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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Sept/Oct 2013 Vol. 26 No. 5 • Issued October 2013 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Founding Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Design and Production EINAR RICE Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com
Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania
Horrors of the past obscured by romantic images of rustic living
10 Society has benefited from 120 years of environmental journalism ES&E’s 25th anniversary special
Product Showcase . . . 71-75 Environmental News . 76-80 Professional Cards . . . 76-80 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
26 5S Society has recognized key contributors to the wastewater profession for over 70 years 28 Recent no-fault orders passing spill clean-up costs onto innocent parties 30 Managing distribution system water loss with pressure reducing valves 32 Modified SBR system offers effluent reuse potential
Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario
36 Controlling Geosmin and MIB in water reservoirs and treatment plants
Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario
40 Installing an innovative deep-trench drip disposal system
Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
46 Effective WWTP odour control systems provide many benefits 49 Improving nitrification at Caledonia’s wastewater treatment plant 52 Evaluating the impact of hexavalent chromium on drinking water 54 Quebec lakefront lodge gets new high-performance wastewater treatment system 56 Rain gauge network vital to cities when a major storm hits 60 Tuning the accuracy of WW lift station flow rates 62 Geotubes successfully used for storm water pond sediment dewatering 64 London recognized for its new biosolids ash management system 66 Four ways your DO measurements are being affected 69 Immediate pH correction for fluctuating flows offers many benefits 81 Innovative siphon hydraulics at Nanaimo’s new WTP cuts capital and operating costs Page 10
Comment by Tom Davey
Horror stories of past obscured by romantic images of rustic living
cience, chemistry, and engineering were the cutting edges of the Industrial Revolution which was undeniably brutal. Child labour, worker exploitation, dangerous working conditions, all were part of this revolution which reshaped our world forever. Charles Dickens brilliantly captured WKHXUEDQVTXDORULQKLVÂżFWLRQ\HDUV ago. More recently, social scientist PeWHU)'UXFNHULQKLVHVVD\â€œThe Age of Social Transformation,â€? wrote that, while industrial workers were LQGHHG SDLG SRRUO\ DW ÂżUVW WKH\ ZHUH still paid better than farm or household workers. Moreover factory workers ZRUNHGVSHFLÂżHGKRXUVXQOLNHVHUYDQWV and farmers who were often kept working at the whim of employers. Drucker notes that infant mortality rates dropped immediately when farmers and domestic servants moved into factory work. It should be added that technology led directly to the emancipation of women, as knowledge and intellectual skills increasingly displaced brutal muscle power in the industrial marketplace. Ultimately, the development of a skilled working class, along with the wealth generated by mass production, freed a long-abused rural class from centuries of misery and deprivation. The development of canals, roads, ships, railways and planes increasingly slashed the costs of food, goods and services in economies previously serviced by pack horses and camels. To the economies of scale were added the economies of scope, as advances in transportation technology rivaled that of manufacturing. A pack horse, carrying cotton goods to Liverpool, FRXOGRQO\KDXODERXWNLORJUDPVDVLW wound along Lancashireâ€™s hilly terrain. The same horse pulling a canal barge could move several tonnes directly into the great port. Indeed, it was a canal that converted Manchester, an inland city, into a port with a global reach. The barges later carried food from around the world to feed the factory
6 | September/October 2013
workers, completing a cycle in the revolution that was to encircle the world. Fifty per cent of Britainâ€™s economic growth since the Industrial Revolution was due to better nutrition, according to economist and Nobel laureate Robert Fogel. But nutrition alone does not always lead to better health. Increasingly, the
crowded slums around the factories led to lethal outbreaks of disease until the development of sanitary engineering drastically improved public health. Those diseases, which tragically are still endemic in many developing countries, are now found only in the history books of modern societies, a direct benHÂżWRIWKH,QGXVWULDO5HYROXWLRQ %XWSHUKDSVWKHELJJHVWEHQHÂżWLVWKH one most overlooked: that democracy usually displaces despotism when citizen empowerment replaces feudal systems. The dynamic that gave the workers manufacturing skills, also gave them political power. Drucker notes pointedly that the three great destroyers of our age, Hitler, Stalin and Mao, produced absolutely nothing in their lifetimes, except wreckage. The works of the remarkable French-
man, Fernand Braudel, should be required reading. Conventional history tells us much about pharaohs, caesars, kings and queens, but surprisingly little about the lives of average people. ,Q *HRUJH 3XWWHQKDP D PDMRU ÂżJXUH LQ (OL]DEHWKDQ (QJOLVK OLWHUature, wrote: â€œThe good and the bad of princes is more exemplary and thereby of greater moment than private persons.â€? And so it was that most histories were focused, with working people being virtually ignored. But in his books such as Structures of Everyday Life, the )UHQFKKLVWRULDQUHFWLÂżHGWKLVKLVWRULFDO vacuum by showing how ordinary people lived and worked over the ages. Braudel weaves an intricate tapestry from historical facts, which dispels many of the romantic illusions that some youthful environmentalists have of pre-industrial society. He ignores the more regal focus of his contemporaries and deals with such fundamentals as births, marriages, and life expectancies of earlier societies. Also examined are energy sources and uses, economics, social change, and urbanization â€“ all areas commonly neglected by orthodox historians. Many ecologists emotionally link acid rain with Blakeâ€™s Satanic Mills and now regard all industry and technology ZLWKGHHSVXVSLFLRQ%UDXGHOÂśVÂżQGLQJV would undoubtedly shock some of our environmental zealots with their suspicions of, and deep seated resistance to, science and technology. In pre-industrial societies, millions labored in appalling conditions so that a few might OLYH LQ OX[XU\ (YHQ DW WKH WXUQ RI WKH th century it was said that Britain was KHDYHQIRUSHRSOHZKLOHEHLQJD KHOOIRUPLOOLRQ Braudelâ€™s research, however, reveals that even the rich lived in conditions that would disgust modern Canadians. Conventional French historians tell us of the wonders of the great chateaux, the glory of Versailles, its splendid architecture, glistening mirrors, and elegant intericontinued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Comment by Tom Davey ors. But when I visited Versailles not long ago, I learned that food was served cold because the kitchens were located far away from the main palace. In fact, WKH RULJLQDO PDUEOH Ă€RRUV ZKLFK NHSW the palace so cold that wine was known to freeze in winter, were torn up to be replaced with wood. If the stench of the nobilityâ€™s houses centuries ago would nauseate us today, the hovels of the poor, by far the overwhelming majority, must have been unbearable. As Braudel so eloquently puts it, the world, prior to industrial development, was a brutal, disease-ridden and hungry place for its inhabitants, most of whom had very short life expectancies. The most comfortable inhabitants of WKRVHWLPHVZHUHWKHĂ€HDVOLFHUDWVDQG other vermin which infested the houses of rich and poor alike. Braudel stresses that every human being born before the 20th century was actually lucky to have lived. Most babies simply did not survive and those hardy ones who did, for the most part, had short lives punctuated by crippling diseases. Without contemporary sci-
ence, there were no drugs to ease the pain, or machines to diagnose many medical conditions that can easily be treated today. Ironically, the 16th century Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel painted wonderful ODQGVFDSHVÂżOOHGZLWKEXFROLFSHDVDQWV frolicking happily in their rustic environments. While Bruegelâ€™s name is similar to the historianâ€™s, his paintings seem like artistic satires, at odds with WKHPLVHU\UHYHDOHGE\%UDXGHOÂśVÂżQGings. Most of our history was burdened by regular famine. Now we have lucrative fat farms, health clubs and companies such as Weight-watchers, whose clients pay money to work out and eat less. Actually paying money to diet and WRLOLQJ\PVUDWKHUWKDQWKHÂżHOGVLVD situation unprecedented in human history. But our militant activists seem unaware that many less fortunate countries, lacking our technology, relentlessly continue a protracted and unequal battle with nature. Even more tragic is the fact that most poverty stricken peo-
ple are politically powerless, unable to protest their miserable conditions. The works of Braudel and Drucker should be required reading for todayâ€™s professional malcontents, perhaps even becoming mandatory issue when the protest placards are being handed out. If activists knew a little more history, some might become grateful for ÂąLQVWHDGRIKRVWLOHWRÂąWKHEHQHÂżWVRI technology, which have enriched and extended our lives, while creating a climate of political freedom in which to complain about it all.
This editorial was published in Tom Daveyâ€™s book â€œFor Whom the Polls Tellâ€?.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special
Society has benefited from 120 years of environmental journalism By Tom, Steve and Peter Davey
he year 2013 is indeed a milestone year. It marks Environmental Science & Engineering Magazineâ€™s (ES&E) 25th birthday and 120 years of environmental journalism in Canada. It also marks the 30th anniversary of a historical research project Steve Davey did to commemorate Water & Pollution Control Magazineâ€™s (W&PC) 90th birthday in 1983. W&PCâ€™s origins began 120 years ago, when it was launched as The Canadian Engineer. W&PC had been a respected publication, which had several name changes over its lifespan after it began as a general magazine serving professional engineers. But, even in its early GD\V WKH SXEOLFDWLRQ ÂżUVW D monthly and later as a weekly, had a profound interest in environmental engineering. Some of the early environmental engineering giants were featured in W&PC and it would be of interest to many environmental groups to know that there had been vigorous environmental concerns and remediation had taken place as early as the 1800s.
in the 1850s. Then, in approximately 1853, he was appointed chief engineer of the Montreal Waterworks, with the task of constructing a public water supply for the city. The project was so well executed, that his services were soon at a premium for similar installations elsewhere in the country. For some 25 years he was involved, often in a consulting capacity and sometimes as an employee, on waterworks projects for the cities of Toronto, St. Catharines, Hamilton, Quebec City, Ottawa, London, Halifax and Dartmouth. In 1872, he became chief engineer of the Ottawa Waterworks. Some Keefer projects were mentioned in The Canadian Engineer and he ran a professional card in it. Thomas Keefer was keenly aware of the need for engineering education in Canada. He was instrumental in introducing civil engineering at McGill University in Quebec DQG EHFDPH LWV ÂżUVW SURIHVsor of engineering, in 1856, some 11 years before confederation. He was a founding PHPEHUDQGÂżUVWSUHVLGHQWRI the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. This remarkable man died in 1915, in his 94th year. ApCanadaâ€™s water and propriately, a pumping stawastewater pioneers tion he designed in 1859 in The magazine had pubHamilton, Ontario, was deslished news on such engiignated a National Historical neering greats as Samuel Monument on June 11, 1983, and Thomas Keefer and their by the Canadian Society of biographies are well recordCivil Engineering. Keeferâ€™s ed. Worthy of note: Thomas engineering masterpiece is Coltrin Keefer was active in kept in mint condition by The water transportation engineer- Thomas Keefer designed this historic Hamilton pumping Hamilton Museum of Steam & Technology and has been ing in the 1840s and railways station in 1859.
10 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special SXEOLFDWLRQ7KHVHPHQSOD\HGQRWRQO\D featured several times in ES&E. tremendous role in the discipline of civW&PC also carried articles on WilLO HQJLQHHULQJ EXW WKH\ DOVR ZHUH YHU\ lis Chipman, the founder of Chipman DFWLYH LQ GHYHORSLQJ SURIHVVLRQDO DVVRand Power, which was almost certainFLDWLRQV:LOOLV&KLSPDQZDVDIRXQGLQJ O\ &DQDGDÂśV ÂżUVW VLJQLÂżFDQW FRQVXOWmember of the Ontario Association of LQJ HQJLQHHULQJ FRPSDQ\ %\ WKHQ KH Land Surveyors, the Association of Prohad completed both waterworks and IHVVLRQDO(QJLQHHUVRI2QWDULR$3(2 VHZDJH WUHDWPHQW SURMHFWV LQ FLWLHV DQGWKH(QJLQHHULQJ,QVWLWXWHRI&DQDGD from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Victoria, 'U %HUU\ WRR DOWKRXJK \RXQJHU WKDQ %ULWLVK &ROXPELD 6RPH RI &KLSPDQÂśV Willis Chipman, was instrumental in the SXEOLVKHGDUWLFOHVLQWKHPDJD]LQHFRYformation of APEO. HUHG VXFK WRSLFV DV /RQGRQÂśV VHZDJH 7R UHYLHZ WKHVH HDUO\ LVVXHV RI WKH system, Oakville Waterworks AuxiliaPDJD]LQHLVWRJHWDQHZDSSUHFLDWLRQRI ry and the Ontario waterworks system. the term Civil Engineering, because it is :LOOLV &KLSPDQ HQJLQHHUHG ZDWHU DQG PRVWDSSDUHQWWKDWWKHZRUNVDQGSURMVHZDJHSURMHFWVDFURVV&DQDGDXQWLOKH The founder of Chipman Power, Willis HFWVRIWKHFLYLOHQJLQHHUKDGLQWUXWKD GLHGKRZHYHUWKHÂżUPGLGQRWVXUYLYH Chipman. profound civilizingLQĂ€XHQFH beyond its founders. ,W LV FRPPRQ IRU ZULWHUV WR XVH FDWKHGUDOV DQG RWKHU DU%XW E\ WKHQ RWKHU \RXQJ FRQVXOWLQJ FRPSDQLHV VXFK DV ($-DPHVDQG*RUH1DVPLWKDQG6WRUULHKDGEHJXQWRPDNH FKLWHFWXUDOO\DGYDQFHGEXLOGLQJVDVWKHPDUNRIDJUHDWFLYLOL]DWLRQ +RZHYHU LW ZDV WKH VHZHUV ZDWHUZRUNV DQG ZDVWH their mark in Canadian history. ($-DPHVEHJDQLQDQGDOWKRXJKLWKDVKDGVHYHUDO treatment schemes of the early pioneers that did much to rid QDPHFKDQJHVRYHUWKH\HDUVLWUHPDLQHGDYLDEOHDQGH[SDQG- FRXQWULHV RI W\SKRLG SDUDW\SKRLG DQG HYHQ FKROHUD 7KHVH LQJFRPSDQ\HYHQWXDOO\EHFRPLQJRQHRIWKHODUJHUFRQVXOW- were frequent visitors to Canadian households, with a dramatLQJHQJLQHHULQJFRPSDQLHVLQ&DQDGD)RUPDQ\\HDUVLWZDV ic effect on infant mortality. ,QWKH6HSWHPEHULVVXHRIWKHPDJD]LQH(5%RXOWHU known as Proctor & Redfern Limited. *RUH1DVPLWK 6WRUULHEHJDQDOLWWOHODWHUDQGLWWRRKDV DVXUYH\RULVTXRWHGDVVD\LQJÂłthe cleansing of house drains VHUYHGLQDQXQEURNHQOLQHSUDFWLFLQJDV*RUH 6WRUULH/LP- is a matter requiring the serious attention of civil authorities.â€? +HDGYLVHGWKHPWRYLVLWDOORFFXSLHGGZHOOLQJVRQHDFKOLQHRI LWHGEHIRUHEHFRPLQJSDUWRI&+0+,//LQWKHODWHV ,QWKHHDUOLHUGD\VWKHPDJD]LQHFDUULHGVSHFLÂżFDWLRQVDQG the sewer, with all the necessary implements and deodorants GUDZLQJVRI%ULWLVKEDWWOHVKLSVDVZHOODVWHFKQLFDODUWLFOHVRQ WRFOHDQWKHGUDLQV7KLVSURFHGXUHZDVRIIHUHGLQUHVSRQVHWR WKH FRDOÂżUHG ERLOHUV RI 0RQWUHDOÂśV ZDWHUZRUNV 7KHUH ZHUH FRPSODLQWVUHJDUGLQJRGRXUVIURPVHZHUOLQHV 'XULQJ WKH HDUO\ \HDUV IURP WR WKH PDJD]LQH reports of air pollution control devices even then, with adverWLVHPHQWV XUJLQJ UHDGHUV WR EX\ Âłthe smoke eaters.â€? Reports JDYHH[WHQVLYHFRYHUDJHWRRSHQLQJVDQGLPSURYHPHQWVRIZDRIWKHHPHUJLQJLQWHUHVWLQR]RQHZHUHDOVRFDUULHGLQVRPHRI WHUDQGVHZDJHV\VWHPV$QLVVXHGHVFULEHVWKHWHFKQLFDO KLJKOLJKWVRIRQHRIWKH:RUWKLQJWRQSXPSVZKLFKKDGEHHQ the early issues. ,QWKRVHGD\VDUWLFOHVRQ:LOOLV&KLSPDQDQGODWHUWKHG\- UHFHQWO\LQVWDOOHGDWWKH0RQWUHDO:DWHUZRUNV ÂłThe most important feature of modern interest is the high QDPLF \RXQJ 'U$OEHUW (GZDUG %HUU\ ZHUH IHDWXUHG LQ WKH duty attachment which was introduced by the Worthington Company eight years ago and enables the use of steam in a direct acting engine at a high rate RI H[SDQVLRQ ZLWK DQ\ IRUP RI Ă€\ZKHHO engine. The principle is regarded by engineers as being one of the greatest advances in steam practice since the time of Watt ... it has been widely introduced in this continent and in Europe for all kinds of pumping machinery and has shown a savings of from 40 to 50 per cent over the old type of direct acting engine.â€? 7KH DUWLFOH DOVR GHVFULEHG +HLQH 6DIHW\%RLOHUVZKLFKVXSSOLHGVWHDPWR WKH:RUWKLQJWRQ3XPSV
Professional cards in the early issues of The Canadian Engineer included such notables as T.C. Keefer, top right. www.esemag.com
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mankind has learned and rebuilt, reFRQVWUXFWLRQ PLJKW EH VLPSOLÂ¿HG LI WKH VXUYLYRUV XQHDUWKHG FRSLHV RI The Canadian Engineer. Since the publication covered many engineering disciplines IRUGHFDGHVDIWHULWZDVODXQFKHGHDUO\ LVVXHV FRQWDLQHG D ZHDOWK RI LQIRUPDtion. ,QDLVVXHIRUH[DPSOHVWRULHV UDQJLQJ IURP RQH RQ &RXQW =HSSHOLQÂ¶V HDUO\ DLUVKLSV WR RQH RQ 6LU 6DQIRUG )OHPLQJ WKH &DQDGLDQ ZKR LQYHQWHG WKHFRQFHSWRILQWHUQDWLRQDOWLPH]RQHV ZHUHSXEOLVKHG $OZD\V FRQFHUQHG ZLWK VDQLWDWLRQ WKHVDPHLVVXHUDQDQDUWLFOHRQSXULI\LQJVHZDJHE\EDFWHULD,QLWWKHDXWKRU claimed that it is necessary to â€œhelp the EDFWHULD UHPRYH WKH Â¿OWK IURP WKH ZDWHUE\Â¿[LQJWKHSOXPELQJVRDGHTXDWH DPRXQWV RI DLU DUH GLVFKDUJHG LQWR WKH VHZHUV DORQJ ZLWK WKH VHZDJH DQG E\ FRQVWUXFWLQJ WKH VHZHUV LQ D ZD\ WKDW WKHÃ€RZLVUDSLGDQGWKDWHYHU\LQFKRI WKHGUDLQKDVDWKRURXJKXQGXODWLRQRI DLUWKURXJKLW%\GRLQJVRWKHSURFHVV RI EDFWHULDO VHZDJH SXULÂ¿FDWLRQ FRPPHQFHV LPPHGLDWHO\ DIWHU WKH VHZDJH HQWHUVWKHSLSHVÂ´ ,W VHHPV WKDW VRPH RI WKH LVVXHV IDFHGE\VRFLHW\LQWKHHDUO\th centuU\DUHVWLOOZLWKXVWRGD\$VWRU\ RXWOLQHV RQH SUREOHP HQJLQHHUV ZRXOG KDYH LI WKH PHWULF V\VWHP ZHUH DGRSW12 | September/October 2013
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special and he has struggled along for years, endeavouring of empirical experiments to improve existing methods of sewage disposal without having any sound basis for his experiment.â€? The staff of what was The Canadian Engineer had always taken an active role in the industry it served. Over a century ago, editorials by the then editor, Samuel Groves, commented on air pollution regulations: â€œMunicipalities everywhere are beginning to enforce regulations with regards to the smoke nuisance, and rightly so. The evidence is overwhelming that the emissions of black smoke from boiler chimneys can be prevented withRXWÂżQDQFLDOORVVÂ´ Mr. Groves described the Meldrum furnace, which reduced emissions by forcing superheated steam under the airtight ash pits of the boiler. In 1906, he commented on the lack of proper sterilization in the Toronto Water Works System. â€œNow that Toronto is to have electrical energy at a reasonable price, there is no reason why one of these ozone sterilization plants should not form part of the cityâ€™s water works system. It is worthwhile for the Mayor and the corporation to look into this matter,â€? he said. While the magazine reported and presented opinions, it also devoted a lot of space to construction announcements, UHVHDUFKÂżQGLQJVDQGUHYLHZV In 1905, a practical article appeared on thawing pipes using electricity, while another piece described the Gloucester sewage disposal works. An ongoing feature of each issue was a section entitled â€œMunicipal works, etc.â€? This department gave short announcements of new projects along with the amount of money involved and, in some cases, the engineer who proposed it. In 1905, a $125,000 water works system for Saskatoon was announced in this section, along with a $10,000 water works system for Aurora, Ontario, where ironically ES&E Magazine was launched eight decades later. The magazine also announced in 1906 that Miss Nora Stanton Blatch was elected for membership to the American Society of Civil Engineers. She was in the vanguard of womenâ€™s liberation and LVEHOLHYHGWREHWKHVRFLHW\ÂśVÂżUVWZRPan engineer. The headline on that par14 | September/October 2013
iments made at the Manchester Sewage Works in England. Iron salts were added to sewage inoculated with an organism found in old colliery workings and air Water and wastewater was blown through. This produced â€œa gains prominence Beginning in 1909, the magazine ran limpid sparkling and non-putrafactive a section called the â€œSanitary Review,â€? HIĂ€XHQW.â€? In 1914, Messrs. Ardern and Lockett, which dealt with sewage and sewage disSRVDO ZDWHU VXSSO\ DQG SXULÂżFDWLRQ ,Q working in northern England, reported 1912, an article in this section described that a process which they had developed a device developed by Electra Clear â€œSURGXFHGDQHQWLUHO\VDWLVIDFWRU\HIĂ€X:DWHU&RRI&OHYHODQGZKLFKSXULÂżHG ent after a few hoursâ€™ aeration.â€? This ZDWHU E\ SDVVLQJ LW EHWZHHQ HOHFWULÂżHG became known as the Activated Sludge
ticular announcement read: â€œOnce more masculine stronghold invaded.â€?
Winnipeg Aquaduct, circa 1918.
DOXPLQXP SODWHV DQG WKHQ ÂżOWHUHG LW through crushed quartz. That year Willis Chipman wrote an article on â€œProgress in Canada on the Biological Methods of Sewage Disposal during the Last 20 Years.â€? While typhoid epidemics are almost unheard of today in North America, thousands of Canadians died of the disease until sterilization of drinking and wastewater became widespread. In February 1912, the magazine reported on a federal bill before the Senate, which would make it a criminal offence to deposit any wastes from typhoid fever victims into, or near, waterways. In 1913, the magazine began to follow the development of what was to become known as the activated sludge process. That year Professor Gilbert J. Fowler announced the results of exper-
Process and is probably still the most important development in sewage treatment. Ardern and Lockett had a large bottleful of sewage, through which air was EORZQIRUDERXWÂżYHZHHNV7KLVUHVXOWHG LQWKHFRPSOHWHQLWULÂżFDWLRQRIWKHVHZage. The supernatant water was decanted and an equal amount of fresh sewage was added and air blown in, resulting in QLWULÂżFDWLRQLQPXFKOHVVWLPH7KHSURcedure was repeated many times, until there was enough activated sludge to inoculate fresh sewage in the proportion of one to four, or one to three. An entirely VDWLVIDFWRU\HIĂ€XHQWZDVREWDLQHGDIWHUD few hoursâ€™ aeration. The experiment was then made in casks placed outside and air was distributed through porous tiles. After four continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special hours of blowing in contact with activatHG VOXGJH SHU FHQW SXULÂżFDWLRQ ZDV effected, based on oxygen consumption and albumenoid ammonia, or after six KRXUVSHUFHQWSXULÂżFDWLRQ7KHGLVVROYHGR[\JHQDEVRUEHGE\VKDNHQHIĂ€XHQWLQÂżYHGD\VDWÂƒ&ZDVRQO\ SDUWV SHU FRPSDUHG ZLWK WZR parts proposed under the British Royal &RPPLVVLRQRQ6HZDJH'LVSRVDOUHSRUW It was during this time period, that ZRUNEHJDQRQWKHPLOOLRQ:LQQLSHJ Aqueduct, which was designed to carry RYHUPGRIZDWHUIURP6KRDO /DNHWRWKH:LQQLSHJDUHDDGLVWDQFHRI RYHUNP7KHPDJD]LQHJDYHUHJXODU coverage of the construction and of the SUREOHPVHQFRXQWHUHG 7KH WRWDO HOHYDWLRQ GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ:LQQLSHJDQG6KRDO/DNHLVRQO\ PHWHUV 7KLV WUDQVODWHV LQWR D GURS RIDSSUR[LPDWHO\FPSHUPHWHUV which meant the aqueduct had to be constructed with extreme accuracy in order to ensure that the elevation drop was as near to the average as possible at all WLPHV 6DLQW %RQLIDFH ZDV WKH ÂżUVW PXnicipality supplied with water from the DTXHGXFWRQ0DUFK ,Q WKH PDJD]LQH QRWHG WKDW Henderson, Kentucky, became one of WKH ÂżUVW FLWLHV WR LQFRUSRUDWH D SUHVVXUH W\SH XOWUDYLROHW VWHULOL]HU ZKLFK KDG DQ P/d capacity in its water treatPHQWSODQW By the early twenties, a social-economic shift was gaining momentum in &DQDGD$FFRUGLQJ WR D DUWLFOH LQ WKHPDJD]LQHSHUFHQWRIWKHSRSXODWLRQOLYHGLQFLWLHVLQ%\WKLV SHUFHQWDJHKDGULVHQWRSHUFHQW7KLV increase, as well as an increased standard of living and a corresponding growth of industry, was causing water supply costs WR ULVH ,Q DQ DQQRXQFHPHQW ZDV PDGH WKDW WKH *UHDWHU :LQQLSHJ :DWHU 'LVWULFW ZLVKHG WR UDLVH LWV UDWHV IURP WKUHHWRÂżYHFHQWVSHUWKRXVDQGJDOORQV DSHUFHQWLQFUHDVH ,QWKHHDUO\VD\RXQJ'U$OEHUW ( %HUU\ VWDUWHG WR JDLQ SURPLQHQFH LQ HQYLURQPHQWDO FLUFOHV ,Q DQ DUWLcle by him on the value of waterworks laboratory tests was published in the PDJD]LQH,QLWKHZDUQHGWKDWÂłthe operator can only be sure of the safety of the ZDWHUKLVSODQWWUHDWVE\GRLQJVXIÂżFLHQW laboratory testsÂ´ +H DGGHG WKDW Âłthe 16 | September/October 2013
WEF Past President Geoff Scott (standing) with Dr. A.E. Berry - circa 1980.
more tests employed, the greater should be the assurance of the quality.â€? $ HGLWRULDO WUDJLFDOO\ HPSKDVL]HG 'U %HUU\ÂśV PHVVDJH UHJDUGLQJ the responsibility for pure water, after a Kingswell, Ontario man successfully sued the municipality for the death of his ZLIHIURPW\SKRLG 'U %HUU\ VXEPLWWHG DUWLFOHV WR WKH PDJD]LQH RQ D UHJXODU EDVLV UDQJLQJ IURPVHZDJHGLVSRVDOLQ&DQDGDWRYHJHWDEOHJURZWKLQZDWHUVXSSOLHV,Q WKHPDJD]LQHZKLFKKDGMXVWFKDQJHGLWV name to Water & Sewage, asked â€œwho is the most widely known waterworks man?â€? ,W WKHQ DQVZHUHG ÂłThe answer is easy. Dr. Albert Edward Berry, Chief Engineer of the Ontario Department of Health, wins in a walk. Secretary of the Canadian section AWWA; founder and secretary of the Canadian Institute on Sewage and Sanitation; director of the American Water Works Association; Chairman of the Toronto branch E.I.C.; and in supervisory charge of all waterworks and sewage treatment plants in Ontario; with full control of 750 milk pasteurizing plants in Ontario; head of a provincial research laboratory with ten engineers and chemists; author of
numerous engineering articles; winner RIWKHÂżUVW)XOOHU$ZDUGIRUPHULWRULRXV waterworks service â€“ Dr. Berryâ€™s name is a synonym for knowledge and authority in sanitary engineering mattersÂ´ One issue that arose during the mid ÂľVZDVZKHWKHURUQRWWRDGGĂ€XRULGH to drinking water, as an aid in the preYHQWLRQRIGHQWDOFDULHV:DWHUVXSSOLHV LQFHUWDLQDUHDVRIWKH:HVWFRQWDLQHGWRR PXFKĂ€XRULGHDQGDVDUHVXOWPDQ\SHRSOHHQGHGXSZLWKPRWWOHGWHHWK6WXGLHV however, showed that, in low concentraWLRQVĂ€XRULGHZDVEHQHÂżFLDO :DWHU VXSSO\ ZDV DOVR D PDMRU FRQFHUQIRUPLOLWDU\HQJLQHHUVGXULQJ:RUOG :DU,,ZKRZHUHUHVSRQVLEOHIRUPHHWing the huge water requirements of their UHVSHFWLYH DUPHG IRUFHV 7KH KHDGOLQH RQ RQH ZDUWLPH IHDWXUH E\ 0DMRU 3HWHU :5DLQLHURIÂżFHUUHVSRQVLEOHIRUZDWHU VXSSO\ZDVÂłWater for Montyâ€™s MenÂ´,W was the exciting story of the indispensable part played by water supply in the WULXPSKRIWKH%ULWLVKth Army in North $IULFD ,Q WKH ODWH ÂľV HDUO\ ÂľV D IRFXV on issues, such as industrial waste and WKH QHHG IRU VDQLWDU\ ODQGÂżOO VWDUWHG WR HYROYH ,Q WKH PDJD]LQH SXEOLVKHG DQ editorial on a need for sanitary landÂżOO Âł7KH GLVSRVDO RI UHIXVH LQ ODQGÂżOOV is gaining the increasing favour of the municipal engineers, many of whom are being pressed by the growing consciousQHVVRIWKHWD[SD\HUVLQWKHSXEOLFVLJQLÂżcance of refuge disposal. Open dumping, burning dumps and other assorted methods which give rise to nuisances from odours and smoke, provide harbourage and food for rats and insects and are a source of a number of health hazards â€“ the cry of the citizenry, newspapers and engineers is for their removal.â€? $DUWLFOHE\'U%HUU\HQWLWOHG ÂłCanadian Practice in Sewage Works,â€? challenged the engineering profession WR PHHW WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RI D &DQDGLan public that was fast becoming enviURQPHQWDOO\ DZDUH â€œCanada is in the midst of a major program of activity in WKHVHZDJHÂżHOG7KHUHLVDQLQFUHDVLQJ interest in this country in the prevention of stream pollution and the maintenance of the countryâ€™s greatest natural resources, its water supplies. It is the engineerâ€™s continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special responsibility to design and construct suitable sewage systems.â€? Environmental activism Canadian Municipal Utilities changed its name to Water & Pollution Control in the mid 1960s to focus entirely on environmental issues. This coincided with the surge of public concern about the environment and the publication of noteworthy books such as Rachel Carsonâ€™s Silent Spring in 1962. People, who had concerned themselves mainly with gross national product and their ever-increasing living standards, suddenly realized that much of the material progress which they enjoyed had been made at the expense of the environment. A tremendous change took place in public attitudes and many protest groups made sure governments were aware of their concerns. But the new awareness caused problems for the engineering community. Engineering proposals, which earlier had been routinely rubber stamped by governments at all levels, now faced a barrage of questions by concerned and often irate citizensâ€™ groups before any of the projects could be implemented. Many worthwhile projects were abandoned or delayed by this new sociological phenomenon of protest groups, who adroitly used both the media and governments to adapt to their mind sets. The end result of this is that Environmental Impact Assessments are now de rigueur. Larger, sometimes planetary viewpoints emerged as society realized that there were few pollution problems which operated in isolation. W&PC responded to the new challenge, with articles which were written on a much broader philosophical plane. Topics, such as eutrophication, heavy metals, acid rain, and the mutagenic effects of chemicals, were published in the following years.
the magazineâ€™s stance on under-priced drinking water. He argued that price drove consumption. When water was undervalued, it would be wasted, leading to environmental neglect and pollution. 7KHÂżUVWLVVXHDOVRFDUULHGDQDUWLFOH by Ontario Environment Minister Jim Bradley about the Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program. The objective was the virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances entering the environment. It called for strict monitoring and testing programs and resulted in a surge of spending in the environmental industry. Unfortunately, government emphasis on the MISA program was short-lived when the Liberal Party lost to the New Democrats, in the 1990 election. Many analytical laboratories, which had geared up for an anticipated demand for their services due Richard Rush to the MISA program, either went out of friend: â€œWhy donâ€™t you launch your own business, or abandoned the environmenenvironmental magazine?â€? he enquired. tal market. He knew that both Tom and Steve DavOne key component of the Ontario ey had been editors of Water & Pollu- governmentâ€™s plan to deal with toxtion Control Magazine, and that the ic substances, such as PCBs, was the creation of the Ontario Waste Management Corporation in the early 1980s. Unfortunately, the OWMC became endlessly stymied by public opposition and activist groups, opposed to the location and use of its waste incineration facility and disposal site. Ultimately, after spendDavey family worked closely with both ing some $120 million in studies, the the Water Environment Association of OWMC was abandoned, without ever Ontario and the Ontario Water Works treating even a handful of waste. Association. In the late 1980s, ES&E carried many It seemed like a good idea and, during staff-written articles advocating the use WEFTECâ€™87, the launch of Environ- of PCB contaminated wastes as fuels mental Science & Engineering Maga- for cement kilns. The articles stressed zine (ES&E) was formally announced. that the rotary kilns were a good idea The reaction was most favorable. because they could harness the thermal 7KH ÂżUVW LVVXH UROOHG RII WKH SUHVVHV properties of the wastes while makin February 1988 and was immediately ing cement; that the PCBs had a long HPEUDFHGE\WKHLQGXVWU\7KHYHU\ÂżUVW UHVLGHQFH WLPH LQ WKH Ă€DPH OHDGLQJ WR editorial comment by Tom Davey was almost total destruction; and that there entitled: â€œWhy low-bid systems are bad was a saving in valuable fuel used, infor the Canadian environmentâ€?, a theme stead of conventional incineration. which touched a nerve in both consul- However, public opinion was against tants and suppliers. This issue also car- the use of PCB wastes as fuel and ried an article by Federal Environment this option was abandoned. Much of Minister Tom McMillan, which echoed continued overleaf...
People, who had concerned themselves mainly with gross national product and their ever-increasing living standards, suddenly realized that much of the material progress which they enjoyed had been made at the expense of the environment.
The founding of ES&E Magazine Many things are conceived at parties and, appropriately, it was at a publishing event in 1987 that the idea of a new environmental magazine was raised by a 18 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special lion. This was analogous to one second in 32 million years, surely space age achievements, yet the value of laboratories was, and still may be, too often the forgotten profession in environmental remediation. Non-point pollution sources, such as oil contamination in stormwater, began to be tackled in the early 1990s. In response, sophisticated catchment systems were developed to separate and retain oil in catch basins. In the 1990s, new and improved treatment processes emerged. Membrane technology for both drinking water and wastewater developed at an astonishing UDWH2]RQHSUREDEO\ÂżUVWXVHGLQ&DQada in Quebec, is now used in drinking water plants in Ontario and other parts of Canada. UV disinfection too, has become a prominent tool in both drinking water and wastewater management. The 1990s brought great change to Canadaâ€™s consulting engineers. In the November 1995 issue of (6 ( George Powell, of CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited, stated that, â€œas the consulting industry in Ontario downsized from about LQWRXQGHULQ to react to the slowdown in the domestic PDUNHW WKH QHHG WR GHYHORS RSSRUWXQLties internationally grew.â€? He went on to say that, â€œinternational design/build/ RZQRSHUDWHWUDQVIHU%227SURMHFWVDV WKH\DUHRIWHQFDOOHGDUHEHFRPLQJWKH norm.â€?
George Powell with ES&E Managing Editor Sandra Davey, circa 1990.
Walkerton Clean Water Centre.
Canadaâ€™s PCB wastes ultimately were directed to the United States. Leak detection from underground storage tanks also became an important issue in the late 1980s. In the July 1991 issue of ES&E, an article by Richard Rush and Keith Metzger, of XCG Consultants, reported that there were approximately 70,000 retail gasoline storage tanks in Canada. Studies had shown that 20-25 per cent of these were found to be, or were suspected to be leaking. â€œThe remediation cost could be many tens of billions of dollars â€“ the same order of magnitude as the annual Canadian FedHUDO'HÂżFLWâ€? stated the authors. The fearsome â€œHole in the Ozone Layerâ€?FDXVHGODUJHO\E\FKORURĂ€XRURcarbon emissions, dominated the news in the 1980s. ES&E published several 20 | September/October 2013
articles on methods to recapture CFCs, including some from Dusanka Filipovic, who played an active role in the development of an innovative technology to recapture CFCs from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, when serviced or decommissioned. Ms. Filipovic later won several awards for her engineering work, including the Engineering Medal for Research and Development from Professional Engineers of Ontario. The ozone layer, which once dominated media coverage, is no longer as newsworthy, since it is expected to recover sometime in the 21st century. Early on, after its launch in 1988, ES&E reported in several issues on the increasingly important role of environmental laboratories and how labs could now measure toxins to parts per quadril-
Walkerton- a game changer Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the â€œRXW RI VLJKW RXW RI PLQGÂ´ attitude towards water mains and sewer lines resulted in gross neglect of cleaning, repairing and replacing this infrastructure. In 2001, this attitude changed when eight people died and some 2,000 were made seriously ill, from E. coli O157 contamination in Walkerton, Ontarioâ€™s drinking water supply. Stan and Frank Koebel were workers at the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission at the time of the tragedy. Frank worked as the water foreman, while Stan worked as the Commissionâ€™s supervisor. Both would eventually plead guilty to falsifying reports and were formally sentenced in December 2004, with Stan receiving a year in jail and Frank nine months of house arrest. FRQWLQXHGRYHUOHDI
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special Reaction to their sentencing was mixed. Some felt it was justice served, while others believed the tragedy was the result of many other factors and that it could have happened elsewhere at any time. In 2002, Justice Dennis Oâ€™Connor released The Walkerton Report, which made some 93 recommendations and added new vigour and commitment to revitalizing Canadaâ€™s water and wastewater infrastructure. Among its many recommendations was mandatory certiÂżFDWLRQ ZKLFK KDV FUHDWHG D QHZ OHYHO of professionalism among water plant operators. As the Ontario government had closed down its operator training facility in the mid 1990s, mandatory operDWRUFHUWLÂżFDWLRQKDVFUHDWHGDQRSSRUWXnity for private sector operator training. Another victim of the Walkerton tragedy was the acceptance of the land application of biosolids. Many landowners and municipalities started denying permission to do so, in order to play it safe. )ROORZLQJDÂżUHDWDVRRQWREHFRPPLVsioned sludge pelletization facility, the biosolids disposal situation in Toronto
Phil Sidhwa (L) with ES&E Editor Steve Davey.
became so desperate that the city trucked LWV ELRVROLGV WR D ODQGÂżOO LQ 0LFKLJDQ 1RZWKH*UHHQ/DQHODQGÂżOOQHDU/RQdon, Ontario, handles Torontoâ€™s waste. In the January 2008 issue of ES&E, Phil Sidwa of Terratec Environmental wrote that, â€œconsidering the acceptance
of recycling by society, the rejection of ODQGÂżOOVDQGWKHRYHUZKHOPLQJHYLGHQFH of climate change, the arguments raised against the land application of biosolids WKDWKDYHPHWVWULFWTXDOLW\VWDQGDUGVDUH not realistic.â€? The issue of global warming, while
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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FORVHG GRZQ ,W KDG SUHYLRXVO\ RQO\ EHHQDOORZHGWRPDQXIDFWXUHSHUFHQW RIHDFKEXVEHIRUHWKH\ZHUHVKLSSHGWR WKH86IRUÂżQLVKLQJ ,QFRQWUDVWWRDORWRIODERXUPDUNHWV IROORZLQJ WKH ÂżQDQFLDO FULVLV FRQFHUQV RYHU D ORRPLQJ VKRUWDJH RI SURIHVVLRQ DOHQJLQHHUVEHJDQWRGHHSHQDVVWXGLHV DQGUHSRUWVFDPHRXWVKRZLQJDQDJLQJ ZRUNIRUFH DQG D VKRUWDJH RI TXDOLÂżHG DSSOLFDQWV (DUOLHU LQ (QJLQHHUV &DQDGD SXEOLVKHG D UHSRUW VWDWLQJ WKDW WKH\ H[ SHFW SURIHVVLRQDO HQJLQHHUV WR UHWLUH E\ $WWUDFWLQJ DQG UHWDLQLQJ QHZ HQJLQHHUV KDV EHHQ GLVFXVVHG E\ ES&EIRUDQXPEHURI\HDUV\HWWKHLV VXHVWLOOFRQFHUQVWKHLQGXVWU\ %LOO 'H$QJOLV RI $VVRFLDWHG (QJL QHHULQJZKRDOVRVLWVRQES&EÂśVWHFKQL FDODGYLVRU\ERDUGGLVFXVVHGVWUDWHJLHV WR GHDO ZLWK D VKULQNLQJ ODERXU SRRO LQ D1RYHPEHUDUWLFOHâ€œAs an indusWU\ZHQHHGWRUHVROYHWRKLUHTXDOLÂżHG foreign-trained engineers,â€? KH VDLG DGGLQJÂłWe need to take the time to integrate new staff into our organizations, continued overleaf...
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ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special
Bill De Angelis
remembering that the skills they bring to us were developed in different cultural settings.â€? In January 2011, Engineers Canada echoed this sentiment by launched a new website aimed to help newcomers to Canada plan their engineering career. New threats With ever-increasing automation and remote management, water and wastewater treatment and environmental systems increasingly face threats from PDOLFLRXVLQÂżOWUDWLRQV$FFRUGLQJWRWKH Repository of Industrial Security Incidents, there was a 300 per cent increase in cyber-security events in the water/ wastewater industry between 2004 and 2009. In 2010, the discovery of the Stux-
net computer worm brought wide spread attention to cyber attacks on infrastructure and industrial control systems. The worm most notably infected computers in an Iranian nuclear plant. Since 2008, ES&E has run numerous articles on the vulnerability of infrastructure, such as keeping records of people who access plants, through smart locks, RUGHYHORSLQJLQIUDVWUXFWXUHVSHFLÂżFVHcurity policies. In ES&Eâ€™s Summer 2013 issue, Victor Wong, a consulting engineer with Opus Dayton Knight, advised municipalities to re-think their security strategies. Pointing to the risks of shared networks, common communication protocols and hardware, and accessibility of training documents online, Mr. Wong warned that water system compromises are not a question of if, but when. Paying it forward Global water supply is an ever-increasing problem and ES&E has strongly supported Water For People. This charitable organization was set up to provide clean drinking water to developing countries, using appropriate, inexpensive and
> Water & Wastewater Systems > Stormwater Treatment & Management > Modeling > Hydrologic & Hydraulic Analysis > Environmental Planning > Distribution, Collection, Treatment > Hydrogeology
24 | September/October 2013
sustainable technology. Outbreaks of lethal diseases, which haunted Europe and WKH$PHULFDV IRU FHQWXULHV KDYH HLWKHU been vastly reduced in a number of developing countries, or eliminated thanks to Water For People. ES&Eâ€™s Sales Director, Penny Davey, serves on the board of Water For People Canada. Many ES&E articles have postulated that environmental engineers have perhaps done as much for public health as the medical profession. When ES&E was launched in 1988, its goal was to be a voice for Canadaâ€™s water, wastewater and environmental protection professionals. Since then, ES&E staff members have been extensively involved with and have won awards from the Water Environment )HGHUDWLRQ WKH$PHULFDQ:DWHU:RUNV $VVRFLDWLRQWKH:DWHU(QYLURQPHQW$Vsociation of Ontario and the Canadian Business Press. ES&E intends to continue providing vigorous forums where issues affecting environmental professionals can be debated and where new technologies, projects and policies can be introduced. Tom, Steve and Peter Davey
Tom Davey: Editor, 1988 - 2008 Steve Davey: Editor, 2008 - Present Peter Davey: Editorial Assistant, 2012 - Present
/TTAWA s -ARKHAM s ,ONDON s .IAGARA &ALLS s #ALGARY s 6ANCOUVER s 6ICTORIA $ELCAN 625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 9R9 Tel: 905.943.0500 Fax: 905.943.0400 firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special
The 5S Society - recognizing key contributors to the wastewater profession for over 70 years
his year marked the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Ontario Chapter of The Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers (5S). The 5S Society had its beginnings in the United States, but there is some dispute as to where and by whom it was founded. A commonly accepted thesis is that the Original Chapter of the Five S Society was formed in Arizona in October 1940. Other people strongly contend that it had its beginnings in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the Ted Moses High Hat Award. Whatever its origins, independent Chapters of the Society have since been formed in British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, and in many of the American States. In addition, there are Shovelers in Japan, Brazil and The Netherlands. The Chapter in New Zealand is probably the youngest, having been inaugurated in May, 1993.
26 | September/October 2013
( L to R ) ES&E staffers Steve, Penny and Tom Davey are all 5S members.
It will be of interest to Canadians to know that the former Governor General, the late Madame Sauve, was made an Honorary Member of the Florida
Chapter when she spoke at the WPCF Conference in Miami in 1975. The Honourable Roger Simmons, M.P. for Burin-St. Georgeâ€™s was similarly hon-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&Eâ€™s 25th Anniversary Special oured at the Conference in Las Vegas in 1980. The Society was formed to provide a means of recognizing those who have contributed freely of their time and talents to the growth, well-being and success of their individual Associations.
some other utilitarian or decorative purpose. It must always be worn or displayed to indicate a Member in good standing, the penalty for being found without the Shovel by another shoveler being to provide all those present with a refreshment of their choice. Each Member is provided with D 0HPEHUVKLS &HUWLÂżFDWH VLJQHG E\ WKH ,QĂ€XHQW ,QWHJUDWRU DV S+ DQG E\ twelve other shovelers for the remaining concentrations from pH 1 to pH 13.
:KLOH WKH ZRUGLQJ RQ WKH &HUWLÂżFDWHV may vary from Chapter to Chapter, it normally indicates that selection to Membership is in recognition of â€œoutstanding service above and beyond the call of dutyâ€? to the Association. Membership bestows the accolade of elevation â€œRQWKHRIÂżFLDOVKRYHOWRWKHKLJKHVWULGJHRIWKHVOXGJHEHGZLWKWKHWLWOH RI VHOHFW VDQLWDU\ VOXGJH VKRYHOHU DQG DOOWKHKRQRXUDWPRVSKHUHSHUTXLVLWHV DQGGLJQLW\DSSHUWDLQLQJWKHUHWRÂ´
5S Society Ontario Chapter REFLECTIONS
ON THE 30th ANNIVERSARY OF THE 5S ONTARIO CHAPTER (1983 TO 2013) SPECIAL ANNIVERSARY SUPPLEMENT TO THE SPRING 2013 5S NEWSLETTER
Founding members of the 5S Society Ontario Chapter.
Many of these hard workers do not become President of their Association, or receive one of the coveted awards associated with water pollution control activities, and the Five S Society does provide a method of expressing recognition and gratitude for their efforts. It is important to appreciate that one cannot â€˜â€™joinâ€? the Society, but that members are â€œselectedâ€? on the basis of merit. There are no dues for Membership in the Society, nor are there any 2IÂżFHUV H[FHSW WKH Âł,QĂ€XHQW ,QWHJUDtorâ€?, who is designated by the neutral â€œpH 7â€?. Those who attend wastewater association events will have seen colleagues adorned with a â€œGold Shovel Emblemâ€?. It is worn as a lapel pin, tie clasp or for www.esemag.com
September/October 2013 | 27
Recent no-fault orders are dumping cleanup costs on innocent parties By John Willms
ith little public debate and virtually no media attention, several significant legal precedents are expanding the scope and financial impact of environmental obligations. Two recent court cases illustrate how the socalled “no-fault” provisions in Ontario’s environmental laws can saddle innocent parties, both corporate and individual, with millions of dollars in remediation costs. At the same time, a bankruptcy case in Newfoundland is forcing environmental agencies to pursue these innocent “deep pockets” ever more vigorously, to fund future cleanup projects.
The Ministry had already issued a remediation Order on the responsible parties, but they had fully expended their available insurance coverage. Spilled oil had spread onto City property. Therefore, a second Order could rightfully be issued to the Kawartha Lakes, as the party that “owns or has management and control of an undertaking or a property,” even though it bore no fault for the original spill. The City’s appeal of the remediation Order was denied by the Environmental Review Tribunal. The City’s further appeal was heard by the Ontario Court of Appeal on May 1, 2013. The Court dismissed the City’s appeal.
Case #1: City of Kawartha Lakes* In 2009, the City of Kawartha Lakes was ordered by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) to clean up a fuel oil spill it did not cause. Since then, the municipality has fought a series of legal battles to correct what it considers “a breach of natural justice.” Kawartha
Case #2: Northstar Aerospace MOE has issued orders to ensure that the directors and officers (D&Os) of a bankrupt aerospace company are personally responsible for a multi-million dollar groundwater cleanup project around one of the firm’s former plants in Cambridge, Ontario. On November 14, 2012, the Ministry issued a Director’s Order to continue remediation work against 13 former D&Os of Northstar Aerospace (Canada) Inc. and its parent company Northstar Aerospace, Inc. This was issued on the grounds that they had “management or control” of the contaminated site between 2003 and 2012. However, it is likely that most or all of the groundwater contamination occurred prior to the tenure of any of the named D&Os. The outstanding site monitoring and cleanup is expected to cost some $15 million over the next 10 years. In turn, 12 of the former D&Os have appealed the Order to the Environmental Review Tribunal (ERT) and filed a motion in the Ontario Superior Court requesting it determine the validity of the Order under the bankruptcy proceedings. The ERT appeal has yet to be scheduled. The Superior Court hearing was held April 18, 2013, and the Court has reserved judgment. In the interim, the former D&Os must continue to pay
Lakes insists that, before imposing a cleanup Order on an “innocent party,” the MOE had a duty to first consider any other persons who may have been at fault for the spill, or the off-site migration of the oil. The MOE maintains it has the discretion to issue a preventative Order under section 157(1) of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), to ensure prompt remediation and minimize any adverse effects without regard to fault. 28 | September/October 2013
the cleanup costs, estimated at $100,000 per month. Case #3: AbitibiBowater Inc. In a closely watched case, the Supreme Court of Canada has ruled that environmental cleanup orders issued by Newfoundland and Labrador on AbitibiBowater Inc. do not have priority over other claims in the bankruptcy queue. The company, which now operates as Resolute Forest Products Inc., had instituted restructuring proceedings in 2009. Subsequently, the province filed Ministerial remediation orders for five Abitibi sites and expropriated three of the properties. The estimated costs of the cleanup ranged between $50 and $100 million. The case was heard November 16, 2011, and the decision dismissing the appeal with costs was released December 7, 2012. While the decision is specific to the particular facts of this case, we expect that environmental ministries across the country will be considering the impact of the ruling and will be revising their enforcement policies (written or informal) accordingly. The inexorable conclusion is that environmental ministries will be issuing cleanup orders sooner rather than later, ignoring questions of causation and fault. They are looking for “deep pockets” to pay remediation costs and are making claims against both a company and its directors and officers. John Willms is a partner with Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, E-mail: email@example.com
*Details of this case were outlined in greater detail in an article, also by John Willms, entitled Kawartha Lakes fights MOE order to pay for oil spill costs” which appeared in the Summer 2013 issue of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine - www.esemag.com.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Managing water loss with pressure reducing valves
n a global basis, it is estimated that 33 billion cubic meters of treated water are lost at an estimated cost of $15 billion per year. North America seems to be lagging behind in its awareness of this issue, but is gradually catching up to the rest of the world. System losses vary by utility; however, water losses ranging from 15 to 70 per cent are common. According to the Ontario Sewer and Watermain Association, up to 30 per cent of treated water in Canada goes into the ground. When a utility undertakes a major water loss project, multiple control zones with a single source of water (if possible) are required. These zones are referred to as DMAs, or district metered areas. It is common for a mid- to large-sized utility to establish hundreds of DMAs. Assuming residential, commercial and industrial users are being metered, you now have measured flow into the DMA, as well as flow to users. There is a direct correlation between pressure and leakage. If you reduce pressure by one per cent, you will reduce leakage by approximately 1.15 per cent (subject to variation). The goal then is to develop multiple smaller DMAs within a utility and give customers just enough pressure to serve their needs, while eliminating over-pressures. Good pressure management is typically the most economical approach to reducing water loss. Each DMA requires a meter as well as a pilot-operated control valve. These valves are built to different standards worldwide and vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Different quality materials may be used by different manufacturers. There are also many options that can be added to increase the life of these valves, or to make maintenance easier. AWWA has a standard (Standard C530) for pilot-operated control valves that is highly recommended. Here are some options for pilot-operated control valves, for reducing pressure and leakage: 1. Standard pressure reducing valves A standard pressure reducing valve (PRV)
30 | September/October 2013
By Brad Clarke
is familiar to most users. For a utility undertaking pressure management and establishing DMAs, it is often an excellent selection. This valve has typically one pilot and one pressure setting. You manually set the pilot to the one pressure you desire downstream and that is the pressure you get. Downstream pressure setting is maintained as a constant, regardless of varying upstream pressures or flow rates. This style of valve needs a differential pressure of 10 psi, or .6 bar, between the inlet and outlet of the valve to function effectively. To change pressure, the operator must adjust the valve manually by changing the pressure setting on the pilot. This style of valve works very well with medium to high system pressures. If available pressure differential drops below 10 psi (.6 bar), pressure reducing valves cannot open fully and, as the available pressure drop is further reduced, flow approaches zero. 2. Low pressure pressure reducing valves - If very low pressures are encountered during peak demand periods, standard PRVs cannot supply the required flow. If inlet pressures drop below 10 psi (.6 bar), the differential pressure across the valve is not enough to maintain the valve in the open position. Valve capacity is reduced and downstream customers may not have enough water.
This issue can be overcome by using two pilots. The first is a standard PRV pilot that is used to control or reduce pressure at non-peak usage periods. The second is a modified altitude pilot that allows the main valve bonnet to vent to atmosphere at a predetermined low pressure (usually just below the downstream set-point). When inlet pressure drops below the low pressure setpoint, the main valve opens fully. This minimizes pressure loss during peak periods. The valve can open fully, even with pressures as low as 2 psi (.13 bar). A standard PRV typically has the pilot set for the lowest pressure required at peak demand, to make sure that all users have enough pressure to satisfy their needs. Remember that the outlet pressure setting remains constant, regardless of variances in inlet pressure or flow rate. During nonpeak usage, there is less demand on the system, so pressure loss though the distribution and service mains is much less. This results in higher downstream pressures, especially in areas remote from the PRV. At non-peak times, increased pressure has two negative outcomes: leakage rates increase and pipes burst. The above scenario can be overcome in part by using two standard PRV pilots on the main valve. One pilot is set for high demand pressure (day time), while the other is set for low demand pressure (night time). A solenoid valve is sup-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Water Loss plied and a basic timing controller decides which of the two pilots is utilized. Depending on availability of power, a standard solenoid with a locally sourced timing device may be used. Alternately, if no power is available, a battery-operated timer (submersible), combined with a latching solenoid valve using minimal power, may be utilized. The above options can be very economical, with excellent results; however it is important to consider the fire department’s minimum pressure requirements. 3. Pressure reducing valves — self adjusting based on flow (pressure/flow control) - Combination pressure flow control valves can be a very interesting option. This style of valve senses flow through pressure differential across either a correctly sized orifice plate, or partially open gate valve, downstream of the PRV. The standard PRV pilot has a large secondary diaphragm operator, that adjusts the pilot setpoint based on flow. The PRV pilot is set for minimum (night) pressure. The secondary operator then increases the setpoint as the flow increases. Minimum setpoint and pressure increase are deter-
mined, to ensure adequate pressure in all parts of the DMA at peak demand. A limitation on this style of valve is that it must be a single source to a DMA. Multiple valves feeding a DMA will not function correctly. 4. Pressure reducing valves incorporating third party control — time switched or flow modulation - When utilizing this type of control, a standard PRV complete with main valve and pilot is utilized. A third party manufacturer of controllers and interface units will adapt its equipment to interface with the PRV manufacturer’s pilot. Usually a Bias chamber will be mounted under the pilot, or an actuation device will be mounted on top of the pilot, depending on the controller manufacturer. Flow modulation will react to flow variations in the system and adjust pressure accordingly. If flow modulation is not required, time-based control can be utilized with this equipment. 5. Pressure reducing valves utilizing motor driven pilot interfacing with SCADA - In this case, a sturdy slow speed 24 VDC (AC option available) motor-op-
erated device is fitted to the top of the pilot and attaches to the adjustment screw. This device requires less than 1 amp to operate and is controlled by a 4 – 20 mA signal from the water distribution SCADA system. The very low power requirement lends itself well to a solar powered self-contained station. Extended power failure would result in constant pressure at the last setting. Pressure transmitters (upstream and downstream) can be used in conjunction with flow transmitters at the DMA, so that real time data is available on SCADA. This information allows continuous adjustments of pressures based on flow demand. 6. Pressure reducing valve pre-packaged systems - Utilities are utilizing pre-packaged systems on pressure reduction stations. These pre-packaged stations make sense for use in DMAs, because they are built in a clean environment, pretested and are quicker to install on site. They can be custom designed and are often more economical. Brad Clarke is with Singer Valve Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
September/October 2013 | 31
Low cost installation and operation of a modified SBR system with potential for effluent reuse By John Seguire and Albert Wakim
Norwood Water Pollution Control Plant.
he Norwood Water Pollution Control Plant in Peterborough County, Ontario, required a treatment capacity upgrade IURP DQ DYHUDJH GD\ Ă€RZ RI P3/d WR P3/d. In addition to increased Ă€RZ WKH HIĂ€XHQW OLPLWV ZHUH UHTXLUHG to be lower than for the original plant, to meet revised discharge permit conditions and to allow for the potential reuse RI HIĂ€XHQW IRU LUULJDWLRQ DW D ORFDO JROI course. The original WPCP included screening, grit separation, secondary treatment with a carousel-type extended aeration (EA) plant, and chlorine disinfection. After an assessment by AECOM, the preferred upgrade option was to install a second headworks screen, a Fluidyne
ISAM SBR system.
ISAMâ„˘ (Integrated Surge Anoxic Mix) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for secondary treatment. Aluminum sulphate would be injected into the SBR to chemically precipitate phosphorus not removed biologiFDOO\7RWDOVHFRQGDU\HIĂ€XHQWZRXOGEH SROLVKHGLQD'\QD6DQGGHHSEHGÂżOWHU followed by UV disinfection, before being discharged to the Ouse River. A septage receiving station was also required, as part of the upgrade. The ISAM SBR was selected as the preferred upgrade for the secondary treatment process, on the basis of its performance, simple design and costs. In addition, there was limited space available at the site for new construction and the ISAM SBR had a smaller footprint
than the alternatives reviewed. The SBR process incorporates primary treatment, aeration, settlement and sludge wasting in one reactor, and each of these phases operates on a time-based process cycle. The combination of these phases in the SBR tanks is known as a cycle. Because the SBR process can be DGMXVWHGWRVXLWVLWHVSHFLÂżFZDVWHZDWHU FRQGLWLRQVLWKDVYHU\Ă€H[LEOHSKDVHDQG cycle times. ,QDGGLWLRQWRSURFHVVĂ€H[LELOLW\RSerating all phases of treatment in one reactor has the advantage of lower capital and O&M costs compared to other biological treatment systems. This is due to less tankage, interconnecting pipework and process equipment usage. The ISAM SBR system was chosen Design/Build Construction Management P3 Project Delivery Maple Reinders has been delivering innovative environmental construction projects for the Canadian market for over 46 years including design, operation and private ďŹ nancing.
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www.maple.ca 1-888-416-2753 Mississauga
32 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment Table l. Average influent and effluent data for 2010 to 2012 at the Norwood WPCP. Parameter
Flow (m3/d ADF)
Total P (mg/L)
E. coli (MPN /100 mL)
Note: a. Not applicable b. Most probable number for the Norwood WPCP as it has the Ã€H[LELOLW\ DQG ORZHU FRVWV RI DQ 6%5 SURFHVV ZLWK WKH IROORZLQJ DGGLWLRQDO DGYDQWDJHV â€¢ ,W LQFRUSRUDWHV DQ DQDHURELF VWDJH ,6$0 ZKHUH SULPDU\ VROLGV DQG ZDVWHELRORJLFDOVOXGJHIURPWKH6%5 DUHVWRUHGDQGGLJHVWHG7KLVUHGXFHV VOXGJH SURGXFWLRQ DQG SURYLGHV D VOXGJHVWRUDJHFDSDFLW\RIDERXW GD\V,WDOVRDOORZVFRQGLWLRQVIRUELRORJLFDOSKRVSKRUXVUHPRYDO â€¢ 7KHUH LV DQ DQR[LF VXUJH WDQN 6$0ÂŒ ZKLFK DFWV DV D EDODQFLQJ WDQN DQG GHQLWULILFDWLRQ DUHD UHGXF-
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LFDOFRPSRQHQWVWKHMHWPRWLYHSXPS DQGWKHGHFDQWHU â€¢ $MHWPRWLYHSXPSLVXVHGWRWUDQVIHU PL[HGOLTXRULQWRWKH6%5WRPL[WKH 6%5GXULQJWKHDQR[LFSKDVHDQGWR SURYLGHDHUDWLRQZLWKVXSSOHPHQWDO EORZHUV GXULQJ WKH DHUDWLRQ SKDVH 7KHGHFDQWHULVXVHGWRGLVFKDUJHVHFRQGDU\ HIIOXHQW IURP WKH 6%5 WDQN DIWHUWKHVHWWOLQJSKDVH7KHSDWHQWHG GHFDQWHUV\VWHPXVHVDVLPSOHDLUORFN FUHDWHGZLWKDVROHQRLGYDOYHDVZHOO DVDFRQILJXUDWLRQWKDWGHFDQWVODUJH YROXPHVDWDORZZHLURYHUIORZYHORFLW\ ISAM SBR system components 7KH XSJUDGHG SODQW ZDV FRPPLVVLRQHGDQGEHJDQRSHUDWLQJLQ2FWREHU $VXPPDU\RIKRZWKH1RUZRRG :3&3KDVSHUIRUPHGRYHUWKHODVWWKUHH \HDUV LV VKRZQ LQ Table 1$V WKH GDWD VKRZV WKH SODQW KDV PHW DOO HIÃ€XHQW TXDOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWVRYHUWKLVWLPHSHULRG 0HDVXUHPHQWV KDYH FRQVLVWHQWO\ SODFHGZHOOEHORZGLVFKDUJHOLPLWVVLQFH WKH SODQW EHFDPH RSHUDWLRQDO (IÃ€XHQW TXDOLW\ LV DFFHSWDEOH IRU UHXVH DV JROI FRXUVH LUULJDWLRQ ZDWHU EXW XQIRUWX-
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ELEMENT neutrino transmitter
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Delcan celebrates its 60th anniversary
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Three generations of the Riggs family have worked at Delcan.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Drinking Water Quality
Controlling Geosmin and MIB in drinking water reservoirs and treatment plants
eosmin (4, 8a-dimethyl-decahydronaphthalen-4a-ol) and MIB (2methylisoborneol) are the two most common naturally-occurring contaminants that cause taste and odour (T&O) problems. Their control in source water reservoirs and at WKH WUHDWPHQW SODQW FDQ EH GLI¿FXOW DQG expensive. Although MIB and geosmin do not pose a health threat, these compounds create a displeasing earthy/musty (E/M) taste and odour when present above sensory thresholds. Often the public perceives E/M water to be unsafe or unhealthy because it is aesthetically objectionable. This creates a public relations problem for the water utility and can result in loss of consumer trust. Project objectives and approach The central objective of the Water Research Foundation’s project #3032, A Decision Tool for Earthy/Musty Taste and Odour Control, was to develop a decision-making tool to help utilities develop reasonable and defensible treatment goals for managing geosmin and MIB T&O events. This decision methodology integrates the various facWRUVWKDWLQÀXHQFHWKHGHFLVLRQPDNLQJ process. This project covers seven E/M T&O management-related topics: 1. Summarize the occurrence, treatability, and impact of MIB and geosmin
detection limit was in the range of 5 to 10 ng/L at 25°C. Under special conditions reproducible detection levels of 2 to 3 ng/L can be measured. In terms of the T&O intensity of geosmin and MIB, most E/M T&O events in water will proGXFHÀDYRUSUR¿OHDQDO\VLV)3$ LQWHQsities in the middle to lower half of the scale (>4). Bad taste and odours can result in the loss of consumer trust in their water utility.
on water treatment plants. 2. Conduct utility and consumer surveys to identify how utilities are currently setting E/M T&O goals and how consumers perceive E/M T&Os. 3. Evaluate the effect of background water quality on the perception of E/M taste and odour. 4. Use case studies to illustrate how some utilities have addressed longterm E/M T&O issues. 5. Use this data to develop a tool to help water utility managers navigate the decision-making process for managing geosmin and MIB in the finished water. Measurement of Geosmin and MIB The literature review investigated analytical chemistry laboratory analysis capabilities as the reproducible limits of detection. The reproducible analytical
Human sensitivity to Geosmin and MIB Odour threshold concentration (OTC) studies described in the literature review vary between one and 15 ng/L at room temperature. A range of 5 to 10 ng/L is considered to be the general public’s OTC. These values are based upon the geosmin or MIB geometric mean, where 50 percent of the population can detect WKHP)3$LQWHQVLW\IRUWKH27&LVRQH An evaluation of the effect of background water quality on human sensitivity found that it did not affect the odour SHUFHLYHG E\ DQ )3$ RGRXU SDQHO IRU geosmin or MIB. However, dechlorination increased the earthy odour of geosmin and the earthy odour of the geosPLQ0,% FRPELQDWLRQ 7KLV FRQ¿UPV the chlorine odour intensity effect, that chlorine masks geosmin (earthy) odour. However, it does not affect the musty odour of MIB. continued overleaf...
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36 | September/October 2013
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Drinking Water Quality Regional differences in consumer perceptions Consumer surveys were conducted at two locations (one in Florida, one in a city on the Great Lakes), both prior to and during an E/M T&O event. Trends in consumer satisfaction and perception
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may tend to be the same across markets, although the distribution of perceptions did vary as a function of market and whether or not a T&O event was occurring. Utilities need to assess their own consumer bases for perception and acceptance of E/M odours in its market. This conclusion is supported by previous studies (Mackey et al. 2003 and 2004, Zhang 1992a and 1992b). This and previous research (Mackey et al. 2003) also indicate that, while consumer surveying is a useful measure of consumer satisfaction, it is not reliable as a sole means of diagnosing T&O problems. An increase in consumer complaints can indicate a problem, but the consumerâ€™s descriptions alone should not be relied upon to consistently and accurately diagnose the type of T&O problem. Current utility practices A small survey of 19 current utility practices found that many of the respondents did not have clearly stated treatment goals. Thirty-four percent of the XWLOLWLHVGLGQRWKDYHDVSHFLÂżFJRDODQG 29 percent had only a qualitative E/M treatment goal, such as â€œnot objectionable to consumers.â€? Thirty-seven percent of the utilities had a quantitative treatment goal to address E/M T&O. The goals reported were within a reasonably narrow range: geosmin goals ranged from 5 to 18 ng/L and MIB goals ranged from â€œnot detectableâ€? (3 to 5 ng/L) to a maximum of 18 ng/L. In all cases where quantitative goals were established, the aim was to minimize, or potentially eliminate con-
sumer complaints. The participating utilities set achievable treatment goals based upon consumer perceptions in their area DQGGHWHUPLQHGVSHFLÂżFZDWHUWUHDWPHQW goals of 10 ng/L. 6RXUFHFRQWUROFDQEHWKHÂżUVWOHDVW expensive control option, particularly in the watershed. Hydraulic changes, including temporarily bypassing an E/M water source, changing the raw water blend, and taking water from different levels in a reservoir, can also be low-cost methods for mitigating T&O events. The literature review and the case studies found that, when this type of mitigation is not adequate or possible, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is generally preferred when concentrations are low enough not to preclude this choice. When the events occur too often, granular activated carbon (GAC) or advanced oxidation is used. Using a decision tool to evaluate options The data reported above were used to develop an Earthy/Musty Taste &Odour Management Decision Tool. It can help utilities characterize their E/M T&O problems, identify reasonable goals for geosmin and MIB control, and develop alternative scenarios for meeting these goals (i.e., determine what processes can meet different levels of desired geosmin and MIB removal). This methodology is designed to be used in a stepwise fashion, starting with characterization of the E/M T&O problem. Then it assesses the feasibility of proven (and if desired, new) approach-
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38 | September/October 2013
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Drinking Water Quality HVWRDGGUHVVLQJWKHSUREOHP,WÂżQLVKHV with an evaluation of the feasible options and selection of the next step(s) in the E/M T&O management process. However, at any point in the evaluation process, if all the alternatives appear XQWHQDEOH WKH XVHU PD\ HLWKHU UHGHÂżQH a portion of the scenario and start over, or jump ahead to plan the next action(s). The Microsoft Excel version of this decision methodology, included on the Water Research Foundationâ€™s web site, leads the user through the decision process, automates many of the calculations, and facilitates development of multiple event/management scenarios. The chief goal of this tool is to help the user develop a reasonable, attainable treatment goal, so they may be confused as to why it is only Step 2 in the decision process. The tool is organized in the VSHFLÂżHG RUGHU EHFDXVH VHWWLQJ D JRDO and determining the feasible options to meet it are interrelated. :KHWKHURUQRWDGHÂżQHGJRDOLVWKH correct one for a given circumstance is based in part on the feasibility of implementing the needed change(s) to the feed waterâ€“treatment plantâ€“storage sys-
tem. Determining what system changes might be needed to meet the goal cannot be achieved before a treatment goal is proposed. This tool can be used to develop as many different event/management scenarios as desired, until a treatment goal-feasible process options scenario is reached (or until the desired range of options is assessed). Chapters One-Three describe how to navigate the methodology and describe the required information. This tool is intended to facilitate the planning process, but is not intended to replace a detailed study, pre-design, and/or master plan. T&O abatement and treatment performance technologies and DSSURDFKHVYDU\RQDVLWHVSHFLÂżFEDVLV Studies and design efforts are required DQG VKRXOG EH WDLORUHG WR WKH VSHFLÂżF source water(s) at a given utility. Recommendations Regardless of the control approach to minimize taste and odour problems caused by earthy/musty odours in drinking water, it is important to understand the preventative methods and the connection between the source water, the
biology of production, the chemistry and treatment processes being considered, and the water distribution system. When possible, water utilities should: â€˘ Strongly consider conducting a watershed evaluation following a significant E/M T&O event to determine the possible cause(s) and to identify possible source control options. â€˘ Develop a source water monitoring plan to facilitate detection of incipient T&O events. â€˘ Determine their own odour threshold concentrations and specific treatment goals for geosmin and MIB in their background water, with its high and low chlorine concentrations, and monitor consumer complaints. â€˘ Carefully monitor their watershed by odour panel and chemical analysis for earthy/musty odours and/or geosmin and MIB, respectively. â€˘ Develop their own E/M T&O treatment goals, based on considerations of the extent of the problem, costs, logistics, and consumer sensitivity. For more information, visit www.awwarf.org
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September/October 2013 | 39
Installing an innovative deep-trench drip disposal system By Archis Ambulkar, Stephen N. Zeller and David Horvat
arford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland, hired Brinjac Engineering Inc. to replace its existing septic system with a new centralized wastewater treatment plant. This involved a recirFXODWLQJSDFNHGPHGLDÂ¿OWHUFRQVWUXFWHG wetlands treatment system and an innovative deep-trench drip disposal system for groundwater discharge of the treated VDQLWDU\HIÃ€XHQW7KLVLVWKHÂ¿UVWDSSOLFDtion of its kind in Maryland for groundZDWHUGLVFKDUJHRIWUHDWHGHIÃ€XHQW The college submitted an application to the Maryland Department of Environment (MDE) for a permit to discharge a PD[LPXP GDLO\ Ã€RZ RI JDOORQV SHUGD\ZLWKJSGDYHUDJHGDLO\ Ã€RZ RI WUHDWHG ZDVWHZDWHU IURP WKLV new treatment plant to groundwater. The 0'(LVVXHGGLVFKDUJHOLPLWVRIPJO BOD PRQWKO\ DYHUDJH PJO VXVSHQGHGVROLGVPRQWKO\DYHUDJH DQG mg/l total nitrogen, with a groundwater discharge permit to the college. The WWTP process includes primary VHGLPHQWDWLRQ WDQNV Ã€RZ HTXDOL]DWLRQ tanks and recirculating packed media Â¿OWHUWRDFKLHYH%2'UHGXFWLRQDQGQLWULÂ¿FDWLRQ RI VFUHHQHG VHSWLFWDQN HIÃ€XHQW 7KLV LV IROORZHG E\ GHQLWULÂ¿FDWLRQ LQDVXEVXUIDFHÃ€RZFRQVWUXFWHGZHWODQG system, and a drip irrigation-dosed deepbed trench disposal system. The WWTP has no above-ground components and uses wetlands for polLVKLQJWKHHIÃ€XHQWDQGIRUGHQLWULÂ¿FDWLRQ by use of a carbon source (methanol). 7KHSURSRVHGJSGSHDN gpd) plant design estimates considered DQ DUHD RI DSSUR[LPDWHO\ DFUHV IRU WWTP construction and around six acres for the deep-bed trench disposal beds, including reserved areas and monitoring wells. Reasons for drip disposal system selection Prior to selecting a drip irrigation-dosed deep-trench system, various options were evaluated for groundwater discharge, including a pressure-dosed
40 | September/October 2013
Drip tubing in trench.
deep-trench system. However, conventional pressure dosing of deep beds would require excessive pump capacity (horsepower) as well as wet well capacity. This was due to the need to dose at proper pressure and maintain that pressure over the entire trench (approximately 96 ft.) and all discharge holes. As well, pressure dosing of this magnitude would result in very challenging hydraulics, because the site was on a gentle hill with varying slopes. Horvat Excavating recommended using a drip irrigation system at the college, which was agreed to by Brinjac Engineering and further approved by the MDE. Among the reasons for this recommendation: â€¢ Simpler design, as the drip system is less susceptible to hydraulics/grades for this site.
Â‡ 0RUHFRQVLVWHQWDSSOLFDWLRQRIHIÃ€Xent into the trenches. â€¢ Ability to use smaller pumps as dose is easier to control. â€¢ Dose is more consistent and higher-volume discharge, due to drip design. â€¢ Cleaning of drip tube is automatic. â€¢ Fewer valves/regulators for deep trenches. â€¢ Estimated cost savings of more than GXH WR UHGXFHG GHSWK RI beds, piping, pump station size, pump size, less cost for control system. The dosing regime, with drip disSHUVDO XWLOL]HV Ã€RZ HTXDOL]DWLRQWLPHG dosing, which allows operationally deWHUPLQHG DYHUDJH Ã€RZ W\SLFDOO\ to be spread over a 24 hour period. The systemâ€™s operational interface allows IRU SHDN Ã€RZV WR EH DFFRPPRGDWHG
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment automatically by decreasing rest time EHWZHHQGRVHV$Ă€RZPHWHURIIHUVDGGLtional operational monitoring. Zones can EHEURXJKWLQDQGRXWRIVHUYLFHHDVLO\DW the control panel, with the controller auWRPDWLFDOO\DGMXVWLQJGRVHVWRWKHDFWLYH zones. Design basis of drip disposal system The site layout proposed in the Onsite Sewage Disposal System Concept ReSRUW SUHSDUHG IRU WKH FROOHJH E\ DQRWKHU HQJLQHHU DQG DSSURYHG E\ WKH 0'( ZDV XVHG DV WKH EDVLV IRU GHVLJQLQJ WKH in-ground deep-trench system. The proposed drip system deep-trench area conVLVWHGRI Â‡ 3ULPDU\ DUHD WKDW ZRXOG VHUYH GDLO\ Ă€RZVIURPWKH::73XSWR gpd. Â‡ 6HFRQGDU\DUHDWKDWZRXOGVHUYHDVD EDFNXSDVQHHGHGDQGZRXOGSURYLGH DFDSDFLW\RIDERXWJSG DGGLWLRQDOFDSDFLW\ DQGDUHVHUYHDUHD ZLWK FDSDFLW\ IRU IXWXUH XVH LI QHHGHGSHU0'(UHJXODWLRQV$QH[isting Aberdeen disposal bed on college property was proposed to handle UHPDLQLQJJSGĂ€RZVIURPWKH treatment plant, once it was remediated to eliminate high nitrogen in the groundwater. 7KLVGLVSRVDOV\VWHPLQYROYHGDQLQ ground deep-trench absorption area, with SUHVVXUL]HG GULS WXELQJ EHLQJ XVHG IRU dosing each lateral. In the primary area, WKUHH GLIIHUHQW HOHYDWLRQV ZHUH XVHG IRU WKHODWHUDOVGXHWRWKHVORSHRIWKHVLWH 7KLVZDVWRNHHSWKHGHSWKRIWKHWUHQFK FRYHU WR IW PLQLPXP WKH DJJUHJDWH PLQLPXP IW EHORZ WKH ODWHUDO DQG D IWPD[LPXPWUHQFKGHSWK7KHUHKDYH EHHQ D WRWDO RI WUHQFKHV HDFK IW ORQJDQGIWZLGH LQWKHSULPDU\DUHD DQGDWRWDORIRIWKHVDPHVL]HLQWKH UHVHUYHDUHD &RPSRQHQWVRIWKHGULSWUHQFKGLVSRVDO V\VWHP IRU SULPDU\ DQG UHVHUYH DUHDV LQFOXGH Â‡ 'ULSWUHQFKZHWZHOOJDOFDpacity). Â‡ 'HHSWUHQFKFRQWUROEXLOGLQJK\GUDXOLF XQLW GLVF ÂżOWHUV 89 XQLW SXPS FRQWUROSDQHODQGGULSYDOYHFRQWUROV Â‡ 6HSWLF WDQN EDFNZDVK WDQN DQG 89 recirculation pumps. Â‡ =RQHVVL[LQSULPDU\DQGWKUHHLQVHFondary areas. Â‡ 7UHQFKHVSHU]RQHVQLQH www.esemag.com
Â‡ 7UHQFKHVLQSULPDU\DQGLQVHFondary . Â‡ &HOOV(DFKFHOOLQFOXGHVWZRWUHQFKHV Â‡ 3LH]RPHWHUVVL[LQSULPDU\DQGWKUHH in secondary areas. Â‡ ,QVSHFWLRQSRUWVRQHSHUWUHQFK Â‡ 5HPRWH YDOYHV VL[ LQ SULPDU\ DQG three in secondary areas. Â‡ )ORZPHWHUVRQHIRUPHDVXULQJĂ€RZV to deep trenches. Drip system design details 7KHGULSGLVSRVDOV\VWHPZDVSURYLG-
HG E\$PHULFDQ 0DQXIDFWXULQJ ,WV GHVLJQLQYROYHVVLRQHVRUFHOOVLQWKHSULPDU\DUHDDQGWKUHH]RQHVIRUWKHEDFNXS or secondary area. Zones are grouped to minimize piezometers and their resulting PRQLWRULQJ ZRUN (DFK FHOO]RQH FRQWDLQVDSLH]RPHWHUH[WHQGLQJIWEHORZ WKHWUHQFKHVWRPHDVXUHWKHGHSWKRIWKH JURXQGZDWHUEHQHDWK:KHQWKHJURXQGZDWHULVZLWKLQIWRIWKHERWWRPRIWKH WUHQFKHV WKH SLH]RPHWHU ZLOO VKXW RII dosing to this cell. $OOFHOOVZHUHFRQVWUXFWHGRIÂąLQODW-
Teledyne Iscoâ€™s This non-contact sensor penetrates the water with laser technology to measure velocity at multiple subsurface points Simplify your collection system monitoring with these advantages:
t No conďŹ ned space entry with mounting hardware in place
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Toll Free: 1.888.965.4700 email@example.com / www.AvensysSolutions.com September/October 2013 | 41
Wastewater Treatment erals, 96 ft. long with 27 drip holes per lateral, or 54 drip holes per cell. The dose per cell was determined by the elevation and OHQJWKRIWKHODWHUDOÂ¿YHWLPHVWKHYROXPH RI ERWK ODWHUDOV DQG HTXDO WR WKH YROXPH of the manifold and delivery lines. With a 3 ft. head, each cell disposes of 69.12 gal/min. For a typical cell, composed of two trenches, the total dose is 355 gallons, ZLWKH[FHVVZDWHULQWKHGLVWULEXWLRQSLSH GUDLQLQJ EDFN WR WKH GRVH SXPS VWDWLRQ There are 4.17 cycles per day for the entire primary area. This disposes of the total UHTXLUHGSHDNÃ€RZRIJDOGD\ 7KH]RQHVKDYHVXE]RQHVWRNHHSWKH LQGRVLQJVXSSO\OLQHVOHVVWKDQIW long in order to minimize friction loses. All of the laterals are composed of WZRUXQVRIOLQHDOIHHWIRUDWRWDORI OLQHDOIHHWRIGULSWXELQJSHUODWHUDO 7KHGLVWDOHQGRIHDFKUXQKDVDORRSRI Ã€H[LEOH39&WXELQJWRFRQQHFWWKHVHFRQG UXQV 7KLV DOORZV WKH VXSSO\ DQG UHWXUQOLQHPDQLIROGVWREHRQWKHVDPH side as well as all of the delivery line and UHWXUQOLQHVIRUHDVLHUFRQVWUXFWLRQ 7XELQJ LV WKHQ SDVVHG WKURXJK D LQ SHUIRUDWHG 39& SLSH IRU SURWHFWLRQ RI WKH WXELQJ DQG WR DOORZ WKH ZDWHU WR
42 | September/October 2013
Figure 1: Overall site layout with WWTP and deep trench area.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment not allow roots to enter. Drip system controls and operations (IÃ€XHQW IURP ZDVWHZDWHU WUHDWPHQW goes into a drip-feed duplex pump staWLRQ7KHJDOPLQKSWXUELQHSXPSV have check valves to keep water in the delivery lines at all times, and also to prevent the pumps from pumping through each other. They are mounted in â€œcoolJXLGHVÂ´ RU ODPLQDU Ã€RZ FROODUV 7KH coolguides pull water along the pump to the discharge port located in the centre of the pump to keep them cool. The HCC station has controls similar to a drip system. The heart of the drip control panel is a programmable logic controller. It controls a duplex pump station, alternating the pumps in normal operation, reverting to one pump when the Figure 2: Deep bed disposal system with trench zones. Â¿UVWSXPSIDLOV'ULSFRQWUROVSURYLGHIRU at a velocity greater than 2 ft./sec. PDLQWDLQVDFRQVWDQWÃ€RZRIJDOKU Ã€RZ HTXDOL]DWLRQ ZLWK SHDN Ã€RZ PDQConstruction of the RAM drip tubing RYHUSUHVVXUHUDQJHVRIWRSVL%H- agement, and have been designed to opis unique in that the internal diaphragm FDXVHWKHHIÃ€XHQWLVGLVWULEXWHGDWDQXO- erate on a repeat cycle timer basis. and labyrinth provide for an exact WUDORZUDWHODUJHTXDQWLWLHVRIHIÃ€XHQW :KHQ D Ã€RDW VLJQDO WHOOV WKH FRQWURO DPRXQWRIHIÃ€XHQWWREHGLVFKDUJHGIURP can be economically distributed over panel that there is enough water to beeach of its emitters, which are spaced large areas, during controlled periods of gin the dose, the timer cycles between a at 1 ft. intervals along the entire length time, without saturating the surrounding rest time (off time) and a run time (pump of the RAM drip tubing. Each emitter VRLO7KH HPLWWHUV KDYH RULÂ¿FHV WKDW GR continued overleaf...
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September/October 2013 | 43
Wastewater Treatment on time). Hand off auto switches allow running of the pump valves in a manual mode. Drip controls automatically operDWH Â¿HOGÃ€XVKLQJ RI WKH GULS WXELQJ DQG Â¿OWHUV 7KHFRQWUROV\VWHPKDVEHHQHTXLSSHG ZLWKDÂ³SHDNHQDEOHÂ´FLUFXLWWRPDQDJH SHDNÃ€RZVDQGH[FHVVZDWHUXVH,IWKH water level continues to rise enough to RYHUFRPH WKH SHDN HQDEOH WKLUG Ã€RDW DQG WKH SHDN HQDEOH VHOHFWRU VZLWFK LV RQ Â³SXPSÂ´ RU Â³SXPS DQG DODUPÂ´ WKH OHDG]RQHZLOOEHGRVHGUHJDUGOHVVRIWKH WLPH7KHUHVWSHULRGEHWZHHQGRVHVZLOO EH UHGXFHG LQ RUGHU WR LQFUHDVH GDLO\ Ã€RZWRHDFK]RQHWRRIWKHGHVLJQ Ã€RZXSIURPWKHVWDQGDUG :KHQ WKH SHDN HQDEOH FLUFXLW KDV EHHQGHDFWLYDWHGDQGWKHFRPSOHWHÂ¿QDO ]RQH GRVH KDV RFFXUUHG WKH VWDQGDUG SXPSLQJF\FOHZLOOUHVXPH,IWKHZDWHU level continues to rise enough to overFRPHWKHÂ³KLJKOHYHOÂ´IRXUWK Ã€RDWWKH audiovisual alarm will activate until silenced. The alarm circuit will latch until PDQXDOO\UHVHWDIWHUWKHKLJKOHYHOÃ€RDW returns to its normal position. The high OHYHOÃ€RDWLVQRWDWLPHURYHUULGHÃ€RDW
Drip tubing used for trenches.
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44 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Drip supply/return lines with solenoid, isolation, air/vacuum release valves.
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Typical drip distribution piping with air/vacuum release valves.
RIEDFNÃ€XVKLQJLQWKHVDPHPDQQHU V\VWHPZDVHDV\WRLQVWDOODQGSURYLGHGD $V RI -DQXDU\ WKH GHHSWUHQFK VLPSOHUVROXWLRQIRU+DUIRUG&RPPXQLW\ V\VWHPLVRSHUDWLQJZLWKQRSUREOHPVDQG &ROOHJHVWDIIDQGPDQDJHPHQW LVSURYLGLQJDXWRPDWHGGLVSRVDORIHIÃ€X HQW2SHUDWRUVDWWKHFROOHJHYHULI\ZDWHU Archis Ambulkar and Stephen N. Zelle GHSWKLQWKHSLH]RPHWHUVLIDQ\ DQGLQ are with Brinjac Engineering Inc. David VSHFWLRQSRUWVZHHNO\WRPRQLWRUWKHGLV Horvat is with Horvat Excavating. SRVDOEHGV2YHUDOOWKLVIXOO\DXWRPDWHG E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
September/October 2013 | 45
Effective WWTP odour control provides many benefits
he Swansea wasteacid scrubbing tower, followed water treatment by two sodium hydroxide/hyplant in Wales pochlorite scrubbers (pH9 and was constructed in pH11). The emission discharge 1996 to meet the stringent limit of H2S was set at 70 ppb. European Union tests for A number of sporadic odour Swansea Bay. At the time, complaints had been investiit was deemed to be one of gated and were determined to the most technologically coincide with the plantâ€™s doors advanced wastewater treatbeing opened. In 2006, the ment plants in the world. chemical scrubber developed The plant was constructed a leak and extensive refurbishpartially below ground, so as ment/replacement was going to to be virtually invisible from be required. inland. The works included The Terminodour Air Handling Unit installed at Swansea Client options and process an activated sludge plant; Bay WWTP. selection work in the whole of Wales. inlet screening; primary, With the chemical scrubber The plant is designed to handle requiring major refurbishment of the secondary and tertiary treatment prior to UV disinfection; and discharge via a a population equivalent of 165,000. scrubber vessels, the client requested Due to its close proximity to residen- Imtech to investigate potential options. long sea outfall into Swansea Bay. The plant is owned and operated tial areas, careful attention was paid to As well, poor air quality issues within by Dwr Cymru Welsh Water, who odour control and twin-train three-stage the building that had led to the doors appointed Imtech Process (formerly 70,000 m3/hr chemical scrubbers were being opened, were to be investigated. MEICA) as their process contractor used. The following options were actively Each train consists of a sulphuric considered: partners, to carry out all new upgrade
46 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The Terminodour system was installed at Swansea WWTP’s lamella areas, inlet works and FOG areas.
• Refurbish/replace and increase volumetric flow through the chemical scrubber. • Replacement of the primary lamella tank covers. • Septicity control applied to the incoming sewer.
• A Terminodour positive pressure ionisation system. Replacement of the primary lamella tank covers was eliminated, due to the lack of manpower available on-site to constantly remove and replace the covers for sludging and backwash arrangements.
Septicity control was eliminated, as the operational cost of dosing was unsustainable. Refurbishment/replacement of the existing chemical scrubber was technically an acceptable solution, but capital costs were high and the limitations on improving the extraction rate were considerable. Terminodour had a relatively low capital cost and very low operational costs, but was unproven on a project of this magnitude. However, it had worked successfully at several smaller Dwr Cymru Welsh Water sites. Imtech decided to carry out a trial of Terminodour in the primary lamella tank area of the building, which was the area of most concern in the plant. If the trial was successful, it would be installed throughout the building. Process description The Terminodour™ system is located in an Air Handling Unit (AHU) situated within the building. The AHU is manufactured from double-skin galvanised mild steel (stainless steel is continued overleaf...
For over two decades SPD Sales team has remained dedicated to the promotion; supply and support of instrumentation and chemical feed products for the process control market. Our highly trained and qualified personnel provides full technical application and product support to industries and municipalities, putting forward the highest quality products and instrumentation solutions for our clients. We build strong, long lasting partnerships with our clients by providing comprehensive product support and calibration services.
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September/October 2013 | 47
Odour Control Performance testing
Average H2S (ppm)
Maximum H2S (ppm)
Table 1. Results from OdaLog gas monitors.
an option), with a foam core providing acoustic insulation and protection from the elements. Air is drawn in through external louvers by heavy duty fans, mounted within the AHU and then filtered to remove particulates. Air is then fed into the plasma reactor section, where it flows over corona discharge tubes and oxygen molecules are ionised. Ionised air is then fed via stainless steel ductwork into the lamella tank area. When the negatively charged oxygen ions meet the positively charged hydrogen sulphide ions, a collision occurs
and oxidation reaction commences. No separate ventilation system is required for the building, as the Terminodour system provides ventilation and odour abatement. The process is ATEX certified, for operation in explosive atmospheres. Performance testing The primary lamella area was sectioned off from the rest of the building and the Terminodour system was installed. OdaLog gas monitors were installed just above the top water level (TWL). Another
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set of monitors were located on the handrail approximately 1.5 m above the lower logger. The criteria for success were determined to be an 80 per cent reduction in odours between the two logger points. The results are detailed in Table 1. The operators’ favourable response, combined with the successful performance test data, led to CSO Technik being awarded the balance of the contract. Terminodour was then installed to service the inlet screenings, the fats, oil and grease area, the aeration tanks, and the outfall area. Post installation review The system has run effectively for several years and the following benefits have been noted: • The system continues to provide effective odour control and no complaints were received. • Capital cost of the system was less than 50 per cent of refurbishing the chemical scrubber. • Operators no longer have to wear breathing apparatus to carry out their duties. • The client has been able to reclassify and downgrade hazardous areas. • Corrosion within the building, particularly to the control panel busbars and wiring, which were being replaced every six months, has been eliminated. • Maintenance is minimal but carried out by CSO Technik under a quarterly service agreement. • Operational costs have been drastically reduced. Kusters Water is the exclusive distributor of Terminodour in North America. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Improving nitrification at a WWTP with variable loading By Duane Forth, Dave Chapman and Tim Howarth
he Caledonia Wastewater Treatment Plant services the Town of Caledonia (Pop. approx. 9,600) and has a nominal design capacity of 7,200 m3/d. It uses a conventional activated sludge process ZLWK Ã€RZ HTXDOL]DWLRQ WHUWLDU\ Â¿OWUDWLRQ HIÃ€XHQW FKORULQDWLRQGHFKORULQDtion, chemical addition for phosphorus removal and aerobic sludge digestion. A septage receiving station handles private holding tank, septic tank and portable toilet wastes from the local DUHD7UHDWHG HIÃ€XHQW IURP WKH SODQW LV discharged into the Grand River, and is required to meet monthly averages for concentrations of cBOD5 (25 mg/L), TSS (25 mg/L), TP (0.3 mg/L), and ammonia (1 mg/L from May to November and 2 mg/L from December to April). A consultant study in 2006 recommended that the plant be de-rated to 4,600 m3/d. In October 2008, a Compre-
Al Campbell (operator) using a sludge judge to take a core sample from clarifier. Dave Chapman and Jim Matthews, CPO Inc., provided technical assistance â€“ training.
hensive Performance Evaluation (CPE) was conducted and the liquid train was
rated as capable of meeting the nominal design capacity of 7,200 m3/d.
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September/October 2013 | 49
Wastewater Treatment 7KH DQQXDO DYHUDJH GDLO\ Ã€RZ ZDV RIWKHQRPLQDOGHVLJQFDSDFLW\DQG WKHSODQWPHWHIÃ€XHQWFRPSOLDQFHLQDOO PRQWKVHYDOXDWHG+RZHYHUWKHDYHUDJH PRQWKO\ HIÃ€XHQW DPPRQLD ZDV PDUJLQDOO\ FRPSOLDQW LQ VHYHUDO RI WKH PRQWKVUHYLHZHG7KH::73IDLOHGWR PHHW FRPSOLDQFH IRU HIÃ€XHQW DPPRQLD IRUWKUHHPRQWKVLQ$VVXFKWKHUH ZHUH FRQFHUQV WKDW WKH H[LVWLQJ SODQW FRXOGFRQVLVWHQWO\DFKLHYHHIÃ€XHQWDPPRQLD FRPSOLDQFH DV ORDGV LQFUHDVHG 7KHUHZDVDOVRDODFNRIFODULW\FRQFHUQLQJWKHFDSDFLW\RIWKHH[LVWLQJIDFLOLW\ DQGWKHQHHGIRUIXWXUHXSJUDGHV $ WHFKQLFDO DVVLVWDQFH SURJUDP ZDV LQLWLDWHGLQ-XQHWRGHWHUPLQHWKH FDXVHRIYDULDEOHHIÃ€XHQWDPPRQLDFRQFHQWUDWLRQV EHWWHU GHÂ¿QH WUXH SODQW FDSDFLW\DQGLGHQWLI\SURFHVVERWWOHQHFNV LPSDFWLQJSHUIRUPDQFH (QKDQFHG PRQLWRULQJ WRWDO PDVV FRQWURODQGGDWDWUHQGLQJZHUHLQLWLDWHG ZLWK RSHUDWLRQV VWDII 5RXWLQH 3URFHVV &RQWURO0HHWLQJV3&0V ZHUHKHOGDW WKHSODQWWRUHYLHZGDWDWUHQGVGLVFXVV LVVXHVLPSDFWLQJSHUIRUPDQFHDQGLGHQWLI\DQGGRFXPHQWIROORZXS $ GHVLJQ FRQVXOWDQW ZDV UHWDLQHG WR LGHQWLI\RSWLRQVDQGFRVWLQJWRLPSURYH
Al Campbell takes a mixed liquor sample.
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TXHQWO\ HIIRUWV IRFXVHG RQ LGHQWLI\LQJ DQGUHVROYLQJORZDONDOLQLW\DQGS+LVVXHV WR LPSURYH WKH FRQVLVWHQF\ RI QLWULÂ¿FDWLRQ %HQFKVFDOHWHVWVZHUHFRQGXFWHGLQ 6HSWHPEHU WR GHWHUPLQH LI LQKLELWRU\ VXEVWDQFHV LQ WKH UDZ VHZDJH RU ODFNRIDONDOLQLW\ZHUHWKHFKLHIFDXVHV RIXSVHWV7KHVWXG\FRQFOXGHGWKDWWKH KDXOHG VHZDJH ZDV QRW LQKLELWRU\ EXW GLG VLJQLÂ¿FDQWO\ LQFUHDVH7.1 ORDGLQJ WRWKHSODQW,WDOVRHVWDEOLVKHGRSHUDWLQJ JRDOVRIDPLQLPXPRIPJODONDOLQLW\DQGDS+RIVXLQWKHVHFRQGDU\ HIÃ€XHQW 2SHUDWRUVLQLWLDWHGURXWLQHPHDVXUHPHQWV RI DONDOLQLW\ DQG S+ LQ WKH VHFRQGDU\ HIÃ€XHQW DQG PDQXDOO\ DGGHG EDJVRIVRGDDVKVRGLXPFDUERQDWH WR WKH SULPDU\ HIÃ€XHQW ZKHQ OHYHOV IHOO EHORZRSHUDWLQJJRDOV'XULQJWKHVXPPHURIWKH\DGGHGVRPHNJRI VRGDDVKSHUGD\ 'XH WR WKH DPRXQW RI PDQXDO ODERXU LQYROYHG LQ DGGLQJ VRGD DVK D WULDO ZDV FRQGXFWHG XVLQJ VRGLXP DOXPLQDWH LQ SODFH RI DOXPLQXP VXOSKDWH DOXP IRU SUHFLSLWDWLQJ SKRVSKRUXV $OXP FRQVXPHV PJ/ RI DONDOLQLW\ IRUHDFKPJ/DGGHG0HWFDOIDQG
TOGETHER, MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF CLEAN WATER Are you looking for ways to improve your water treatment quality, to remove more TOC and THMs, to increase your filter runs or to generate less sludge? Kemira can help you solve these challenges and much more. At Kemira, we aim to be a leading water chemicals supplier for raw and waste water applications, serving municipalities and water intensive industries. Together with our customers, we apply our knowledge and expertise to develop innovations that address the sustainable future of water. Tel. +1 800 465 6171 or +1 450 652 0665 email@example.com www.kemira.com
50 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment Eddy 2003). In contrast to alum, sodium aluminate is strongly alkaline and therefore does not consume alkalinity. Sodium aluminate has a percentage of aluminum-ion of 10.7%, in comparison to 4.3% for liquid alum. As sodium aluminate is more expensive than alum on a per unit volume basis, the trial compared dosages and costs to those for alum and supplementary soda ash. For an eight week period in the fall of 2011, the performance of alum with supplementary soda ash dosed to one train was compared to sodium aluminate dosed to the second train. Results indicated that sodium aluminate was an acceptable alternative to alum. Subsequently the entire plant was switched to sodium aluminate for total phosphorus control in November 2011. The plant operated with only sodium aluminate from November 2011 until the end of June 2012. Then, supplemental liquid caustic (sodium hydroxide) ZDVDGGHGWRPDLQWDLQVHFRQGDU\HIÀXent alkalinity above the operating goal of 50 mg/L Conclusions The addition of hauled sewage conWULEXWHG WR SRRU QLWUL¿FDWLRQ SHUIRUPDQFH %HQFKVFDOH QLWUL¿FDWLRQ WHVWV determined that the hauled sewage was not inhibitory. High concentrations of TKN in the hauled sewage exerted an alkalinity demand which exceeded that of the raw sewage. 1LWUL¿FDWLRQUDWHVGURSSHGZKHQVHFRQGDU\HIÀXHQWS+GHFUHDVHGEHORZ and ceased entirely at a pH of 5.7 s.u.. 7RDFKLHYHHIÀXHQWDPPRQLDFRQFHQWUDtions below 1.0 mg/L in the summer and 2.0 mg/L in the winter, operating goals RI PJ/ DONDOLQLW\ DQG VX S+ had to be maintained in the secondary HIÀXHQWDVPLQLPXPV Soda ash addition was successful in PDLQWDLQLQJ VHFRQGDU\ HIÀXHQW JRDOV for pH and alkalinity but was labour intensive. Substituting alum with sodium aluminate for phosphorus removal ZDV VXFFHVVIXO LQ DFKLHYLQJ HIÀXHQW phosphorus concentrations and mainWDLQLQJ HIÀXHQW S+ DQG DONDOLQLW\ RSerating goals. However, supplemental pH and alkalinity control was still required during the summer when inÀXHQW7.1FRQFHQWUDWLRQVZHUHKLJKHU www.esemag.com
Figure 1 is a trend graph of effluent ammonia concentrations for a three and a half year period.
and alkalinities were lower. 9DULDEOH QLWUL¿FDWLRQ SHUIRUPDQFH was not related to lack of unit process capability and the plant did not need to be de-rated. lnvolving operators in the technical assistance program and chemical dosage study was critical to
ensuring sustainability of the results. Duane Forth is with Veolia Water Canada. Tim Howarth is with Haldimand County. Dave Chapman is with CPO Inc. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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NETZSCH Canada, Inc. Tel: 705-797-8426 email: email@example.com www.netzsch.ca September/October 2013 | 51
Drinking Water Treatment
Evaluating the removal costs of hexavalent chromium in drinking water
hromium typically occurs in two oxidation states in the natural environment, water treatment processes and water distribution systems: trivalent chromium (chromium-3, Cr(III), Cr+3), and hexavalent chromium (chromium-6, Cr(VI), Cr+6). Trivalent chromium has been considered an essential human nutrient. Recent studies, however, have shown no deleterious effects from low Cr(III) in the diet and there is no known biological mechanistic function for Cr(III) in cells. This calls into question whether Cr(III) is truly an essential nutrient (Di Bona et al. 2011). Hexavalent chromium has been demonstrated to be a human carcinogen when inhaled. Its health effects through ingestion, which is the dominant exposure route for drinking water, are currently under review. Hexavalent chromium in drinking ZDWHU ZDV ÂżUVW EURXJKW WR WKH SXEOLFÂśV attention in 1993 when Erin Brockovich highlighted contamination in groundwater near Hinkley, California. In 2010, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) reported trace levels of hexavalent chromium in 31 of 35 U.S. tap waters tested. Although this was not a peer-reviewed VFLHQWLÂżF VWXG\ LW GLG UHQHZ SXEOLF LQterest in hexavalent chromium. USEPA is currently considering whether or not to establish maximum FRQWDPLQDQW OHYHOV 0&/ VSHFLÂżFDOO\ for hexavalent chromium. A February
Hexavalent chromium contamination was the subject of the bio-pic movie â€œErin Brockovichâ€? which starred Julia Roberts.
2011 U.S. congressional hearing, which was largely focused on the EWG study, further highlighted the hexavalent chromium issue. The goal of this review is to better inform potential regulatory action on this issue by summarizing what is known about hexavalent chromium, as well as pointing out gaps in current knowledge. Health effects Decades of epidemiological studies have shown that occupational exposure of workers in various industries (electroplating, chrome pigment, mining, leather tanning, and chrome alloy production) to
Figure 1. Potential range of national annualized cost of Cr(VI) treatment to various treatment goals. 52 | September/October 2013
airborne hexavalent chromium posed increased risks of lung cancer. Assessments of the carcinogenic potential of inhaled hexavalent chromium are summarized in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) for chromium (USEPA, 1998), Kimbrough et al (1999), and references in IARC (1990). In early 2012, the Water Research Foundation partnered with the American :DWHU:RUNV$VVRFLDWLRQÂśV:DWHU,QGXVtry Technical Action Fund to fund WaterRF project #4432, National and California Treatment Costs to comply with Potential Hexavalent Chromium MCLs. This project was a collaborative effort amongst Chad Seidel and Chris Corwin of Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., Issam Najm of Water Quality & Treatment Solutions, Inc., and Nicole Blute and Xueying Wu of Hazen and Sawyer. Approach To conduct the cost estimates, the research team used data analyzed in another WaterRF project, Total Chromium and Hexavalent Chromium Occurrence Analysis, to identify entry points (EP) with reported Cr(VI) and total chromium levels. Five potential Cr(VI) treatment goals were considered: 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 Îźg/L. The team then developed treatment capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs as a function of EP size for each of four technologies: UHGXFWLRQFRDJXODWLRQÂżOWUDWLRQ5&) strong base anion exchange (SBA),
Figure 2. Potential range of California annualized cost of Cr(VI) treatment to various treatment goals. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Drinking Water Treatment weak base anion exchange (WBA), and reverse osmosis (RO). Treatment costs were based on a combination of engineersâ€™ estimates, information from existing plants where available, and EPA cost equations. Previous work at Glendale Water and Power was particularly helpful for this task, and DÂżQDOUHSRUWRQWKLVZRUN was submitted to the California Department of Public Health. For each EP size and target Cr(VI) level, the treatment technology with the lowest annualized cost was then determined. National costs were estimated by summing the costs of treatment systems for all EPs. Results National cost estimates ranged sigQLÂżFDQWO\GXHSULPDULO\WRWZRIDFWRUV uncertainty in occurrence data and different waste handling scenarios. For each treatment option, one scenario for waste handling was a simple and lower cost option, and the second was a complex and higher cost option, resulting in upper and lower limits for cost estimates. Figure 1 presents the potential range of the annualized cost for each Cr(VI) treatment goal based on the combination of the ranges under both Scenarios One and Two. Annualized costs were calculated as the sum of the annual O&M cost and the amortized capital cost. For a Cr(VI) goal of 20 Îźg/L, the national annualized cost may range from $300 million/yr to $1.2 billion/yr. For a Cr(VI) goal of 1 Îźg/L, the national annualized cost may range from $7.1 billion/yr to $82 billion/yr. Annual O&M costs comprise approximately 50% of the annualized costs for each Cr(VI) treatment goal under Scenario One and approximately 50â€“80% under Scenario Two. These increase with lower treatment goals, due to the more stringent requirements for residuals handling and disposal. &DOLIRUQLD FRVW HVWLPDWHV EHQHÂżWed from more robust occurrence data, thereby reducing one level of uncertainW\EXWFRVWHVWLPDWHVVWLOOUHĂ€HFWDUDQJH due to uncertainties regarding different waste handling scenarios. Figure 2 presents the potential range of the California annualized cost for each Cr(VI) treatment goal based on the combination of the ranges under Scenarios One and Two. For a Cr(VI) goal of 20 Îźg/L, the www.esemag.com
California annualized cost may range from $80 million/yr to $120 million/yr. For a Cr(VI) goal of 1 Îźg/L, the California annualized cost may range from $2.6 billion/yr to $8.4 billion/yr. The report noted that these estimates are based on limited information, and PDQ\ NQRZOHGJH JDSV ZHUH LGHQWLÂżHG during the course of the analysis. Occurrence data from EPAâ€™s Third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule will greatly help tighten national estimates. All of
WKH HVWLPDWHV ZRXOG EHQHÂżW IURP DGGLtional treatment studies on waters with different water quality conditions. WaterRFâ€™s project, Impact of Water Quality RQ&U9, 5HPRYDO(IÂżFLHQF\DQG&RVW is addressing this need and includes an online cost calculator for utilities. Several ongoing Tailored Collaboration projects are also investigating Cr(VI) treatment. )RUPRUHLQIRUPDWLRQ YLVLWwww.awwarf.org
PREVENT MICROBIAL INDUCED CORROSION
Microbial Induced Corrosion and Water Infiltration are two major problems common to sewage collection systems. Whether for new construction or rehabilitation, Xypex Crystalline Technology is a most effective and permanent solution. Worldwide, in both sewage collection and wastewater treatment structures, Xypex has been proven to cost effectively mitigate chemical attack in severe biochemical conditions and prevent water infiltration even under extreme hydrostatic pressure.
www.xypex.com September/October 2013 | 53
Popular Quebec lakefront lodge gets new highperformance wastewater treatment system By Roger Lacasse
aint-Hippolyte’s Auberge du Lac Morency resort is nestled in the heart of the Laurentian Mountains, 50 minutes north of Montreal. Built in 1934 on the shores of Lake Morency, it welcomes thousands of visitors every year. Over the years, the resort has grown into an international holiday destination, prized by ecologically-minded travellers for its environmentally-friendly approach to lodging and its first-rate, locally grown and sustainable gourmet fare. The owners share a long-time commitment to protecting the natural surrounding habitat with their guests, who are invited to make easy eco-gestures to limit the environmental impact of their stay. Challenges Installed almost 20 years ago, the existing intermittent sand filter septic system treated wastewater generated from different sources, such as the dining room’s kitchen, the spa and approximately 40 rooms and 60 condo units. However, it had reached
Auberge Morency in Saint-Hippolyte is located on the shores of Lake Morency in the Laurentian Mountains.
Installed almost 20 years ago, the existing intermittent sand filter septic system treated wastewater generated from different sources, such as the dining room’s kitchen. the end of its useful life and began to show signs of failure. Final effluent discharge into a nearby stream, leading to Lake Morency and then into Lake L’Achigan, was deemed harmful to the sensitive watercourse and had preoccupied the local lake association for some time. The nature of the site’s geology prevented any infiltration. Additionally, space available for a new installation and access to the mountainous setting was quite limited. Therefore, the owners required an ultra compact system, which could be delivered to the site partly pre-packaged. Also, its footprint had to pose minimal restrictions to the popular outdoors activities offered year-round at the resort. The solution called for an on-site, high-performance wastewater treatment system, offering exceptional levels of effluent quality and stable treatment performances, including disinfection, nitrogen reduction and phosphorus removal. The solution would have to be permanent, low maintenance and offer top treatment performance for many years. Solution High-quality effluent produced by EcoprocessTM Membrane Bioreactor from Premier Tech Aqua met the strictest quality requirements for discharge. This was as much for the reduction of 54 | September/October 2013
The final footprint of the treatment plant, including raw sewage lift station, primary treatment and balancing tank is 518 m2.
The three pre-packaged, rotomolded tanks inside the 90 m2 building house the membranes.
organic matter and suspended solids as for tertiary treatment. Membrane filtration units and the electro-mechanical components were delivered to the site in prefabricated modules to Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment ensure simple, high-quality installation. The building housing the MBR treatment technology, measures just over 90 m2 and was easily integrated into the surrounding environment. The footprint of the complete treatment plant, including the raw sewage lift station, primary treatment and balancing tank, covers a total surface of 518 m2. Table 1 shows data provided by Roy & Vézina Associés, which Premier Tech Aqua used to design the Ecoprocess MBR. These parameters are for a daily maximum flow of 70 m3/d and a temperature of 16°C The environmental discharge objectives for this project’s final effluent are shown in Table 2. Treatment performance levels offered by the Ecoprocess
Wastewater generated from the kitchen flows first through a grease trap to retain fats, oil and grease and then to individual septic tanks. Membrane Bioreactor are shown in Table 3. Complete treatment process Wastewater generated from the kitchen flows first through a grease trap to retain fats, oil and grease and then to individual septic tanks. Each tank is equipped with an effluent filter to retain a certain percentage of suspended solids. A pumping station for the clarified wastewater collects and carries it from all the septic tanks to an equalization tank. It has an effective volume of 23.3 m3 with eight hours retention time. Two of the three pumps installed inside the equalization tank are dedicated to feeding the membrane bioreactor. The other is used to recirculate water to the sludge storing tank for phosphorus removal. Ecoprocess MBR technology One membrane bioreactor, of an approximate effective volume of 41 m3, is separated into four compartments. The first compartment is equipped with fine bubble diffusers, which provide oxygen for biological wastewater treatment. The effective volume of the basin is 26 m3. The three other compartments operate in parallel and serve as membrane ultrafiltration tanks that clarify the wastewater. Each ultrafiltration tank is 5 m3 and holds a flat sheet membrane with an effective surface of 100 m2. Three pumps withdraw permeate out of the bioreactor and redirect it to a perforated pipe covered by crushed stone. The treated water then flows by gravity into the watercourse. Biological and chemical sludge are pumped into a storage tank. The operating cycles of the biological aeration, self-scouring, mechanical and chemical backwash of the membrane, are controlled by a state-of-the art central panel, specifically designed for this application. Telemetry is also available. The treatment system, installed and commissioned by Premier Tech Aqua in the spring of 2013, is designed to ensure the simplicity, reliability and robustness required for on-site wastewater treatment. Roger Lacasse is with Premier Tech Aqua. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.esemag.com
Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5)
(Total suspended solids) TSS
Total phosphorus (Ptot)
Table 1. Data used to design the Ecoprocess MBR.
≤ 15 mg/L
≤ 15 mg/L
≤ 200 CFU/100 mL
≤ 0.5 mg/L
Table 2. Discharge objectives for the final effluent.
Annual average concentration at effluent
≤ 5 mg/L
≤ 10 mg/L
≤ 200 CFU/100 mL
≤ 0.1 mg/L
Table 3. Treatment performance levels offered by Ecoprocess MBR.
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September/October 2013 | 55
Helping agencies cope when a storm hits
he rainfall event that hit the Greater Toronto Area on July 8, 2013, exceeded the 1 in 100 year return period in many areas. Total rainfall in some areas exceeded 110mm within a two hour period. The timing and intensity of the storm had immediate and long-term impacts on the region. Serious disruption to commuters ZDVFDXVHGE\VXUIDFHĂ€RRGLQJĂ€RRGHG highways, limited public transport and even a partially submerged two-storey passenger train. The lasting impacts, which are not always easy to identify and quantify, were Ă€RRGLQJ WR EXVLQHVVHV DQG KRPHV DQG ZDVWHZDWHU RYHUĂ€RZ LQWR WKH HQYLURQPHQW 7KHVH HQYLURQPHQWDO DQG ÂżQDQcial consequences are generally caused by the inability of stormwater infrastructure to cope with large rainfall events. A UDLQIDOOHYHQWLVGHÂżQHGDVDUDLQIDOOYROXPHSUHFHGHGDQGIROORZHGE\DVSHFLÂżF dry period. With large storm events such as the one on July 8 being reported more frequently, people are looking for answers as to why their homes and businesses DQG FRPPXWHU URXWHV DUH EHLQJ Ă€RRGed. In the current age of information, 24-hour media coverage and connection through social media, municipal and government agencies are being pressured to quickly respond to hazardous
Serious disruption to commuters was caused by surface flooding, flooded highways, limited public transport.
environmental events. The senior management of such agencies rely on their support departments to help inform the public and to understand the extent of the rainfall in these large storms. Cole Engineering Group Ltd. from Markham, Ontario, is leading the way in real-time environmental monitoring and analytic solutions in the Greater Toronto Area. Working collaboratively with the Cities of Toronto and Mississauga and the Region of Peel, they have been able to streamline the data collection and analysis process of rain gauge networks. The importance of real-time rainfall
monitoring could not have been greater during and after the excessive rainfall on July 8. 7KH ÂżUP ZDV DEOH WR SURYLGH WKHLU clients with alarms to operations staff during the event, followed by meaningful analysis within a number of hours. Using a combination of rain gauges equipped with wireless cell technology and dynamic spatial analysis tools, Cole Engineering was able to provide the agencies in the area with graphical representations of rainfall distribution across the area. The speed with which this infor-
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Total Rainfall Depth Distribution.
mation can be collected, analyzed and distributed is critical when informing stakeholders looking for answers. Graphical representation, often referred to as a rainfall map or isohyetal map, allows the viewer to quickly and easily understand rainfall distribution and pinpoint the worst affected areas. Given the right setup, the analysis can be comSOHWHG DQG YHULÂżHG ZLWKLQ KRXUV RI rainfall events. The density and connectivity of a
Maximum 120 Minute Intensity Distribution.
rainfall network are critical components in meeting current expectations. Its main purpose, in terms of managing an urban centre, is to correlate rainfall with the VXUIDFHZDWHUJHQHUDWHG&RQÂżGHQFHLQ the rainfall data and its distribution over space and time is an important part of this correlation. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of rain gauge density on the accuracy of the data captured. Rainfall is extremely variable in both space and time. As
such, large variations in intensity and volume across geographical areas have been documented, especially during extreme rainfall. There is no right or wrong level of rain gauge distribution density; however, it should be directly linked to the value of assets within the networkâ€™s coverage. The Cities of Toronto and Mississauga and the Region of Peel are leading the way for urban centers, with continued overleaf...
September/October 2013 | 57
Infrastructure Management one rain gauge per 20 km2. To put that in perspective, the United Kingdom, said to be the leading country in terms of rain gauge density, has one gauge for every 76 km2. 7KH EHQHÂżWV RI D OLYH UDLQ JDXJH network include the speed of analysis, detection of early warning alarms and remote diagnostics. A live setup is achieved by integrating the rain gauge and logger into the available wireless cell network. There are numerous rain gauge technologies that offer different levels of sophistication. The sophistication of the setup should match the vulnerability of the geographical area, ranging from logging-only setups in uninhabited areas, to real-time setups in a downtown city core. Real-time rain gauge capabilities FDQEHDYDOXDEOHSDUWRIDĂ€RRGSURWHFtion system, tracking a storm as it moves across a vulnerable area. Operation and maintenance of a UDLQ JDXJH QHWZRUN FDQ DOVR EHQHÂżW from real-time setups. Custom alarms FDQEHFRQÂżJXUHGWRLQIRUPWKHUHPRWH operator that an equipment problem is
A rainfall event is defined as a rainfall volume preceded and followed by a specific dry period.
impending, or has occurred. This helps to increase the duration between regular maintenance visits and reduce the downtime of a rain gauge. Rainfall maps are also powerful tools following damaging rainfall events. The graphical representation allows for quick and easy assimilation by lay-
persons or engineers. Improved quality control, quick analyses and a real-time setup, give senior management of municipal and government agencies the FRQÂżGHQFHWRLQIRUPWKHFRQVWLWXHQWVRI the magnitude of a rainfall event. This helps alleviate public uncertainty, or XQUHVWIROORZLQJDĂ€RRG7KHLVRK\HWDO
%LVKRS:DWHU7HFKQRORJLHV,QF Bishop Water Technologies are the Agents/Distributors for Tencate GeotubeÂŽ in Eastern Canada. With over 15 years combined experience, we are Canada's leader in GeotubeÂŽ installations for sludge management. Our focus is on the development and implementation of simple, cost effective, environmentally responsible sludge management solutions for our clients.
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58 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Infrastructure Management map also offers great value to the planning, design and management of water resources. Isohyetal maps spatially represent UDLQIDOO DPRXQWV RYHU D VSHFL¿HG GXUDtion. Simply a contour map of rainfall, they use colour ramps and contour lines, to represent distribution of rainfall across a geographical area. The two most common forms are the total rainfall volume and the peak rainfall intensity. The total rainfall volume map is the total rainfall recorded for a single rainfall event. The peak rainfall intensity map, which offers greater engineering value, is the representation of peak rainfall volXPHRYHUDVSHFL¿FWLPHSHULRG7KHLQtensity map is used in a similar way to the traditional intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. It compares measured rainfall intensity to that of a statistically derived return period. The intensity map allows engineers to quickly understand the distribution of rainfall across any given catchment. This becomes a powerful tool when trying to make sense of DPHDVXUHGÀRZUHVSRQVHLQVWRUPZDWHU
management structures and conveyance systems. It allows engineers to underVWDQGZK\ÀRRGLQJRFFXUUHGLQRQHDUHD and not another. Cole Engineering’s isohyetal mapping tools rely on custom back-end data management processes to ensure that the ¿QDOUDLQIDOOPDSFDQEHTXLFNO\PRGL¿HG WR PHHW HQJLQHHUV¶ QHHGV7KH SURcess stores the original data and generates maximum peak intensities for multiple durations. This back-end process JUHDWO\ VSHHGV XS WKH ¿QDO JHQHUDWLRQ of meaningful rainfall maps, especially when selecting the appropriate duration for a given catchment. The selected duration should closely match the time of concentration (maximum duration of ÀRZ WKURXJK D FDWFKPHQW RI D FDWFKment being analyzed. The mapping process uses Geographical Information Survey (GIS) geoprocessing tools to create both the rainfall surface and rainfall contours. Techniques such as Thiessen polygons, polynomial interpolation, spline interpolation and Kriging, can be used to interpolate be-
tween rain gauges and create the rainfall surface. Studies have been conducted to measure the appropriateness of each interpolation method. Factors such as rain gauge density and topography affect the accuracy of the different methods. Cole Engineering is looking to a cloud based rainfall mapping solution to circumvent these resource issues. This will supplement their existing web based environmental data management and analysis tools. The July 8, 2013 event was an eye-opener for many people on how destructive rainfall can be. However, by KDYLQJVXI¿FLHQWFRYHUDJHRIUDLQJDXJes which provide data in real-time, understanding the impact and being able to make quick decisions is achievable. This also allows for the creation of detailed and informative maps that allow all parties to understand both the challenges and the bigger picture when it comes to managing exceptional rain events. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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September/October 2013 | 59
New developments in tuning the accuracy of lift station flow rates
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The Volucalc System from Maid Labs utilizes software to tune pump capacities based on volumetric influent rates. This system requires a data logger to store the pump cycle and volumetric data. It makes tuning and retuning pump capacities possible. 60 | September/October 2013
VHHPHGWRRORZIRUDWXQHGSXPSFDOFXODWLRQ3DUWRIWKHGLVFUHSDQF\UHVWHG ZLWKWKHVRIWZDUHÂ¶VDOJRULWKP $LPLQJWRDGGUHVVWKHORZSHUFHQWDJH IRUWXQHGÃ€RZPRQLWRULQJ%HQRLW%HDXGRLQRI0DLG/DEVWHVWHGKLVDOJRULWKP ZLWKSHUIRUPDQFHVRIWZDUHWKDWHPXODWHG W\SLFDO Ã€RZ UDWHV JHQHUDOO\ VHHQ LQ OLIW VWDWLRQV 7KH VRIWZDUH HPXODWLRQV LQFOXGHG LQÃ€XHQW Ã€RZ UDWHV EDVHG RQ WLPHRIGD\DQGGHULYHGUDLQIDOODV, , events %HDXGRLQÂ¶V UHVHDUFK IRXQG WKDW LQ PRVW FXUUHQW FDOFXODWLRQV LQFOXGLQJ GUDZGRZQWHVWV6&$'$V\VWHPÂ¶VWLPH VWDPSHGGDWDZKLFKXVHWKHPDQXIDFWXUHUÂ¶VSXPSFXUYHVZHUHLQDFFXUDWH 0RVW OLIW VWDWLRQV FROOHFW LQÃ€RZ LQ D ZHW ZHOO DQG SXPSOLIW LW WR WUDYHO WKURXJKDJUDYLW\V\VWHP0DQ\XWLOLWLHV KRZHYHU XVH IRUFH PDLQV RU FRPELQH JUDYLW\IRUFHPDLQV\VWHPVWRWUDQVSRUW HIÃ€XHQW Ã€RZ WR ZDVWHZDWHU WUHDWPHQW SODQWV 9DULDEOHVUHODWHGWRSXPSLQJFDSDFLWLHV DOVR QHHGHG FRQVLGHUDWLRQ WKHVH SXPS FDSDFLWLHV FDQ YDU\ EDVHG RQ VL]H KRUVHSRZHU DQG W\SH RI SXPSV LQVWDOOHG $OVR PRVW OLIW VWDWLRQV ZLOO H[SHULHQFH D ZLGH UDQJH RI HOHFWULFDO LVVXHVIURPVWDUWHUVFRQWDFWRUVDOWHUQDWRUVDQGDVVRUWHGUHOD\VZKLFKDIIHFWWKH DFFXUDF\RIÃ€RZFDOFXODWLRQV 0DLG /DEV DOVR IRXQG XQGHU DQG over-designed station pumping capacLWLHV ZKLFK LPSHGHG IRUFH PDLQ SUHVVXUHV WKURXJKRXW FROOHFWLRQ V\VWHPV 7KLVGRHVQRWHYHQDFFRXQWIRUWKHFRQVWDQW DOWHULQJ RI LQÃ€XHQW Ã€RZ UDWHV RU WKH GUDZGRZQVLSKRQ HIIHFWV RQ HDFK F\FOHRIWKHOLIWVWDWLRQ 2QFH GHYHORSHUV DW 0DLG /DEV XQGHUVWRRG ZK\ WXQHGÃ€RZ V\VWHPV SURGXFHG UHVXOWV ZLWK RQO\ Â“ SHU FHQW DFFXUDF\ WKH TXHVWLRQ ZDV WKHQ KRZ WR RYHUFRPH WKHVH G\QDPLF SURSHUWLHV 'HYHORSHUV NQHZ WKH VDPH ROG GUDZGRZQWHVWZRXOGQRORQJHUEHVXIÂ¿FLHQW ,W IDLOHG WR DFFRXQW IRU FKDQJHV LQ WKH LQÃ€XHQWUDWHVWKHIRUFHPDLQSUHVVXUHV WKH GUDZGRZQ HIIHFW RU WKH VLSKRQ HIIHFW 'HYHORSHUV KDG WR DGMXVW IRU WKH VLSKRQHIIHFWWKHGUDZGRZQHIIHFWWKH
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Instrumentation possibility of mismatched pumps, the VXEPHUVLRQRILQÃ€XHQWSLSHVWKHFDSDFLW\YROXPHRILQÃ€XHQWSLSHVHWF Maid Labs had to do much more to their software to provide overall accuUDF\3DVWSURGXFWVXFFHVVHVZRUNHGWR the advantage of researchers, as it gave them the ability to review hundreds of UDZ GDWD Â¿OHV $UPHG ZLWK WKLV LQIRUmation and dozens of lift station videos, Maid Labsâ€™ research and development team determined that the original emulation software produced calculated data WRRVLPSO\WRSURYLGHDFFXUDWHWHVWV Beaudoinâ€™s original algorithm was ULJKWMXVWOLPLWHG6RKHFUHDWHGDQHZ DQG KLJKO\ YHUVDWLOH DOJRULWKP :KDW began as a single white board with the original algorithm, expanded to eight white boards of mathematical equations, designed to continuously tune SXPSFDSDFLWLHV The result of Maid Labsâ€™ research and development teamâ€™s efforts, is a FRPSOH[ EXFNHW DQG VWRS ZDWFK DOJRULWKP WKDW VXFFHVVIXOO\ WDNHV WKH G\QDPLF QDWXUH RI OLIW VWDWLRQV DQG Ã€RZ UDWHV LQWR DFFRXQW 7KH UHVXOWLQJ 0HUmaid system is a lift station performance
The Mermaid system produces usable results.
DQDO\]HUZKLFKFDOFXODWHVDYHUDJHÃ€RZ rates within two per cent of a standard PDJQHWLF Ã€RZ PHWHU ,W DOVR SURYLGHV critical data on the electrical perforPDQFHDQGHIÂ¿FLHQF\RIWKHOLIWVWDWLRQ LQWKHSURFHVV ,Q DGGLWLRQ WR DGGUHVVLQJ WKH FRQcerns of utilitiesâ€™ budget restrictions, the Mermaid system follows government guidelines for cost-effective and enviURQPHQWDOO\HIÂ¿FLHQWÃ€RZPRQLWRULQJ $ FROOHFWLRQ V\VWHPÂ¶V HIÂ¿FLHQF\ LV QRWMXVWDERXWÃ€RZUDWHV,WLVWKHFRP-
ELQDWLRQ RI DFFXUDWH Ã€RZ GDWD SXPS capacities, head losses and horsepower, ZKLFK SURGXFHV XVDEOH UHVXOWV 7XQLQJ WKH DFFXUDF\ ZLOO SURYLGH NH\ GDWD IRU , , VWXGLHV K\GUDXOLF PRGHOLQJ DQG OLIWVWDWLRQHIÂ¿FLHQFLHV The Mermaid system is being used by utilities across Canada and the UnitHG6WDWHVDQGLVDYDLODEOHIURP$YHQV\V 6ROXWLRQV For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Geotubes successfully used for stormwater pond sediment dewatering By Mark Tymecki and Mark Simpson
fficient cleanout of stormwater management (SWM) ponds has been an ongoing challenge for many years. During construction and over time, properly functioning SWM ponds collect sediment from a designated catchment area. As they fill with sediment, efficiency diminishes and eventually they need to be cleaned out. With many ponds now approaching their first cleaning cycle,
this challenge is becoming even more prevalent. Evaluating the options The traditional approach to pond cleaning is to drain it, put it on bypass, then use heavy machinery to dig out, stockpile and haul away the sediment. This method works well in certain applications, particularly if dry weather is expected and the cleanout can be per-
The area is lined and graded slightly to a low point, allowing control of discharged water from the tubes.
The remote controlled hydraulic dredge pumps slurry into the Geotubes.
62 | September/October 2013
formed quickly. It is also widely understood and many contractors are well experienced with this approach. The Geotube® approach involves the use of a hydraulic dredge and large synthetic bags, commonly referred to as Geotubes, to collect and dewater the sediment. This method has not been widely used for Ontario SWM ponds, because the technology is relatively new and the flocculation process (polymer addition) is not widely understood. However, this is changing, as more successful applications are completed. The non-invasive nature of this approach is appealing for a number of reasons. In May 2013, the Geotube method was chosen for cleaning out three ponds in Vaughan, Ontario, for the following reasons: • No need to drain the pond, or take it off-line, while the cleaning process took place. • Extremely low impact to the surrounding naturalized area, due to the absence of construction vehicle traffic. • Minimized impact to the surrounding community and reduced carbon footprint, as the number of trucks required to haul dewatered and consolidated sediment was substantially reduced. • Minimal impact on the receiving downstream watercourse, since neither the flow volumes, nor turbidity levels from the pond, were affected during the cleanout. Implementation First, an appropriate lay down area was prepared to deploy the Geotubes. It was lined and graded slightly to a low point, so that water discharged from the tubes could be controlled and directed back into the pond. A remote controlled dredge with tow lines was then deployed into the pond. It was guided by a cable in a grid pattern to ensure no areas of the pond bottom were missed. The dredge pumped a slurry of sed-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Geotube being pumped with slurry from pond.
iment and water through a 6” diameter hose from the pond, through a polymer injection system and then into the Geotube where dewatering took place. The sediment volume in situ totalled approximately 3,100 m3, at between 9% and 22% solids. As expected, higher percentage solids content was found in the pond forebays. The Geotube continued to dewater the sediment after pumping was completed. Generally the longer it is allowed to sit, the more dewatering takes place.
Geotube after approximately one month of dewatering.
After approximately one month, the tubes are ready to be opened up and the sediment removed. Conclusion The pond cleanout was a success. The project delivery team was able to achieve the objectives of a fast, efficient, low impact pond cleanout within the allotted time and cost constraints. By early August, sediment in the tubes had completed its consolidation process. At this stage, the tubes were ready to be cut
open and the sediment removed. There is no one solution for SWM cleanout applications, due to their diverse nature. However, in this case, Geotube technology proved to be both cost-effective and environmentally sensitive. Mark Tymecki, C.E.T. and Mark Simpson, P.Eng. MBA, are with Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com
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September/October 2013 | 63
London recognized for its new biosolids ash management system
he City of London, Ontario, operates six wastewater treatment plants. Sludge generated DW ÂżYH RI WKHVH LV WUXFNHG WR the Greenway Pollution Control Plant where it is mixed in holding tanks with Greenwayâ€™s sludge. All of this sludge is WKHQVHQWWRDĂ€XLGL]HGEHGLQFLQHUDWRU For years, ash produced through the incineration process had been discharged to a two lagoon system where it was stored and then periodically transported off-site. While lagoons are used by many municipalities for the management of various waste streams, they do present their own set of challenges. Maintenance and general upkeep can be labour-intensive. Lagoons eventually become full and their contents must be disposed of. :LWK OLPLWHG RSWLRQV IRU ÂżQDO GLVposal of the material and the high cost associated with removing ash and transporting it off-site, a solution was sought which would not only reduce the operational costs of managing ash, but also produce an end product which could be more easily disposed of. Bishop Water Technologies began working with the City of London in the spring of 2010, to develop a solution using the GeotubeÂŽ dewatering technology to manage the ash waste stream. Extensive on-site testing and trials were conducted to determine the optimum chemical for conditioning the material for dewatering with the Geotube technology. The City then requested a pilot project, to determine the effectiveness of the technology at dewatering and retaining the ash material on a larger scale. The solution In late 2010, Bishop Water began a pilot project using a Geotube unit measuring 30 ft. in circumference and 50 ft. long. The unit was situated around the perimeter of the existing lagoon cells. The ash slurry was diverted from the lagoon cells, discharging directly into the unit. Existing infrastructure was used to chemically condition the material. Fil-
64 | September/October 2013
Geotube units dewatering clear filtrate during the filling process.
trate produced through the dewatering process was discharged by gravity to the existing lagoon cells. Based on the success of the pilot project, the City of London determined WKDW *HRWXEH XQLWV ZRXOG RIIHU VLJQLÂżFDQWEHQHÂżWVZKHQFRPSDUHGWRPDQDJing the waste stream using the on-site lagoon cells. The City retained R.V. Anderson Associates as the lead engineering group for the project. Throughout 2011, Bishop Water worked closely with both R.V. Anderson and the City of London, to develop a methodology and design for the installation which would allow the Geotube units to operate as effectively as possible. Construction Construction of a permanent Geotube installation began in the fall of 2011. Concrete dewatering cells were constructed to accommodate the required units. Jersey barriers were used to segregate the cells, with each of the FHOOVVORSLQJVOLJKWO\WRDÂżOWUDWHFROOHFtion basin. The dewatering cells were originally constructed to accommodate seven Geotube units measuring 75 ft. in circumference and 55 ft. long. However, to allow for increased capacity, the system has since started to use units 85
ft. in circumference and 55 ft. long. 7KH XQLWV XVHG LQFRUSRUDWH Ă€DWHQG technology. This allows a higher capac-
How Geotube dewatering technology works Dewatering with Geotube technology is a three-step process. In the FRQÂżQHPHQW stage, the *HRWXEH FRQWDLQHU LV ÂżOOHG ZLWK dredged waste materials. The conWDLQHUÂśV XQLTXH IDEULF FRQÂżQHV WKH ÂżQHJUDLQVRIWKHPDWHULDO In the dewatering phase, excess water simply drains from the container. The decanted water is often of a quality that can be reused or returned for processing, or returned to native waterways without additional treatment. ,QWKHÂżQDOSKDVHconsolidation, the solids continue to compress due to desiccation, as residual water vapour escapes through the fabric. Volume reduction can be as high as 90 per cent.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Biosolids Management ity than traditionally fabricated Geotube units, yet has the same footprint.
Volume reduction can be as high as 90 per cent.
Prior to the implementation of the Geotube units the raw ash slurry was discharged directly from the plant to onsite lagoons where it was stored and periodically transported offsite.
Performance The performance of Geotube units to date has not only met the expectations of the City of London, but exceeded them. The simplicity of the technology allows operators at the Greenway Pollution Control Plant, to monitor the installation and operate key components of the facility remotely. This means no additional personnel are required to operate the installation and minimal work hours are required by existing staff. Filtrate produced through the dewatering process is transferred to a lift station and then pumped back into the treatment process at the Greenway Plant for further treatment prior to discharge. The plant was designed to provide maximum on-site storage capacity. The City of London has arranged for the dewatered material to be used as an aggregate for concrete, NHHSLQJLWRXWRILWVODQG¿OO7KLVLVEHLQJGRQHDWDIDUORZHU cost than the previous practice of emptying the lagoons. As well as being considered a success by the City, the ash management system was awarded the 2012 Technical Innovation Award, by the Ontario Public Works Association, and the American Public Works Association Technical Innovation Award for 2013. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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September/October 2013 | 65
DO measurements affected by many factors By Patrick Higgins
KH PRVW VLJQL¿FDQW YDULDEOH for dissolved oxygen measurements is temperature, so it is important to ensure that any temperature sensor is measuring correctly. Due to the increase or decrease in molecular activity, diffusion of oxygen through the membrane of an electrochemical probe, or sensing element of an optical probe, changes with temperature. The change in diffusion rate based on temperature can be up to approximately 4% per degree Celsius for steady-state electrochemical sensors, depending on the membrane material, and 1% per degree Celsius for rapid pulse sensors. It is approximately 1.5% per degree Celsius for optical sensors. For example, if the temperature of a sample changes from 20°C to 15°C, the probe signal would decrease by varying rates depending on the sensor in use. This gives a lower DO per cent saturation reading even though the per cent saturation of the water has not changed. Therefore, the sensor signal must be compensated for changes in temperature. This is done by adding a thermistor to the circuit of older, analog instruments. For newer, digital instruments, the software compensates for temperature changes with proprietary algorithms, which use temperature readings from the probe’s thermistor. Temperature and oxygen solubility in water The above adjustment only compensates for temperature’s effect on the oxygen diffusion rate through a membrane or sensing element. In addition to this, temperature also affects the ability of water to dissolve oxygen. The solubility of oxygen in water is directly proportional to temperature (see Table 1). Warmer water cannot dissolve as much oxygen as colder water. For example, in an oxygen saturated sample of water at sea level (exposed to 760 mmHg of barometric pressure), the per cent saturation value will be 100% regardless of the temperature because it is fully saturated.
66 | September/October 2013
However, th H the dissolved di l d oxygen mg/L /L concentration will change with temperature because the solubility of oxygen in water changes with it. For instance, at 15ºC water can dissolve 10.08 mg/L, while at 30ºC water can only dissolve 7.56 mg/L of oxygen even though the per cent saturation value is 100% in both samples. Therefore, we must compensate the mg/L concentration reading, as per the temperature of the sample. Both of these temperature effects are factored into the conversion of the probe signal to a mg/L concentration. For newer, digital instruments, the software compensates for both of these temperature-related factors, after instrument calibration and during readings. The temperature compensation for the per cent saturation reading is em-
pirically i i ll dderived, i d while hil th the conversion i from per cent saturation, temperature and salinity to a mg/L concentration is automatically carried out by the instruPHQW¶V¿UPZDUH)RUPXODHDYDLODEOHLQ Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater are used. Determining DO mg/L from per cent saturation The following explains how to convert per cent saturation to mg/L (also referred to as ppm): Step one: Determine the per cent saturation, temperature, and salinity of the sample. (Let’s assume a sample is measured to have: 80% DO saturation 0 ppt salinity at 20ºC.) Step two: Multiply the per cent saturation reading by the value in appro-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Monitoring priate column (depends on salinity) and row (depends on temperature) based on the Oxygen Solubility Table. (Using Step One assumption: Multiply .80 (which is the DO per cent) by 9.09 (value from oxygen solubility table at 0 salinity and 20ÂşC) = 7.27 mg/L. Result: Using the above sample, 7.27 is the mg/L value that corresponds to an 80% DO saturation reading of a sample with zero salinity at 20ÂşC. Salinity- the second variable The second variable that affects DO concentration is the salinity of the water sample. While the per cent saturation reading is not a function of the salinity (or dissolved solids content) of the water, the mg/L concentration changes VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ZLWKVDOLQLW\$VWKHVDOLQity of water increases, its ability to dissolve oxygen decreases. For example, oxygen saturated freshwater with 0 ppt salinity at 25ÂşC contains 8.26 mg/L of oxygen, while oxygen saturated sea water (~36 ppt) at the same pressure and temperature contains only 6.72 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Thus, salinity (along with temperature)
must be factored into the instrumentâ€™s calculation of mg/L. This calculation is based on the per cent saturation reading, temperature reading, and the measured or entered salinity value, using formulae found in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Correcting for salinity The salinity value used by the instrument in the calculation of mg/L is obtained one of two ways, depending on the instrument being used. For dissolved oxygen instruments that also measure conductivity, the salinity value measured by the conductivity sensor is used for the mg/L calculation. Therefore, it is important to ensure the conductivity sensor is calibrated and reading accurately in order to obtain accurate DO mg/L readings. For dissolved oxygen instruments that do not have a conductivity sensor, the salinity value of the sample must be manually entered by the end user. When sampling water of varying salinity, for example in brackish waters such as estuaries or coastal wetlands, it is recommended that you use
a dissolved oxygen instrument that also measures conductivity for highest data DFFXUDF\ $ GLVVROYHG R[\JHQ LQVWUXment that also has a conductivity sensor will use the real-time salinity readings from the conductivity sensor for every mg/L calculation. This will make sampling easier, since it will not be necessary to manually change the correction factor at each new sampling site. Itâ€™s important to keep in mind, when calibrating a DO meter, if you have to manually input the salinity value, to input the value of the water you will be measuring. If you have a conductivity sensor in conjunction with the DO sensor, make sure the conductivity is calibrated properly in order to compensate for the correct salinity value. Barometric pressure â€“ the third variable Barometric pressure affects the pressure of oxygen in a sample of air or water. For example, the percentage of oxygen in air is always 21%, but the actual pressure of oxygen varies with changes LQEDURPHWULFSUHVVXUH$WVHDOHYHOWKH continued overleaf...
MUNICIPAL â€˘ INDUSTRIAL WATER â€˘ WASTEWATER â€˘ BIOENERGY
www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 email@example.com www.esemag.com
September/October 2013 | 67
Monitoring pressure of oxygen is 160 mmHg (.21 x 760 mmHg). In a fully aerated sample, under these conditions, the per cent saturation measured by a sensor would be 100% (160/160 x 100%). If the temperature of the sample is 25ÂşC, the instrument would calculate the dissolved oxygen concentration as 8.26 mg/L. As the sample is moved up in altitude and kept air-saturated, the barometric pressure would decrease and so would the pressure of oxygen in the sample. At 1126 ft of elevation, the pressure of oxygen would be 153 mmHg (.21 x 730 mmHg) and the per cent saturation relative to sea level read by the probe would be 95.6% (153/160 x 100%) in the fully aerated sample. If the temperature of the sample is 25ÂşC, the instrument would calculate a dissolved oxygen concentration of 7.92 mg/L or 96% of 8.26 based on YSIâ€™s Oxygen Solubility Table. The effect of barometric pressure is overcome by proper sensor calibration. Barometric pressure is used in the majority of dissolved oxygen sensor calibrations as described in the Calibration section of The Dissolved Oxygen Handbook, since it determines the absolute pressure of oxygen in a sample of air or water at the time of calibration and it is this pressure which is measured by all oxygen sensors. When calibrating oxygen sensors, the sensorâ€™s output is set to this known
68 | September/October 2013
pressure off oxygen. If the th sensor outt put changes after calibration, then the instrument would calculate a per cent saturation based on a simple linear regression calculation. Thus, as long as the system does not drift, the sensorâ€™s output can always be XVHG WR GHÂżQH WKH R[\JHQ SUHVVXUH LQ any medium after performing a proper calibration, and the use of the barometric pressure (or altitude) at the time of calibration is the key factor in setWLQJ WKH SURSHU FDOLEUDWLRQ FRHIÂżFLHQW Therefore, it is not necessary to correct for changes in barometric pressure by recalibrating after performing a proper initial calibration in order to obtain acFXUDWHUHDGLQJVLQWKHÂżHOG Flow dependence â€“ the fourth variable Steady-state electrochemical sensors (polarographic and galvanic) consume oxygen during measurement and therefore require sample movement or the UHDGLQJV ZLOO EH DUWLÂżFLDOO\ ORZ 7KLV LV FRPPRQO\UHIHUUHGWRDVĂ€RZGHSHQGHQFH VLQFHWKHVHQVRULVGHSHQGHQWRQĂ€RZRU
water t movementt across th the membrane b iin order to obtain accurate readings. Optical sensors, however, use a non-consumptive method for dissolved oxygen measurements, resulting in a VHQVLQJ PHWKRG ZLWK ]HUR Ă€RZ GHSHQdence or stirring requirement. However, VWXGLHV KDYH FRQÂżUPHG UHVSRQVH WLPHV on optical sensors can be improved with Ă€RZ$FFXUDF\GRHVQÂśWFKDQJHMXVWWKH amount of time to get to a reading. This may be an advantage when measuring many BODs. For steady-state electrochemical sensors, the membrane material and thickness dictates the degree of the sensorâ€™s Ă€RZGHSHQGHQFH)RUH[DPSOHSRO\HWKylene membranes, frequently notated as 3(UHTXLUHOHVVPRYHPHQWRUĂ€RZWKHQ WUDGLWLRQDO SRO\WHWUDĂ€XRURHWK\OHQH 7KH stirring dependence of each sensor and membrane type, along with the recommended stirring rates, is listed in YSIâ€™s Membrane Comparison Guide. Patrick Higgins is with YSI, a Xylem brand. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Immediate pH correction for fluctuating flows offers many benefits
n a number of water, wastewater and industrial process applications, pH is one of the most critical and highly sensitive analytical measurements. In wastewater treatment, pH can be measured online in the aeration basins to control the acidic or alkaline condition of the mixed liquor, in order to provide optimum conditions for microorganism activity. Drinking water plants also need accurate and reliable pH control systems at the supply inlet, to determine the appropriate treatment for incoming water. They also need to ensure proper pH of the treated water before it enters the public water supply. Most instrumentation sensors offer relatively constant performance and response time. However, being based on an electrochemical measurement, this is
not always the case for a pH electrode. There are many process factors which can influence their response rate and accuracy. There are three common methods to determine pH: 1. Visual method using litmus paper. 2. Photometric method which uses a spectrophotometer to measure the wavelength. 3. Potentiometric method which is an electro-chemical measurement of the EMF created by a chemical reaction. The only one, which can be used in process control for continuous in-line measurement, is the potentiometric method. However, there are many factors which can cause a delay in accurate measurement. The response time can vary based on the thickness and composition of the probe gel layer, diaphragm porosity, reference contamination, age
By Sadiq Khan
of probe, glass membrane integrity, and the length of the signal cable. To achieve the nominal tolerance of 0.01 pH units, a response time of 30 seconds is needed. This delay in response time can have a negative impact on any of the pH critical processes, especially reverse osmosis systems and biological treatment. For example, a delay in pH response can easily result in the fouling of an RO membrane due to the incorrect dosing of caustic, or halt the bacteria activity of microorganisms in a biological process. An overdose of caustic into the process stream (if the flow rate were to drop and not be compensated for) could cause the water’s pH to drop below the specified range for the RO membranes. This is of particular concern when the concentrate (reject waste) is being recycontinued overleaf...
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September/October 2013 | 69
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www.apwa.net/congress 70 | September/October 2013
cled into the feed stream to improve overall efficiency. In this case, the flow rate will be fluctuating and the pH will be decreasing, due to the formation of carbonic acid. An ideal solution would be to correct the pH immediately based on flow. A program has been implemented in Burkert Fluid Control’s type 8619 multiCELL multifunction transmitter/controller to do just this. It is done using multiple logic blocks to allow for a great deal of flexibility. In an inline pH control system, it is essential to confirm the measurement line has the minimum flow The 8619 multiCELL multivelocity. This is because function transmitter/controlthe chemical injection nozler. zle may be any distance away from the analytical measurement point. If the flow becomes static, the pump will continue to dose until the pH adjusted process fluid reaches the measuring point. This will result in a drastic overshoot beyond the set-point pH levels. The multiCELL program uses a “System Switch” logic block, which can be used to override the program if there is no flow detected. The override, in this case, would be to keep the pump turned off, even if the pH set-point is not achieved. When trying to adjust a pH dosing pump based on attenuating flow, a ratio flow control loop can be used. This will need to be combined with a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) loop, using pH as the process value. When the two outputs are combined using only a scaled value of fifty present on each, the result will be the desired full range. This has been done in the multiCELL using the “PROP”, “On/Off”, “PID”, and arithmetic “A+B” function blocks. This method is effective for dosing chemicals in a safe and effective manner to protect RO membranes from damage. It also increases efficiency and cost control, by minimizing excess dosing of flocculants and neutralization chemicals. With the sheer range of pH applications throughout all water and wastewater treatments and the criticality of each of these measurements on the process as a whole, it is definitely worth taking the time to implement a well-thought-out pH control system. Carefully considering the layout of injection points, pH measurement points and the potential need for integrated flow compensation between the two, will lead to a more responsive pH loop, a more efficient chemical dosing scheme and better overall process control. Sadiq Khan is with Burkert Fluid Control Systems. E-mail: email@example.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
American Public University is a leading provider of quality online education. APU offers more than 180 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs for environmental science, policy, and management professionals. When youâ€™re ready to learn more, visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University
Small double wall tanks
American Water provides beneficial reuse of biosolids; advanced technologies - Class A biosolids; mobile dewatering; digester, reactor, tank and lagoon cleaning; confined space entry; treatment plant by-pass; vacuum and haulage services; custom, mobile screening; and free assessments and quotations. Tel: 800-846-2097 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.terratec.amwater.com
Small double wall tanks, from 20 to 405 gallons, provide primary and secondary containment for hazardous and corrosive chemicals in one unit. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, and high-density crosslink resin tanks for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Web: www.assmann-usa.com
Assmann Corporation of America
Submerged fixed film
Denso Petrolatum Tapes
%UHQWZRRGÂśVVXEPHUJHGÂż[HGÂżOP technology, AccuFAS, provides biological treatment for your siteVSHFLÂżFSURFHVVJRDOV,WVLQQRYDWLYH combination of distribution and vertical Ă€RZPHGLD eliminates shortcircuiting and SURYLGHVHYHQĂ€RZDQGDLUGLVWULEXWLRQ for optimum contact between the waste stream and biomass. Tel: 610-374-5109 E-mail: waterinfo@ brentwoodindustries.com Web: www.brentwoodindustries.com
Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! 7HO)D[ E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.densona.com Denso
Combination pH/ORP electrodes The new combined pH/ORP electrodes, Memosens CPS16D, CPS76D and CPS96D from Endress+Hauser, now make customersâ€™ processes even more transparent. Two parameters measured at the same time or DOWHUQDWHO\S+SOXVH[WUDVHQVRUFKHFN - donâ€™t leave room for interpretation. $QGIRUWKHÂżUVWWLPHRQHVLQJOHVHQVRU is able to deliver the rH-value! E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/memosens
Vertical screening system
Reciprocating rake screening system
Samplers have changed. The Endress +Hauser CSF34 is the new benchmark, with a choice of vacuum or peristaltic pumping and up to 24 simultaneous sampling routines. Add up to four industrial digital sensors with data logging and connect to SCADA with the latest communication protocols including Ethernet. The new CSF-34 is a complete monitoring and collection solution. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ca.endress.com
The new Vertical Auger MonsterÂŽ 6FUHHQÂżWV inside pump stations. Wastewater pump stations are facing DQLQĂ€X[RIVHZHUFORJJLQJĂ€XVKDEOH wipes, so JWCE engineers developed the Auger Monster â€“ AGV which conveys wipes straight up and out of the sewer system. 7HO)D[ E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.envirocan.ca
JWC Environmental has introduced the new Bar Screen Monsterâ„˘, using H[FOXVLYH technology WRFDSWXUHPRUHGHEULV7KHÂżUVWVHOI contained reciprocating rake screening system is designed to capture and transport large amounts of wastewater debris to the discharge point. 7HO)D[ E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.envirocan.ca
Product & Service Showcase
September/October 2013 | 71
Flow monitor FlowSiren, a wireless, low power, multisensor open FKDQQHOĂ€RZ monitor with vision sensor, allows you to PHDVXUHDQGYLHZDQ\Ă€RZFRQGLWLRQV using contact and non-contact sensors. Advanced power management keeps the FlowSiren alive for over a year, uploading hourly data to your server location. Tel: 514-354-2511 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.geneq.com
Product & Service Showcase
Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario. com
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
New area-velocity flow meter
With the AVFM 5.0 Area-Velocity Flow Meter you FDQPRQLWRUĂ€RZ through open channels, partially full sewer pipes DQGVXUFKDUJHGSLSHVZLWKRXWDĂ€XPHRU ZHLU7KLVQHZĂ€RZPHWHULVGHVLJQHG for municipal stormwater, combined HIĂ€XHQWUDZVHZDJHDQGLUULJDWLRQ water. Tel: 888-473-9546 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.greyline.com/avfm50.htm Greyline Instruments
Toxic gas multi-actuator valve controller
Single channel fluorometer
The H2FLOW SBR consists of FLUIDYNE Sequencing Batch Reactor internals integrated into a glass-fusedto-steel tank. It features jet aeration headers that never require replacement, and a solidsH[FOXGLQJÂż[HGGHFDQWHUZKLFKKDV been proven in many installations. Tel: 905-660-9775 :HEZZZKĂ€RZFRP
The Hexacon Model III Gas Shutoff System has a New OLED information display and the optional programmable relay interface module provides clear, timely, informational outputs. The microprocessor system measures and applies a torque of 30 foot-pounds or 50 foot-pounds for test or emergency valve closures for cylinder and ton container valves. Tel: 877-476-4222, Fax 949-261-5033 Web: www.halogenvalve.com Halogen Valve Systems
Turner Designsâ€™ Enviro-Tâ„˘ is an accurate, single channel Ă€XRURPHWHUZKLFK installs into a plumbing tee for direct in-line measurements. It is easily integrated with data collection systems, and provides a 4 - 20 mA signal output proportional to the relative concentration of WKHĂ€XRURSKRUHRILQWHUHVWLQWKHVDPSOH water. It offers a wide dynamic range, low sensitivity, a compact package and easy integration with controllers. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.hoskin.ca
Water quality monitoring
Inclined screw press
Protecting sensitive watershed
The YSI EXO Advanced Water Quality Multi-Parameter Monitoring Platform features wireless bluetooth communication, smart sensors, wet-mateable sensor/cable connectors, built in GPS, and extended battery life (90 days). New parameters include fDOM and total algae. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.hoskin.ca
Huber Technologyâ€™s RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press dewaters sludge to provide impressive cake solids. The slow rotating auger handles the toughest of sludge. The RoS3Q runs unattended using fully automatic operation. Cost of ownership is very low. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.huberforum.net/ros3q
Strescon Limited in Saint John, New Brunswick, has supplied the largest Stormceptor ever installed in Atlantic Canada, an STC 14,000 installed at the Costco Wholesale site in Fredericton. The site encompasses Corbett Brook and adjacent wetlands on the grounds of the University of New Brunswick, which are home to various species, a mature forest and wetlands. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com; www.stormceptor.com
72 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Leak detection system
Utilizing 150 plus years of combined experience selling, designing, manufacturing, installing and servicing onsite hypochlorite generation equipment, the team at PSI have, with MicrOclor, implemented innovations to ensure equipment reliDELOLW\PDWFKHVWKHRSHUDWLRQDOEHQHÂżWV of switching to an Onsite Hypochlorite Generation system. Contact Indachem IRUDFRVWEHQHÂżWDQDO\VLV Tel: 416-743-3751 Web: www.indachem.com
ClearGuardTM is a fail-safe, pressurerated clear containment piping system allowing for easy visual detection of leaks and minimizing risk for transport of aggressive chemicals in buildings. Clear-Guard Double Containment utilizes IPEXâ€™s patented Centra-LokTM ÂżWWLQJGHVLJQZKLFKNHHSVWKHFDUULHU pipe perfectly centered inside the containment pipe. Fittings are available in clear or â€œcost savingâ€? opaque. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com
IPEX double containment systems can be equipped with a patented Centra-Guardâ„˘ point-of-collection leak detection system. Centra-Guard systems are available for aboveground, suspended piping applications, with sensors housed in saddle-type clamps, as well as for below-grade piping systems, with sensors located in drip leg assemblies. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com
Through thermal sludge drying, Innodry 2E can be used to reduce the volume and improve the quality of wastewater biosolids. Innodry 2Eâ€™s innovative and patented combination of proven technologies allows the advantages of both direct and indirect dryers. Tel: 804-756-7600 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com Infilco Degremont
Electronic metering pumps
EMEC metering pumps provide quality, accuracy and a number of design innovations including: industryleading 5 year warranty on their solid construction PTFE diaphragm; master/ slave integration; integrated automatic re-priming system; integral pH and Redox pumps with direct probe input. KGO Group Ltd. is the Canadian distributor. Tel: 905-847-1544 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org KGO Group
Dry polymer systems
The Dehydrisâ„˘ Twist is an advanced sludge dewatering process from Degremont, employing the Bucher Unipektin hydraulic piston press technology. Up to 30% reduction in sludge bulk volume can be achieved over conventional dewatering and digested sludge can be dewatered to autothermal conditions before incineration. Tel: 804-756-7600 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com
KGO Group builds safety and quality into each of its dry polymer systems. Unique features include: SS construction, plug and dust-free wetting devices, standard knife-gate isolation valve, welded or quick connect ÂżWWLQJVORZSRO\PHU KRSSHULQGLFDWLRQDQG&6$FHUWLÂżHG components. Tel: 905-847-1544 E-mail: email@example.com
Interpreter register Master Meterâ€™s Interpreter Register System, based on proven DialogÂŽ 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.mastermeter.com Master Meter
Product & Service Showcase
Next generation OSHG equipment
OctaveÂŽ offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.mastermeter.com Master Meter
September/October 2013 | 73
Access hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches are the â€œopen and shut caseâ€? for access hatches. They are manufactured to CSA standards right here in Canada by Canadian :HOGLQJ%XUHDXFHUWLÂżHGZHOGHUV Web: www.msumississauga.com
Product & Service Showcase
Portable gas chromatograph
The NETZSCH TORNADOÂŽ positive displacement, self priming, valveless pumps, offer high performance and are selected and configured for the requirements of each application. They are designed for intermittent or continuous operation, provide gentle pumping of the pumped product and are ideally suited for transfer, process and dosing applications. There are highly abrasion resistant and replaceable protection plates on both faces of the housing. Tel: 705-797-8426, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.netzsch.com
Noble is one of Ontarioâ€™s largest suppliers of pipe, valves, fittings and accessories for the wastewater and water treatment industries. The Noble Advantage: â€˘ 40 branches in Ontario â€˘ 200 delivery trucks â€˘ 500,000 sq. ft. distribution centre â€˘ Pipe cutting & grooving services Tel: 800-529-9805 Web: www.noble.ca
Diaphragm metering pumps
The Frog-4000 is a Hand-Held Portable Gas Chromatograph for detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, BTEX and other VOCs in water, air, and soil. It performs analysis in the ÂżHOGLQPLQXWHVUHTXLUHVOLWWOHWHFKQLFDO H[SHUWLVHLGHQWLÂżHVWKHDFWXDOFRPpounds, and delivers sensitive results to allow instant decisions. Tel: 800-560-4402 E-mail: VDOHV#RVSUH\VFLHQWLÂżFFRP Web: ZZZRVSUH\VFLHQWLÂżFFRP
The Sigma Series of diaphragm metering pumps from ProMinent has many new advanced features. With a removable/ externally mountable HMI (Human Machine Interface), variable metering SURÂżOHVGLDSKUDJPUXSWXUHZDUQLQJ system, and cost savings through energy consumption based on power required, Sigma provides more safety and reliability for optimum metering results. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.prominent.ca
ProMinent Fluid Controls
Grit removal system
The DRC electronic motor gives great Ă€H[LELOLW\ in mounting a gear unit as it can EHPRXQWHGGLUHFWO\YLDĂ€DQJHDQG pinion shaft end. A completely new mechatronic drive system is created, WRJHWKHUZLWKDKLJKO\HIÂżFLHQWKHOLFDO bevel, helical or parallel-shaft helical gear unit. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca
PISTAÂŽWorksâ„˘ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTAÂŽ Grit Concentrator, a PISTAÂŽ TURBOâ„˘ Grit Washer and a PISTAÂŽ 360â„˘ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com
Smith & Loveless
74 | September/October 2013
Rotary lobe pump
DulcoFlowÂŽ flow meter is based on the ultrasonic measurement method. Operation without moving parts guarantees a long service life and wear-free operation. Its measurement range is between 0.1 and 50 litres per hour. A unique feature is that, for the first time, pulsed flow and the amount of liquid which has been dispensed by each pump stroke can be reliably and precisely measured and monitored. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls
The Waterloo Emitterâ„˘ is a simple, lowcost device designed for the remediation of contaminated groundwater. It enables oxygen or other amendments to diffuse through silicone or LDPE tubing in a controlled uniform manner, enhancing DHURELFELRUHPHGLDWLRQ,WÂżWV 150 mm diameter wells. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
New and Improved Hydrolift
Veolia has a wide range of solutions for biosolids processing and management. Our extensive portfolio of in-house technologies ranges from thermal (dryers, incinerators, thermal hydrolyzers) to biological processes (anaerobic (co) digestors, ammonia removal, etc.). We deliver sustainable systems tailored to customers’ need as solution, turn-key or DBO projects. Tel: 905-286-4846 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: veoliawaterstna.com
The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we’ve been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and most importantly, more affordable than ever. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Canada
The Waterra Inertial Pumping System is the most widely used pump for monitoring wells in Canada. For developing, purging and sampling — nothing else comes close. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
The EcoPlug™ offers the latest in well plug design and is the only well cap made from recycled materials. If you’re looking for a durable, tamper-proof well cap that will withstand repeated use (and abuse) over many years, the EcoPlug is an excellent fit for your requirements. This well cap is available for 3/4”, 1”, 2” and 4” monitoring wells. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter
PVC or Polyethylene
The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both eco-friendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter, and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com
Inertial pumping system
Amalgam UV lamps
WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
Xylem’s WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
Megamix II thick repair mortar for resurfacing deteriorated concrete manholes, sewer pipe and water tanks is formulated for superior bond, chemical durability and high strength. It can be sprayed or trowel applied up to a thickness of 2 inches. It is NSF 61 approved. Tel: 604-273-5265 Web: www.xypex.com
XYPEX Chemical Corporation
Chemical-free water treatment
Product & Service Showcase
Biosolids and bioenergy
September/October 2013 | 75
ES&E NEWS New satellite maps track algal blooms in Great Lakes Acoustic Panels, Enclosures & Products WE WELCOME YOUR INQUIRIES
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Scientists from the Michigan Tech Research Institute are using satellite data to generate maps of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Great Lakes. The maps show the location and extent of HABs, as well as areas of water quality and public health concern, in the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron and Green Bay on Lake Michigan. They are updated weekly and are available online at: www.mtrihabsmapping.org â€œThese maps give unprecedented access to real-time data to inform stewardship decisions and promote sustainable ecosystem restoration and protection efforts,â€? said Robert Shuchman, co-director of MTRI and a lead scientist on the HABs satellite-mapping project. The data will be useful to commerFLDOVSRUWDQGFKDUWHUÂżVKHUPHQVDLORUV tourists and public water system managers, as well as beach managers. It is predicted that the general public will use it as well. â€œAfter all,â€? said Shuchman, â€œyou donâ€™t want your grandkids going to the beach and jumping into pea soup.â€? The work is presently funded by the US EPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. www.mtu.edu
First Nations water management funded The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) will provide $1.65 million over six years, to fund the H20 CREATE Program for Water and Sanitation Security in First Nations. Dr. Farenhorst at the University of Manitoba will lead the program, through the Collaborative Research and Training Experience (CREATE) initiative. Leading researchers from Trent University, the University of Manitoba, and the University College of the North, will establish an innovative and culturally respectful research training program that will provide a highly-trained labour force and an innovative system. This is urgently needed to address the Canadian water and sanitation crisis in First Nations communities. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E NEWS Potential employers may interact with trainees by providing work terms and student training workshops, as well as by serving as advisors on traineesâ€™ research projects organizations.The H2O &5($7( SURJUDP LV WKH ÂżUVW WUDLQLQJ program in Canada to combine technical water and wastewater management training with Indigenous theory, law and methodological skills training. www.trentu.ca
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Siemens marks 100 years of water treatment Siemens Water Technologies is marking a century of industry innovation and leadership with the 100-year anniverVDU\ RI WKH ÂżUVW FKORULQH JDV PHWHULQJ unit for water disinfection, a milestone EUHDNWKURXJKLQWKHÂżJKWDJDLQVWZDWHUborne disease. 7KHÂżUVWFRPPHUFLDOO\SURGXFHGJDV chlorinator was installed in 1913 in a public drinking water system by Wallace & Tiernan, now a Siemens Water Technologies company. The technology revolutionized the way the world fought water-borne diseases which killed nearly 30,000 people per year in the 1900s in the United States alone. â€œThe use of chlorine in water treatment has arguably done more to safeguard the health of the world than any other development,â€? said Dr. Lukas /RHIĂ€HU 6LHPHQV :DWHU 7HFKQRORJLHV CEO. â€œTo this day, chlorination in general is still the most widely used disinfection method.â€? www.water.siemens.com
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HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 Ph: 905-777-9494 Fax: 905-777-8678 firstname.lastname@example.org www.hydrologic.ca
Puralytics earns IWAâ€™s Global Honour Award Puralyticsâ€™ SolarBagâ„˘ will receive the International Water Associationâ€™s (IWA) Global Honour Award for Drinking Water Supply, for its innovative solution to providing access to safe drinking water. The IWA will present the award in October in Nairobi, Kenya. It will jointly recognize Puralytics and Good Samaritan Ministries, for their combined work to implement and administer this successful drinking water project across peri-urban Malawi. The three-liter SolarBag is a reusable continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 Ph: 905-777-9494 Fax: 905-777-8678 firstname.lastname@example.org www.hydrologic.ca
September/October 2013 | 77
ES&E NEWS Insitu Groundwater Contractors â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 â€¢ 150 Stevenson Street, South Guelph, ON N1E 5N7
Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems
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Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-Mail: email@example.com
ZDWHUSXULÂ¿FDWLRQGHYLFHWKDWXVHVVXQOLJKWDFWLYDWHG QDQRWHFKQRORJ\ WR SURGXFH XS WR QLQH OLWHUV RI VDIH GULQNLQJ ZDWHUHDFKGD\,WUHPRYHVKHDY\PHWDOVGHVWUR\VFKHPLFDOFRQWDPLQDQWVOLNH SHVWLFLGHVDQGSHWURFKHPLFDOVDQGHOLPLQDWHVEDFWHULDYLUXVHVDQGSURWR]RD,W LVWKHRQO\QRQSRZHUHGQRQFKHPLFDO GHYLFHWKDWPHHWVERWKWKH:RUOG+HDOWK 2UJDQL]DWLRQVWDQGDUGVIRUVDIHGULQNLQJ ZDWHU DQG WKH 63+(5( LQWHUQDWLRQDO JXLGHOLQHVIRULQGLYLGXDOGDLO\GULQNLQJ ZDWHUTXDQWLWLHV 0RUHWKDQSHUFHQWRIXVHUVVDLG WKH\ GUDQN PRUH ZDWHU DIWHU UHFHLYLQJ WKHLU6RODU%DJDQGSHUFHQWFODLPHG WKH\IHOWVLFNOHVVIUHTXHQWO\7KH6RODU%DJV FRQWLQXH WR EH XVHG WRGD\ LQ WKH YLOODJHVLQ0DODZL8VHUVQHHGRQO\Â¿OO WKHEDJZLWKZDWHUDQGOHDYHLWH[SRVHG WR WKH VXQ IRU D IHZ KRXUV DOORZLQJ LW WR EH XVHG PXOWLSOH WLPHV SHU GD\7KH HPSW\EDJFDQEHVWRUHGIRUXSWRVHYHQ\HDUVDQGFDQEHUHXVHGKXQGUHGVRI WLPHV www.puralytics.com
Minister Aglukkaq visits Norway to tackle climate pollutants
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78 | September/October 2013
/HRQD $JOXNNDT 0LQLVWHU RI WKH (QYLURQPHQW 0LQLVWHU RI WKH &DQDGLDQ 1RUWKHUQ(FRQRPLF'HYHORSPHQW$JHQF\DQG0LQLVWHUIRUWKH$UFWLF&RXQFLO WUDYHOOHGWR2VOR1RUZD\LQ6HSWHPEHU WRSDUWLFLSDWHLQWKHKLJKOHYHODVVHPEO\ RIWKH&OLPDWHDQG&OHDQ$LU&RDOLWLRQ &&$& WR5HGXFH6KRUW/LYHG&OLPDWH 3ROOXWDQWV Â³$V DQ $UFWLF QDWLRQ &DQDGD SURIRXQGO\ XQGHUVWDQGV WKH FOLPDWH DQG SXEOLFKHDOWKEHQHÂ¿WVRIUHGXFLQJVKRUW OLYHG FOLPDWH SROOXWDQWV VXFK DV EODFN FDUERQ DQG PHWKDQHÂ´ VDLG 0LQLVWHU $JOXNNDT ZKR LV FKDLU RI WKH $UFWLF &RXQFLO &DQDGDÂ¶V 1RUWK LV HVSHFLDOO\ VHQVLWLYH WR WKH HIIHFWV RI EODFN FDUERQ DVWKHUHLVDQDGGLWLRQDOZDUPLQJHIIHFW ZKHQGHSRVLWHGRQWRVQRZDQGLFH &DQDGD LV D IRXQGLQJ PHPEHU OHDG SDUWQHUDQGWKHODUJHVWÂ¿QDQFLDOFRQWULEXWRURIWKH&&$&Â±WKHÂ¿UVWJOREDOHIIRUWWRWUHDWWKHVHSROOXWDQWVDVDFROOHFWLYHFKDOOHQJH7KHZRUNRIWKH&&$& LVFRPSOHPHQWDU\WRWKDWRIWKH8QLWHG 1DWLRQV)UDPHZRUN&RQYHQWLRQRQ&OLPDWH&KDQJHZKHUH&DQDGDLVZRUNLQJ Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E NEWS with other parties to achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
Peter J. Laughton, P. Eng.
Parry Sound Receives AWWA Water Landmarks Award The Old Waterworks Pumphouse in Parry Sound, Ontario, has been honored as a Canadian Water Landmark by the AWWA. It recognizes the people who operated the Old Pump House which kept Parry Sound residents safe from LOOQHVVDQGÂżUHIRU\HDUV The Old Pumphouse, the only shoreOLQH EXLOGLQJ UHPDLQLQJ IURP WKH WK century in Parry Sound, also received a Heritage Designation from the Province of Ontario. As part of the waterworks designed for the town by John Galt, it demonstrated the technical and scientific achievements of its era. Mark Carr, executive director of the Ontario Water Works Association, preVHQWHGWKHDZDUGRQ$XJXVWÂł,WLVQRW SUHVHQWHGOLJKWO\Â´VDLG&DUUÂł7KLVLVDQ international award that looks at the hisWRULFDO VLJQLÂżFDQFH RI ZDWHU IDFLOLWLHV throughout Mexico, the United States and Canada and it doesnâ€™t have to be awarded every year...the last time it was DZDUGHGZDVWRWKH+RRYHU'DP in Nevada, and a reservoir and gatehouse in Cambridge, Massachusetts.â€? For a landmark to receive the award LWPXVWEHRYHU\HDUVROGDQGPXVWEH recognized in the community as a popXODU YDOXHG DQG KLVWRULFDOO\ VLJQLÂżFDQW property. While the hilltop water tanks are gone and the pipes replaced, the Old Pumphouse facility remains as a home on the shores of Georgian Bay.
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Zimbabwe inventor receives 2013 Stockholm Water Prize Dr. Peter Morgan of Zimbabwe has received the Stockholm Water Prize for his life-long work to protect the health and lives of millions of people through improved water and sanitation technologies. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden presented the prize to Dr. Morgan on September 5, at a Royal Award Ceremony during the World Water Week held in Stockholm. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
September/October 2013 | 79
ES&E NEWS An estimated 1.8 billion people live without access to safe drinking water and 2.5 billion people do not have access to adequate sanitation. The consequences are disastrous. Diseases caused by unsafe water and inadequate sanitation kill more than 5,000 people each
day. This year’s laureate, Dr. Morgan, has spent the last four decades inventing and advancing low-cost practical solutions to provide access to safe sanitation and clean water that are being used by millions of people worldwide. “Many currently existing solutions
to provide clean water and sanitation are unaffordable, impractical and out of reach for the world’s poorest people,” said the Stockholm Water Prize Committee in its citation. “As a result of Dr. Morgan’s pioneering work, countless communities now enjoy safer water, a cleaner environment and quality of life.” Several of Dr. Morgan’s most prominent innovations, including the “B” type bush pump and the Blair Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine, have been adopted as the national standard by the government of Zimbabwe. Huge numbers of Blair VIP latrines, designed for both families and schools, have been built and serve millions of people in Zimbabwe alone. Many more have been built worldwide. Dr. Morgan also created the “Upgraded Family Well”, a concept where families can support themselves, which now helps half a million people improve the quality of water obtained from traditional wells. www.siwi.org
ESSENTIALS 2013 For Managers, Consultants and Practitioners
November 25-27, at the Mississauga, Ontario, Grand Banquet & Convention Centre. Proven courses to ensure environmental compliance and due diligence at your facility!
November 25 Environmental Regulations & Compliance, 2013 November 26 Waste & Wastewater Compliance & Due Diligence November 27 Waste (Not):
Preparing for Ontario’s New Reduction & Stewardship Rules
For further information, please contact: Judy Earl, Envirogate Event Management, Tel: 416-920-0768, Fax: (416) 920-0620, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 80 | September/October 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Innovative use of siphon hydraulics will reduce capital and operating costs at Nanaimoâ€™s new WTP By Matthew Lozie
onstruction is currently unGHUZD\ RQ WKH JUHHQÂżHOG South Fork Water Treatment Plant (WTP), which is designed to supply 116 ML/d of membrane ÂżOWHUHG ZDWHU WR WKH &LW\ RI 1DQDLPR British Columbia. The design incorporates a unique siphon feature that replaces traditional permeate pumps used on the downstream side of a submerged membrane plant. The design presented some interesting challenges, such as plant siting and layout, and plant and siphon hydraulics. Located on the east coast of Vancouver Island, the City of Nanaimo
(Pop.90,000) has experienced continuous growth for more than ten years. Several key factors led to the Cityâ€™s decision to build a new water treatment plant to serve the community. Among them was the fact that its existing water supply is from the South Fork Dam, located on the South Nanaimo River, and that the City currently uses gaseous chlorine for disinfection. Since 2000, the Province of British Columbia, through its regional Health Authorities, has implemented higher water quality standards. The Vancouver Island Health Authority had in the past accepted a chlorination-only dis-
Figure 1: South Fork water treatment process.
Figure 2: Building layout of the South Fork Water Treatment Plant. www.esemag.com
infection strategy, but the source water quality did not meet the current, more stringent water quality standard, or its QHZÂżOWUDWLRQGHIHUUDOFULWHULD These factors, together with Nanaimoâ€™s recent and projected population growth, paved the way for a Water Supply Strategic Plan. It outlined the longterm vision of water supply for the City DQGLGHQWLÂżHGWKHQHHGIRUDQHZZDWHU treatment plant. Treatment selection Associated Engineering, in partnership with MWH Canada, was retained WKURXJK D TXDOLÂżFDWLRQEDVHG VHOHFWLRQ to perform design services that included piloting several water treatment processes. A detailed review of water treatment options led to the following that were piloted in 2009 and 2010: 1) Conventional treatment using dissolved air flotation (DAF) and granular media filtration. 2) Direct filtration using granular media filtration. 3) Submerged membrane filtration. Following a review of the pilot study results, the options were evaluated using a Triple Bottom Line + Risk approach to form a basis from which the City could make a transparent, informed and calculated decision. The membrane option scored the highest and also had the lowest risk. It offered a robust and responsive treatment scheme, with the least amount of operator attention required to address seasonal turbidity spikes in the source water. Hydraulics The overall hydraulics of the water supply system played an important role in plant site and membrane technology selection, and the evaluation of gravity YHUVXVSXPSHGĂ€RZ7KHSODQWVLWHZDV selected to intercept the hydraulic grade line that currently runs from an intake on South Fork Dam to the distribution system within the City. There was sufÂżFLHQW H[FHVV SUHVVXUH KHDG WR SHUPLW water to be gravity fed into the new continued overleaf... September/October 2013 | 81
ACG Technology ...........................83 American Public University ..........65 American Public Works Association ....................................70 American Water/Terratec Env. .....22 Associated Engineering .................5 Avensys ..........................................41 Bishop Water Technologies .........58 Brentwood Industries....................58 Burkert Fluid Control Systems.....33 C&M Env. Techologies ..................25 Cancoppas .....................................15 CIMA Canada .................................42 Cole Engineering ...........................69 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ....84 Delcan .............................................24 Denso .............................................36 Endress + Hauser ..........................19 Envirocan ......................................83 Geneq .............................................59 Greatario ........................................67 Greyline Instruments.....................44 Grundfos ........................................46 Gunnell Engineering .....................38 H2Flow ............................................42 Halogen Valve Systems ................61 Hanna Instruments Canada ..........29 Hoskin Scientific......................31, 45 Huber Technology ...........................9 Indachem ........................................38 Infilco Degremont .........................39 IPEX ................................................13 Kemira ............................................50 KSB Pumps ....................................48 Landshark Drilling .........................56 Maple Reinders Group ..................32 Master Meter ....................................3 Monitario ........................................35 MSU Mississauga ..........................21 NETZSCH........................................51 Noble...............................................17 Orival ..............................................68 Osprey Scientific ...........................59 Pro Aqua.........................................37 ProMinent .........................................2
Water Treatment plant, where the hydraulic grade would be reduced, due to losses DFURVV FRQWURO YDOYHV RSHQ Ă€RFFXlation tanks, and membranes. Water is then conveyed from a new treated water clearwell to the distribution system. Using siphon operation is an important feature of the South Fork WTP. As energy conservation was a key project target, there was a strong impetus to take advantage of a sloping site by using a siphon as WKHGULYLQJIRUFHIRUÂżOWUDWLRQUDWKHU than permeate pumps - the typical approach. The design made full use of the selected site grade by placing the clearwell downhill from the WTP. Through an inter-disciplinary review and a preliminary design Value Engineering session, the design team determined that the optimal plant layout would incorporate a gallery below the membrane tanks. It would house the individual membrane permeate valves required for siphon control. Placing this gallery on the downhill side of the WTP greatly reduced the excavation required. Submerged membranes using the siphon approach were deemed more appropriate than pressurized PHPEUDQHV WR ÂżW ZLWK WKH H[LVWLQJ system hydraulic grade line. The driving factors were the lower operating trans-membrane pressure required to operate submerged membranes and the feasibility of placing pre-treatment open basins, upstream of the membranes. After a submerged membrane system procurement phase was completed, GE Water & Process Technologies Canada was awarded the procurement contract.
SEW-Eurodrive ..............................23 Smith & Loveless...........................49 Solinst Canada...............................27 SPD Sales .......................................47 Stantec............................................44 Waterloo Biofilter Systems ...........23 Waterra ...........................8, 43, 57, 63 WTP Equipment .............................26 XCG Consultants ...........................55 Xylem ................................................7 Xypex ..............................................53
82 | September/October 2013
Siphon operation The siphon will be primed by airdriven ejectors that are placed at high points in the permeate piping. These ejectors will eliminate air during plant start-up and maintain vacuum conditions within the permeate piping during operation. One end of the siphon will be connected to individual headers tied to the submerged
membrane cassettes. The other end of the siphon will be submerged in the clearwell. Once the permeate valves are opened, the siphon will operate by JUDYLW\Ă€RZDQGZLOOEHFRQWUROOHGE\ permeate valves. The permeate control valves will be placed on each membrane train WR FRQWURO WKH SHUPHDWH Ă€RZ UDWH As each tank of submerged membrane cassettes becomes fouled during normal operation, these control valves will compensate for the varying membrane trans-membrane pressure required to maintain operDWRUVHOHFWHG Ă€RZ UDWH WKURXJK WKH membranes. During the detailed design phase it was important to ensure that the pipe and ancillary equipment were rated for vacuum conditions. Any pipe that will be subjected to vacuum conditions requires proper material selection and wall thickness to avoid buckling. The UV equipment and pipe couplings had to be rated for partial vacuum conditions. It was also critical that any source of air leak into the siphon be eliminated. Chemical injection lines and sample pump lines will EH ÂżWWHG ZLWK DXWRPDWHG LVRODWLRQ valves or backpressure valves to avoid accidental air leaks, that could jeopardize siphon operation. Long-term sustainability Construction of the South Fork WTP is scheduled for completion in early 2015. Once operating, it will be the largest siphon-powered membrane plant in North America. The plant will provide the residents RI 1DQDLPR ZLWK KLJK TXDOLW\ ÂżOtered water through a robust memEUDQHÂżOWUDWLRQSURFHVVWKDWFDQUHspond to the turbidity spikes common to the South Nanaimo River. Innovative use of the siphon saves capital costs by eliminating permeate pumping and its associated building footprint costs, as well as long-term operating costs for utility power and maintenance. Matthew Lozie, P.Eng. is with Associated Engineering. E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
CSPI and ES&E: standing together in the trenches, shoulder-to-shoulder, coast-to-coast across Canada. For 25 years, weâ€™ve shared a deep commitment to communicating news and information that promote better understanding and improved, environmentally responsible water management solutions. As Canadians, weâ€™re all in this together; and through technological innovation and a more prudent, holistic approach to real life problem solving, our industry is helping Canada achieve sustainable success in its long-term stewardship of our precious natural resources. The members of the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute congratulate Environmental Science and Engineering magazine for a quarter century of success in providing an impartial journalistic forum to acknowledge, address and disseminate relevant news and technical information to help realize this important goal.
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In this special edition of Environmental Science & Engineering, we celebrate 25-years of environmental coverage. Featuring a 120-year histor...
Published on May 26, 2015
In this special edition of Environmental Science & Engineering, we celebrate 25-years of environmental coverage. Featuring a 120-year histor...