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BC fish hatchery installs UV disinfection system Peel Region to spend $93 million on wastewater system expansion A complete approach to grease management in wastewater Controlling odours from creosote contaminated soil

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Special Sections: Storage Tanks Containment & Spills Consultants Forum


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ISSN-0835-605X November 2007 Vol. 20 No. 5 Issued November 2007

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ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES 7 10 12 16 20 22 26 29 30 38 41 42 44 46 48 52 54 57 58 98

Environmental literature now has its own serious comic book - Editorial comment by Tom Davey DEPARTMENTS BC fish hatchery installs UV disinfection system Peel Region to spend $93 million on wastewater system expansion Product Showcase . . . . . 82-88 A complete approach to grease management in wastewater Environmental News . . . 90-96 Innovative wastewater lagoon system developed for Whitehorse Professional Cards . . . . . 90-96 System improvements provide high quality water to residents in Naramata, BC- Cover Story Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Real-time management, a key efficiency factor for Halifax’s Water Commission Everglades Agricultural Area achieves 18% phosphorus reduction, despite back to back hurricanes Kitchener water plant upgraded to remove 1,4-dioxane from its raw water supply Water conservation planning for BC’s municipal parks A natural way to control wastewater plant odours Prefab vertical drains used to speed consolidation of Red River floodway embankments 16th century Acadians flourished behind their wooden aboiteaux Stormwater filtration system protects coastal estuary Open cut dredging used for water and sewer pipe installation under the Great Cataraqui River Vortex restrictors reduce CSO project costs by one-third WEFTEC.07 attendees narrowly avoid California’s wildfire disaster Humber River watershed shows little sign of improvement England to test a new wave-power device Monitoring system helps protect lone workers

Towards a corporate model that embraces the individual producer Needs versus wants: innovative approaches to service delivery Potential impacts of a changing climate on water resources management and development Re-inventing the role of the consulting engineer

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Large tanks can be accessible, expandable, flexible, adaptable and movable Anaerobic digester provides ideal application for geomembrane Large Victoria marina installs containment and treatment system Controlling odours from creosote contaminated soil with foam-based technology Construction time reduced for recycling centre's storage tanks

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Comment by Tom Davey

Environmental literature now has its own serious comic book o many groups have hitchhiked on the environmental bandwagon I wonder sometimes if there will soon be any room left for the real environmentalists: the engineers, chemists, scientists, biologists, and other professionals who were doing fundamental research and implementing their applied science on public health and the environment as early as the 18th century. In England, Dr. John Snow identified cholera as a water-borne disease in London, in the 18th century - his research ignored by the medical ‘experts’ of the day. Ardern and Lockett did landmark applied science on wastewater treatment near Manchester in the early 1900s, while Canadians such as Lt. Col. Naismith, provided safe drinking water under battlefield conditions for Canadian and British troops in World War 1. Dr. Albert Edward Berry was a renowned scientist and engineer from St. Marys, Ontario, whose prescience and persistence created the foundations for what transmuted into the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Few realize this, indeed some think Canadian environmentalism began in Toronto when Pollution Probe staged its theatrical funeral for ‘the death of the Don River’ some four decades ago. Also, the Persians, Greeks and some other societies were doing amazing sanitary and public health engineering many centuries ago, even preceding Rome’s famed Cloaca Maxima which was engineered to deal with Rome’s sewage. So, when I saw a book, Weird Weather - Everything you didn’t want to know about Climate Change, by Kate Evans, with its cartoon style cover and comic strip

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layout, I thought: ‘Here we go again - another stowaway on the good ship Environment.’ But amid the splashing cartoon style cover, one blurb caught my eye: ‘With an introduction by George Monbiot”. Well, this must be more than a mere comic book, I thought. Not only is George Monbiot a columnist for the internationally respected UK Guardian newspaper, his environmental articles have depth and understanding which transcend much of the activated sludge which passes for environmental commentaries in so many newspaper reports and broadcasts. For example, when the Walkerton drinking water tragedy killed some nine people and injured scores of others, one TV reporter, with great

solemnity, described the killer as “the deadly E. coli” then managed to name it as both a virus and a bacterium in the same sentence. She also was unaware that there are perhaps thousands of variants of E. coli, not all of them deadly, and indeed some might be benign. It was Escherichia coli O157.H7 which killed and maimed some of the people in Walkerton. I can’t imagine George Monbiot committing such a grave error. Monbiot noted that architect Frank Gehry, a Canadian, whom he described as the most celebrated architect on earth, “now builds open-air auditoriums with outdoor air conditioning. It is beginning to look like the last days of the Roman Empire.” He also writes of author Kate continued overleaf... November 2007 | 7


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Comment by Tom Davey Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $4.50 GST).

Evans: “She has brought something to the subject of climate change in a way that’s accessible, funny and moving - something that none of the rest of us has managed.” There are many environmental pearls of wisdom and facts whose impacts at first were somewhat camouflaged amid the comic cartoons, including: • 30% of the world is now affected by droughts - twice as much as in the ‘70s. • More water evaporates from hot soil but crazy wind patterns mean that rainwater is now falling in the wrong place at the wrong time. • In 2005 the UN warned that one in six countries was experiencing drought-related food shortages and that this is part of a new long-term trend. • Forest fires spread further and faster in hot dry conditions. In 1997/1998 ten million hectares of Indonesian rainforest were burned

releasing as much C02 as Europe does in one year. She notes that there are cold spells (Ice Ages) and warm spells, with the changes between them occurring very rapidly. Her book includes a surprising quote from Margaret Thatcher who few realize has at least one science degree from a top British university. The former British Prime Minister’s message was short but powerful: “The evidence is there. The damage is being done.” Kate Evans is a Torontonian who, appropriately for an environmental writer, now lives in the ancient and lovely city of Bath, England, where Roman engineers showed their water engineering skills when they designed and built a bath and spa which is in use today. For more information on Weird Weather, visit www.groundwoodbooks.com Contact: tom@esemag.com

September 17, 2007 Dear Tom On behalf of the Water Environment Association of Ontario, I would like to take this opportunity to thank you and your staff members for your active participation in our Association. The WEAO would not be (Left to right) Steve Davey, Denise Simpson, able to carry out its mandate Chris MacDonald, Penny Davey, the without the continued dedica"Honest Golfers" team from Environmental tion and enthusiasm of our Science and Engineering Magazine at the volunteers. Through the efforts fall WEAO Golf Tournament of our many volunteer committees and the board, we are able to provide technology transfer, networking and professional development opportunities. All wastewater professionals and especially newcomers to our industry benefit greatly from the work of our volunteers. Once again, I thank you for the past support of and continued commitment to our Association through your encouragement of your staff to participate in our committees and events thus furthering the objectives of the WEAO and enhancing the wastewater industry in Ontario. Sincerely, Water Environment Association of Ontario Peter Takaoka, P.Eng. President

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call? a n n o g u o y o h W ? s Sludge problem

FLYGT N-PUMPS AND PC PUMPS THE MOST RELIABLE AND COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR PUMPING SLUDGE. Now, ITT Flygt, offers wastewater treatment plants an unparalleled combination of sludge-busting technologies, service and support. Flygt’s arsenal of sludge busters features our extraordinary N-Pump, with its patented N-impeller and a clog-eliminating, high-efficiency, open backswept design that makes it best for overall sludge handling. Flygt offers a new Progressing Cavity (PC) pump and macerator for heavier sludge. And to ensure maximum process efficiency in the most challenging situations, Flygt mixers and aerators lead the way. Most important of all, you can count on your local, fully staffed Flygt office for the equipment, engineering and support that are suited best to your particular needs. Call the Flygt sludge busters. We’re always here for you. Contact Tony Altavilla at 514-428-4823, or your local Flygt representative. www.flygt.ca


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Disinfection

BC fish hatchery installs UV disinfection system he threat of disease is one of greatest dangers to a commercial fish hatchery. Grieg Seafood BC Ltd recently took proactive action against this potential threat by installing Hanovia UV disinfection systems at its British Columbia hatchery. With the company’s emphasis on the welfare of its farmed fish, a regard for the environment, and a commitment to avoid the use of medicines, Hanovia equipment was a natural choice. The systems require no chemicals, have no residual effect on the treated water, and are simple to operate. UV treatment is ideally suited to treat the diseases that can threaten the farm stocks of commercial hatcheries; it is effective against a wide range of pathogens including Furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida), Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA), Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN). Over the past several years, its use has become more widespread. In addition, UV treatment does not alter the pH of the water or produce any harmful by-products in the discharged water. The Grieg hatchery’s stock of Atlantic Salmon is protected by three Hanovia Photon II systems, which disinfect the incoming feed water. An automatic wiper mechanism prevents the build-up of de-

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Photon II systems at the Grieg Seafood plant.

posits on the quartz tube, ensuring optimum UV dose at all times. The system’s control panel provides the operator with data on flow rate, UV dose and intensity. Up to one year of this performance data can be logged by the control unit for download. Maintenance of the unit is limited to the periodic replacement of the UV lamps, a simple operation that can be carried out by on-site staff. According to company representatives, the Hanovia systems are working

well to protect their stock. To date Hanovia has installed over 300 aquaculture systems in 14 countries around the world. Applications include water treatment in hatcheries, fish farms (salmon, sea bream and sea bass), shellfish depuration tanks and fry rearing tanks, as well as treating re-circulation water in marine parks and aquaria. For more information, contact Peter Wang. E-mail: hanovia@telus.net

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Wastewater

Peel wastewater project planned to service fast-growing urban area By Volker Masemann and William Fernandes he Region of Peel is one of the work into five major general contracts, fastest-growing urban areas in ranging in value from $11 million to $21 Canada, and is served by two million, plus three smaller contracts. The major Lake Ontario-based open nature of the site made it possible wastewater treatment plants. The westerly to have work going on simultaneously of these, at Clarkson, has been undergoing a major expansion. Population growth forecasts showed that a plant capacity of 250,000 m3/d would be needed for the projected year 2031 population, while the current expansion phase to 200,000 m3/d had to be completed by 2006 to cope with projected flow increases, as well as to improve biosolids management and effluent quality. Historically, wastewater sludge has been anaerobically digested at the plant and then trucked to the Lakeview plant, some 16 km to the east, in slurry form, for dewatering and incineration. A Biosolids Management Study completed in 2000 recommended that the biosolids handling process after digestion be altered to include dewatering prior to haulage. In carrying out this plant expansion, the Region’s goal was to maximize the environmental benefits, both tangible and intangible, that would accrue to the community. Project details Following completion of an Environmental Assessment Making the connection to the live trunk sewer. Study, as well as a Biosolids Master Plan, the Region of Peel engaged on a number of contracts while still Earth Tech Canada to execute design and maintaining adequate separation besupervise construction of the needed tween work areas as required by the Clarkson expansion. The design process Ministry of Labour. The last contract is began in 2003, with the first construc- expected to be substantially complete tion contract to clear and prepare the site early in 2008. The total value of confor later contracts getting underway in struction is approximately $93 million. Most areas of the liquid treatment November 2003. In order to allow the maximum number of qualified contrac- phase have undergone changes and imtors to bid, it was decided to break the provements. Because the existing grit re-

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moval and screening facilities built in 1971 were outdated, limited in their expansion possibilities and in the wrong place for the ultimate site development plans, completely new facilities are being provided near the north end of the site. Construction necessitated a complex live connection to the existing 1800 mm trunk sewer to divert flow to the new grit and screen building. The final stage of this undertaking was completed over two days, with the final lift-out of the sewer sections taking place during low flow at 4 a.m. The screen building houses four 2 m wide John Meunier screens with articulated perforated plate sections having 6 mm openings, replacing obsolete 18 mm bar screens. The new process results in significantly more screenings material than previously captured. New grinder/washer/dewatering units produce a dry, low odour product for off-site disposal. These screens, along with six similar units at the Lakeview plant, represent one of the largest installations of this new type of screen in North America. Grit removal takes place in two 9.5 m diameter vortex units, followed by washing and dewatering in two grit classifiers. The washed grit is also disposed off-site. The biological secondary treatment step was expanded with a fourth 95 m x 17.5 m x 4.5 m deep aeration tank fitted with fine pore diffusers, followed by a fourth rectangular secondary clarifier. To allow the plant to meet the summertime nitrification requirements stipulated by the Ministry of the Environment, additional air diffusers were also added to the three existing aeration tanks. The air is supplied by two continued overleaf...

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Wastewater

Two of the 6 mm fine screens.

new single-stage high speed Turblex centrifugal blowers in addition to one existing blower, with optimized energy use achieved using a dissolved oxygen control system. Effluent quality from the final set-

tling tanks has been enhanced by extending the two oldest tanks to match the newer units, giving a uniformly lower overflow rate throughout. Treated effluent is disinfected by chlorination using liquid sodium

hypochlorite followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulphite to achieve a nontoxic discharge. Chlorine contact time is provided within the outfall pipe. A multi-port outfall pipe extends 1400 m into Lake Ontario to a water depth of 15 m. The dispersion characteristics and the environmental impacts of the discharge, both in the immediate vicinity and in the far-shore area, were simulated using a two-dimensional computer model, to ensure there were no deleterious effects. To treat the additional sludge generated by the expanded liquids treatment process, two new 33 m diameter x 9 m deep anaerobic digesters were constructed. In addition, three existing smaller digesters were refurbished and upgraded. Digested sludge from all five tanks is pumped to a blending tank prior to dewatering by centrifuge in the new Biosolids Building. Two Alfa-Laval machines, each capable of producing 2 t/h of dewatered cake, are currently in place, with room for two more in the future. Dewatered cake of approximately 30% solids content is discharged to a system of screw conveyors feeding two

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Wastewater piston-type Schwing pumps which pump the biosolids to a 240 m3 elevated steel storage hopper. Trucks are automatically loaded to a pre-determined weight on a truck scale for cake transfer to the Lakeview plant. The Biosolids Building also houses three Alfa-Laval rotary drum thickeners which prethicken waste activated sludge from the biological treatment process before pumping into the digesters, taking the sludge from a concentration of less than 1% total solids to 5% or more. This process reduces the required volume of the anaerobic digesters and allows better process control than the previously used method of co-settling waste activated sludge in the primary clarifiers. Odour control systems are in place to handle odorous air that is generated in the Biosolids Building as well as the Screen Building. In both locations wet chemical scrubbers are installed which allow dosing of sodium hypochlorite and caustic to oxidize odorous compounds before the treated air is discharged via exhaust stacks. During design of these systems, computer simulation of the discharge plume ensured that environmental standards would be maintained at the nearest point of impingement, which is a residential area about 1 km from the odour source. Prior to this expansion, the plant was automated in a few areas, but most operation was by manual operator intervention. Operators were present Monday to Friday on day shifts, with brief weekend inspections only. Essentially, all parts of the plant are now fully automated and controlled by local PLCs, tied to a central control room SCADA system located in the Biosolids Building. Sludge thickening and dewatering takes place seven days a week and the Biosolids Building is, therefore, the best location for the SCADA control centre, which is attended at all times. Environmental benefits The measures adopted have allowed the Region of Peel to attain its stated environmental goals. On site biosolids dewatering has allowed truck traffic to the Lakeview plant to be reduced ten-fold, from roughly thirty trucks per day to three. This means less air and noise pollution as well as greater safety. Use of automated blower control through diswww.esemag.com

solved oxygen sensors means better efficiency and reduced power costs. Improvements to digester gas handling and storage have allowed the plant to make better use of its gas-powered cogeneration system, leading to savings in purchased electricity. Automated process control allows plant operations to be optimized, which means a better and more consistent quality of treated effluent. Discharge of a nontoxic effluent protects aquatic life in the lake and enhances enjoyment of the users of the lakeshore parks nearby. The new structures, while hardly visible from ad-

jacent roadways, are architecturally pleasing and are enhanced by thoughtful landscaping. The completed project allows the Region of Peel to fulfill its mandate to provide its citizens with effective and efficient wastewater treatment well into the future and to maintain excellent lake water quality. Volker Masemann, P.Eng., is with Earth Tech Canada Inc. and William Fernandes, P.Eng., is with the Region of Peel. Contact: Volker.Masemann@earthtech.ca

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Wastewater management – a complete approach to handling grease By Sean McNeely

he rate at which Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs) are happening across North America is surging. About 19,500 sewer systems across the US handle an average daily flow of roughly 50 billion gallons of raw sewage. Sadly, these aging systems are failing to handle this raw sewage at an alarming rate. SSO reporting requirements vary from state to state, so an accurate national picture is difficult to determine. (Some states such as California and Texas have passed laws mandating the reporting of all SSOs.) It is so vague, the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that anywhere between 23,000 and 75,000 SSOs occur each year, discharging a total volume of three to 10 billion gallons per year. That’s potentially 10 billion gallons of sewage that contains a spectrum of disease-causing pathogens and bacteria that can cause ailments like stomach flu and respiratory infections, as well as life-threatening illnesses such as cholera and Hepatitis B. In the 2004 Report to Congress, the EPA estimated almost half of all SSOs that resulted from sewer line blockages were caused by grease – grease poured down the drains of restaurants, grease overflowing from neglected or failing grease traps and interceptors, and grease poured into home kitchen sinks. Though grease is the main culprit, it rarely attracts attention because it is not

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regarded as a hazardous chemical, like petroleum oil. But considering grease causes billions in sewer repairs and clean-up projects, not to mention lost revenue from affected businesses, and that’s not even touching the health and environmental risks, it should be front and centre in effective wastewater management discussions.

Instead of relying on government agencies, what’s needed is a change in thinking on the part of restaurant and building owners, as well as the public who need to embrace the philosophy that wastewater management is far more than installing a grease trap or interceptor and walking away. With increasing populations and urban sprawl, increasing pressure is being placed on already aging sewer systems. And that worries Silvano Ferrazzo, a business development manager with Green Turtle Americas. “Even if nothing changes, the population growth alone will generate more loading on current sewer infrastructure, and in many cases, overloading,” he said.

To reduce the damaging effects and soaring costs related to SSOs, a strong change in thinking is needed to stop the flow of grease into sewer lines. The EPA is certainly aware of this crisis and has worked diligently to educate restaurant and business owners, as well as the general public. The EPA has forced a lot of sewer authorities to take seriously the problem that a lot of municipalities are faced with – but municipalities just don’t have the resources in terms of people to monitor what is going on in their own regions. Good ordinances have been written and a lot of municipalities are working hard to enforce them, but they can’t check every single grease trap or every single interceptor. Instead of relying on government agencies, what’s needed is a change in thinking on the part of restaurant and building owners, as well as the public who need to embrace the philosophy that wastewater management is far more than installing a grease trap or interceptor and walking away. Owners must shed the “out of sight, out of mind” attitude, and adopt a more involved, ongoing approach to wastewater management. “It starts with the individual,” said Ferrazzo. “How good are we as citizens at keeping grease out of our sinks? It has to start with the mindset of every person, as they are ultimately the owners or managers of restaurants, businesses and institutions.”

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It is certainly not the most popular subject, nor a terribly sexy one. Many owners are not eager to delve into the subject of wastewater, and many expect their interceptors to perform magic and accomplish everything once installed. Their main concern is keeping patrons happy while being compliant to health and sewer regulations. Owners often learn about wastewater systems the hard way, once something has gone wrong, like sinks and drains backing up, or worse, the restaurant is facing fines or even closure for poor wastewater practices. To get owners more involved, the EPA is working with the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to increase awareness of the needs for effective grease management: • Proper sizing and design of grease interceptors. • Proper installation. • Best management practices – referring to ongoing inspection, maintenance of grease interceptors as well as best management practices in the kitchen. Proper sizing and design Restaurant and business owners need to take an active role in understanding what kind of treatment device is best for them and why. Grease interceptors and separators have become so much more than modified underground storage tanks. Newer interceptors, often utilizing better corrosion-resistant materials, have been designed and sized to meet today’s tougher wastewater effluent www.esemag.com

quality. As such, knowledge of restaurant operations, type of food, serving profile, and kitchen plumbing configuration is critical when determining the right fit. You can have a top of the line interceptor, but if it is incorrectly sized or improperly designed for the application it will operate inefficiently. If it is too small, effective grease separation can’t occur; too big, and odors can result from

One employee boasted their grease trap hadn’t been opened in ten years. Inquiring as to why it remained shut for a decade, Parnell was told, ‘I don’t want to open it, it would stink.’ grease being stored too long and supporting bacterial growth. In the worst case scenario, poor design can lead to pipe blockages for the restaurant and grease blockages for the sanitary sewer. Proper installation Most grease traps and interceptors operate by gravity. Because of this, it is essential that all traps and interceptors are installed level, so that the wastewater can flow properly through the unit. “With some models, there’s only a two-inch difference between the inlet and the outlet pipes – lose that difference and the entire system is compromised,” said Ferrazzo. “If you’re off by an inch,

that entire interceptor could fail because pre-treated water won’t have the ability to flow downhill to the sewer.” Interceptor maintenance An interceptor is a part of a working system that requires attention. That attention first begins with restaurant owners reading the directions and operations manual for an interceptor they just had installed. The more familiar they are with how it operates and its maintenance requirements, the more money that owner ultimately saves by avoiding blockages, leaks, and fines. Pre-treatment officials are increasingly recommending that any unit be pumped once the combined grease and solids level has reached about 25 to 30 per cent capacity. “Most interceptors are designed to hold anywhere from 20 to even higher than 40 per cent grease loading, and still operate effectively,” noted Ferrazzo. However, when determining how often an interceptor should be checked, always err on the side of caution, as procrastination or forgetfulness can have serious consequences. If you fail to pump out and clean your interceptor regularly, that grease layer keeps building and building and eventually overwhelms the system. You get to the point where you have all grease and no water. Best management practices Though an interceptor’s sizing, installation and maintenance are crucial, continued overleaf... November 2007 | 17


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Grease in Wastewater wastewater management starts in the kitchen. Successful operation of any interceptor or grease trap largely depends on what goes into it. Yet, poorly trained restaurant staff continue to pour grease, solids and other harmful materials (and potentially money) down the drain. Dr. John Parnell, president of Pretreatment Solutions Inc – a Floridabased consulting firm that specializes in troubleshooting wastewater pretreatment programs – has seen restaurants where the dining areas are sublime, but the kitchens are a nightmare. He has encountered restaurants where staff believe their grease trap or interceptor doesn’t need to be cleaned and somehow magically eliminates grease altogether. “The actual concept of what goes on inside an interceptor is very poorly understood,” he said. One employee boasted their grease trap hadn’t been opened in ten years. Inquiring as to why it remained shut for a decade, Parnell was told, ‘I don’t want to open it, it would stink.’ There needs to be a much bigger emphasis on best management practices. If

employees followed good management practices, they could reduce the frequency with which their interceptor has to be pumped. However, Parnell recognizes that restaurant owners and managers coping with busy shifts, constantly changing staff and other problems, consider wastewater management a distant concern. Restaurant owners often look upon a grease inspector as the straw that broke the camel’s back, as they are already struggling to meet health and safety regulations. Proactive not reactive Ideally Parnell hopes the federal government will one day create nationally recognized regulations that would be implemented and enforced coast to coast. Restaurants and other businesses would be frequently inspected and infractions would be dealt with swiftly. Within the US government, such regulations have emerged but have never passed through enough political hoops to actually become law. Instead most wastewater pretreatment regulations, specifically grease programs, are created by individual mu-

nicipalities. In many cases they are developed in response to severe sewer overflow problems. Such programs, although well-meaning, are difficult to enforce because of a lack of manpower. Because of this, wastewater treatment is still largely approached on a reactive basis, believes Parnell. “But restaurants have to have some kind of proactive system – reactive just doesn’t cut it,” he said. This is especially true for urban areas where restaurants are being constructed side by side in limited space, because while the restaurants are new and state of the art, the sewer lines beneath them are not. Hopefully, effective wastewater management that includes proper training and awareness and an emphasis on best management practices in the kitchen will soon find its way on to every restaurant owner’s or manager’s menu. For more information E-mail: Penh.tov@GreenTurtleTech.com Sean McNeely is a writer with Monteco Ltd.

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Wastewater

Innovative environmental control facility in Whitehorse,Yukon By Ken Johnson agoons are the most common type of sewage treatment in Canada, and often the treatment process of choice for small and medium sized communities because of very low operating costs, and proven capability to achieve high quality effluent. This is particularly true for high latitudes where the costs and operation challenges of mechanical systems are magnified several times. The City of Whitehorse used a four cell primary sewage lagoon system for many years, which provided appropriate technology for this community located at 60°34' N 135°4' W in the Yukon Territory. In the late 1980s regulatory demands for a higher quality effluent prompted the City to investigate options for achieving a secondary quality or better effluent. A number of studies were completed in the late ‘80s and early ‘90s considering mechanical and lagoon systems. In the end, the terrain of an area to the north of the City, near what is called the Livingstone Trail, was able to accommodate a large lagoon system. In 1994, work began on the Livingstone Trail Environmental Control Facility (LTECF) to serve the 18,000 people living in the City of Whitehorse.The LTECF includes the following major detention and retention components: • Two 115,000 cubic metre primary lagoons with a combined retention time of 20 days.

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• Four 293,000 cubic metre secondary lagoons with a combined retention time of 100 days. • One 5.813 million cubic metre long-term storage (LTS) pond with a one-year retention time. The primary cells can fill to a depth of 6.2 metres and the secondary cells to a depth of 2.3 metres. The long-term storage area, a wetland three kilometres long and two kilometres wide, can fill to a depth of six metres. The flow between the lagoons is controlled by a variety of flow control structures. The facilities were constructed over a period of two years, and the work also included clearing and extension of the Marwell forcemain from the old Whitehorse primary lagoons to the LTECF, and upgrading of the other facilities associated with the collection system. The completion of the work in September 1996, allowed the City of Whitehorse to end the direct discharge of primary treated sewage effluent into the Yukon River. The total capital cost of the LTECF was approximately $20 million ($1996), which was a cost of about $1,100 per resident. The initial design of the facility included a discharge structure from the long-term storage pond for a seasonal discharge into the Yukon River. However, with such a high quality effluent anticipated from the pond, the City started considering an opportunity that would accommodate no direct discharge

The Livingstone Trail Environmental Control Facility. 20 | November 2007

to the Yukon River. Adjacent to the LTS pond is a glacial pothole lake formation, which lies 16 metres below the level of the surrounding lakes, and less than a decimetre above the level of the Yukon River itself. The materials between the pothole lake and the river are sands and gravels. The City applied to the Yukon Territory Water Board to obtain an additional Class A water licence for a trial discharge of up to two million cubic metres of fully treated effluent into Pothole Lake, which would gradually seep into the groundwater, along with other water from the lake, and would very slowly make its way to the river. The trial discharge into Pothole Lake (PHL) was a success. Every fall since 1998, treated effluent has been discharged from the LTS pond into the lake. Time, wind and sunlight do most of the work at Whitehorse's new sewage lagoon. In a typical July, this City receives approximately 256 hours of bright sunshine and has an average daily temperature of 14°C; the average annual precipitation is 269 mm. The LTECF is designed to hold the sewage for at least 360 days at optimum capacity. During that time, the wind stirs the holding cells and puts oxygen into the system, helping microbes and natural chemical processes to break down the sewage contaminants. The only addition to the system is biological enzyme which enhances biodegradation.

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Wastewater By mid May of each year the secondary lagoons are generally ice-free and algal blooms quickly develop, significantly increasing the pH levels (maximum 11.3) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (maximum >20 mg/l). The elevated pH levels promote the volatilization of ammonia, reducing levels to below detection (0.005 mg/l) within five weeks of becoming ice-free. The City is generally pleased with the operation of the facility. The water licence states fecal coliform levels in effluent from the system may not exceed 2000 counts per 100 millilitres. Tests of the new system have found fecal coliform counts ranging from less than 3 per 100 millilitres to a high of 240 per 100 millitres. The old system would discharge over 100,000 counts per 100 millilitres. In 2003, approximately 3,770,000 cubic metres of sewage were received at the LTECF. In 2003 discharge of treated effluent from the LTS into Pothole Lake commenced on August 1, 2003, and ended on October 31, 2003, a total of 92 discharge days. A total of 3,374,660 million cubic metres of treated effluent was discharged into Pothole Lake.

The Livingstone Trail Environmental Control Facility is now a showcase project demonstrating the opportunity for a sewage lagoon system to produce a very high quality sewage effluent at high latitudes in Canada, and essentially have a zero impact on the receiving environment. Certainly it must be recognized that the surrounding natural features

have a significant role to play in the treatment processes and that the end product can come with a significant price tag in capital costs. Ken Johnson, MCIP, P.Eng., is a Senior Engineer with Earth Tech Canada. E-mail: ken.johnson@earthtech.ca

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Cover Story

System improvements provide high quality water to residents in Naramata, BC By Bill Harvey ocated on the east shore of Lake Okanagan, approximately 10 kilometres north of Penticton, British Columbia, the picturesque community of Naramata supports a significant orchard and wine industry. Naramata’s water system, like many irrigation districts in the Okanagan Valley, serves a combination of agricultural and domestic demands, with the largest component being agricultural. Due to ongoing water quality issues in its upland creek water supplies, the British Columbia Interior Health Authority had enforced a Boil Water Order for residents of Naramata for more than a decade. Finding affordable solutions to the ongoing water quality issues presented a challenge due to the high agricultural water demands. Peak demands in this community of 2,000 can reach 30 million litres per day or 15,000 litres per capita per day; this compares with typical per capita water usage of 400 litres per day. To solve water quality issues, the Regional District of Okanagan Similkameen established the Naramata Water Advisory Committee to provide local input, direction, and assistance to plan and implement the required water improvements. The Regional District engaged Associated Engineering to complete preliminary and detailed design and to oversee construction of a series of water system improvements. The $8 million project involved designing water supply and treatment upgrades and developing a plan for future separation of the domestic and agricultural demand components. The new facilities would replace an existing supply system which delivered chlorinated water from two existing upland creek intakes and two existing lake intakes. Intake design The Regional District’s initial project design concept involved completing a major upgrade to the two existing lake intakes to draw the full water demand from the higher quality lake source. During the preliminary design phase, Asso-

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Chief operator, David Carlson checks the UV reactors.

ciated Engineering identified several risks involving one of the intake sites. As a result, the team conducted a value engineering review with the Regional District staff. A suggestion by one of the Regional District staff ultimately led to Associated Engineering developing a new design concept that eliminated the intake of concern.

The new concept involved doubling the capacity of the existing deep lake intake by upgrading the existing intake screen and constructing a new raw water pump station. Hydraulic calculations confirmed that the existing 750 metre long intake conduit could handle the increased flow rate. The design involved continued overleaf...

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Cover Story replacing the existing 44 litre per second Townsite Pump Station with a new 340 litre per second raw water pump station and a two kilometre long, 600 millimetre diameter raw water supply pipeline from the raw water pump station to the new water treatment plant site. The new pump station consisted of three pumps totalling 900 horsepower. Water treatment The water treatment plant was sited adjacent to an existing treated water reservoir which was converted to a treated water clearwell. The new 30 million litre per day water treatment plant includes ultraviolet disinfection and onsite sodium hypochlorite generation to provide two-stage disinfection. The lake water, drawn through the intake at a depth of 20 metres, is typically of good quality with turbidity generally below 0.5 NTU. Ultraviolet primary disinfection is provided to inactivate Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The ultraviolet equipment was prepurchased through a proposal call process. Proposals were received from three vendors and evaluated under various technical and financial criteria. The Wedeco Lo-Hi (low pressure, high intensity lamps) ultraviolet disinfection technology was selected for the Naramata Water Treatment Plant. On-site sodium hypochlorite generation was selected to provide secondary disinfection. It offers several advantages over other chlorine disinfection alternatives, such as chlorine gas or commercially available sodium hypochlorite, including the following: • Eliminates the need for bulk storage of chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite. • Reduces the risk to plant personnel because of significantly less hazardous material storage and handling requirements. • Eliminates transportation liabilities associated with transportation of chlorine gas or commercially available sodium hypochlorite. • Reduces the potential threat of a chlorine gas leak to operators and the general public. On-site sodium hypochlorite generation typically has a larger capital cost, but has similar operating costs compared to chlorine gas systems. It produces a 0.8% sodium hypochlorite solution, which is 24 | November 2007

deemed OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) exempt. In on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite, salt is dissolved with softened water to form a concentrated brine solution. The brine solution is diluted and passes through an electrolytic cell, which applies a low voltage current to the brine to form a sodium hypochlorite solution. Water passes through an ion exchange water softener to prevent the cells from fouling. Softened water flows to a brine tank where it mixes with food grade salt to produce a brine solution. The brine is subsequently diluted and fed to an electrolyzer cell which applies a low voltage current to the brine to form a sodium hypochlorite solution. The power supply and rectifier combination converts high voltage AC power to low voltage DC to power the electrolyzer cells.

Raw water pump station.

The system produces a 0.8% concentration sodium hypochlorite solution. The cells feed the solution to storage tanks, from which it is pumped to the water treatment process. The technology chosen for the Naramata project was manufactured by Chlortec. Treated water distribution Two sets of treated water pumps (totalling 1000 horsepower) deliver water from the treatment plant to higher elevation pressure zones. The design challenge of the treated water pumping system was that it had to pump water into an existing, aging, multi-pressure zone, asbestos cement pipe distribution system from a totally new location while maintaining the integrity of the existing piping system. This involved careful hy-

draulic analysis by the design team. The supply system improvements include a new 800 metre long, 400 millimetre diameter South Zone treated water main and 1.2 kilometres of 300 millimetre and 250 millimetre diameter North Zone treated water main interconnecting to the existing distribution system. Finding pipeline routes through some challenging topography and geotechnical constraints and building it without disrupting operation of the existing distribution system was challenging. The solution required innovative thinking on the part of the design team to deliver the water to key locations in the distribution system and to ensure good hydraulic performance. The facility design incorporates a number of energy efficient features, including using lake water as the energy source to heat the raw water pump station and the water treatment plant in the winter and cool the spaces in the summer. The tempered water is then redirected into the treated water distribution system to eliminate liquid waste and energy losses. The team developed a design approach to ensure a continuous water supply to the community during the construction period using the three other existing intakes. Construction of the water system improvements was completed in March 2007. Fittingly, the official opening of the new system was held on March 22, 2007 – World Water Day. This event was hosted by Regional District of Okanagan Similkameen Area E Director, Tom Chapman, who played a significant role in implementing the project. The success of this project was due to excellent teamwork between the Regional District, the Naramata Water Advisory Committee, the contractors, Maple Reinders and H&M Contracting, and the design team. The Regional District operators were actively involved in the project, starting at the predesign stage, provided key input into design decisions, and were actively involved during startup and commissioning of the new facilities. Bill Harvey, P.Eng., is Project Manager, Associated Engineering, Kelowna, BC. E-mail: harveyb@ae.ca

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Performance Management

Real-time management, a key efficiency factor for the Halifax Regional Water Commission By Martin Jetté he Halifax Regional Water Commission (HRWC), which is responsible for supplying drinking water to roughly 325,000 people in the Halifax, Nova Scotia region, treats 25–30 millions of gallons of water daily. A wholly municipal-owned, self-financed utility, the HRWC has a staff of 180 employees, which is expected to double in fall when the organization takes over responsibility for wastewater management. The HRWC is a leader in water loss control and has participated in two recent American Water Works Association projects. This expertise results from the utility’s efforts in recent years to improve its way of doing things. In 1999, the HRWC set about to align its management methods with the best practices recommended by the International Water Association (IWA), a water treatment research organization. Consequently,

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HRWC carried out an in-depth review of its information technology (IT) methods, which led to the development of a fiveyear plan for improving its IT systems. The first observation made by management was that the information used by the organization was divided among several completely independent data silos. Therefore, the people in charge did not have easy access to the information they needed to carry out their tasks. As a result, producing reports was needlessly difficult; creating graphs and tables required collecting data from several different systems that were not inter-connected. This took a lot of time and sometimes could not be done at all, particularly when the data stretched over long periods of time (such as a full year). These problems meant that such things as generating night flow analysis reports were problematic. Night flow analyses are carried out for each of the

65 areas monitored in the HRWC districts; at night, water demand is at its lowest and flow rate and leaks are most easily measured or detected. Preparing these reports required assembling data from different HRWC facilities, and had to be done manually, on paper. Data centralization To improve its operational efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the HRWC wanted to create a single data warehouse containing both production and distribution data, which it could use to quickly obtain the information it needed for its activities. With this goal in mind, the IWA suggested a proven performance management solution that could extract the data needed and provide the information required in real time to any employee requesting it (such as personnel responsible for detecting leaks). The HRWC choose OSIsoft’s PI system. “We were looking for a product that

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Performance Management could help us achieve our objectives, based on International Water Association practices, and that met the criteria specified in our 2000 study on IT practices,” comments HRWC's technical supervisor, Graham McDonald. “We chose the PI system because of its capacity for producing meaningful graphics, data archiving capability, connectivity with our SAP system and ability to provide value-added data in general.” The system was installed in 2002. Only one day’s work by the OSIsoft integrator was needed for the system to start providing data to staff. HRWC specialists programmed a driver beforehand to transfer proprietary data from the organization’s legacy systems to the new PI system. Another day was required to train employees on the new system so that they could take advantage of all its functions. In the process, instrumentation problems that had never been noticed before were pointed out immediately. Immediate benefits Today, the night flow analysis reports are posted on HRWC’s Intranet, where everyone can peruse the data gathered

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Treatment plant operator monitoring process screens. during the previous night. Any malfunction is tagged with a special colour code. Owing to this feature and the fact that large numbers of employees now have access to these reports - compared to only a few previously - missing a major leak has become virtually impossible. All in all, the HRWC estimates that it is

saving $600,000 a year due to better water loss management. A significant part of this is due to the new IT system. The addition of a performance management system infrastructure has also allowed an in-house application, the Water Loss Calculator, to be developed. This encontinued overleaf...

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Performance Management

Typical filter at HRWC’s J.D. Kline Water Treatment facility. All filter performance indicators are stored in PI for analysis. ables the HRWC to calculate the volume of water or losses experienced under normal flow conditions in specific circumstances, such as flushing. This Microsoft Excel-based program uses the Datalink spreadsheet add-in, which serves as a gateway between Excel and PI, to gather and analyze information and generate

28 | November 2007

spreadsheet-format reports. Public utilities are also required to meet strict government standards on contact time, or the time chlorine is in contact with water. Contact time depends on such things as water temperature and pH. By having access to real-time data on these parameters, the

HRWC no longer has to rely on the old tables it used to carry out these analyses. This saves time, improves the accuracy of calculations and ensures a safer water distribution system in terms of water quality and public health. Data on these conditions are archived, which facilitates any subsequent checks required by the authorities. HRWC management believes that the initiative it undertook in 1999 to change its practices has provided more than substantial benefits. HRWC does not plan on resting on its laurels and has several other projects in the works. For example, measuring instruments have been installed at a dozen of its major water clients, so that they can detect leaks in their own underground infrastructures using the new performance management system, which they can access through the Internet. In this way, the HRWC hopes its clients can achieve significant savings while conserving water and protecting the environment in the process. Martin JettĂŠ is with OSIsoft, MontrĂŠal, E-mail: mjette@osisoft.com

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Environment

Everglades Agricultural Area achieves 18% phosphorus reduction espite back-to-back hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 and an 18-month record regional water shortage, the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has confirmed that agricultural operations achieved an 18-percent reduction in the amount of phosphorus leaving the Everglades Agricultural Area for the 2007 water year. Best management practices (BMPs) by farmers prevented 32 metric tons of phosphorus from entering the regional canal system, which sends water into the Everglades, during the monitoring period from May 1, 2006 to April 30, 2007. Over the past 12 years, the BMP program kept 1,767 metric tons of phosphorus out of the Everglades. In cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, local landowners are implementing the BMP program in the Everglades Agricultural Area. The BMP program mandated by Florida’s Everglades Forever Act stipulates that the amount of phosphorus leaving the Everglades Agricultural Area, the 500,000-acre farming region south of Lake Okeechobee, must be reduced by 25 percent in at least one year out of each consecutive three-year period. Although this water year’s reduction is lower than the annual requirement, the Everglades Agricultural Area remains in compliance with the Act, having achieved annual reductions ranging from 34 to 73 percent in each of the previous 11 years. An average phosphorus load reduction of more than 40 percent was achieved for the most recent three-year period from 2005-2007. The average reduction from the implementation of BMPs over the program’s 12-year history is 50 percent, twice the amount required by law. Together with best farming practices, water leaving the Everglades Agricultural Area receives additional treatment in one of several Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) before entering the Everglades. These constructed wetlands are filled with native vegetation and use “green” technology to further reduce phosphorus levels. The District con-

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verted more than 41,000 acres of land south of Lake Okeechobee to STAs, and will add another 18,000 acres of treatment by 2010. The results from water year 2007, which included the height of the 20062007 drought, show less phosphorus was removed over this monitoring period than in previous periods. Water managers believe sediments released from

the bottom of Lake Okeechobee during the two active hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005, followed by lower-thannormal water levels during the drought of 2006-2007, likely contributed to increased concentrations of phosphorus and other nutrients in water flowing from the lake to the Everglades Agricultural Area for irrigation.

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Groundwater

Iron, manganese, 1,4-dioxane, hydrogen peroxide, and fines - A tale of multi-stage processing By Ryan Steckly, Leigh McDermott, Elia Edwards, and Donna Serrati n 2004, the Regional Municipality of Waterloo (Region) discovered 1,4-dioxane in groundwater feeding the Greenbrook Water Supply System in Kitchener, Ontario. At the time, the plant was slated to be upgraded with replacement iron and manganese pressure filters. These plans were put on hold, however, while the Region developed a strategy for treating the 1,4-dioxane. The approach for solving the issue involved investigating a number of different advanced oxidation technologies and quenching techniques. Ultimately, the project team settled on a multistaged process that allowed for 1,4-dioxane treatment as well as the filter upgrades the Region had planned. Greenbrook Water Supply System The Greenbrook Water Supply System (WSS) consisted of pressure filters for iron and manganese removal, 9,500 m3 of on-site storage, and a high-lift pumping system. Five groundwater wells supply the facility at a permitted capacity of 189 L/s. When concentrations of 1,4dioxane up to 285 µg/L were found in one of these wells, and concentrations of up to 30 µg/L in the blended treated water, the plant was temporarily shut down. Although the Greenbrook system only contributes approximately 5 percent

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of the total supply to the Region’s Integrated Urban Supply system, any shutdown causes a ripple effect of problems. That 5 percent reduces the burden on other supplies in the system and provides additional water during higher demand periods. When the plant was shut down, various drinking water standards existed in Ontario, but none regulated 1,4-dioxane. To determine the realistic limit for 1,4dioxane at the plant, the Region consulted with Stantec Consulting, the Ontario Ministry of Environment, and toxicologists. The group defined an appropriate 1,4-dioxane treatment objective for this plant to be 10 µg/L, or as low as reasonably achievable. Through the Class Environmental Assessment (Class EA) process - including public consultation - and a number of studies, the team decided on several upgrades to the plant, including installing an advanced oxidation system to destroy 1,4-dioxane and return the Greenbrook WSS back into service as soon as possible. Treatability study A treatability study was initiated concurrent to the Class EA to investigate the treatment requirements to remove the 1,4-dioxane and to investigate the func-

tionality and performance of the various advanced oxidation technologies that were available. The technologies included ozone/peroxide, UV/peroxide, and UV/titanium dioxide. The treatability study included a literature review, bench-scale testing, and small-scale piloting of the technologies. Issues that were determined early in the study included potential bromate formation with the ozone/peroxide technology as concentrations of bromide were present in the water supply; the reliance of the UV/peroxide efficiency on UVT percentage; and potential hydroxyl radical scavenging from various water quality compounds such as chloride, sulphates, and hardness, for which Greenbrook WSS had a history of elevated concentrations. During piloting, each of the technologies was tested on a range of water quality from two of the wells; Well K2 was characteristic of the highest 1,4dioxane concentration, and Well K4B was characteristic of high iron and lower percent UVT. Each of the piloted advanced oxidation technologies was capable of reducing the 1,4-dioxane concentrations in excess of 1.0 log removal (90-percent recontinued overleaf...

Figure 1. Primary and secondary control sectors. 30 | November 2007

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Groundwater moval). The UV/peroxide technology was observed to carry approximately 70 percent of the dosed hydrogen peroxide concentration through the UV reactor. This concentration would need to be quenched prior to adding sodium hypochlorite, as the peroxide would readily react with the chlorine and no free chlorine residual would be attained. Equipment pre-selection With a fast-track schedule in mind for the project, the team decided to pre-select the major equipment components to reduce procurement time in the overall schedule. The UV/peroxide advanced oxidation technology was selected for the project since it was observed to achieve the desired 1,4-dioxane reduction of 1.3 log removal (95 percent removal) under a range of water quality characteristics. A medium-pressure lamp reactor was selected since it was validated for disinfection, provided a chemical/mechanical sleeve wiping system, and had a more compact design as compared to a lowpressure lamp system. The hydrogen peroxide storage and dosing system was

included to complete the package. In addition, three UV reactors were pre-purchased to operate in a two duty, one stand-by configuration. The team also pre-selected a pressure filter system for iron and manganese removal since the vessel manufacturing process was estimated to add considerable time to the project schedule. Three 4.3 m diameter vessels were selected to keep the filter flow rates down to approximately 12 m/h at the full plant flow rate. Free chlorine was selected as the oxidant for the iron and manganese removal process and, with the specification of manganese dioxide catalytic oxidative filter media, the need for adding potassium permanganate was eliminated. The final selection Figure 1 illustrates the selected process for the Greenbrook WSS. Raw water is pumped from the five supply wells to a common point, where sodium hypochlorite is injected to provide virus inactivation through the raw water reservoir and to provide oxidation of iron and manganese prior to the pressure filters. Water is then pumped via low-lift pumps

to the pressure filters, and the filtered water is injected with hydrogen peroxide. The water then enters the advanced oxidation system where the hydroxyl radical is formed to react with the 1,4dioxane compound. Downstream of the advanced oxidation system, the remaining hydrogen peroxide residual is eliminated through upflow GAC contactors. A provisional carbon fines removal system is allowed for downstream of the GAC contactors to remove any carbon particles that may exit the vessels. Sodium hypochlorite is then injected to reduce any trace hydrogen peroxide residual and to re-establish chlorine into the system for disinfection. Ammonium sulphate is injected for chloramination and the water is directed to the two underground storage reservoirs. High-lift pumps then supply the distribution system with the finished water. Coming to this solution, of course, was not an easy decision. The process involved overcoming a number of difficult design challenges. Well operation The location of the five supply wells

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Groundwater is spread out over a large area, and each well has its own characteristic water quality. The 1,4-dioxane concentrations vary significantly between wells as summarized in Table I. Combining the water with low concentrations with the wells with higher 1,4-dioxane concentrations allows the raw water source to blend into a more manageable concentration. Well K2 and Well K4B represent the highest 1,4-dioxane concentrations; these wells are located in the middle of the well field. It was anticipated that pumping Well K2 and K4B could control the highest concentrations of the plume from migrating outward to the other wells. A well operating strategy was implemented to ensure that Well K2 and Well K4B were always operated first, followed by a well sequence that would keep 1,4-dioxane concentrations away from Well K5A, as no concentrations had yet been detected at this well. The UV and peroxide doses for the advanced oxidation treatment system are controlled in relation to which wells are in use and the predicted 1,4-dioxane influent concentration. As no continuous

Well

2004 Max Concentration (ppb)

2005 Max Concentration (ppb)

Estimated “Worst Case” Concentration (ppb)

K1 K2 K4B K5A K8

41 285 96.2 ND 11.7

41.6 210 262 -

61 471 146 0 14

Total

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Table I. 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the supply wells. on-line analyzer can test for 1,4-dioxane, the control system relies on regular water quality sampling and input of the most recent concentrations into the control program. Peroxide quenching Two methods were considered for reducing the hydrogen peroxide residual that remains after the advanced oxidation UV reactors: chemical quenching and granular activated carbon quenching. Chemical quenching by the addition

of sodium hypochlorite was considered first since the reaction between sodium hypochlorite and peroxide is relatively quick and sodium hypochlorite is already in use at the plant. Literature regarding the chemical quenching reaction provided a ratio of approximately 2.1 mg/L sodium hypochlorite for 1 mg/L of peroxide (Liu et al., 2003). A residual peroxide concentration would vary depending on influent water quality and continued overleaf...

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Groundwater Figure 2. GAC bed expansion.

was expected to be in excess of 7 mg/L, resulting in a sodium hypochlorite dosage in excess of 15 mg/L. Additional sodium hypochlorite would be added to provide chlorine for chloramination downstream. Limited information regarding the potential by-product formation of the quenching reaction was available. The World Health Organization indicated that sodium hypochlorite has the potential to break down into chlorite and chlorate, and dosing large volumes of the sodium hypochlorite has the potential to increase chlorite and chlorate concentrations in the treated water. But since the team had limited time to conduct additional studies to investigate this potential issue, they turned to granular activated carbon as a quenching alternative. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated as a non-consumable product to reduce the peroxide residual. GAC acts as a catalyst for the natural breakdown of peroxide into oxygen and water. Operating the contactor in an upflow direction induces a continuous fluidized carbon bed that promotes gas release and mixing to increase the peroxide quenching efficiency over the standard downflow filtration. GAC also provides an 34 | November 2007

added benefit of some organic removal following the advanced oxidation system in which organics are reduced to more simple forms. The team investigated both 8x30 and 12x40 carbon media sizes, concluding that the 12x40 had improved peroxide reducing capabilities due to a lower required contact time for the desired peroxide reduction. Upflow GAC contactors Operating the upflow GAC contactors is similar to continuously backwashing a pressure filter. The key design focus was to avoid carbon blow-out by optimizing the filter flow rate to target a bed expansion between 15% and 40% for each online contactor. The maximum bed expansion of 40% was critical as there was a higher potential for carbon blowout from the reactor. Operating the contactor below the 15% target would still provide peroxide reduction, but at a decreased efficiency. Backwash bed expansion curves supplied by the carbon supplier were used to estimate the bed expansion percentage for the design. Three 3.0 m diameter pressure vessels were specified, each to accommodate one-third of the total plant flow rate. The contactor design was conservatively based on a water temperature of 7˚C (45˚F); the groundwater for this

water supply is typically in the 12 to 15˚C (53-59˚F) range year round. Cold water temperatures will produce a higher bed expansion compared to warmer water at the same flow rate. Flow split to each of the vessels was critical to balance the bed expansion across the vessels. Flow meters and modulating butterfly valves were specified on the inlet to each vessel to control the filter flow rate. The design backwash curves are shown in Figure 2; the curves present some indication where a specific flow rate can be handled by a single vessel or a combination of vessels. Design of the top collector of the vessel was also essential to reduce the potential of clogging the collector with carbon media. Sufficiently sized openings were specified, allowing the fine carbon media to exit the vessel. Carbon fines Throughout the GAC contactor design, it was apparent that fine carbon particles may be continually produced from the collision of carbon particles in the fluidized bed. These fine particles would then be released from the contact vessel and would enter the treated water reservoir where they are anticipated to settle out. continued overleaf...

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Groundwater With limited industry experience with upflow GAC contactors, it was difficult to predict the quantity of fines that would be released from the contactors as well as the average particle size. As provisional items to the construction contract, three strainers with 25 micron screens were specified for downstream of the contactors. An additional three strainers with 10 micron screens were also specified should the fine particle diameter warrant the finer screen. Each strainer is complete with automatic cleaning, and the wastewater flows to the backwash holding tank. The initial start-up of a new batch of GAC is expected to have a large quantity of fine particles. A flush-to-waste line was designed for this start-up to divert the fines waste flowing to the backwash holding tank. Total plant control Controlling the many processes throughout the Greenbrook WSS was simplified by breaking the system into three specific sectors identified based on the three pumping zones: the raw water pumping from the five supply wells; the

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low-lift pumping through the treatment systems to the treated water reservoirs; and the high-lift pumping system to the distribution system. The low-lift pumping was categorized as the primary control sector, for which the treatment systems would operate at a pre-defined set point. The two other pumping zones were categorized as secondary control sectors, for which the well pumps and the high-lift pumps would operate to maintain levels in the raw water reservoir and the treated water reservoir, respectively. Figure 1 illustrates the primary and secondary control sectors. The low-lift pumps were each equipped with a variable frequency drive (VFD) to permit the most flexibility for the range of flows through the treatment systems. Under normal operation, the treatment systems will all function at the pre-defined flow set point. Backwashing one of the iron and manganese pressure vessels would require the flow rate to be reduced temporarily. Disinfection Part of this assessment included completing a hydrogeological study of the

area. The source was characterized as a groundwater system; however, due to events around the shutdown of the Greenbrook WSS, questions arose as to whether there was influence from nearby surface waters. Conclusion The treatment process selected for Greenbrook WSS includes treatment for the removal of iron, manganese, 1,4dioxane, peroxide residual, and carbon fines, as well as providing UV and chlorine disinfection. Installation of the advanced oxidation system will provide protection from 1,4dioxane and will ensure Greenbrook WSS continues to supply quality water to the Region of Waterloo well into the future. Ryan Steckly and Leigh McDermott are with Stantec Consulting. Elia Edwards is with Associated Engineering and Donna Serrati is with the Region of Waterloo. Contact: ryan.steckly@stantec.com

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A walk in the park: Water conservation in British Columbia’s municipal parks By Neal Klassen, MA

eople in Penticton, BC, get hopping mad when they see the parks department watering soccer fields on Mondays. That’s because some residents of this semi-arid city are themselves prohibited by local watering restrictions from watering on Mondays. If the city is so concerned about water conservation, why then, people wonder, don’t they practise what they preach? Water conservation is an issue of growing importance in Canada. A 1999 Environment Canada report noted that more than one-quarter of Canadian municipalities have experienced problems with water availability. In response to these shortages, municipalities often employ public education programs and watering restrictions to lower water consumption, particularly during peak summer months. But when it comes to conserving water in their own parks and sports fields, some Canadian municipalities may not be doing their share. A study of the water conservation practices in 12 municipal parks departments in British Columbia revealed that some parks departments do more than others to save

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water, while some do nothing at all. The study revealed at least four major reasons why water conservation is a challenge in BC’s municipal parks: a lack of measurement and low price for water, municipal parks design, issues with irrigation systems, and high public expectations. Measurement and price Water used for parks irrigation in BC is largely unmeasured and under-priced. Less than a quarter of the surveyed municipalities meter the water used for parks irrigation and charge for water based on the volume parks departments consume. The rest are partially metered, or not metered at all. Water rates tend to be a flat yearly charge while some parks departments don’t pay for water at all. There is a case to be made for subsidizing parks’ water use. Parks are a shared community resource with clear and well-documented benefits. A University of Illinois study found that property and violent crimes are 50% lower near buildings surrounded by greenery when compared with buildings that had little or no vegetation. Parks encourage physical fitness, and it is also well known that green spaces help cool those

hot, concrete urban cores. One parks manager likened the expectation that a parks department pay for its own water to a dog chasing its own tail. Whether the costs for water are paid out of parks operating budgets or general municipal revenue, the money ultimately comes from the same place: taxation. Still, a 2001 Environment Canada study found that flat rate pricing results in higher water use than volumebased pricing. In the absence of a price for water, there is no financial incentive for a parks department to conserve it. How or if a parks department pays for water aside, the lack of accurate measurement of parks’ water use is a concern. The City of Kelowna has an extensive water conservation program targeted to its residents, but it was not until 2006 that the water utility was able to determine the extent to which the parks division contributes to peak demand. It turns out that parks consume between 15 – 20% of total city water use during peak summer months. That’s one customer using almost one-fifth of the water. From a water sustainability standpoint, any single customer using up to

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Water Conservation 20% of the water simply has to be a target for conservation efforts. But because water use in most BC municipal parks is unmeasured, who can say for sure how much parks irrigation contributes to peak demand or summer water shortages? As the old business adage goes, you can’t manage what you don’t measure. Parks design Penticton residents have no cause to be angry when soccer fields are watered on restricted days. The parks department can’t water on weekends when sports fields are in use because of the vandalism that occurs to the irrigation systems. By the time Monday rolls around those fields have to be watered regardless of odd/even watering restrictions or the turf will die. That’s one of the reasons why most sports fields in BC are exempt from local watering restrictions. Another reason is that a sports field is an entirely different animal than the average residential lawn. Because they are sandbased, sports fields drain much quicker than soil-based landscapes, so they require frequent irrigation if they are to survive. Even in the moist climate of BC’s lower mainland, sports fields are often watered every two days. If allowed to die, it can be a costly exercise to bring a sports field back. So Penticton residents can relax and maybe even rejoice, because compared to other parks departments in BC, Penticton actually does a good job when it comes to conserving water. Several of its waterfront parks use untreated lake water for irrigation, while all new parks use treated effluent water. Penticton also incorporates Xeriscape principles in all new parks and is gradually applying them to existing parks. For the most part, though, municipal parks in BC are not designed for water conservation. This may not be a big deal in rainy Vancouver or Victoria, but in the semi-arid interior, the use of non-native plants and exotic species not naturally adapted to the local climate makes irrigation systems essential, along with frequent – often daily – watering. The extensive use of turf grass and non-native horticulture can be explained by the functions of municipal parks. While most cities preserve passive, natural park areas, the municipal parks syswww.esemag.com

tem is generally expected to provide golf courses, sports fields, community parks and ornamental gardens. These are highly used, heavily groomed, clipped, turfed landscapes that require frequent irrigation in summer months. Some parks departments in BC are starting to incorporate water conservation principles in parks design. Kamloops and Surrey have extensive Xeriscape demonstration gardens. Artificial turf is becoming more common in sports fields across the province. But no municipality is going as far as the City of Kelowna, which is developing landscape and irrigation system standards for water efficiency that will be applied to all new development, residential, commercial, and parks. These standards, likely to be in place by 2009, will ensure adequate depth and quality of soil, restrict turf, allow only drought tolerant plants, and require certified landscape and irrigation system designers to sign off on all plans before a building permit is issued. Irrigation systems Most parks departments in BC use automatic irrigation systems, and many have gone the extra step by connecting these systems to a central controller. Centrally controlled irrigation systems gather precipitation and evapotranspiration data through a series of weather stations, and use this data to automatically calculate irrigation rates. Water savings achieved through the use of centrally controlled irrigation systems are easily quantified. When Kamloops connected its parks to centralized control in 2000, they realized a 25% decrease in water consumption. In Vancouver, a 30% reduction in water use is realized every time a field is moved from local to central control. These reductions are significant, but they should not be confused with water conservation. Centrally controlled systems eliminate the over-watering that may occur through regular automatic or manually operated systems, but they really just deliver the amount of water turf and plants actually require in the first place. Another issue with automatic systems is the cost of ongoing maintenance, upgrades, and repair. In Kelowna, a 2007 continued overleaf... November 2007 | 39


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Water Conservation audit of 12 neighborhood parks revealed significant deficiencies in the irrigation systems. Distribution uniformity (DU), which is the measure of how uniformly water is distributed on a field, ranged from a low of 22% in one park to a high of 77% in another. Average DU was 50%. A DU of 70% is considered acceptable and a DU of 80% is achievable. When DU is as low as 22%, the irrigation system run times have to be two to three times longer than they should to ensure the park receives sufficient water. This means the efficiencies gained through the use of automatic irrigation technology can be lost due to deficiencies in the same technology. In a perfect world, parks departments would have unlimited resources and the ability to monitor irrigation systems 24 hours a day. In reality, they have to deal with limited budgets, vandalism in late night activity areas, and a public that sees a parks department as an easy target for complaints about water waste. Public expectations Pubic expectations for perfect, green turf are rooted in the past, when parks were built long before water conservation was an issue in the province. The operations supervisor for Kelowna’s parks departments says, “the mandate back then was to build big, beautiful parks with no thought to water conservation whatsoever.” So today’s parks managers have inherited high public expectations and water-thirsty parks created by their predecessors.

Curiously, public expectations vary from community to community. In North Vancouver and Surrey, the parks managers say that some neighborhood parks are never irrigated and it’s not a big deal when they go brown, because they have always been allowed to go brown. In nearby Port Moody, however, the public expects high quality and if they don’t see it, they are on the phone to City Hall right away. It appears that public expectations can be changed, and if a community is serious about water conservation, parks departments can lead by example. The manager of Surrey’s parks department says that the lawn at City Hall is allowed to go brown as a symbolic gesture. He says that if the lawn is green they actually get complaints from residents. That’s quite a contrast from, say, Kelowna, where the public lights up the phone lines if there is so much as one dandelion in a park. Is water conservation even necessary? British Columbia is considered a water rich province, but crises in supply may loom. In the Okanagan Valley there is a one in six risk that water demand will exceed supply by 2050. The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) reports that their present sources of water offer a secure supply until about mid-century, but that “climate change could potentially advance the date when additional supplies are required by up to 10 years in a worst-case scenario.” While the province is not going to run

out of water tomorrow, most BC municipalities consider water conservation an important issue. The GVRD states that conserving water delays infrastructure expansions, saves money, and reduces environmental impacts over the long term. So it came as a surprise to learn that half of the parks managers who work in cities within the GVRD do not believe water conservation is important, even though they all receive water from the same supplier. It is unreasonable for a municipal government to expect that all its water supply issues will be solved by encouraging residents and business to conserve. It is necessary to look at the consumption of all water users on the municipal system, including large single customers like a parks department. Without adequate measurement, however, it’s impossible to know just how much water a parks department actually consumes as a percentage of peak demand. When developing a municipal water conservation plan it may be easy to forget about the parks department, or to consider them “untouchable” because of their high profile and the benefits they provide to the community. However, in municipalities that have experienced water shortages, or anticipate shortages in the future, parks departments are too large a water conservation target to ignore. Neal Klassen is owner of H2Okanagan Water Conservation Ltd. E-mail: nklassen@direct.ca

ANTHRACITE – FILTER MEDIA Approximately 450 tons of previously installed ANTHRACITE filter media from twoToronto water treatment plants are currently available for negotiable resale to producers, suppliers, and/or end users of the product. Two materials with unique specifications are currently being stored in one ton bags both inside and outside beneath weather tarps in Scarborough, Ontario. The anthracite filter media was removed from existing water treatment filters for replacement with granular activated carbon filter caps. Effective sizes and uniformity coefficients have been determined by sieve analysis. UNIT A Quantity: 400 t Eff. Size: 0.900 Unif. Coeff.: 1.48

UNIT B Quantity: 55 t Eff. Size: 0.974 Unif. Coeff.: 1.48

The City of Toronto does not provide any form of warrantee or guarantee with this material. Material can be provided for additional physical/chemical analyses at the request of the prospective buyer. For details, please contact: Mark Ortiz, EIT, City of Toronto, (416) 392-3637, mortiz@toronto.ca

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A natural way to control odours By Joan Sisley, London Press Service

Southern Water Environment Officer Adela Hepworth, with some of nature’s own products which are helping to give a green answer to odour control.

n environmentally-friendly project by a United Kingdom water company is using natural elements like bark, wood chips, seaweed and seashells, to line water-filled tanks to provide a solution to the unpleasant odours that can come from wastewater treatment works. At Peel Common Wastewater Treatment Works in Hampshire, southern England, which serves nearly a quarter of a million people, Southern Water say they are on course for the lowest recorded number of odour complaints against the site. Feasting bugs live on the natural material in the tanks, and treat the hydrogen sulphide that causes the smells. The gas is sucked away by extractors before going through carbon filters back into the atmosphere. By the time the gas passes through the layers of bark and seaweed, the bacteria and the carbon have removed most smells. In the seashell tanks the system comprises an odour filter filled with cockle shells which are constantly washed by a pumped system and they develop a bio-

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logical film on them. This film neutralizes the gases further, helped by the calcium present in the seashells. An activated carbon filter later “polishes” the air. The shell filter holds 95,000 litres of seashells gathered from around the coast of the UK and Ireland. After a period of three to six years, the shells will have dissolved and have to be replaced. Some thirty cubic metres of seaweed comes from local beaches, from Cornwall and from the Irish Sea. Local residents and councillors in the area had previously been so upset by the smells from the site that they had formed an Odour Forum to work together with Southern Water to identify problem areas and solutions. But in a recent visit to Peel Common the Forum found the results of the new green solution to be “fantastic.” The seashell odour treatment system was originally developed by the Irish group Bord na Móna Environmental Limited, which now supplies shells to 10 Southern Water wastewater treatment works. www.southernwater.co.uk November 2007 | 41


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Drainage

Prefabricated vertical drains used to speed consolidation of Red River floodway embankments n July 2007, Layfield Environmental Systems completed a prefabricated vertical drain project for the Red River Floodway Expansion project in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The prefabricated vertical drains (also known as PVDs or wick drains) were installed in preparation for the construction of railway embankments for a new bridge across the Floodway. The drains will accelerate the consolidation of the clay subsoil under the embankment, allowing the bridge project to proceed on schedule. The PVD drainage area will eventu-

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The pattern of PVDs from the top of a mast. Note the old rail line on the right. 42 | November 2007

ally be underneath 1,200 metres of railway track and cover an area of about 32,000 m2. At this site there is a 20 m layer of glaciolucustrine silty clay over silt till on top of limestone bedrock. Consolidation of this thick clay layer takes a long time unless additional drainage is added. The geotechnical engineer on this project, Faris Khalil, of UMA/AECOM, indicated that, on this project, a substantial percentage of subsoil consolidation needed to be completed within the available two year construction time. The design objective for this project was to have 50 mm of post construction settlement. Usually the options in this part of Manitoba were to use staged construction, vertical sand drains, or PVDs. The choice of PVDs was based on cost, short installation time, and less interference with the construction process. The concept behind prefabricated vertical drains is to install a matrix of drainage channels into the subsoil under the embankment to reduce drainage paths. Typically, PVDs are installed in a grid pattern with a spacing range between 1.5 to 2 metres centre to centre, depending on the compressible layer thickness, the waiting period available, and the loading condition. The PVDs are installed into the ground for the full or partial depth of the compressible layer, depending on the design objective. In

this case, the depth was 20 metres which was the depth of the clay layer under the site. Over 130,000 lineal metres of wick drain were punched into the subsoil beneath the proposed embankment. A granular drainage mat provides a drainage path for the water that comes up from the PVDs, allowing the water to drain to the sides of the embankment area into the side ditch. The embankment is then built on top of the drainage mat. As the embankment grows, the pressure on the matrix of soil and PVDs increases and the water begins to flow up the PVDs, into the drainage layer, and out to the side ditch. The drains are designed so that consolidation will occur within a suitable construction time-frame. On this project the embankment will be as high as about 6 m and the maximum associated settlement is estimated to be in the order of 450 mm. The prefabricated vertical drains (also known as wick drains) are a composite material supplied in rolls 152 m long. The drain consists of an inner core made out of corrugated polypropylene which is wrapped with a heat-bonded non-woven geotextile. A standard wick drain is 93 mm wide and approximately 4 mm thick. The wick drains supplied on this site each had a maximum drainage capacity of 6.6 litres/min. One interesting aspect of this project was the use of the newest style of hy-

The hydraulic drive unit pressing the mandrel into the ground. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Drainage

In some wet locations the water started coming up the wick drains as soon as they were placed.

Completed PVDs form a pattern behind the rig.

draulic prefabricated vertical drain installation equipment. This patented hydraulic equipment mounts to the mast of an excavator and uses hydraulic motors to press the drains into the ground with over 130 kN of static force. The PVD is carried into the ground inside a steel mandrel that is driven into the ground and then extracted. The PVD is wrapped around a small metal plate at the bottom of the mandrel to hold it in place and to keep the soil out of the mandrel as it is driven down. When the mandrel is extracted the metal plate anchors the PVD to the bottom of the hole. In the typically saturated soils where PVDs are used the mandrel presses easily into the ground without predrilling or other preparation. An advantage of the new hydraulic equipment over older cable-operated designs is that vibratory assist is integral to the drive unit and is efficiently transmitted along the mandrel if a difficult section of soil is encountered. Using the vibration assist adds an additional 350 kN of dynamic force for a total static plus dynamic force of 480 kN. On this project the clay became progressively stiffer as the depth increased and, at approximately the 14 m depth www.esemag.com

mark, vibration assist needed to be turned on. The requirement for vibro assist had been indicated in the study of the borehole logs. The logs showed that the SPT count increased with the depth of the clay. Typically the vibro assist is required with an SPT (Standard Penetration Test) blow count value of 13 N or greater. With the vibro assist the wick drain unit had no trouble pressing the PVDs into this soil. The prefabricated vertical drain portion of this project took about a month and a half including weather delays. A good production day would include 230 wicks of 20 m each or about 4,000 lineal metres per day. In total over 6,500 wicks were inserted. This was the first PVD job that Craig Erb from Hugh Munro Construction was aware of in Manitoba. Last year he had three drilling rigs drilling 450 mm holes 20 m deep at 3 m spacings to achieve the same type of drainage. The sand columns also needed a full time excavator for the tailings, a sand truck, and a water truck. The PVDs went much more quickly and are expected to provide similar drainage at a significantly lower price. Hugh Munro Construction is now completing the embankments over the PVD treated area. Bridge construction is planned to take place in the summer of 2008 and the rail alignment will be switched over in 2009. For more information, contact Andrew Mills, Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd. E-mail:amills@layfieldgroup.com

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Historical Land Reclamation

Acadians flourished behind their aboiteaux By David J. Penny ong before the Europeans came to Canada, the Malacite and Mi’kmaq people were growing food on the narrow band of fertile land that separates the forest from the North Atlantic Ocean. They called this narrow band quoddy (fertile land) and algatig (place of encampment). Was this the Vinland that the Viking explorer, Leif Eriksson spoke of around 1100 AD? Vin is the Nordic name for plain or pasture, not wine. The Maglemosian Culture had introduced farming on similar lands in Scandinavia as early as 7,500 BC, after the last Ice Age retreated due to global warming. Combining the two native words, explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano called the area Arcadia (pastoral paradise) when he returned to France in 1534. As the French began to settle this land they became the Acadians. From the late sixteenth century, Acadian settlements were established along the Bay of Fundy where the twelve metre high tides pushed several kilometres up the great fresh water rivers, creating vast areas of fertile marshland. In order to convert the marshland to cropland the Acadians built dykes or lev-

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ees (from the French verb lever, to elevate) to hold back the salt water tides. At the bottom of each levee they constructed an aboiteau. Initially these consisted of a large hollowed out log to form

than the British/American alternative, which involved clearing the forests from the land. By the mid eighteenth century several thousand acres of salt marsh had been upgraded to arable land, making it

Over the next 250 years the Cajuns helped to develop the Mississippi Delta and New Orleans with their aboiteau agriculture. a trough and slab wood fastened with wooden pegs to form a roof. A hanging wooden flap gate on the ocean end slammed shut as the tides rose, excluding the salt water and swung open at low tide to drain the excess fresh water that was trapped in ditches behind the levee. After a few years the fresh water diluted the salt from the land, making agriculture possible. By the seventeenth century sawmills had been established and aboiteaux were built with squared timber. Corrugated metal pipe was introduced in the late nineteenth century which, when combined with anti seepage collars and cast iron flap gates, has become the aboiteau of today. The aboiteau agriculture of the Acadians was much less labour-intensive

attractive to the invading British and settlers from America who remained loyal to Britain. Refusing to proclaim loyalty to Britain, the Acadians were expelled from their land in 1755. Many resettled in Louisiana where the Acadians became known as Cajuns. Over the next 250 years the Cajuns helped to develop the Mississippi Delta and New Orleans with their aboiteau agriculture. Initially levees, ditches and aboiteaux were built by hand so they remained relatively small in scale. As excavating equipment, steel sheet piling, pumps and larger mechanized water control gates were developed, the earthworks became higher, protecting significantly larger areas. In many cases they completely excluded salt water from the fresh water

A modern aboiteau.

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Historical Land Reclamation

An engineer from a Member Company of the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute inspects the new PLCSP culvert installation.

rivers, creating fresh water lakes behind the aboiteaux. The ecosystems that have developed behind the aboiteaux are unique. At the Sackville, New Brunswick, Waterfowl Park more than 180 species of birds and 200 species of plants have been recorded. Behind the aboiteaux one can also find a network of farms, towns, drainage ditches, lakes, roadways and a challenging construction environment. Soils are typically soft, deep marine clays with limited bearing capacity and corrosive tendencies. The areas are vulnerable to fresh water flooding due to storms and spring breakup of frozen lakes and rivers, as the gates must remain closed during high tide. Salt mist from the ocean is ever present and as the land is often below sea level, there is always the risk of a salt water intrusion and flooding. Recently Hurricane Katrina brought many of these realities home to the people of New Orleans and raised additional concerns about global warming, increasing sea levels, and increased frequency and magnitude of storms. The challenges have been and are being addressed through engineering innovation. An example is a new 1400 mm diameter polymer laminated corrugated steel culvert pipe, installed under the west bound lane of the Trans Canada Highway (TCH) near Sackville. As one www.esemag.com

crosses into New Brunswick from Nova Scotia one passes over the culvert and the Tantramar Marsh. Looking to the right one can see several thousand hectares of reclaimed agricultural land, Radio Canada’s communication anten-

nae, a large water control gate and fresh water ponds. To the left are the elevated east bound TCH and a rail line that acts as a levee against the rising tide. At high tide the area beyond the levee is a flooded salt water marsh but at low tide a muddy red brown river channel and tidal flat are exposed. Excellent drainage is key to the success of aboiteau agriculture and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) has been used for culverts in Acadia for many years. Traditionally CSP was asphalt coated to improve its durability in this aggressive fresh water/marine environment but an improved material in the form of polymer laminated CSP (PLCSP) is now available and widely specified in Canada. Not surprisingly PLCSP is well accepted and has been used for over 35 years by the State of Louisiana for installations behind the aboiteaux. The Acadians have come home. David Penny, BES, is with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute. Contact: djpenny@cspi.ca

We have Changed! We are not just Environmental Laboratories any more... Our members told us to deliver more! Our Letters Patent now allow us to accredit or recognize any kind of testing in laboratories and other facilities. In 2008, CAEAL will accredit more than environmental laboratories, and will recognize testing at non-laboratory facilities. CAEAL retains its international reputation for serving Canadians: Customer Service, Responsiveness, Integrity.

Tell us what you want. This ad is just one more way to ask you what you want us to deliver. Tell us. We will develop what you need. Visit www.caeal.ca Call 613-233-5300 E-mail rwilson@caeal.ca November 2007 | 45


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Stormwater

Stormwater filtration system protects coastal estuary

The first EnviroSafe™ installation in Veterans Memorial Park, Norwalk. t was the stinky summer of 1987, the year we moved into the house by Westcott Cove, when hundreds of dead fish washed up on the beach. There were so many bodies littering the sand, even the seagulls couldn’t eat them all. The local fishermen told us that a school of bunker had been chased into the Cove by the larger predatory bluefish. The resulting lack of oxygen in the water caused them to asphyxiate. But there was more to this smelly fish story. Don Strait, Executive Director of Save the Sound, writes that the hot weather combined with raw sewage and uncontrolled nitrogen from the municipal wastewater system, triggered an oxygen crash that killed most of the fish from New York City to Bridgeport, Connecticut. Long Island Sound is an estuary where saltwater from the Atlantic Ocean mixes with fresh water from New York and Connecticut rivers. The Sound is 110 miles long and up to 21 miles wide, the north shore stretching from the Bronx to Old Saybrook. It is located in one of the most densely populated regions of the United States, with 10 per-

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cent of the nation’s population living within 50 miles of its shores. The increasing development in this region has resulted in extensive habitat degradation. Estuaries like Long Island Sound are especially prone to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the summer. As human activity around the Sound begins to expand, the condition known as hypoxia worsens. Hypoxia occurs when dissolved oxygen is consumed faster than new oxygen can be supplied. Hypoxia usually begins around the same time that spring gardeners fertilize their lawns with nitrogen-rich nutrients. Increasing numbers of people developing land have taxed the ability of natural processes to keep the Sound clean. When heavy rain falls on asphalt driveways and roads it rushes into storm drains. Along the way it might pick up oil, salt, fertilizer, trash and animal waste from street gutters. There’s no chance for natural processes to filter this water before it enters a storm sewer. Everything collected from pavements, roofs and cars may end up in Long Island Sound. Long Island Sound is like a basin filled with tidal waters that ebb and flow with the addition of freshwater entering

By Cyd Kilbey Gorman

from rivers and streams. The plants and animals that live in this estuary need just the right balance of oxygen in the water to survive. The water entering the Sound from rivers and streams may come from the following sources: • Runoff • Groundwater • Rainwater • Storm drains • Outflow from sewage treatment plants • Sewer overflow • Industrial wastewater. There are more than 200 sources of CSOs in the East River in New York. In Connecticut, there are 64 CSO sources between Bridgeport and New Haven. Connecticut plans to provide state funds for eliminating combined sewer systems along the coast. However, progress is slow because eliminating combined sewer systems is costly and disruptive. Municipalities are also making an effort to keep runoff pollutants out of harbors and Long Island Sound. Some 275 stormwater catch basin filters were installed in storm drains in South Norwalk, CT, beginning in October 2005. These were paid for by a $400,000 US federal grant. In another project, funded by a $35,000 grant from the US National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 45 EnviroSafe™ catch basin filter systems were used in storm drains in and around Veterans Memorial Park in January 2007. The EnviroSafe filters were installed by Transpo Industries, Inc., a manufacturing company in New Rochelle, NY. These filters capture and retain the many pollutants associated with stormwater runoff. The filter systems can be retrofitted to fit flat-grated, combination curbgrated catch basins as well as curb only inlets. The cartridge basins come in various sizes in both rectangular and round configurations. They can be cleaned out every season and replaced once a year at a cost of about $100 each. The filter technology incorporates a potent antimicrobial treatment that inhibits virus, mold and bacteria growth.

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Stormwater In a project funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, fifteen more filters were to be installed in East Norwalk in September 2007. Existing filters have killed off 80-90 percent of the bacteria that would have entered Long Island Sound. The various filters have captured the equivalent of a 1,200 gallon oil spill. Michael Yeosock, senior engineer for the City of Norwalk, CT, says the city has two types of filters operating there. When these filters were cleaned after six months of operation, each filter had an average of 54 pounds of trash, or 15,000 pounds total. Mr. Yeosock went on to say that the city has been testing influent and effluent for E. coli and oil and gas to determine the efficiency of the filters. So far, he is happy with the quality of sediment removal. If the city can keep sediment from reaching the marina, it will increase the amount of time between dredging of the harbor. Since the last dredging cost the city approximately $250,000, any extension of time between dredging operations is a money saver. Yeosock considers the catch basin in-

sert filters the most cost-effective solution because maintenance of the filters is a simple task. The time required to clean each filter was 10 to 15 minutes, which is considered quite acceptable. A contractor installed the first set, showing public works employees how to handle future installations. Municipalities should consider the following when purchasing stormwater filtration systems: • Initial cost. • Maintenance/replacement costs. • Type of filtration needed. • Retrofit or new project. • Type of maintenance required. • Space available for devices. Stormwater experts from around the United States have been using catch basin inserts and filters to increase the removal of sediment and pollutants. By setting up routine maintenance plans, they ensure that the catch basin inserts will help protect water bodies for all of us.

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Watermain and Sewer Upgrade

Open cut dredging used for utility crossing of the Great By Alan R. Perks, Allen K. Lucas, Gerald A. Bauer, and Colin B. Fairn Cataraqui River n 1955, a water main and sewage force main were installed across the Great Cataraqui River in Kingston, Ontario. The sewage force main now conveys the sanitary wastewater generated by approximately 60,000 people living and working in central Kingston west of the river to the Ravensview Water Pollution Control Plant located east of the river. The water main carries drinking water from the King Street Water Purification Plant, also west of the river, to about 10,000 people living east of the river. Since they were installed, both the water main and the sewage force main have operated without problems. In 1997, divers conducted visual inspections and found no signs of pipe movement or leakage, but internal condition assessments could not be carried out. These pipes are now almost 50 years old and, if problems were to occur, there is no backup in place for either system. Furthermore, the River Street Pumping Station, which pumps sewage through the force main, has insufficient capacity to handle flows during wet weather events. As a result, combined sewer overflows to the river occur during heavy rainfall when in-system storage capacity is exceeded. Increasing concerns over the condition, reliability and redundancy of these marine crossings, especially the consequences of a major sewage force main break under the river, led Utilities Kingston to consider upgrading these facilities.

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Environmental assessment A provincial class environmental assessment (EA) was undertaken to determine how best to address the reliability and environmental protection concerns with the existing crossings. Utilities Kingston retained R.V. Anderson Associates Limited to determine the preferred solution for upgrading the infrastructure crossings of the Cataraqui River following the Municipal Class EA Schedule B process. Due to the location of the proposed works, the expertise of the consultant team included civil, sanitary and marine engineers, archaeologists, aquatic and terrestrial biologists, landscape architects and geotechnologists. At the outset, several advisory groups were formed to provide input throughout the project, including a Project Steering Committee, a Public Advisory Committee and a Technical Advisory Committee. These committees met frequently and informally to provide input at every key stage of the environmental assessment. Following the procedures established for a Schedule B Municipal Environmental Assessment, a number of preliminary

alternatives were identified, including: • Doing nothing, provided the risks are minimal; • Constructing new water and sewer crossings at LaSalle Causeway, future Gore-Elliott, the existing utility corridor, and other locations from Hwy 401 to Lake Ontario; • Constructing new water and wastewater treatment plants situated to eliminate the need for the river crossings; • Diverting wastewater flows away from the existing crossing, thereby reducing the need for the crossing; • Increased storage of potable water on the east side of the river; • Source controls and other water conservation measures designed to reduce the need for the crossings. A preliminary screening was done of all alternatives, and then a more detailed assessment was completed of only the most promising solutions. Preliminary screening A set of five “go / no go” evaluation criteria was used to screen the long list of 14 alternatives down to seven feasible solutions. Measures involving water con-

Top: Environmental dredging equipment.

Bottom: Installing pipe.

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Watermain and Sewer Upgrade servation practices and diversion of flows away from the crossings did not pass this screening because they were not able to solve the entire problem, and would leave the City in the same position of reliance on a single pipe crossing. However, practising sound water conservation in the City was considered a best practice, and should be encouraged as part of any preferred solution. The alternatives passing this preliminary screening process included: • New water and sewer crossings at LaSalle, Gore-Elliott and the existing alignment; and, • New water pollution control plant on the east side of the river. These water and wastewater alternatives were presented at an open house on March 8, 2001. Detailed evaluation Further environmental, technical, social and cost analyses were then done. A detailed set of evaluation criteria was developed and applied to the short list of alternatives, weighted at 50% for natural environment and social features, 50% for technical and economic aspects. The option of a new wastewater treat-

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ment plant on the west shore was considered in detail, but was eventually dropped due to high cost and constructability. Many different factors favored using the existing alignment, including environmental, timing, social and cost considera-

Pipeline ready for sinking.

tions. In the end, by using the existing corridor, maximum utilization was made of the City’s current infrastructure. Therefore, twinning the pipes in the

existing location emerged as the preferred alternative. The preferred option consisted of installing a new 585 mm HDPE water main and two new 1067 mm HDPE sewage force mains across the river in a single dredged trench, with associated on-shore works and tie-ins. Both the water main and force mains stretched approximately 1 kilometre across the Great Cataraqui River and were to be installed using proven open cut trenching methods and dredging techniques. Upgrading of the River Street Pumping Station also formed part of the preferred option. During the initial testing of materials to be dredged, some in-river material was found to contain various levels of contamination. As such, a dedicated storage facility was recommended, to permit the dredged material to be temporarily stockpiled and dried prior to future disposal. The Great Cataraqui River Utilities Crossing EA was registered on public record and approved in July 2001. No further input was received and the project was able to proceed into the design and construction phases. continued overleaf...

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Watermain and Sewer Upgrade Design and construction Detailed design and hydrogeological investigations were conducted over the subsequent year leading to preparation of the Preliminary Design Report, which confirmed the technical feasibility of the proposed construction approach and provided design parameters for the new water main and sewage force main. Clearing a final hurdle, Utilities Kingston received technical approval of its use of the lands adjacent to the City of Kingston snow disposal facility on Division Street as a temporary storage and dewatering facility for dredged material. Over 60 permits and approvals from various agencies, including MOE, DND, DFO, Canadian Coast Guard, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, numerous City of Kingston departments, and the Cataraqui Region Conservation Authority were required. Strict environmental requirements imposed during the construction had to be addressed and mitigated for the project to move forward, including: • Contaminated materials; • Maintaining existing infrastructure operation; • Construction across a navigation channel; • Environmental issues, including fish spawning and increased turbidity in the river during dredging; • Archaeological investigations in historic areas; fish habitat compensation; • Inter-agency coordination; • Extensive municipal, provincial and, federal approval processes; • A federal screening report; and • Storage of dredged material and subsequent monitoring programs. Some of the dredged sediment was found to be contaminated material. As a result, a temporary sediment storage facility was designed and built for the placement of all the dredged material. The storage facility consisted of three separate cells, one lined with PVC for the potentially contaminated material. An unloading dock was built on the east shore of the river to facilitate unloading of the dredged material from barges and subsequent loading into trucks complete with truck washing facilities. A concrete sediment detention cell 50 | November 2007

was constructed on-site to collect wash water and residual sediments that had spilled during the transfer of dredged material from the barge to the watertight truck boxes. The wash water and sediments were pumped from the detention cell to the existing sewer system connected to the treatment facility. The new HDPE pipes for the Great Cataraqui River Utility Crossing were fused in Belleville, Ontario, floated and

On-shore connections

Knox Farm sediment storage facility.

then towed into Kingston Harbour via tugboats and barges in 300 m and 700 m lengths. Once they were floated into place, and sunk into position in the dredged trench, the three pipes each extended just over one kilometre across the Great Cataraqui River. The dredged trench and pipeline alignment crossed a navigational channel within the river. Various agencies, DFO, MOE, the Canadian Coast Guard and Cataraqui Conservation Authority, as well as archaeologists, imposed strict environmental restrictions on the dredging operations. Some of the construction restrictions included installation of a turbidity curtain

around the dredging operation to contain the suspended solids; restricted construction operations during both fish spawning and peak boating periods; a fish habitat compensation and landscape package; transfer barges for dredged material hauling; and an unloading dock constructed to receive the material handling barges and capture and contain any spillage during barge unloading. Dredging was performed using a Cable Arm Clamshell excavation bucket specially designed for environmentally sensitive dredging projects to reduce turbidity and resuspension of dredged sediments. The utility pipelines were installed so as not to interfere with future operation of the navigational channel in the river. Concrete ballast weights were installed along the marine pipelines to provide negative buoyancy, and the dredged channel was left to fill in naturally over time. The only significant problem with the pipe installation occurred after the project during the upgrade of the River Street Pumping Station. During the connection of the installed marine pipes with the new pump discharge header, air was inadvertently introduced into one of the force mains and a short section just offshore floated to the surface. It was successfully re-sunk into position by carefully bleeding the air back out of the pipe. The utility crossing project was completed in late 2005, immediately followed by a related project to upgrade and increase storage and capacity at the River Street pumping station, which is now nearing completion. Dredged sediment management An extensive testing program of the dredged material revealed some localized areas of contaminated sediment. As a result, a storage facility was designed and built for the placement of all dredged material at the City of Kingston’s Knox Farm site just north of Highway 401. The storage facility covered an area of 6.6 ha and consisted of three separate containment cells and two holding cells, with a combined storage volume of approx. 65,000 m3. One containment cell was lined with PVC for storage of the potentially contaminated material, while the other two containment cells were lined with a native clay material. The two holding cells collected and stored overflow runoff from

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Watermain and Sewer Upgrade the containment cells. All dredged material from the excavated pipeline trench was transported to the Knox Farm storage facility using trucks with watertight boxes, with truck turnarounds and dumping areas being constructed for each cell. Strict environmental restrictions were imposed on the operation of the site from various agencies including Ministry of Environment and the Cataraqui Region Conservation Authority. Two Certificates of Approval, a Municipal and Private Sewage Works and a Waste Disposal Site apply to the site. An operations and maintenance plan was developed for the facility, and a site closure plan is now being developed based on the proposed site end use and environmental requirements of regulatory authorities. Summary and conclusions Having identified the preferred solution to be twinning the sewer force main and water main at the existing location, the best method of pipeline installation and construction was considered and evaluated. The new pipes could have been installed either as a deep tunnel in rock, or in a dredged trench in the riverbed sediments.

The environmental impacts of tunneling versus dredging would have been about the same when employing mitigation measures such as sediment/silt curtains and special environmental dredging equipment. The preliminary geotechnical data obtained in this project indicated that most of the river sediments along the existing corridor may be disposed of in a secure landfill, as the levels of contamination were below the levels for a hazardous material. Even allowing for a significant contingency for special sediment handling, the cost of the open cut trenching method by dredging was approximately $6-8 million versus $15-18 million for the tunneling method. Thus, there was a significant cost differential in favour of constructing the new crossings using open cut dredging rather than deep tunneling. An additional cost of $6-8 million in common elements such as sewage pump station and water booster station refurbishment, sewer and water connections, and sewer and water main rehabilitation was also required, bringing the total project cost to approximately $22 million. The preferred method offers a long-

term solution to the City’s wastewater needs. Sufficient capacity and redundancy can be made available to meet future needs, and by rehabilitating the existing pipes, the combined facilities can be maintained and operated indefinitely. Acknowledgements The input and guidance of Jim Keech and Jim Miller, both of Utilities Kingston, were instrumental at several stages of the project, and are acknowledged by the authors. Joe Bennett of Inspec-Sol Inc. provided geotechnical services; Hugh Daechsel of Heritage Quest Inc. provided archeological services; Murray Josselyn of Josselyn Engineering Inc. provided construction supervision services; and Michelle Lavictoire of Bowfin Environmental Consulting provided aquatic biology services. Alan Perks, P. Eng., and Gerald Bauer, P. Eng., are with R.V. Anderson Associates. Allan Lucas, P. Eng., is with Utilities Kingston, and Colin Fairn, P. Eng., is with C.B. Fairn and Associates. Contact: aperks@rvanderson.com

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Stormwater Management

Vortex restrictors reduce CSO project costs by one-third

vanston, Illinois, is a picturesque community of 78,000, located just north of Chicago. It is home to lakefront beaches, nearly 100 parks, lovely boutique shopping, two renowned hospitals, and five colleges and universities, including internationally renowned Northwestern. Under the surface, though, Evanston has wrestled with a problem. For years, during heavy rains, the City’s combined sewer system became overloaded, with sewer backups flooding hundreds of basements up to six times a year. The issue was so prevalent that people living in Evanston got used to not really using their basements. Many put their washing machines and dryers up on 2-foot-high platforms to avoid water damage. The problem dated back at least as far as 1902 when the Commissioner of Public Works declared the combined house and stormwater drainage system inadequate in size and depth. Decades later, the problem grew worse and, in the late 1980s, a hundred-year rain event convinced City officials to commission a large-scale overhaul of the sewers. “Every basement in Evanston had water in it,” said David Stoneback, Superintendent of the Evanston Water & Sewer Division. “That was the impetus

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By Dr. Robert Y.G. Andoh

A plate-mounted S-type vortex valve fits over the outlet pipe of a newly installed stormwater catch basin.

to get going on this.” In 1991, the City embarked on what would turn out to be a $210 million sewer upgrade that increased both the capacity and efficiency of its long-undersized system. The sewer separation portion of the project is now in its final phases, with expected completion by the end of 2008. The City turned to Harza Environmental Services of Chicago (now MWH Americas, Inc.) to develop an innovative plan to alleviate basement backups without having to install storm sewers on every street. The firm recommended rehabilitating portions of the existing combined sewers, installing stormwater relief sewers in downstream areas, and implementing an inlet control system in upstream catchment areas. The inlet control systems were designed to reduce the rate of storm flow entering the combined sewers and create overland flow routes,

diverting stormwater to the new stormwater relief sewers. Prior to the implementation, Evanston studied three types of inlet control systems. It built a test drainage structure to vet each solution. This involved throwing leaves and other debris into the test structures and observing whether they would flood due to blockage. It also metered the water to ensure the proper release rates were being met. Ultimately, the City and Harza selected a two-piece vortex inlet control system supplied by Hydro International of Portland, Maine. At the time, the vortex system was among the first of its kind to be installed in the US. Designed with a snail or conical shape, the vortex inlet control system can choke back the flow of water as needed. Attenuated flow can be temporarily stored in underground tanks or in surface ponds for slow release into the sewer system. With the restrictor in

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Stormwater Management

Evanston’s maintenance officials liked the valve’s pivoting bypass door and pull cord.

place, stormwater for a two-block area can flow along the curb line. This ensures that the rate of inflow will not exceed the hydraulic capacity of the sewer system. Matching system inputs to hydraulic capacity can reduce flooding, backup and overflow frequencies. In addition, the design of the vortex valve allows for a larger opening to avoid obstructions. When dealing with large debris, the opening needs to be as large as possible to prevent blockage from items that get washed down the storm grate. The vortex valve has an opening up to 600 times larger than conventional inlet control systems, while still maintaining the correct discharge rate, making it less likely to become obstructed. The solution proved to be a great money saver. David Stoneback estimated that using Hydro International restrictors instead of separating sewers in portions of the project reduced the overall project cost by about a third. He said the City has been happy with the performance of the system. After the first 12 months of operation, Harza Environmental Services determined that the level of performance was equivalent to a complete sewer separation, and that the system worked well without any maintenance problems reported. The City has made minor changes along the way to gain additional benefits. For example, initially it had not planned to replace the drainage structure before installing the vortex restrictors. However, officials quickly realized that, if they utilized the existing structures, the outfall pipes would vary in size, and getting the right restrictor to fit could be a challenge. To alleviate this challenge, the City stanwww.esemag.com

dardized the system to fit into an 8-inch outfall pipe. This way, the restrictor can fit into all the drainage structures throughout Evanston. Mr. Stoneback also said he is pleased the City took Harza Environmental’s recommendation to utilize a two-piece vortex valve. The device is installed within the outfall pipe of the catch basin and has a mounting bracket for the restrictor hood to slide into. Thus, if the restrictor were to become plugged, it is easy for one maintenance person to pull the head off, clean

it, and put it back in its proper location. “If we had installed a one-piece valve, we’d be forced to pump out the drainage structure and then physically go into the structure with a two-man crew to remove the restrictor,” Mr. Stoneback said. “That would have taken at least an hour. With our two-piece vortex restrictor the work is done in about 15 minutes. Additionally, the mountings allow the unit to be removed from the catch basin for periodic inspection of the valves.” Now, more than 10 years later, City officials report that the vortex valve system has performed well, even during unseasonably wet weather. It has virtually eliminated basement backups. Last August was one of wettest months in recent memory but the City had only two sewage-related basement backup calls, and those were in areas where the work was not yet completed. Dr. Robert Andoh is with Hydro International which is represented in Ontario by ACG Technology. For more information, E-mail greg@acgtechnology.com

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WEFTEC.07 attendees narrowly avoid California’s wildfire disaster Report by Steve Davey

Guests at the Marriott Hotel enjoyed a spectacular view of San Diego Harbour. The aircraft carriers Nimitz and Ronald Reagan can be seen in the background.

ere days before the California wild fires caused widespread destruction and trauma, WEFTEC 2007, held last month in San Diego, set a registration record of 19,929 attendees and 1,017 exhibiting companies. WEFTEC offered 119 technical sessions, 25 workshops, eight facility tours, and several special events. Of particular interest to attendees were workshops on biosolids and microbiology as well as technical sessions on water reuse, membrane technology, and green power for wastewater treatment plants. Benjamin H. Grumbles, Assistant Administrator for the U.S. EPA’s Office of Water, made a special appearance during a technical session, entitled “The Next 35 Years of the Clean Water Act”. He opened the session by recognizing the landmark legislation as “a great American success story” and “a shining example for other countries throughout the world”, before leading a discussion about preserving and extending the purpose of the Act for the next three and a half decades. At the Opening General Session, keynote presenter Dr. Perry L. McCarty, the 2007 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate and Silas H. Palmer Professor (Emeritus) of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Stanford University, re-

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ceived a standing ovation from the audience of nearly 2,000 for his contribution to the water quality profession. WEF President Mohamed Dahab described Dr. McCarty’s work as “the standard by which excellence in environmental research is measured.” The opening program also included a special visual presentation from famed National Geographic photographer David Doubilet. WEF has renewed its commitment to working in Latin America and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Inter-American Association of Sanitary Engineers and Environmental Sciences (AIDIS). This agreement bolsters WEF’s activities with AIDIS aimed at a more sustainable water environment in the Americas. In addition, Mr. Dahab announced that the Governing Board of the International Water Association (IWA) accepted an offer from WEF’s Board of Trustees to share resources in both North America and abroad. Other conference highlights included the first meeting of WEF’s Sustainability Community of Practice; the Utility Executive Forum; the Water is Life, and Infrastructure Makes It Happen roundtable; WEFTeach; poster presentations; student activities; and the 20th annual Operations Challenge. Two Canadians have been selected to serve one-year terms as trustees of the

Water Environment Federation: Rick Corbett, Vice President, Associated Engineering BC Ltd., British Columbia, and Cordell Samuels, Superintendent for Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant, Ontario. At an awards ceremony held during WEFTEC, Pradeep Kharé received the Federation’s prestigious Emerson Distinguished Service Medal. Mr. Kharé was selected for his thirty years of public and private sector experience, a majority of which has been in the environmental field with the provincial governments of Ontario and British Columbia. In 2004, he became Ontario Regional Director General for Environment Canada and is currently Regional Director General for the Pacific & Yukon Region. The Emerson Distinguished Service Medal commemorates the service of Charles Alvin Emerson, who was the first president of WEF, serving from 1928 to 1941, and was its first honorary member. The award is presented to an individual whose contributions to the wastewater collection and treatment industry most deserve recognition. The new president of WEF is Adam Zabinski, retired Deputy Commissioner for the Westchester County Department of Environmental Facilities, New York. Siemens Water Technologies Corporation hosted its annual press briefing at

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WEFTEC.07 REPORT

ES&E’s Sales Director Penny Davey, with her brother Steve, on their way to tour the USS Midway.

WEFTEC. CEO Roger Radke told attendees that, while the world market for water technologies is growing at about 6% annually, he expects Siemens Water to experience 10% growth. After his presentation, he demonstrated his impressive knowledge of the water and wastewater industry by providing indepth responses

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to the wide range of questions posed. WEFTEC.07 was well attended by Canadians, who took advantage of the idyllic waterfront location of the show. Its close proximity to upscale oceanfront areas such as Coronado Island and La Jolla, as well as to the surfing town of Mission Beach, and to Tijuana, Mexico,

meant the show became a mini holiday as well as a business trip for many. Many attendees toured the massive air craft carrier USS Midway, which is permanently docked near the convention centre and is open to the public. Visitors to this historic ship were able to see many continued overleaf...

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WEFTEC.07 REPORT of its key areas, as well as a number of Navy planes on the flight and hangar decks. These range in age from a 1940’s WW II Avenger, up to a modern day F18 Hornet. The USS Midway was the longest serving carrier in the US Navy and was active from 1945 until 1992. She was the fleet admiral’s flagship and her planes were the first launched during Operation Desert Storm in 1991. A unique aspect of touring the USS Midway is the presence of ex-servicemen at key locations, who happily share their experiences and knowledge of ship operations, making the tour a living history experience. Many active US military personnel visit the Midway, perhaps because she is so famous and perhaps because they can meet these ex-servicemen. While touring one of the engine rooms, it was particularly heartwarming to witness a retired Chief Petty Officer, who was probably in his late 60s, get introduced to a very young soldier who was on leave from his tour in Iraq. Even though they were decades apart in age, one sensed an unspoken bond between the two men.

Dr. Justyna Kempa-Teper, Kennedy/Jenk Consultants, Steve Davey, ES&E Magazine, and Steve Nutt (right), XCG Consultants, at the Water For People fundraising reception held during WEFTEC.

WEFTEC attendees will also not soon forget the sight of two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the Nimitz and the Ronald Reagan, which were docked directly across the harbour from Midway. Even from a distance, these 1000 ft long ships look huge, and they dwarf the constantly patrolling Navy security vessels. WEFTEC.08 is scheduled to take

place October 18-22, 2008, in Chicago. Visit www.weftec.org, for more information. Steve Davey is the Publisher of Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine. E-mail: steve@esemag.com

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Watershed Management

Humber River watershed shows little sign of improvement ccording to the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA) and the Humber Watershed Alliance, the health of the watershed faces serious challenges. Since the last report card seven years ago, the 26 variables studied to gauge the health of the Humber River watershed suggest it to be in average condition. Overall, the health of the Humber continues to come under significant stress from new urban growth, increased population, additional traffic, and greater demand on greenspace for a variety of uses. “By 2021, the watershed may be 45 per cent urbanized, posing potential, serious losses of environmental quality and biodiversity,” said Gary Wilkins, TRCA’s Humber Watershed Specialist. “Today only 15 per cent of the urban area has stormwater quantity controls. We need to be vigilant on this issue to ensure best practices are used in future growth and older areas get retrofitted for better water quality and quantity.” The report card identified no improvements in bacteria levels. There were 900 oil spills and 750 chemical spills in a six-year period. Fish surveys indicated 57 per cent of stations saw a decline in habitat quality. Additionally, summer low flows in the main branch have gone down by 13 per cent. The situation is not, however, without hope. The report card acknowledges significant protection of the upper reaches of the Humber as a result of new strategic plans such as the Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Plan, Greenbelt Plan and Ontario Regulation 166/06. The watershed now has 32 per cent natural cover, well on its way to the 39 per cent target prescribed by the Terrestrial Natural Heritage Strategy. There were also no significant increases since 2000 in conventional pollutants such as suspended solids, phosphorous, nitrogen and ammonia. Other positive factors include an additional 28 kilometres of trails that have been built since 2000. Sixty one per cent of the watercourses have streamside natural vegetation such as trees and mead-

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ows to protect water quality and habitat for fish and other wildlife. The Humber River watershed, the largest in TRCA’s 2,500-square-kilometre jurisdiction, has provided a home for human communities for more than 10 thousand years. More than 670,000 people live, travel to work, or pursue recreational activities in the Humber River

watershed. The area’s population is predicted to grow to more than one million people by 2021, making it everyone’s responsibility to help protect, restore and celebrate the Humber as a Canadian Heritage River. For more information, visit www.trca.on.ca

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Alternative Energy

The Wave Hub - sea energy showcase for the world By John Webb, London Press Services plan to test new wave-power devices off the coast of southwest England will create the world’s largest wave farm, and perhaps establish the area as a global leader in the technology’s development. The Wave Hub project, costing £28 million and promoted by the area’s regional development agency, seeks to establish the globe’s first large-scale wave-energy farm in a bid to pioneer an industry that would provide hundreds of jobs and generate many millions of pounds. The initial development is anticipating final UK government and European Union go-ahead. Wave Hub could be operational by the middle of 2008 and is expected to be capable of generating up to 20 megawatts (MW) of electricity, enough to meet the demands of 7,500 homes, saving 24,300 tonnes of carbon dioxide every year by displacing fossil fuels. This would support south-west England’s target of generating 15 per cent of the region’s power

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from renewable sources by 2010. Already, 16 wave-device developers from Norway, Australia and the United States have shown interest in the Wave Hub and four of these companies have been chosen to deploy their own particular wave-energy converters. With the UK surrounded by what are described as “waves of power,” the initiative to boost this embryo form of renewable energy has been praised by experts in the field, describing it as a flagship project. Key to the potential success of the project is the research carried out to establish the best site for a pioneering Wave Hub and the provision of facilities to link arrays of wave machines with the national power grid ashore. Initial studies showed that such a facility was technically feasible and - taking account of wave and tidal streams, shipping lanes, the fishing industry, leisure users, grid connectivity and the environment - an ideal location was identified on the seabed some 16 km (10

miles) off the north coast of Cornwall near Hayle. Recent data from a wave buoy located at the site has shown an average wave height of 2.3 metres and a maximum height of 8.8 metres. Hayle already has a direct connection to the UK national grid, with a total capacity of up to 30MW and would allow the Wave Hub machines to be connected to it by a 25km undersea high-voltage cable linked to a new electricity substation at Hayle. Wave Hub will offer what is described as an electrical “socket” on the seabed and will be able to accommodate, at any one time, four companies that are seeking to move into full-scale pre-commercialisation testing of life-size device arrays. Developers will be given a five-year lease of a sea area of two square kilometres in which to test their devices over several years, and a sub-sea transformer will be provided with capacity to deliver up to 5MW of power into the distribution network. Groups of wave-energy devices will be connected to the Wave Hub socket

Ocean Prospect intends to trial many of its snake-like Pelamis devices (pictured); the wave-induced motion drives generators to produce electricity.

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Alternative Energy and float on or just below the surface of the sea to assess how well they work and how much power they generate. The Pelamis is a semi-submerged, articulated structure composed of cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. The waveinduced motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams that pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors to drive electrical generators and produce power. Ocean Power Technologies - based in Warwick, English Midlands - plans to install a 5MW project at Wave Hub based on its PowerBuoy wave-energy converter. The PowerBuoy is free floating and loosely moored to the seabed; its float moves up and down on the central spar as the waves pass. This mechanical movement drives a hydraulic pump that forces hydraulic fluid through a rotary motor connected to an electrical generator. The Fred Olsen company has developed a multiple pointabsorber system for energy extraction from the sea waves. A number of buoys, attached to a light and stable floating platform, convert the wave energy to electricity. A 1:3-scale research platform has been in operation and on test since 2004. Oceanlinx will deploy a wave converter that combines the established science of the oscillating water column with its own patented turbine technology. A full-scale operational unit has been successfully built and tested in Australia. The firm is also pursuing similar projects in North America, Mexico, South Africa and Hawaii. Wave Hub will be Oceanlinx’s first installation in Europe. Studies suggest that the global wave-power potential could be from 8,000 to 80,000 terawatt hours a year, the latter of which is the same order of magnitude as the world’s electrical energy consumption. For more information, visit www.southwestrda.org.uk

Water for People Canada appoints new EA Water For People– Canada is pleased to announce the appointment of Carolyn Millman as its Executive Administrator. Ms. Millman is the staff lead and chief fund-raiser for the organization, a Canadian-registered charitable organization that supports the development of sustainable water resources and improved sanitation facilities in the developing world. Ms. Millman is recognized as one of Canada’s foremost fund-raising, special event, and marketing professionals. As Director of Development and Communication at Covenant House, Ms. Millman was responsible for taking the agency from a $500,000 deficit to an annual income of $24 million with $15 million in assets. Carolyn can be reached at (416) 499-4042, Email:cmillman@waterforpeople.org

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Tangible value from a major sector of the invisible profession Each year, ES&E invites experts and leaders in environmental consulting to share their opinions, experiences and values with our readers. We continue to be honored every year with erudite responses from some of our leading consulting engineers. Their opinions are based on many years of collective experience in maintaining high standards, while keeping up with the diversity and complexities of environmental engineering and managerial leadership.

Towards a corporate model that embraces the individual producer By Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA,Vice President and General Manager, Associated Engineering ow do we keep staff from fleeing from the consulting engineering sector, and indeed from the engineering profession itself? Easy answer – make their jobs interesting, challenging and rewarding. Make them feel comfortable in the workplace, and allow them some latitude in how they work. Is the traditional engineering company organizational mentality dead? Are we expecting new hires to fit into our current structures? Should we instead be building our firms around the needs and desires of the new generation of technical specialists? What about bringing in intermediate and senior staff from different organizational cultures and trying to get them to function as a cohesive team? Is the concept of team a holy grail that is less and less able to be seen and captured? Can an organization be made up of a group of individual producers and still function effectively, or is an effective organization one that functions with both teams and individual producers? Is the new reality a company of little companies working under the same roof and contributing to a common bottom line?

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I believe that, more and more, the notion of organization as team is dead. We all like to hire star performers, with pedigrees and reputations, to sell our companies to our clients. Is this a mistake? It seems to be our new reality. Try getting them to work together – it doesn’t effectively occur. Leave each to his or her own devices and they blossom and produce at a high rate. Give them the support they ask for and they deliver.

It seems to me that most management books are like diet books, with a new one coming on the market every month for us to try out. Management texts preach of leadership, teams, structure and organization. If you don’t fit into the idea of team, it’s seen as a negative. Your contributions are often marginalized compared to those of the team players. It seems to me that most management books are like diet

books, with a new one coming on the market every month for us to try out. They all work if you stick with them – but your old habits usually come back into play and you fall off the wagon. Organizations are the same – trying to fit staff to a particular model can work well with a lot of care and feeding – but the moment you stop paying attention, it begins to fall apart. I’m not saying we should operate without structure – what I’m saying is that any structure that is adopted by an organization must have a natural fit to the individuals within it. If the individuals are comfortable with it, they will stick with it. This model won’t work for everyone. The type of people we see coming through our doors these days are, for the most part, highly educated, highly motivated, and highly opinionated about what they expect from a company. Some work well in teams; others do not. The individual producer model focuses less on personality and more on competence; the team model is the opposite. The best way to encourage high performers is to give them the space and autonomy to exercise their capabilities to best advantage.

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Like it or not, this is where we are headed. The traditional notion of team is changing. Organizations can be high performers, regardless of structure, if they adhere to basic rules of conduct. Forcing conformity to a team norm won’t work for all. An organization that runs on rules, templates and deliverables can be successful. Brad Dobson, of the Region of Durham in Ontario, successfully implemented a Computerized Maintenance Management System for the Region’s water and wastewater facilities. In a recent article he noted that: “There is an abundance of change management literature and strategies available today. However, there is no magic formula or consistent template that can be uniformly applied to all implementation projects.” Some of his keys to success can apply equally to this discussion: Analyze the organization and its need for change; create a common direction-path for success; craft an implementation plan; develop enabling structures; and reinforce and institutionalize change – reaching the desired outcome via a continuing

journey. Those noted success factors apply just as equally to our own business, and we need to ensure they are in place immediately following adoption of this or, for that matter, any model. At the end of the day, the people within the organization will be those that define it, not the organizational layout. The organization must be focused on deliverables and quality while allowing each employee to find and work in his or her own comfort zone. They need to communicate with each other, working to the same corporate standards for documentation and respecting each others’ and project timelines and budgets. Many of us are already using this model in our firms, without formally recognizing what we are doing. We all make accommodation today for those non-team players in our midst, usually because they are high performers. Those employees have to be acknowledged and celebrated as much as our traditional team players, because it is only with their joint contributions to our firms that we achieve success. Contact: deangelisb@ae.ca

LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITY Consulting Engineering: Municipal Wastewater R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is a multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm. Established in 1948, we are an employee owned company with 200 employees in offices across Ontario, New Brunswick and India. We require an individual who wants to be challenged and join an elite shareholding group with commensurate reward opportunities. We offer a competitive compensation package with benefits, merit-based bonuses, stock ownership as well as a flexible and friendly working environment where committed individuals thrive. Credentials: • A university degree or equivalent qualifications in Civil, Environmental or Chemical Engineering • Excellent verbal and written communication skills • 7 – 10 years experience with at least 5 years project management expertise in wastewater related or similar projects • Outgoing personality, with strong people skills

• Responds well to challenges • Registration in PEO is preferred. CET's, with appropriate background, will be considered • Practical knowledge of design in hydraulics, sewage collection, pumping and treatment • Computer literate with particular emphasis on the MS Office suite

This is a unique opportunity for career growth, with the prospect of becoming a co-owner in an employee-owned Canadian firm, with a chance to shape your future and that of the company. If you are ready to take the next step in your career, and become a leader, we encourage you to apply in confidence by email to hresources@rvanderson.com. Alternatively, if you would like to know more about this exciting opportunity, please call: Human Resources at 416-497-8600, or visit www.rvanderson.com

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Needs versus wants: Innovative approaches to service delivery By Peter Nicol, President, CH2M HILL Canada Limited n the competitive marketplace that is consulting engineering, firms across Canada face the daily predicament of client needs versus client wants. With a market weakened by an ever-increasing shortage of talent, innovative approaches and business relationships are practical solutions to the challenge of service delivery for a demanding client base that is burdened with less money but a need to do more with it. Current needs suggest that ‘green’ infrastructure projects (water, energy, industrial services, transportation, and health care, among others) are high on the list of “must-haves” in the marketplace. Opportunities exist for infrastructure development to continue to provide the foundation of our local communities, support social and economic activities, and encourage improved quality of life and long-term sustainable growth. Current wants suggest that these comprehensive infrastructure programs and activities be completed within tightly con-

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strained budgets, and even tighter timeframes. Unfortunately, accurately estimating project costs and time-frames can be compromised by unforeseen events and circumstances resulting from shifts in

William Arthur Ward said it best when he suggested,“the pessimist complains about the wind; the optimist expects it to change; the realist adjusts the sails.” federal, provincial, and public priorities. Additionally, unanticipated technical complexities, project scope changes, or delays may also result in the loss of specific program integrity. Finding solutions often comes in the form of managing expectations and effectively distinguishing

between needs versus wants. From a general perspective, as with many fields in the world of business, the consulting engineering market is replete with a mixture of trends, economic predictors, and factors of differentiation. It is common to become overwhelmed by the complexity of issues, but there are always solutions to service delivery, especially in the years ahead. How can we best compete? To compete in an ultra-competitive, frustratingly unpredictable market, we must adapt, adapt, adapt. There is something to be said for recognizing and embracing the volatility of the market. Keen foresight and planning can temper unpredictable results, but it is also important to adapt and evolve. The hiring of senior and professional estimators is an example of a cost-effective and sound business decision. As well, there is something to be said for charting a new direction when circumstances change. William

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Arthur Ward said it best when he suggested, “the pessimist complains about the wind; the optimist expects it to change; the realist adjusts the sails.” Is there value in partnerships/ alliances on projects? Collaborative partnerships/alliances are an excellent way to respond to the challenges of cost containment. From project inception, working relationships between all key players and supporting partners must reflect a co-operative and collective commitment to due diligence, optimal value, and cost-effective results. Building sustained business relationships is a long-term proposition that makes sense. How can we bridge the talent gap? There is little doubt that current trends suggest skilled labour shortages across the country. Given Canada’s declining birth rates, aging population, and limited labour mobility, consulting engineering firms must be proactive about the labour challenge. The “retired” work force of current or past employees as potential consultants is an innovative way of filling the need for skilled labour. On the opposite end of the labour spectrum, market the corporate brand to form al-

liances with schools and professional associations, mining potential capable intern and co-op students. Compensation incentives (looking beyond salary) are key. Hiring people with intelligence, passion, and accountability will only serve to strengthen the cohesiveness of the firm. Finally, a balanced professional and personal life is a benefit all employees enjoy. The present and future of engineering and consulting in Canada requires innovative approaches to service delivery. By

responding to client needs and evaluating client wants, firms across the country will be better able to withstand the “obstacle illusions” placed in the path of present and future strategic success. Contact: Peter.Nicol@ch2m.com

American Water names Phil Sidhwa President of Terratec Environmental Ltd. American Water has announced that Phil Sidhwa will assume the role of President of Terratec Environmental Ltd., a leader in the biosolids management business and a wholly-owned subsidiary of American Water, the largest investor-owned U.S. water and wastewater utility company. In this position, Sidhwa will be responsible for all business-related functions including operations, finance, sales and marketing. Sidhwa previously served as Vice President of Business Development for Terratec and was the founding President and CEO of the company for 10 years prior to its acquisition by American Water in 1999. Since joining American Water, Sidhwa has served as Vice President of Canadian Residuals for American Water Enterprises (AWE), the non-regulated products and services division of American Water, as well as Vice President of Business Development for all Canadian AWE business lines. "With 27 years in the biosolids business, I am confident that Phil has the right experience and attributes to successfully lead Terratec," said Mark Strauss, AWE President. "We have an excellent platform from which to grow and expand as more municipalities and industries become environmentally focused and look at recycling valuable organic materials." Within the water and wastewater industry, Sidhwa has gained international experience and worked for both public and private sectors. He sits on the provincial Biosolids Utilization Committee, the Federal Canadian Fertilizer Products Forum, and on committees of the Water Environment Association of Ontario. He also sits on the Board of Directors of Water For People-Canada, a nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. Sidhwa was also recognized by his peers with an award for his commitment and contributions to the Water Environment Association of Ontario, associated with the Water Environment Federation, representing 50,000 water and wastewater professionals worldwide. Sidhwa is a graduate of the University of Toronto. Terratec works in partnership with municipalities to manage long-term beneficial re-use programs. Based in Ontario, Terratec is a leader in the biosolids management business in Canada. With headquarters in Voorhees, N.J., American Water employs nearly 6,900 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to approximately 16.2 million people in 32 states and Ontario, Canada.

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By George Zukovs, M.Eng., P.Eng., President, XCG Consultants Ltd.

Potential impacts of a changing climate on water resources management and development he annual Water Environment Federation Conference took place in San Diego, California, this year. As many will know, the Water Environment Federation is a technical and educational organization with over 70,000 members worldwide. But back to the annual conference in San Diego. This southern California city historically has average daily temperatures in October, when the conference took place, ranging from 73 to 78 degrees (F), and rainfall is supposed to be almost nonexistent. Not this year. Average daily temperatures were ten degrees Fahrenheit lower, and it rained almost every day. The cooler temperatures and rainfall could

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simply be the result of normal variations in weather. Or not – maybe the cooler temperatures and increased rainfall in San Diego are part of a trend that’s affecting the climate. The issue of climate change took on a higher profile when the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) almost twenty years ago, with a mandate to provide independent scientific advice on the issue of climate change. The IPCC defines climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. In November of this year, the IPCC re-

leased its fourth assessment report, summarizing the latest findings of its three Working Groups, which are examining (1) the science of climate change, (2) impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, and (3) mitigation. The fourth assessment report, which represents six years of effort, provides a wake-up call to water resource management professionals. Whether or not you are in sync with the climate change movement, information in the IPCC report paints a picture of a changing hydrologic cycle, here in Canada and elsewhere. This is an important concept because hydrological design rules are typically based on the assumption that local hydrology is static. Municipal governments determine de-

One generation plants trees. Another gets the shade.

Confucious

At Earth Tech, preserving the world’s natural resources is a priority. Combining innovation, creativity with advantaged technology, we engineer environmental solutions to address the challenges of today and needs of tomorrow. All around the world, Earth Tech is engineering solutions to help preserve the world’s resources. Earth Tech delivers solutions to help make a better tomorrow possible. For more information, visit www. earthtech.com.

A BETTER TOMORROW made possible

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sign storms based on historical data – sort of the equivalent of basing a choice of mutual fund on past performance. The result is that water infrastructure that is designed and built now may be based on hydrologic conditions that are no longer valid, or won’t be in the future. What the findings contained in the IPCC report emphasize is that perhaps it’s time to reconsider the traditional approach to water resources management. Starting with an examination of rainfall and snowmelt frequency, intensity and duration, the IPCC has found that there have been, and will continue to be, changes in the pattern of annual precipitation for most of North America, with large increases in northern Canada, and decreases in the southwestern United States, the Canadian Prairies and the eastern Arctic. Although the IPCC does not point to definite trends within Canada, its report does quote the work of researchers who found earlier spring runoff across Canada, decreased summer flows in the Athabasca River, and earlier break-up of river and lake ice throughout North America. The report goes on to say that the variability of annual maximum flood flows is likely to increase. This is not surprising, since the report concludes that, in future, it is highly likely that the amount of total rainfall from heavy events is expected to increase, while at the same time, higher evaporation related to warming may, to some extent, offset the effects of increased precipitation. On the other end of the spectrum, the report states that vulnerability to extended drought is increasing across North America. The studies quoted in the IPCC report indicate that drought has been observed to be more frequent and intense in the western part of the U.S. and Canada, but speculates that the east may not be immune from droughts and attendant reductions in water supply. Many, but not all, of the studies documented in the report predict that water levels in the Great Lakes will be significantly lower. Of particular interest in the determination of design storms and their impact is a study quoted in the IPCC report that found that, for fifteen out of sixteen large basins worldwide, the control 100year peak volumes (at the monthly timescale) are projected to be exceeded more www.esemag.com

frequently. In some areas, what is given as a 100-year flood now is projected to occur much more frequently, even every two to five years. While this study cautioned that the projections are subject to a large uncertainty and are not specific to Canada, the message that can be taken from it is that choice and time period over which a design storm is valid may now involve a much higher degree of uncertainty. Water quantity is not the only element of water resources that has been

examined. The IPCC report quotes studies that predict higher stream or lake temperatures, which in turn will result in lower dissolved oxygen saturation, increased unionized ammonia, with the effect that permissible loadings of carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be reduced, effectively reducing continued overleaf...

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wastewater treatment plant effluent limits. The report also speculates that lower lake levels may reduce the initial dilution capacity of outfalls, further reducing the allowable loading discharged. Predicted increases in storm intensities and volumes can be expected to exacerbate stream erosion. And the report raises concerns about the increased discharge of bacteria to receiving waters in combined sewer overflows, wet weather bypasses, and stormwater. Given that the majority of Canadians live in urban areas, which rely on engineered infrastructure systems, the potential effects of a change in climatic conditions, coupled with other stresses such as intensification and changes in land use, could be significant. Recent extreme weather events, such as the 1998 ice storm that affected Ontario and Québec, and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, are examples of the vulnerability of ex-

isting infrastructure. As the IPCC report points out, when systems fail, impacts can be widespread and multidimensional. The ability to adapt to changing conditions in water availability and demand has always been at the core of water management. Now, in addition to planning for future water demand and expected changes in land use, water resource managers may want to add consideration of the evolving nature of the hydrologic cycle to the planning and design of engineered systems and their operation. In Canada, the province of Québec modified the Civil Protection Act, requiring municipalities to develop emergency management plans, following the 1996 flood that affected the Saguenay region. In British Columbia, the city of Vancouver has a 100-year plan to upgrade its drainage system by connecting natural areas and waterways, developing smaller localized systems, and upgrading key sections of pipe during routine maintenance. Other strategies are out there, such as what the IPCC calls resilient strategies, which are intended to reduce but not en-

tirely avoid specific events. This is a fail-safe approach to engineering design. For example, in the case of river flood management, a fail-safe strategy would be to allow the river to temporarily crest the top of bank, in order to reduce but not eliminate the severity of flood damage. Another strategy is referred to as integrated water resources management, which is based on flexible and adaptable approaches, such as reducing, reusing, and recycling water resources in an effort to maintain supply. A key challenge and opportunity for water resource professionals will be to effectively communicate the issue of changing hydrologic regimes and their impact. Once there is common understanding and an acknowledgement that world conditions are dynamic, then decision-makers, water managers, and the public will be in a position to move toward policies, processes and procedures that can accommodate climatic uncertainties in the planning, design and operation of water-related infrastructure. Contact: georgez@xcg.com

NEWS 2007 Canadian Consulting Engineering Awards The Canadian Consulting Engineering Awards were presented in October by the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada in collaboration with Canadian Consulting Engineer magazine. Schreyer Award Acoustic Design, Esplanade Arts and Heritage Centre, Medicine Hat, Alberta - Aercoustics Engineering Limited Some of the Awards of Excellence Deep Soil Mixing, Ground Stabilization Foundation,Vancouver Island Conference Centre, Nanaimo, British Columbia - Golder Associates Ltd. (Golder) and Golder Associates Innovative Application (GAIA) Inc. Shikwamkwa Replacement Dam, Wawa, Ontario - Hatch Energy

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Seymour Falls Dam Seismic Upgrade, North Vancouver, British Columbia - Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Hatch Energy, Greater Vancouver Water District Conger Marsh Wastewater Treatment Plant, MacTier, Ontario -Totten Sims Hubicki Associates (1997) Limited South Tailings Pond Wetlands, Millennium Mine, Alberta - Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd. Yellow River Water Resources and Flood Management Optimization ,China - Golder Associates Ltd. Management Strategy to Reduce Hillslope Erosion and Reservoir Siltation for Watersheds, Algeria - Tecsult inc. Beaubien Award - J.C. Roger Warren, ing.

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By Rui De Carvalho, Senior Vice President, R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited, and Vice-President, Burnside International Limited

Re-inventing the role of the consulting engineer he once proven model for a successful consulting practice was for the entrepreneurial engineer to find an appropriate town and a suitable physical location for an office, recruit bright and capable associates, hang up a shingle and start up a practice. Attracting more clients, experienced staff, more physical space, and equipment drove growth. While this somewhat simplistic model may very well still apply sometimes, the rapid changes and forces in our global environment appear to indicate that things have become somewhat more complicated. Globalization is having a significant impact on all industries and consulting

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engineering is no exception. Mergers and acquisitions in the Ontario industry by the larger players, a number of them from outside of Canada, have completely rearranged the consulting landscape. The traditional, locally developed consulting practice is quickly becoming the exception, with many of the homegrown firms that at one time dominated the industry now having become nothing more than a name from the past. They have also become a mechanism to bulk up revenue figures and provide access to the ever more limited pool of qualified technical staff. There are obviously other aspects to the “globalization” of the consulting industry, so I would suggest that the pres-

ent is an exciting and challenging period to be a consulting engineer. Changes in both technology and fundamentals are allowing the consulting industry to break through the barriers of the traditional office and to participate in a greater variety of projects, partnerships and access to experienced colleagues for collaboration. At the same time there is also a larger pool of competition. We may be no longer competing with the firm on the other side of town but with the team of firms from the other side of the world, which means that unless you are at the “top of the pyramid”, there is likely to be no going at it alone. The barriers to the concept of assem-

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Newmarket (905) 953-8967 Orangeville (519) 941-5331 Pickering (905) 686-3067 Stratford (519) 271-5111 Wingham (519) 357-1521 Winnipeg (204) 949-7110

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bling a team with professionals we would normally perceive to be competitors, should be down by now, like the Berlin Wall, with individuals in different firms reaching out to the competitor colleague to team up and take on opportunities that each on their own have difficulty accessing. Some years back I wrote in this forum on the need for Canadian consulting engineers to consider the merits of more collaboration. While the experience of collaboration at Burnside has been quite positive, the boundaries for even a medium-sized firm such as ours have now expanded to the point where our partners are as apt to be in another continent, or in another part of Canada or Ontario. If we consider the opportunities that relate to environmental issues, and specifically water supply and sanitation, we should note the progress or lack thereof of the world community in achieving the Millennium Development Objectives, which were proclaimed in the year 2000 for 2015. While the NGO (non-governmental organisation) community for one, continues to make a very significant contribution, it is now a

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widely held belief that it will be through partnerships with the private sector that sustainable development of the water supply and sanitation sectors will be achieved in many areas of the world. There are also significant investments to be made in infrastructure not related to water supply and sanitation. These include solid waste management and especially many aspects of transportation. Canadian consulting engineers are very well qualified to participate, and along with our international colleagues, are already very active in the pursuit and delivery associated with these opportunities.Yet, we need to be cognizant that consulting engineers from the non traditional countries outside of Western Europe, Australia and North America, such as South Africa, Brazil, India, Malaysia, are also now actively competing for these opportunities. China is already one of the largest players in the construction of civil works in the African continent. One presumes that their technical service providers are not far behind. There is no time like the present and what an exciting time it is to be in this industry. The project challenges that abound when we take on wider perspec-

tives are tremendous as are the opportunities to work with many exceptional professionals from around the world that bring to our project teams their varied backgrounds and areas of discipline. The development and management of these opportunities represent a significant investment of scarce capital and human resources that many are hesitant to make. The development of corporate capacity to function in this new and complex world of consulting does require a very different approach, but it is a skill that many of us will need to focus on, if our industry is to continue to thrive. It is much better to develop the partnership with that international competitor on a project outside of Canada, than to begin to learn about their capabilities and resources after they arrive to challenge us for what we now regard as our established clients. Contact:rdecarvalho@rjburnside.com

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

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Large tanks can be accessible, expandable, flexible, adaptable and movable By Jeff Rodger hen you think of a large tank, what do you see? Do you see a traditional, rigid, permanent and enclosed structure? Or do you think of something highly accessible, flexible, adaptable, expandable and even movable? The liquid storage industry has improved over the past 20 years, and engineers are applying these new buzzwords more often for pre-engineered tanks. Similarly, owners and engineers are realizing the desirable life cycle costing and more predictable asset management for such pre-engineered tanks. This is particularly the case when considering standard cathodic protection, permanent coatings and factory warranties. Accessibility An above grade tank provides easier and safer access to more of the tank surface. Above grade tanks can often prevent confined space and dangerous fall situations. With segmental bolted tanks, large access openings can be provided into a tank for clean out, or for modifications to any tank internal systems. Individual side wall or roof plates can be removed. Even greater access can be provided when several plates are removed to accommodate vehicle access directly into the tank. On one project, with a large sludge build-up that had to be cleaned out of a 42.7 m diameter in-ground concrete tank, the owner and engineer looked to Greatario for a solution to provide an easier tank clean out. The solution was to remove some of the geodesic dome components to lower excavation equipment through the dome to the tank floor. This equipment loaded the sludge onto large conveyors that were positioned on the tank floor, which then fed into another conveyor at grade level to discharge directly into trucks. Expandable Because Aquastore™ tanks are jackbuilt from the top down from the ground, tanks of any configuration can be designed to be expanded in the future. Ad-

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ditional plates can be installed at the bottom of the tank while it is jacked higher into the air. Whether a reservoir shape, standpipe, or an elevated tank, the tank can easily grow with your community, and to your desired capacity as required. Recently, Greatario expanded a 12-yearold potable water standpipe to easily create 50% more storage. The storage tank expansion was completed in three days. Flexible Bolted tanks can accommodate some movement and differential settlement with no leakage or negative effects. For example, some glass-fused-to-steel floors have been designed for several centimetres of differential settlement with no leakage. Adaptable Whether by design or using preexisting bolted connections, bolted tanks cre-

ate opportunities for strong and easy connection and removal of electrical and mechanical systems, while avoiding welding or any recoating in the field. Movable Existing bolted tanks can be dismantled and moved to another location to be rebuilt with no negative effects. In some cases, particularly when tight schedules must be met, large tanks and domes can be pre-assembled out of place and can be positioned into place by crane. None of the work mentioned above should be attempted by anyone other than factory-certified Aquastore builders. Jeff Rodger is with Greatario Engineered Storage Systems. E-mail: jrodger@greatario.com

Geodesic dome components are removed to lower excavation equipment through the dome.

A 1.52m x 2.74m side wall plate has been removed from a segmental bolted tank.

Excavation equipment inside the geodesic dome.

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Anaerobic digester provides ideal application for geomembrane s demand increases for environmentally friendly energy sources, renewable energy companies like Highmark Renewables, located in Vegreville, Alberta, are utilizing an up-and-coming energy source: anaerobic digesters using animal waste. While animal waste anaerobic digesters have been part of the European landscape for many years, including facilities in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Holland and Switzerland, they were all but unheard of in North America until the turn of the 21st century. A multipurpose innovation For several years, researchers have been studying ways to convert manure View of completed digesters, covers inflated by methane gas, with manure into energy because of the multifaceted in foreground. benefits it can yield. Researchers have found that the manure ments also were consulted on the project to ensure that regufrom 7,500 cattle can power approximately 1,200 homes for latory compliances were met. IMUS uses anaerobic digestion to produce biogas from maan entire year. This not only makes great use of the manure, but also reduces energy bills and enhances environmental per- nure. This biogas is then used to create electricity and heat, as well as water for crop irrigation, bio-based fertilizer, and formance. In 2001, Highmark Renewables began technology devel- pathogen-free, biodegradable consumer products. In 2003, detailed engineering began for a sophisticated pilot opment for their Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS™) in partnership with the Alberta Research Council plant in Vegreville, utilizing two digesters and the IMUS sys(ARC). ARC specializes in converting early stage ideas into tem. Construction began with the building of two concrete strucmarketable products and services, including innovative science tures for the digesters, both 38 feet tall and 48 feet in diameter. and technology solutions. The Alberta and Canadian govern- Each structure features a centre ridge pole with a 4-foot diameter steel plate attached at the top, and 3-inch by 8-inch steel tubes welded at the centre and perimeter to provide support for the insulation and a geomembrane cover. Recoverable elongation As work on the project continued, researchers from both ARC and Highmark Renewables began looking for a reliable geomembrane to serve as a “lid” on the digesters to store the methane gas. Earl Jenson, a research engineer for ARC who was involved in the material specification, recommended a 60-mil PondGard EPDM geomembrane from Firestone Specialty Products Company. “We chose the product because of its elasticity and recoverable elongation, which are extremely important for ensuring that the digesters function properly.” Earl Jenson adds: “The flexibility of the membrane is a benefit because we don’t have to match the generators’ gas usage exactly to production be-

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Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

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Secondary oil containment Albarrie, a leader in containment technology, in partnership with Kinectrics Inc., offers the SorbWeb Plus secondary oil containment system for power utilities. • No maintenance • Cost-effective • Proven system • Rain water passes through, no pumps • Can be installed around energized transformers. Tel: 705-737-0551, Fax: 705-737-4044 E-mail: scott_lucas@albarrie.com Web: www.sorbwebplus.com Albarrie Environmental

Rubber liner Balancing functionality and natural beauty, PondGard Rubber Liner easily conforms over the sub-terrain of riverbeds, waterfalls and ponds alike, making it perfect for decorative applications. Resistant to microbial attacks and algae growth, this liner requires no special tools and minimal maintenance once installed. It is proven safe for fish and plant life and is available in a wide range of sizes to reduce field seaming. Tel: 888-292-6265, Fax: 877-666-3022 E-mail: gallantlillian@firestonebp.ca Web: www.firestonebpco.ca Firestone Building Products Canada

Transportation of dangerous goods The Traveler ™ tank is designed to fit in a pickup truck and provide transportable fuel storage. The low-profile design of the Traveler tank allows for greater rear window visibility without compromising volume. Available in both single and double-wall designs, it is approved for the transportation of gasoline, diesel, methanol and other flammable, combustible or hazardous liquids. Tel: 888-674-8265, Fax: 306-873-2252 E-mail: sales@northern-steel.com Web: www.northern-steel.com Northern Steel Industries

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Small double wall tanks

Assmann Corporation has expanded its overall line of double wall tanks, containment vessels providing primary and secondary containment in one integral space-saving unit. The line includes smaller tanks at 20, 40, 65, 85, 120, and 165 gallon units, in addition to the 150 and 250 gallon units. The tanks are designed for storing hazardous and corrosive chemicals inside or outside. Tel: 888-357-3181, Fax: 888-826-5329 E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com Web: www.assmann-usa.com Assmann Corporation

Reinforced membrane

Firestone MultiLiner is a reinforced polypropylene-based membrane that enhances the physical properties of the membrane by inserting a strong, polyester fabric (scrim) between the top and bottom plies. This combination gives it its extremely high breaking/tearing strength and puncture resistance. It is ideal for geomembrane applications. Tel: 888-292-6265, Fax: 877-666-3022 E-mail: gallantlillian@firestonebp.ca Web: www.firestonebpco.ca Firestone Building Products Canada

Small double wall tanks When it comes to the safe and secure underground storage of liquids, Northern Steel’s Glasteel II® exceeds all ULC and UL testing criteria. The tank consists of a steel primary tank enclosed within a 360 degree fibreglass reinforced plastic containment jacket. A 320 degree fibre interstitial layer adds protection and safety. It has a broad compatibility with most fuels including: gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, ethanol, neat methanol, M-85 and E-85. Tel: 888-674-8265, Fax: 306-873-2252 E-mail: sales@northern-steel.com Web: www.northern-steel.com Northern Steel Industries

Water tanks

Flowtite® Water Tanks are the ideal reservoir for potable and non-potable water applications. They are lightweight and non-corrosive and come in sizes ranging from 2,000 –190,000 litres. The Flowtite line of tanks includes septic, fire protection, rainwater harvesting and more. Tel: 1-877-CSI-TANK, Fax: 936-756-7766 E-mail: sales@csiproducts.com Web: www.containmentsolutions.com Containment Solutions

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 6090% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Secondary lining system

When underground tanks need to be replaced but site conditions make this costly and difficult, then retrofit your tanks with a new corrosion resistant secondary contained lining system. This is a unique installed on-site internal fiberglass system that allows you to upgrade in-service steel or fiberglass single wall tanks to a secondary contained lining system. Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126 E-mail: sales@zcl.com Web: www.zcl.com ZCL Composites

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Large Victoria marina installs containment and treatment system

Slipway with boat. (Inset: Slipway holding tank) ike many marinas around the country, The Royal Victoria Yacht Club in Victoria, British Columbia, has facilities to allow members to bring their boats out of the water on a slipway where they can clean and repaint the hulls of their vessels. This involves considerable quantities of water which can be contaminated with oil, paint solvents, copper residues and sludge. For years, this contaminated water was disposed of into the sea with the potential to harm aquatic life. Over the past two years, the majority of marinas in British Columbia were visited by inspectors from Environment Canada which, together with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, has the responsibility for ensuring that contaminated waters do not exit into rivers, lakes and oceans. The purpose of this two year program was to indicate to the marina operators and users that past practices of disposing of contaminated waters into the water systems are no longer permitted. All marinas were given until March 2007 to comply with the permissible levels of contaminants stipulated in the legislation. These limits included heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead, mercury and iron, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand

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(BOD) and total extractable hydrocarbons (TEH). In December 2006, an Environment Canada inspector visited The Royal Victoria Yacht Club marina, investigating a reported disposal of contaminated wash water into the sea. It was indicated to the marina personnel that this action was no longer permissible and the facility was given until the end of March 2007 to remedy the situation. Petro Barrier Systems Inc. (PBSI) had already announced that a comprehensive system was available to treat and clean contaminated waters to meet the requirements of the Federal regulations for COD, BOD, and TEH. PBSI, also believed that a new filtration system for heavy metals would significantly alleviate the metal problem, even achieving clean-up levels as low as 5 ppb copper. The marina approached PBSI requesting a review of their problems, indicating that they would be interested in a solution that would allow them to recycle their wash water and use it for watering the lawns around the property. A comprehensive survey of the operation and the associated parking lot drains was carried out and the following recommendations were made for their consideration: 1) Protect all parking lot drains from oil

contamination using storm drain basket filters. 2) Install an integrated filtration system comprising a collection sump for water and sludge under the boats being washed; supernatant water pumped into a second tank to permit solids to settle; water pumped through a pre-filter into a 4compartment oil-water separator; and two polishing pressure filters, one to remove hydrocarbon oils and the other to remove heavy metals. The marina accepted the recommendations and agreed also to install holding tanks to allow the cleaned-up water to be recycled. Treatment equipment The equipment for the treatment system comprises the following: a) A pre-filter with Petro Pads. b) A 4-compartment oil-water separator. c) Pressure filter for polishing residual oil. d) Pressure filter for removing heavy metals. (The oil-water separator is 2 cubic metres in capacity to comply with the Capital Region District By-law). Description of process The boats are raised from the water, either along a slipway or using a lifting crane for smaller vessels, and suspended above a sump which collects all the wash water containing grit, silt, oil and paint residues from the washing of the hulls. The solids are allowed to settle and the supernatant liquid is pumped into a second sump. From there, the wash water is pumped through the pre-screen filter and into the first chamber of the 4-compartment oil-water separator. Any residual oil floats to the surface and, when a sufficient layer accumulates, the oil is removed for safe disposal. The water continues to overflow through two more compartments into the 4th compartment. From this chamber, it is pumped through a polishing pressure filter to remove any oil remaining and subsequently through a second pressure filter to remove any copper and other heavy metals in the water.

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Oil-water separator. The treated water is fed into a holding tank for later use. Commissioning and test results After installation, water samples from the first sump under the boat, and the exiting stream after the pressure filters were analyzed for a variety of properties. These results showed a dramatic difference in the oil and copper levels. After two weeks of operation, the flow of water slowed appreciably and the pumping pressure showed levels as high as 60 psi, indicating some type of partial blockage. Isolating each filter in turn showed that the second filter was the culprit. On disassembling, this filter revealed a partially blocked exit pipe caused by the movement of some of the polyester felt packing. In addition, some of the filter media had been washed away. Although the oil filter was functioning satisfactorily, it was decided to replace both filters. Almost immediately, the water exiting from the replacement filters was clear and colourless and the levels of oil and copper were well below the lower permissible amounts. The operating pressures were around 5 psi for both filters and the water flow was 5-6 gallons/minute. The original filters were dismantled and the absorbents examined. There was evidence of small amounts of oil in the oil polishing filter and the absorbent was quite dirty but still functioning satisfactorily. The metal polishing filter had lost a fair amount of its absorbents and there was evidence that the colour of the contaminated water, caused by pigmentation from the paints, was being removed. These filters, which were much larger in capacity than the replacements, were repacked and re-installed. The perform-

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ance of both filters was good with pressures below 10 psi and no colour in the exiting water. Analysis of the water before and after treatment showed how effective the system is at removing contaminants down to acceptable. The system has been in operation for nearly six weeks with 1-2 boats per day being cleaned. The discharged water (200-300 gallons/day) remains clear and colorless. The copper levels are around 1 ppm and the oil tests out at N/D (less than 1 ppm). Discussion of results The complete system is proving very effective in removing oil down to very

acceptable levels of less than 1 ppm. The metal removal filter is designed to remove copper but it will also remove other metals. While this is totally acceptable, it can have an effect on the life span of the filter reactant if there are large amounts of other metal components present. The total heavy metals content of the sump water was as high as 14,280 ppm with the exiting sample reduced to less the 10 ppm. In this particular test, the copper content in the exit sample was higher than desired, probably due to the very high levels of metals in the original water. Subsequent testing showed the copper to be around 1-2 ppm which satisfies the current local requirements. It is believed that by some minor changes in the filtration components, it is possible to remove the copper to much lower levels. For more information, contact: petrobarriersystems@shaw.ca

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Sevenson employed AC-645 to control odors during active excavation and for overnight control. It is a liquid that produces a thick, white, viscous foam consisting of layers of air bubbles. The air bubbles comprise approximately 96% of the foam's total volume. The layers of air bubbles and separating film trap odors, VOCs and dust. The foam is nontoxic, biodegradable, non-hazardous and non-flammable. AC-645 covered over 1,000,000 square feet of soil surface during exca-

vation and stockpiling of the soil. The U.S. EPA estimates that over the course of six years, 160,000 tons of soil were removed from the site. Rebekah Gormish is with Rusmar Incorporated. Contact: RGormish@rusmarinc.com

Flux chamber test with Rusmar Long Duration Foam.

The solution Low volume test results indicated that the Rusmar AC-645 product was the most effective of the three tested in reducing the airborne contaminant concentrations; it reduced up to 99.6% of the odors. The technology was selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to control odors and emissions at the Federal Creosote Superfund Site. Sevenson Environmental (Niagara Falls, New York) was awarded the remediation contract, with excavation work beginning in early 2001.

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Construction time reduced for recycling centre storage tanks By Jorge Silveira n existing recycling centre in Mississauga, Ontario, was replaced by an expanded and more efficient recycling facility on the same site, after demolition, reconstruction and construction of additional services. The Fewster Community Recycling Centre is the second in Mississauga and the fifth integrated waste management facility in Peel Region. The facility includes a drop-off platform for recyclable and non-recyclable materials and a household hazardous waste and reusable goods drop-off area. Management of stormwater from the facility was a significant design consideration because of the extent of the paved surface area and the nature of the land use that required consideration of the quality of stormwater runoff and snowmelt. The 3.9 hectares (9 acres) site drains into Little Etobicoke Creek along the

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southwest limit of the property. The creek is part of an urban watershed that discharges into Lake Ontario. Management of the volume and sediment load of the stormwater required engineering of buried structures that would help reduce the impact of the facility on the ecology of the stream and downstream uses in the watershed. Since the design required storage of water on the site while being slowly discharged into the creek, and there was no room for surface storage, the solution was to control the runoff in underground storage tanks and a sewer system comprised of pipes and oil-sediment separators. Earth Tech was awarded the contract for the design and construction administration, and Varcon Construction was awarded the contract for construction. The design of the stormwater services first specified three wetcast tanks. All

three consisted of two rows of wetcast boxes with butyl jointing. The contractor and designers realized that the production time for the boxes would increase significantly since the formwork for the boxes acts as part of the curing process. Production would be limited to one pour per day. It would be impossible to meet the construction schedule set for the project. After meeting with engineers at Con Cast Pipe in Guelph, it was decided that the alternative would be dry casting the boxes and altering the sizes, so that they would meet Ontario Provincial Standards Specification (OPSS) 1821 for reinforced concrete boxes. The standard was acceptable because the backfill over the top of the boxes was greater than 600 mm. Production time would be adequate to provide the boxes to construct the tanks for accommodating the design runoff volume.

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Box sizes for the tanks ranged from 1800 mm x 900 mm to 3000 mm x 1800 mm span and rise.

Instead of two runs of boxes, however, the redesign of the boxes required triple-celled structures to accommodate a total storage volume of 989.5m3 in the same construction footprint. The design was enhanced because the boxes arrive on site with gasketed joints to limit infiltration of fines and leakage of water into

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the soil envelope. Stormwater entering each tank first passed through an oil-sediment separator to improve the quality of the water entering the tanks. It was possible to accommodate just-in-time delivery, because some standard sizes arrived on site five at a time. On many occasions, boxes

were immediately installed as they were offloaded. Box sizes for the tanks ranged from 1800 mm x 900 mm to 3000 mm x 1800 mm span and rise. All boxes were 2.44 m long. Each tank was designed with access holes for man entry and maintenance, and flow equalizers between each run of the triple cells. All joints were wrapped in a geotextile cloth to reduce the possibility of infiltration and exfiltration even further. The Fewster Community Recycling Centre is a design/build project that will deliver a single stream recovery facility, waste transfer station and associated site works. Construction that commenced in June 2007 is expected to be completed in early 2008. The contract was approximately $7.2 million. Jorge Silveira, A.Sc.T. is with Con Cast Pipe. E-mail: jsilveira@concastpipe.com

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Dissolved oxygen sensors

Product & Service Showcase

ABB’s 9408 Series Dissolved Oxygen Sensors are virtually maintenance-free and their reliability has been proven in thousands of installations globally. The inexpensive replaceable capsule is immune to sunlight exposure and requires only an occasional, simple, air calibration. Water/air wash capability is also available. Tel: 800-461-0980, Fax: 905-333-7502 E-mail: instrumentation@ca.abb.com Web: www.abb.com/instrumentation ABB Inc.

Averaging Pitot tube

Insertion magmeter

ABB Averaging Pitot Tube is capable of measurement at extreme temperatures, resistant to wear, suitable for blower air into the aeration basin, and has gas and steam applications. Coupled with an ABB multi-variable transmitter, it will measure mass flow very accurately and complements the range of primary flow elements such as Venturi tubes and wedge meters. Tel: 800-461-0980, Fax: 905-333-7502 E-mail: instrumentation@ca.abb.com Web: www.abb.com/instrumentation

The AquaProbe 2 battery-powered insertion magmeter is an economic and accurate alternative to full bore metering. It consists of an electromagnetic sensing head mounted on a support rod, and battery powered converter. It can be installed in existing pipelines without the need for major excavations or alterations to pipework and without interrupting the water supply. Tel: 800-461-0980, Fax: 905-333-7502 E-mail: instrumentation@ca.abb.com Web: www.abb.com/instrumentation

ABB Inc.

ABB Inc.

HST Turbocompressor

Fast sure priming

Efficient, economical treatment plant

ABS introduces the revolutionary HST Integral™ Turbocompressor. It is a rugged, money saving compressor designed for reliable, automatic operation at optimal efficiency and is maintenance-free. Because of the energy and maintenance savings from using the HST it can pay for itself in two years. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

The new 4” vacassist trash pump from ABS can be used for sewer bypass, quarry pumping, flood control and general dewatering of construction sites. Dependable construction combined with heavy duty water cooled diesel power and a compressor that runs only when it’s needed is sure to save you money. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

ACG Technology’s package treatment systems provide sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, which is ideal for remote locations. Future parallel units can be added easily which is an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

ABS Canada

ABS Canada

ACG Technology

Coalescing oil/water separators

Concrete Pipe Installation Manual

ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

The American Concrete Pipe Association has updated its Concrete Pipe Design Manual for the proper installation of concrete pipe and boxes. While focusing on the construction of the pipe/soil system, the manual addresses factors critical to the completion of the entire system, from delivery of concrete pipe and boxes to the jobsite to the acceptance of the installed sewer or culvert. Web: www.concrete-pipe.org

ACG Technology

American Concrete Pipe Association

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Stormwater detention software DASH (Detention and Sewer Hydraulics®) Software provides design engineers with a complete set of design tools to prepare, calculate and evaluate comprehensive stormwater detention systems using concrete pipe. The program consists of 4 modules. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682 E-mail: khunter@concrete-pipe.org Web: www.concrete-pipe.org American Concrete Pipe Association Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Upgrade your activated sludge system within the existing tankage to maintain nitrification at higher flow rates or to increase a plant to meet new nitrification requirements. Proven and documented. We have well over 450 installations in 47 countries.

Concrete arch bridges

Stormwater solutions Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater run off. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908 E-mail: jmb@anoxkaldnes.com Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com AnoxKaldnes

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Quebec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec

pH sensor

Industrial inspection camera

New stainless steel pumps

The pH Data Stick™ Measurement System from AquaSensors features a pre-calibrated differential electrode technique pH sensor that provides 24-bit data directly into PLC or SCADA systems for integration with municipal or industrial controls. Its replaceable multiple junction salt bridge allows simple reconditioning of the sensor reference. Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web: www.avensys.com

The SnakeEye™ video inspection camera is ideal for maintenance work where you cannot “SEE” with conventional methods. The waterproof camera is 1” in diameter and has its own built-in light source. The colour viewing display can be hand-held or mounted on a telescoping wand. The viewer can angle the head 360° to see above, below and around objects. It can be connected to a 100’ cable to be lowered into a space or well. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com

Avensys

Canadian Safety

Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. They are ideal for use in copper mines, coal power plants, saltwater fish farms, shipyards, etc. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: PB@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps

New web site

Underground stormwater detention

Armtec

Long life culverts Polymer Laminated Corrugated Steel Pipe (PLCSP) is quickly becoming the standard culvert material for heavily salted, high volume highways in Canada. Available in sizes to 3600 mm diameter, these pipes meet all requirements for strength, durability and economy. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca POLYMER LAMINATED CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE ADD ON MATERIAL SERVICE LIFE 100 YEARS

Matching material service life to a project’s design service life and optimizing life cycle costs are major issues for designers. The one certainty, of any design, is that today’s conditions will be very different from those at the end of a project’s life. Polymer Laminated Corrugated Steel Pipe provides protection against the uncertainties of tomorrow. This tough, mill applied coating protects both the steel and galvanized coating from attack by a multitude of agents. The coating has performed well in extremely aggressive environments and is expected to provide continuous protection for more than 100 years. Corrugated Steel Pipe has proven to be a valuable solution for all storm drainage applications. Lightweight, long lengths provide an ease of installation and transportation. Superior strength, through flexibility, and coupler design has made CSP the construction product of choice in the most difficult of situations. The economics of the installed product demonstrate excellent, responsible use of available funding.

Con Cast Pipe announces its new web site with easy-to-use technical reference and product specification tools; in addition there is a host of other improvements. Please visit www.concastpipe.com

Stormwater management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca.

Con Cast Pipe

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

www.esemag.com

Polymer Laminated Corrugated Steel Pipe resists the effects of aggressive soil and water conditions within the Canadian environment. It is not affected by acids created by industrial pollution or by the high concentrations of deicing road salts found beside paved highways. Chemicals, as well as naturally occurring sulfates, chlorides, microbes and soft water are repelled by the coating, allowing the Corrugated Steel Pipe to meet the design life of the project.

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Product & Service Showcase

HYBAS™ wastewater treatment system


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Level sensor Flowline introduces EchoPod®, an innovative level sensor that replaces floats, conductance and pressure activated level switches that fail due to dirty, sticking and scaling media in small tanks 49.2” (1.25m) or less. EchoPod, a general purpose sensor, combines non-contact switch, controller and transmitter capabilities in one package. Maintenance free, EchoPod reduces tank system hardware through simplicity and consolidation. It is CSA approved. Tel: 800-701-7460, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls

Product & Service Showcase

Dissolved air flotation system

The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. The AquaDAF is a hybrid of conventional DAF and optimally designed system components. It is highly effective for the treatment of a range of raw water characteristics including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, color and algae. Web: www.infilcodegremont.com Degremont Technologies/Infilco

Float type level switches

UV disinfection systems

Rugged construction and multiple options provide the Gems LS-800 Series with exceptional versatility. It is capable of supporting larger, more buoyant floats, and is physically stronger for better reliability in contaminated or turbulent media. This series offers SPST or SPDT switches, and a choice of mountings, floats and materials that can be configured for a wide range of applications in water, oils, chemicals and corrosive liquids. Tel: 800-701-7460, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com

Degremont TechnologiesOzonia have introduced the Aquaray® SLP Series of UV disinfection systems, designed for both water and wastewater treatment applications. The SLP Series offers a compact and high efficiency range for small and medium water plants. The low pressure high output amalgam lamps are powered by efficient electronic ballasts, for a tremendous level of energy. An Lshaped reactor reduces head loss and maximizes UV dose. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com

Davis Controls

Degremont Technologies/Ozonia

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Water treatment system

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Durpro introduces a safe, affordable drinking water treatment system for small municipalities and resorts. Offering a multi-barrier approach to producing safe drinking water, it features efficient, high oxidizing ozone, followed by ultraviolet sterilization, creating water free from THMs, E.coli and other harmful bacteria as well as waterborne parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Tel: 800-850-7781, Fax: 450-659-7781 E-mail: sdurepos@durpro.com Web: www.durpro.com Durpro

Colour measurement

Life cycle management

Export credit agency

Bring clarity to your drinking water with chemical-free continuous colour measurement. Avoid chemical overdosing and continuously monitor permanganate residuals and control chemical feed. Monitor permanganate levels less than 10 ppm or up to 1000 ppm. Monitor any colour by selecting the appropriate optical filter. Tel: 800-668-3199 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com

Full knowledge of your plant status allows for good maintenance planning. W@M – Life Cycle Management from Endress+Hauser provides up-todate and complete information on all your assets, including products from other suppliers. It is an open information management system providing data flow and archiving for the technical and operational management of your plant. Tel: 905-681-9292, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com

Export Development Canada is Canada's export credit agency, offering innovative commercial solutions to help Canadian exporters and investors expand their international business. EDC's knowledge and partnerships are used by 7,000 Canadian companies and their global customers in up to 200 markets worldwide each year. Web: www.edc.ca/utilities

Endress + Hauser

Endress + Hauser

Export Development Canada

84 | November 2007

7 -ªnª,IFEª#YCLEª-ANAGEMENTª 3UPPORTINGªYOURªBUSINESSªPROCESSES

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


November:2007

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Cartridge system

The ISAM™ activated sludge system provides tertiary level wastewater treatment with integral sludge reduction all in one process. Anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic treatment promotes BOD, TSS and nutrient removal. Sludge reduction is inherent to the ISAM with very low power usage through sludge recycling, solids separation, and anaerobic destruction. Tel: 319-266-9967, Fax: 319-277-6034 E-mail: erickm@fluidynecorp.com Web: www.fluidynecorp.com

Installed directly under a sink, the PHIX Cartridge System is an ideal acidic neutralization solution for single-point applications such as labs and hospitals. With its engineered flow-through design, it effectively treats acidic wastewater and reduces project costs by eliminating the need for acid-resistant piping and neutralizing pits. Tel: 877-966-9444 E-mail: info@greenturtletech.com Web: www.greenturtletech.com

Fluidyne

Green Turtle

Digital dosing pumps

New pump and flow monitor

For cost-efficient wastewater treatment, Green Turtle’s line of Proceptor oil, grease and solids separators ensures local regulatory requirements are met. Designed for commercial, institutional and industrial sites, Proceptor can help you reduce your business’ impact on municipal infrastructure and the environment. Tel: 877-966-9444 E-mail: info@greenturtletech.com Web: www.greenturtletech.com Green Turtle

Stormceptor® System

Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 Web: www.grundfosalldos.com

Only from Grundfos, the all new DDI Pump with Plus3 and State of the Art Flow Monitor - through unique, state of the art technology you can now protect your pump from air entrapment and overpressure while enjoying virtually continuous dosing. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 E-mail: tellul@grundfos.com Web: www.grundfos.com/dosing

Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Hanson Pipe & Precast, Ltd. is the exclusive manufacturer of the Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: mark.smith2@hanson.biz Web: www.hansonpipeandprecast.com

Grundfos

Grundfos

Hanson Pipe & Precast

Grundfos has applied innovative technology to expand the Digital Dosing™ pump range, allowing it to handle liquids at much higher flow rates – from 2.5 ml/h to 940 l/h. The new DME375 and DME940 make exact dosing easier than ever.

Groundwater monitoring With the Heron Dipper Log pressure transducer temperature datalogger with wireless remote download, you can access your data within 1 km/0.62 m without having to directly connect to the logger or remove a wellcap. It is available in three models - submersible, with a direct read cable, or on a reel.

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a highaccuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines researchgrade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions.

Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com

Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www.hoskin.ca

Heron Instruments

Hoskin Scientific

www.esemag.com

Working With Water Effective Groundwater Model Calibration: With Analysis of Data, Sensitivities, Predictions and Uncertainty, by Mary C. Hill, Claire R. Tiedeman. Software and mathematical models are used to represent complex processes and simulate lab or field conditions.This book presents a set of methods and guidelines for calibrating and analyzing mathematical groundwater models. 978-0-471-77636-9 • Cloth • 455 pp • Available Now • $116.99 Web: www.wiley.ca John Wiley & Sons Canada November 2007 | 85

Product & Service Showcase

Oil and grease separators

Sludge reduction technology


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New screening system

Product & Service Showcase

The new Auger Monster XE screening system offers the new pivoted auger design (a JWC exclusive) which allows the screening trough to easily pivot and swivel out of the channel for inspection. It combines a grinder, a fine screen and a compactor into one compact footprint and grinds, removes, washes, dewaters and compacts unwanted solids. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com JWC Environmental

Submersible wastewater pumps

AMR upgrade

Widely used in wastewater plants, KSB’s line of AMAREX KRT submersible pumps features a closed jacket cooling system of the motor. Independent of the fluid handled, it ensures optimal heat dissipation in all operating conditions (wet, dry, partly flooded, or permanently submerged). These pumps have a maximum flow rate of 10,000 m3/h, with heads up to 100 m. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

Take advantage of the life left in your existing meters with our universal AMR upgrade – the DIALOG 3G®Interpreter™ Register. On the backs of your existing meters, the Interpreter will lead you well into the future. Tel: 800-765-6518 Web: www.mastermeter.com

KSB Pumps

Master Meter

Dual function aerator/mixer

Pieralisi centrifuges

Biological nutrient removal processes are now easier to regulate and more cost-effective, by combining mixing and aeration in a single unit with independent aeration control. The patented AIRE-O2 TRITON® Process Aerator/Mixer maximizes fine oxygen dispersion and mixing for greater oxygen transfer efficiencies. It offers dual function control of nitrification and denitrification in separate modes. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Pieralisi technology is available to solve any problem of clarifying, dewatering and separating with safety and reliability. Pieralisi centrifuges utilize a patented sludge scraper for continuous discharge of dewatered sludge from the solids discharge chamber. They are the ideal choice for filtering and dewatering of sludge from municipal water and wastewater treatment plants. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Pipe Pac version 3

For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: sal.iannello@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Septage receiving station

Industrial process equipment

The Ontario Concrete Pipe Association promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quality of its members, and provides technical information to specifiers, regulators, contractors and educators. Please contact us for a presentation on the following topics: Protecting Yourself as a Gravity Pipe Designer; Best Practices for New Infrastructure; Concrete Pipe Design; PipePac. Call 905-631-9696 for details and be entered to win an iPod. E-mail: info@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com

The userfriendly, maintenancefree Helisieve Plus® Septage Receiving Station pre-treats septage and protects downstream processes. This self-contained system removes troublesome solids and dewaters them for landfill. It's fast, easy and effective, and odours are contained in the stainless steel receiving tank. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com

Performance Fluid Equipment Inc. is an equipment manufacturer and design/build fabricator of a wide variety of industrial process equipment for the wastewater industry, including customized systems and packages. Tel: 866-683-7867, Fax: 705-327-6551 E-mail: info@performancequip.com Web: www.performancequip.com

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Parkson

Performance Fluid Equipment

86 | November 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Hydraulically-actuated pumps

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

ProMinent’s ProMus hydraulicallyactuated pumps deliver reliable results in the harshest of environments, in accordance with API 675 standards. They have a capacity of 2.3 L/h (0.61 gph) at 241.3 bar (3500 psi) up to 384.2 L/h (101.5 gph) at 11 bar (160 psi).

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

University for working professionals

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Membrane bioreactor

Compact vacuum excavating

Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling now offers vacuum excavating to safely expose underground utilities prior to drilling. Our trailer mounted Vermeer E550 uses its 500 CFM suction to quickly clear locations. Its compact size fits in a standard parking spot, needs only 8’6” clearance and can work up to 100 feet away. Tel: 604-947-7677 Web: www.rmsoil.com Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling

Groundwater monitoring Schlumberger Water Services (SWS) has released the Diver-NETZ system, a complete package of tools that allows groundwater professionals to wirelessly connect their monitoring networks. Diver-NETZ is completely expandable and ready to work with existing Diver groundwater monitoring networks. Tel: 519-746-1798, Fax: 519-885-5262 E-mail: sws-diver@slb.com Web: www.swstechnology.com

Royal Roads University is the only public university in Canada exclusively devoted to meeting the immediate needs of working professionals. We pioneered the best model of learning by combining short on-campus residencies with teambased online learning to enable you to maintain your life and get ahead in your career. Tel: 877-778-6227 Web: www.royalroads.ca Royal Roads University

Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services, has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, pre-plumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanitherm.com Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services

Sludge conveyors

Thermal dryer

Membrane bioreactor

Serpentix conveyors elevate sludge and screened material at twice the incline angle of ordinary flat belts. Serpentix's belting is modular and sections are easily replaced. Convolutions on the belting flatten at the discharge end of the conveyor to promote scraping and product removal. Tel: 800-466-7979, Fax: 303-430-7337 E-mail: sales@serpentix.com Web: www.serpentix.com

The Convective Thermal Dryer from Siemens Water Technologies reduces sludge volume by 5:1 and produces a uniform 1 to 4 mm dried product that can be beneficially re-used. And the CTD can use imported waste-heat to ensure efficiency and low operating costs. Call to learn more. Tel: 229-227-8727 E-mail: dewatering.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/water

Siemens Water Technologies introduces membrane bioreactor technology that integrates biological processes with membrane filtration. This small footprint, integrated system combines Memcor® membrane operating system units with proven Envirex® biological technologies and Cannibal® solids reduction process. Tel: 262-547-0141 E-mail: envirexinfo.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/water

Serpentix

Siemens Water Technologies

Siemens Water Technologies

www.esemag.com

Schlumberger Water Services

November 2007 | 87

Product & Service Showcase

Metering pumps


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The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

Web based wireless alarm monitor

KPSI submersible datalogging level transducer

Monitor, report, and control your systems with AlarmAgent RACO’s full-featured, web-based service. AlarmAgent is RACO’s newest wireless technology, bringing a state-of-theart, and web-based interface to our complete line of alarm detection and notification products. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: Sales@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com

The waterMONITOR is a submersible hydrostatic level transducer with embedded datalogging offering a high level of functionality and accuracy. It meets the requirements of the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) accuracy specification for stage monitoring and combines a highly accurate pressure sensor assembly with power conservative microcomputer circuitry. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: Sales@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com

Smith & Loveless

SPD Sales

SPD Sales

Grit chamber

Specialist training

Extended oil storage

Stormwater separator

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: spillmanagement.ca

Accidents happen. Protect your business from costly clean-up, litigation and fines with the Stormceptor® Extended Oil Storage (EOS) system. Providing hydrocarbon spill protection in dry and wet weather, the EOS model features increased storage volume for safe oil containment compared to standard Stormceptor models. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@imbriumsystems.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Stormceptor® STC removes more pollutants from stormwater than other separators. Designed to remove a wide range of particle sizes, as well as free oils and heavy metals, its patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even fierce storms. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@imbriumsystems.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Spill Management

Imbrium Systems

Imbrium Systems

Product & Service Showcase

Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Join pipe to 144”

Trickling filters

Depend-OLok: the new standard for joining pipe to 144". Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: viccanada@victaulic.com Web: www.victaulic.com

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www. waterloo-biofilter.com

Victaulic

Waterloo Biofilter

88 | November 2007

Groundwater sampler Waterra introduces the HydraSleeve, a new way to collect discrete interval samples. Easy to use and with no need to purge or dispose of purge water, this groundwater sampler reduces your costs by saving time. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


November:2007

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November:2007

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9:16 PM

Page 90

NEWS Federal government to combat dumping of raw sewage Federal Environment Minister John Baird has announced that the federal government is taking action to combat the dumping of raw sewage into lakes, rivers, and oceans, and to greatly improve sewage treatment across Canada. The proposed regulations are to be published in 2008 and will also have a positive impact on removing substances like phosphates, which can lead to excessive blue-green algae production, as well as mercury and pharmaceutical products in sewage outflows. The rules will enforce national standards in the more than 4,600 wastewater collection and treatment systems in towns, cities, and communities across Canada. www.ec.gc.ca

Federal government to help fund Lake Simcoe clean-up

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net • Web: www.anthrafilter.net

The Government of Canada is investing $12 million to support the clean-up of Ontario’s Lake Simcoe. This investment is part of Canada's $93 million National Water Strategy, a comprehensive initiative to improve water quality and to protect lakes, rivers and oceans. By investing $12 million over the next two years to support the clean-up of Lake Simcoe, the Government is taking action to stem the effects of excessive algae and weed growth that reduce oxygen supply and harm fish and wildlife. Located north of Toronto, Lake Simcoe is one of Ontario's major recreational areas. The lake is known for its recreational fishery and picturesque landscapes and generates approximately $200 million annually through tourism and recreation. The region also supports agricultural activities and has recently undergone increased urban development.

Cause remains unknown for PEI fish kills Environment Canada has completed its testing of samples taken after fish kills at Dunk River and Tryon River, Prince Edward Island, in July 2007, but it cannot determine the exact cause of either incident. 90 | November 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS Samples of water, vegetation, sediment and fish were analyzed at the Environment Canada lab in Moncton, New Brunswick. The pesticide Chlorothalonil was found in samples taken from the Tryon River and Metribuzin was found in samples taken from the Dunk River. The levels of both pesticides detected were not high enough to cause fish kills. The Tryon River fish kill was reported two days after it took place, and the Dunk River fish kill was reported three days after it occurred. Government officials gathered samples immediately after each kill was initially reported. However, because the fish were dead for at least two days before the sampling began, the amount of pesticide in them may have degraded in that time. There was insufficient evidence to determine the cause or origin of the fish kills. As a result, no one can be charged with violating the pollution prevention provisions of the federal Fisheries Act. Environment Canada environmental enforcement field officers will continue to inspect properties adjacent to water bodies on Prince Edward Island and they will continue to take all the necessary actions to detect and deter practices that could endanger the water systems and fish habitat on the Island. The examination of the Dunk River and Tryon River fish kills was conducted jointly by Environment Canada and the Prince Edward Island Department of Environment, Energy and Forestry.

PM announces creation of marine conservation area in Lake Superior

Get a clear view of:

“Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: clearview@geophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

Promoting the business and professional interests of Ontario’s engineering companies. CEO is part of the Association of Canadian Engineering Companies.

(L to R) MP-Lake Superior, Joe Comuzzi, Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, Federal Environment Minister, John Baird.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper has announced the creation of Canada’s newest National Marine Conservation Area continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

• UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities

Consulting Engineers of Ontario 10 Four Seasons Place, Suite 405 Toronto, ON M9B 6H7

Tel: (416) 620-1400 Fax: (416) 620-5803 www.ceo.on.ca staff@ceo.on.ca November 2007 | 91


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NEWS (NMCA). More than 10,000 square kilometres of Lake Superior, including the lake bed, islands and north shorelands within the NMCA boundaries, will become the largest freshwater marine protected area in the world. The proposed boundaries of the Lake Superior NMCA extend from Thunder Cape at the tip of Sleeping Giant Provincial Park in the west, to Bottle Point just east of Terrace Bay, and south to the Canada-U.S. boundary. The announcement marked the culmination of a decade of planning and negotiations involving the federal, Ontario and local governments as well as First Nations in the region. Among the groups and individuals who supported the project were His Royal Highness, The Duke of Edinburgh, and former Prime Minister John Turner, both acting for the World Wildlife Fund, as well as former Canadian astronaut Roberta Bondar, who is one of Ontario’s Champions of the Great Lakes Heritage Coasts.

$1.6-million to be invested in Blackville NB wastewater system

Focused on the Special Needs of Industrial and Commercial Clients for More Than 20 Years

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From multi-billion dollar Fortune 100 companies to family-run Owner-Manager enterprises, Geomatrix serves industrial and commercial clients locally and around the world from our18 North American offices.

• Drinking Water • Screening / Filtration • Separation / Flotation • Sludge Dewatering / Collection • Biotreatment / Aeration • Centrifugal & PD Blowers Suppliers of Water And • UV Disinfection • Industrial Treatment Wastewater Equipment • Oil / Water Separators H2FLOW EQUIPMENT INC., Concord, Ontario • Package Treatment Plants Tel: (905) 660-9775 Fax: (905) 660-9744 • Stormwater Treatment Email: info@h2flow.com Website: www.h2flow.com • Tanks & Tank Covers

92 | November 2007

(L to R) NB Premier Shawn Graham, Blackville Mayor Glen Hollowood, Southwest Miramichi MLA, Rick Brewer, Tobique-Mactaquac MP, Mike Allen.

Blackville residents will soon benefit from an extended municipal wastewater system, thanks to an investment of more than $1.6 million from the Canada-New Brunswick Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund. The project will connect 60 new households to the municipal wastewater collection and treatment system. As a result, septic tank contamination of the groundwater drawn by private wells in the lower part of the village will be avoided. The new system will also encourage increased development in the village, as there has been little residential growth in the previously unserviced Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS area, due to the high cost of installing septic tanks. The Government of Canada, through the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agenda, the Province of New Brunswick, and the Village of Blackville will each contribute one third, or $553,340, toward the eligible costs of the $1.6-million project. www.gnb.ca, or www.infrastructure.gc.ca.

Manitoba applauds commitment to reduce phosphorus in detergent Water Stewardship Minister Christine Melnick has applauded the announcement of an industry-led initiative to limit the phosphorus content of household dishwasher detergent sold in Canada. The Canadian Consumer Specialty Products Association has recognized the Government of Manitoba’s efforts to press for federal leadership on restricting phosphorus in household products. Its members produce 86 per cent of all household automatic dishwasher detergent sold in Canada. Reducing excess nutrients flowing into the environment from such products is an important step in helping improve the health of lakes and rivers both in Manitoba and across Canada. An industry-led initiative to voluntarily manufacture both phosphorus-free and low-phosphorus products would ensure consumers could purchase familiar products at competitive prices knowing the products’ impact on water quality was marginal, the minister said. Manitoba has consistently called for a national strategy on restricting phosphorus in household fertilizers and cleaning products but has said the province will take action on its own in the absence of a clear commitment from Ottawa.

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantis.com

Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 LAB Division

TEC Division

• Environmental Microbiology • Biotreatment Optimization • Fungi, Bacteria & Algae ID • Contract R&D, UV Efficacy

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67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 Box 1385, Guelph, Ontario, N1H 6N8 Tel: (519) 822-2608 Fax: (519) 822-3076 E-mail: ieinc@istar.ca

BC requires well caps to protect groundwater All wells (except geotechnical wells and drainage wells) were mandated to have a secure well cap in place by Oct. 31, 2007, to be in compliance with British Columbia’s Ground Water Protection continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

November 2007 | 93


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NEWS COMMUNITIES

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

TRANSPORTATION BUILDINGS INFRASTRUCTURE

Head OfďŹ ce: 80 Commerce Valley Dr. E.Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 t: 905.882.1100 | f: 905.882.0055 www.mmm.ca

Peter J. Laughton, P. Eng.

Regulation. This requirement applies to all existing wells, as well as newly constructed wells. A secure well cap is one of the most cost-effective ways to protect a well’s water quality. For example, a secure, vermin-proof cap for a domestic well costs about $80. Caps prevent contaminants or animals from entering the well. In addition, they prevent contamination of the larger body of groundwater from which the well and those of neighbouring wells get their water. Caps for most wells are commercially available and can be purchased through a qualified well pump installer. A well cap can either be installed by the qualified well pump installer or by the well owner. The well cap should be secured on the well at all times, except when it is necessary to disinfect, or perform maintenance or repair work to the inside of the well or the well pump. If a cap is removed, it should be re-installed as soon as possible. It is an offence to tamper with or destroy a well cap installed on a well. Placing a bucket over the top of a well or keeping a piece of plywood on top of a well with a rock are not secure well caps and would not meet the regulatory requirement. www.env.gov.bc.ca

Consulting Engineer

Environmental Engineering Services

King City, Ontario CANADA

p.laughton@pjlaughtonenv.com

tel: +1.905.833.6738 fax: +1.905.833.8497

Ontario government provides $30 million to improve Hamilton Harbour water quality The Ontario government is helping to clean up the area in Hamilton Harbour known as Randle Reef as part of its efforts to improve water quality in the Great Lakes. Ontario is providing $30 million towards the cost of remediation, and it is expected that the federal government and municipal partners will each pay one-third of the remaining costs. Contamination with coal tar residues and heavy metals in Randle Reef has occurred over many years. The clean-up should help lead to the de-listing of Hamilton Harbour as an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes and delivers on the government's commitment to restore and protect the health of the Great Lakes for the benefit of all Ontarians.

94 | November 2007

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NEWS Chatham-Kent fined $10,000 for failing to ensure water system safety The Corporation of the Municipality of Chatham-Kent has been fined $10,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to failing to ensure that its water treatment equipment was operating while water was being supplied and that its equipment was able to maintain the required chlorine residual concentration as set out by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Corporation owns and operates a drinking water system, referred to as the Highgate Well Supply. In April 2006, an inspection was undertaken by the Ministry of the Environment at the Highgate Well Supply. The inspection identified low chlorine residuals and inadequate ultraviolet disinfection on four occasions between May 2005 and March 2006. The town was charged following an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment’s Investigations and Enforcement Branch.

Imbrium to unveil fine sediment filter system Imbrium Systems is launching JellyfishTM, a new filter system comprised of filtration tentacles that remove fine sediment and adsorbed pollutants from stormwater in a compact design. The company claims that Jellyfish filter cartridges will remove greater than 80% Sil-Co-Sil 106 – a fine particle size distribution (PSD) frequently specified in testing protocols such as Washington State Department of Ecology’s TAPE protocol and the TARP protocol for stand-alone treatment systems. And while testing is not complete, it is anticipated that minimum 40% total phosphorus will be removed, as well as significant levels of heavy metals that attach to fine sediment. The Jellyfish filter system is typically designed to provide integrated pre-treatment and filtration in a single standalone manhole structure, which is capable of removing trash, oil, and coarse sediment from stormwater prior to the filtration stage. www.imbriumsystems.com continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

www.trg.ca Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment

Tel: (905) 823-7965 Fax: (905) 823-7932 www.pcbdisposal.com

• MECHANICAL • ELECTRICAL • STRUCTURAL • ARCHITECTURAL • ENVIRONMENTAL • CIVIL

• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

November 2007 | 95


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NEWS RBC launches $50 Million Blue Water Project The Royal Bank of Canada has announced the creation of the RBC Blue Water Project, a 10-year, $50 million grant program to support projects dedicated to water conservation, watershed protection, access to clean drinking water, and other water-related issues in Canada and around the world. This is the largest charitable commitment ever in the company's history. The RBC Blue Water Project will have three grant streams: • Visionary Grants: multi-year grants to global organizations that show vision, foresight and innovation to support programs around the world, and within Canada; • Leadership Grants: annual grants given to organizations that are leaders in providing regional programs within North America, determined through a 'request for proposal' process; and • Community Action Grants: ongoing grants given to community-based

Maple Reinders marks 40 years of environmental construction The Maple Reinders Group, with offices in Mississauga, Cambridge, Calgary, Edmonton and Kelowna, is celebrating its 40th year in business. The company has been involved in the construction of industrial, commercial and institutional buildings, and over 400 water and wastewater treatment facilities. Founded in 1967 by Frederik J. Reinders, the firm began exploring partnerships with sludge composting specialists from the Netherlands. The experience gained with these partnerships was subsequently applied to the treatment of organic solid waste for municipalities. Maple Reinders has completed several award-winning in-tunnel composting projects for the City of Hamilton, Region

Expert People. Better Decisions. • Municipal Infrastructure • Wastewater • Drinking Water • Water Reources

• Site Assessments • Remediation • Risk Assessments • Solid Waste

Toronto | Kitchener | Kingston | Edmonton | Cincinnati | www.xcg.com

96 | November 2007

of Peel and Cape Breton Regional Municipality, where up to 60% of municipal solid waste is diverted from landfills. The Group also constructed the first energy-from-waste facility in Ontario for the Region of Peel in 1992, which processes 160,000 tonnes of waste per year and generates up to 9 megawatts of electricity. www.maple.ca

organizations in Canada, the United States and the Caribbean to support local water conservation projects. www.rbc.com/environment

Layfield acquires Canadian rights to Aqua Dam

Aqua Dam being installed.

The Layfield Group of Companies recently announced the acquisition of the Aqua Dam® distribution rights in Canada. These water-filled portable dams are designed to contain or divert the flow of water. Standard applications include stream and river diversions, coffer dams, flood protection, portable water storage, and emergency response water containment. The Aqua Dam system is said to be economical, lightweight and easy to handle, and can be used in virtually any location. It is environmentally safe and specifically designed for rapid deployment. www.layfieldgroup.com

Stantec acquires Neill and Gunter Stantec has acquired Neill and Gunter, a full service consulting engineering firm with approximately 650 employees, primarily located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Portland, Maine, along with 10 other locations in the United States and Canada. For over forty years, Neill and Gunter has provided consulting engineering services to heavy industry in the power and utilities, oil and gas, pulp and paper, food and beverage, mining, and composite wood products sectors. www.stantec.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Company

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Page

ABS Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Albarrie Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Alberta Government, Alberta Environment . . . . . .19 AnoxKaldnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26, 27 Assmann Corporation of America . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Atlantic Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BakerCorp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Business Information Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 CAEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Canadian Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Containment Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Davis Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Degremont Technologies/Infilco . . . . . . . . .39, 41,43 Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Dewind Dewatering and Trenching . . . . . .(insert) 50 Earth Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Export Development Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Firestone Building Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Globe 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Greenspoon Specialty Contracting . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Grundfos Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 H2Flow Tanks & Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Hetek Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Hydro International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Imbrium Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 ITT Flygt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 John Wiley & Sons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 KMK Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Master Meter Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Newalta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Northern Steel Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 ONEIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Ontario Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Rain for Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 RJ Burnside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Royal Roads University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 RV Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 RV Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Sanitherm Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Schlumberger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Serpentix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Siemens Water Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 SPD Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Terratec Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Toronto Water, City of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Victaulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Water For People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Waterloo Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 ZCL Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

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Advertiser INDEX

11/12/07

Ad Index

November 2007 | 97

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Worker Safety

Lone worker monitoring

t’s three in the morning and Al is doing his hourly inspection in the water treatment plant. In addition to his PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) he carries a cell phone to call for help in the event of an emergency. As he enters the chlorination room his gas detector detects a small level of chlorine in the air. It is too low to be of major concern but as he investigates further he discovers a small leak at a gas fitting. Before he can assess the situation further he steps in a small patch of lubricant on the floor and slips backwards hitting his head on a concrete containment wall. The fall results in a serious head laceration with substantial bleeding; he needs immediate medical attention which is not forthcoming simply because no one knew he was hurt. As he is unconscious he is unable to use his cell phone to call for assistance and as he is working alone no one was there to summon medical help or render first aid. Had this been a true story, it could have ended in a fatality. Scenarios such as this occur in every type of industry – every day, but what can be done to prevent it? Employees are working alone in water and sewage treatment facilities across Canada, 24 hours a day – 365 days a year, without an effective means to summon help should they become injured or disabled. Any lone worker can be injured through a variety of ways including personal health problems. In recent years there has been more emphasis placed on

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“lone worker protection” in municipalities and industries across Canada. Five provinces now have legislation which specifically addresses this issue. What can be done to provide workers with a reliable method of summoning assistance in the event that they are hurt or immobilized on the job? Doubling the work force, so that two workers are on shift at any time is one answer – although not a very realistic one for cash-strapped municipalities. As the above example pointed out, a cell phone is useless if the worker in distress is unconscious and is unable to place the call. Checking in periodically to an outside service by phone or radio is only good during the minute that the worker is in contact with the offsite security, leaving him or her with no protection until the next call is made. A call every two hours provides ½ minute of protection every 120 minutes and, if the frequency were cut in half, you would still only have coverage for ½ minute of every hour. GRACE Industries, through their national distributor Canadian Safety Equipment, has introduced a very successful new product called the GEM (Grace Employee Monitor) system that monitors a worker and, in the event that they stop moving for a predetermined period of time, can initiate local and remote alarms to provide that injured worker with immediate help. The GEM system is comprised of a local receiver mounted in a central location. The worker wears a small device called a T-PASS. The T-PASS is a mo-

tion-sensitive device that monitors a person’s movement. Should they stop moving for a set period of time (typically 60 seconds) then it emits a local audio prealert to warn the worker that it will soon go into full alarm. If the worker does not respond to the pre-alert then it enters into full alarm and, in addition to emitting a 95+ decibel local alarm (to help rescuers find the victim), it transmits a wireless signal to the central receiving unit. Should the worker be injured but not unconscious a panic button on the TPASS allows the worker to activate the alarm instantly. Although the T-PASS has a range of ¾ mile line of sight, its unique type of signal allows it to cover a significant area. In larger areas, repeaters can be installed to pick up the signal and pass it on to the receiver or in very large facilities a number of repeaters can be used. Like a cell phone system, the more repeaters you use, the larger an area that can be covered. The GEM receiver has local audio and visual indication of the worker in trouble. In addition it can activate inplant alarms and, using a telephone dialer, can call out to offsite security or the supervisor who is “on call”. GRACE has also introduced a mobile version of this device that, when mounted in a works truck, can call out for help using the cell phone network should that worker get into distress. A satellite version for areas without cell phone coverage is also available. In an emergency, “minutes saved” equates to “lives saved”. For more information, contact ross@cdnsafety.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine November-December 2007  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine November-December 2007  

This issue focuses on: BC fish hatchery installs UV disinfection system; Peel Region to spend $93 million on wastewater system expansion; a...