1-800-GLENTEL Web: www.Glentel.com Glentel Inc.
Genuine parts Quick Ship program
Gardner Denver offers Quick Ship programs for many common bearing and seal kits. Only genuine Gardner Denver parts can reliably meet the performance standards of the original blower design. This program ensures superior factory parts and fast delivery. Tel: 770-632-5000, Fax: 770-486-5629 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.gardnerdenver.com Gardner Denver Engineered Products Division
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
Get the Right Mix
The Grundfos Alldos DDI range was designed for accurate and precise dosing demands. Offering models with Flow Monitor makes this an all-in-one dosing solution. This product is closely examined and illustrated in this 39 page Product Guide. To receive your FREE copy, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: 1-800-644-9599, Fax. 1-800-265-9862 Web: www.grundfosalldos.com
Grundfos is a global leader in pumps and pumping solutions and offers a complete range of metering pumps to provide you with “The Right Mix” of water treatment products. To request your FREE copy of this full colour 15 page brochure, please email dmayorga @grundfos.com. Tel: 1-800-644-9599, Fax. 1-800-265-9862 Web: www.grundfosalldos.com
86 | September 2008
Geneq’s SXBlue II, a next generation submeter, BluetoothTM wireless GPS mapping receiver allows you to use off-the-shelf Bluetoothenabled PDA/notebook computers to collect GPS map data. It offers improved tracking/accuracy under tree canopy, improved accuracy in open sky conditions, integrated battery pack, battery pack “gas gauge”, 200 metre long-range Bluetooth, USB port and improved form factor. Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.geneq.com Geneq, Inc.
Remediation/Demolition The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 6090% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario.com
Technical Product Guide
GPS mapping receiver
Greenspoon Specialty Contracting has been actively engaged in the Demolition and Environmental Remediation industry for over 50 years. Spanning across the commercial, industrial and government sectors, GSC is proficient in all areas of demolition (implosion and dismantlement), asbestos, mould and lead abatement, soil remediation and site decommissioning. Proficient in LEEDs projects. Offices in Toronto, Winnipeg, Buffalo. Tel: 800-928-8812, Fax: 905-458-4149 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.greenspoon.net Greenspoon Specialty Contracting
Groundwater data logger
The Heron dipperLog is the answer to your long-term groundwater level monitoring program. It measures and records groundwater levels and temperatures over long periods of time.The dipperLog is a high resolution, accurate (0.05% F.S.) datalogger available at an extremely economical price and is very user-friendly. Visit Heron’s new web site at: www.heroninstruments.com and try our demo to see how easy logging can be. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The HOBO U30/Wi-Fi Remote Monitoring System is a web-based monitoring system that provides real-time, remote access to energy and environmental data over any Wi-Fi network. HOBOlink™ is a new web-enabled software platform that can be used to access current and historical data, set alarm notifications and relay activations, and control the system from their computer. The HOBO U30/Wi-Fi provides around-the-clock monitoring of various types of renewable energy systems. Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific
Chopper pumps Landia chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficult-to-handle liquids with high solid contents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly breakdowns. Landia chopper pumps are operating in: raw unscreened effluents, food industry effluents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: email@example.com Landia
New Website North American Green has a new website, www. nagreen.com, which provides the most comprehensive coverage of erosion and sediment control solutions. The new site includes downloadable resources for project planning and installation, as well as in-depth technical support. Among the resources available is a free software program, Erosion Control Materials Design Software (ECMDS®). Tel: 1-800-772-2040 Web: www.nagreen.com. North American Green
The HOBO Remote Monitoring System, a state-of-the-art weather station, provides instant access to data via the internet. The new system combines research-grade hardware with built-in GSM cellular communications and HOBOlink™, a new web-enabled software platform.
Personal gas detector A DS2 Docking Station™ is now available for the GasBadge® Plus single gas monitor. The GasBadge Plus is a two-year, lowcost, personal gas detector. The DS2 Docking Station recognizes individual instrument serial numbers, performs calibration and bump testing and its instrument diagnostics and record keeping functions limit safety hazards and liability concerns.
Tel: 800-338-3287, Fax: 412-788-8353 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.indsci.com
Dynamic Probe The Dynamic Probe makes differential pressure gauges and loss of head a thing of the past, by providing the information required to optimize pretreatment, filtration and filter backwash. The dynamic probe allows for continuous bi-directional differential pressure measurement across multiple layers of the bed in one instrument. The smart analyzer combines multiple instruments, unique to the industry, into one intelligent transmitter package. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.metconeng.com Metcon Sales & Engineering
Stainless steel, carbon steel, NSF coating, Hastelloy, titanium – whatever materials are required, ORIVAL will meet all customer specifications when manufacturing fully automatic self-cleaning filtration systems, in sizes ranging from ¾” to 24”. Tel: 1-800-567-9767 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.orival.com Visit us at WEFTEC – booth #27171 Orival
Titrator The Series 17T2000 Amperometric Titrator is an analytical instrument for the electrical determination of the end point of a titration for free, combined, or total chlorine residual. It can also be used to determine bromine, iodine, ozone, permanganate, and chlorine dioxide residuals. The instrument is suitable for use in water and wastewater plants, swimming pools, research laboratories, and industrial plants when fast, accurate titrations are required. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.metconeng.com Metcon Sales & Engineering
Septage Receiving Station The user-friendly, maintenance-free Helisieve Plus® Septage Receiving Station pretreats septage and protects downstream processes. This self-contained system removes troublesome solids and dewaters them for landfill. It's fast, easy and effective, and odors are contained in the stainless steel receiving tank. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.parkson.com Parkson 87 | September 2008
Product & Service Showcase
Web-based monitoring system
Calibration cylinders ACCUDRAW Calibration Cylinders have been developed for the accurate calibration of metering pumps. Standard features include: • Translucent • Chemical and break resistant • Threaded or socket • PVC size 100 – 20000 ml • POLY sizes 100 – 4000 ml • PVC has dual scale USGPH and ml. Tel: 905-333-8743, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.primaryfluid.com
Product & Service Showcase
Primary Fluid Systems
Mechanical bar screen
PFS Injection Quills have been developed to allow chemical injection into the centre stream of the flow. Standard features include: • 6 materials of construction • Two standard sizes • Pressure to 3000 PSIG • Threaded or socket • Custom materials and sizes available.
The Huber RakeMax® is a bar screen with a spacing from 1/4" to 6" (6 to 150 mm). In spite of its outstanding discharge height of up to 65 ft (20 m) above the channel floor, it fits into virtually any building. The bar rack is an integral part of the sturdy frame, which ensures perfect meshing of the rake teeth with the bar screen. Positive and reliable cleaning is thus guaranteed. Tel: 416-861-0237, Fax: 416-861-9303 Web: www.proaquasales.com
Tel: 905-333-8743, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.primaryfluid.com Primary Fluid Systems
Pro Aqua, Inc.
High speed blowers
HSI High Speed Turbo Blower line has over 10 models ranging from 5HP to 300HP (1-250kW), with flow ranges from 10 – 10,000 SCFM (15-15,000 nm3/hr) and pressures to 25 psi (1.7 bar). They require no lubrication nor maintenance besides inlet filter changes, achieve sound levels below 85 dBA, and operate with virtually no vibration. Tel: 416-861-0237, Fax: 416-861-9303 Web: www.proaquasales.com
Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.prominent.ca
The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca/delta
Pro Aqua, Inc.
ProMinent Fluid Controls
ProMinent Fluid Controls
RMSS specializes in difficult access site investigations. Our equipment is easily broken down into helicopter, ATV and man portable packages so you can get your job done without huge mobilization costs. Soil sampling, monitoring wells, geo-technical testing, we go anywhere. Tel: 604-947-RMSS (7677), Fax: 604-947-9500 Web: www.rmsoil.com Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling 88 | September 2008
Industrial gear units
Sanitherm, a division of Peak Energy Services, has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.sanitherm.com Sanitherm, a division of Peak Energy Services
The in-house development of SEW-Eurodrive’s new XSeries heavy industrial gear units is nearly unrivaled with its fine size graduation that covers the medium torque range from 43,000 to 129,000 ft-lb. The large number of pre-defined accessories offers a high degree of flexibility for adapting to a broad range of application situations, with a minimum of components at maximum utility. Tel: 905-791-1553, Fax: 905-791-2999 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca SEW-Eurodrive
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Siemens provides innovative water technologies: • Vantage® NF/RO Filtration Systems • TRIDENT® HSC and Trident® HS Packaged Water Treatment Systems • MEMCOR® Membrane Filtration Systems • CenTROL® Filter Systems • MULTIBLOCK® FilterUnderdrains Tel: 800-525-0658 or 724-772-1402 E-mail:email@example.com Web: www.siemens.com/drinking_water Siemens Water Technologies
Cleantech funding available If you have an innovative clean technology, Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) wants to hear from you. The SD Tech Fund™ is open for Statements of Interest from September 3 to October 22, 2008. SDTC supports the development and demonstration of clean technologies by Canadian companies. Visit the funding section of our website for more information on how to apply. Tel.: 613-234-6313 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sdtc.ca Sustainable Development Technology Canada
Valve maintenance system
Wachs Canada introduces the ERV-750, Truck and Trailer Mount Valve Maintenance System with intelligent automated valve exercising equipment. You will always have enough torque to turn the valve; you will always use the absolute minimum torque to do so. Tel: 1-888-785-2000, Fax 905-830-6050 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.wachsco.com Wachs Canada Ltd.
Water treatmment Siemens also offers these technologies: • MULTICRETE® II Filter Underdrains • CONTRAFAST® Clarifier • GFH® Arsenic Removal Media • Barrier® M and Barrier® A UV Disinfection Units • OSEC® On-site Hypochlorite Generation System Tel: 800-525-0658 or 724-772-1402 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.siemens.com/drinking_water
Siemens Water Technologies
Hatch safety net The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: email@example.com USF Fabrication
The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless
Join pipe to 144 inches
Depend-O-Lok is the new standard for joining pipe to 144”. Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.victaulic.com Victaulic
Waterra's Clear PVC EcoBailers are available in three sizes, 0.5" OD, 0.7" OD and 1.5" OD x 36" in length. These are high quality disposable bailers for quality sampling results.
Waterra now manufactures a 0.2 micron Inline Disposable Filter, the CAP300X2, which features 300 square centimetres of the same high quality PES media providing a fast and efficient, economical option for specialized filtering requirements.
Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com
Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com
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Product & Service Showcase
NEWS Call for clean technology funding applications
• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.anthrafilter.net
Innovative, PRACTICAL , Responsible, COST-EFFECTIVE Environmental
Water For People receives four-star rating
Assessment | Monitoring | Approvals Risk Management | Remediation | Reclamation OTTAWA (613) 226 -2456
TORONTO (416) 635-5882
CALGARY (403) 266 -2555
AQUA TERRE SOLUTIONS INC.
90 | September 2008
LETHBRIDGE ( 4 0 3 ) 3 1 7- 9 1 6 1
Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), the largest single funder of clean technology in Canada, has announced that the $550M SD Tech Fund™ is open for Statements of Interest (SOI) for its fourteenth round of funding until October 22, 2008. SDTC is a notfor-profit corporation created by the Government of Canada to finance and support the late-stage development and pre-commercial demonstration of clean technologies. SDTC provides seed-stage funding to clean technology projects at this critical juncture when capital and scaling costs become formidable challenges and the risk profile deters most other investors. In particular, SDTC sees tremendous growth potential for technologies that address issues related to clean water and clean soil. Water purification, conservation, waste and stormwater treatment, in addition to soil decontamination and soil quality improvement solutions, are areas in which SDTC is seeking to fund projects. www.sdtc.ca/en/SOIinfo.htm
SASKATOON (306) 244-8663
Charity Navigator has given Water For People its highest 4-star rating for sound fiscal management and the ability to effectively manage and grow its resources. This is the sixth consecutive year that it has received this honor. Only 2% of the thousands of charities rated by Charity Navigator have received at least six consecutive 4-star evaluations, indicating that Water For People consistently executes its mission in a fiscally responsible way and outperforms most other American charitable organizations. One of the key metrics used in the rating process is the functional allocation of resources, which measures the percent of revenues used for program expenses as opposed to administrative and fundraising expenses.Year after year, Water For People has consistently improved its ranking in this area. In 2007, 84.3 percent of funds raised were directed to international programs. www.charitynavigator.org.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
NEWS Name change for ITT Flygt ITT Flygt has changed its name to ITT Water & Wastewater. Operating in some 140 countries, ITT Water & Wastewater manufactures and markets a range of water and drainage pumps, units for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment, and products for treating water through biological, filtering and disinfection processes. Headquartered in Sweden, ITT Water & Wastewater has 6,000 employees worldwide and production plants in North and South America, Europe and Asia. www.ittwww.ca
MARKHAM, ONTARIO 905-747-8506 email@example.com www.bv.com
Ontario working on new tire recycling program The Ontario government has directed Waste Diversion Ontario to develop a program that will recycle 90 per cent of Ontario’s used tires within five years and clean up existing tire stockpiles as quickly as possible. The program is to be self-funding, with an industry organization collecting program fees from tire producers. No fees will go to the government. Over 10 million used tires need to be managed each year in Ontario. Currently, about half are being shipped out of province for use as fuel, or are being stockpiled, many illegally. Stockpiled tires are a serious fire hazard and can be breeding grounds for mosquitoes if not managed properly. The rest are being recycled or shredded for use as landfill cover. This new program is to include all truck and car tires, off-road tires, and industry/farm vehicle tires. It must also ensure there are greater incentives for reusing and recycling.
Get a clear view of:
“Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.geophysics.ca
• UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities
More than 30 Years More Ye ears of Water Water & Wastewater Wastewater S Solutions olution ns
Wastewater C Wastewater Collection/Treatment ollec tion/Treatme ent Water W ater Supply,, Treatment, Treatment, SStorage torag ge & D Distribution istribution Environmental En vironmental SSite ite A Assessment/Remediation ssessment/R t emediation Hydrogeological H ydrogeological Investigations/Modelling Investigationss/M odelling Watershed/Stormwater W atershed/Stormwater Management M anagement Information Inf ormation Technology/Data Te echnology/Data Management M anagement
2,700 00 Sta Staff St ff 90+ 0+ Offices O ffices
1.800.265.6102 80 .265.6102 www.CRAworld.com w w w.CR .C Aworld.com o
Worldwide W orldwide Engineering, Engineering g, En Environmental, vironmental, C Construction, onstruction, and IT S Services er vices
Federal government bans more chemicals The federal government is to publish final regulations to reduce the levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) that could be entering the environment. PBDEs are used to slow the spread of fire in a wide variety of plastics, fabrics, glues, sealants and foams. While they were not found to be harmful to human health, they are toxic to the environment
Accurate and Innovative Laboratory Services Phone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150 Email: email@example.com www.gapenviromic.com Internationally recognized laboratory – accredited under ISO/IEC 17025 Standard (CAEAL)
• Microbial Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) • Microbial support for UV reactor validation efforts – bacteriophage and collimated beam analysis
• Pathogen detection (Legionella spp. accredited test)
continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
91 | September 2008
NEWS because they build up and last a long time in the environment. PBDEs are not manufactured in Canada but are imported for use in commercial and consumer products. There are three commercial mixtures that contain PBDEs: • PentaBDE is used mostly in flexible polyurethane foam, which is used as cushioning in upholstered furniture, automotive seating and carpet backing. • OctaBDE is used in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics as a flame retardant for computer housings, pipes, appliances and automotive parts. • DecaBDE is primarily used in the high impact polystyrene component of electronic equipment housings, and is also the main commercial PBDE product used as a flame retardant in upholstery and drapery textiles. The new regulations will prohibit the manufacture of all PBDEs and restrict the import, use and sale of PentaBDE and OctaBDE which meet the criteria for virtual elimination under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca
Focused on the Special Needs of Industrial and Commercial Clients for More Than 20 Years
www.geomatrix.com For more information:
420 Weber Street North, Unit G Waterloo, ON N2L 4E7 519.886.7500
From multi-billion dollar Fortune 100 companies to family-run Owner-Manager enterprises, Geomatrix serves industrial and commercial clients locally and around the world from our18 North American offices.
Suppliers of Water And Wastewater Equipment
• Drinking Water • Screening / Filtration • Separation / Flotation • Sludge Dewatering / Collection • Biotreatment / Aeration • Centrifugal & PD Blowers • UV Disinfection • Industrial Treatment • Oil / Water Separators • Package Treatment Plants • Stormwater Treatment • Tanks & Tank Covers
H2FLOW EQUIPMENT INC., Concord, Ontario Tel: (905) 660-9775 Fax: (905) 660-9744 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.h2flow.com
Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software
Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.hydromantis.com
INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. WWW.IWS.CA
GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for 75 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5
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Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ontario and Great Lakes municipalities sign pact The Ontario government and municipal officials from around the Great Lakes have signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on issues of municipal interest and responsibility around the Great Lakes. Ontario has agreed to consider the advice and recommendations of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative on the implementation of the CanadaOntario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin (COA). The Cities’ Initiative agrees to involve its Ontario members and the broader municipal sector in providing input into decisions that affect the municipalities around the Great Lakes. It is a binational coalition of over 50 mayors and other municipal officials from Canada and the US interested in the health and well-being of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River system.
Federal and NWT governments partner to improve water infrastructure The Canada-Northwest Territories Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund (MRIF) is a cost-sharing program between InfraEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine
NEWS structure Canada and the Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Municipal and Community Affairs. The federal governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution to municipal water-related projects includes: â&#x20AC;˘ $684,767 towards a $2.5 million project to upgrade sewage treatment infrastructure in Hay River; the NWT government will contribute $973,564. â&#x20AC;˘ $471,650 for water and sewer main replacement in Fort Simpson; the NWT government will contribute $392,228. â&#x20AC;˘ $433,333 for intake ground stabilization, a geophysical assessment and upgrades to the water treatment plant in Fort Smith; the NWT government will contribute $603,333. Under the Canada-Northwest Territories MRIF Agreement, the federal and territorial governments each committed $16 million to the fund, with an additional $3.2 million announced in May 2007.
Groundwater information available online A new interactive digital map of Nova Scotia offers improved access to information about groundwater regions and the boundaries of watersheds in the province. Other online enhancements on the government website offer more information about water wells, recent and historical groundwater levels, and related data. The interactive groundwater mapping webpage was developed by the Department of Environment in collaboration with the Department of Natural Resources. Another online digital map shows the province's six major groundwater regions. The Nova Scotia Well Logs database is also new online. It contains information about nearly 107,000 drinking-water wells constructed in Nova Scotia between 1940 and January 2008. The webpage for the Nova Scotia Groundwater Observation Well Network has been updated. This monitoring network has been used to check groundwater levels in the province's aquifers since 1965. Water levels in 24 observation wells are automatically measured every hour and the wells are periodically sampled to test groundwater chemistry. The province's website also holds a recently-added collection of 29 annual continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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NEWS reports on Nova Scotia's groundwater. Improved availability of groundwater information online should help meet some commitments of the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act. The act calls for the development of a strategy to better manage the province's water resources. That work will be completed by 2010.
Nova Scotia to upgrade septage handling facilities
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Environmental Engineering Services
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Sixteen septage lagoon operators will be awarded about $900,000 to upgrade facilities by Nova Scotia's Septage Treatment Facility Assistance Program. Pumper truck operators and homeowners with septic tanks will also benefit from the program, because septage lagoon operators will be able to improve operations and service without passing all costs on to homeowners. About 400,000 Nova Scotians rely on 27 facilities to handle material pumped from home septic tanks. Under the assistance program, operators of septage handling facilities are eligible for assistance of up to $50,000 for upgrades to facilities, or up to $100,000 for the construction of replacement facilities and new technology to meet new guidelines. www.gov.ns.ca
Alberta company ordered to clean up The Alberta government has issued an Environmental Protection Order to Petenco Resources Ltd., in response to a pipeline break that resulted in a release of salt water to a wetland adjacent to the company’s lease site. During repair of Petenco’s pipeline in March, a contractor for the company excavated soil from the area and filled in the excavation with contaminated soil. At the end of April, an Alberta Environment investigator conducted a site visit and observed the original spill site and a second unknown spill. Neither spill was reported to Alberta Environment, nor were the spill sites remediated. Remedial work is required at both contaminated areas, and Alberta Environment has recommended that the impacted soil be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate waste management facility. At compleEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine
NEWS tion of the remediation, soil samples must confirm the soil is no longer contaminated. Under the Order, Petenco had to submit a remediation plan to Alberta Environment before July 31 including a proposal for the remediation of all substances both on and off-site, including areas where substances may have migrated. In addition, Petenco must complete an assessment of the entire length of pipeline to ensure that there are no other unknown breaks or deformities in the pipeline that may have caused, or may cause, spills into the environment.
Jacques Whitford acquires NTL Jacques Whitford Ltd. has acquired Winnipeg-based National Testing Laboratories Limited (NTL), a full-service geotechnical engineering, materials testing and environmental services firm. NTL has been providing services in Manitoba for more than 85 years. With the province expecting steady growth in the construction industry over the next few years, their expertise and reputation as a well-established consulting company will be great assets to Jacques Whitford. Jacques Whitford has focused on continued growth in Western Canada, including numerous joint ventures and the recent acquisition of The Sheltair Group, a Vancouver-based firm specializing in sustainability consulting. www.jacqueswhitford.com
US proposes aircraft drinking water regulation
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Aircraft passengers and crews should be able to drink safer water under new regulations proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed Aircraft Drinking Water Rule (ADWR) will tailor existing health-based drinking water regulations to fit the unique characteristics of aircraft public water systems. In 2004, EPA tested aircraft drinking water quality and reviewed air carrier compliance with regulations. EPA found that 15 percent of tested aircraft tested positive for total coliform bacteria. The agency also continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
95 | September 2008
found that air carriers were not meeting existing regulations, primarily because those regulations were designed for stationary public water systems. In response, EPA began a process to tailor the existing regulations for aircraft public water systems and placed 45 air carriers under administrative orders on consent that are in effect until aircraft drinking water regulations are final. While the proposed rule only addresses aircraft within US jurisdiction, EPA is also supporting an international effort led by the World Health Organization to develop international guidelines for aircraft drinking water. www.epa.gov/airlinewater/regs.html
Green investment could create two million jobs A new report commissioned by the Center for American Progress shows that the United States can create two million jobs over two years by investing in a rapid green economic recovery program. The report, "Green Recovery: A Program to Create Good Jobs and Start Building a Low-Carbon Economy," was prepared by the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of MassachusettsAmherst. The $100 billion package would: • Create nearly four times more jobs than spending the same amount of money within the oil industry and 300,000 more jobs than a similar amount of spending directed toward household consumption. • Create roughly triple the number of
good jobs, paying at least $16 dollars an hour, as spending the same amount of money within the oil industry. • Reduce the unemployment rate to 4.4 percent from 5.7 percent (calculated within the framework of US labour market conditions in July 2008). • Bolster employment especially in construction and manufacturing. Construction employment has fallen from 8 million to 7.2 million jobs over the past two years due to the housing bubble collapse. The Green Recovery program can, at least, bring back these lost 800,000 construction jobs. The recovery program aims to boost private and public investment in six energy-efficiency and renewable energy strategies: retrofitting buildings to improve energy efficiency; expanding mass transit and freight rail; constructing “smart” electrical grid transmission systems; and increasing the production of wind power, solar power, and next-generation biofuels. www.greenjobsnow.com
nized for its latest innovation in cleaning up soil and groundwater, the EK3 Electrokinetic Remediation System which uses electrokinetics, or direct electrical current technology, to clean up salt and heavy metals from contaminated sites with minimal environmental impact. Salt contamination is a billion dollar problem in Alberta alone. The GEE EK3 technology was developed with funding support provided by federal and provincial governments under the Western Economic Partnership Agreement and administered through the Communities of Tomorrow research and development partnership. www.groundeffectsenergy.org
UWindsor teams finish one-two in engineering design competition
Regina company honored Ground Effects Environmental Services Inc. (GEE) won two major awards at the 23rd Annual Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA) Innovation Awards in Ottawa. GEE’s President, Sean Frisky, received the 3M Canada Award for Excellence in Emerging Technology and the Northern Light Award as the “Best of the Best”. The Regina company was recog-
Pauline Lebel, strategic projects engineer with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute (far right), congratulates the members of Cloverfield Engineering (seated, from left) Casey Carriere, Charles Hartford, and Chris Thibert; and Bridgetech Engineering (standing, from left) Joel Toth, Joseph Dukovcic and Imran Khan. Missing from photo: William Clements.
Two teams of civil engineering students from the University of Windsor, Ontario, finished atop a new national design competition to promote the use of corrugated steel pipe. Cloverfield Engineering – Casey Carriere, Charles Hartford, and Chris Thibert – split a $2,500 first-place prize for their design of a bridge span to support four lanes of traffic with sidewalks. Bridgetech Engineering – William Clements, Joseph Dukovcic, Irman Khan and Joel Toth – split the second-place award of $1,500 for their proposal for an arch to span a creek and provide three lanes of highway. The competition was created by the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute, a Canadian trade association of manufacturers continued overleaf... 96 | September 2008
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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and material suppliers. The entries were conducted by the students as their fourthyear capstone projects, which emphasize teamwork.
Wilderness water increases risk of contracting waterborne illnesses A new article published in Wilderness Medicine magazine discusses the pitfalls of being exposed to water found in the wilderness. Although wilderness water may appear to be clean and safe to drink, it is likely that ingesting it will result in illness caused by such pathogens as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites. This report documents the factors that determine the risk of contracting a waterborne illness and explains that knowledge of the source of water exposure, length of symptoms, and incubation period for diseases will greatly assist in making an accurate diagnosis. A table presents some of the more common pathogens and their mode of transmission and symptoms. Also presented are methods for disinfecting water found in the wilderness,
St. Philip's, NL 0.10 MGD, 2 Tank ISAMTM
98 | September 2008
including their advantages and disadvantages. For example, boiling water is the most reliable method of destroying pathogens; however, it is inconvenient and time-consuming. In addition, chlorine dioxide is effective against all microorganisms, but to date this method has not been adequately tested in the field. The article is Wild Water Everywhere, But Is It Safe to Drink (or Play in)? Better Safe Than on the Run from Waterborne Illnesses in the Wild by Nancy Pietroski, PharmD. www.allenpress.com
WEF adds to International Pavilion Program The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has added two new trade shows to its International Pavilion Program for 2009. First announced last year, the program makes it easier for WEF members to exhibit at major water quality shows around the world. As part of the Federation’s continued effort to increase member benefits as well as its global presence, the program offers pre- and onsite management and
Visit us at WEFTEC Booth #33127
marketing services as well as a lower risk approach to purchasing booth space in international forums. Following a successful first year at Germany’s International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection (IFAT) and China’s Water Supply & Drainage and Water Treatment Exhibition (WSDWTF), WEF is providing members with the opportunity to exhibit at the following shows in 2009: WETEX – Water, Energy, Technology and Environment Exhibition, March 1012, 2009, Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Wasser Berlin, March 30 – April 3, 2009, Messe Berlin, Berlin, Germany. China Water Show (formerly WSDWTF), April 28-30, 2009, INTEX Shanghai & Shanghai Mart, Shanghai, China. Under the program, WEF purchases exhibit space at all of the major international water quality shows and constructs a 2,500 square foot pavilion with booth space set below the minimum required by the international shows. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
FLEXRAKE® SELF-CLEANING BAR AND FINE SCREEN
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Water Environment Association of Ontario
Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association
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