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The science behind proper grit chamber sizing Shouldn’t it be cradle to cradle – not cradle to grave? Potential health risks from disinfection by-products Using UV disinfection for wastewater reuse

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ISSN-0835-605X September 2007 Vol. 20 No. 4 Issued September 2007

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ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES

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Shouldn’t it be Cradle to Cradle - not Cradle to Grave? - Editorial comment by Tom Davey 10 Moncton biosolids conference advanced national and global agenda - Cover Story 14 Ultrasonics versatility includes sewer networks 16 Evaluating the condition of Saskatoon’s 1912 main interceptor sewer 22 US army deploys new generation of mobile water purification technology 26 Precast concrete boxes installed in upright position for trunk storm sewer 28 Plant level treatment of fats, oils and grease 34 Ten years of corrosion studies on the RMS Titanic 36 The science behind proper grit chamber sizing 40 Renowned underwater photographer to speak at WEFTEC.07 42 Senator Tommy Banks to open 2007 WCWWA conference and tradeshow 43 Mexico team wins Stockholm Junior Water Prize 44 Why should developers put in complex sewage treatment systems? 48 Drought prompts New Jersey to explore creative water reuse 50 Residential water pipe coating technology prevents lead contamination 52 Extracting high value phytochemicals from grape cane wastes 54 The importance of demand side management in industrial energy conservation 56 Remediation continues at military base in Goose Bay 60 Incineration- a tried and true method for waste disposal 64 Potential health risks from unregulated disinfection by-products 68 Using UV disinfection for wastewater reuse 70 Measurement of pH vital to wastewater operations 74 Will light emitting diodes be the future of lighting? DEPARTMENTS 76 Water for People names five countries for expansion 78 Reviewing current groundwater arsenic removal technologies Product Showcase . . . . 98-104 83 BC action plan addresses water sustainability Environmental News . 105-112 88 Manitoba to fund Lake Winnipeg water quality research Classifieds . . . . . . . . . 105, 106 90 Ottawa implements automatic water meter reading program to curb leaks

Professional Cards . . . 107-112 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

94 Toxicity evaluation needs to be simple and inexpensive for effective waste water management


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We understand our customers would rather focus on their business, not their wastewater. Environmental regulations for wastewater are getting tougher and more businesses need treatment systems to remove oil, grease and solids from their wastewater. Without proper treatment, a business puts its time, money and reputation at risk. When choosing Proceptor separators by Green Turtle, you choose security and peace of mind. Our team of experts assesses your situation and designs a system to meet your wastewater needs. With a 30-year warranty, Proceptor delivers the right wastewater system for your business. Specify Proceptor.™ Retire Happy. greenturtletech.com


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Comment by Tom Davey

Shouldn’t it be Cradle to Cradle - not Cradle to Grave? he many avenues to acquiring knowledge include lectures, essays and the resulting symbiotic discussions with students and faculty in appropriate environments. The writing of essays based on lectures in the sheltered university ambience is mimicked, somewhat, by the learning experience of copy editing in newspaper or magazine publishing which is largely unacknowledged. Indeed when I worked in both England and Australia the verb to sub quite literally meant to edit. Not so in North America where sub editing was done by deskmen, a term which quickly dissolved when women entered newsrooms and demonstrated that the female of the species often had a better feeling for grammar and syntax than men - and usually a better eye for the nuances of colour and shading in graphic designs. Many engineers, while happy to focus on complex mathematical problems and ably debate their findings in public, often seem loathe to put their results down on paper. These reflections came back when I began to read Salah El-Haggar’s book: Sustainable Industrial Design and Waste Management * where he takes his readers on a route through complex environmental problems with commendable clarity. One area in his book, in particular, triggered long-forgotten memories of a surprise call from two federal engineers from Ottawa who had commissioned a study on the incineration of toxic wastes using cement kilns. The study had some learned authors giving their findings from a long experiment involving incineration of toxins - such as polychlorinated biphenyls - using rotary cement kilns during the manufacturing process. This process harnesses the thermal properties inherent in many toxins in heat-specific manufacturing processing while having the capability to effec-

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tively destroy them. At first glance this draft of studies seemed both intimidating and frankly uninteresting. But after preliminary discussions, the federal engineers commissioned me to combine the diverse drafts of several authors into a cohesive whole. They were, they said frankly, becoming frustrated. While the source of the problem had never occurred to them, it was simple to any editor. As the drafts from the authors progressed - and I am using that word loosely - the learned writers’ research and views had also progressed, so, inevitably, each author wanted his latest data included. While quite obvious to me, the learned authors involved in this project seemed unaware that perpetual motion was a theory, not a fact in the publishing world. The study had excellent data but was going, quite literally, in circles. The roulette wheel in this case had stopped at my office.

After studying the data and questioning the engineers, the peer reviewed drafts yielded one fundamental fact. To effectively destroy many toxic wastes they had to be exposed to very high temperatures along with a long residence time in the incineration process. On further reading and consultation, it became apparent that cement kilns were a nigh perfect solution to the disposal of several kinds of toxins, including the PCBs which then ranked high in public hysteria and media coverage. Cement kilns had high temperatures and incineration stability while, economically, they were making a product which was vital to society in building water mains, sewers, highways. The need for high incineration temperatures, flame stability and adequate residence time of incineration was macabrely highlighted continued overleaf...

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Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Comment by Tom Davey when a toxic waste dump caught fire in Saint-Basile-le-Grand, Québec and partly combusted toxins were emitted in the form of particulate matter which would certainly be dangerous if inhaled. Saint-Basile-le-Grand was not the only Canadian place where toxic waste dumps have had accidental fires which broadcasted toxins over a wide area. In this book, Salah M. El-Haggar, writes: “The manufacture of ce-

which is viewed as the most sophisticated in Canada.” One of his interesting insights is the Cradle to Grave concept which, he writes, will deplete natural resources even in well-established processes, whereas, in the Cradle to Cradle concept, materials can be reused again and again. The concept of producer responsibility, first introduced by Riddick in 2003, would require all producers in the design phase to be responsible for any en-

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to chris@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $4.50 GST).

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While quite obvious to me, the learned authors involved in this project seemed unaware that perpetual motion was a theory, not a fact in the publishing world. ment from limestone requires high kiln temperatures (1,400 degrees Celsius) and long residence times. Further, the lime can neutralize the hydrogen chloride generated from chlorinated wastes without adversely affecting the properties of the cement. Liquid hazardous wastes with high heat content are an ideal supplemental fuel for cement kilns and promote the concept of recycling and recovery.” This creates an excellent opportunity for hazardous waste destruction as some cement kilns are over 100 metres long, rotating at about three revolutions a minutes. “As much as 40% of the fuel requirements of cement manufacturing can be supplied by hazardous wastes such as solvents, paint thinners and dry cleaning fluids.” He also notes that with proper emission control systems, cement kilns may be an economical option for incineration of hazardous wastes. Dr. El-Haggar’s book is an ambitious attempt to cover diverse problems such as sustainability in municipal and industrial solid waste management. Of particular interest is the Burnside Eco Industrial Park in Halifax Regional Municipality which he says has, “implemented a solid waste management system

vironmental impacts their products might have throughout the product’s life cycle, not just at the end. The book reveals some surprising insights on areas such as organic farming which is implemented in more than 100 countries, and growing virtually every day with 23 million hectares managed organically. Australia, surprisingly, has the major part of this land with some 10.5 million hectares managed organically, followed by Argentina with 3.2 million hectares, then Italy with 1.2 million hectares. Data on landfill, environmental problems in the Third World, biogas, and composting are only a few of the many surprising, useful and commendable data to be found in this reference book. * Salah M El-Haggar, PE, Ph.D is Professor of Energy and Environment, Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University in Cairo. For more information, visit www.elsevier.com Contact: tom@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Sewage by-pass Construction dewatering Flood drainage Surface irrigation Mine dewatering • Complete rental program • Flygt submersible pumps and engine driven suction pumps • Project design, engineering and management • On-site set-up and supervision • Generators, piping and all accessories • Solutions for major temporary site dewatering and sewage by-pass projects For more information visit

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Cover Story

National and global environmental agenda advanced at Moncton conference By Ronald J. LeBlanc and Peter J. Laughton

Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission’s wastewater treatment plant.

he national and global environmental agenda was recently moved forward, and a global legacy left, at a highly successful IWA International Specialist Conference organized and hosted by the Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission (GMSC). The Conference, “Moving Forward Wastewater Biosolids Sustainability: Technical, Managerial, and Public Synergy”, was held in Moncton, New Brunswick, June 24-27, 2007. Over 450 delegates and speakers attended from the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and over 44 countries from around the world including Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Mexico, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia and numerous other countries. The Conference was organized in concert with the Canadian Association on Water Quality, and Université de Moncton, and was held jointly with the 4th Canadian Organic Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference. Conference supporters included: Water Environment Federation, Réseau environnement, Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, New England Biosolids Residuals Association, Water

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Environment Association of Ontario, Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association, Atlantic Canada Water Works Association and the British Columbia Water and Waste Association. The GMSC secured the participation of the Canadian International Development Agency to assist in the funding of eligible representatives from developing countries and countries in transition in order to allow those representatives to acquire knowledge and contacts to assist them to move forward the environmental agenda in their countries. GMSC also had local, national and global objectives related to the conference. The local objectives involved educating and engaging the local public, media, regulators and politicians, as well as advancing the scientific knowledge related to the local issues. Another objective was to increase the network of professionals necessary for it to carry out its long-term plans in an effective manner. The national objectives also involved educating and engaging the national public, media, regulators and politicians. As well, one of the primary objectives was to continue the promotion of the work necessary to implement a Canadian Biosolids Partnership (CBP), which is an initiative of the GMSC. A CBP will be of enormous benefit in providing environmental stewardship in Canada as it

will help focus issues, and permit various stakeholders to work together toward common objectives. Such partnerships exist in other countries but Canada is seriously lagging behind in having a focused approach to the management of wastewater biosolids issues. The GMSC also had a global objective of attempting to initiate a Global Biosolids Network or Organization. This global organization would bring together various stakeholders, including the IWA, around the issue of biosolids, and would have, among its objectives, the promotion of standards, regulations, applications and management of wastewater biosolids, together with research and the education of the general public. Conference program The Opening Plenary Session included addresses from: IWA President David Garman, Graham Alabaster, United Nations, Charles Peterson of the World Bank, and Homero Silva of the World Health Organization. Plenary Sessions focused on a “Global Perspective” theme and stressed the need to bring a “Big Picture” approach to wastewater and biosolids issues. A total of 128 individual platform presentations were presented throughout the three day conference. Concurrent session topics included: • Sludge characteristics, rheology, dewatering and pumping • Emerging pollutants and impacts on biosolids • History, marketing and biosolids management • Public perception, communications and education • Future challenges and overall sustainable development approaches • Advanced treatment, emerging processes and innovations • Sludge as a resource and value added processes • Fate of hazardous and recalcitrant compounds during sludge treatment • History, marketing and biosolids management/legal and regulatory • Pre and post treatment processes and treatment of reject waters • Sludge dewatering, treatment and products continued overleaf...

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Cover Story • Sludge treatment/hydrolysis to augment nutrient availability • Odour control One of the Conference’s goals was to educate and bridge the gap between researchers and managers, while looking at the necessity to engage the public, regulators and politicians. Global legacy The Moncton Conference left a global legacy. A meeting of international delegates was held during the conference. At the meeting, attended by delegates from a dozen countries, as well as representatives of UN-Habitat and World Health Organization, the following four action items were agreed to: 1. The creation of an International Easy to use stormwater quality sizing tool now available

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Self propelled power winding machine straddles compost windrows while removing or placing the Gore™ Covers.

Communication networking alliance. This network will be valuable in passing on knowledge and experience to enable parties to benefit in avoiding “reinventing the wheel.” It was agreed that a communication network, to be created by the GMSC, will allow interaction between various countries, delegates, and associations in order to exchange information. 2. Updating the Global Biosolids Atlas, which was last published in 1997. The United Nations has agreed to fund the publication of the update of the Global Biosolids Atlas, and post it on their website. This Atlas will provide comparison of utilization practices throughout the world and will also contain data and descriptions of practices. The Atlas will provide insights into the way that risk management is incorporated into guidelines or regulations and will be a benefit to all countries, including under-developed and developing countries. 3. It was proposed, with the aim of furthering discussion and education regarding addressing the issue of poverty linked to malnutrition and sanitation needs, that the IWA world conference in Vienna will include workshops dealing with the following: • To establish guidelines for biosolids application in agriculture. • To conduct research on the relationship among bad sanitation, malnutrition, and poverty and how the beneficial use of biosolids in agriculture and aquaculture can help in reducing malnutrition and poverty. • Assessing risk and approaches with the view of reaching a consensus on a

scientific level on environmental and health risk assessment. Engaging and educating politicians regarding an “acceptable vision” on sanitation investment for the reduction of malnutrition and poverty. 4. Attempt to develop consistent global terminology and definitions of key terms related to wastewater and biosolids. Conference award The IWA Specialist Group on Sludge Management “Specialist Medal for Residuals Research” was awarded at the Conference to Dr. Rajesh Tyagi, Professor with the institut national de la recherche scientifique – eau, terre, et environnement, (INRS-ETE), Université de Québec. This award is given to a researcher whose previous work has advanced both fundamental understanding and practical application in sludge, biosolids, and/or residuals management. The researcher’s accomplishments may have been through publishing, presenting, conceptualizing, leading, or mentoring of research. Technical tours During the conference, delegates toured the Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission’s wastewater treatment plant and its unique, leading edge, biosolids composting facility. Ronald J. LeBlanc, is Chairman of the Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission: ron.leblanc@gmsc.nb.ca Peter J. Laughton, is a Consultant plaughton@gmsc.nb.ca

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Wastewater Collection

Infrastructure sustainability: Evaluating Saskatoon’s 1912 interceptor By Mark Andrews and Dale Clancy he City of Saskatoon’s main Interceptor Sewer comprises some 10 km of sewer ranging in size from 600 to 2100 mm diameter and was built and commissioned in stages. The first stage was completed in 1912 to service the original town-site. The 1912 Interceptor comprises 48", 60", 66" and 72" (1200, 1500, 1650 and 1800 mm) diameter pipe. The 1970 sections comprise 72” and 84” (1800 and 2100 mm) diameter pipe. The Spadina Lift Station is an on-line facility that lifts sewage approximately 15 m from the original outfall location adjacent to the river, to the upstream end of the new extension. The assessment of the sewer was carried out in two steps. First a detailed internal inspection program, utilizing specialized inspection equipment, was undertaken to document existing field conditions. Second, a detailed review and assessment of the inspection findings was carried out in order to assign condition grades. It was during this later stage that historical issues were taken into consideration. Concrete cores and H2S monitoring results were used to supplement inspection findings and refine condition assessment conclusions. Condition assessment rating and conclusions were based on the well-known WRC methodology. Construction history Age is a key characteristic when considering the condition of a sewer and is especially important when forecasting future rehabilitation needs and longterm operating requirements. Since the goal of this study is to develop such long-term needs then careful consideration of age is required. Usually the age of a system is either well-known or easily established. However, in the case of Saskatoon’s original Interceptor there are two questions which affect the determination of age. Why was such an extensive system, including planned sewage treatment facilities, constructed in 1912 at what appears to be a premature stage in Saskatoon’s development? And, given

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that the sewer was built, under what conditions was it not commissioned until 35 years later? Although the history of the sewer does not bear directly on its condition, it does provide useful context in which to consider the original design and construction and is, therefore, reviewed. Design and construction details for the 1912 Interceptor are discussed based on extant historical documents. Since the original phase of the Interceptor wasn’t commissioned until 35 years after it was built, two ages need to be considered depending on which aspect of sewer condition was under consideration. For example, corrosion due to hydrogen sulphide attack is a sewage related problem and hence does not become a factor until after the sewer was commissioned. Groundwater infiltration through joints, on the other hand, is a factor to be considered right from the time the sewer was constructed. Historical background Saskatoon has seen numerous “boom and bust” cycles in its development. From the very beginning of Saskatoon’s history, civic promoters and land speculators repeatedly overstated growth forecasts. A quote from “Saskatoon: A History in Photographs” provides a sense of this speculation:

“The population jumped from around 10,000 in 1909 to a staggering 28,000 by the end of 1912. The total assessed property value quadrupled to $36 million. Otherwise reasonably sober individuals were confidently predicting a city of 50,000 by 1915 and 100,000 by 1920. The Church Union Committee forecast a population of 65,000 by 1921, and no less a personage than the president of the university predicted that Saskatchewan as a whole would have 2,000,000 inhabitants by 1931” (O’Brien, Millar, and Delainey, publication pending). It is in this context of projected growth that in 1905 Willis Chipman, Consulting Engineer, was commissioned to prepare a sewerage, water and electric lighting master plan for the expanding town site (Board of Works Report, 1906 and O’Brien, 2006). Chipman’s plan was based in part on earlier plans prepared by the City and was submitted in late 1906. Work began in 1907 on sewers in the central area of the city. A fully separate system of storm and sanitary sewers was adopted. In keeping with the practice of the day, sanitary sewers simply discharged raw sewage directly to the South Saskatchewan River. Chipman made no provision for sewage treatment nor for a centralized discharge point.

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Wastewater Collection But the unprecedented growth experienced between 1910 and 1912, coupled with extravagant population forecasts and new Provincial requirements for wastewater treatment, led to a grander sewerage scheme. A report prepared in 1910 by the just-formed City Engineer’s office outlined the details for an Interceptor Sewer and Sewage Treatment Plant. The Interceptor would collect flow from Chipman’s local sewers and carry it to a central treatment facility. The treatment plant would treat the sewage to meet Provincial guidelines prior to discharge to the South Saskatchewan River. The system was designed to accommodate an ultimate population of 150,000 people based on a daily sewage generation rate of 70 gallons per capita. The Interceptor was laid out along the west and north bank of the river, commencing at the planned treatment works (0.5 mile north of 33rd Street) and terminating at Avenue H at 11th Street. Initially it was planned to stop the Interceptor short at Avenue D; the extension to Avenue H would occur later. Two river crossings were also planned in 1910; one at Lorne Avenue and one at 14th Street. The estimated cost of the Interceptor was $300,000. A further $92,000 was estimated for the treatment works. Construction commenced on the Interceptor in 1911 and was completed in December 1912. While the Interceptor Sewer was being installed through 1912 the economy began to turn down. Plans were started for the treatment works and construction of the plant was expected to start in 1913 (Department of Main Drainage, 1912). But by 1913 the City government was experiencing serious financial difficulty; by 1914 it was approaching bankruptcy. The value of building permits issued in the City illustrates the severity of the downturn; between 1912 and 1915 values plummeted from $7,640,000 to a mere $20,000 (Kerr and Hanson, 1982). In the same period the City’s payroll was cut in half. Virtually overnight, the City found itself unable to proceed with the treatment works as planned and also found itself saddled with an unusable sewer. For the next three decades the sewer remained unused. In 1942 the Interceptor was extended from Avenue D to Avenue H in order to reduce the risk of contamination of the water treatment plant intake (City Engineer’s Annual Report, 1942). Since the Interceptor still had not been commissioned, a tempowww.esemag.com

rary outfall directly to the river was constructed at Avenue A. The Interceptor was then put into service from Avenue H to Avenue A. A year later (1943) the balance of the Interceptor, which remained unused, was pumped out, cleaned and joints repaired. In response to an injunction by the Rural Municipality of Cory (RMC) to restrain the dumping of raw sewage into the river, the City entered into negotiations with the Provincial Department of Health to select a method and timing for full sewage treatment.

The complaints from RMC appear to have been more related to objectionable floating material in the river, and on the shore at low flow, than with low dissolved oxygen or high bacteria counts in the river. As a result, in 1944 the Province agreed to the installation of partial treatment, in the form of comminution, in order to break up solids to mitigate the immediate problem. Plans for a lift station/comminution facility were prepared in 1945 and construction started the next year. The station was continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Collection completed and put into service, together with the 35-year old Interceptor, in 1948. A considerable percentage of flow, especially during periods of peak flow, was by-passed without treatment due to lack of capacity (a problem that wasn’t rectified until the station was expanded in 1970). On July 17, 1951, petroleum dumped in the sewer system caused an explosion in the lift station which destroyed the superstructure and several mechanical systems. Although some damage occurred in the substructure, it was repaired and

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retained when the lift station was re-constructed. As the City’s population grew, plans were developed to provide more substantive sewage treatment. Various treatment methods, sites and collection system expansion options were considered by the City through the 1960s. A final scheme was selected in 1970 which involved the northerly extension of the Interceptor and the construction of a conventional activated sludge treatment plant. Design and construction The Interceptor comprised rein-

forced, pre-cast concrete pipe. The pipe was fabricated on site using aggregate crushed from boulders found locally. Pipe walls were reinforced using “triangular wire mesh”. An ashpaltic coating was applied to the exterior of all pipes prior to installation. The Engineer’s report indicates that this was done as protection against “alkali which appeared at several points along the sewer.” The specifications indicate that the pipe was to be laid with the spigot end pointing toward the outfall (City Engineer’s Report, 1912). Joints were formed using a bell and spigot arrangement. The spigot was nominally 1 7/8" shorter than the bell; the reinforcing mesh was allowed to protrude out of the pipe walls into the resulting gap at the joint. The mesh was meant to be wired together within the gap, before mortar was placed, to “lock” the joint (Agreement, 1912). Mortar was trowelled into the joints in the lower half of the pipe (up to the springline level). According to the project specifications a steel band was to be placed around the entire interior perimeter of the joint to act as a form to hold grout in the upper “arch” portion. The mortar was to be placed through an opening in the crown of the pipe. The 1912 Engineer’s report indicates that the contractor had considerable difficulty in making good joints, however. The wire mesh in the joints wasn’t always tied together, mortar was often placed on the upper portion by trowel (rather than using the steel bands) and it was difficult to thoroughly clean mud and debris out of the lower portion of the joint (due to the wire mesh). During cold weather, the contractor installed temporary bulkheads and stoves in the sewer in order to allow the joints to set-up more quickly. Installation The sewer was installed completely in open trench with little need for trench bracing or sheeting. Sheeting was left in place at the downstream end of the pipe to form a bulkhead (City Engineer’s Report, 1912). The pipe was bedded using native backfill material which was placed in thin, well compacted layers to a level at least 12" above the crown of the pipe. Above that, backfill material was allowed to be thrown into the trench with less control. The Engineer’s Report notes that during the initial stage of construction of the Interceptor, the invert was laid with a slight longitudinal unevenness. This was apparently due to the contractor not

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Wastewater Collection shimming the pipe to compensate for the tolerance in the bell and spigot. The contractor corrected this problem by temporarily inserting a plank under each pipe during installation. Three pieces of pipe were damaged by boulders dropped on them while backfilling the trench. The contractor repaired these pipes by casting a concrete cradle between the pipe and native trench walls and by placing a 6" thick concrete cap over the fractured pipe. The Engineer’s Report does not indicate the precise location of these pipes. 1970 segment design and construction The 1970 Interceptor comprises 1800 and 2100 mm diameter reinforced, precast concrete pipe installed in open cut with the exception of one tunnelled section. The 447 m long tunnelled section comprises a 1800 mm diameter, un-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete liner. The precast pipes correspond to conventional CSA standards (Class III, IV and V pipe in accordance with then current Standards). Conventional bell and spigot joints with asphaltic sealant were applied throughout. Previous investigations Two earlier reports commented on

the condition of the Interceptor. The following information was taken into consideration: 1. 1944 City Engineer’s Report - Repairs were carried out on the Interceptor in 1943 and 1944. The City Engineer reports that once the Interceptor was pumped out and “cleared of large deposits of mud which had accumulated in

extension of the Interceptor to the new treatment plant) it was found that the Interceptor usually operated in a surcharge condition due, in part, to the then inadequate capacity of the pumping station. This resulted in regular overflow of daily peak flows to the river and significant sustained overflows during wet weather. A profile of the Interceptor showing hy-

Age is a key characteristic when considering the condition of a sewer and is especially important when forecasting future rehabilitation needs and long-term operating requirements. it over many years it was found that its condition was much better than anticipated. All joints and other bad places in the pipe have been repaired.......” (City Engineer’s Report, 1944). Unfortunately the City Engineer did not document what condition was originally anticipated. 2. 1968 Pollution Control Study - The operation of the Interceptor upstream of the Spadina Lift Station was investigated during preparation of the 1968 Report on Pollution Control. At that time (that is, prior to expansion of the station and

draulic gradients corresponding to minimum and peak daily flows was prepared which also noted sites of observed sediment deposits. It was found that solids were depositing in the Interceptor due to continuous high water levels in the sewer and regular surcharging. It was recommended that the sewer be cleaned when the station’s capacity was increased and the new Interceptor extension built. Inspection findings and conclusions The investigations addressed 9,800 m continued overleaf...

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Hydraulic diaphragm dosing The DMH 250 series of pumps is available in PVC, PVDF, polypropylene, stainless steel and Hastelloy C wetted components. Capacity range from (1 to 300 gallons per hour), pressure range up to 3000 PSI. All models are fitted with a PTFE diaphragm with the AMS diaphragm protection system and internal relief valve for pump protection.

Portable peristaltic sampler Model PST samplers use a unique 3/8-inch internal diameter (ID) peristaltic pump that significantly increases tubing life without sacrificing pump performance. It is the only peristaltic sampler on the market that is less than 18 inches in diameter and has space for 24 one-liter bottles and ice in an insulated bottle case. The use of Cool MannTM (U.S. Patent Pending) can further extend the life of the ice 8+ hours.

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Wastewater Collection of pipeline and 52 chambers; 6,357 m was inspected using combined CCTV and Sonar equipment and 2,385 m using Sonar alone. All inspection data was compiled and reviewed using standard WRC practices. In addition 24 concrete cores were extracted at selected locations from the interior of the sewer. Inspection and evaluation revealed that the Interceptor is generally in fair condition, but that there are sections in poor or bad condition that require near-term attention. Those sections found to be in fair condition were rated that way primarily due to light to moderate corrosion effects or heavy sediment deposits. Upstream of the Lift Station (1912 segments) four sections were rated in poor condition due to structural deficiencies and a portion of one section in bad condition due to constraints created by a storm sewer crossing. Downstream of the lift station (1970 segment) two sections were rated in poor condition due to moderate to heavy hydrogen sulphide related corrosion.

Historical investigations enabled the engineering team to establish and confirm critical aspects of the age and life-expectancy of the sewer. The sewer was generally found to be operating well and was typically 50% full except upstream of Avenue D and between Queen Street and the lift station. Upstream of Avenue D the sewer was found to contain heavy sediment deposits, have sluggish flow and was flowing near full. Between Queen Street and the lift station significant sediment deposits were observed and the depth of flow was found to progressively increase due to a surcharge condition at the lift station. Evaluation of the extracted cores indicate that the concrete and reinforcing steel are generally in good condition with little surface damage, except in areas of corrosion. In these areas up to 25 mm of concrete deterioration, or loss, was observed. Reinforcing steel has also been corroded and de-bonded in areas of deepest penetration. Preliminary structural evaluation shows that, notwithstanding the corrosion damage, the sewer retains structural capacity sufficient to resist current loading with adequate factors of safety. However, structural robustness is substantially reduced in the one area where there is exposed reinforcing steel and hence rehabilitation in this area is warranted in the very near term. Historical investigations enabled the engineering team to establish and confirm critical aspects of the age and life-expectancy of the sewer. This enabled the team to confidently forecast on-going maintenance needs. It also enabled the team to better evaluate performance and key characteristics of the sewer, such as joint condition, structural distress, deviations in longitudinal slope and corrosion impacts. Recommendations were made regarding maintenance issues and rehabilitation needs. Mark Andrews, P.Eng., is with AndrewsInfrastructure, Ottawa. Email: mark@andrewsinfrastructure.com Dale Clancy, P.Eng., is with Infrastructure Services Dept., Saskatoon. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Drinking Water

The U.S. Army deploys a new generation of water purification technology he United States Army is utilizing state-of-the-art membrane water purification technology to support highly mobile military operations and humanitarian missions. Mechanical Equipment Company Inc. (MECO), of Sugar Land, Texas, has designed a Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP) that can be easily transported to remote locations to produce safe drinking water from almost any available raw water, including highly-turbid surface water, brackish water and seawater. Additionally, the LWP is also capable of purifying water contaminated with nuclear, biological and chemical warfare agents. The new LWP is light enough to be carried by four soldiers and simple enough for two operators to assemble and begin producing water in just 45 minutes from a water source such as a river, lake, pond, or ocean. The entire system can be transported in the cargo space of a Humvee and by a single haul of a medium-lift utility or assault helicopter such as the UH-60 Black Hawk. In the past, desalination systems had been designed for conventional seawater

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salt concentrations of 35,000 ppm, however in the Middle East, the salinity is much higher. It is 45,000 ppm in the Arabian Gulf, and in "waterholes" in the desert it can reach 60,000 ppm. MECO specifically tests each LWP to verify that it meets this 60,000 ppm requirement, enabling the systems to treat any water, anywhere in the world. The compact LWP unit will produce 125 gallons per hour (gph) from fresh or brackish water and 75 gph from seawater, sufficient production levels to support company/battalion-sized units in the field. The exact number of people that the LWP unit can sustain in the field is proportional to the water consumption scenario. For example, if the unit is used solely for drinking water, it will be able to support many more soldiers than if it is used for general purposes such as cooking, cleaning, showers, or laundry. Evolution of portable water treatment Water filtration technology has evolved significantly since MECO began designing and manufacturing transportable water treatment systems for the U.S. military more than sixty

years ago. In fact, the original thermal desalination systems used by the Marine Corps in the invasion of Iwo Jima employed MECO’s patented vapor compression technology. The new LWP combines two types of membrane filtration: ultrafiltration (UF) membranes pretreat the water prior to processing by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. This design replaces the Army’s previous generation of portable water processing equipment, which pretreated the RO feed water with multimedia filters (MMF) and disposable cartridge filters. UF Pretreatment of RO feed water The UF membrane process in the new LWPs eliminates the need to replace and resupply disposable filters. Each system employs three Romicon® Romipure® ultrafiltration cartridges from Koch Membrane Systems, Inc. (KMS), of Wilmington, Massachusetts. The 5-inch diameter cartridges contain hollow fiber membranes with an internal diameter of 35-mil. The membranes and the cartridge housing are both composed of polysulfone, a continued overleaf... Prior to field deployment, MECO and KMS built seven prototype systems that were subjected to rigorous and exhaustive testing by the U.S. Army, including 5,000 hours of operating time and 1,600 miles of cross-country transportation testing in the back of a Humvee.

22 | September 2007

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Drinking Water high strength polymer thermoplastic noted for its excellent chemical stability under a wide range of temperatures. The Romipure UF membranes have a 100,000 Dalton nominal molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) that consistently produces filtrate water with turbidity of less than 0.1 NTU. The UF membranes remove turbidity, suspended solids, bacteria and other microorganisms from the feed water that can foul the downstream RO membranes. The higher quality filtrate water prolongs RO membrane life and dramatically extends the time between RO cleanings, regardless of the feed water conditions. The UF pretreatment not only serves to limit fouling of the RO membranes, but the Romipure cartridges also have important features that limit and counteract their own fouling. The hollow fiber cartridges operate from the inside to the outside during filtration (see Figure 1). The feed water (retentate) flows through the center of the hollow fiber, and the filtered water (permeate) passes through the fiber wall to the outside of the membrane fiber. The tangential flow of the retentate sweeps across the membrane surface and continually acts to limit membrane fouling. In addition, the structural integrity and construction of these hollow fiber cartridges enable them to withstand permeate back flushing and the reversing of retentate flow. These cleaning processes are highly effective in restoring flux rates. The Romipure hollow fiber geometry allows for a large amount of membrane surface area in a compact module. This high packing density means large volumes of water can be filtered while utilizing minimal space and power, both of which are critical advantages for the LWP application. A high-pressure pump driven by a diesel engine draws water from a 40-gallon filtrate tank on the UF module and feeds the RO module under pressures of up to 1,200 psi. The purpose of this filtrate tank is to provide backwash and fast flush capabilities for the UF membrane, while allowing continued operation of the high-pressure pump. RO produces pure water The RO module consists of seven Fluid Sysems® TFC®spiral RO elements manufactured by KMS. The membrane elements feature a proprietary thin film composite polyamide designed to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The pressure vessels are constructed of titanium. 24 | September 2007

Figure 1.

Permeate Flow

Hollow Fiber Membranes

Process Feed Flow

General Atomics (GA) developed and patented the spiral wound reverse osmosis element in 1968. GA sold its Fluid Systems division in 1974 and it ultimately became part of KMS. The KMS RO membranes remove dissolved and suspended materials including organics and salts. Only molecules in the range of 5 Angstroms (0.0005 micron) or 100 MWCO (molecular weight cut-off) will pass through the membrane. Approximately 30 percent of the RO feed water is recovered for use as drinking water, and the rest of the concentrate (or brine) is discharged as reject. The permeate from the RO module is passed through a chemical module, where it is metered and given a chlorine injection for residual disinfection. Reliable filtration without chemical cleaning The U.S. Army awarded MECO a multi-year contract for 380 of the LWP units, and about half of the units have already been delivered and are in use in Iraq and Afghanistan. Because there are a limited number of LWPs currently in use, the systems are being used to support the U.S. Army field troops and not the Iraqi citizens. The 82nd Airborne Division is operating a number of LWPs in Iraq, specifically providing water for their mobile kitchens. The LWP provides a much more practical and safer water solution compared to the older methods of using bottled water. Prior to field deployment, MECO and KMS built seven prototype systems that were subjected to rigorous and exhaustive testing by the U.S. Army, including 5,000 hours of operating time and 1,600 miles of cross-country transportation testing in the back of a Humvee. The de-

sign and testing process led to important system refinements and improvements. For example, MECO worked with KMS to address the challenge of designing a system that can sustain several freezethaw cycles, conditions that go well beyond the environmental requirements of most water purification systems. “The KMS membranes have been remarkably resistant to fouling,” said John Klie, Government Business Development Manager for MECO. “We worked closely with KMS engineers to develop and optimize an automated backflushing method that has practically eliminated the need for chemical cleaning operations.” On top of simplifying the process, fewer chemicals make for better tasting water. The water produced by the LWP is very palatable. The challenge with older conventional systems has been over-chlorination, which ultimately gives water a ‘swimming pool’ taste. The LWP’s automated chlorine dosing system prevents this from occurring, and hence produces a drinking water taste that is very similar to commercially available bottled water. An economical solution The LWP has proven to be a highly economical solution in Iraq, where the cost of supplying bottled water to the troops can be as high as $5 per gallon. The LWP can produce water at seven cents per gallon, which is primarily the cost of diesel fuel to operate the system and chemicals for minimal, periodic cleaning. For more information, visit www.meco.com

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Infrastructure

Precast concrete boxes installed in upright position for trunk storm sewer By John Pozzobon, C.E.T. he versatility of precast concrete boxes and pipe for a wide range of uses is attracting the interest of designers and contractors faced with unusual project requirements. Precast concrete boxes have been used for sewers, stormwater detention structures, pedestrian and wild animal passages, culverts, groynes, piers, river current deflectors, shoreline stabilization, pumping stations, vaults, and galleries to house buried utilities and services. The need for a new trunk sewer to receive stormwater from separated combined sewers in Niagara Falls, Ontario adds to this list of applications. The Park Street box storm sewer is a 425 metre-long installation comprised of 174 units, including maintenance hole Ts and bends. Each box unit measured 3000 mm (vertical) x 1500 mm (horizontal). By providing an outlet for separated combined sewers, the trunk sewer relieves occasional basement flooding in the area and contributes to the improvement of the City’s wastewater treatment capability. When completed, the storm sewer will

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photo credit William Conway of Progress Photography. Pipe installation on Park Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario.

discharge to the Niagara River through a specially designed vertical drop structure. Located in a residential neighbourhood, Park Street runs parallel to Queen Street, which is a commercial corridor that accommodates many businesses. Park Street is used by the City for sewers and utilities that service Queen Street to reduce disruption to business and traffic on Queen. Subsequently, there is far more buried infrastructure on Park Street than there is on Queen. The challenge to the consulting engineering company, Delcan, was to design a trunk sewer for the volume of stormwater generated by the separated storm sewers in a very small construction footprint. The installation abutted private properties that could have been damaged by the trench operations. The skill of the contractor’s crew was called upon for installing the sewer in a narrow alignment between private property and existing buried infrastructure. In some sections of the installation, the crew of Provincial Construction had to install the boxes between hydro ducts on the north side of the trench and Bell plants on the south. The vertically oriented box storm sewer was buried, with approximately 6.5 metres from the top of the box to street grade. For the first 120 metres of the installation, the 26 | September 2007

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Infrastructure boxes were installed in hard shale, and the rock had to be hoe-rammed to prepare the trench. The boxes were designed to take unusual loads on the narrow top and bottom of the boxes in the installed condition, and any rock creep on the sides. The contractor glued Styrofoam to the sides of the boxes to resist lateral pressures in the sections of the contract where the boxes were installed in the rock. Munro Concrete Products of Barrie, Ontario, the supplier of the precast boxes, designed the reinforcement required to accommodate the forces from the deep bury and potential rock creep. The orientation of the boxes and depth of bury easily provided space for maintenance holes to be attached to selected boxes within the backfill zone. The design engineer specified gasketed joints for the boxes to significantly reduce the chance of infiltration of fines from water seeping into the bedding and backfill, and leaks from the sewer itself. By gluing self-lubricating preformed gaskets onto the spigot of the boxes, the joint performance of the structure was enhanced significantly to avoid settlement of the bedding and backfill. Munro’s engineer designed the box units to the requirements of the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) and not Ontario Provincial Standard Specification OPSS 1821 (Construction Specification for Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts and Box Sewers in Open Cut) because there is no table in the specification for the vertical orientation used for the sewer structure. The CHBDC provided additional design checks and the engineer was able to design for reinforcing while considering zero stiffness for the Styrofoam that could accommodate forces from the rock walls of the trench. The engineer also used the design software produced by the American Concrete Pipe Association called Boxcar to model the installation while the CHBDC stipulated the design checks required to proportion the welded wire reinforcement. The boxes were designed with additional lift anchors so that units could be rotated into an upright position for loading onto a drop-deck flat bed truck. Each load carried two boxes. When the units reached the job site, they were unloaded in the upright position in consideration of the available space for storing products on site, and to facilitate lowering of each unit into the trench. Handling of the units was minimized from the production plant to the trench. With this design, the contractor was able to use a Cat 245 excavator modified with a crane boom to www.esemag.com

place the box units. Use of the precast concrete boxes installed in the upright position enabled an installation in a road allowance that was already crowded with underground utilities and services. There was very little space to install the badly needed trunk storm sewer. The cost to relocate existing infrastructure would have been great, and disruption to the daily routines of the neighbourhood may have been lengthy. Although the capital cost of the sewer was higher than using alternative materials, there were savings in the contract like

the cost of maintenance holes. The maintenance holes attached directly to the top of precast box units and no separate structures were required. The Park Street storm sewer is an example of a project that matches the service life of the precast boxes to the design life of the project to maximize the investment of the municipality in its buried infrastructure. John Pozzobon, is with Munro Concrete Products Ltd. E-mail: pozzobon@munroconcrete.com

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Grease Disposal

Fats, oils, and grease: options for plant-level treatment of a national problem By Ed Miles and Bill Scherffius ogic demands that one must frame a problem before a solution can be defined. The problem and subject here is “Grease,” and we are not referring to the hit movie or Broadway play. We are, rather, referring to fats, oils, and grease (FOG) from restaurants, a waste product that increasingly enters the collection systems and sewer lines in North America. In the past few years there have been a number of high-profile articles on the damage and expense of kitchen-derived grease congealing in our sewers and contributing to thousands of sanitary sewer overflows (or SSOs) in our cities and towns. These overflows result in a damaging runoff into our rivers and streams, compromise recreational and drinkingwater supplies, and impact our groundwater. Once, Barry Newman, arguably the premier feature writer for the Wall Street Journal, crafted an article that became a focus piece for an entire industry sector that is working to provide efficient products and services for the collection, removal, and treatment of grease waste. His thesis was, essentially, that we are at war with grease. The issue is that an especially environmentally challenging waste grease from kitchens around the country enters sewage collection systems and, like cholesterol in arteries, accumulates inwardly and ultimately completely closes them. In combined sewer systems, heavy rains add to the total sewer load, and the thenclogged systems react to this “capacitycrisis”: the sewers’ marginal, remaining capacities are exceeded, the contents have to go somewhere, and that’s when the problem emerges, often literally. In the US as much as 40% of sanitary and combined sewer overflow to the surface environment has been attributed to clogged pipes due to excessive grease buildup. Impacts of regulating FOG generators In the past few years there has been tremendous growth in the number of restaurants in the United States (over 935,000 with $537 billion in sales 2007) - a consequence of the trend for Americans to eat out of the home more fre-

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quently every year. The growing numbers of food service establishments produce increasing amounts of a specific grease product - Brown Grease (an exceptionally sticky and difficult to manage waste) from restaurant grease interceptors or grease traps (collection devices in a commercial kitchen’s plumbing system). The volume of this material and its impacts has triggered increasing regulation with respect to restaurants and other FOG generators - and to FOG haulers the latter being the service-sector operators that collect this type of waste and dispose of it. On the haulers’ side, regulations now often require them to remove the entire contents of the grease interceptor (perhaps 1000 US gallons per trap) instead of the historical practice of removing only waste grease and food solids, but leaving the “gray water” in the interceptor (that is, taking away perhaps only 200 gallons per trap in the “old days”). The impact of this is four to five times the volume of material, much of it greasy water, that needs a disposal option. This so-called “full-pump” requirement is a key to the increasing profile of the Brown Grease problem in America. Indeed, most city and town pretreatment coordinators (grease interceptor regula-

tory officers) have agreed that this new policy, focused solely on Brown Grease management through strict regulation of the generators and haulers, has negatively affected the economics of the hauling industry and has increased the frequency of premeditated environmental violations. The cause and effect explanation for these two related consequences is convoluted, but essentially logical. In many cases the interceptors hold 750 to 1,000 gallons, and up to 85% (and sometimes more) of the tank contents are water, and it all needs a home after it is pumped. However, many local treatment plants have found that they cannot handle grease at all or cannot accept the new amounts being offered for disposal. Consequently, they are forcing haulers to drive further to discharge their loads to other, more distant facilities for treatment. This has had a huge economic impact on the hauler with the cost of fuel, insurance, and labor continuing to climb and the ability to generate revenues limited by fewer “pumps” on a service route (“full pumps” means more volume per pump and so fewer pumps can go on each truck before offload - read disposal - is needed). Resistance of generators (restaurants,

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Grease Disposal and so on) to accept the pass-through of higher hauler costs has caused some haulers to look for alternative ways to discharge, and in some cases the alternative is decidedly illegal. Discharge of waste into storm drains, fields, sewers and estuaries has become an issue for the EPA and for all haulers who are looking to do what is right and yet remain solvent. In conversations with haulers across the United States, a frequent thread is that haulers are losing money. Why? Unit disposal costs continue to rise - and this on the back of a substantially higher cost of transportation to the final disposal facility or plant. Why the push for regulation? To paraphrase from the Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs (August 2004), a combined sewer overflow (CSO) is “the discharge from a CSS or Combined Sewer System - a system transporting stormwater and sewage, together) occurring at a point prior to its expected entry into a WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant).” The estimated volume of CSO discharge nationwide is 850 US billion gallons per year. The EPA’s CWNS (Clean Watersheds Needs Survey) 2000 Report to Congress reported 15,582 municipal sanitary sewer

systems (SSSs) with wastewater treatment facilities; an additional 4,846 satellite SSSs collect and transport wastewater flows to regional wastewater treatment facilities. The EPA estimated that between 23,000 and 75,000 SSO events occur per year in the United States, discharging a total volume of three to ten billion gallons per year from sanitary sewer overflows and combined sewer overflows. Discharges contain microbial pathogens, oxygen depleting substances, suspended solids, toxins, nutrients, floatables and trash. Pathogens and toxins can be present at levels that pose risks to human health. FOG and the treatment plant Not surprisingly, given the public visibility, cities and towns across the United States are moving to reduce the number of combined sewer overflows and sanitary sewer overflows by setting up new rules for Food Service Establishments (FSEs). For example, according to Tony Russo of the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners (which is a major, regional sewerage agency in northern New Jersey) the Passaic Valley Treatment Facility in Newark accepted hauled grease

collected from traps and interceptors in such volume that the material became a huge nuisance for their treatment facility, costing over $38,000 per month per screen on maintenance alone, and there are many, many screens. At one point, according to Russo, “we advertised for grease and collected it from all over the northeast.” That amounted to over one million US gallons a month. So when the agency abruptly stopped taking it for cost reasons, nobody knew where all that diverted grease was going. New York City alone has over 24,000 restaurants and Passaic Valley was the disposal point for much of the New York restaurant grease. The mystery of actual disposal remains, but intuitively the answer does not inspire confidence in a good outcome. There are, however, instructive conclusions from this analysis. 1. Lessons to be learned at the plant: • Interceptor grease is not the same as septage. The cost per gallon to treat it is a significant multiple of the per gallon charge to treat sewage. • The personnel time devoted to WWTP grease issues is disproportionate to the volume of material handled. • Simply blending in the interceptor continued overleaf...

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Grease Disposal grease and assuming it will not be seen in the larger picture of plant management is not true. 2. There are serious consequences of policy focused on intensely managing the actions of the generators and haulers on the front end of the regulatory equation with no disposal options on the backend of the equation: • Given no place for disposal, grease will go fugitive, and be disposed of in streams, fields, woodlands and wilderness. • What doesn’t go fugitive may enter the WWTP through the back door, by illegal dumping into obscure sewer manholes or lift stations. Pretreatment coordinators are implementing new procedures for the collection of grease prior to it entering the collection system. Some of the steps they have taken, and continue to enforce, are proper sizing based on the number of meals served, frequency of servicing, and setting the frequency of grease trap and grease interceptor inspections. The regulations adopted give the cities and towns enforcement options, including the imposition of fines and other penalties for those out of compliance at the generator level. Figure 1. Final Process

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continued overleaf...

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Grease Disposal But, after all of that, we have created another monster. What do we do with all that grease? Since grease is the cause of blockages and sanitary sewer overflows, cities and towns are giving top priority to establishing effective FOG programs. There are many elements in their design and implementation. Some of these are: 1. Program Design (making it understandable) • Legal foundation for the program • Classification of generators • Setting parameters for pumping • Setting parameters for inspections • Education for the generator and service operators • Associated resources and funding 2. Implementation (making it work) • Permitting • Inspection and monitoring • Enforcement • Administration/data management • Program performance metrics • Effective disposal options 3. Effective disposal options are critical. Without a treatment option that can keep the Brown Grease out of the WWTPs, where it contributes nothing to the process (except increased mainte-

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Outside Tanks.

nance and reduced capacity from the original design parameters), the problem will continue on, get larger, increase the public’s exposure to the unhealthy contents of the sanitary sewers, contribute to illegal dumping of Brown Grease, and expose the utilities to increased negative media coverage. Cost-effective solution for turning waste to profit EcoPlus has a solution for disposal and processing issues facing the community and the haulers. The technology has been used in commercial application since 2002 at a fully permitted plant in Charlotte, North Carolina. The plant processes Brown Grease from over 1,300 grease producers in the Southeast, providing over 3,500 service calls per year. The EcoPlus Final Treatment Facility can be set up at the WWTP or in a remote location, will handle the grease with virtually no impact on a WWTP, and can discharge the supernatant water from its process back into the city sewer, meeting virtually any discharge quality requirement. In larger cities where hauling to an acceptable location can, in many cases, be over 60 miles, an EcoPlus Preprocessing Center collects the FOG and food solids

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Grease Disposal

Dewatering boxes.

and discharges a relatively high-quality water back into the sewer system. The grease concentrate is then shipped for processing at an EcoPlus Final Treatment Facility. The Final Processing System shown in Figure 1 is a robust, modular, scalable technology that converts Brown Grease into (1) a low strength aqueous solution and (2) a dry, granular, value-added product containing all of the waste food solids, as well as the fats, oils, and grease.

www.esemag.com

The solids can be used as a soil conditioner, as an amending agent for composting, or fed to an incinerator as a low to moderate BTU fuel (equivalent to subbituminous or bituminous coal), or simply taken to a landfill. The process is fully developed and tested and continues with a history of successfully meeting all discharge and disposal compliance requirements. The system is simple, robust, safe, low maintenance and high capacity. The EcoPlus Process produces two

waste streams. One is a low strength aqueous solution that is easily disposed of to a sanitary sewer tap. The second is a granular material that can be disposed of in a landfill, used as a soil conditioner (EcoSoil), used as a compost amending agent beneficial to fungi, thus facilitating cellulose breakdown, used as a moderate BTU fuel to facilitate incineration of sewage sludge (EcoFuel), and most intriguingly, burned as an alternative, green fuel for power generation (and as such, it has been tested for this purpose in a large scale burn at a regional power plant with excellent results). The solids meet 40 CFR 503.33 standards for vector attraction reduction. Conclusion As noted at the beginning, “...you must frame a problem before a solution can be defined.� We have not framed the entirety of the problem of Brown Grease, but have outlined some current environmental issues and associated regulatory constructs and their consequences. We have demonstrated that, in this situation, public policy and private technology are linked. Ed Miles and Bill Scherffius are with EcoPlus Inc. E-mail: emiles@ecoplusinc.com

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Ten years of science on the RMS Titanic By D. Roy Cullimore and Lori Johnston

MS Titanic was the pride of the White Star line in 1912 when she set sail on her maiden voyage across the North Atlantic, the biggest steel clad liner ever built, capable of speeding across the Atlantic in record times. She was a symbol of the British Empire, not only the biggest, and fastest, she was, for some, unsinkable. Too big, too fast and with deadlines to meet, the RMS Titanic sailed into an iceberg flow but did not slow down or even display caution. She bounced along an iceberg after the first hit, creating a series of small but disastrous holes in the hull deep under the water line. She sank in two hours taking more than 1,500 passengers and crew with her. There were not enough life boats because of the belief that she would not actually sink. In those cold spring waters on April 14, 1912, in the middle of the Atlantic, a tragic legend was born. In 1985, the wreck was discovered by Bob Ballard. It had broken into two large sections, the bow and the stern, with a debris field that would later provide the clues as to why and how the ship sank. Forensic science now began to determine the nature of the catastrophe. Video analysis of the ship’s hull contained evidence on the final fate of the ship’s steel as the ship lay broken on the ocean floor. In 1996 Droycon Bioconcepts went along with an expedition to the site and was asked to place on the ship the BART™ (biological activity reactor test) the company had developed for monitoring water well plugging. From 1971 it had gradually become clear that water

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wells plug up primarily from the activities of iron related bacteria (IRB) along with other “friendly” microbial communities. Sometimes these communities look like slimes, sometimes with nodules and tubercles, as iron-rich bio-concretions and, just occasionally, they looked like the rusticles now hanging down all around the RMS Titanic. The company had developed tests for IRB and also methods for regenerating (rehabilitating) water wells plugged with their growths. The question at that time was: “Is life possible under those extreme conditions and could bacteria grow there?” Four experiments were placed on the ship for three and twelve days to try to respond to that question. The answer was a resounding yes – life can exist under those conditions. In 1998 the company went back to the site but now was going to put down longterm experiments using various grades of steel. Four experimental platforms were distributed throughout the ship with three on the bow and one on the stern. Two of the platforms were recovered for scientific analysis in 2003 and the third was recovered in 2004. These experiments determined that the steel was being consumed at a rate of 0.03g Fe/cm2/yr. All three sites and all of the types of steel (twisted, burnt, tempered and pressed) showed copious bio-concretions (rusticles) growing over the steel coupons. In 1999 the company managed to grow rusticles in an aquarium and the five following years an aquarium with growing rusticles was a part of the Titanic Science exhibition that toured cities in the United States and attracted 2.5 million visitors.

Rusticles were X-rayed and found to contain complex structures with at least five communities of microorganisms living at different locations within the rusticles recovered from the RMS Titanic. Dissection revealed that the rusticles were highly porous structures centered on water channels and lakes. X-rays revealed that even though the iron was high in concentration (commonly >55% of the dry weight) this iron was actually more concentrated into a ribbon-like process that permeated the rusticles – almost like a primitive nervous system! It was further observed that these rusticles carried a charge that was commonly in the 150 to 150 millivolt range with some spots showing no charge at all. This finding raised the possibility that the iron from the steel was being harvested and bio-accumulated in the rusticles by some form of electrolytic process. Could this mean that the rusticles on the ship are actually generating electricity as a part of their biological function? Five microbial communities were commonly isolated from the rusticles and these include iron related (IRB-), sulfate reducing (SRB-), slime forming (SLYM), heterotrophic (HAB-), and the denitrifying bacteria (DN-). All of these communities were recognized using the BART tester system. Additionally there were fungi (mycelial threads were common in the outer “skins” of the rusticles) and also micro-algae including desmids and diatoms. It would appear therefore that the rusticles are a virtual “zoo” including many different microbial communities whose

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Research During the 2004 Titanic Expedition, an ROV manipulator grasps the float of the Mark I test platform to bring it to the surface for scientific analysis.

final objective was to recycle the ship’s steel and rivets back into Nature’s iron cycle. In this respect it is interesting that spent dead rusticle hulks which litter the ocean floor around the wreck can be chemically classified into grades of pig iron. It could be speculated that the RMS Titanic was created as pig iron then so to pig iron it shall return, with a little bit of help from various communities of microorganisms. Today there are one Mark I, two Mark II and two Mark III steel test platforms at the site. The Mark I has been down there now for eleven years and the steel will probably all have disappeared in another twenty years or so. The Mark III platforms are the most versatile allowing both short- and long-term experiments to be set up in the common body of the apparatus. Other ships also have been assessed including DKM Bismarck, DKM U-166, HMHS Britannic and a number of sunken World War II wrecks in the Gulf of Mexico. RMS Titanic has put us on to a pathway of discovery of the nature of microbial communities that has significant future challenges, from the development of a simpler test for microbiologically influenced corrosion (M.I.C.) using the BART testers, to the determination that microorganisms can exploit electro-magnetic forces naturally present in this spin-

ning dynamo that we call “Earth”, and to the potential for concrete to be actually a product of microbial activities and not simply a chemical curing process. As the RMS Titanic was sunk by an iceberg it is perhaps not surprising that we have found bacterial communities capable of literally growing ice but at 4 to 7oC in the laboratory. This does not fit in with the classical beliefs that ice melts at

0oC but it does fit in with the idea that we still have lots to learn about the biggest biomass on planet Earth, the microorganisms. Roy Cullimore and Lori Johnston are with Droycon Bioconcepts Inc, Regina, Saskatchewan. Further information: www.dbi.ca

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Wastewater Treatment

Too small, too big, just right grit chambers: The Goldilocks of wastewater treatment By Robert Y.G. Andoh he removal of grit at the headworks of a treatment plant is an important process in wastewater treatment. This process extends the life of mechanical equipment at the plant and prevents grit from accumulating in downstream basins. Grit accumulation in primary and secondary process basins reduces the plant’s treatment capacity, diminishes performance and increases operational maintenance costs. Some researchers have suggested that about 90 percent of a treatment plant’s annual grit volume is transported during peak wet weather flows. This is because at low flows and low velocities, coarse grit is deposited in the drainage network and is not transported to the plant. Finer grit, which can be mobilized even at low velocities, is what is transported through the network to the treatment plant. However, when the flows are large, increased velocity within the drainage network mobilizes the coarse grit and transports it to the treatment plant. The precise characteristics of grit vary depending on the type of collection system, the physical condition and grade of the sewer network, and external factors like the land use type and the geographic location. For example, regional geologic composition has made the panhandle of Florida a known area for finer “sugar sand” grit, while winter road sanding causes grit gradations in the Northeast to be fairly coarse. Grit removal chambers and technolo-

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Figure 1 Grit particle of SG 2.65 and its composite with attached organics resulting in an SG of 1.3.

gies have evolved over the past several decades from the use of detritus tanks and constant velocity channels to the use of vortex chambers. Vortex systems have become the preferred technology because centrifugal, centripetal and other rotational forces assist gravitational forces in the separation of grit from organics and liquids. Consequently, a smaller footprint can be used to achieve the same treatment goals as a conventional aerated grit chamber or a constant velocity channel. Some vortex chambers rely solely on hydraulics without a need for power or mechanical equipment, further reducing operational and maintenance costs over the life of the system. The key to sizing an optimized grit removal system is to know the gradation of grit for the locality as well as the average daily flow and the peak wet weather flow for the treatment plant. Chambers are sized to remove grit at the peak wet weather flow. Depending on the ratio between the average daily flow and the peak flow, more than one unit may be required. Grit chambers are sized to remove a percentage, typically 90-95 percent, of the total grit entering the plant down to a specified micron size. For conventional systems, Stokes’ Law is used to determine the time it takes a particle of a given size to settle within the chamber and this is used to determine how large the separator will be. This is augmented with laboratory testing and, in some cases, demonstrated through in-field trial studies.

Over the past few years, there has been an industry push to size grit chambers based on a sand equivalent size (SES). The theory behind this basis of sizing is that as grit is transported through the sewer system, oils and organics get attached to the grit, considerably reducing the specific gravity and hence the settling velocity. Based on this sizing, to remove grit with a physical size of 100 microns, the grit chamber should be sized as if it were removing a particle size of say 60 microns, based on the settling velocity, since the attached organics and oils are alleged to drastically reduce the specific gravity and settling velocity of the particle. Admittedly, some field studies have shown that the specific gravity of grit could drop to as low as 1.3 from 2.65 when organics get attached to grit. However, what is usually overlooked is the mass of organic material required to drop the specific gravity from 2.65 or greater to 1.3. Calculations based on Stokes’ Law have shown that this increase in mass compensates for the decrease in specific gravity, resulting in a composite grit that has settling characteristics similar to clean grit with a specific gravity of 2.65. This is illustrated in Figure 1. In this instance, organic material is assumed to have a specific gravity of 1.2 and clean grit a specific gravity of 2.65. To arrive at a composite specific gravity of 1.3, the grit particle would need to be surrounded by organic material with a thickness that is 80 percent that of the grit particle, resulting in a composite material with an overall diameter that is 260 percent greater than the original particle size. Even though it is hard to believe that such a large amount of organic material can attach to a single grit particle, for the purpose of this exercise, it is assumed that this is possible. It is shown in Table 1 that the settling velocities for the composite grit and the inert grit without any organics are very similar. As an example, if a system is sized to remove a grit particle of 100 microns with a specific gravity of 2.65, the settling velocity of the particle will be continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment Table 1 Settling velocities for grit particles showing that increased size for grit with attached organics compensates for lower specific gravity. Grit size* (SG 2.65)

Settling velocity (cm/s)

Composite grit size (SG 1.3)

Settling velocity (cm/s)

70 90 100 150 200

0.36 0.58 0.70 1.41 2.22

182 234 260 390 520

0.40 0.61 0.73 1.38 2.07

*Grit size is in microns. Temperature is 15oC

Figure 2 Particle size gradations for grit across the US.

0.70 cm/s. If organic material attaches to the grit and the specific gravity drops to 1.3, the composite “grit� will have a size of 260 microns and a settling velocity of 0.73 cm/s. These results show that there is very little difference between the settling velocities and, therefore, sizing the separator based on the

not provide optimal removal. Optimal removal should take out the bulk of free draining grit with very little organic material attached to the grit. This should exclude the very fine sediment for the reasons explained below: 1. Particle size: The bulk of material arriving at a treatment plant is larger than

There is adequate data available showing that sizing to remove very fine material does not provide optimal removal. clean grit will meet the treatment goals and not result in grit accumulating in clarifiers and digesters downstream of the grit removal system. Whereas some publications have suggested the need to remove very fine sediment (typically below 100 microns) during the grit removal process, there is adequate data available showing that sizing to remove very fine material does 38 | September 2007

100 microns (>90 percent) and in some cases 150 microns. There is no need to size to remove finer material when very little arrives in the waste stream (see Figure 2). In fact, an individual grain with a particle size of 100 microns or below is not visible to the naked eye. 2. Cost: The size of a grit chamber can increase substantially when it is sized to remove very fine material. The quanti-

ties of fine particles are so small that this extra cost associated in removing it is not justified. For instance, it takes almost double the time for a 75 micron particle to settle compared to a 100 micron particle. In effect, that means doubling the size of the separator to remove an additional 3-5 percent of grit. 3. Organics: When separators are sized to remove very fine grit, a large volume of organics is removed with the grit (because of similar settling velocities). To separate the grit from the organics requires putting in more equipment to separate the grit from the organics. The cost and handling of the separation process can be significant. 4. Pollutants of interest: Research of sediment from wet weather flows has shown that nutrients, hydrocarbons and metals are usually attached to very fine sediment. If fine sediment (<100 microns) is removed during grit removal, it defeats the purpose of downstream processes incorporated into the treatment plant to treat these pollutants. Grit removed in chambers is typically landfilled without any further treatment. If metals and nutrients are trapped within the grit and landfilled, they could leach into groundwater sources. It is best to remove these pollutants through clarification, chemical and biological processes. A good washing and classification system is crucial to ensure that captured grit is free draining with low moisture and organic content. If the performance of the classification system is worse than the performance of the grit chamber, the overall performance of the grit system is compromised, and grit re-suspension will occur, leading to grit accumulation in clarifiers and downstream basins. Conclusion Grit chambers should be sized based on the gradation of grit entering a treatment plant. Sizing based on the physical size and typical grit specific gravity is adequate to remove the intended cut-off grit size, which typically should be 100 microns or above. This is because sub-100 micron material is in the realm of powder rather than grit. Even though organics and oils reduce the specific gravity of grit, there is a concurrent increase in mass and as such, no significant change in settling characteristics of the grit. Robert Andoh is Director of Innovation, with Hydro International. Hydro International is represented in Ontario by ACG Technology. For more information E-mail: greg@acgtechnology.com

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Renowned underwater photographer to speak at WEFTEC.07

amed underwater photographer David Doubilet will address delegates at the Opening General Session of WEFTEC.07, the Water Environment Federation’s 80th annual technical exhibition and conference, being held in San Diego on October 1317, 2007. Mr. Doubilet has introduced a generation of readers to the mysteries and wonders of the deep. Exploring remote atolls, barrier reefs and exotic marine life he has shot over 60 stories for National Geographic and published numerous books. Celebrated worldwide, his photographs are prized as much for their scientific value as their aesthetic beauty and will be featured in his presentation, Water Portraits from our Blue Planet. Dr. Perry L. McCarty, the 2007 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate and Silas H. Palmer Professor of Civil Engineering, Emeritus at Stanford University in Stan-

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ford, California., will deliver the keynote address during the Opening General Session. Professor McCarty has combined a deep knowledge of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological processes to produce technological developments that are used all over the world as the basis for design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. A WEF member since 1957 and WEF Honorary Member since 1989, Professor McCarty is recognized as a pioneer in biological and chemical processes for the safe supply and treatment of water. Specifically, his work has led to more efficient biological treatment processes, including anaerobic treatment systems for municipal and industrial wastewater systems, biological nutrient removal, and the development and use of biofilm reactors. WEFTEC will feature 119 technical sessions, 29 workshops and 8 facility tours. Also recognized as the largest an-

David Doubilet

nual water quality exhibition in the world, the WEFTEC exhibition provides attendees with unparalleled access to the latest water quality developments, research, regulations, solutions and cuttingedge technologies. Ops Challenge During the 20th annual Ops Challenge operators demonstrate precision, speed and safety. Each team is sponsored by a WEF Member Association or recognized Operator Association. Winners are determined by a weighted point system for five events (collection systems, laboratory, process control, maintenance and safety). Each is designed to test the diverse skills required for the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities, their collection systems and laboratories. Facility tours • City of San Diego Metropolitan Wastewater Department Environmental Monitoring and Technical Services Division Laboratory • City of San Diego Metropolitan Biosolids Center • City of San Diego Canyon-related Maintenance Activities and Construction Project • City of San Diego South Bay Water Reclamation Plant • Industrial Tour: Goodrich Aerostructures • City of San Diego Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant • Padre Dam Municipal Water District Santee Water Recycling Facility and Santee Lakes Recreation Preserve For more information, visit www.weftec.org.

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WCWWA Preview

Senator Tommy Banks to open 2007 WCWWA conference and tradeshow he Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association’s annual conference and tradeshow will be held October 23-26, 2007, in Edmonton, Alberta, and will feature Senator Tommy Banks as the keynote speaker. The Senator is well known to Canadians as an accomplished and versatile entertainer, and an international standard-bearer for Canadian culture. He has served on the Prime Minister’s Caucus Task Force on Urban Issues, and as Chair of the Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Senate Committee. The conference will include 83 papers, covering the following topics: • Water Treatment • Wastewater Treatment • Stormwater Management • Regional Utility Planning • General Management and Operations • Water Resources • Wastewater Collection • Water Distribution • Trenchless Technologies The conference also offers two tours. 1. City of Edmonton, Drainage Services – Belgravia Storm Tunnel. This tour will take participants to the Tunnel Portal Site at Belgravia and will

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focus on the design and construction of a 1.4 kilometre long storm tunnel. 2. E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant – Upgrade Project & Instrumentation Perspective. This tour will take participants to the E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant and will focus on the upgrades currently underway at the facility. Specific attention will be given to the instrumentation and control systems being utilized to operate the plant. Also offered are pre-conference workshops: 1. Challenges in Monitoring Water Quality in the Distribution System including emergency response protocol based on indicator organisms and risk assessment and criteria for determining logical compliance sites - best management practices for monitoring potable water supply. The overall goal of this session is to inform water professionals and policy makers on required criteria for compliance sites, monitoring programs, waterborne diseases (outbreaks) with the purpose of potentially applying these principles and information into the public health and provision of safe drinking water programs.

2. Hands on Demonstration of On-Line Instrumentation Maintenance. This workshop focuses on the popular on-line instruments used in the water and wastewater treatment plants including chlorine analyzers, particle counters, turbidimeters, nutrient monitors, %UVT, BOD/COD, and sludge blanket monitors. 3. Stormwater Best Management Practices: Conveyance, Storage and Treatment. This half-day workshop will address the basis and background for why stormwater quality and quantity management is important for the protection of the receiving water bodies. It will discuss various BMPs including Source Control BMPs, Water Quality Treatment BMPs, Flow Control BMPs, and New and Emerging BMPs. Some focus will also be on the design of structural best management practice (BMP) facilities. Experts from various background including regulators, academics and consultants will participate as guest speakers, ensuring a rewarding experience for those attending the workshop. For more details and updated information, visit www.wcwwa.ca.


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World Water Week

Mexico wins Stockholm Junior Water Prize

HRH Crown Princess Victoria presented the award to Carlos Hernández Mejía, Dalia Graciela Díaz Gómez, and Adriana Alcántara Ruiz.

driana Alcántara Ruiz, Dalia Graciela Díaz Gómez and Carlos Hernández Mejía from Mexico have been awarded the prestigious 2007 Stockholm Junior Water Prize. The students from the Cultural Institute of Paideia in Toluca, Mexico, received the Prize in August from H.R.H. Crown Princess Victoria on behalf of the Stockholm Water Foundation. They also received a US$ 5,000 scholarship and a crystal sculpture. The Stockholm Junior Water Prize is

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presented each year to high-school age students for outstanding water-related projects that focus on topics of environmental, scientific, social or technological importance. The Mexican team’s project, The Elimination of Pb(II) from Water via BIO-Adsorption using Eggshell, developed a novel approach to absorb lead in industrial wastewater by utilising eggshells, a locally abundant bio-organic waste material. By mixing ground-up eggshells in a liquid lead solution, the

young Mexicans successfully removed more than 90% of lead pollutants from liquid waste. This low-cost, time-efficient method provides an alternative solution for removing heavy metals, a pollutant and health hazard around the world, from water. The quick and effective process can be applied in both small-scale industries and large industrial operations. For their project, The Biochemical Detoxification of Heavy Metals and its Application to the Water-Soil Environment in the Agricultural Wetlands of the Pearl River Delta, China, the Chinese team of Yang Guo, Junhong Wu and Sisi Yu received an honourable mention. Simon Bourgault-Côté and Alexis StGelais represented Canada at the competition. They developed a six step chemical process to efficiently remove magnesium, calcium, sulphate, chloride, potassium and sodium ions from water. Multiple techniques, such as precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and chemical products conversion, were used to create the process. www.worldwaterweek.org

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Environmental Regulations

A developerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assurance plan breaks new ground By Jurek Janota-Bzowski Overbuilding system components and using multi-barrier effluent filter systems help reduce longer-term risk.

Kayakers enjoying BCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sunshine Coast waterways.

hy does the Province of British Columbia require residential land developers to provide a 100% non-refundable capital replacement fund for an entire sewage treatment and effluent disposal system regardless of its complexity or costs? Given the above, why would a developer contemplate installing anything other than the lowest cost acceptable system for sewage treatment and effluent disposal? What incentive is there for developers to build in added value? These fundamental questions were posed by Peter Ruben of the Alberta Mining Corporation Ltd. and Pinehaven Properties Ltd. as he tackled the intricacies of developing an upscale residential waterfront property on the Sunshine Coast in British Columbia. The Municipal Sewage Regulation (MSR), which governs such developments, includes two normally used financial security options for developments located outside municipal wastewater servicing boundaries, namely: (a) establish a capital replacement fund; or (b) enter into a municipal-type servicing agreement with the local authority, whereby it takes over ownership of, and responsibility for the entire installation. Under option (a), the developer pays the full replacement cost of the sewage facility up front. (The facility, by defi-

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nition, is any facility that gathers, treats, transports, stores, utilizes, or discharges municipal sewage or reclaimed water.) Payment must be in the form of cash or bonds, which are neither assignable nor refundable. Implementing option (b) has a wide number of potential outcomes because some authorities make no provision for, or have any interest in, taking on such responsibilities. Others, such as the Sunshine Coast Regional District, impose stringent requirements over and above those specified in the MSR. For Peter Ruben, neither of the above options seemed palatable, nor even technically feasible, so he decided to explore the never used third option within the MSR: the assurance plan. The purpose

of any assurance plan is to reduce the up-front costs for individual developers and to spread financial risk through insurance instruments. Peter Ruben gathered a team of individuals already involved in project development to investigate this option. The team comprised, among others, Hugh Matthews, LLB, of Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP, and Jurek Janota-Bzowski, P.Eng., of Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd. Initial investigations revealed that there were no approved assurance plans, either within the broader insurance community or through the larger independent service providers. Furthermore, the Ministry of Environment confirmed that alcontinued overleaf...

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Environmental Regulations though several attempts at assurance plans had been made since July 1999 (the date of MSR enactment), none had succeeded to date. Evidently, the issue was more complex than originally perceived. Undeterred, the project team developed its own very detailed and comprehensive assurance plan and presented it in draft to the Ministry of Environment’s Michael Younie, P.Ag., P.Geo., Head of Government and Compliance Environmental Management (now with the District of Mission). The plan focussed on all aspects of risk management associated with system design, construction, management, and financial assuredness. It contained three major parts: • a wastewater facility specification including details of the discharger, location, type of system, planned operation, and monitoring; • a description of identified risks, their impacts, and proposed mitigation; • a description of financial planning for sinking funds and annual operating budgets, sized accordingly to ensure availability of funds to cover 100% of the anticipated replacement costs of system components. A cornerstone philosophy of the Pinehaven Properties’ assurance plan dynaBLEND® polymer makedown units

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Fluid Dynamics, Inc. introduces the L Series dynaBLEND® polymer blending and activation system. The dynaBLEND® units feature the patented HydroACTION® non-mechanical, high-energy polymer mixing chamber, with a choice of diaphragm metering or progressing cavity pumps. Control options range from simple manual systems to fully instrumented PLCbased units with an unlimited variety of inputs and outputs. Standard units are available to provide activated polymer solution from 30 gph through 21,000 gph. Custom units also available. Fluid Dynamics, Inc. Boulder, CO Tel: 303-530-7300 or 888-530-7300 E-mail: info@dynablend.com www.dynablend.com

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was to design as much risk out of the system as possible. This was accomplished in two ways: (a) a basic system approach that focussed on designing a STEP (septic tank and effluent pumping) system with a passive low risk community component free of pumps and any other mechanical or electrical components. Each homeowner would be responsible for the septic tank and effluent pump on their property, while the Strata Corporation would be responsible for the low-pressure gravity dosing siphon and absorption field system; and (b) overbuilding system components, which included using robust construction materials, incorporating multi-barrier effluent filter systems, and oversizing absorption field areas. While these initiatives increased front-end capital costs, their inclusion reduced the longerterm risks. Planning for the financial assurance component focussed on risk analysis through categorizing system failures into two major risk groups: (a) expected failures relating to service life issues of every system component; and (b) unexpected failures, which were subdivided into nuisance failures (i.e. occasional unpredictable failures such as localized absorption field repair, broken pipe, leaky seals, etc.), and catastrophic failures that would represent an unexpected and complete or nearly complete system failure. Additional risk management strategies incorporated into the plan included: • using engineering consultants and engineers with a proven track record of designing such systems, and ones that carried sufficient errors and omissions insurance (i.e. Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd. with Jurek Janota-Bzowski, P.Eng., for civil design and Piteau Associates Engineering Ltd. with David Tiplady, P.Eng., for hydrogeologic investigation); • using contractors that carried sufficient general liability insurance and warranted their work for a year (i.e., Bel Contracting); • establishing a Strata Design Panel to ensure house plans included water reduction strategies and that septic tanks and effluent pumps were compatible with system requirements; • providing educational materials to all homeowners, including a list of “Dos” and “Don’ts” concerning the design, construction, operation and maintenance

of the septic tank and pumps on individual strata lots. The plan’s financial assuredness was established through analysis of the above risks and, more significantly, through setting up two sinking funds, one to deal with the shorter term risk components (e.g. absorption fields) and one to address the longer-term risk components (e.g. structural concrete). Both funds were able to establish an annual contribution by each member of the Strata Corporation, with the developer making up the balance until all lots have been sold. Although the draft assurance plan was well received by the Ministry, there was one last hurdle to overcome. The MSR requires that all assurance plans be reviewed by an expert consultant from a roster of consultants established by the Director. But, no such roster had ever been established, perhaps because no plans had made it thus far to the review stage. The Ministry, however, was very helpful in accommodating an independent third-party review by David Hughes, CA., CMC, of David Hughes and Associates. Following the review, the Ministry of Environment issued a letter of Assurance Plan Acceptance on August 14, 2006, apparently the first such plan approved in British Columbia. It is interesting to note that current wastewater management regulations – and in particular the Sunshine Coast Regional District’s Subdivision Development and Control Bylaw – have been influenced by an unfortunate wastewater system failure in Woodcreek Park on the Sunshine Coast. That failure revealed inherent problems with allocating responsibility and covering repair costs long after the development had been sold off. It is, therefore, perhaps both ironic and fitting that the first assurance plan to be approved in the Province is for a project on the Sunshine Coast, within the same regional district jurisdiction. Should assurance plans become the norm rather than the exception, all parties involved will benefit. Developers will have an incentive to install higher quality wastewater systems, and public health and safety may be further protected through a decrease in the risk of system failures. Jurek Janota-Bzowski, P.Eng., is a principal with Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd. For more information, e-mail: jbroda@kwl.ca

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Water Reuse

Drought prompts State of New Jersey to explore creative water reuse By Tim Davies

AWM professionals lay a new lagoon liner as part of the upgrading of a wastewater treatment facility.

ith water covering almost 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, it can be difficult to comprehend that the world’s potable water supplies are strained and may be at risk, as less than one percent is actually clean, potable water. Currently, more than 2 billion people are faced with drinking water shortages. Coupled with inefficient water use and climate change, growing demands across the globe will further strain existing potable water supplies. In fact, many experts predict that the wars of tomorrow will not be fought over oil but over drinking water. One of the primary reasons that water supplies are so taxed is because potable water supplies are being used for non-

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potable purposes such as industrial processes, toilet flushing, heating and cooling systems, as well as irrigation activities – none of which requires potable water. So how can we reduce our impact on potable water supplies? One proven solution involves recycling treated wastewater for non-potable purposes. American Water’s Applied Water Management Group (AWMG) has been finding ways to effectively conserve water through reclamation projects across the state of New Jersey and beyond. Creative solutions to critical conditions When the Northeastern United States suffered a drought in 1999, the normally water-rich state of New Jersey experienced water shortages first-hand. Water restrictions and devastating crop losses prompted the state to explore and implement creative solutions for the reuse of reclaimed water. Even with water restrictions in place, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) estimated that in 1999 New Jersey alone used more than 4,000 million gallons for irrigation. To alleviate some of the strain on potable water supplies, the NJDEP created the Reclaimed Water for Beneficial Reuse (RWBR) man-

ual in 2003. The manual encourages water reuse and conservation and contains regulations and standards to protect the environment and guarantee public health and safety. RWBR is wastewater which has been treated to a high standard. The resulting high-quality reclaimed water can be used in a myriad of non-potable applications such as: • Toilet flushing • Landscape irrigation • Agricultural irrigation • Industrial applications • Fire protection • Heating & cooling systems • Groundwater recharge Although AWM has been involved in many industrial and irrigation-related reuse projects, AWM’s and New Jersey’s first application of reuse for residential landscape irrigation was implemented at Homestead at Mansfield in Mansfield, NJ in 2006. A natural for wastewater reuse Homestead at Mansfield is a 1,200home, active adult, residential development, located on a 295-acre site. The community is surrounded by open grounds, and all the homes are connected to a dedicated wastewater treatment plant. Due to the age of the system and more stringent requirements of the NJDEP effluent discharge permit, AWMG conducted a series of upgrades to enhance the wastewater treatment plant, which ultimately led to wastewater being treated

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Water Reuse to reuse standards. Reclaimed water is now used to irrigate both the open spaces within the community and residential lawns. Under continuous-operation conditions, the facility can provide up to 250,000 gallons per day of reclaimed water to the site. Treatment process Wastewater enters a series of lagoons, where primary settling, aeration and biological processes occur. It is then pumped from the lagoons to one or both sand filters, where it receives an injection of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and assorted polymers. Particulate matter is removed through filtration. Filtered effluent (minus solids) undergoes chlorine disinfection, then chlorine removal. A diversion chamber then redirects the wastewater to a stormwater detention pond from where the reclaimed water is used for irrigation. From the stormwater detention pond a series of pump stations feed a single consolidated irrigation system that irrigates all common areas and residential lawns. When treated water is not used for reuse it flows by gravity to the wastewater treatment systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s permitted outfall. Homestead is a very special case because it shows how aging wastewater treatment facilities can be refurbished to produce high quality effluent necessary for RWBR applications. It also demon-

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strates the benefit of consolidating a communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s irrigation systems and separating them from the potable water supply. Naturally, Homestead at Mansfield makes a strong argument for having both a consolidated irrigation system and a decentralized onsite wastewater treatment facility. When appropriate, these two factors can provide an ideal situation for implementing reuse. In November 2006, NJDEP Commissioner Lisa Jackson presented AWMG with the New Jersey Governorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Environmental Excellence Award for Clean and Plentiful Water in recognition of its work with the Homestead at Mansfield Water Demonstration Project. With so many communities confronting reduced water supplies, it is important to incorporate reuse systems, when and where appropriate, as a means of alleviating stress on existing water supplies. Reuse systems are increasingly being explored to help meet water demands in an environmentally friendly and economical way. Tim Davies is the president and CEO of American Water's Applied Water Management Group. Contact: Tim.Davies@amwater.com

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Drinking Water Quality

Residential water pipe coating technology prevents lead contamination “green” alternative for residential, commercial and government properties that have tested for higher levels of lead in their drinking water is now available from Bradley Mechanical Services/Pipe Shield Inc. The technique has proven to be safe, with negligible wastage of metal and at a fractional cost to traditional pipe replacement methods. A pipe coating technology that injects an ANSI/NSF approved epoxy into the piping network will return the pipes to a “better than new state” without the need for pipe replacement, recycling of discarded metal, and debris, such as plaster and drywall, going into landfill sites. The Pipe Shield process first dries the pipe with the use of compressed air. Then an abrasive material is passed through the pipe to clean and prepare the inside surface for proper adhesion of the epoxy. Following the drying and cleaning process, epoxy is injected into the

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pipe, again utilizing compressed air technology. Any pipe size and piping material can be lined, from as small as ½”, up to sizes where it is possible for “man entry”. The epoxy coating starts to gel within 10-20 minutes and completely hardens in the span of four to eight hours, depending on ambient factors and process parameters. Once the “curing” is complete, a video inspection to satisfy quality assurance is carried out. The epoxy coating is up to three times the hardness of a copper pipe. The Pipe Shield lining system is Ontario Building Code approved. This epoxy material provides an impermeable barrier between water and the pipe surface, thereby eliminating leaching of toxic metals into the water stream as well as eliminating corrosion, erosion and, hence, leaks. Its operating life is between 70 and 100 years depending on operating conditions and usage.

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Drinking Water Quality Pipe Shield Process does not use solder on any joints during the rehabilitation process. In fact, newly engineered pushto-connect unions and fittings specialized for copper tubing are used. This further eliminates any leaching of lead into the drinking water supply. This process is new to Canada, but it has been implemented in other parts of the world for as long as 30 years. The technology was developed in Japan during the 1970s and then made its way to Europe, with Germany taking the lead in

pipe coating rehabilitation development. The US Navy began lining its shipboard systems in the early 1980s. Six years after the first epoxy lining was conducted, Navy observers found the lining to be in as good a condition as it was upon installation. In the United Kingdom, test spools were found to have no â&#x20AC;&#x153;weight lossâ&#x20AC;? after 12 years of service. For more information, E-mail brad@pipe-shield.com

The epoxy is ANSI/NSF certified, is non-toxic, and can be safely used on potable water systems, as well as many other types of piping networks: cisterns, wells, metal and concrete tanks, heating and process lines.

This epoxy material provides an impermeable barrier between water and the pipe surface, thereby eliminating leaching of toxic metals into the water stream as well as eliminating corrosion, erosion and, hence, leaks. It should be taken into account that the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s supply of copper is steadily diminishing. According to New Scientist (May 26, 2007), an estimated 61 years of copper supply remain. This will, inevitably, lead to continued skyrocketing prices for copper. Since the recent water testing in Ontario, one of the major concerns has been the lead solder on copper pipe joints. The www.esemag.com

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High-value phytochemicals from grape cane waste By Sierra Rayne, Ph. D., P. Chem.

gricultural wastes are a largely ignored source of high-value chemicals and value-added industrial products. Effective extraction and commercial application of these compounds could help contribute to sustainability objectives. In particular, the global wine and table grape industry, with annual sales of >US$100 billion, generates large quantities of cane pruning waste each year. Typically, these prunings are composted or burned for disposal, often with a net cost to the winery. Reports to date suggest that waste grape canes contain significant levels of a compound class called the stilbenes. The most well-known member of the grapevine-derived stilbenes is transresveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene). This compound has gained significant worldwide attention because of its ability to inhibit or delay a wide variety of illnesses that include cardiovascular disease and cancer, and to increase stress resistance and lifespans. It is also thought to be the compound behind the “French Paradox,” where the high-fat diets, high red wine consumption trends, and lower disease rates typical of France differ from patterns observed in other developed nations with lower wine consumption preferences. Oxidative polymerization in the plant also produces oligomers of trans-resveratrol, particularly trans-ε-vinferin, which are known to have high bioactivities such as antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. In addition to their well-characterized applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, stilbenes such as trans-resver-

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atrol and trans-ε-viniferin are also known to display significant anti-phytopathogenic properties, such as activity against downy mildew, grey mold, and a broad spectrum of microbes and fungi present during postharvest fruit and vegetable storage. Thus, there is potential to utilize grape cane extracts as anti-phytopathogenic sprays. This would aid in on-farm sustainability through replacing analogous synthetic chemicals and their associated environmental and economic costs. Grape canes typically contain between 0.1 to 5 mg/g dry weight (dw) trans-resveratrol and from 0.1 to 2 mg/g dw trans-ε-viniferin in the Vitis vinifera varieties used for winemaking, with levels increasing throughout the growing season. By comparison, grape cluster stems and grape skins (about 0.05-0.1 mg/g dw) both contain less trans-resveratrol than the canes. No trends in transresveratrol concentrations have been observed by grape color, suggesting that both white and red wine grape variety wastes can be exploited as potential sources of these compounds. trans-εviniferin concentrations in the grape canes and stems are generally up to 5fold lower than trans-resveratrol. Grape canes are pruned annually, and these wastes represent a potentially important global source of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-vinferin, after which the extracted residue could be used for other value-added purposes, such as production of activated carbon. At an approximate annual grape cane production rate of 1 ton/ha, with 8 million ha of wine grapes in production worldwide, and assuming an average trans-resveratrol content of 1 mg/g dw, the complete global extraction

of this compound from agricultural grape pruning waste could reach 8,000 tons/y (or about 825 mg per capita worldwide). The stilbenes can be quantitatively extracted from the cane residue using low-cost, environmentally benign, and non-toxic aqueous alcoholic solvent systems such as ethanol:water mixtures. With a commercial value of about US$2,000 to US$3,000 per kg, transresveratrol yields from cane waste could supply a value-added agricultural coproduct worth US$2,000 to US$3,000 per hectare of production, or a global potential ranging up to US$24 billion. No information is available on the commercial value of trans-ε-viniferin, but assuming an equivalent market value as trans-resveratrol and average grape cane contents of 0.25 mg/g dw, extraction of this compound could yield an additional US$500 to US$750 per hectare of production (or up to US$6 billion globally). Furthermore, postharvest stilbene contents of grape cane may possibly be increased through exposure to UV light, ozone, or other abiotic stresses. These types of treatments have been shown to increase stilbene levels up to several hundred-fold in grape skins and leaves and in peanuts and peanut kernels. At present worldwide wine grape production capacity, the extraction of transresveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin from grape cane waste would have an estimated global economic value of >$30 billion. Sierra Rayne is a senior partner with Ecologica Environmental Consulting. E-mail: rayne.sierra@gmail.com

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Environmental Management

Web technology drives efficient, integrated, performance management simply reducing exposure to risk of fines and noncompliance. Organizations such as Subaru of America are leveraging environmental management to contribute to the effectiveness of the overall management plan, and as a key indicator of financial strength, market leadership and ability to sustain profitability. Business Performance Management Information Systems enable the integration of environmental considerations with other core business functions, such as product design, quality assurance, safety management and financial accounting. As noted by associates at Subaru at its North American sites, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the key characteristic of a BPM Information System is that it makes things easier for all employees, due to intelligent use of web technology and integration of performance management and environmental management at all levels of the organization.â&#x20AC;? For more information visit www.intelex.com/bw significant innovation in environmental technology is the emergence of Business Performance Management (BPM) Information Systems that integrate environmental management with overall business management. BPM systems deliver efficiencies and increased social responsibility; they enable organizations to consolidate information silos and extract performance metrics from multiple sources (i.e. local applications and central ERP systems). The evolution from static databases, holding site specific environmental information, to dynamic BPM systems that reach every level of the organization, is transforming environmental management into better business management. In an economy rife with competitive forces, and a market increasingly demanding social accountability, corporations are looking to smarter, more efficient ways to improve business performance and build shareholder value. This applies to all facets of the operation, from product quality, to economic accountability, as well as the continuous management of an organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental responsibilities. The trend is toward a more pro-active environmental strategy; looking beyond

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Energy

The importance of demand side management in industrial energy conservation by Alex Keen lthough it is generally understood there is a relationship between energy use and environmental impacts, the relationship has received significantly more attention in recent years as the issues of energy supply and consumption have become more critical. In terms of natural gas and fossil fuel combustion, Greenhouse Gas emissions have a much higher profile. With regard to electrical power generation, many jurisdictions are having trouble balancing the supply and demand to ensure reliable delivery of power. With privatisation and open market policies for energy generation, many jurisdictions in North America are experiencing supply shortages and rising prices, particularly in electrical energy. There are big questions on the supply side of electrical power generation, making it a complex public policy issue that requires significant investment in new power. These are issues that will not be solved soon and, until they are solved, they inhibit new investment. This uncertainty with energy supply and pricing affects industrial confidence. Industrial pricing of goods is based on a predicted price for energy, often between 3 to 8 percent of production costs. As well, reliability of supply is just as important in maintaining production levels. For example, the power blackout in August 2003 in Ontario, which paralysed the provincial economy, created a full 2% decrease in Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s GNP for 2003. An important way to address these concerns is to exercise more control with how energy is used in the plant. Energy auditing and associated energy feasibility studies allow companies to be more efficient and cost-effective in production as well as ensuring a more reliable supply of energy. Value to industry Energy auditing and investigating energy savings opportunities has value that goes beyond straightforward replacement with more efficient equipment. First the audit profiles production and energy efficiencies and the associated financial savings. As part of the audit, a comprehensive baseline helps the facility estab-

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Air compression is often a large energy consumer in industrial facilities, as well as a significant source of savings with short payback periods.

lish and break down how and where energy is used. This baseline, then, becomes the measure for improvement that can be used for years. Because of the relationship between energy and the environment, energy conservation projects support ISO certification and implementation programs, especially in terms of demonstrating continuous improvement. However, based on the pragmatic nature of the energy audit, the process helps identify and prioritize the best projects based on good payback analysis. Finally, to ensure the best value from an energy audit, the technical team must understand the relationship of energy to the production process, especially as the team can troubleshoot plant problems and inefficiencies. Many facilities may not understand or be fully aware of the details of energy consumption in the process. Sometimes changes in practice or layout of equipment can have an impact on energy efficiency and can translate into less energy cost per unit of production. In other cases, the quality of the energy may be responsible for subtle changes in the process that ends up caus-

ing expensive plant problems. For example, poor power quality can inadvertently trigger a shutdown of sensitive equipment, resulting in production losses. Conducting the energy audit The energy audit is a comprehensive review of operations that uses an integrated approach to understand the relationship of energy to process. It requires the audit team to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reach into the processâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;to assess exactly how the energy is consumed and to analyse the process design. In many situations in industry, the consumption of energy is what is convenient to the situation (for example, the use of steam to create hot water because steam is available) without critical evaluation of cost of consumption and energy optimization. Generally natural gas and electrical energy is used to produce utility resources that are required for or support the production process. In the production of the utility, energy efficiencies can be broken down into three phases, namely: 1. Generation - Generation of the utility whether it is steam, hot water, cooling water or chilled air for freezers, etc. There are a large number of energy requirements in the industrial facility demand-

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Energy ing different requirements. The first opportunity is to ensure that the generation of the utility and the consumption of energy can be as efficient as possible. 2. Distribution - Once the utility service is generated, the next question is how efficiently is it distributed? For example, as compressed air is supplied to the plant,

ergy bill. In specific cases, Altech is able to exceed this expectation by identifying one project that saves several hundred thousand dollars with a capital investment of less than 1.5 years. In general however, based on results from a random sampling of 60 Industrial Energy Audits completed by Altech, real typical savings

tant, similar to boilers. However, more important are efficiencies designed in product loading to the oven, even internal air distribution in the oven, and control of waste heat that escapes from inlet and/or outlet portals. Many bake ovens are relatively simple ‘boxes’ with little attention to optimum use of the heated

Table 1

Opportunity

No. of Plants

Boilers HVAC & Heat Recovery Compressed Air Cooling & Refrigeration Optimization Lighting Upgrades Power & Load Factor Improvements Procedural Water and Wastewater

is it distributed efficiently with minimum pressure losses in the distribution network? Unnecessary pressure losses force the compression equipment to work harder, using more energy. 3. Consumption - The efficiency of consumption of the utility at the location where it is used will have a major impact on the amount of energy that must be used to create the utility. It is important that, once the money is spent to create the utility, the energy is used efficiently at the end use. Each phase is a completely separate analysis with different objectives, but significant savings can be identified at each phase. Improvement at each stage usually means that there can be savings with the cost of generation. The savings can be a direct dollar value in less energy produced or the savings free up extra capacity with the utility to supply other demands in the plant and/or provide extra capacity for expansion. Altech has numerous examples of energy optimization that results in freeing up new capacity on an overloaded system such as a steam boiler, air compressor system, or chiller system. The avoided cost of installing new supply is more important than good payback projects that require new capital since the capital is already invested. Optimization is the most cost-effective solution. Typical saving opportunities Once the audit is completed, conservation opportunities typically result in a savings of 15% to 20% of the total en-

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25 16 18 9 6 38 7 9

Annual Savings

Payback

$137,000 $119,000 $10,000 $67,000 $24,000 $23,000 $11,000 $169,000

15 months 21 months 16 months 27 months 25 months 9 months 1 month 24 months

can be summarized (see Table 1). Although the audit team normally evaluates all potential energy conservation opportunities, typical areas where savings are available begin to emerge. However, energy consumption is so integrated within the production process that the professional must always be alert to interrelated ways to identify energy conservation opportunities. Boiler efficiency and optimization clearly is the area to look at for the highest financial savings with the most attractive payback. The typical opportunities include optimizing the air to fuel ratio, preheating combustion air, and recovering waste heat from the boiler stack. As an example of the integration with process, many substantial opportunities are related to better balancing the capacity and output of the boilers to production needs. Steam and hot water distribution also provide significant opportunities. Optimization includes: • Ensuring the most efficient pressure in the system. • Maintaining thermal insulation on pipes and storage vessels. • Ensuring the return of as much condensate as practical. • Where steam must be flashed or hot water dumped, design heat recovery into the process to use the waste heat. Bake ovens, particularly with automated throughput such as in auto paint facilities or bread making operations, demand more attention. Burner efficiency and optimum combustion air are impor-

air once it is generated. Oven throughput can sometimes be improved with attention to total heat requirements for the amount of product loaded, re-designed internal recirculation, and control of the hot air leaving this inlet or outlet prematurely before using all the available heat potential. The cost of comfort heat is often underestimated, representing an opportunity for more savings. Many activities in the plant extract air such as fume extraction, oven exhaust, etc. This creates a negative pressure on the building, requiring more heated air makeup to ensure employee comfort. Through experience, this can result in excess air makeup from 20% to 40%, representing a similar percentage in increased utility costs. Designing the appropriate air balance for the plant will minimize air makeup costs. Conclusion Energy conservation and demand side management in industry have the opportunity to make an immediate impact in generating savings, both financially and in energy consumption. Working with energy conservation and energy optimization is something that can be done now, providing economic savings and an incremental effect on environmental improvement. Alex Keen is with Altech Environmental Consulting Limited. Contact: AKeen@altech-group.com

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Site Remediation

Remediation continues at military base in Goose Bay By Nicolas Monteiro, Roy Swyer, Craig Wells, and Chris Elliot

Recovery trench installation at the South Escarpment.

Pipelines at 5 Wing Goose Bay.

he Canadian Department of National Defence has been managing contaminated sites at Canadian Forces Base 5 Wing Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador since 1991. 5 Wing Goose Bay is located in central Labrador at the south-western limit of Hamilton Inlet, approximately 200 kilometres inland from the Labrador coast. The climate is sub-arctic, with temperatures ranging from -40째 C in winter to +40째 C in summer and snowfall totaling approximately 5 metres per year. The remoteness of the Base and the climate pose challenges that must be overcome to succeed in implementing a major remediation project. The military base at Goose Bay was constructed in the 1940s by the United

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States Air Force (USAF). Goose Bay played a strategic role during World War II as a refueling base for aircraft en route to Europe. Activity remained high in the 1950s and 1960s, and at its peak, more than 12,000 people were stationed at the base. The U.S. halted its Strategic Air Command operations at 5 Wing Goose Bay in 1976 and ceased all operations in 1991. While American activity declined after 1976, flight training increased, resulting in the signing of several agreements by NATO countries to conduct low-level flight training. In 1987, Goose Bay became 5 Wing Goose Bay and continues to support allied low level flight training. During the peak of operations, over 300 million litres of various fuels were

stored in several tank farms on the Base. These bulk-storage tank farms were connected by over 160 kilometres of underground pipelines. Due to the remote location of the Base and the fact that environmental standards were different than those considered acceptable today, most of the waste materials generated on the base were disposed of on the property until the 1990s. It is these waste disposal activities and normal Base operations over the last 60+ years that have led to miscellaneous releases of a variety of products (e.g. petroleum hydrocarbons), which are now manifested in the environmental impacts present at the Base. Contamination The history of contamination at 5 Wing Goose Bay is well known and has a high continued overleaf...

Sandbag cofferdam installation at Stillwater 4. 56 | September 2007

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Site Remediation Figure 1.

profile with the public, media, and regulatory agencies. The majority of contamination at the Base can be attributed to several sources. Major hydrocarbon plumes are a result of leaking underground and aboveground tanks, leaking or ruptured pipelines, and historical fuel management practices. The presence of heavy metals and other chemical contamination (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) are due to historical waste disposal practices. The following five areas (see Figure 1.) are of particular relevance and are identified as the main legacy contaminated sites: 1) The South Escarpment (SES) waste disposal sites – a series of dump sites near the southern Base boundary containing a variety of wastes. Contaminants include fuels, VOCs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, and heavy metals. 2) The Upper Tank Farm (UTF) – the main tank farm on the upper part of the Base. Contaminants include fuels. 3) The former Survival Tank Farm (STF), dismantled in 2005 – one of two tank farms located to the northeast of the Main Base. Contaminants include fuels and PAHs. 4) The Ex-Hydrant Area – a series of four fuel hydrants and infrastructure (Heavy Bomber Hydrant, Medium Bomber Hydrant, Fighter Hydrant, and Transport Hydrant) formerly used for refuelling airplanes. Contaminants include fuels and PAHs. 5) The Lower/Main Tank Farm (LTF) – the second and largest of two tank farms located to the northeast of the Main Base. Contaminants include fuels, PAHs and heavy metals. Proposed cleanup The proposed Remediation Project is scheduled for completion in 2019. The Department of National Defence (DND) 58 | September 2007

is presently completing site investigations and developing a comprehensive cleanup plan to address the legacy contamination issues at 5 Wing Goose Bay. In 2004, DND prepared a Contaminated Sites Work Plan (CSWP) that prioritized the various contaminated sites for action, based on risks to human health and the environment. Site investigations underway include activities such as sampling soil, groundwater, surface water, sediment, fish and berries to determine what impact to the environment (if any) has occurred. To date, over 200 investigative reports have been completed and more than 3,000 monitoring wells have been installed on the Base. In addition, DND is designing and installing full-scale remediation solutions, and is also conducting pilot tests of remedial technologies to determine what works best, considering the contaminant characteristics, hydrogeology, and harsh winter conditions. The Biotechnology Research Institute (part of the National Research Council) is conducting research, on behalf of DND regarding the potential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. That research is ongoing and the results will be incorporated in the overall remedial action plan. In addition to this, an environmental assessment is underway in accordance with Canadian Environmental Assessment Act requirements. Examples of work conducted to date include the recovery of over four million litres of fuel from plumes underlying the Upper Tank Farm through dual phase pumping, soil vapour extraction, and the installation of 0.75 kilometres of recovery trench to prevent discharge of fuel to watercourses. Fuel recovery is expected to be the main task for the next several years of the remediation project. It is estimated that up to 20 million litres of fuel (avgas, diesel, and gasoline, etc.) could be available for recovery. Ongoing investigations will more clearly define the amount. This will be followed by groundwater, surface water, and sediment remediation, and landfill closures, as required. The Happy Valley-Goose Bay area is home to a large aboriginal population consisting of Inuit, Innu, and Métis. DND is presently adhering to the Fed-

eral Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB). All contracts follow established government procurement processes. Contractor development workshops will be held over the next few years to acquaint the local contractors and businesses of the project requirements, demands, and procurement mechanisms. Educating the local community through these workshops will help maximize local benefits. Funding for the project is provided through the Government of Canada’s Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP). This is part of a $3.5 billion commitment by the government to clean up federal contaminated sites. Due to the magnitude and liability associated with the environmental contamination, the 5 Wing Goose Bay Remediation Project is a federal contaminated site that is considered an ‘exceptional priority’ and receives 100 per cent of its funding through the FCSAP. Resource requirements The cleanup work at 5 Wing Goose Bay will be a large undertaking on behalf of the Government of Canada. The work will require significant resources, including qualified contractors and consultants, labourers, and machinery. The business community in Labrador is capable of meeting many of the project requirements that have been, and will be, identified; however, they will require the necessary training to work on a contaminated site. In addition, specialized remediation equipment and expertise will need to be acquired from outside Labrador. Summary The Department of National Defence is committed to cleaning up their contaminated sites. 5 Wing Goose Bay is a priority site identified for cleanup. DND is undertaking numerous activities to facilitate the remediation and maximize local benefits. Although many challenges lay ahead, successful remediation will be accomplished through fulsome planning and project implementation using the sustainability principles of environmental stewardship, cultural diversity, and community support. Nicolas Monteiro, Roy Swyer, and Craig Wells are with the Department of National Defence, Ottawa. Chris Elliot, P.Eng, is with AMEC Earth & Environmental, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. E-mail: chris.elliot@amec.com

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Air Pollution

Incineration - a tried and true method for waste disposal ince the enactment of environmental laws and regulations in Canada and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, many treatment and disposal options for hazardous wastes have come and gone. Despite the development of new technologies over the years, incineration continues to be a tried and true method to dispose of wastes as well as offering the optimal solution for disposal of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) including PCBs, dioxins/furans and other more ubiquitous hazardous waste compounds. A case in point is the Swan Hills Treatment Centre (SHTC), located 240 kilometres northwest of Edmonton, Alberta. The centre is owned by the Alberta government and operated by the contract operations unit division of Earth Tech Inc. SHTC provides one of the best options in North America for the treatment and disposal/incineration of hazardous wastes. In fact, SHTC is the only fully integrated facility in Canada and one of only a few in the world. Since its inception in 1987, it has played a principal role in treating many hazardous wastes including PCBs, dioxins/furans and ozone depleting substances (ODS) from across North America. (Exceptions include pathological, explosive, mercury and radioactive wastes). Although the facility was originally envisioned to accept hazardous waste streams generated exclusively in Alberta, over the years the mandate of the plant has expanded to include wastes from other jurisdictions across Canada and North America. Because the SHTC has one of the highest license requirements for destructive removal efficiency in North America, (regulated to USEPA TSCA guidelines) the site accepts a variety of hard to handle or exotic wastes from across North America. Technically, the SHTC is licensed to achieve a Destructive Removal Efficiency (DRE) of 99.9999 percent, or six “nines,” for incineration. Ongoing compliance testing confirms that the SHTC actually performs much better than its license requires and the Centre consistently achieves DREs of eight “nines” or 99.999999 percent destructive removal efficiency, while many other commercial

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60 | September 2007

incineration facilities are licensed to four “nines.” Because of its unique license, the SHTC is the only treatment centre in Canada licensed to treat high level PCBs. Contrary to popular thought, the hazardous waste market throughout North America has been in decline over the last decade and could be considered in marketing terms as a mature market. This decline in hazardous waste is due to a number of factors, but industry has been the primary driver of waste reduction through initiatives to Reduce, Reuse, Re-

The Ford Bacon and Davis incinerator is the backbone of the treatment processes at the SHTC. Capable of processing up to 40,000 metric tonnes of material per year, it handles 95% of the material processed at the SHTC.

cycle and Recover – the four Rs. As a result, hazardous waste treatment capacity in North America as a whole has decreased over time with the closure of a number of treatment and disposal facilities primarily in the US. The SHTC plant site consists of 320

By Ken Fossey

acres of land, of which approximately 80 acres are fenced. On-site treatment facilities include a stabilization/solidification plant; a physical/chemical facility to treat inorganic solid and liquid wastes; a large rotary kiln incinerator for the high temperature treatment of organic wastes, and a hazardous waste landfill and deepwell for the disposal of treated residuals. The Centre has the capacity to treat a total of 40,000 metric tons of waste per year using the three treatment processes – high temperature incineration, stabilization/solidification and physical/chemical neutralization. The process As the SHTC’s preferred method for treatment, high temperature incineration provides approximately 95 percent of SHTC’s yearly volumes. Organic wastes in solid, liquid or sludge form are destroyed in the incinerator in the primary combustion chamber (rotary kiln) at temperatures up to 1,200-degreesCelsius. The destruction process is completed in the secondary combustion chamber where the resulting flue gases are subjected to temperatures over 1,200-degress-Celsius for a minimum of two seconds residence time. Flue gases are scrubbed of acid gases and particulates in a sophisticated multistage pollution control process prior to discharge. Residual bottom-ash and flyash are then stabilized and placed in secure on-site landfill cells. Atmospheric emissions are closely monitored to ensure they comply with applicable regulatory requirements prior to discharge. For physical/chemical treatment, the process is much different. Inorganic liquids are chemically treated using neutralization, oxidation / reduction or precipitation. The resulting residue is then filtered to remove solids. The solid residue is stabilized, which is placed in secure, on-site landfill cells. Any inorganic solid wastes contaminated with trace metals and other toxic compounds are chemically and physically treated using waste specific recipes. The chemical treatment and stabilization ensures that the hazardous constituents once placed in the landfill will not leak into the environment. Once treated, the resulting material is continued overleaf...

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Air Pollution

placed in the Centre’s secure, engineered, on-site landfill cells. Treated liquid effluent and residuals are injected into a deep well 1,800 metres below ground into a stable geological formation. The SHTC’s engineered hazardous waste landfill cells are impermeable lined cells built into and onto a naturally occurring, low permeability clay formation. Each cell is lined with a heavy synthetic liner and any leachate from these cells is collected, continuously monitored and treated if necessary before disposal in the deepwell. When full, the

using a bar-coding system. This sophisticated inventory control system allows the Centre to track all waste streams within the facility allowing tracking from “cradle to grave.” Support and safety The SHTC was the first voluntarily sited hazardous waste treatment facility in North America. This process included an extensive Alberta-wide public consultation process, which culminated in the Town of Swan Hills voting in favour of siteing the facility near the town (12 kilometres). Today, the facility continues

The destruction process is completed in the secondary combustion chamber where the resulting flue gases are subjected to temperatures over 1,200-degress-Celsius for a minimum of two seconds residence time. landfill cell is sealed with a high density polyethylene cover to make it impervious to rainfall, snowmelt or other surface moisture. Once sealed, the cell is covered with clay, topsoil is added and the cell is re-vegetated. Once treated Before the SHTC disposes of any residuals in either the engineered landfill or the deepwell, it analyzes the materials to confirm that the materials are inert. Once wastes are confirmed to be inert, disposal is accomplished by placement in the landfill or in the on-site deepwell. In addition to treatment facilities, the site has a variety of storage facilities to store bulk solids (600 cubic metres), bulk liquids (1,000,000 litre capacity), and drums (17,000 equivalent drum spaces). Wastes are inventoried at the facility, when received, using a computerized waste management system and all drummed and bagged wastes are labeled 62 | September 2007

to receive support from the Town of Swan Hills, neighboring stakeholders and local First Nations Communities. SHTC, through its Stakeholder Liaison Committee, shares information with stakeholders and interested parties on a regular basis about the operation of the facility and its effect on the local environment. SHTC has found that sharing information with the stakeholders in an honest and open manner is crucial to dispelling myths about the facility and confirming the positive impacts it has for Alberta and all of Canada. In addition, the SHTC has one of the most expansive environmental monitoring programs in the world. As part of its recently renewed Alberta Environment 10 year operating approval, the plant monitors all of the major environmental receptors (air, water, land and animals) and reports on the results regularly to Alberta Environment and the neighboring

stakeholders. With its environmental, health and safety management programs, the facility was recently able to pass the significant 1,300,000 man hour milestone without a lost time accident. Unfortunately, there is still a perception by many in the general public that incineration results in large billows of smoke polluting the skies and depositing toxins into the environment. However, this idea could not be further from reality. With the advances made in incineration technology and the use of these technologies, in concert with sophisticated pollution control technologies in use at the SHTC, the SHTC and other waste treatment facilities release very little contaminants into the atmosphere. As the world comes to grips with its growing waste management challenge, it is important to recognize that a variety of waste management technologies will become more acceptable in the future. High temperature incineration will continue to play an important role in the treatment of hazardous waste and it is a crucial part of the waste treatment and disposal options available to society. The European experience is important to note. Space is limited in Europe and high temperature treatment of wastes (both municipal solid waste and hazardous wastes) is quite accepted. As space becomes a challenge in North America and the long-term storage of wastes in landfills become less desirable, high temperature treatment of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes will become more acceptable. Ken Fossey is with the Swan Hills Treatment Centre, E-mail: ken.fossey@earthtech.ca For more information, visit www.shtc.ca

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Potential public health risks from unregulated disinfection by-products: the case of nitrosamines By Jeffrey Charrois

trend amongst North American drinking water utilities is the incorporation of alternative disinfectants, such as chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide, as a means to comply with current and upcoming disinfection by-product regulations. Incorporation of alternative disinfectants generally results in lower concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Switching to alternative disinfection options, however, still requires informed decision-making that takes into account risk trade-offs. A case-in-point is nitrosamines, an unregulated disinfection by-product class, which includes the most frequently detected species, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA is an unregulated, non-halogenated disinfection by-product that has a drinking water carcinogenic unit risk 100 to 10,000 times greater than currently regulated halogenated disinfection by-products. Growing evidence suggests NDMA occurs more frequently and at higher concentrations in drinking water systems that use chloramination compared to chlorination-only systems. Additional research is required to support evidence-based decisions at the utility level that maximize disinfection efficiency while reducing health risks associated with more toxic, unregulated disinfection by-products.

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Background Disinfection of drinking water supplies is the most successful public health measure ever implemented. However, disinfection of drinking water is not entirely risk-free, though risks associated with no treatment are certainly much greater. During water treatment, disinfectants and source water organic matter react to produce disinfection by-products. The first disinfection by-product class identified was trihalomethanes, which includes chloroform - typically the most abundant trihalomethane. The past 30+ years have seen drinking water researchers, regulators and public health experts primarily focus on: occurrences, formation reactions, minimization technologies and health effects of chlorinated disinfection by-products even though it is well established that chlorination, chloramination and other disinfectants also produce non-halogenated disinfection by-products. Several epidemiology studies suggest that consumption of chlorinated drinking water may result in an elevated risk of urinary bladder cancer. However, the correlation of cancer risks with exposures to disinfected drinking water and specific halogenated disinfection byproducts have yet to be identified. Major research and regulatory efforts

have focused on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids because of the availability of analytical instrumentation to detect these groups of compounds as well as their relatively high abundance in drinking water. Furthermore, rapid advancement of analytical techniques, namely gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, have led to the development of several EPA analytical methods, which are used for screening select groups of “target compounds”. Today hundreds of individual disinfection by-products, representing several chemical classes, have been identified. However, too often health significance becomes implied by the mere detection of a compound. Detection limits are arbitrary boundaries between what can be “seen” and what may or may not be present in a sample. The desire to push detection limits lower must be balanced by the realization that not all detectable compounds are of health significance, a critical detail when considering the development of water quality guidelines. In the case of disinfection by-products a better approach for identifying possible causal agents responsible for the observed apparent increase in urinary bladder cancer risk is needed. Emergence of NDMA Occurrences of NDMA in water have continued overleaf...

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Disinfection been linked to anthropogenic sources such as leaking rocket fuel tanks as well as formation reactions in drinking water from precursors such as: dimethylamime; cationic polymers used as coagulation aids; ion-exchange resins with amine functional groups; wastewater effluents; natural organic mater as well as herbicides, fungicides and cationic metal chelators containing dithiocarbamates. Interest in NDMA as a disinfection by-product began in the late 1980s after its discovery in treated waters in Ontario. A decade later, NDMA was identified in drinking waters throughout California, sparking major research efforts internationally. Typical NDMA concentrations in drinking water are in the sub-ng/L to 10 ng/L range (parts-per-trillion). Wastewater concentrations are typically higher, in the hundreds of ng/L range, or more. Important to recognize is that there are already examples where NDMA has been detected in drinking water distribution samples at levels over 100 ng/L. Given that the actual number of utilities currently monitoring for nitrosamines is relatively low it should not come as a surprise that, as more plants start to analyze for nitrosamines, the frequency of detections, will certainly increase. Utilities with challenging source water conditions such as those with high total organic carbon, natural ammonia or elevated organic nitrogen concentrations, may be particularly at risk. However, the entire treatment process train must be considered as no two plants will be the same in terms of nitrosamine formation potentials. Ironically, attempts to reduce regulated disinfection by-product concentrations using alternative disinfection processes have, in some cases, been found to generate higher concentrations of unregulated and more toxic disinfection by-products compared to chlorination alone. What started off as unrelated issues in Ontario in the late 1980s and California in the late 1990s has now seen the issue of NDMA as a disinfection byproduct evolve into a global drinking water and wastewater issue. New European research is showing potential for NDMA to form in systems using ozone or chlorine dioxide. Jurisdictions such as in Australia or California who are looking towards or are already relying on recycled wastewater inputs (directly or indirectly) as part of a potable water programme, have already begun dealing with nitrosamine occurrences in drinking water and related health issues. Regulatory aspects There are no federal drinking water 66 | September 2007

guidelines or standards for NDMA in Canada or the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established a 1 × 10-6 upper-bound lifetime cancer risk for NDMA in drinking water of 0.7 ng/L. In Canada, Ontario has the only NDMA standard: a Drinking Water Quality Standard of 9 ng/L. California has a Notification Level of 10 ng/L for NDMA in drinking water. California also has 10 ng/L Notification Levels for N-nitrosodiethlyamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA). In California, when a contaminant is present in drinking water at concentrations considerably greater than the Notification Level, the Department of Health Services recommends the source be taken out of service. For NDEA, NDMA and NDPA, recommended source removal would occur at 10, 20, and 50 times the Notification Level, respectively.

Using alternative disinfection processes has, in some cases, been found to generate higher concentrations of unregulated and more toxic disinfection by-products compared to chlorination alone. In Canada, the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality are established by the Federal-ProvincialTerritorial Committee on Drinking Water (FPT-CDW) and used by all jurisdictions as the basis for setting their own enforceable standards or policies for drinking water quality. The FPT-CDW is a well-established national committee that has been active for more than 30 years. Health Canada’s Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau (WACCB) provides scientific and technical expertise to the Committee, and coordinates its activities. Some of the WACCB’s key tasks include: supporting research into water contaminants including the development of analytical methods for drinking water contaminants where current methods do not exist, and sharing expertise and scientific advice with other agencies both nationally and internationally. As the issue of nitrosamines in drinking water evolves in Canada, these tasks become particularly relevant. Currently, Health Canada is in a phase of assessing the occurrence of ni-

trosamines in drinking water in Canada, which includes investigating data from other jurisdictions. Additionally, Health Canada initiated a limited study on NDMA in drinking water in early 2007, where samples were collected and analyzed from 15 drinking water utilities (representing 6 provinces). Additional nitrosamine species were not part of the investigation. Plans were underway to conduct another round of sampling for the analysis of NDMA at the same locations in late-summer 2007. Finally, in terms of risk assessment activities, Health Canada was actively involved with the rolling revisions of the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality for NDMA. In the United States, as part of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program, the USEPA, in conjunction with analytical laboratories and public water systems, will begin to collect national drinking-water occurrence data for six nitrosamine compounds starting in January 2008 and ending in December 2010. Within the current Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR 2) there are: i) Assessment and ii) Screening Survey monitoring requirements. Nitrosamines are part of the Screening Survey List 2, which means a specialized analytical method was developed, namely USEPA Method 521. All public water systems serving more than 100,000 people, along with a nationally representative sample of 800 select systems from facilities serving populations less than 100,000, are required to monitor for “List 2” compounds over a consecutive 12 month period. For nitrosamines specifically, samples are required from both the entry point into the distribution system as well as at a location of maximum distribution system residence time. The six nitrosamine species of interest in the UCMR 2 include: 1) NDMA, 2) NDEA, 3) NDPA, 4) N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), 5) N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and 6) N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR). The UCM program allows USEPA to collect data and monitor unregulated suspect contaminants in drinking water that do not currently have health based standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Ultimately, the unregulated contaminant occurrence data collected as part of UCMR 2 become part of the National Contaminant Occurrence Database. The database facilitates analysis and review of data, eventually providing a foundation of scientifically valid evidence for supporting decision-makers in their de-

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Disinfection termination of whether or not the exposure data collected suggests a need to regulate a particular contaminant at the national level. Detecting nitrosamines Development of an analytical method and related performance issues such as precision, accuracy, and method detection limits become very important when governments consider contaminant regulations. Low concentration (ng/L; part-pertrillion) quantification of nitrosamines in water presents several analytical challenges. Firstly, nitrosamines are hydrophilic, polar compounds, which make extracting analytes of interest from an aqueous matrix difficult. Extracting nitrosamines from water can be accomplished by liquid-liquid extraction, however, this requires large volumes of solvent and the technique is labour-intensive. Thus liquid-liquid extraction is less attractive for routine use. Solid-phase extraction on the other hand uses lower solvent volumes, allows for shorter processing times and higher sample throughput as well as the potential for automation. A variety of single or dual phase solid-phase extraction systems are currently used, including: most notably Ambersorb® 572 as well as LiChrolut® EN, ENVI-Carb™, coconut carbon and carbon disks. Of particular relevance now is coconut carbon because it is the specified solid-phase extraction material in USEPA’s Method 521. Analytical instrumentation options for measuring nitrosamines in water vary as much as extraction techniques. Nearly all analytical methods for nitrosamines are supported by gas chromatography separation, coupled with a variety of detection systems such as: thermal energy analyzer, chemiluminescent nitrogen detector as well as mass spectrometry, which is almost exclusively used for trace and ultra-trace level analyses. The gold standard for detection is high-resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry, however, a number of other lower cost bench-top mass spectrometry options are increasingly being employed. In particular, mass spectrometry techniques such as: low-resolution electron ionization, positive chemical ionization with ammonia reagent gas and chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry with methanol or acetonitrile reagent gas are routinely used. Conclusion Unquestionably, challenges to producing safe drinking water and complexities involved in delivering drinking www.esemag.com

water through distribution systems will continue. Drinking water guidelines seek to balance immediate and certain pathogenic microbial risks with delayed and uncertain hazards that may occur from exposures to disinfection by-products. After 30 years of halogenated disinfection by-product research, water quality priorities in the drinking water industry should be expanded to include more than just halogenated compounds. Research efforts ought to consider toxicological relevance and biological plausibility issues when seeking to evaluate emerging

disinfection by-products. With mounting evidence suggesting chloramination may preferentially form NDMA, risk tradeoff considerations involving alternative disinfection strategies are emerging as critical research gaps that warrant increased scrutiny and should be addressed prior to utilities adopting changes to full-scale disinfection practices. Jeff Charrois, Ph.D., P.Ag., is a Research Scientist at Alberta Research Council, E-mail: Charrois@arc.ab.ca

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Wastewater Reuse

Using UV disinfection for wastewater reuse Potential applications for wastewater reuse are extremely wide-ranging and include any instance where water is needed for non-potable use.

he UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last 20 years. The development of new UV technologies over this period is a perfect example of an industry investing to meet market demand â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in this case demand for an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly way to disinfect wastewater for reuse. The acceptance of UV disinfection at wastewater plants treating in excess of one billion gallons daily is proof that UV is no longer an 'emerging' technology, but rather an accepted technology to be used routinely by engineers to safeguard human health and alleviate environmental pressures. Wastewater reuse has been practised in various forms for decades, and is now a major issue in the US where large areas of the Western and Southern states experience chronic water shortages. The problem is becoming more acute with many of the most arid states, such as Nevada and Arizona, experiencing rapid increases in their urban populations in the 1990s. Large-scale reuse projects are now also being considered in other water-poor regions of the world such as Australia, southern Europe and northern China. New technology The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling has vastly improved UV equipment manufacturers'

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ability to predict with confidence the level of treatment required for wastewater using their proprietary equipment. All manufacturers will soon use this tool to optimize the dose delivery of their reactors and minimize energy costs. Also, as manufacturers develop and improve optimized UV reactors, they will be able to validate the designs using USEPA, NWRI, or European validation protocols. Conventional UV lamp technology will also improve over the coming years, with medium pressure lamps continuing to see gains in energy efficiency, lamp life and power density, and Quartz coating techniques extending lamp life to well over 12,000 hours. Concerns A major concern to the UV industry is the issue of reactivation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the apparent ability of some microorganisms to repair the damage done to their DNA by UV, reactivating their ability to infect. DNA repair can occur in a closed (dark) system, but is more likely in open systems under direct sunlight (photoreactivation). The dose level and lamp type seem to affect the degree of reactivation, with low pressure (single wavelength) UV lamps appearing to be more susceptible to photoreactivation than medium pressure (multi-wavelength) lamps (see Reference). A much larger research effort into the area of photoreactivation is required and will most likely be forth-

coming over the next five years. A significant amount of research has also targeted the question of UV disinfection by-products, specifically the most common water constituents such as chlorine, bromide, nitrate, ozone, natural organic matter and iron. At normal UV disinfection doses no significant disinfection by-products have been shown to form. Benefits of UV for the reuse market The most common method of wastewater disinfection for reuse has long been chlorination. Despite chlorineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impressive track record, concerns regarding disinfection by-products (DBPs) and, more recently, disinfection performance with respect to pathogen inactivation, are driving the conversion from chlorine disinfection to other disinfection methods such as UV, which does not produce any DBPs. Closed vessel UV systems are easy to install within existing pipework, so there is minimal disruption to plant operation. Day to day operation is simple and only minor maintenance is needed. The only regular requirement is changing the UV lamps and wiper rings once a year, a straightforward operation that can be carried out by on-site personnel. UV systems for wastewater reuse are also validated to much higher doses than drinking water systems, according to protocols established by the National Water Research Institute (NWRI). Drinking water type product validation, with the accompanying rigor, will emerge as the dominant method of assessing suitability for these critical applications. The ability to prevent photo repair will also emerge as key. Applications for wastewater reuse Potential applications for wastewater reuse are extremely wide-ranging and include any instance where water is needed for non-potable use. The most popular and widespread use is for agricultural irrigation, with California and Florida leading the way in the US and a number of Australian states also making significant progress. Other irrigation uses include landscape and recreational applications such as golf courses, parks, and lawns. Reclaimed wastewater is also used for groundwater recharge applications such as aquifer storage and recovery or preventing saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Other uses include toilet and

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Wastewater Reuse urinal flushing, fire fighting, foundation stabilization in the construction industry and artificial snow generation. In all these applications, reused wastewater relieves the burden on existing municipal potable supplies. Case studies Two golf courses in Anthem, Arizona, are using UV-treated wastewater for irrigation. Founded less than 10 years ago, Anthem, a town just north of Phoenix, now has a population of over 40,000. As part of its rapid expansion the town recently installed three closed chamber, medium pressure UV systems from Aquionics to disinfect its wastewater. This allows the town to not only meet increased demands in its water and wastewater treatment capacity, but also to exceed the output quality standards. The wastewater is treated by three Aquionics InLine systems handling a combined flow of three million gallons per day. They work in conjunction with microfiltration and nitrification/denitrification. The systems are optimized to meet the upcoming Arizona Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (AZPDES) Permit Program. The two local golf courses currently use a combination of UV treated wastewater and fresh river water for irrigation, but with increases in population, it is expected that the courses will soon be using wastewater exclusively. An automatic cleaning mechanism keeps the lamp sleeves free of organic deposits for consistent UV dosing. Each chamber is also fitted with UV monitors to measure actual UV dose for record keeping. With the addition of an optional online transmittance monitor, real time transmittance values are used to automatically adjust the dose pacing of the UV system. In another, international, example, the local water authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, conserved 160 million gallons (607 megaliters) of drinking water in 2005/2006 by substituting recycled water. The authority achieved this outstanding result by recycling over 83% of all water received at its wastewater treatment plants. The breakdown of wastewater usage was: Agriculture 68%, environmental discharge 23%, urban and industrial uses 8% and on-site treatment processes 1%. Conclusion The UV industry has matured considerably over the last decade and is now highly regulated and dominated by the world's major water technology companies. Conventional UV technologies www.esemag.com

have been field-tested and now have considerable track records in a wide range of applications. Uncertainties surrounding regulations, royalties, technology and engineering have decreased and acceptance of UV is expected to grow rapidly over the next 20 years. Conventional UV designs have been greatly aided by CFD, which will be used as a routine sizing tool for future designs. The stage is now set for dramatic growth in the wastewater reuse market, especially with increasing populations putting even more pressure on already overstretched water resources in many

regions of the world. Tighter limitations on pollution discharge will also play an important role in the development of this technology. Reference Hu J.Y., Chu, S. N., Quek, P. H., Feng, Y. Y., and Tan, X. L. (2005). Repair and regrowth of Escherichia coli after lowand medium-pressure ultraviolet disinfection. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, Vol. 5, No. 5, 101-108 For further information, contact: E-mail: jon.mcclean@aquionics.com

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Energy Efficiency

Will light emitting diodes be the future of lighting? By Claus Koch s we strive to reduce our energy consumption, for both economic and environmental reasons, it is important to recognize that lighting represents a very large percentage of most commercial and institutional end-users’ electricity demand. The IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America) reports that 20-25% of energy used in buildings is for lighting purposes and, specifically in the US, lighting accounts for 5% of total energy consumption. The heat produced from lighting also accounts for a further 15-20% of the cooling load for commercial buildings. It is noteworthy that we have relied on the lightbulb for almost all our lighting needs for nearly a century. The replaceable vacuum tube, which first made radio broadcasting, televisions, radar and telephones a possibility, lasted only fifty years before being abandoned in favour of solid state electronics that last longer and are more energy-efficient. Yet, until very recently, there seemed to be no similar substitute for the lightbulb itself. With recent legislation changes and technology advancements, this may be about to change. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are not a new invention. They have been around for approximately thirty years in various applications and are certainly more efficient: they use a fraction of the electricity compared with lamp light sources; they last five to one hundred times as long as lamps; and they cost less to install. However, LEDs currently only produce colour lighting and therefore their use has been limited to specialty applications such as monitoring and signal lights.

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Science and technology have progressed some way towards overcoming this obstacle, thanks to the invention of the blue laser by Dr. Shuji Nakamura. It is now possible to manufacture blue LEDs, coated with a phosphor, that produce “white” light. However, the very nature of these “white” light LEDs means they actually cause some loss of efficiency, as compared with the earlier colour LEDs. There are rumours of high performance “white” LEDs, with a range of 300 and 500 lumens per watt (performance measure of visible light produced per unit of electrical draw), which would make them a desirable alternative to the lightbulb. Table 1 shows the typical performance ranges of actual market products from large suppliers. As can be seen from Table 1, the cost of white LEDs far exceeds that of conventional light sources, and the actual cost of the most recent LEDs is still unknown. The cost factor initially suggests that LEDs will never be a viable alternative to the lightbulb. However, if we apply Moore’s Law to this example, the future of LEDs looks brighter. Moore’s Law, proposed in 1965 by Gordon Moore, states that the cost of semiconductor performance falls in price by 40% annually. For example, a memory board that can store one megabyte of data may have cost $1000 at one time; 10 years later one megabyte would cost about six dollars. LEDs (also solid state devices) have been exhibiting similar price/performance improvement and are expected to continue this trend. As the issue of cost erodes away, the inherent benefits of LEDs make them an increasingly attractive substitute: no mer-

Light Source

Net Efficacy (Lumens per Watt)

Approximate Cost ($/Kilo Lumens)

Incandescent Halogen Compact Fluorescent Linear Fluorescent Metal Halide White LED 500K (cool) White LED (3000 (warm) Recently announced LED

10-30 15-30 50-70* 60-100 70-100 20-45 14-29 110

$1 $1 $4 $1 $2 $50 $50 ??

Table 1 – Typical Performance of Lighting Solutions 74 | September 2007

cury content, inexpensive ingredients, safer operating temperatures, instant on/off switching, no cold temperature start-up problems, no ultraviolet light to fade fabrics, no infrared to add unwanted heat, high directionality for display lighting, reduced landfill, and generally lower maintenance costs. There are, of course, still a number of challenges that must be addressed before we see LEDs becoming our primary light source. Amongst them is the highly directional nature of LED lighting. This is good for task lighting but is not so good for general illumination. Using these point sources to produce indirect lighting increases the cost of the installation and reduces the performance. The low output per LED requires banks of LEDs to produce the same light as one conventional lamp. Another possibility is that LEDs may be superseded by other photo luminescent technologies that are now reaching the market. In summary, LEDs may well be the future of lighting, but today’s product line-up is best suited to fill a growing list of niche applications. Because lighting technology is complex and multifaceted and because it has significant impact on the bottom line, consumers are advised to seek objective expert help for their lighting needs. For more information, visit www.energyadvantage.com

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By

Water For People names five countries for expansion Friendly Animal Crossing

Due to the fast growth of road networks and traffic, the number of animal crossings in Canada has increased. Super•Cor is AIL’s animal friendly alternative to reduce the conflict between increased networks and animal migration routes. AIL’s Super•Cor animal crossings are available in various shapes and sizes and can be used for overpasses or underpasses. AIL’s animal crossings are environmentally friendly, aesthetically pleasing and cost effective requiring little construction time and minimal use of equipment.

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he Water For People Board of Directors has announced plans to expand its international development program to five additional countries, which will significantly increase Water For People’s impact in the developing world. The countries targeted for expansion over the next five years are Ecuador, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Uganda and the Dominican Republic. These new program locations will strategically complement existing work in Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, India, and Malawi. The adoption of these countries will double the number of countries served by Water For People and will position the organization to reach its target of directly benefiting 1,000 new people per day by 2011. The unanimous decision was reached a year after the Board of Directors adopted its five-year strategic plan, which calls for aggressive expansion of its sustainable program model to more people in countries who need safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene education. The five countries were selected following a careful review of 10 countries identified in earlier desk studies. Each of the 10 countries was carefully evaluated by a team of World Water Corps volunteers, who conducted extensive scoping studies during April and May

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2007. Volunteer teams visited each country to assess needs, meet with potential partner organizations, and evaluate the potential for the successful implementation of Water For People’s community-based model. Volunteer teams presented their findings to the International Programs Committee and the Board of Directors at its June 23 meeting in Toronto. Water For People plans to launch work in Ecuador and Nicaragua in 2007, followed by Rwanda in 2008. Work in Uganda and the Dominican Republic will be initiated over the next four years, as resources allow. “It was a difficult decision as all of the countries under consideration have a real need for Water For People’s work,” said Fred Elwell, Water For People president. “The countries selected fit with our model of community involvement and demonstrate a high potential for success, which guided much of the decision-making process. A great deal of credit is owed to our World Water Corps volunteers and the members of the International Programs Committee, who did an excellent job in researching the need and potential of each country.” More information is available at www.waterforpeople.org

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The Water Quality Event

80th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference San Diego Convention Center | San Diego, California, USA Conference October 13-17, 2007 | Exhibition October 15-17, 2007

WEFTEC attracts the largest audience of water and wastewater professionals in North America and is the leading source for all that is water quality by bringing to you a world of knowledge, education, networking, technology and solutions.

WEFTEC.07 Topics Include: California Issues Collection Systems Contaminants of Emerging Concern/Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Disaster Planning Facility Operations Groundwater Industrial Issues and Technology

Instrumentation, Automation and Computer Applications International and Small Island Nationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Issues Leading Edge Research Management of Odors and VOCs Municipal Wastewater Treatment Public Education

Residuals and Biosolids Treatment Small Community and Decentralized Water Infrastructure Small Island Nations: Water, Wastewater and Environmental Issues (International Issues) Stormwater Management and Wet Weather Flows

For detailed information, visit www.WEFTEC.org Registration and Housing Reservations are now available online.

Surface Water Quality and Ecology Sustainable Water Resources Management Utility and Asset Management Water and Wastewater Disinfection Water Reuse and Reclamation Watershed-Based Permitting/TMDLs


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Arsenic removal from groundwater By Suchit Kaila – current technologies his is a continuation of the previous discussion on sources, effects and occurrences of arsenic in Canada, published in the March issue. The information presented here will provide a brief technical review of the treatment technologies available for arsenic remediation such as coagulation and media filtration, media adsorption, and membrane filtration techniques. The most commonly used techniques for arsenic removal are: a) Pre-oxidation, coagulation followed by media filtration. b) Pre-oxidation and media filtration. c) Adsorptive media filtration with/with out pre-oxidation. d) Pre-oxidation and ion exchange. e) Membrane filtration. OXIDATION Oxidation reactions do not remove arsenic from solution but are used to oxidize more soluble As(III) (arsenite) to less soluble As(V) (arsenate) to facilitate removal. Water that contains only As(V) does not require oxidants for removal. Oxidants like free chlorine, hypochlorite, ozone, potassium permanganate and Fenton’s reagent have been shown to effectively oxidize As(III). Arsenite is predominantly non-ionic below pH of 9.2 and, therefore, many treatment technologies require oxidation of As(III) to As(V) to facilitate removal. Oxidation followed by a removal process such as coagulation, adsorption or ion exchange will provide the desired levels of total ar-

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senic reduction (Johnston et al, 2001). The kinetics of air oxidation of arsenic are very slow and it may take weeks to oxidize As(III) to As(V). The oxidation rate of arsenite can be catalyzed by bacteria, strong acidic or alkali solutions, copper, powdered activated carbon and high temperature (Johnston et al, 2001). UV radiation alone is ineffective for As(III) oxidation unless applied at extremely high dosages (Ghurye and Clifford, 2001). However, UV can be used to catalyze oxidation reaction of As(III) in the presence of other oxidants such as oxygen or hydrogen peroxide (Johnston et al, 2001). Chemicals such as chlorine, ozone, permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/Fe2+), and solid phase oxidizers such as manganese oxides can be effectively used to oxidize arsenite (Johnston et al, 2001). Chlorine rapidly oxidizes As(III) even in the presence of interfering reductants such as iron, manganese, TOC and sulfide. Monochloramine and chlorine dioxide have been reported to be ineffective to oxidize arsenite. Potassium permanganate solution also rapidly oxidizes As(III) and the interfering reductants have no effect on oxidation reaction. Ozone also rapidly oxidizes As(III) and the presence of iron and manganese does not affect the oxidation reaction but the presence of sulfide slows down the reaction. However, the presence of TOC

in water adversely affects and quenches the As(III) oxidation by ozone. Filox, a manganese dioxide based media, is also very effective in oxidizing As(III). All the interfering reductants adversely affect As(III) oxidation by Filox but this can be overcome by either increasing the contact time or by increasing the DO level (Ghurye and Clifford, 2001). COAGULATION AND MEDIA FILTRATION Coagulation and flocculation The process of coagulation and flocculation involves solidification and aggregation of small particles into larger flocs that can be removed from solution through solid/liquid separation processes. The process consists of three steps: coagulant formation, particle destabilization, and inter-particle collisions. The first two steps take place during rapid mixing and the third during slow mixing or flocculation (Fields et al, 2000a). Metal salts are used as coagulants and the most commonly used salts are aluminium and ferric salts such as alum, ferric chloride and ferric sulfate. These metal salts when added to water easily dissolve and form amorphous hydrous metal oxides, which form gelatinous flocs that bind to other flocs and settle out of solution. Arsenate is negatively charged in natural waters at pH above 2.2 and is electrostatically attracted to the positive charge on the metal hydroxide surface. The arsenate removal efficiency is mainly dependent upon the pH and coagulant dose but independent of

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Water Quality initial arsenic concentration. Filtration is an important step to remove fine particles, small flocs and colloidal particles and ensure efficient arsenic removal (Johnston et al, 2001). For coagulation to be effective for arsenic removal, As(III) has to be pre-oxidized to As(V) especially when aluminium or calcium salts are used (Kinetico, 2003). Iron coagulants are more effective as compared to aluminium coagulants for arsenate removal (Fields et al, 2000a). Ferric salts when dissolved in water form amorphous hydrous ferric oxides (HFO). Arsenate adsorption onto HFO is optimal below pH 8. The optimal dosage depends upon the specific water chemistry and required removal efficiencies. The typical dosage range is 5 – 30 mg/L FeCl3 (Johnston et al, 2001). USEPA has reported that for arsenic removal, the best coagulant is ferric sulfate (Fields et al, 2000a). Aluminium salts when dissolved in water form amorphous hydrous aluminium oxides (HAO). Arsenate adsorption onto HAO is optimal below pH 7. An optimal dosage depends upon the specific water chemistry and required removal efficiencies and alum doses are generally higher, ranging from 10 – 50 mg/L. As(V) removal with alum is restricted to a very narrow pH range of 6 – 7. The highly hydrated state of alum has one advantage over ferric chloride in that the solid is stable under humid conditions, whereas ferric chloride can adsorb water from air and lose its consistency (Johnston et al, 2001). Lime coagulation processes such as lime softening, excess lime treatment and lime soda softening require addition of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 for the removal of carbonate and non-carbonate hardness from water. Arsenic also adsorbs to calcium hydroxide and lime softening plants for hardness reduction will also see a reduction in arsenic when the arsenic influent is 5 – 75 ppb (Fields et al, 2000a). Arsenic removal during lime softening is pH dependent and the optimal pH is above 10.5 for effective arsenic removal. Co-precipitation of As(V) with Mg(OH)2 is probably the primary removal mechanism during lime softening. As(V) removal is between 0 – 10% when only CaCO3 is precipitated but when both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 are precipitated, As(V) removal efficiencies of 60 – 95% can be achieved. (Fields et al, 2000a). Low As(III) removal efficiencies can be increased to over 90% by adding powdered coal during the lime www.esemag.com

softening process (Johnston et al, 2001). Pre-oxidation and media filtration (iron removal plants) Conventional iron and manganese removal plants commonly use chemical oxidation/precipitation and filtration processes to remove naturally occurring iron and manganese from water. The most commonly used oxidants are chlorine and potassium permanganate (Fields et al, 2000b). During the process, arsenic is also removed due to co-precipitation and sorption onto ferric or manganic hydroxides. The contribution of manganese oxidation to arsenic removal is, however, minimal as compared to iron oxidation unless manganese concentrations are higher than 3 mg/L (Johnston et al, 2001). During the oxidation step, As(III) along with Fe(II) is oxidized to As(V) and it attaches to the iron hydroxides through adsorption and/or co-precipitation. The precipitate is then filtered during the filtration step. Some studies have indicated that arsenic removal efficiency is directly proportional to inlet iron concentration (Fields et al, 2000b). It is important that a strong chemical oxidant be used to simultaneously oxidize Fe(II) and As(III). Where there is an existing aeration system for Fe(II) oxidation, the chemical oxidant must be added before aeration to allow for the simultaneous oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III) (Lytle et al, 2005). The arsenic removal efficiency during the process may be reduced in the presence of orthophosphate, natural organic matter (NOM), and silicate due to competition for sorption sites on iron hydroxide precipitates. Arsenic removal efficiency is independent of pH (between 5.5 to 8.5) and initial arsenic concentrations (Fields et al, 2000b). ADSORPTIVE TECHNIQUES Various solid materials, including activated alumina and iron-based adsorbents, have a strong adsorptive affinity for dissolved arsenic. Arsenic is attracted to sorption sites on these media and is removed from the solution. Several media manufacturers have developed enhanced media by doing some surface modifications. These media exhibit greater arsenic adsorption capacities. Iron-based adsorbent media may also remove As(III) as efficiently as As(V) with pre-oxidation of arsenite. Activated carbon Activated carbon is a widely used sorption material for organic substances. Activated carbon can also remove arsenic continued overleaf... September 2007 | 79


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Water Quality from water by sorption. Activated carbon can be used in a column filter or it can be applied in batch mode by mixing it with water and allowing it to settle down. It has been reported that activated carbon adsorption can achieve up to 98% arsenic removal efficiencies. Over a period of time, the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon gets exhausted and it can be regenerated using a steam regeneration process where all sorbed material is vapourized due to a very high temperature. Generally, pure activated carbon is a poor adsorbent for arsenic but its capacity can be increased by modification. Many studies have shown that chemically-treated activated carbon exhibits a high adsorption capacity for arsenic. Iron-oxide-impregnated activated carbon has good arsenic removal capacity (Ronald et al, 2005). Similarly, copperimpregnated coconut husk carbon is five times more effective for As(III) removal than coconut husk carbon. In a study, a maximum As(III) removal efficiency of 88.6% could be achieved at pH 12 using copper-impregnated coconut husk carbon (Manju et al, 1998). Activated alumina Activated alumina adsorption is probably the best understood and characterized method for arsenic removal. In this process

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arsenic is removed by adsorption onto the available sorption sites on the oxide surface of the media. This causes the gradual consumption of adsorption sites and, when all available adsorption sites are filled, the media may be simply disposed of or regenerated by a strong base such as NaOH. The typical arsenic removal efficiency of the media is > 95% but the process is affected by many factors such as the arsenic oxidation state, pH, competing ions, and the EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time) (Wang et al, 2000). An activated alumina process is typically more effective for arsenate removal than for arsenite removal. Therefore, pre-oxidation of As(III) to As(V) is recommended. The optimal pH range for arsenic removal by activated alumina is 5.5 to 6.0 and the removal efficiency decreases as the pH increases. Activated alumina has a zero point charge at pH 8.2, below which it has a net positive charge and adsorbs anions from solution. Ions in solution compete for adsorption sites and the order of preference is:

Activated alumina has a higher preference for As (V) than most competing ions and As(III). As(V) sorption by activated alumina, is, however, severely impacted by the presence of dissolved organic matter and high levels of sulfate, TDS, and chloride in water and adsorption capacity can be reduced by approximately 50% (Wang et al, 2000). Arsenic removal efficiency also decreases if the water contains phosphate > 10 mg/L, fluoride > 2 mg/L and EDTA > 0.01 moles/L (Manoharan, 2005). Several manufacturers have produced enhanced activated alumina media with surface modifications. These media have been reported to have a higher arsenic adsorption capacity and can effectively operate in a wider pH range. Manganese-oxide-enhanced or ironoxide-impregnated activated alumina can remove As(III) as efficiently as As(V). Some of these enhanced media may lose their effectiveness after chemical regeneration, which could remove the surface modification from the media (Kinetico, 2003).

OH- > H2AsO4- > Si(OH)3O- > F-> HSeO3- > TOC > SO42- > H3AsO3

Iron-based adsorbents Iron-based adsorbents can effectively remove arsenic from water and operate on the adsorptive affinity of iron oxides

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Water Quality for arsenic. Iron adsorbents can operate within a wide pH range as compared to activated alumina and the process is less susceptible to pH changes. The typical operating pH range of iron adsorbents is 5.5 to 9. Iron adsorbent media can effectively remove As(III) without pre-oxidation (Kinetico, 2003). Granular ferric hydroxide is a highly effective adsorbent for As(III), As(V) and phosphate removal from water. It does not require pre-oxidation of As (III) to facilitate removal and can treat 30,000 to 40,000 bed volumes with effluent arsenic concentration never exceeding 10 ppb (Kim et al, 2006). Manganese greensand Greensand is a natural zeolite which has strong ion exchange properties to remove iron, manganese, arsenic, sulfide and other anions. Manganese greensand is granular mineral glauconite coated with MnO2. The presence of MnO2 on a greensand surface makes it strongly oxidizing and can remove both As(V) and As(III). As(III) is oxidized to As(V) which then attaches to the iron hydroxides through adsorption and co-precipitation. The resulting particles are then removed in the filter bed. In the presence of iron in water, manganese greensand can remove 80% of As(III), which is halved in the absence of iron in water (Johnston et al, 2001). The media can be recharged with potassium permanganate, which deposits a fresh layer of MnO2 on the media surface. Arsenic removal efficiency is better with continuous media regeneration than with intermittent regeneration (Viraraghavan et al, 1999). For effective removal of arsenic from water by manganese greensand, the ratio of Fe to As in water should be at least 20, at which an overall efficiency of 83% can be achieved. Arsenic removal from manganese greensand depends on the presence of iron and co-precipitation with ferric hydroxide (Subramanian et al, 1997). Ion exchange Ion exchange is a physical/chemical process in which ions in the solution are exchanged with the ions or charged functional groups attached to the solid phase resin by covalent bonding (Wang et al, 2000). Ion exchange resins are widely used in water treatment to remove dissolved impurities, especially hardness from water (Johnston et al, 2001). Strongly basic anion resins are used for arsenic removal but they do not remove As(III) as it occurs as an uncharged ion in water below pH 9. As(V) species are negatively charged and are www.esemag.com

removed by strongly basic anion resins. Therefore, if As(III) is present in water then it has to be oxidized to As(V) to facilitate removal by ion exchange (Wang et al, 2000). The most important advantage of the resin is its ability to regenerate. Strongly basic anion resins are commonly regenerated by a brine solution and the brine consumption can be reduced by recycling it a number of times. Arsenate removal by ion exchange is independent of pH and influent arsenic concentration but competing ions, especially sulfate, have a strong effect and determine the regeneration timing. It has been reported that ion exchange is not economically viable at TDS > 500 mg/L and sulfate > 150 mg/L but some manufacturers have suggested that arsenicspecific resin is capable of working at sulfate concentrations of up to 500 mg/L (Kinetico, 2003). In low sulfate waters, over 95% arsenate removal efficiencies can be achieved by ion exchange and many times higher bed volumes can be treated before arsenic breakthrough will occur (Johnston et al, 2001). EBCT is usually 1.5 to 3 minutes for packed beds. Arsenate ions and some other anions, especially sulfate, are removed in order of exchange preference. The presence of Fe(III) in water can also cause arsenic removal as Fe(III) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; arsenic complexes are formed. The colloidal iron could transport the adsorbed arsenic, as colloidal iron is not removed by ion exchange, causing arsenic leakage in the effluent (Wang et al, 2000). The disadvantages of ion exchange are that the process requires close monitoring of regeneration cycles to avoid chromatographic peaking, disposal and treatment of large volumes of arsenicrich spent regenerant, and, in addition, anion resins are very susceptible to iron fouling (Johnston et al, 2001). Membrane techniques Membrane treatment processes can remove many impurities from water while maintaining simplicity and ease of operation. Membrane treatment processes can be divided into two categories: high-pressure processes, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF), and lowpressure processes, such as microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF). By passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane, arsenic can be removed from water along with other constituents. Arsenic removal efficiency from membrane continued overleaf... September 2007 | 81


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Water Quality techniques depends on the pore size of the membrane and the particle size of the arsenic species. Pre-oxidation of As(III) improves the arsenic removal efficiencies as most techniques have low As(III) removal (Mondal et al, 2006). The small pores of membranes make them more prone to fouling, especially when iron and manganese are present in water. Membranes require pre-treatment of raw water, monitoring of operational parameters and skilled operators, all of which makes the process costly (Mondal et al, 2006). Microfiltration and ultrafiltration Microfiltration (MF) can effectively remove particles of over 0.05 Îźm size. The pore size of MF membranes is > 50 nm and they cannot remove dissolved or colloidal arsenic species. However, high arsenic removal can be achieved when MF is used as post-treatment to coagulation and flocculation processes. For the effective removal of arsenite, it has to be completely oxidized to arsenate. Coagulation processes such as iron salt coagulation after chemical oxidation, followed by MF, will achieve residual arsenic levels of < 10 ppb (Shih, 2005). Ultrafiltration membranes primarily

remove constituents through physical sieving and have mesopores of size 2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 50 nm. Like MF, UF as a stand-alone process is not a viable technique for arsenic removal but can be used effectively as a post treatment process. UF with electric repulsion has higher arsenic removal efficiency as compared to UF alone. AWWA has reported 63% As(V) removal efficiency at neutral pH using a negatively charged UF membrane (Shih, 2005). Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes have pore sizes appropriate for removing dissolved arsenic. Data from the 1980s regarding arsenic rejection by RO reported good As(V) rejection of > 90% but somewhat less efficient As(III) rejection of < 70%. The new generation of RO and NF membranes have been reported to be equally efficient for As(V) and As(III) removal and are able to reject 96 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 99% arsenic. However, selective removal of arsenic is not possible by high pressure membranes and many other dissolved impurities will also be removed. Therefore, RO treated water will have very low levels of dissolved solids and can be corrosive and deficient in important minerals

required by the human body (Johnston et al, 2001). CONCLUSION In conclusion, the current arsenic removal technologies, though effective, have a few disadvantages. Apart from the waste generation, another disadvantage of these treatment technologies is that they require high infrastructure and equipment costs, trained and technical staff to operate and maintain the systems and, high operating costs. The biggest challenge is in applying these technologies in rural settings in the developing nations. Among the conventional techniques, anion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, modified coagulation/filtration, and oxidation/filtration including greensand filtration have been identified as the best available technologies for arsenic removal. All these solid/liquid separation processes transfer the contaminant from the dissolved to a solid phase, resulting in an arsenic-rich waste. Ion exchange and membrane processes generate arsenic-laden liquid wastes. Most of the waste generated may require additional treatment prior to discharge. In recent years, the focus of the research on arsenic removal has been to identify and develop novel technologies for arsenic removal. It is important to develop low-cost, low-tech technologies that can be applied in rural areas and especially in the developing countries such as Bangladesh, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, etc. A discussion of the future trends and recent research to develop low-cost and eco-friendly arsenic removal techniques will be provided in an upcoming issue of the magazine. Note: The information in this article is not an independent finding or opinion of the author but is based upon collection and review of the published material as referenced. Suchit Kaila, M.Eng., E.I.T., is a Process Engineer Environmental Infrastructure, with Stantec. Contact: suchit.kaila@stantec.com

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Water Supply

Water sustainability: from awareness to action in British Columbia By Kim A Stephens

Water dam used to control water levels in an Okanagan irrigation canal.

artnerships, partnerships, partnerships! This was the key message at a half-day reporting out session on ‘Water Sustainability – Convening for Action in British Columbia’, held as part of the 2007 Annual Conference of the British Columbia Water & Waste Association (BCWWA). The British Columbia landscape is being transformed by settlement and economic growth. While the Province has been experiencing enhanced social and economic well-being, the need to mitigate pressures on land and water resources has provided a driver for a ‘green infrastructure’ movement that is: • water-centric, • founded on a natural systems approach, and • keyed to partnerships. Water-centric means planning with a view to water – whether for a single site or the entire Province. Infrastructure design is changing. Cumulative benefits are achievable, one property at a time, through changes in the policies, programs, practices and standards that determine how land is developed and water is used. By implementing design with nature infrastructure practices and regulation, the ‘convening for action’ vision is that British Columbia

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will be well on the way to achieving water sustainability by 2010. The objective when ‘convening for action’ is to influence practitioners to learn about and use practices that better balance the necessary relationships of settlement activity and ecological assets in local and regional landscapes. Practitioners are defined as those whose professions, vocations and volunteer tasks relate to use and conservation of water, land and real estate. Water Sustainability Action Plan for British Columbia The Convening for Action session at the BCWWA Conference provided implementation updates on how a watercentric approach to community planning and development is being advanced under the partnership umbrella of the ‘Water Sustainability Action Plan for British Columbia’. The Action Plan comprises inter-connected program elements that give local governments and practitioners the tools and experience to do things differently. The program elements are categorized as shown on Figure 1 and as listed below: • Products and Tools • Networking and Outreach • Education and Training • Capacity Building continued overleaf... September 2007 | 83


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Water Supply The Convening for Action presentations addressed each of these elements. First, context was provided by explaining how the Water Sustainability Action Plan is being delivered by the BCWWA Water Sustainability Committee through a partnership with the BC Ministry of Environment. Then, three regional pilot programs were described. The final presentation was about the Water Bucket Website, which was a unifying thread through all the presentations. Water – choosing sustainability for life and livelihoods The BCWWA Water Sustainability Committee is a roundtable of organizations that have a specific interest or mission in implementing the Action Plan. In 2006, the BCWWA Water Sustainability Committee borrowed the phrase ‘water for life and livelihoods' from the United Kingdom in order to focus British Columbians on what is at stake over both the short and long terms. The phrase conveys the fundamental principles of sustainability of natural systems in their own right and in relation to the health and well-being of people who benefit from the use of water for basic life needs and economic activity. In the lead-off co-presentation, Raymond Fung (Chair of the Water Sustainability Committee) and Lynn Kriwoken (Director of the Ministry of Environment’s Water Stewardship Division) elaborated on the relationship between the Ministry of Environment and the BCWWA Water Sustainability Committee in delivering the Action Plan. In her part, Lynn Kriwoken emphasized that the Ministry of Environment views its partnership with the Water Sus-

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Figure 1

tainability Committee as an essential element in implementing the Ministry's Water Stewardship Outreach Strategy. In his part, Raymond Fung described what Convening for Action means in practice. According to Lynn Kriwoken, "water is the piece that integrates everything that we care about. You will note that we are using the phrase water stewardship, not water management. Stewardship is about replacing self interest, dependency and control with service, responsibility and partnership." "Stewardship is an obligation that we all have", stated Raymond Fung, "and the key to moving from awareness to action is to form partnerships. Partnerships provide a good way to share risks. The Water Balance Model is a prime example of spreading the risk by banding together.” Developed by an Inter-Governmental

Partnership as an extension of ‘Stormwater Planning: A Guidebook for British Columbia’, the Water Balance Model is a web-based decision support and scenario modeling tool that is found at www.waterbalance.ca. It enables users to visualize how to implement green infrastructure solutions that achieve rainwater runoff source control at the site scale. Published in 2002, the Guidebook was a catalyst for change that has resulted in British Columbia achieving international recognition as a leader in implementing a natural systems approach to rainwater management. Fung provided context for each of the three regional pilots for Convening for Action: "In the South Okanagan, we have helped bring a voice to water issues. In Greater Vancouver, practitioners working for local governments told us they did not

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want more documents that simply go on a shelf; rather, they wanted to network and share their experiences. On Vancouver Island, we have an ambitious program to bring people together and apply/adapt what we have learned in the Okanagan and in Greater Vancouver." Convening for Action in the South Okanagan Within the next 10 to 15 years it is projected that the available water in the Okanagan Basin will be fully allocated. At the same time, agricultural development is also expected to increase, with potential growth in the grape and wine sector leading the way. Also, the region will continue to experience both the benefits and consequences of climate change – that is, a longer growing season and changes in form and pattern of precipitation and runoff, respectively. The purpose in ‘convening for action’ is to build regional capacity and understanding of what Water OUT = Water IN means in the context of a Regional Growth Strategy and its goals. "Everything is connected, and how we develop land determines how water is used and how water runs off the land. Because water has been identified as the #1 concern of the public, the South Okanagan Regional Growth Strategy is a provincial pilot for advancing the water balance way-of-thinking and acting", noted Ted van der Gulik, Senior Engineeer with the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. He is also Vice-Chair of the Okanagan Water Stewardship Council, Vice-Chair of the Water Sustainability Committee of the BCWWA, and Chair of the Inter-Governmental Partnership that developed the Water Balance Model. Convening for Action in the Greater Vancouver Region In the Greater Vancouver region, the Green Infrastructure Partnership has implemented a program called ‘Celebrating Green Infrastructure: Showcasing Innovation Series’. According to Paul Ham, Chair of the Green Infrastructure Partnership, “the goal in showcasing on-theground innovation is to build regional capacity through sharing of green infrastructure approaches, experiences and lessons learned as an outcome of designing with nature.” “When we talk to practitioners in local government, it doesn't matter what the region, the message is the same...they tell us that they are too busy to communicate with their colleagues in neighbouring municipalities. Yet the irony is that there is much to learn by sharing incontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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Tell us what you want. This ad is just one more way to ask you what you want us to deliver. Tell us. We will develop what you need. Visit www.caeal.ca Call 613-233-5300 E-mail rwilson@caeal.ca

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Water Supply formation with each other. At the end of the day, it seems that it takes a third party to bring people together”, observed Ham. By pooling resources under a regional partnership framework for outreach and continuing education, local governments can leverage the efforts of their own staffs and develop a common understanding of issues and solutions. “The Showcasing Innovation Series is a building block process….each time the objective is to raise the bar when celebrating successes in municipalities", added Paul Ham. Each event in the Showcasing Innovation Series is organized as a workshop in the morning followed by a field tour in the afternoon. “The concept is simple – promote networking. We find that it is the casual conversations on the bus and at sites along the way that are the most valuable to participants”, concluded Paul Ham. Convening for Action on Vancouver Island Convening for Action on Vancouver Island (CAVI) is a pilot program on a regional scale. The purpose of CAVI is to provide research and education for practitioners (primarily local government administrators, engineers, planners and elected persons) to plan for management of sustainable water resources in the con-

text of burgeoning settlement activity. CAVI is reaching out to groups that share a vision for Vancouver Island, with the goal of creating a roundtable of partnerships. CAVI will ultimately comprise an array of program elements that celebrate and advance on-the-ground examples of green infrastructure innovation and ‘designing with nature’. Initiatives for 2007 include: • Creating Our Future Workshop: What will Vancouver Island look like in 50 years? • Celebrating Green Infrastructure: Showcasing Innovation Series. • Mayors & Chairs Green Infrastructure Forum. According to CAVI Chair John Finnie, "if we are to control our destiny and create our future, then we need to challenge our fellow Vancouver Islanders to visualize what they want Vancouver Island to look like in 50 years. We have identified two desired outcomes in ‘convening for action’. First, we wish to influence local governments to adopt ‘design with nature’ as the preferred process of approving land development applications. Secondly, we intend to facilitate the move from awareness to action in changing the

way that land is developed and water is used on Vancouver Island.” WaterBucket – the water portal for British Columbia “The success of the Water Balance Model website helped create momentum for development of the WaterBucket website at www.waterbucket.ca”, added Michael Tanner, Chair of the WaterBucket Website Partnership. “Launched in 2005, the WaterBucket is the primary communication vehicle for the Action Plan. Our vision is to provide a resource-rich, highly interactive 'destination location' for timely and provocative information about water sustainability in British Columbia.” The WaterBucket currently has seven communities-of-interest. The goal is that these will evolve into communities-ofpractice. According to Mike Tanner, "what makes the website distinctive is that it has three dimensions. It is a news magazine for raising awareness of BC success stories. It has a growing library of information resources on the BC experience and it houses ‘made in BC' tools for use by practitioners on-the-ground. It will facilitate networking and the sharing of knowledge and expertise, support efforts to promote water conservation and stewardship and help convert that information into action." Looking Ahead A water-centric approach puts water stewardship front and centre on the agenda of comprehensive land use, development or resource planning initiatives. Water-centric planning considers the amount of water available, the amount of water needed, innovative efficiency strategies, the quality of water leaving an area, how rain and snow water are managed, and the impact on the natural environment. Also, desired outcomes for water sustainability and green infrastructure are common to both, and can be achieved through infrastructure standards that reflect a full and proper understanding of the relationship between land and water. This is called designing with nature. Finally, implementation of integrated strategies and solutions ultimately requires integration of missions, mandates and accountabilities of participating agencies. Kim A Stephens, M.Eng., P.Eng., is Program Coordinator with Water Sustainability Action Plan for British Columbia. E-mail: kimastephens@shaw.ca

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Manitoba to fund Lake Winnipeg water quality research

Hecla island is located on Lake Winnipeg, near Gimli, and was settled by Icelandic people. It is primarily a tourism, fishing, resort, and sailing destination with a lovely golf course.

his year Manitoba will invest $965,000 for new and ongoing research in and around Lake Winnipeg including support for the Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium and the research ship Namao. The Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium leads important work on issues that impact the health of the lake including nutrient loading and the formation of algae blooms. Manitoba Water Stewardship also funds lake-wide research on the Namao in collaboration with scientists from the federal government and universities. Provincial staff will monitor water and sediment quality throughout the north and south basins of Lake Winnipeg. Results will be compared to samples collected in previous years and become part of the long-term water quality monitoring record on Lake Winnipeg. Research will also continue to understand how, when and why algae blooms form. Both the new co-ordination team and the Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board will be served by a science team that will be comprised of federal, provincial and university scientists. Both new teams will be co-chaired jointly by Manitoba Water Stewardship and Environment Canada senior officials.

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Other action underway to protect Lake Winnipeg includes: • The on-site sewage and waste-disposal regulation has been strengthened to place stricter limitations on the location and installation of sewage systems and septic fields. • The Department of Water Stewardship has been established, and key pieces of legislation including the Drinking Water Safety Act and the Water Protection Act have been developed. The Ground Water and Water Well Act has been strengthened. • The Riparian Tax Credit has been created and enhanced to help protect sensitive land bordering waterways. • Ongoing scientific research into water quality at Lake Winnipeg beaches is being conducted and a clean beaches program implemented to educate and encourage the public and municipalities to help keep beaches clean. • An agreement has been reached through the International Joint Commission’s International Red River Board that all jurisdictions in the Red River basin will reduce contributions to nutrients to Lake Winnipeg by 10 per cent within five years. • Licences have been issued to the City of Winnipeg requiring nutrient abatement at all of its wastewater treat-

ment facilities by 2014. • New wastewater treatment facilities such as those serving the food processing sector will be required to implement nutrient abatement measures. • The Nutrient Management Regulation, as proposed under the Water Protection Act, will address nutrient contributions from fertilizers, animal manure and municipal wastewater sludge. • The Planning Act, passed by the Manitoba legislature on June 16, 2005, has added measures to modernize landuse planning in Manitoba. • A moritorium has been put in place on new and expanding hog operations while the Clean Environment Commission assesses this sector’s long-term environmental sustainability. • Information is being provided to Manitobans on what individuals can do to minimize or eliminate the use of household cleaning products containing phosphorus and the use of fertilizers for cosmetic purposes on lawns. Additional consultations are planned for this fall. The province will set aside over $80 million in 2007 for projects and programs protecting and managing Manitoba’s water environment.

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Environmental Science Engineering Magazine

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City of Ottawa implements innovative AMR pilot program to curb distribution system leaks

hen the City of Ottawa set out to further tighten its grip on its water supply, the team assigned to the task felt it was time to take a fresh look at the way water utilities monitor for distribution system leaks and background water loss. Project engineers developed a pilot program utilizing innovative automatic meter reading (AMR) technology to enhance and quantify data gleaned from district metering areas. Ottawa’s Public Works and Services

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Department hopes the new AMR pilot program, the first of its kind in the city, will provide valuable insight into local water consumption patterns and establish guidelines that can be applied to monitoring non-AMR equipped district metering areas in Ottawa. The Drinking Water Services Division is responsible for managing and distributing water to close to 750,000 residents and businesses. It is one of the largest water systems in Ontario under a single authority. There are over 195,000

meters installed throughout the city. Proactive programs employed by the utility include the routine testing of installed meters and implementation of ongoing water efficiency measures, which led to the development of the AMR pilot program. The City’s Utility Services Branch of the Department of Public Works initiated the AMR pilot program. Responsible for the City’s water loss and leak detection efforts, the Branch was looking to improve upon their ability to monitor leaks within the water distribution system. The City’s Drinking Water Services and Customer Services Division of the Utility Services Branch worked together through implementation. Leaks that occur at the point of consumption, e.g. at a business or residence, are easier to catch for a water utility than distribution system leaks. If a business or residence meter reports continuous flow, it provides ready indication of a problem. The water distribution system, however, always reports continuous flow in supplying water to the City. Utilities must take additional measures to detect unusual flows, which can indicate leaks in the system. District metered areas (DMA) have become the preferred standard for proactive distribution system leak detection. First gaining wide implementation in the UK and Europe, DMAs are now being adopted by North American utilities. What are DMAs A DMA consists of an isolated water distribution zone behind a single metered inlet or, in some cases, multiple metered inlets. The objective of the DMA is to measure the total volume of water flowing into the zone and compare that volume against legitimate water consumption within the zone. Subtracting legitimate consumption from the total flow into the

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zone provides the exact real loss within the distribution system. Night flows and legitimate use assumptions Utilities establish normal flow ranges for a given DMA by monitoring night flows, typically between 2 a.m. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 a.m. Monitoring night flows within DMAs has proven effective in helping to identify unreported bursts and other significant losses; however, the City of Ottawa and its research partners felt the process relied too heavily upon assumptions of legitimate use to provide accurate numbers related to real losses. Real losses are the combination of unavoidable background losses and leakage. Individually, the leaks contributing to unavoidable background losses are often too small to measure and not economical to repair. These can be accurately estimated based on system characteristics. Determining which portion of night flow comes from legitimate use, as opposed to loss, has not always been an exact science for utilities. Ottawa hopes to change this. The Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s project engineers created a design for their pilot system that would help clearly define their actual real losses by measuring actual consumption at every metered point in the DMA. Subtracting confirmed metered use from the total flow metered entering the zone will provide exact indication of leakage in the distribution system. This eliminates any error in calculation that may occur when using standard legitimate use assumptions established by European experts in the water loss control field. It is not that such use assumptions are inherently wrong, but Ottawa intends to determine whether these consumption pattern assumptions, many of which are dated and were developed based on usage pattern in Europe, are still viable www.esemag.com

or representative of usage occurring specifically in Ottawa. The pilot project Ottawa engineers began developing their pilot plan in early 2006. In addition to seeking actual night consumption numbers, engineers hope to use the system to generate daily consumption patterns, identify effects of implemented water efficiency measure, and test the reliability of meters. All points of consumption within the City are metered. This left engineers con-

fident that they could develop an AMR system capable of measuring actual night consumption with definitive accuracy. Engineers met early with AMR vendors outlining the goals for the project. The equipment requirements called for high-resolution flow measurement (1 litre), synchronized read capabilities, and the ability to remotely transfer read data. Ottawa issued a request for proposal and met with several equipment vendors, evaluating how well each could continued overleaf...

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Leak Detection meet their requirements. The City narrowed their list based on the technical capabilities of the equipment providers, then looked for the most cost-effective solution before awarding the contract. Master Meter was selected to provide the AMR read technology. The company’s DIALOG 3G® meters and registers incorporate a real time clock (RTC) capable of providing synchronized reads at distinct time steps. This was critical for the proposed system to capture night-time usage consumption. The pilot project required an AMR upgrade for dozens of large meters operating within the system. Rather than replace the entire meter, Ottawa was able to replace the original registers on the large meters with Master Meter’s universal AMR register, the Interpreter. The ability to retrofit existing infrastructure represented a significant savings in both the time and costs required for the AMR rollout. The pilot area The area selected for the pilot program measures approximately 1 sq km, accounting for roughly half of an established small pressure zone. Within the pilot DMA, there are 937 metered connections consisting of 900 residential properties, with the remainder of the properties commercial or industrial.

Project rollout The rollout for the pilot program began in the Spring of 2007. Prior to the pilot program all properties within the zone were fitted with standard billing water meters. Reads were collected from exterior mounted touch pads. During the AMR rollout these meters were either

replaced or upgraded with 3G meters and registers. The new meters can be quickly read remotely by a passing utility vehicle fitted with a small wireless transceiver. To enable night flow consumption testing, the real time clock in each register was set to record reads at 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. Synchronized readings are required for the accurate measure of consumption

Custom products for your custom Waste Water needs For over 50 years, Protectolite ™ Inc. has provided custom design solutions to meet our clients’ performance and cost targets. Protectolite™ Inc. FRP products are approved by leading engineering consulting firms across North America. Protectolite ™ Inc. is a preferred supplier of a wide range of fiberglass components from weir plates, scum, inlet and current density Stamford baffles to Stan-Deck modular flat covers, Stanley Launder Covers, FRP odor control ducting, and chemical storage tanks. We also manufacture a complete line of corrosion grade flat sheet and structural shapes. PROTECTOLITE™ INC.

Protectolite ™ Inc. 84 Railside Road Toronto, ON. M3A 1A3 Telephone: 416-444-4484 Fax: 416-444-4485 Email: kszasz@protectolite.com Web: www.protectolite.com

within the two hour testing period. Without the real time clock, the utility workers would be unable to capture reads from each meter at exactly 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. With the programmed meters, initial reads are recorded by all meters at 2 a.m., then retrieved from a utility vehicle patrolling the route. All 937 meters in the DMA can be read within one and a half hours. The resulting reads provide accurate measure of all of the flow into the zone and customer consumption within the two hour testing period. The AMR pilot project rollout in Ottawa is complete. The City is currently undergoing night flow testing, establishing usage patterns and evaluating all the new data being captured. It is evaluating the new AMR system as a whole, including areas beyond leak management. In accordance with the overall project goals it is looking to the AMR system to help establish daily consumption patterns, and to identify the effects of water efficiency measures being implemented. The AMR system is being used to capture monthly billing data from customers in the area. The newly installed 3G meters provide data logging capabilities that are helping define customer usage patterns. The utility can program the meters to take and store reads every 15 minutes at customer locations. This information provides a very detailed look at the amount of water being used at specific times of the day. The water billing group is using this information to address customer billing inquiries. With this information, the department can help customers identify specific dates and times of high consumption at their property. Ottawa officials state they are still learning from the AMR system. They suggest cities looking to implement similar AMR programs pay very careful consideration to the type of system that they will require. When working with an AMR equipment provider, know what you want the system to do and make sure you ask for it. In many cases, Ottawa project engineers suggest, the features you may be looking for may only incrementally increase the cost of a basic AMR system. No two systems from city to city will be alike. By working with your AMR equipment provider you can build and adapt a system specific to your needs. For further information, contact Ian MacLeod, e-mail: imacleod@mastermeter.com

Please contact us with your project needs. 92 | September 2007

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Wastewater

Toxicity evaluation needs to be simple and inexpensive for effective wastewater management By Nathalie Boucher, Lucie Lorrain and Franรงois Bellemare anaging wastewater treatment in a safe, economical and environmentally responsible way is a large and complex problem. There is a need for innovative low-cost techniques for efficient management of the discharged effluent and protection of the receiving water. The expense of sophisticated instruments and the total analysis time required to get an answer are not compatible with the goals of rapid decision-making during a change in water quality treatment. Toxicity evaluation under field conditions needs to be technically simple, inexpensive, and useful for routine analysis of a large number of samples and be able to be carried out directly at the sampling site. Biosensors based on biological recognition offer unique possibilities to obtain such systems without the requirement of highly skilled personnel. Their envisioned role

M

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The LuminoTox test kit, a fluorescence tissue extract-based process.

is to provide a relatively quick analysis of the quality of a water sample. Once the sample is prepared for analysis, these technologies can be used to generate a result in less than an hour. By comparison, standard EPA methods for measuring acute toxicity take between 24 and 96 hours to generate a result.

Tissue-based biosensors for rapid monitoring Biological systems react to chemical contamination in a sequential order of responses. Effects at higher hierarchical levels (i.e. cellular, tissue, and organism) are always preceded by changes in earlier biological processes (i.e. molecular,

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Wastewater subcellular). This relation enables the prediction of effects at higher levels on the basis of early reactions (Schramm et al., 1999); meaning that the use of these early reactive molecular targets as biosensors will become effective and fast tools for biomonitoring of chemical contaminants. As indicated in the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s report on real-time monitoring (EPA, 2001), the use of tissue and cell-based biosensors monitoring physiological responses may provide information without the logistical problems associated with maintaining higher organisms. This approach would decrease the time required for safety evaluation of contaminants, define more adequate no-effect exposure concentrations and provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chemicals. Rapid screening and monitoring with tissue extract-based biosensor Lab_Bell has developed the LuminoTox technology, a fluorescence tissue extract-based process used as a screening tool for rapid determination of effluent and/or water toxicity (15 minute of contact time). This test is based on fluorescence emission of photosynthetic organisms; chemical contaminants inhibiting photosynthetic activity will disturb chlorophyll fluorescence measurement. The test indicates a level of chemical contamination and can detect a contamination source without allowing identification of chemical substances. The measurement of chemical contamination being given in 15 minutes, water monitoring may be achieved routinely in an easyto-use analysis. Two different biological materials can be purchased from Lab_Bell: stabilized photosynthetic enzyme complexes (PECs), mainly referred to as thylakoid membranes, extracted from higher plants, and algae as whole photosynthetic organisms (SAPS). These photosynthetic materials are complementary and can be used to determine the specific action of a pollutant on thylakoid membranes or on whole organisms. The technology requires the use of a fluorometric device pre-programmed to measure photosynthetic activity. Global toxicity of municipal effluents is evaluated by using PECs only. Since PECs are photosynthetic extracts and cell walls are removed by the isolation procedure, pollutants can reach the thylakoid constituents easier and faster. The use of SAPS for toxicity assessment was discussed in Bellemare and coworkers (2006). The performance of the LuminoTox www.esemag.com

test has been demonstrated up to now for water source monitoring, performance of wastewater treatment systems (Environment Canada, 2005; Paprican and City of Montreal (private reports)), sediment toxicity detection (Dellatrice et al., 2006) and as a rapid biological alarm system for terrorism chemical substances (ETV, June 2006). There are many advantages to the Luminotox: • Gives a measurable response in 15 minutes, allowing rapid toxicity assessment; • Unaffected by physical and chemical properties; • Can be used in various treatment processes;

• • • • • • •

Undiluted (100 % v/v) effluent can be tested; The volume of sample required for testing is no more than 2 mL; No organism rearing so that no tedious equipment is needed to perform the test; The analyser is compact and portable permitting toxicity detection in situ; PECs are fluorescents, the use of fluorescent probe is not required; Cost-effective; Ease of use: to perform the test, basic laboratory material, green working space (or use of black covered syringes), PECs and LuminoTox analyzer are required. continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Influence of physical and chemical properties The LuminoTox test has been developed to evaluate the toxicity of any kind of aqueous solution. The water samples can be clear as well as highly coloured and turbid, as are some wastewater samples. Since the LuminoTox test is based on fluorescence emission, the effluent characteristics could thus interfere with the light excitation and emission and give a toxicity result, which would not be the “real” answer. A study was then conducted to evaluate the influence of different chemical and physical properties of raw water effluents on toxicity results obtained with the LuminoTox to verify their influence on the fluorescence reading originating from PECs. The physical and chemical parameters were obtained from standard solutions and the concentration units were measured with the corresponding analyzer. To each 2 mL of concentration unit, 100 μL of PECs were added and tested with the LuminoTox analyzer. The results demonstrated that, in the range of the tested concentrations, no effect of conductivity, colour, hardness, suspended matter and turbidity was observed on the maximal level of PEC flu-

96 | September 2007

Table 1. Effects of photochemical and chemical properties on atrazine and copper detection with LuminoTox (pH 7.5 and room temperature)

* The turbidity effect on copper detection could be due to the charges on standard used or chelating action between copper and turbidity standards. Statistic validation by an external firm (L. Tessier. CNETE, Collège Shawinigan).

orescence emission and on the parameter automatically calculated by the LuminoTox analyzer. These results confirm the optical efficiency of the analyzer. The LuminoTox test can be performed in a wide range of chemical and physical properties found in complex effluents such as industrial or municipal wastewater without sample treatments (filtration, centrifugation, etc). However, if samples have upper concentrations of physical and chemical properties other than those tested, they should be treated prior to analysis.

Physical and chemical properties could affect PEC toxicity detection, even if they do not influence the optical characteristics of the LuminoTox analyzer. For that reason, experiments were performed with both organic (atrazine) and inorganic (copper) control solutions in concentrations permitting the evaluation of IC50 and in different concentrations of physical and chemical properties. The results were compared with the quality control chart and only the results showing variations between ± 2σ of the mean value were retained.

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Wastewater The range of stability of the concentration given a photochemical efficiency inhibition of 50 % (IC50), compared to the blank groups, is presented in Table 1. It can be observed that atrazine detection is not affected by these properties, at the concentrations tested, while PECs are less effective in copper detection in elevated concentrations of conductivity (> 1000 ÎźS), hardness (>180 CaCO3) and turbidity (> 50 NTU). Global toxicity testing in complex effluents Toxicity assessment was tested in different municipal wastewaters, including landfill leachates since many municipalities are in charge of the disposal of public waste and the management of the landfill sites. LuminoTox proved effective for rapid toxicity detection (15 minutes) in all untreated municipal effluents, including leachates from landfill sites. The sensitivity of the test was increased by prolonging the incubation time up to 60 minutes. It was also found to be an effective means of assessing the performance of different types of municipal wastewater treatment processes, such as those using aerated ponds, activated sludge or sequential biological reactors. Effluents

www.esemag.com

treated in a sequential biological reactor showed no toxicity even after an incubation period of 60 minutes. Wastewater treated in aerated lagoon systems and activated sludge, on the other hand, showed a rise in toxicity with increasing incubation time after the effluents had gone through the first aerated pond or the settling tank. LuminoTox is, therefore, sensitive to waste matter that has not been completely decomposed during the initial treatment stage. Nonetheless, these treatment processes were found to be effective after the effluents had gone through the second or third aerated lagoon or secondary settling tank, since in these cases no toxicity was detected even after 60 minutes of incubation. LuminoTox can then be used as a test that complements routine physical-chemical analyses by rapidly providing an index of the toxic potential of effluents and as an efficient tool for wastewater management by giving rapid information about the performance of the treatment process. Benefit to municipalities PECs provide a powerful tool for toxicity screening and monitoring of wastewater treatment efficacy. The LuminoTox test has opened the possibility of provid-

ing rapid evaluation of effluent treatment performance. Effluent toxicity can be monitored in only 15 minutes (compared to 24 to 96 hours using standard methods which measure acute toxicity) by providing an easy and effective tool in the field. The detection of sub-lethal toxic effects, such as photosynthetic activity via fluorescence, allows for rapid monitoring of the toxic potential of liquid samples, and also offers attractive features (cost-effectiveness and simplicity of execution) that are characteristic of several widely-used microbiotests. The stabilization of PECs provides an easy-to-use and rapid technique that can be employed in the field. It is, therefore, a practical and cost-effective tool for the environmental management of municipal effluents. Because of its simplicity and rapidity, this test procedure has been automated. Results can be obtained every 30 minutes allowing efficient water quality management. Nathalie Boucher, Lucie Lorrain and François Bellemare are with Lab_Bell inc., E-mail: fbellemare@lab-bell.com

September 2007 | 97


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HST Turbocompressor

Fast sure priming

Stormwater detention software

ABS introduces the revolutionary HST Integral™ Turbocompressor. It is a rugged, money saving compressor designed for reliable, automatic operation at optimal efficiency and is maintenance-free. Because of the energy and maintenance savings from using the HST it can pay for itself in two years. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

The new 4” vacassist trash pump from ABS can be used for sewer bypass, quarry pumping, flood control and general dewatering of construction sites. Dependable construction combined with heavy duty water cooled diesel power and a compressor that runs only when it’s needed is sure to save you money. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

DASH (Detention and Sewer Hydraulics®) Software provides design engineers with a complete set of design tools to prepare, calculate and evaluate comprehensive stormwater detention systems using concrete pipe. The program consists of 4 modules.

Product & Service Showcase

ABS Canada

Adventus provides remediation technologies for impacted soil, sediment, and groundwater. In-Situ Chemical Reduction allows you to treat a wide range of COIs. Our business model supports site owners, engineers, and consultants by providing unbiased design and selection of the most cost-effective remediation strategies. Since 2003, Adventus has deployed field installations at over 300 sites. Tel: 860-841-9138, Fax: 866-890-0765 E-mail: info@adventusgroup.com Web: www.adventusgroup.com Adventus Group

AMS PowerProbe® 9500-VTR

For the most maneuverable track system there isn’t another direct push model like the 9500-VTR. Rugged rubber tracks keep the VTR moving when soil conditions get soft, wet or muddy. Tel: 800-635-7330 Web: www.ams-samplers.com AMS, Inc. 98 | September 2007

Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682 E-mail: khunter@concrete-pipe.org Web: www.concrete-pipe.org

American Concrete Pipe Association

ABS Canada

Oxygen Releasing Compound

Secondary oil containment

EHC-O Oxygen Releasing Compound is field-proven technology stimulating aerobic biodegradation of organic COIs (petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, BTEX). Available as an O-Sox Canister Delivery System, it is available for 2" and 4" wells, and is easily implemented via reusable stainless steel canisters for quick change-out.

Albarrie, a leader in containment technology, in partnership with Kinectrics Inc., offers the SorbWeb Plus secondary oil containment system for power utilities. • No maintenance • Cost-effective • Proven system • Rain water passes through, no pumps • Can be installed around energized transformers.

Tel: 860-841-9138, Fax: 866-890-0765 E-mail: info@adventusgroup.com Web: www.adventusgroup.com

Tel: 705-737-0551, Fax: 705-737-4044 E-mail scott_lucas@albarrie.com Web: www.sorbwebplus.com Albarrie Environmental

Adventus Group

HYBAS™ wastewater treatment system Upgrade your activated sludge system within the existing tankage to maintain nitrification at higher flow rates or to increase a plant to meet new nitrification requirements. Proven and documented. We have well over 450 installations in 47 countries. Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908 E-mail: jmb@anoxkaldnes.com Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com Atlantic Industries AnoxKaldnes

Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Quebec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Phoenix Panel System

Phoenix Underdrain System

Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater run off. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Removal of existing underdrain not required • Eliminates the need for filter gravel • Improves backwash distribution • Longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com

• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm • Manufactured from corrosion resistant stainless steel • Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution. Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Armtec

AWI

Confined space entry

New stainless steel pumps

The new “Lifeguard” man-rated confined space entry retrieval system from Pelsue is a manhole guard and retrieval system in one. The “Lifeguard” is compliant to OSHA and ANSI and has a 5:1 safety factor. The “Lifeguard” can be used with a man-rated winch or self retracting lifeline with retrieval. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1886 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety

Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. They are ideal for use in copper mines, coal power plants, saltwater fish farms, shipyards, etc. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: PB@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps

Underground storm water detention

Welterweight contender

Storm water management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute www.esemag.com

Weighing in at 25 tonnes this 45 metre length of 3050mm diameter SPCSP completed a challenging northern railway crossing in just 26 hours. “Floating like a butterfly” the long and strong pipe was swung onto the soft foundation. Soil steel design provides engineered strength to carry fill heights to 27 metres. Call for a CD of “The Handbook of Steel Drainage and Highway Construction Products”. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax:519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

New web site

Con Cast Pipe announces its new web site with easy-to-use technical reference and product specification tools; in addition there is a host of other improvements. Please visit www.concastpipe.com Con Cast Pipe

Level sensor Flowline introduces EchoPod®, an innovative level sensor that replaces floats, conductance and pressure activated level switches that fail due to dirty, sticking and scaling media in small tanks 49.2” (1.25m) or less. EchoPod, a general purpose sensor, combines non-contact switch, controller and transmitter capabilities in one package. Maintenance free, EchoPod reduces tank system hardware through simplicity and consolidation. It is CSA approved. Tel: 800-701-7460, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls September 2007 | 99

Product & Service Showcase

Stormwater solutions


Product & Service Showcase

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Single gas monitor

UV disinfection systems

Mil-Ram’s Tox-Box is a single gas portable instrument housed in a rugged, weatherproof enclosure with the features and durability of a fixed, continuous monitor. Features include: on-board pump; rechargeable 12VDC lead-acid battery; alarm relays; backlit LCD display; analog output test; alarm test; low battery indicator; flash programming; fault conditions; continuous diagnostics; available with any Mil-Ram Toxic/LEL/O2/VOC gas sensor – electrochemical/catalytic/IR/PID. Tel: 800-701-7460, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls

Degremont TechnologiesOzonia have introduced the Aquaray® SLP Series of UV disinfection systems, designed for both water and wastewater treatment applications. The SLP Series offers a compact and high efficiency range for small and medium water plants. The low pressure high output amalgam lamps are powered by efficient electronic ballasts, for a tremendous level of energy. An Lshaped reactor reduces head loss and maximizes UV dose. Visit us at WEFTEC: Booth 3529. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com Degremont Technologies - Ozonia

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Odor control systems

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Circular tank dust collectors Flex-Kleen CT Series dust collectors – especially effective for dust problems in drying, grinding and conveying systems – are designed to operate in process system environments with minimum maintenance. Basic CT units are designed for two levels of pressure capability of 40" to 100" W.G. or 17" Hg.(pressure or vacuum). Individual units handle from 50 cfm to 50,000 cfm. Multiple collector systems can be supplied to handle any desired gas volume. Tel: 800-621-0734, 630-775-0707, Fax: 630-875-3212 E-mail: flex-kleen@met-pro.com Web: www.flex-kleen.com Flex-Kleen 100 | September 2007

Duall’s multi-stage PTMD chemical scrubbers are factory assembled, single skid mounted, pre-wired and prepiped systems to provide an easy to handle and easy to install odor control system package. In addition to chemical scrubbers, Duall manufactures centrifugal fans, ducting, carbon adsorption units, and AroBIOS biological scrubbers. Tel: 989-725-8184, Fax: 989-725-8188 E-mail: info@dualldiv.com Web: www.dualldiv.com Duall Division, Met-Pro Corporation

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 6090% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com. Atlantic Industries Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Dissolved air flotation system

The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. The AquaDAF is a hybrid of conventional DAF and optimally designed system components. It is highly effective for the treatment of a range of raw water characteristics including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, color and algae. Visit us at WEFTEC: Booth 3529. Web: www.infilcodegremont.com Degremont Technologies - Infilco

Life cycle management Full knowledge of your plant status allows for good maintenance planning. W@M – Life Cycle Management from Endress+Hauser provides up-todate and complete information on all your assets, including products from other suppliers. It is an open information management system providing data flow and archiving for the technical and operational management of your plant. Tel: 905-681-9292, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress + Hauser 7 -ªnª,IFEª#YCLEª-ANAGEMENTª 3UPPORTINGªYOURªBUSINESSªPROCESSES

Oil and grease separators

For cost-efficient wastewater treatment, Green Turtle’s line of Proceptor oil, grease and solids separators ensure local regulatory requirements are met. Designed for commercial, institutional and industrial sites, Proceptor can help you reduce your business’ impact on municipal infrastructure and the environment. Tel: 877-966-9444 E-mail: info@greenturtletech.com Web: www.greenturtletech.com Green Turtle Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Hanson Pipe & Precast, Ltd. is the exclusive manufacturer of the Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: mark.smith2@hanson.biz Web: www.hansonpipeandprecast.com Hanson Pipe & Precast

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a highaccuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines researchgrade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions. Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Chopper pumps Landia chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficult-to-handle liquids with high solid contents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly breakdowns. Landia chopper pumps are operating in: raw unscreened effluents, food industry effluents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net Landia

www.esemag.com

Heron water tape

The Heron WATER TAPE is a tough economical water level meter. The low cost and durability of the Kevlar reinforced tape make it an ideal choice for well drillers, pump installers and other severe service users. Call for your LOW COST quote today. Tel: 800-331-2032 Heron Instruments

Ultrasonic level sensing SonicSens™ is ideal for remote water level monitoring applications. The sensor’s very low power consumption enables its internal battery to achieve a 5-year life. The ultrasonic sensor can be supplied with local or telemetry communications data logger. Cellular (SMS) communications versions can be configured to provide data and alarms to office PC or cellular phone / pager. Tel: 519-659-1144, Fax: 519-453-2182 E-mail: hetek.sales@hetek.com Web: www.hetek.com Hetek Solutions

Electronic nose system

Split volute casing pumps

OdoWatch™ is the world’s first fully-automated electronic nose system that provides a real-time odour plume display for instant impact assessment. A must for the 24/7 monitoring of odours at any wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 905-868-9683, Fax: 905-868-9870 E-mail: ontario@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

KSB’s line of RDLO axially split volute casing pumps offer maximum flexibility in diverse applications, from municipal water treatment to industrial water supply and desalination. The pumps come with a wide range of hydraulic configurations and provide various options of material combinations, shaft seals, bearing lubrication and installation setups. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

John Meunier

KSB Pumps Inc.

AMR upgrade

AMR system

Take advantage of the life left in your existing meters with our universal AMR upgrade – the DIALOG 3G®Interpreter™ Register. On the backs of your existing meters, the Interpreter will lead you well into the future. Tel: 800-765-6518 Web: www.mastermeter.com

The 3G MOBILE, our completely integrated AMR solution, incorporates leadingedge tools at every critical point - from the meter and register to our mobile data collection system and utility management software. Get consistent performance at every level with our master-planned AMR system. Tel: 800-765-6518 Web: www.mastermeter.com

Master Meter

Master Meter September 2007 | 101

Product & Service Showcase

Stormceptor® System


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Peristaltic tube pumps

Pieralisi centrifuges

New brochure from Neptune

Watson-Marlow Bredel positive displacement pumps are the perfect choice for difficult applications. The 520 series of peristaltic pumps are designed to satisfy the requirements of the toughest processing industries and provide an excellent level of accuracy, reliability and control for the harshest operating environments. The IP66 NEMA 4X washdown cased pumps produce flow rates up to 55.5 gph with +/- 0.5% accuracy at pressure up to 100 psi. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Pieralisi technology is available to solve any problem of clarifying, dewatering and separating with the safety and reliability derived from a progressive, innovative production. Pieralisi centrifuges utilize a patented sludge scraper for continuous discharge of dewater sludge from the solids discharge chamber. They are the ideal choice for filtering and dewatering of sludge from municipal water and wastewater treatment plants.

Neptune Chemical Pump has published a ten-page brochure on the full line of Tacmina PZ Series electronic metering pumps, detailing the line's powerful control options and its wide range of sizes and pressures (from 1 to 1300 ml/min at pressures up to 220 psi). These pulse metering pumps are ideal for accurate, reliable injection of a variety of liquids. Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE, 215-699-8700, Fax: 800-255-4017, 215-699-0370 E-mail: pump@neptune1.com Web: www.neptune1.com

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Product & Service Showcase

Automated meter reading The Neptune Technology Group has introduced the E-Coder) R900i. They have integrated the E-Coder and R900® - two proven technologies in one device - to provide water utilities with a single, wireless automated meter reading solution, accurate readings, leak and reverse flow detection and ease of installation. With the ECoder)R900i, utilities will receive consistently reliable data while reducing the time employees spend in the field. Tel: 905-858-4211, 1-800-363-7886 Fax: 905-858-0428 E-mail: canada@neptunetg.com Web: www.neptunetg.com Neptune Technology Group

Self cleaning water filter Orival automatic, self-cleaning water filters remove micron-size suspended solids, independent of specific gravity including sand, rust, scale, algae, mussels, silt, pollen, and bugs - from water in once through and recirculating systems, such as cooling, process, reclaim, effluent, intake, and wash waters. Single filters handle flow rates up to 12,000 gpm; multiple units can be banked to handle unlimited flows. Tel: 201-568-3311, Fax: 201-568-1916 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com Orival Inc. 102 | September 2007

Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Neptune Chemical Pump

Pipe Pac version 3

For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: sal.iannello@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Edgewise Bar-Digital monitor/controller Housed in an industry standard edgewise 5.70” x 1.77” (44 x 144mm) case but only 2”(50mm) deep, OTEK’s new EBD series complements its HiQ series and its new low cost line of loop powered bargraph indicators/controllers featuring the company’s automatic tricolor bargraph for easy HMI. The EBD can be had as an indicator only for inputs for V/mADC including current loops (4-20mA) or as a process controller/data logger. Tel: 520-748-7900, Fax: 520-790-2808 E-mail: support@otekcorp.com Web: www.otekcorp.com Atlantic Industries OTEK Corporation

The Ontario Concrete Pipe Association promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quality of its members, and provides technical information to specifiers, regulators, contractors and educators. Please contact us for a presentation on the following topics: Protecting Yourself as a Gravity Pipe Designer; Best Practices for New Infrastructure; Concrete Pipe Design; PipePac. Call 905-631-9696 for details and be entered to win an iPod. E-mail: info@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Media filters DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Hydraulically-actuated pumps

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

ProMinent’s ProMus hydraulicallyactuated pumps deliver reliable results in the harshest of environments, in accordance with API 675 standards. They have a capacity of 2.3 L/h (0.61 gph) at 241.3 bar (3500 psi) up to 384.2 L/h (101.5 gph) at 11 bar (160 psi).

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

New progressive cavity pump

New grinder from Netzsch

Double your pump life with the innovative M Champ. Thinking outside the box has created this new Wastewater Market standard pump by incorporating a compact flexishaft design and an integral spare stator. Tel: 610-363-8010, Fax: 610-363-0971 E-mail: info@netzschusa.com Web: www.netzschusa.com

The NETZSCH MOvas solid grinding machine is used in a wide variety of industries where solids in the product interfere with process safety. The solids are sufficiently ground by the M-Ovas to prevent clogging of pipelines and of subsequent equipment. The MOvas offers easy and fast disassembly of cutting tips and cutting unit and self adjusting cutters. Tel: 610-363-8010, Fax: 610-363-0971 E-mail: info@netzschusa.com Web: www.netzschusa.com

Rudi Kovacko & Associates

Thermal dryer

Rudi Kovacko & Associates

Membrane bioreactor

The Convective Thermal Dryer from Siemens Water Technologies reduces sludge volume by 5:1 and produces a uniform 1 to 4 mm dried product that can be beneficially re-used. And the CTD can use imported waste-heat to ensure efficiency and low operating costs. Call to learn more. Tel: 229-227-8727 E-mail: dewatering.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/water

Siemens Water Technologies introduces membrane bioreactor technology that integrates biological processes with membrane filtration. This small footprint, integrated system combines Memcor® membrane operating system units with proven Envirex® biological technologies and Cannibal® solids reduction process. Tel: 262-547-0141 E-mail: envirexinfo.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/water

Siemens Water Technologies

Siemens Water Technologies

www.esemag.com

Interlocking cover system

Stan-Deck’s interlocking cover system is designed for tanks of all shapes and sizes. Featuring the industry's highest load ratings, the all fiberglass FRP, modular construction provides a lightweight, easy to install, low maintenance cover solution to odor control or freeze up challenges. Tel: 416-444-4484, Fax: 416-444-4485 E-mail: kszasz@protectolite.com Web: www.protectolite.com Protectolite Inc.

Groundwater and borehole data management HydroGeo Analyst (HGA) v.4.0 has made managing and interpreting groundwater and environmental data even easier by improving the functionality of all components. From borehole logging and mapping, to crosssection interpretation and 3D visualization, HGA provides the tools to deliver your projects. Tel: 519-746-1798, Fax: 519-885-5262 E-mail: sws-sales@slb.com Web: www.swstechnology.com Schlumberger Water Services

Grit chamber The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless September 2007 | 103

Product & Service Showcase

Metering pumps


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Secondary oil containment Albarrie, a leader in containment technology, in partnership with Kinectrics Inc., offers the SorbWeb Plus secondary oil containment system for power utilities. • No maintenance • Cost-effective • Proven system • Rain water passes through, no pumps • Can be installed around energized transformers. Tel: 705-737-0551, Fax: 705-737-4044 E-mail scott_lucas@albarrie.com Web: www.sorbwebplus.com SorbWeb™ Plus Albarrie Environmental

Product & Service Showcase

Portable davit cranes

Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms.

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: spillmanagement.ca

Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@stormceptor. com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Spill Management

Tel: 1-800-843-7648, Fax: 507-454-5282 E-mail: info@thern.com Web: www.thern.com Thern

Seal-less, non metallic pumps

Waterless urinals

Viking® Pump recently released the Composite Mag Drive (CMD), a new series of seal-less, non-metallic pumps specially designed for crucial liquid containment applications, including corrosive chemicals, volatile organic chemicals, and flammable liquids. Due to the engineeredfluoropolymer and ceramic-wetted material design and construction, the series of pumps can handle a broad pH range and offers advanced durability, broader compatibility and corrosion resistance. Tel: 1-888-845-7867, Fax: 519-256-5070 E-mail: cinfo@idexcorp.com Web: www.vikingpump.com

The latest Zero-Flush waterless urinal models operate a little differently than existing waterless urinals. They incorporate a system that only requires simple maintenance after 15,000 uses. This is accomplished by having a permanent housing within the drain opening that has a total liquid capacity of 46 oz.; 12 ounces is the Blue Seal Odour barrier liquid. With this large amount of Blue Seal liquid, you will never have to top it up in between drain insert replacements. Tel: 905-850-8080, 1-800-668-4420, Fax: 905-850-9100 Web: www.watermatrix.com Water Matrix Atlantic Industries

Viking Pump 104 | September 2007

Imbrium Systems

Hatch safety net The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net USF Fabrications

Thern Inc., a manufacturer of winches, cranes and hoists, offers a complete line of portable davit cranes to help wastewater treatment plants make economical use of their space, while helping to reduce costs by performing a variety of lifting and pulling tasks, including submersible pump and mixer handling, positioning diffusers or hoisting UV panels.

Stormceptor® System

Join pipe to 144” Depend-OLok: the new standard for joining pipe to 144". Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: viccanada@victaulic.com Web: www.victaulic.com Victaulic

12 Volt Submersible Pumps

Waterra stocks a complete line of 12 volt submersible pumps designed specifically for well purging and sampling procedures. Tel: 905.238.5242, Fax: 905.238.5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS US, Canadian cities fouling the Great Lakes with raw sewage Sierra Legal, an environmental advocacy organization has released its first Great Lakes Sewage Report Card. This investigative report analyzed twenty cities in the Great Lakes basin and graded them based on how well they manage their sewage. Although many cities have made efforts to clean up their act, waters surrounding urban areas throughout the Great Lakes are still commonly unsafe for recreational use and many parts of the vast freshwater ecosystem are in peril. The Report Card represents the firstever ecosystem-based survey and analysis of municipal sewage treatment and sewage discharges in the Great Lakes basin. It graded cities on issues such as collection, treatment and disposal of sewage, based on information provided by each municipality. The report documents that many cities in the region have antiquated systems for collecting and treating sewage and regularly release untreated sewage into local waterways. It is estimated that the 20 cities evaluated, representing a third of the region’s 35 million people, dump more than 90 billion litres of untreated sewage into the Great Lakes each year. Cities such as Toronto, Syracuse, New York, and Hamilton got below average grades. Detroit, Michigan, Cleveland, Ohio, and Windsor were at the bottom of the class. The cities that fared poorly typically have serious problems related to their combined sewers. Green Bay, Wisconsin, Peel Region, Ontario, and Duluth, Minnesota, are at the top of the class. All three generally have more sophisticated treatment processes and permit very little sewage to escape into the environment through combined sewer overflows, spills or bypasses. In addition to grading the cities, the report provides an analysis of the region’s patchwork of sewage treatment laws and policies, and offers several recommendations to ensure the protection of water quality in the Great Lakes. www.sierralegal.org

with the Million Work Hours Award from the National Safety Council (NSC) in the US for its exceptional safety record. The milestone was reached June 12, 2007. The award recognizes companies that have accomplished consecutive work hours in million hour increments without incurring an occupational injury or illness resulting in days away from work or death. CH2M HILL’s environmental group, which includes more than 1,500 employees working in 50 countries, compiled one million work hours with no days lost due to work-related injury or illness during the period from February 9, 2007 to June 12, 2007. “The Million Work Hours Award is a true testament of CH2M HILL’s safety commitment, and the understanding of the role that safety plays not only in assuring the well-being of our employees but also in our ability to service and satisfy our clients,” said Gene Lupia, CH2M HILL’s environmental business group president. The National Safety Council is a nonprofit, non-governmental, public service organization founded in 1913 and chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1953.

Earth Tech awarded City of Toronto contract Earth Tech Inc. has been awarded a $4.5 million contract by the City of Toronto, for engineering design and construction verification for upgrades to the Waste Activated Sludge Thickening and Sludge Dewatering Facility at the Highland Creek Treatment Plant. Under the four-year contract, Earth Tech will provide the preliminary engineering design, detailed design and construction contract administration, as well as post-construction monitoring and reporting. The project components include upgrades to the sludge thickening facility, installation of new dewatering centrifuges, relocating of the ferrous chloride facility, and consolidation of all permits into a single, site-wide Certificate of Approval for air and noise. “This contract represents Earth Tech’s first major assignment at the facility since the recently completed process control upgrades and implementation of a new digester facility,” said Robert Johnston, Vice President of Earth Tech’s Canada East operations. “The contract continued overleaf...

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net • Web: www.anthrafilter.net

CH2M HILL receives National Safety Council Award The Environmental Services Business Group of CH2M HILL, a global full-service engineering, construction and operations firm, was recently recognized www.esemag.com

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NEWS also allows us to maintain our position as the plant’s engineer of record, a title we have held since the facility’s inception.” www.earthtech.com

Associated Engineering commits to becoming carbon neutral Associated Engineering has made a major commitment to help reduce greenhouse gases that cause global warming by establishing a carbon neutral policy. Under this new policy, the company will implement measures to reduce or mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and will invest in carbon offset projects to become carbon neutral. A typical business such as Associated Engineering with 600 staff in 13 offices could generate in the order of 3,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents annually. The company’s goal is to minimize these emissions to the extent possible. Already, the company has implemented measures such as video conferencing to reduce the need for travel, double siding documents to reduce paper use, recycling and reusing paper, encouraging carpooling, transit, and cycling to work, and turning off lights and equipment during non working hours.

106 | September 2007

As part of the carbon neutral policy, Associated Engineering will identify sources of greenhouse gases from their offices, estimate their carbon equivalents generation rate, and identify additional measures that will reduce or mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. They will also invest in carbon offset initiatives. Carbon offsets enable anyone to reduce their carbon footprint by supporting projects that reduce carbon dioxide. Associated Engineering is taking the unique approach of establishing and managing its own carbon offset fund. This will allow the company’s management team to assess possible investments to gain assurance the intended carbon offset is achieved. Investments in the communities where the firm’s employees live and work will be given priority, which is directly linked with the company’s strategic goal of helping to build better communities. www.ae.ca

ference and Exhibition in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Undergraduate, Masters and Doctoral students presented posters and discussed their research at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, in competition for cash awards. Student work in the sustainability category was also recognized. At the Undergraduate level, Wally Qiu of the University of Alberta was awarded first prize for The Southern Prairie Ammonia Measurement Network (SPAM): Improving our Understanding of Atmospheric Ammonia in the Canadian Prairies.

Green building to save on energy bill

A&WMA recognizes student work on environmental issues The Air & Waste Management Association (A&WMA) recognized excellence in student research on environmental issues during its recent 100th Annual Con-

Public Works and Government Services Canada officially opened the newly renovated, eco-friendly, Alvin Hamilton building in Regina on June 28, 2007. This high-performance building is designed to conserve water and energy. Water efficient fixtures, such as dualflush toilets, waterless urinals and lowflow faucets, help minimize water usage. To use less energy, the renovations made use of new energy-efficient mechanical and electrical systems. These innovative technologies were combined with a major retrofit of exterior walls and windows to achieve an estimated 44% reduction in energy use. The new building was named after one of Saskatchewan’s and Canada’s most dedicated politicians. The main floor is occupied by the Regina Service Canada Centre, which offers easy access to a wide range of federal government services and benefits. It will be home to about 600 public service employees from six federal departments: Canada Firearms Centre, Canada Revenue Agency, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Statistics Canada, Service Canada and Veterans Affairs Canada. www.pwgsc.gc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS Feds invest $214 million for contaminated site cleanup John Baird, Federal Minister of the Environment, has announced that the federal government will invest $214 million to clean up contaminated sites across Canada. Funding includes $189.3 million for the remediation and risk management of 279 priority contaminated sites under federal responsibility across Canada. An additional $25 million has been earmarked for the assessment of some 417 sites, to determine next steps and what scientific support is necessary to restore the sites. Approximately 11,000 sites are currently listed in the Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory. Over 6,000 of these have been assessed or classified under the National Classification System developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

Industry given deadline for chemicals management plan Canadian industrial companies and other stakeholders will have until December 18, 2007, to provide information on how they are safely managing and using 19 chemical substances identified as high priorities for action under the Chemicals Management Plan. They comprise the third in a series of 12 batches of high-priority substances that were identified following Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s categorization of its legacy chemical substances last fall. Government scientists are already analyzing the results received from the first batch, and will do the same with the results from the second batch, once they receive them. Manufacturers, importers and industrial users of high-priority substances will have to provide Environment Canada and Health Canada with information on batches of 15 to 30 substances every few months. There are 193 substances in total, and the process to address all of them will take about three years. www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca

Ontario municipalities given rules on water system financial planning New rules will make it easier for municipalities to determine the resources they continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS Get a clear view of:

“Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: clearview@geophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

• UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities

need to keep drinking water flowing, according to Ontario Environment Minister Laurel Broten. A key step in long-term financial sustainability for municipal drinking water systems is putting in place requirements for preparing financial plans. The Financial Plans Regulation sets out the scope of plans, but allows municipalities to vary their approach to preparing them to suit local needs. The Ontario government earlier announced that it is providing $40 million over five years to help small municipalities and local services boards with operating and capital costs for essential water system upgrades. Because of their size, many small communities, particularly in northern and rural Ontario, face challenges with sustainability and affordability. The financial assistance program to support Ontario’s small drinking water systems was recommended by Justice O’Connor in his report following the Walkerton Inquiry.

Ontario’s commercial water users face new fees Users such as beverage, or ready-mix concrete manufacturers, will be the first to pay the charge of $3.71 per one million litres of water, starting in January 2009. Other commercial and industrial water takers will be phased in later. The charge does not apply to agricultural operations, institutions such as schools and care facilities, environmental uses such as wetlands projects, private wells or the water municipalities’ supply for residential use. Money collected from the charge will be used to cover a portion of the provincial costs of water management activities such as preparing water budgets, monitoring, and controlling takings and impacts.

Industry recycling efforts to be inspected The Ontario government is hiring ten new environmental enforcement officers to focus on increasing waste diversion in business and industry. Regulations require business and industry to conduct waste audits and develop waste reduction plans. They also require source separation of some waste materials to ensure valuable resources are not ending up in landfills. The government has increased inspections in this sector significantly in 108 | September 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS the past few years. The number of inspections grew from 12 in 2004/05 to 336 in 2006/07. In a 2006 inspection sweep, the ministry conducted provincewide sector inspections involving 260 businesses. Almost 93 per cent of businesses were not complying with all regulatory requirements. Waste from business and industry makes up about two thirds of all waste in Ontario. Ten new officers will support increased inspections of all of Ontario’s industrial, commercial and institutional sectors, and will ensure that they comply with Ontario’s recycling requirements. In addition to conducting inspections, the officers will also focus on educating the business community to ensure they understand the law.

Memramcook NB to upgrade its wastewater facilities The Village of Memramcook, New Brunswick will be able to upgrade its municipal wastewater treatment facilities, due to an investment of more than $6.1 million through the Canada-New Brunswick Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund. The project involves the construction of a wastewater lagoon, as well as the associated collection system, to replace an existing facility. This investment will enable 414 new households and 15 new businesses to be connected to the new system, and 223 existing households will have improved wastewater treatment. The Government of Canada, the Province of New Brunswick and the Village of Memramcook will each contribute one third toward the costs of the project.

Focused on the Special Needs of Industrial and Commercial Clients for More Than 20 Years

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420 Weber Street North, Unit G Waterloo, ON N2L 4E7 519.886.7500

From multi-billion dollar Fortune 100 companies to family-run Owner-Manager enterprises, Geomatrix serves industrial and commercial clients locally and around the world from our18 North American offices.

• Drinking Water • Screening / Filtration • Separation / Flotation • Sludge Dewatering / Collection • Biotreatment / Aeration • Centrifugal & PD Blowers Suppliers of Water And • UV Disinfection • Industrial Treatment Wastewater Equipment • Oil / Water Separators H2FLOW EQUIPMENT INC., Concord, Ontario • Package Treatment Plants Tel: (905) 660-9775 Fax: (905) 660-9744 • Stormwater Treatment Email: info@h2flow.com Website: www.h2flow.com • Tanks & Tank Covers

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

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Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 LAB Division

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67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 Box 1385, Guelph, Ontario, N1H 6N8 Tel: (519) 822-2608 Fax: (519) 822-3076 E-mail: ieinc@istar.ca

Chief Inspector’s report shows Ontario’s drinking water meeting standards A recently released 2005-06 report from Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector confirms that, overall, the province’s drinking water is safe and of very high quality. Some 99.84 percent of water quality tests met Ontario’s stringent drinking water standards. The Chief Inspector’s responsibilities include monitoring how often and how effectively drinking water systems and licensed testing laboratories are inspected, advising on policies, regulations and protocols related to inspections, developing and implementing training programs for continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS drinking water operators and provincial officers, and providing an annual report on the overall performance of drinking water systems to the environment minister. “The drinking water supplied by municipalities in this province is among the safest in the world, but fostering continuous improvement can make it even safer,” said Jim Smith, Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector. “I am committed to working with municipalities to reach the goal of 100 per cent compliance by all drinking water systems and to ensure that the problems we do find are fixed quickly.” www.ene.gov.on.ca

Ruptured pipeline causes major oil spill into BC’s Burrard Inlet

BC Environment Minister (left) visits site.

The shores of Burrard Inlet were the subject of intense scrutiny by Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Teams after an oil pipeline was ruptured near Burnaby on July 24, 2007, by a construction crew. An estimated 234 cubic metres, or approximately 1,400 barrels of crude oil, were released in a huge geyser. Fortunately, much of the crude oil, from a pipeline owned by Kinder Morgan, was contained before it ran downhill to the shoreline, but some of the oil made it into the water. BC Environment Minister Barry Penner visited the site to discuss cleanup efforts with members of a SCAT crew. Warm temperatures helped evaporate the more volatile parts of the oil. The BC Conservation Officer Service is leading a joint investigation with the Environmental Enforcement Division and the Wildlife Enforcement Division of Environment Canada into the spill. The Transportation Safety Board of Canada is conducting a parallel investigation into the cause of this incident and how to prevent such incidents from occurring in the future. A joint investigation team will conduct its investigation under the legislative authorities of the British Columbia Envi110 | September 2007

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NEWS ronmental Management Act, the Federal Fisheries Act and the Federal Migratory Bird Convention Act. The investigation will focus on determining how the incident occurred and whether due diligence was exercised to prevent the incident from occurring by the party or parties involved.

Greater Vancouver faces trial over Lions Gate pollution Provincial Court trial dates have been set for June 2008 to hear a charge that effluent from the Lions Gate sewage treatment plant in West Vancouver is polluting coastal waters and violating federal environmental law. The charge against the GVRD and the Province is based on the Lions Gate plant’s repeated failures of toxicity tests, documented in numerous reports submitted by the GVRD to the Province. The Lions Gate primary treatment plant discharges over 33 billion litres of sewage effluent each year into coastal waters, via an outfall about 500 metres east of the mouth of the Capilano River. Primary treatment removes less than 40 percent of the organic matter and does not remove most heavy metals or persistent organic pollutants. Environmentalists and fishermen are calling for a rapid upgrade to at least secondary treatment for both the Lions Gate plant and the Iona plant in Richmond. The groups are also calling for the GVRD to look at innovations that will recover resources from the sewage, rather than just focusing on waste disposal. “Communities around the world, including Victoria, are beginning to see sewage as a resource, not waste, and turning to technology that will lower costs and give back to the community; it’s time for the GVRD and Province to do the same,” said Christianne Wilhelmson of Georgia Strait Alliance. According to a press release, this organization believes that the GVRD has an opportunity to shorten its upgrade timelines, and to move towards resource recovery, during the review of its fiveyear Liquid Waste Management Plan this fall. The current Plan acknowledges that the Lions Gate plant is sub-standard but proposes that upgrades to secondary treatment be delayed until 2030. Under the current Plan, upgrading Iona’s plant to secondary treatment has been delayed until 2020. www.sierralegal.org. www.esemag.com

www.trg.ca Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment

Tel: (905) 823-7965 Fax: (905) 823-7932 www.pcbdisposal.com

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NEWS PEI launches pilot project for sewage disposal systems A new pilot program will simplify the process for installation of on-site sewage disposal systems in Prince Edward Island. About 40 per cent of the island’s homes have on-site systems to treat and dispose of household wastewater. Approval involves a permit process where government is involved at several stages from assessing a site for its suitability for on-site sewage disposal to inspecting work conducted by contractors. The new pilot program will test an alternative approach that allows licensed contractors who have a site assessor’s licence to assess sites and install systems without going through the permit process. It is similar to the system in place for other services such as well drilling and septic pumping. Twenty-two contractors are participating in the pilot program. They completed a site assessor's training course offered by Holland College and passed a written exam to receive their site assessor’s licence. With the establishment of the pilot project, government has also amended the regulations to require all site assessments to include permeability testing. The testing involves identifying the type of soil and how quickly liquid will filter through it. That information is needed to ensure that the sewage disposal system that is installed is the proper size for the soil type. If the system is not properly sized it can fail. Contractors participating in the pilot project can do the permeability testing because they are licensed site assessors. Staff of the Department of Environment, Energy and Forestry will conduct the site assessments, including permeability testing, for contractors who are not participating in the pilot. The department has developed a detailed technical guidelines document that can be used by both contractors participating in the pilot program and those

using the permit process. It provides guidance on site assessment, selecting the appropriate sewage disposal system, and installing and maintaining systems. www.gov.pe.ca

New waste diversion program converts used cooking oil to biodiesel fuel

emits fewer toxic compounds into the air, and decreases ozone and smog.” Used cooking oil should never be poured down the sink, drain or toilet because it can negatively impact the system of sewer pipes, causing backups. Residents who are unable to dispose of their used cooking oil at a CRC should freeze it or let it harden, and dispose the frozen or hardened oil in their organics recycling green bin. www.peelregion.ca/waste

Sault Ste. Marie company and director fined for discharges Regional vehicles that are powered by Peel Biodiesel are easy to spot on the roads.

The Region of Peel, Ontario, has developed a new waste management program that accepts used cooking oil from residents and small businesses at its Community Recycling Centres (CRC) where it is converted to biodiesel fuel for use in regional vehicles. Peel residents and small businesses may drop off up to 120 litres of used cooking oil per day, free of charge. The oil is put through a four stage conversion process that involves transesterification, separation, cleaning and filtering, before the final product is created. The biodiesel is used in the Waste Management Division’s car and light truck fleet, which has been given a new look and is clearly identified with Powered by Peel Biodiesel decals. The vehicles use an even mix of biodiesel and petrodiesel in warmer temperatures, and a 20 per cent biodiesel mix during the winter months. “Biodiesel is a biodegradeable fuel made from biological sources, such as vegetable oil, used cooking oils and animal fat, and can be used to power dieselengine vehicles,” says Larry Conrad, Manager, Waste Operations. “When compared to petrodiesel that is used in most vehicles, biodiesel fuel burns cleaner,

Marlin Centre Mobile Homes Inc. and its director and president have been fined a total of $55,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to discharging sewage into the natural environment causing an adverse effect. The company operates the Beaumont Mobile Home Park near the City of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, which has about 75 trailers serviced by a communal subsurface sewage disposal system maintained by company personnel. In May 2005, Ministry of the Environment staff found overflowing sewage was caused by the removal of the sewage pump in the pumphouse. The sewage pump was not installed as needed so as to prevent the discharge of sewage. The company has now taken the necessary steps to bring its site into compliance with ministry requirements.

The impact of environmental regulations on hog farms A recently released study, commissioned by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), assesses the economic impact of environmental regulations on the competitiveness of hog farms in Canada. Environmental regulations across Canada aim to protect the environment and encourage environmentally sound agricultural practices. However, agricultural producers expressed concern about the impact these regulations have on costs. In response, AAFC began to investigate the impact of environmental regulations on primary agriculture through a series of case studies, starting with the hog sector. The report, completed by the George Morris Centre and the Prairie Swine continued overleaf...

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E-mail

Website

ABS Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . .abscanada@absgroup.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.absgroup.com ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . . .sales@acgtechnology.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.acgtechnology.com Alberta Government, Alberta Environment . . . . . .45 . . . . . .lynn.bellamy@gov.ab.ca Alberta Research Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . . . .referral@arc.ab.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.arc.ab.ca American Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . .info@concrete-pipe.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.concrete-pipe.org AnoxKaldnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 . . . . . .usa@anoxkaldnes.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.anoxkaldnes.com Anthrafilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 . . . . . .swildey@anthrafilter.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.anthrafilter.net Aquablast . . . 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www.esemag.com

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NEWS Centre, analyzes the effect of environmental compliance on a hog farm’s cost structure. The study provides a clear understanding of the competitive advantages and disadvantages for hog producers in provinces that have varying levels of environmental regulation. Using a model farrow-to-finish operation as a case study, the report found that the total cost of environmental compliance was highest in Ontario and lowest in New Brunswick. While regulations in Quebec are restrictive in comparison to other provinces, the environmental costs incurred to comply with the regulations in Quebec were lower than other jurisdictions. Cher Brethour, Senior Research Associate at the George Morris Centre, states that “the challenging and interesting aspect of this study related to the classification and determination of environmental costs. That task included differentiating the costs classified as those of doing business versus costs specifically related to the environment.” For this study, key factors impacting the compliance costs included environmental impact assessments, nutrient management planning, manure storage requirements above 240 days and geotechnical investigations. Manure handling costs and manure storage requirements below 240 days were considered costs of doing business rather than environmental costs. www.georgemorris.org

One Can - can make a difference

What if you learned that more than 55,000 children in the GTA (Greater Toronto Area) went hungry at least once a week because there wasn’t enough money to buy food to eat? What would you do then? Canstruction® was developed by the design industry to showcase their creative talents in a fun and informative manner while raising awareness and generating food donations for local food banks. Canstruction is held in cities 114 | September 2007

across North America; this year marks the 9th annual design/build competition in Toronto. In less than eight hours, teams of volunteers (professionals and students) create unconventional works of art from thousands of cans of food. These exhibits are judged in a variety of categories including structural integrity, best use of labels and best meal. These ingenious displays are open for public viewing for approximately one week. Last year, 19 teams participated in the Toronto Canstruction event, enabling a donation of almost 70,000 lbs of food to Daily Bread Food Bank. This year’s event in Toronto will be held at the TD Centre. The build night will take place on Monday, November 5, and the exhibits will be on display until Sunday, November 11. There are several ways you can participate: • Initiate or be a part of a corporate team. • Sponsor a student team. • Sponsor the event, e-mail canstruction@sdacanada.com www.canstruction.org

Alberta imposes greenhouse gas cuts on large industrial facilities Alberta has become the first jurisdiction in North America to impose greenhouse gas reductions on large industrial facilities. As of July 1, Alberta facilities that emit more than 100,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases a year are required to reduce their emissions intensity by 12 per cent under the Climate Change and Emissions Management Amendment Act. "Other jurisdictions are talking about what they intend to do, but Alberta has gone from talking to doing,'' said Alberta Environment Minister Rob Renner. "There is no other jurisdiction in North America that has comprehensive regulations requiring large facilities across sectors to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions." Companies have three ways to meet their reductions. They can make operating improvements, buy Alberta-based credits or contribute to the Climate Change and Emissions Management Fund. Alberta Environment will release a new climate change plan this fall. The plan will take into consideration feedback from consultation with Albertans, stakeholders and a panel of international experts. It will address issues such as

technology investment, energy efficiency and conservation.

Groups sue Minister for failing to protect endangered fish Environmental groups have filed a lawsuit against the federal Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, for refusing to identify critical habitat. They claim this refusal gravely weakens the recovery strategy for the Nooksack dace, an endangered fish that lives in small streams in British Columbia's Fraser Valley, east of Vancouver. The groups say that under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA), identification of habitat critical to a species’ survival is required by law. Most species listed under the Act have suffered severe habitat loss or destruction. SARA requires critical habitat to be identified in recovery strategies to the fullest extent possible. Despite this requirement, the groups claim that officials with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans removed specific sections from a draft version of the recovery strategy identifying the critical habitat of the Nooksack dace. The lawsuit, launched by Sierra Legal on behalf of Environmental Defence, Georgia Strait Alliance, and the Wilderness Committee, argues that failure to identify critical habitat in the recovery strategy represents a refusal by the federal government to enforce SARA. www.sierralegal.org Emergency gas shutoff The Terminator emergency shutoff system sequentially closes 150 lb. cylinder valves containing toxic gas in less than three seconds when activated from remote sensors and switches. The Gemini controller has a self-contained battery system that guarantees the operation of the motorized closing mechanism even during a power failure. The latest Fire Codes recognize and approve the “automatic-closing fail-safe shutoff valve” system in lieu of scrubber treatment systems. Tel: 877-476-4222, Fax: 949-261-5033 Web: www.halogenvalve.com Halogen Valve Systems

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine September-October 2007  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine September-October 2007  

This issue focuses on: the science behind proper grit chamber sizing; proper life cycle; disinfection byproducts; and using UV disinfection...