CANECT 2013 Exhibitors
ES&E Mar2013_2.e$S_2012 13-03-26 3:54 PM Page 2
Reliable measurement of pulsating ﬂow
DulcoFlow ﬂow meter
NEW! NE W!
Instantaneous / totalized ﬂow display of chemical feed in litres or gallons Safety and reliability through LED display of operating and measurement status Ultrasonic measurement for long-service-life and wear-free operation
Two-line display Frequency output Analog output 0/4…20 mA, configurable PVDF wetted parts for maximum chemical resistance Compact universal housing
Interfering influences, such as air bubbles, displayed as an error message Attaches to the metering pump, providing flow confirmation and alarms Measurement range of 0.1 to 13 litres per hour (0.02-3.20 gph)
Available A vailable from from
ProMinent ProMinent C Canada anada Toll Toll Free: Fre e: eMail: eMail: www www..
1-888-709-9933 1- 888 -70 9 -9 9 3 3 firstname.lastname@example.org sales@p rominent .ca prominent.ca p rominent .ca
SANSOM EQUIPMENT LIMITED
P ProMinent roMinent USA USA Phone: P hone: eMail: eM ail: www.. www
(4 (412) 12) 7 787-2484 87-24 8 4 email@example.com sales@p rominent .us prominent.us p rominent .us
ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:03 PM Page 3
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Contents Contents Contents Contents Contents Contents FEATURES FEATURES
Revised RevisedPages:Layout Pages:Layout1 14/1/13 4/1/135:52 5:52PM PMPage Page1 1 Revised RevisedPages:Layout Pages:Layout1 14/1/13 4/1/135:52 5:52PM PMPage Page1 1
Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Editor and E-mail: Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Editor TOM DAVEY Editor Editor and and Publisher Publisher STEVE STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY Editor and Publisher DAVEY Consulting Editor TOM DAVEY Editor Editor and E-mail: and E-mail: Publisher Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY Editor and E-mail: Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org STEVE DAVEY SalesE-mail: Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Consulting Consulting Editor Editor TOM TOM DAVEY DAVEY Consulting Editor TOM DAVEY Editor Editor and and Publisher Publisher STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Consulting Editor Editor TOM TOMDAVEY DAVEY Consulting Editor TOM DAVEY Editor Editor and and E-mail: Publisher Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Sales Sales Director Director PENNY PENNY DAVEY DAVEY SalesE-mail: Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com SalesSales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Director Director PENNY PENNY DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Director PENNY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Editor TOMDAVEY DAVEY Consulting Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Consulting Editor Editor TOM TOM DAVEY DAVEY Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Sales Sales Representative Representative DENISE DENISE SIMPSON SIMPSON SalesSales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Director PENNY DAVEY Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Sales Representative Representative DENISE DENISE SIMPSON SIMPSON E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org SalesSales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Sales Director Director PENNY PENNY DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Accounting AccountingSANDRA SANDRA SANDRADAVEY DAVEY DAVEY Accounting Sales Representative DENISEPASSFIELD SIMPSON Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation Manager DARLANN E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accounting Accounting SANDRA SANDRA DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Sales Representative Representative DENISE DENISE SIMPSON SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Production Manager C Mac DESIGNS Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Production Manager C Mac DESIGNS E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Accounting Accounting SANDRA SANDRA DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Production Production Manager ManagerPETER C Mac Mac DESIGNS DESIGNS Editorial Assistant DAVEY Production Manager CC Mac DESIGNS Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Production Production Manager Manager C Mac Mac DESIGNS DESIGNS E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Production Manager CC Mac DESIGNS E-mail: email@example.com Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Editorial Editorial Assistant Assistant PETER PETER DAVEY DAVEY Production Manager Mac DESIGNS Production Manager CC Mac DESIGNS Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY Technical Advisory Board Editorial Editorial Assistant Assistant PETER DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Production Production Manager Manager CPETER C Mac Mac DESIGNS DESIGNS E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Technical Advisory Board E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Archis Ambulkar E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Ontario Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Technical Advisory Board Brinjac Engineering, Ontario Editorial Editorial Assistant Assistant PETER PETER DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Jim Bishop Technical Advisory Board Archis Archis Ambulkar Ambulkar E-mail: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Archis Ambulkar Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Archis Archis Ambulkar Ambulkar Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Ontario Consulting Chemist, Ontario Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Brinjac Engineering, Ontario Jim Jim Bishop Bishop Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Jim Bishop Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Archis Archis Ambulkar Ambulkar Jim Jim Bishop Bishop Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Consulting Engineer, Archis Archis Ambulkar Ambulkar Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Consulting Chemist, Ontario Peter Peter Laughton Laughton P.Eng. P.Eng. Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Jim Jim Bishop Bishop Peter Peter Laughton Laughton P.Eng. P.Eng. Consulting Consulting Engineer, Engineer, Ontario Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Associated Engineering, Ontario Jim Jim Bishop Bishop Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Consulting Consulting Engineer, Engineer, Ontario Ontario Marie Meunier Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, P.Eng. P.Eng. Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., P.Eng. Québec Peter Peter Laughton Laughton P.Eng. P.Eng. Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, P.Eng. P.Eng. Associated Associated Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering, Ontario John Meunier Inc., P.Eng. Québec Peter Peter Laughton Laughton P.Eng. P.Eng. Consulting Consulting Engineer, Engineer, Ontario Ontario Associated Associated Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Peter J. PaineOntario Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Marie Meunier Meunier Consulting Consulting Engineer, Engineer, Ontario Ontario Marie Meunier Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, P.Eng. P.Eng. Marie Marie Meunier Meunier John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Environment Canada Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, P.Eng. P.Eng. Associated Associated Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter Peter J. J. Paine Paine Associated Associated Engineering, Engineering, Ontario Ontario Peter J. Paine Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly Marie Marie Meunier Meunier Peter Peter J. J. Paine Paine Environment Environment Canada Canada Peter Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & J. Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication ofMeunier Environmental Science & EngiMarie Marie Meunier Meunier John John Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec Environment Environment Canada Canada Environment Canada business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. AnInc., all Canadian publication, John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Québec Québec Peter Peter J. J. Paine Environmental Science &Engineering Engineering a bi-monthly Environmental Science is bi-monthly neering Publications Inc.& allPaine Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial of Environmental Science & An Engineering is isaacoverage bi-monthly Peter Peter J. J. Paine Paine Environment Environment Canada Canada Environmental Science &Engineering Engineering isaacoverage a bi-monthly Environmental business publication Science & is bi-monthly & Engibusiness publication of Environmental Science & EngiES&E provides authoritative editorial of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental Environmental business publication Science of of Environmental & Environmental Engineering Science isScience bi-monthly &control EngiEnvironment Environment Canada Canada business publication of Environmental Science & Engibusiness neeringPublications publication Publications of Environmental Inc. Anall all Canadian Science publication, & Engineering Inc. An Canadian publication, Canada's municipal and industrial environmental systems and drinking water and distribution. business neering Publications publication of Inc. Environmental Antreatment all Canadian Science publication, &control Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, neering ES&E Publications provides authoritative Inc. An all Canadian editorial publication, coverage ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Environmental Environmental Science Science & & Engineering Engineering is is a bi-monthly a bi-monthly neering ES&E provides Publications authoritative Inc. An all editorial Canadian coverage publication, of of Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly Environmental business business publication publication Science of of Environmental & Environmental Engineering Science is Science a bi-monthly & & EngiEngiES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control Canada's systems municipal and drinking and water industrial treatment environmental and distribution. control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. business publication of Environmental Science & Engibusiness neering neering Publications publication Publications of Inc. Environmental Inc. An An all all Canadian Canadian Science publication, publication, & EngiCanada's systems and municipal drinking and water industrial treatment environmental and distribution. control managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and and wastewater systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. systems and drinking water distribution. neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, neering ES&E ES&E provides Publications provides authoritative authoritative Inc. Antreatment all editorial Canadian editorial coverage publication, coverage of of systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's Canada's municipal municipal and and industrial industrial environmental environmental control control Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant Readers managers include and consulting engineers, key engineers, municipal, industrial provincial plant and managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and plant operators and contractors. Readers managers include and engineers, consulting key engineers, municipal, industrial provincial plant and Information contained inofficials, ES&E has been compiled from Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control Canada's systems systems and municipal and drinking drinking and water water industrial treatment treatment environmental and and distribution. distribution. control managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and managers federal environmental and engineers, officials, key municipal, water and provincial wastewater and federal environmental water and wastewater managers federal environmental and engineers, officials, key municipal, water and provincial wastewater and Information contained incorrect. ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be ES&E cannot be responsystems and drinking water treatment and distribution. systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. federal environmental officials, water and wastewater federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. plant operators and contractors. Readers Readers include include consulting consulting engineers, engineers, industrial industrial plant plant federal environmental officials, and wastewater plant operators and contractors. sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy ofcontractors. articles orwater other editorial matter. plant operators and plant operators and contractors. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant Readers managers managers include and and engineers, consulting engineers, key key engineers, municipal, municipal, industrial provincial provincial plant and and plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide inforInformation contained inofficials, ES&E has beenand compiled from managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and managers federal federal environmental environmental and engineers, officials, key municipal, water water and provincial wastewater wastewater and Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from Information sources believed contained to be in ES&E correct. has ES&E been cannot compiled be responfrom sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responArticles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Information sources believed contained to be incorrect. ES&E has ES&E been cannot compiled bewastewater responfrom federal environmental officials, water and federal plant plant operators operators environmental and and contractors. contractors. officials, water and wastewater sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsources sible for believed the accuracy to be correct. of articles ES&E or other cannot editorial be responmatter. sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed sources sible for believed the accuracy to be ofcontractors. correct. articlesES&E or other cannot editorial be responmatter. plant operators and plant operators and contractors. sible the accuracy articles or other editorial matter. sible Articles for the accuracy this magazine of articles are or intended other to provide matter. inforin this magazine are intended to provide inforArticles to firstname.lastname@example.org. being submitted for review should be e-mailed Information Information contained contained in ES&E ES&E has has been been compiled compiled from from sible Articles forfor in thein this accuracy magazine ofinof articles are intended or other toeditorial editorial provide matter. inforArticles in this magazine are intended to provide inforArticles mation in rather this magazine than give legal are intended or other professional to provide inforadvice. mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. to email@example.com. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from Information sources sources believed believed contained togive to bebe inlegal correct. ES&E correct. has ES&E ES&E been cannot cannot compiled bebe responresponfrom Articles mation rather in this than magazine are orSales intended other professional to provide advice. inforCanadian Publications Mail mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed sources believed to correct. cannot be responsources sible sible forrather for believed the the accuracy accuracy togive beofbe correct. of articles articles ES&E orES&E or other other cannot editorial editorial responmatter. matter. mation than legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should bebee-mailed Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed Articles to firstname.lastname@example.org. being submitted for review should be e-mailed to email@example.com. the accuracy articles or other editorial matter. sible Articles forfor in the in this accuracy this magazine magazine of of articles are are intended or intended other toeditorial to provide provide matter. inforinforArticles to sible firstname.lastname@example.org. being submitted for review should be e-mailed Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 to email@example.com. to firstname.lastname@example.org. Articles in this magazine are intended provide inforArticles mation mation rather inAgreement rather this than magazine than give give legal legal are orSales intended or other other professional professional to to provide advice. inforadvice. to email@example.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Canadian Publications Mail Product No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Canadian Publications Mail Sales mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles Articles being being submitted submitted for for review review should should bebe e-mailed e-mailed Canadian Publications Mail Sales Canadian Second Publications Class Mail Mail Sales Second Class Mail Registration No. 7750 Canadian Second Class Publications Mail Mail Sales Articles being submitted for review should e-mailed Articles to to firstname.lastname@example.org. email@example.com. being submitted for review should bebe e-mailed Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Second Class MailNo. Second Product Class Agreement Mail No. 40065446 Product Agreement 40065446 Second Product Class Agreement Mail No. 40065446 to firstname.lastname@example.org. to email@example.com. Undeliverable copies, advertising space artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: orders, copy, Product Agreement No. 40065446 Product Registration Agreement No. 7750 No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Canadian Canadian Publications Publications Mail Mail Sales Sales Product Registration Agreement No. 7750 No. 40065446 artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: 220 Industrial Environmental Science & Engineering, Registration No. 7750 Registration No. 7750 Canadian Publications Sales Canadian Second Second Publications Class Mail Mail Mail Sales Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Environmental Science & Mail Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S.,Class Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Second Class Mail Second Product Product Class Agreement Agreement Mail No. No. 40065446 40065446 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Undeliverable artwork, proofs, copies, etc., advertising should be space sent to:orders, orders, copy, artwork, etc., should be sent to: Pkwy. S.,proofs, Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Undeliverable artwork, proofs, copies, etc., should advertising be sent space to: copy, Product Agreement No. 40065446 Product Registration Registration Agreement No. No. 7750 7750 No. 40065446 artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent artwork, Environmental proofs, etc., Science should &be be Engineering, sent to:to:220 220 Industrial Environmental Science & Engineering, Industrial Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: 841-7271, Web site:proofs, www.esemag.com artwork, Environmental Science etc., should &(905) Engineering, sent to: 220 Industrial Registration No. 7750 Registration No. 7750 Environmental Science &Ontario, Engineering, 220 Industrial Environmental Pkwy. Unit Science 30, Aurora, & Engineering, Engineering, Ontario, Canada, 220 Industrial L4G 3V6, Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Canada, L4G 3V6, Web site: www.esemag.com Undeliverable Undeliverable copies, copies, advertising advertising space space orders, orders, copy, copy, Environmental Pkwy. S.,S., Unit 30, Science Aurora, & Ontario, Canada, 220 Industrial L4G 3V6, Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Canada, L4G 3V6, Pkwy. Tel: (905)727-4666, S.,proofs, Unit 30, Aurora, Fax: Ontario, (905) 841-7271, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, Undeliverable artwork, artwork, proofs, copies, etc., etc., should advertising should beOntario, be sent space sent to: to: orders, copy, Pkwy. Tel: (905)727-4666, S., Unit 30, Aurora, Fax: (905) Ontario, 841-7271, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: 841-7271, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent artwork, Environmental Environmental proofs, Science etc., Science should &(905) Engineering, &(905) be Engineering, sent to:to:220 220 Industrial Industrial Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com Environmental Science &Ontario, Engineering, 220 Industrial Environmental Pkwy. Pkwy. S., S., Unit Unit 30, Science 30, Aurora, Aurora, & Engineering, Ontario, Canada, Canada, 220 Industrial L4G L4G 3V6, 3V6, Web site: www.esemag.com Pkwy. Unit Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Pkwy. Tel: Tel: (905)727-4666, (905)727-4666, S.,S., Unit 30,30, Aurora, Fax: Fax: (905) Ontario, (905) 841-7271, 841-7271, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web Web site: site: www.esemag.com www.esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com
88 | March/April 2013 88 | March/April 2013
ISSN-0835-605X • Mar/Apr 2013 Vol. 26 No. 2 • Issued April 2013 ISSN-0835-605X • Mar/Apr 2013 Vol. 26 No. 2 • Issued April 2013 ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X•••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr2013 2013Vol. Vol.26 26No. No.222•••Issued IssuedApril April2013 2013 ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X•••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr Mar/Apr2013 2013 2013Vol. Vol. Vol.26 26 26No. No. No.222•••Issued Issued IssuedApril April April2013 2013 2013 ISSN-0835-605X Mar/Apr 2013 Vol. 26 No. Issued April 2013 ISSN-0835-605X ••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr 2013 2013Vol. Vol. 26 No. No.22••Issued IssuedApril April2013 2013 6ISSN-0835-605X The utility of oblivion – Comment by Tom26 Davey ISSN-0835-605X ••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr 2013 2013Vol. Vol. 26 No. No.22••Issued IssuedApril April2013 2013 6ISSN-0835-605X The utility of oblivion – Comment by Tom26 Davey
FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES
10 Advantages of advanced water meter network management hosting 10 Advantages ofoblivion advanced water meter network hosting The Theutility utility utility of oblivion oblivion –– –Comment Comment Comment by Tom Tom Davey Davey management 666 6 The of by Tom Davey The of oblivion byby Tom Davey 13 Using social media to –enhance public education on water usage 66 6 Advantages The Theutility utility utility of of oblivion oblivion –– –Comment Comment Comment by byTom Tom Davey Davey The utility of oblivion Comment by Tom Davey 13 Using social media to enhance public education on water usage 10 of advanced water meter network management hosting 10 Advantages Advantages of ofadvanced advanced water watermeter meter network networkmanagement managementhosting hosting 10 Advantages of advanced water meter network management hosting 14 Moncton plans for BNR secondary wastewater treatment 10 10 Advantages Advantages of of advanced advanced water waterpublic meter meter network network management management hosting hosting 13 Using social media to enhance education on water usage 10 Advantages of advanced water meter network management hosting 14 Moncton plans for BNR secondary wastewater treatment 6 6 The The utility utility of oblivion oblivion – – Comment Comment by by Tom Tom Davey Davey 13 13 Using Using social social media media to to enhance enhance public public education education on on water water usage usage 13 Using social media to enhance public education on water usage 18 Winter training forBNR environmental spill response teams 6 6 The The utility utility of of oblivion oblivion – – Comment Comment by by Tom Tom Davey Davey 13 13 Using Using social social media media to to enhance enhance public public education education on on water water usage usage 14 Moncton plans for secondary wastewater treatment 13 Using social media to enhance education on water usage 18 Winter training for environmental spill response teams 10 10 Advantages Advantages of ofadvanced advanced water waterpublic meter meter network network management management hosting hosting 14 14 Moncton Moncton plans plans for forinstalls BNR BNR secondary secondary wastewater wastewater treatment treatment 14 Moncton plans for BNR secondary wastewater treatment 22 One-pass trencher slurrymeter wall through hard soils hosting 10 10 Advantages Advantages of of advanced advanced water water meter network network management management hosting 18 Winter training for environmental spill response teams 14 14 Moncton Moncton plans plans for for BNR BNR secondary secondary wastewater wastewater treatment treatment 14 Moncton plans for BNR secondary wastewater treatment 22 One-pass trencher installs slurrypublic wall through hard soils 13 13 Winter Using Usingsocial social media media toenvironmental toenhance enhance public education education on on water waterusage usage 18 18 Winter training training for for environmental spill spill response response teams teams 18 Winter training for environmental spill response teams 24 The impact of hazardous area classifications on sewage pumping 2213 One-pass trencher installs slurrypublic wall through hard soils 13 Using Using social social media media toenvironmental toenhance enhance public education education on on water waterusage usage 18 18 Winter Winter training training for for environmental spill spill response response teams teams 18 Winter training for environmental spill response teams 24 The impact of hazardous hazardous area classifications on sewage pumping 14 14 Moncton Moncton plans plans for for BNR BNRsecondary secondary wastewater wastewater treatment treatment station upgrades 22 22 The One-pass One-pass trencher trencher installs installs slurry slurry wall wall through through hard hard soils soils 24 impact of area classifications on sewage pumping 22 One-pass trencher installs slurry wall through hard soils 14 14 Moncton Moncton plans plans for forinstalls BNR BNRsecondary secondary wastewater wastewater treatment treatment station upgrades 22 22 One-pass One-pass trencher trencher installs slurry slurry wall wall through through hard hard soils soils 22 One-pass trencher installs slurry wall through hard soils 18 18 station Winter Winter training training for for environmental environmental spill spill response response teams teams 28 Security implications of tablets and smartphones for water and 24 The The impact impact of ofhazardous hazardous area areaclassifications classifications on onsewage sewage pumping pumping 24 upgrades 24 The impact of hazardous area classifications on sewage pumping 18 18 Winter Winter training training for for environmental environmental spill spill response response teams teams 28 Security implications of tablets and smartphones for water and 24 24 The The impact impact of of hazardous hazardous area area classifications classifications on on sewage sewage pumping pumping wastewater systems station station upgrades upgrades 24 The impact of hazardous area classifications on sewage pumping station upgrades 22 One-pass One-pass trencher trencher installs installs slurry slurry wall wall through throughhard hard soils and 2822 Security implications of tablets and smartphones forsoils water wastewater systems station station upgrades upgrades station upgrades 22 22 Security One-pass One-pass trencher trencher installs installs slurry slurry wall wall through throughhard hard soils soils 30 Current trends and advances inclassifications environmental site assessment 28 Security implications implications of oftablets tablets and and smartphones smartphones for for water water and and 28 Security implications of and for water and 28 wastewater systems 24 24 The The impact impact ofsystems of hazardous hazardous area area classifications onon sewage sewage pumping pumping 30 Current trends and advances inclassifications environmental site assessment 28 28 Security Security implications implications of oftablets tablets tablets and andsmartphones smartphones smartphones for for water water and and using on-site sampling wastewater wastewater systems 28 Security implications of tablets and smartphones for water and 24 24 The The impact impact of of hazardous hazardous area area classifications on on sewage sewage pumping pumping wastewater systems station station upgrades upgrades 30 Current trends and advances in environmental site assessment using using on-site sampling wastewater wastewater systems systems wastewater systems station station upgrades upgrades 34 Large pumps reconditioned and reinstalled on time 30 Current Current trends trends and andadvances advances in inenvironmental environmental site site assessment assessment 30 Current trends and in site assessment 28 28 Security Security implications implications ofoftablets tablets and andsmartphones smartphones for for water waterand and 30 on-site sampling 34 Large pumps reconditioned and reinstalled on time 30 30 Current Current trends trends and andadvances advances advances in inenvironmental environmental environmental site site assessment assessment using using on-site on-site sampling sampling 30 Current trends and advances in environmental site assessment 28 28 Security Security implications implications of of tablets tablets and and smartphones smartphones for for water water and and using on-site sampling wastewater wastewater systems systems 36 Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit, Nunavut 34 Large pumps reconditioned and reinstalled on time using using on-site on-site sampling sampling using on-site sampling wastewater wastewater systems systems 36 Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit, Nunavut 34 34 Large Large pumps pumps reconditioned reconditioned and and reinstalled reinstalled on on time time 34 Large pumps reconditioned and reinstalled on 30 Current Current trends trends and and advances advances in inenvironmental environmental site siteassessment assessment 40 Innovative flow meter improves city water operations management 3630 Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit, Nunavut 34 34 Large Large pumps pumps reconditioned reconditioned and and reinstalled reinstalled on ontime time time 34 Large pumps reconditioned and reinstalled on time 30 30 Current Current trends trends and andadvances advances in inenvironmental environmental site site assessment assessment 40 Innovative flow meter improves city water operations management using using on-site on-site sampling sampling 36 36 Evaluating Evaluating landfill landfill runoff runoff treatment treatment options options for for Iqaluit, Iqaluit, Nunavut Nunavut 36 Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit, Nunavut 40 Innovative flow meter improves city water operations management 4236 using The perils of uncertainty intreatment soil and groundwater analysis of brownfield sites using on-site on-site sampling sampling 36 Evaluating Evaluating landfill landfill runoff runoff treatment options options for for Iqaluit, Iqaluit, Nunavut Nunavut 36 Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit, Nunavut 42 The perils of uncertainty in soil soil and groundwater analysis of 34 34 Large Large pumps pumps reconditioned reconditioned and and reinstalled reinstalled on ontime time 40 40 The Innovative Innovative flow flow meter meter improves improves city city water water operations operations management management 42 perils of uncertainty in and groundwater analysis of brownfield sites 40 Innovative flow meter improves city water operations management 44 Results released of Ontario-wide pump performance and efficiency 34 34 Large Large pumps pumps reconditioned reconditioned and andcity reinstalled reinstalled on ontime time management 40 40 Innovative Innovative flow flow meter meter improves improves city water water operations operations management 40 Innovative flow meter improves city water operations management 44 Results released of Ontario-wide pump performance and efficiency 36 36 Evaluating Evaluating landfill landfill runoff runoff treatment treatment options options for for Iqaluit, Iqaluit, Nunavut Nunavut testing program 42 brownfield sites 4242 The Theperils perilsof ofuncertainty uncertaintyin insoil soiland andgroundwater groundwateranalysis analysisof ofbrownfield brownfieldsites sites The perils of uncertainty in soil groundwater analysis of 36 36 Evaluating Evaluating landfill landfill runoff runoff options options for forIqaluit, Iqaluit, Nunavut Nunavut testing program 42 42 The The perils perils of of uncertainty uncertainty intreatment intreatment soil soiland and and groundwater groundwater analysis analysis ofofbrownfield brownfield brownfieldsites sites sites 42 The perils of uncertainty in soil and groundwater analysis of brownfield sites 44 Results released of Ontario-wide pump performance and efficiency 40 40 Innovative Innovative flow flow meter meter improves improves city city water water operations operations management management 49 Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow 44 44 Results Results released released of of Ontario-wide Ontario-wide pump pump performance performance and and efficiency efficiency 44 Results released of Ontario-wide pump performance and efficiency 40 40 Innovative Innovative flow flow meter meter improves improves city city water water operations operations management management 49 Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow 44 44 Results Results released released of of Ontario-wide Ontario-wide pump pump performance performance and and efficiency efficiency testing testing program program 42 testing program 44 Results released of incorporates Ontario-wide pump performance and efficiency testing program 42 The The perils perils ofofuncertainty uncertainty ininsoil soiland and groundwater groundwater analysis analysis ofofbrownfield brownfieldsites sites 50 Hybrid technology multiple important elements for testing testing program program testing program 42 42 The The perils perils of of uncertainty uncertainty in in soil soil and and groundwater groundwater analysis analysis of of brownfield brownfield sites sites 50 Hybrid technology incorporates multiple important elements for Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow spill cleanup 49 49 Accurate Accurate measurement measurement of of chemical chemical metering metering pump pump pulsating pulsating flow flow 49 Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow 44 44 Results Results released released ofofOntario-wide Ontario-wide pump pump performance performance and andefficiency efficiency spill cleanup 49 49 Accurate Accurate measurement measurement of of chemical chemical metering metering pump pump pulsating pulsating flow flow 49 Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow 5044 multiple important elements for 44 Results Results released released ofofincorporates Ontario-wide Ontario-wide pump pump performance performance and and efficiency efficiency testing testing program program 52 Controlling trihalomethane levels in dynamic treatment systems 50 50 Hybrid Hybrid Hybridtechnology technology technology incorporates incorporates multiple multiple important important elements elements for for 50 Hybrid technology incorporates multiple important elements for testing testing program program 52 Controlling trihalomethane levels in dynamic treatment systems 50 50 Hybrid Hybrid technology technology incorporates incorporates multiple multiple important important elements elements for for spill spill cleanup cleanup 49 spill cleanup 50 Hybrid technology incorporates multiple important elements for cleanup Accurate Accurate measurement measurement ofofan chemical chemical metering metering pump pulsating pulsatingflow flow 5649 spill Grey water reuse requires organized designpump procedure spill spill cleanup cleanup spill cleanup 49 49 Controlling Accurate Accurate measurement measurement ofofan chemical chemical metering metering pump pulsating pulsating flow flow trihalomethane levels in dynamic treatment systems 56 Grey water reuse requires organized designpump procedure 52 52 Controlling Controlling trihalomethane trihalomethane levels levels in in dynamic dynamic treatment treatment systems systems 52 Controlling trihalomethane levels in dynamic treatment systems 50 50 Hybrid Hybrid technology technology incorporates incorporates multiple multiple important important elements elements for for Cover Story 58 Montreal locates water main leaks – 52 52 Controlling Controlling trihalomethane trihalomethane levels levels in in dynamic dynamic treatment treatment systems systems 56 Grey water reuse requires an organized design procedure 52 Controlling trihalomethane levels in dynamic treatment systems 50 50 Hybrid Hybrid technology technology incorporates incorporates multiple multiple important important elements elements for for Cover Story 58 Montreal locates water main leaks – spill spillcleanup cleanup 56 56 Grey Grey water waterselecting reuse reuserequires requires an anorganized organized design design procedure procedure 56 Grey water reuse requires an organized design procedure 60 Designing, and operating storm drainage pumping system spill spill cleanup cleanup 56 Grey Grey water water reuse reuse requires requires an organized organized design design procedure procedure 5856 Montreal locates water main leaks –aainCover Story 56 Grey water reuse requires anan organized design procedure 60 Designing, selecting and operating storm drainage pumping system 52 52 Controlling Controlling trihalomethane trihalomethane levels levels in dynamic dynamic treatment treatment systems systems Cover Cover Story Story 58 58 Montreal Montreal locates locates water water main main leaks leaks – – Cover Story 58 Montreal locates water main leaks – 64 IMAX chooses innovative parking stormwater treatment system 6052 Designing, selecting andmain operating drainage pumping system 52 Controlling Controlling trihalomethane trihalomethane levels levels in––alot in–storm dynamic dynamic treatment treatment systems systems Cover Cover Story Story 58 58 Montreal Montreal locates locates water water main leaks leaks Cover Story 58 Montreal locates water main leaks 64 IMAX chooses innovative parking lot stormwater treatment system 56 56 Designing, Grey Grey water water reuse reuse requires requires an anorganized organized design design procedure procedure 60 Designing, selecting selecting and and operating operating aa astorm storm drainage drainage pumping pumping system system 60 Designing, selecting and operating storm drainage pumping system 66 Ontario’s environment and cleantech firms are still ready to system grow 6460 IMAX chooses innovative parking lot stormwater treatment 56 56 Grey Grey water water reuse reuse requires requires an anorganized organized design design procedure procedure 60 60 Designing, Designing, selecting selecting and and operating operating aa–aCover storm storm drainage drainage pumping pumping system system 60 Designing, selecting and operating storm drainage pumping system 66 Ontario’s environment and cleantech firms are still ready to grow Cover Story Story 58 58 Montreal Montreal locates locates water water main main leaks leaks – 64 64 Ontario’s IMAX IMAX chooses chooses innovative innovative parking parking lot lot stormwater stormwater treatment treatment system system 66 environment and cleantech firms are still ready to grow 64 IMAX chooses innovative parking lot stormwater treatment system 71 Five environmental sampling pitfalls to avoid for better lab data Cover Cover Story Story 58 58 Montreal Montreal locates locates water water main main leaks leaks – – 64 64 IMAX IMAX chooses chooses innovative innovative parking parking lot stormwater stormwater treatment treatment system system 64 IMAX chooses innovative parking lot stormwater treatment system 71 Five environmental sampling pitfalls to avoid for better labto data 60 60 Five Designing, Designing, selecting selecting and and operating operating alot ato storm storm drainage drainage pumping pumping system system 66 Ontario’s Ontario’s environment environment and and cleantech cleantech firms firms are are still still ready ready to grow grow 7166 environmental sampling pitfalls avoid for better lab data 66 Ontario’s environment and cleantech firms are still ready to grow 72 Fredericton researches ways to reduce landfill odour and eliminate GHGs 60 60 Designing, Designing, selecting selecting and and operating operating a a storm storm drainage drainage pumping pumping system system 66 66 Ontario’s Ontario’s environment environment and and cleantech cleantech firms firms are are still still ready ready to to grow grow 66 Ontario’s environment and cleantech firms are still ready to grow 72 Fredericton researches ways to reduce landfill odour and eliminate GHGs 64 64 IMAX IMAX chooses chooses innovative innovative parking parking lot lot stormwater stormwater treatment treatment system system Fredericton researches ways to reduce landfill odour and eliminate GHGs 71 71 Five Five environmental environmental sampling sampling pitfalls pitfalls to to avoid avoid for for better better lab lab data data 71 Five environmental sampling pitfalls to avoid for better lab data 74 HDPE cooling towers a keyparking element in waste remediation process 64 64 IMAX IMAX chooses chooses innovative innovative parking lot lot stormwater stormwater treatment treatment system system 71 71 Five Five environmental environmental sampling sampling pitfalls pitfalls to to avoid avoid for for better better lab lab data data 74 HDPE cooling towers a key element in waste remediation process 71 Five environmental sampling pitfalls to avoid for better lab data HDPE cooling towers aways key element infirms waste remediation process 66 66 Fredericton Ontario’s Ontario’s environment environment and andcleantech cleantech firms are are still stillready ready to togrow grow GHGs 72 72 Fredericton researches researches ways to toidentifies reduce reduce landfill landfill odour odour and andeliminate eliminate GHGs 72 Fredericton researches to reduce landfill odour and eliminate 97 Fluorescing tank liningways swiftly gaps, voids insufficient 66 66 Ontario’s Ontario’s environment environment and andcleantech cleantech firms firms are are still stillready ready to togrow grow GHGs 72 72 Fredericton Fredericton researches researches ways ways to topitfalls reduce reduce landfill landfill odour odour and and eliminate eliminate GHGs GHGs 89 New technology dramatically cuts WWTP greenhouse gas emissions 72 Fredericton researches ways to reduce landfill odour and eliminate GHGs 97 Fluorescing tank lining swiftly identifies gaps, voids insufficient 71 71 Five Five environmental environmental sampling sampling pitfalls to to avoid avoid for for better better lab lab data data 7474 HDPE HDPE cooling coolingtowers towersaa akey keyelement elementin inwaste wasteremediation remediationprocess process film thickness 74 HDPE cooling towers key element in waste remediation process 71 71 Five Five environmental environmental sampling sampling pitfalls pitfalls to to avoid avoid for for better better lab lab data data Upgrading Ile92 a-la-Crosse SK’s 30 year old water treatment plant 74 74 HDPE HDPE cooling cooling towers towersaaways akey key keyelement element inin waste wasteremediation remediation remediation process process GHGs film thickness 74 HDPE cooling towers in waste process 72 72 Fluorescing Fredericton Fredericton researches researches ways toelement toidentifies reduce reduce landfill landfill odour odour andeliminate eliminate GHGs 97 Fluorescing tank tank lining liningswiftly swiftly identifies gaps, gaps, voids voidsand insufficient insufficient 97 Fluorescing tank lining swiftly identifies gaps, voids and insufficient 9497 Overcoming wastewater odour-sampling challenges 72 72 Fredericton Fredericton researches researches ways ways to to reduce reduce landfill landfill odour odour and and eliminate eliminate GHGs GHGs 97 97 Fluorescing Fluorescing tank tank lining lining swiftly swiftly identifies identifies gaps, gaps, voids voids insufficient insufficient DEPARTMENTS film filmthickness thickness thickness 97 Fluorescing tank lininga aswiftly identifies gaps, voids and insufficient 74 74 HDPE HDPE cooling cooling towers towers key key element element in in waste waste remediation remediation process process film DEPARTMENTS 9774 Fluorescing tanktowers liningaswiftly identifies gaps, voids and insufficient film filmthickness thickness thickness 74 HDPE HDPE cooling cooling towers akey keyelement element ininwaste waste remediation remediation process process film 97 Fluorescing Fluorescing tanklining liningswiftly swiftlyidentifies identifiesgaps, gaps, voids voidsand andinsufficient insufficient 97 thicknesstank Environmental News . . . 76-82 DEPARTMENTS 97 97 film Fluorescing Fluorescing tank tanklining liningswiftly swiftlyidentifies identifiesgaps, gaps, voids voidsand andinsufficient insufficient DEPARTMENTS film filmthickness thickness Environmental News . . . 76-82 DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS film filmthickness thickness
Product Showcase . . . . . 83-87
Environmental Environmental News News 76-82 . 76-82 Product Showcase . . ... ... ... 83-87 Environmental News 76-82 DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Environmental Environmental News News 76-82 . 76-82 Environmental News DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Professional Cards . . . . . 76-82 Product ProductShowcase Showcase . . . . . 83-87 . 83-87
Professional Cards .. .. .. .. .. 76-82 Product Showcase 83-87 Product Product Showcase Showcase 83-87 . .83-87 Environmental Environmental 76-82 76-82 Product Showcase 83-87 Ad Index . . . .Cards .News .News . . ... ... ... ... ... .76-82 . 98 Environmental Environmental News News Professional Professional Cards . 76-82 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Professional Cards . . . . . 76-82 Professional Professional Cards Cards . . . . . 76-82 . 76-82 Product ProductShowcase Showcase 83-87 83-87 Professional Cards . . . . . 76-82 Product Product Showcase Showcase . .83-87 Ad AdIndex Index . . . .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... ... ... ..83-87 .. 98 . 98 Ad CANECT Showguide Ad AdIndex Index Index... ... ...Cards ..Cards .. .. .. .. ... ... ... ... ... ..76-82 .. 98 98 . 98 Professional Professional . ...76-82 Ad Index 98 CANECT Showguide Professional ProfessionalCards Cards . . . . . 76-82 . 76-82 Ad AdIndex Index. . . . . . . .PAGES . . . . . 88-96 . . . 98 . 98 CANECT CANECTShowguide Showguide Showguide CANECT Ad AdIndex Index. . . . . . . .PAGES . . . . . 88-96 . . . 98 . 98 CANECT CANECTShowguide Showguide Showguide CANECT Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 PAGES 88-96 Workshop Information . .CANECT . . . . . . . . . . Showguide . .Showguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGES .PAGES . . . . . 88-96 .88-9 .88-96 . 89 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . CANECT CANECT Showguide PAGES 88-96 Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 089
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Workshop Information . . . . . CANECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Workshop Information .. 90 89 Workshop Information 89 CANECT Floor Plan . .. .. ... .... .... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 90 CANECT PAGES PAGES 88-96 88-9 List of Exhibitors 88-9 88CANECT CANECT Floor Floor Plan Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 . 90 Exhibitors Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 092 Workshop Information 89 Exhibitors Exhibitors Listings Listings . .. .. .. .. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 92 . 92 Workshop Information 89 CANECT CANECTFloor FloorPlan Plan. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 90 CANECT CANECT Floor Floor Plan Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 . 90 Exhibitors ExhibitorsListings Listings. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 92 . 92 Exhibitors ExhibitorsListings Listings. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..Environmental .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Science .. .. .. .. .. .. .& . .. .Engineering . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..Magazine .. .. .. .. .. .. 92 . 92 Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Comment by Tom Davey
The utility of oblivion
n celebration of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s 25th year of publication, we are pleased to reprint some of Founding Editor, Tom Davey’s editorial comments. Many of these are as relevant now as when they were originally published …….. Biodegradability of organic matter is fundamental to the cycle of life in our natural environment. Eight decades ago, Ardern, Lockett and Fowler harnessed this natural process when they built the world’s first activated sludge facility, which became a landmark in wastewater treatment technology. Now enlarged, the plant is still working, as passing motorists can observe, as they approach Manchester, England, from an overhead motorway. Few realize they are viewing a working monument to environmental progress. Biodegradability also has a literary side. John Updike once wrote an elegant “Ode to Rot” in which he examined the value of decay with poetic wit and scientific insight. Jean Dubuffet, once said to be the most important French visual artist since World War II, affirmed his beliefs in his work The Utility of Oblivion. A complex man, he also wrote eloquently on the defense of illiteracy, an area where he would have much to defend these days; but that’s another story. Biodegradability applies also to businesses, which have natural life spans. Unless industries evolve in changing times, it is normal for them to wither and die as developments such as robotics, computers, fibre optics, and biotechnology create new goods and services at ever-increasing speed. But out of the wreckage emerge new markets which displace older, usually dirtier, energy-intensive industries. Wooden hulls and sail, for example, gave way to steel and steam, which later yielded to titanium and jet engines. Joseph Schumpeter once described capitalism as: A dynamic process of wealth creation and change, driven by technological innovation. He argued this would cause a perennial gale of creative destruction, adding that the social justifi6 | March 2013
cation of capitalism would erode when intellectuals voiced hostility to cultural conditions in advanced capitalist societies. But Karl Marx said it would be economic forces that would destroy capitalism’s political and social superstructure. Schumpeter was born in Vienna in 1893, the same year German-born Karl Marx died and was buried in London. With the economic and environmental devastation of communism now tragically apparent, Schumpeter’s prediction is clearly more accurate than Marx’s. Moreover, many in our arts communities became hostile to capitalism, as Schumpeter predicted. Schumpeter’s theory of creative destruction cannot be denied. What was thought to be astounding conjecture a generation ago is now commonplace to our children. And more than mere toys and luxuries arise from this creative gale of destruction. Life expectancy, especially for children, rose dramatically with the development of technology. It has been estimated that in 1995, some 2.5 million fewer children will die from disease than perished in 1990. But let’s go back to 1665, when 6,000 people died every week during an outbreak of bubonic plague in the City of London. Millions more have died around the world from cholera, typhus, tuberculosis and a myriad of other diseases. While two world wars caused millions of casualties, few realize that 20 million people lost their lives in the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic alone. Tiny germs, viruses, and parasites, nurtured by primitive sanitation and unsafe drinking water, have proven far more lethal than the great engines of war. Technology and the goods and services it produces are also biodegradable. Even computers and software which aroused awe a mere decade ago are quickly overtaken by incredibly creative programs that are faster, better, more reliable, and usually cheaper. Politicians, unfortunately, seem congenitally blind to the inevitability – even the desirability – of periodic industrial fluctuations which make obsolescent in-
dustries wither, while vibrant new technologies develop and prosper. In ecology it is called the balance of nature; in NDP politics, it is called corporate cruelty. But subsidized industries could involve far more than economic waste. Commenting on a bus company bail out, a senior Federal official told the Globe that if Ontario were consistent with the spirit of the inter-provincial trade deal – which Ontario spearheaded – Premier Rae would not be talking about giving subsidies to a dying industry. And industrial leaders have repeatedly stressed that true job security lies in a willingness to let the obsolete die. Such wise counsel is invariably unheeded. Political courage, so necessary to stop the artificial resuscitation of ailing industries, is a scarce commodity these days. Industries are propped up, sometimes at $200,000 per job, often merely providing temporary palliatives at the expense of future employment. The sad spectacle of 25,000 people camping overnight outside a GM plant in sub-zero temperatures in January 1995 – merely for a chance to fill out job applications – could be a grim precursor of future employment patterns. Heroic life-support measures are taken to prop up dying industries, while high-tech ventures, the key to our future, remain starved of funds or rendered anemic by low-bid buying procedures, which focus on price while being blind to quality, reliability, or durability. Unless we curb our mountainous debts and unwillingness to confront economic and environmental realities, foreign banks will shortly teach us the oblivion of our political independence. Canada then too, might also become biodegradable.
This editorial was published in Tom Davey’s book “For Whom the Polls Tell”.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:04 PM Page 7
The Flygt N-pump Advantage UÊ*>ÌiÌi`Ê ÌiV }Þ UÊÛ>ÌÛiÊÃivVi>}Ê«iiÀÊ UÊ-ÕÃÌ>i`Ê } ÊivwÊViVÞ UÊ`Õ>ÀÊ`iÃ} UÊÊ,i>Li]ÊÃÌÊivwÊViÌÊ«Õ«Ê vÀÊÃÌ«Ê«iÀvÀ>Vi UÊ ÕÃÌâi`ÊÌÀ}Ê>`ÊVÌÀÃÊ UÊÊ >Vi`ÊÜÌ Ê8ÞiÊ/Ì> >ÀiÊ-iÀÛViÃÊ vÀÊÃiVÕÀi]Ê«Ì>Ê«iÀ>ÌÃ
xylemwatersolutions.com/ca 1.800.588.7867 (PUMP)
ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:04 PM Page 8
Denso helps protect high pressure petroleum lines
uncor Energy is a Canadian integrated energy company that is involved in the Canadian oil sands. Suncor also has complementary operations in the refining and marketing of North American natural gas as well as conventional oil production. This involvement consists of operations both internationally and domestically, including offshore on the East Coast of Canada. Sun-Canadian Pipelines is a Suncor Energy and Shell Canada joint venture that transports and delivers refined petroleum products throughout southern Ontario. Recently, Sun-Canadian undertook a large valve rehabilitation project that involved the sandblasting of all remaining epoxy coating on each valve and the application of the Denso Petrolatum System. This was a totally new experience for Sun-Canadian as they had always used some type of coal-tar epoxy coating to protect their valves in the past. However,
8 | March 2013
for years, many refining companies around the world have utilized Denso
Petrolatum Paste, Denso Profiling Mastic and Denso LT Petrolatum Tape.
After applying Denso Paste, Denso Profiling Mastic is used to fill voids and smooth all irregular contours ready for wrapping with Denso LT Petrolatum Tape.
A final wrap of Denso LT Petrolatum Tape to finish the job - note the flexibility of the tape and ease of wrapping over awkward shapes.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:04 PM Page 10
Water Utility Management
Simplified AMI network management and hosting for water utilities By Jackie Lemmerhirt
dvanced metering infrastructure (AMI) systems can provide water utilities with numerous benefits, including increased operational efficiency, improved customer service and reduced water loss. However, the risk of these systems being compromised by outages, equipment failures and network impediments can increase when utilities host their networks in-house. Improved reliability Utilities can help ensure business continuity by employing an AMI provider for system management and hosting. Certain vendors use server space at enterpriseclass data centres to support their customers’ AMI networks, providing secure server environments that store all incoming metering data which is critical to utilities’ billing processes. These server environments can also provide the necessary IT backups and redundancies to help reduce the risk of network failure. Some AMI web browser interfaces enable access to system data inside and outside utility offices. With a utility-managed site, users might only be able to access metering data stored in their utility’s own server, through one or two network providers. If one of these routes is down, or experiencing high volumes of user traffic, access to data may be delayed. If one or both providers are down due to maintenance issues, users may not be able to access the data at all, until at least one of them is back in service. Conversely, some managed hosting environments leverage as many as 12 different internet routes in order to help mitigate the risk of network failure associated with relying on only a few routes. Many of these services also feature advanced route optimizer technologies. These constantly analyze network performance characteristics in real time to ensure that metering data is being accessed through the fastest, most reliable networks available. In-house servers that support AMI networks are also vulnerable to natural disasters and power outages, which can temporarily or even permanently compro-
10 | March 2013
Server room in a vendor's secure data centre.
mise data storage and access. Fortunately, AMI vendors offering network hosting services often use multiple data centres in different geographical locations to back up stored metering data. This “diversified” approach helps ensure utilities’ ability to access data and avoid the potential pitfalls of being connected to only one or two servers. Enhanced network performance Network monitoring is another advantage of vendor-managed services that helps strengthen AMI performance and reliability. In order to effectively manage their own AMI networks and server environments, utilities often need internal resources with multiple skill sets. These include highly specialized IT infrastructure engineers, database administrators and metering network specialists. Utilities’ IT infrastructure engineers are usually tasked with installing necessary AMI software and conducting server maintenance and repair projects. Metering network specialists typically focus on making sure the AMI network and its components are running smoothly and delivering all of the critical metering data
necessary for the utility to accurately account for all the water its customers are using. Essentially, managed hosting and monitoring services shift the bulk of dayto-day tasks associated with AMI network management from the utility to the vendor. Many vendors have their own metering network specialists who focus exclusively on monitoring customers’ AMI networks to make sure that all components and metering devices within the systems are properly functioning and transmitting data. They also focus on identifying and mitigating potential network impediments that may be responsible for preventing data delivery. For example, if an AMI specialist noticed that a customer’s AMI network was down, it could inform the utility and temporarily re-route meters in the area to different collector devices until a field worker was dispatched to make necessary repairs. If the specialist noticed that the network was not receiving scheduled data transmissions from a particular meter, it could troubleshoot the problem by sendcontinued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:04 PM Page 11
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ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:05 PM Page 12
Water Utility Management
Utility operator spot checking the AMI network through the utility's AMI interface.
ing a signal to the meter through the network requesting an on-demand reading. Analysis of the reading could help determine the meter’s signal strength or the need to send a field worker to see if the meter or radio transmitter had been tampered with. In one municipality, they knew that the water system had become outdated,
as the 5,500 meters in its service area had been installed 20 to 40 years ago. Many of the meters were not reading accurately, causing frequent complaints and questions from customers regarding their water usage. The department was also spending an increasing amount of time manually collecting meter readings (one to two days each week) and tending to
service-related issues. As a result, it replaced all of its water meters and implemented a two-way AMI network. This was hosted and supported by the vendor, to help efficiently improve customer service, conservation and operational efficiency. Since the completion of the project, the department collects monthly readings from all its water meters in less than one day (from the office). It also receives alerts through the system and from the vendor whenever its meters show abnormally high readings. Once these alerts are received, the department can inform a customer that there may be a household water leak or, if necessary, dispatch a field crew to investigate the issue. Customers can also monitor their household water consumption through the networks’ consumer portal, which is also hosted by the vendor. Just as vendors’ network specialists constantly monitor customers’ AMI networks, IT infrastructure engineers at the centres monitor and troubleshoot the server environment 24/7. Additionally, these professionals work in tandem with the vendors’ metering network specialists to implement additional AMI applications, including necessary software installations and upgrades. Increased time and cost savings By having AMI vendors assume the role of network hosting and monitoring, utilities can experience significant time and cost savings that they would likely not see if they managed and hosted their own networks. Because vendors often support hundreds of other utilities’ AMI networks, utilities can benefit from economies of scale. This allows them to utilize AMI at what is often a lower cost than if they chose to support their own networks. In conclusion, utilities can enhance their AMI systems by using network hosting and monitoring services offered by their vendor. By deferring to the vendor, they can improve cost savings as well as network performance and reliability while spending more time on other water system improvement projects. Jackie Lemmerhirt is with Mueller Systems. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com
12 | March 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Using social media to enhance public education on water usage By Aileen Barclay
ocial media is changing the way we communicate with the public. With an estimated 280,000,000 Twitter accounts and over 500 million people on Facebook, it’s hard to ignore. With one tweet or Facebook post, you can send your water conservation and efficiency message to thousands of people, with very little time and cost. The use of social media may seem risky or time-consuming, but these concerns can easily be resolved with a well thought-out social media policy or plan. Define what messages you want to send and how often. Some examples include daily messages about ways to save water in the home, or information about an upcoming rain barrel or toilet truckload sale. Once you have an idea of how you want to use social media, talk to your communications people. If there is not already a policy in place, there is likely one in development. Being part of the social media community allows you to track what others are saying about you or your organization. Suppose someone tweeted about one of your events but included the wrong date. Perhaps a few of their followers repost or re-tweet the information to their followers, and so on. Before you know it, the incorrect information has gone to
thousands. By staying in touch with what is being posted or tweeted on the various sites, you can find out sooner, rather than later, about incorrect information, while having a constant communication with people about your water conservation and
efficiency messages. Social media provides a platform for open and ongoing dialogue with your program stakeholders, in a fairly efficient manner. You can use your tweets and posts to guide people to your web site for more information about programs, rebate offers and upcoming events, without the costs and environmental impact of newspaper ads or flyers. Facebook also provides advertising space that can be directed at specific ages and locations, for
very little cost. By following other municipalities and water conservation professionals on social media, you can be part of the global community and see what others are doing for water conservation and efficiency. Many will post or tweet their project successes, upcoming events, new programs and other ideas and initiatives. To save time and effort for your social media communications, there are several programs or platforms that will tweet on Twitter and post on Facebook at the same time. You can take an hour to two, once a week, to create your posts. Platforms such as Tweetdeck® or Hootsuite® will allow you to set specific times and dates for when your information will be posted. You can set it to post once or twice a day, for each day of the week, at a specific time, and the programs will take care of it for you. By getting involved with social media, you can send your message out with little time or money, track what people are saying about your organization, and follow what others are doing in water efficiency and conservation. If you haven’t already joined, now is the time. Aileen Barclay is with Resource Management Strategies Inc. @RMSitweets
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Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission plans for BNR secondary wastewater treatment By Conrad J. Allain, Andrew Lugowski, Sara Arabi, and Peter Laughton
ollowing the development in 2009 of the Canada Wide Strategy for the Management of Municipal Wastewater Effluent by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations were developed under the Fisheries Act and came into effect in June 2012. The goal of the Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations is to set national baseline effluent quality standards, achievable through secondary treatment or equivalent. Effluent should meet the following: Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (cBOD5) – 25 mg/L; Suspended Solids (SS) – 25 mg/L; Total Residual Chlorine (TRC) – 0.02 mg/L; and un-ionized ammonia of 1.25 mg/L at 15 ± 1 degrees C. The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission (GMSC) Wastewater Treatment Facility will need to be upgraded to meet these regulations by 2020 and at the same time be positioned to meet possible more stringent effluent nitrogen requirements in the future. Nitrogen discharges from the wastewater treatment plants to the coastal waters have resulted in their eutrophication (Valiela et al. 1997; Mitsch et al. 2001). GMSC Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges to the Petitcodiac River which has one of the highest tides in the world and leads to the Bay of Fundy. Existing facilities The GMSC services the New Brunswick municipalities of Moncton, Riverview and Dieppe. With a connected population of over 100,000, it now operates a 35 kilometer network of trunk sewers and tunnels, a 115,000 m3/d wastewater treatment facility (263, 000 m3/d peak) and a 20,000 tonnes per year composting facility. The existing facility is an advanced, chemically assisted primary plant with resulting raw sludge centrifuged and lime stabilized prior to offsite composting by the GMSC. Existing regulatory authority monthly maximum effluent discharge limits are 7,600 kg/d SS and 12,700 kg/d BOD5. 14 | March 2013
GMSC’s existing advanced, chemically assisted, primary wastewater treatment facility.
Secondary treatment process selection The GMSC’s Advanced Biological Treatment Process Selection Report for a future 150,000 m3/d secondary wastewater treatment facility recommended the implementation of Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) technologies or, more specifically, the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process and/or the Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A2O) process. In light of the low alkalinity limitation for influent wastewater and the potential for more stringent effluent requirements with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus, the BNR processes were found to be superior to other processes. Also, with low raw wastewater alkalinity of 139 mg/L, conventional secondary treatment could prove problematical. However, with BNR, one of the advantages is a stable biological process for organic removal and nitrification, via the recovery of alkalinity through denitrification. The MLE/A2O (BNR) process will effectively utilize the current infrastructure of the GMSC, as part of the first phase of the future full scale wastewater treatment plant. It will also reduce oxygen demand (due to utilization of nitrates in lieu of oxygen for stabilization of organic matter during denitrification), enhance sludge quality, and minimize the
chemical requirement needed for any potential future phosphorus removal requirements. Also, this process is considered compatible with the existing biosolids composting process. The BNR system will enable the GMSC to address future stringent effluent nitrogen and phosphorus criteria, without any modification to the overall process. An additional consideration that was taken into account in the selection process was that GMSC operates an onsite septage receiving station, serving the south east region of New Brunswick. It is expected that the volume of septage will continue to increase in the future. The pre-denitrification tank in the BNR process can serve to reduce organic loadings to the aerobic phase of the BNR, thus facilitating nitrification. Septage can not only be readily accommodated, but, in fact, potentially improve effluent quality as a result of higher COD:N:P ratios. BNR pilot plant In order to confirm preliminary evaluations, and establish specific design criteria, the GMSC constructed a 6 m3/d pilot plant, able to operate in MLE and A2O mode. The basic components include an anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, an aeration (oxic) tank, and a secondary clarcontinued overleaf...
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On-site BNR pilot plant.
Table 1. Summary of the influent and effluent - GMSC MLE BNR pilot plant.
ifier. The pilot plant includes online instrumentation, automatic air flow for DO control, as well as sludge wastage control. The pilot plant was designed so that it could effectively operate over a range of flows. This capability was required to allow the process to be assessed at different Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT) and under the variable loading conditions as experienced at the existing wastewater treatment facility. Figure 1 shows the schematic flow diagram of the pilot plant, which was operated in the MLE mode. The initial start-up phase, established the biology within the pilot plant, and was undertaken over a seven-week period. During this startup phase, a number of samples were taken from the influent, treated effluent, and oxic tank. This was done to facilitate fine tuning of the process parameters to achieve optimum treatment efficiency, before gradually increasing the flow rate and decreasing HRT in the system. The flow rate during this initial period was set at approximately 3 m3/d, and increased to 6 m3/d to simulate the HRT at full scale wastewater treatment plant treating the average flow rate. It was further increased to 7.5 m3/d and 9 m3/d to simulate the HRT at a full scale wastewater treatment plant treating the peak flow rate (1.2 and 1.5 times average flow rate, respectively). The pilot plant was operated at the MLE mode for one year, from June 2011 to June 2012. A summary of the influent and effluent characteristics is presented in Table 1. Large variations were observed in the influent quality, with a wide range of concentrations observed for organics, nitro-
gen, and phosphorus. The COD/ BOD ratio of 2:1 is typical for municipal wastewaters. The soluble fraction of the influent organics of 23-26 percent was found to be lower than the typical soluble organic fraction of COD in municipal wastewaters of 30 - 40 percent. Ammonia constitutes about 50 percent of the influent Total Nitrogen (TN), lower than the 60 percent to 65 percent typical of municipal wastewaters (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003). The MLE pilot plant system was op-
16 | March 2013
erated in a broad range of Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) concentrations from 2,000 to 4,000 mg/L. The volatile fraction of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) in both the aeration tank and anoxic tanks was 75 percent, slightly higher than the typical 70 percent for municipal wastewater. The relatively high volatile fraction is attributed to the relatively short biological Solids Retention Time (SRT) of ~10 to 13 days, as well as the atypically low influent
Figure 1. GMSC BNR pilot plant flow schematic.
Figure 2. GMSC MLE BNR pilot plant influent and effluent ammonia and TN. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Wastewater Treatment non-biodegradable VSS fraction. The wasting rate was adjusted to achieve the target SRT. Dissolved oxygen and Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) were continuously monitored for process control. A positive ORP in the aeration tank, averaging approximately 200 mV, along with average DO concentration of 3 mg/L throughout the study, indicates an excellent oxidative environment for biological nitrification and phosphorus uptake. Likewise, ORP values between â€“50 mV to 250 mV indicate reducing conditions in the anoxic tank, necessary for denitrification and phosphorus release. At loadings investigated in the study, the pilot plant achieved excellent removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, with reductions of 97 percent for ammonia, 82 percent for TN, and 68 percent for total phosphorus removal without chemical addition, operating in the MLE mode. GMSC pilot plant influent and effluent in MLE operational mode. The influent and effluent ammonia and TN concentrations are presented in Figure 2. Effluent nitrite concentrations were ex-
tremely low, averaging 0.08 mg/L, thus indicating negligible N2O emissions, which are widely reported to correlate positively with liquid phase nitrite concentrations (Foley et al., 2010; Zhou et al., 2008). Influent and effluent alkalinity concentrations were 115 - 160 mg/L and 75 - 110 mg/L, respectively, for the duration of the study. Comparing the influent and effluent alkalinity concentrations, average ammonia removal, and alkalinity consumption through nitrification, clearly indicated alkalinity recovery through denitrification. The pilot plant offers excellent opportunities for training the GMSC on the operation of biological treatment processes. It also serves as a tool for further process development, research, and optimization. It will be operated in winter and spring 2013, to confirm design parameters during snow melt down/run off events, as well as A2O process testing. Conclusion From the results to date, the stability of the MLE BNR process, despite the wide fluctuations in influent organic and nutrient loadings, as well as low influent wastewater alkalinity, clearly corrobo-
rates its viability for the GMSCâ€™s future secondary biological wastewater treatment facility. The MLE system achieved a high degree of Total Nitrogen and ammonia removal without application of a primary treatment. Also, a 68 percent removal of total phosphorus without chemical addition, operating in the MLE mode, was achieved. The MLE BNR process can also meet current regulatory authority secondary treatment requirements, as well as being well positioned to address potentially more stringent nitrogen requirements in the future. Conrad J. Allain is with Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission. Andrew Lugowski and Sara Arabi are with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. Peter Laughton is a Consulting Engineer. References are available on request. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Winter training for environmental spill response teams By Charles Ross
inter in northern climates can be a thing of beauty, with the sun sparkling off fields of snow and frozen rivers and lakes. But that beauty can become ugly and even deadly if responders to a spill of petroleum products or other chemicals are not prepared and trained for the risks of winter and the potential consequences of their actions. Much of the training and strategies provided to spill response teams will apply whether it is summer or winter. But winter introduces a new set of variables, including the safety of working on frozen lakes and rivers, increased difficulty in containing and cleaning up spills that disappear under ice and snow, and greater risks to the health and lives of responders. “The only way to learn how to cope with spills in winter is through hands-on training on the sites where spills might occur, whether in the Rocky Mountains, around the Great Lakes, or in the oceans,” says Cliff Holland, environmental coordinator for Spill Management Inc. “Companies, whether mining or pipelines or manufacturing, are under increasing pressure to be the best environmental stewards possible. Much of their initial response efforts are focused on keeping spills out of bodies of open water and tributaries that run into that open water, no matter what the season, the weather or the location,” says Holland. Spill Management’s training sessions have included stints near the Rockies in British Columbia and on the prairies in central Saskatchewan with a pipeline company. Others have involved mining concerns in northern Ontario, military personnel in southern and central Alberta, natural gas and hydro crews in northern Ontario, and the pulp and paper industry in northern British Columbia. Holland, who spent many of his boyhood years in Fort Nelson, British Columbia, experienced wind chill temperatures of up to –50F. As a boy, he sometimes accompanied a trapper on his trap line during the winter months. He taught him that water or slush on the surface of ice means 18 | March 2013
Among vital techniques that can only be effectively taught outdoors is learning how to determine if ice is thick enough.
the ice is not cold enough to freeze the surface and on its way to being so weak that people and animals can fall through. It’s a lesson that has stuck with him to this day, as he plans winter training sessions on ice. Marine, pipeline and major industrial spills and releases occurring during winter conditions may require travelling on ice across rivers and lakes, dealing with blowing snow and white-out conditions, extreme cold and being isolated on a spill site by bad weather. That makes it vital responders get outdoor training in the areas where they will have to work and in winter, to learn to cope with the weather and the terrain. Importance of outdoor training In Holland’s experience, winter training can often involve too much reliance on teaching theory in classrooms, rather than going outdoors where the lessons will have to be applied, often under less than ideal conditions. Outdoor training gives responders a chance to learn by observation, he says. For instance, a raised and snow-covered hill in the middle of a lake might be a
small island that could save responders if ice breaks up. It could also be a sign that the ice cover thickness is inconsistent and may have areas that are unsafe for travel or response activities. Responders also have to understand that what looks like a good site to contain or divert a spill on water may fail because nature turns out to be working against them in winter. Ice jams upstream may slow the flow of water, while ice dams downstream will increase the flow rate when they break. Either condition can affect the efficiency of booms and the flow of a pollutant. Among vital techniques that can only be effectively taught outdoors is learning how to determine if ice is thick enough to handle foot traffic, vehicles, heavy equipment and response activities such as cutting and stacking blocks of ice. This means knowing the number of vehicles, the weight of equipment, and the number of personnel and their combined weight before settling on a response strategy. “Determining the integrity of the ice continued overleaf...
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Environmental Protection involves using an auger to cut out ice samples to determine its thickness and load-bearing capacity. Responders need to know whether the ice is blue and clear, which is the strongest, or white and layered, or whether it’s broken up and refrozen, or a combination of all these,” says Holland. “Layered white ice has about one-half the strength of the same thickness of blue, clear ice.” Ice conditions must be continually monitored to ensure the safety of responders and the success of their efforts. Ice cover can be especially dangerous when the temperature rises and falls, allowing snow cover to disguise the fact that the weight-bearing capacity of the ice may have deteriorated. The need for extra care is critical with weather changes and warming temperature patterns that are often attributed to climate change today. Specialized winter knowledge that responders must gain includes how to recover oil that is under an ice cover, or encapsulated in the ice. That can include techniques for cutting slots in the ice where the oil can be concentrated so it can be skimmed or vacuumed out. Dealing with oil in open areas of lakes and rivers, to contain or divert spills into a collection area, can require assessment of flow rates and currents. Improvisation and patience While they learn to use response supplies, such as the various types of booms and sorbent materials, responders also need to know how to improvise spill controls under rough weather conditions.
They may run out of prepared spill response supplies, or not be able to access enough. Invaluable skills include being able to create an ice dam to modify flow rates, or “herd” oil, employing snow as a sorbent material, or building a berm out of snow, debris, dirt or gravel. As an example of successful improvisation, Holland relates the story of one crew of responders trained by Spill Management who were confronted by a 40,000-gallon spill from a transformer’s complete failure in a remote area, two hours away from the nearest major population centre. They constructed a containment area with chairs from their lunchroom, ladders, plastic sheeting and all of the sorbent material on hand. And it worked, he says. Responders must also be patient as in winter it may take two or three times longer to set up equipment and organize supplies than in good weather. And they have to learn to work in heavy coldweather gear and boots, with equipment that may malfunction, or valves that may freeze up. “An ice jam in a river could cause a sudden rise of water, resulting in responders being stranded on the wrong side of a river — and swimming is not the option it could be in warm weather,” says Holland. “Responders have to learn how to cope with suddenly plunging through ice into frigid water or how to rescue fellow workers who fall in.” Developing an ice plan A company’s ice, or emergency re-
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sponse plan geared to winter conditions, must identify areas where incidents are most likely to occur and where response activities might most successfully contain or divert a spill. In some areas, aerial mapping of the terrain can help determine how to cope with winter conditions, whether placing booms in major rivers, assessing river current and flow rates, or identifying access routes to potential spill sites. The plan must ensure that appropriate spill response supplies are readily available, including sorbents and booms, backup power packs and generators, and fuel. Response planning may also identify the need for extra resources on the ground to protect water treatment plants and fish and wildlife habitat, as well as broader environmental issues. Responders have to be able to find out whether emergency equipment such as vacuum trucks, skimmers or portable tanks can reach a specific spill site and, if they can, how long it will take to arrive. In isolated areas, they need site safety considerations such as shelter, warmth, and food and water, particularly if there is a chance they will be stranded by unpredictable weather. If access is only by aircraft, such as a helicopter, plans must be put in place not only to ferry responders in, but also to transport out anyone having a medical emergency. The plan will have to cover areas where storms or thaws can rule out road access and provide for alternatives. For instance, responders may have to construct long-term containment to hold spilled ma-
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Environmental Protection terials until weather conditions improve, or set up a pump relay system to transfer material from the spill collection site. Hands-on, outdoor training allows an ice plan to be tested and critiqued by the responders, who will also learn to recognize risks and hazards in the sites where they will have to work. They will become familiar with working in the same personal gear that would be used in a real response, including winter clothing and boots, communications devices such as whistles and radios, and possibly highvisibility flotation devices. In winter training, responders must learn teamwork and how to co-ordinate their activities so they are always working with a buddy and rescue is available if something goes wrong. Winter response training has many specialized requirements such as warm-up areas, access to shelters, washrooms and first-aid rooms. Training must address the use of rescue ropes and self-rescue ice picks, and plans for main and secondary routes to get back to a staging area, or to be picked up by a vehicle. Above all, training has to emphasize
the impact of weather changes and occurrences. For instance, slight increases in a river flow rate may result in trace amounts of oil passing under a boom. Inexperienced responders may start to chase the escaping spill downstream, rather than concentrate on keeping the major volume of the spill in check. It is also possible that weather changes can cause ice to shift and melt, making a response site unsafe and forcing responders to move out. A great benefit from conducting hands-on training is being able to exercise in worst-case scenarios, identify procedure and policy conflicts between routine response and initial and emergency response, and to develop operating protocols to deal with time-critical issues. “Classroom training is still an important part of winter preparedness,” says Holland. “The Golden Rules of Response still apply: never assume anything, work clean to protect the body, and work clean to prevent tracking substances and crosscontamination.” The classroom allows initial response countermeasures to be devised, along with ways to recover spilled product and
remediate the site. Also, responders can be trained in the use of personal, protective equipment to avoid personal contamination and increase on-site safety. “Winter exercises should be broken down into reasonable expectation as to what can be accomplished with resources on-site, and dealing with aggressive snow and temperature conditions,” says Holland. “As difficult as it may be, adverse conditions on the Great Lakes or in the Arctic may mean that doing nothing is the best option to protect workers.” “Winter training is more than going into the bush or onto a lake or river to slow, divert or contain a spill. It is about learning how to use your eyes and ears as working tools to sense and see danger,” says Holland. “It is about educating ourselves to identify potential dangers and evaluate the consequences and understand the obvious.” Charles Ross works with Spill Management Inc. E-mail: email@example.com.
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One-pass trencher installs slurry wall through hard soils By Lis Smith
lpaso Energy Company purchased a site for their new facility, which was an old pre-World War II munitions factory. It had a significant groundwater contamination problem which demanded immediate attention before any development could be started. The environmental engineering company hired to investigate and propose a solution decided to completely contain the pollution before a remediation solution was implemented. The most cost-effective and reputable solution for containment was the installation of a soil/bentonite slurry wall around the entire site. This would extend deep enough to key into a clay confining layer, between 47â€™ and 65â€™ feet below grade, to contain the contaminants. However, preliminary test borings showed extremely hard soil conditions, including a 20 foot thick layer needing up to 100 blows per inch near the bottom of the proposed wall. This was much too hard for conventional installation equipment alone. Additional methods would have to be used to break up the hard layer, adding to the cost. 22 | March 2013
A new employee had recently overseen the installation of a DeWind OnePass Trenching Company soil/bentonite wall for another company. A unique technology was brought in that mixed the slurry wall in place using a large chain saw-like trencher. He said the wall was installed quickly, surgically and exceeded post permeability testing requirements. DeWind personnel flew out to the job site to evaluate the overall project parameters. Some of the formidable construction challenges were wetlands crossings, buried rubble, marl layers soaked with dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL),
with Level C or B site construction conditions, and, of particular interest, a dense soil strata. This extended, on average, from 25 feet below grade to weathered rock, or saprolite 65 feet below grade, with blow counts of 100 per one inch. Installation of the 7,600 linear feet of soil/bentonite wall was completed in two months and it passed all post-permeability testing. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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The impact of hazardous area classifications on sewage pumping station upgrades By Doug Pease
n Ontario, standards for the installation and maintenance of electrical equipment are established by the Ontario Electrical Safety Code (OESC). In the past, it did not contain specific rules regarding electrical installations in sewage pumping stations (SPS) or treatment plants. Typically, a process engineer would identify hazards within a sewage facility and the electrical engineer would design in accordance with the appropriate rules in the OESC. However, in 2009 the OESC was updated with specific rules applicable to sewage treatment facilities. The new information in Section 22, when read in conjunction with Section 18 – Hazardous Locations, provides detailed rules to be used by a qualified person to establish hazardous area classifications for typical spaces within a sewage facility, such as a wet or dry well. Class I hazardous locations are defined as “locations in which flammable gases or vapours may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive gas atmospheres.” Class I hazardous areas are subdivided into zones, according to the frequency and duration of an explosive gas atmosphere. Zone 1 is defined as a loca-
The existing Victoria Avenue SPS electrical room, with pump removal openings and a stair well leading to the dry well below.
tion in which “explosive gas atmospheres are likely to occur in normal operation, or the location is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 0 location.” Zone 2 is a location in which “explosive gas atmospheres are not likely to occur in normal operation, or the location is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 1 location, unless adequate continuous positive pressure ventilation is provided.” Based on these definitions, a wet well is considered Class I, Zone 1 and a dry well is con-
Victoria Avenue SPS main floor plans: A) existing layout with interconnected generator room, electrical room and dry well; B) proposed layout, with new electrical room physically separated from dry well.
24 | March 2013
sidered Class I, Zone 2. All new electrical installations, in either a new facility or a facility that is being upgraded, must comply with the latest edition of the OESC. The new rules in Section 22 present a unique challenge for the upgrade of older sewage pumping stations, many of which were designed without specific guidelines for hazardous area classifications. Case study: Victoria Avenue Sewage Pumping Station Originally constructed in 1979, the Victoria Avenue Sewage Pumping Station (SPS) is a dry/wet-well style facility located in the Town of Lincoln, in the Niagara Region. It is equipped with two 50-hp conventional close-coupled centrifugal pump units. One duty and one standby. The existing station rated capacity is 79.5 L/s. In 2011, R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. was retained to design an upgrade to the existing facility. This included replacement of the existing pump units with new dry-pit submersible units selected to increase the station rated capacity to 120 L/s. Other works included replacement of the existing standby diesel generator, replacement of aging building electrical and mechanical systems, and upgrades to the electrical and control systems to accommodate the new larger pump units.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Wastewater Treatment At Victoria Avenue SPS, the electrical room is located at grade and is interconnected to the dry-well space below by an open stairwell and several pump removal openings. The generator room is also located at grade, and is connected to the electrical room by an interior door. The OESC uses the term suitably cut off to describe “an area rendered impermeable and cut off from an adjoining area with no means of liquid, gas or vapour communication between areas at atmospheric pressure.” By this definition, the electrical and generator rooms are not suitably cut off from the dry well, so they must be considered Class I, Zone 2 locations. Classification of the electrical and generator rooms presented a major design challenge, because none of the existing equipment installed in these spaces is suitable for installation in a hazardous area. Four possible options were considered to address this issue. The first option required replacement of all electrical equipment located in the dry well, electrical room and generator room with new equipment suitable for installation in a Class I, Zone 2 hazardous area. Typically, equipment with this rating is much more expensive than the nonclassified equivalent. However, some pieces of equipment such as the standby diesel generator are not available with a Class I hazardous area rating and, therefore, would need to be located elsewhere, in a non-classified area. The second option involved changing the room classifications to “unclassified”, by providing continuous positive pressure ventilation at a rate of six air changes per hour (ACPH). This ventilation rate would be required in the electrical room, mechanical room and dry well. Should the ventilation system become unavailable due to maintenance or failure, these areas would revert to Class I, Zone 2. Any electrical equipment not suitable for installation in such a hazardous area would have to be de-energized. Although the new dry-pit submersible pump units would be rated to operate in the Class I, Zone 2 condition, the pump control equipment located in the electrical room would have to be de-energized. This would effectively take the station offline in the event of a failure in the ventilation system. To avoid this scenario, it would be possible to install a backup venwww.esemag.com
tilation system capable of providing the required positive pressure ventilation, when the primary system is unavailable. The third option was to construct a new building to house the electrical and control equipment, as well as the standby generator. The new building would be an electrically unclassified area by virtue of physical separation from both the existing dry-well and wet-well spaces. The building electrical systems, such as lighting, required in the existing dry well, electri-
cal room and generator room would be replaced with new equipment suitable for Class I, Zone 2. This option was considered quite expensive due to the new structure. Additionally, it would be challenging to accommodate a suitably sized building, within the extremely limited property, of the existing station. The fourth option involved converting the existing generator room, janitor room continued overleaf...
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Wastewater Treatment and washroom into a new electrical room. This new space would be physically separated from the existing electrical room (now a dedicated pump removal room), by replacing the interconnecting interior door with a new wall. As a result, the new electrical room would be electrically unclassified, so equipment installed within it would require no special ratings. However, this option would require the relocation of the standby generator to a new building or an exterior, weatherproof, sound-attenuating enclosure. After review of these four options, it was ultimately decided to proceed with option four, which was to create a new unclassified electrical room within the existing facility. This was found to have several key advantages that made it a particularly attractive solution. Most importantly, the new electrical room will remain an unclassified location regardless of the operation of the building ventilation systems. As such, there will not be a situation in which the electrical systems may have to be de-energized, stopping pump operation. Additionally, this alternative was con-
sidered low-maintenance because it avoids the need for a complicated backup ventilation arrangement. Finally, it was found to be quite cost-effective because it required only minor architectural modifications, and the equipment in the new electrical room did not require any hazardous area ratings. The dry-well space and pump removal room (existing electrical room) will remain Class I, Zone 2 locations. All electrical equipment in these spaces, including the pump removal system, lighting and other building electrical systems, will be replaced with new equipment suitable for installation in a hazardous area. Additionally, it was recognized that certain activities such as the use of power tools present a potential hazard when undertaken within an electrically classified area. To mitigate these potential risks, a new ventilation system was designed for the dry well and pump removal room. Under normal conditions, this system will provide positive pressure ventilation at a rate of three ACPH. However, at the push of a button the ventilation rate can be in-
creased to six ACPH, temporarily declassifying these spaces. Summary The rules in Section 22 of the OESC present a challenge for wastewater utility providers across Ontario. Many older sewage pumping stations, in particular dry/wet-well style facilities, have common spaces that contain process pumping and piping, electrical equipment and standby generators. When these stations undergo electrical upgrades, the electrical classification of these spaces must be considered. As demonstrated by the Victoria Avenue SPS project, there are many possible solutions to satisfy the requirements of the Ontario Electrical Safety Code. The most suitable alternative will depend on a number of factors, including layout of the existing facility, and the scope and budget of the proposed upgrade. Doug Pease is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. E-mail: email@example.com
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Security implications of portable HMIs and SCADA for water and wastewater systems By Marc A. Therrien
he extraordinary market penetration of tablet computers and smartphones in the consumer marketplace has triggered a rise and focus-shift in software development not seen in several years. Itâ€™s no secret that these devices are changing the landscape of computing. Analysts have predicted the decline of the traditional personal computer utilizing an embedded operating system running on spinning media. In 10 years, we may look back on the late 2000s much as we do now on the late 1990s, when the Internet presented a potential that has since been realized and today seems somewhat obvious. Tablet computing and smartphones have been around for some years. But the progression of Internet technologies, delivery systems through vendor-based ecosystems (app
28 | March 2013
stores and communication servers) and wireless connectivity have created a â€œperfect stormâ€? for consumer accessibility. This makes the potential of the tablet/smartphone now somewhat obvious. This potential is especially attractive to Canadian municipalities, from several perspectives. Tablet computers and smartphones within Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for water and wastewater plants can be utilized as powerful, cost-effective and portable human machine interfaces (HMI).They can use either software provided through vendor-based apps, or a remote desktop instance to an internal Windows-based SCADA/interface system. This functionality is extremely attractive to operations/maintenance departments, especially considering the current conditions of municipal budgets and an
increasingly aging infrastructure. It is expected that the use of portability in SCADA and HMI will explode to the point that it will be common to see operations and maintenance staff walking the plant floor as they visually inspect sub-processes. At the same time they will be able to switch between these subprocesses through a single portable HMI. Infrastructure managers will approve the new technologies to be built into legacy upgrades and new installations, enabling on-call operational resources to refer to smartphone interfaces in the event of an alarm or operational events. Maintenance departments can refer to real-time field data as easily as answering a phone call. Plant functionality can be distributed through virtual private networks (VPNs) over the Internet and/or cell networks, and no longer need to be
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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IT Security physically confined to the plant floor. But at what cost to security? Security issues Viruses and hackers are constant threats to current Windows-based SCADA systems, but vendors are usually proactive in protecting them. Municipal maintenance and operation teams are generally aware of the basic security requirements for PC-based interfaces, where antivirus software is commonly installed. Most departments do not allow direct Internet connections to the SCADA interfaces. The problem is that virus threats are now beyond the obvious security measures, in addition to being beyond the physical confines of the PC running SCADA software. Stuxnet, a type of virus that will migrate to field control, via a Windowsbased interface/SCADA system and reside on the field control PLC itself, is just the beginning of these new variants of control system viruses. The origins of Stuxnet have been debated since it first surfaced in 2010. It may have been the work of covert government development. The sophisticated nature of these viruses requires a more regimented process
for detection as well as a much more elaborate process for removal. Widely adopted consumer products, installed at the Windows-based SCADA system, can no longer be considered a detection barrier to these viruses. It is expected that more of these types of “specialized” viruses will be available in the “wild” over the next 10 years. Portable control systems and HMIs further complicate the threat by introducing an additional access point to the plant PLCs and SCADA systems. The portability of smartphones and tablets makes them especially attractive to hackers and potential viruses. Having a sub-process HMI on the Internet, available to any potential hacker, virus or malicious user, via a stolen or misplaced cell phone, would put any infrastructure manager and operations department into fullblown damage control. In addition, can municipal departments fully trust the vendor-based ecosystem, or app stores, that support these devices? Once this technology is regularly adopted, it is expected that specialized processes and detection systems will be required for all control systems used for
sensitive municipal infrastructure. Protection and management of control systems will become a critical component of facility risk assessments when it comes to public safety. A public and private effort will be required to work towards a regulated standard and best practice guideline for control system security. An integration of municipal IT departments that focus on security, and plant operations/maintenance departments that generally focus on safety, will be needed during the commissioning process. Engineering and contractor teams will also need the skills to properly design, install, commission and deliver the service expectations that portability will bring to plant control. At the same time, they must establish documented security profiles, within the guideline, so that municipal teams can assess the installation from a security perspective with confidence, and manage external threats. Marc A. Therrien is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Current trends and advances in environmental site assessment using on-site sampling By Paul Wilson
isk-based cleanup requirements for soil and groundwater in the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and provincial regulations promote, and in some cases require, intensification in the use of onsite screening of soil quality. Improvements in technology and onsite testing approaches provide environmental professionals with an opportunity to meet these requirements at lower cost. At the same time they greatly improve the understanding of a site by using on-site test results to guide the investigation. For example, the current requirements under Ontario Regulation 153 for evaluating the quality of stockpiled fill mandate the use of field screening data to laboratory data at a ratio of 5:1 respectively, with a minimum requirement of one screening sample every 10–20 m3. Furthermore, the current Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) version of the Ontario MOE document, Soil Management – a Guide for Best Management Practices, extends some of the same sampling approaches included in O.Reg. 153 in the transfer of excess soil fill material between sites. This mandated requirement for increased quantity of field screening data should also raise corresponding questions regarding data quality and its use, so the field program best supports the definitive laboratory testing. Several key elements are required to ensure that field screening data not only supports laboratory testing, but also enables the assessor to further question laboratory results or sample handling protocols, when the two don’t match. Site screening tools The use of combustible gas meters in the screening of soil and groundwater samples is well established in the environmental assessment industry. Pioneered by the retail gasoline sector, combustible gas meters allow assessors to adequately screen soil and focus in on areas requiring attention. Their use has become embedded in regulation and standardized approaches across the industry. 30 | March 2013
In the case of inorganic elemental metals, speciated results are readily obtained, generally at detection limits below regulatory action levels, through the use of X-ray fluorescence.
At the same time, the technology has shortcomings. It does not always correlate well with higher carbon chain fuel products like weathered diesel. Also, it is inadequate for assessing compounds such as Bunker C oil or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is unable to assess co-mingled metals, such as lead in gasoline. These technology “gaps” are even more apparent if the investigation is focused on elemental metal impacts, or other non-volatile contaminants of concern related to industrial land use, Since a “one size fits all” approach is not effective, a number of compound-spe-
cific site screening tools have been developed to support an integrated approach to site assessment, Combustible gas meters interact with evaporation of volatile compounds to provide non-compound specific indications of contamination. Other site screening tools interact with different physical and chemical properties of contaminates to provide non-speciated (and in some instances compound-specific) indications of contamination. In general, screening of organic compounds provides non-speciated quantitative results that rely on physical or chemical continued overleaf...
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Site Remediation properties of groups of compounds in response to stimulus. Combustible gas readings provide non-chemical-specific results for volatile compounds like benzene or trichloroethylene. Other organic site screening tools rely on properties such as ultraviolet fluorescence and immunoassay responses to further quantify and detect potential contaminates. In the case of inorganic elemental metals, speciated results are readily obtained, generally at detection limits below regulatory action levels, through the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Non-speciated analysis, and non-conforming, speciated analytical approaches like XRF, are beneficial for inclusion in site assessment work because they provide real-time results, lower analysis cost and high sample throughput. At the same time, they can be problematic in their interpretation, without a comprehensive approach to evaluating the results. Some of these issues have been addressed by two research initiatives by the U.S. EPA and the development of standardized methods. In addressing the need for independent verification of site screening tools, the
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EPA developed the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) forum. Its mandate was to “provide performance verification of innovative environmental sampling, monitoring and measurement technologies”, through a duplicate sideby-side blind test of related technologies benchmarked to certified laboratory test results. With a respected independent thirdparty evaluator like the EPA, the site assessor can assess the relative merits and limitations of a technology independent of vendor bias. Using this approach, the SITE program has benchmarked technologies for on-site real time analysis of mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and metals in soil and/or sediment. The program provided good correlation support for technologies based on ultraviolet fluorescence (in the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons) and XRF (for metals) demonstrated through this program. This expanded the range of potential contaminates that can be reliably screened on-site. In the case of XRF, the EPA provided
further support for the technology, with the development of a standard method for the use of XRF analysis in determining elemental concentrations in soil and sediment on-site. This combination of technology evaluation and standardized implementation is key in the production of reliable on-site screening of soils. However, the rate of technology advancement soon outstrips the capacity of an institution to review and benchmark results. The last SITE forum publication was released in 2008. As a result, a standardized approach is required to be able to gain reliable and reproducible on-site screening results. The Triad Approach One way this is addressed is with the implementation of a Triad Approach. It is another EPA initiative, which provides a standardized framework that integrates the triad of (1) dynamic work plan strategies, (2) real-time measurement technologies, and (3) systematic project planning, to “help streamline assessment and cleanup activities at brownfields sites.” One of the standardized framework tools developed under the Triad program
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Site Remediation is the use of investigative limits correlating laboratory results with field screening analyses. Using this approach over time provides a range of compound-specific upper and lower investigative limits to be developed to prioritize samples with a higher risk of false positive or negative results, as compared to certified laboratory analyses. By using this approach in conjunction with regulatory limits, the assessor can focus work in real time on those areas where further delineation may be required, supported by the certified laboratory results. Also, they are not restricted by the normal time constraints imposed by waiting for lab results. This constant iteration improves reliability of the site screening method and develops a database of sampling results that can be extrapolated to new sites where correlation data may not exist. Another useful Triad-based approach is the use of subsample on-site analysis to identify and address potential sample heterogeneity issues. Using this approach, smaller subsets of a sample are analyzed on-site, as a means of determin-
ing the homogeneity of the sample. Based on these results, the assessor can select a subset for laboratory analysis (generally the higher field values) and improve the overall correlation of the field testing with the certified laboratory results. Decreased technology analysis time, while maintaining or lowering detection limits, now makes this a practical approach for use in screening on-site soils for elemental metals. Improved technology, either in method development or sensor detection limits, increases the reliability of field screening techniques. XRF detection limits for most elemental metals listed as priority contaminants are now well below action levels. Sample throughput can readily accommodate the analysis of 50â€“ 100 samples per day. When used appropriately by the assessor, this becomes a powerful tool in developing an understanding of the site and refining the conceptual site model. Direct coupling of on-site soil and groundwater analysis with direct-push sampling equipment can also greatly increase the availability of screening data
for a site. At the most basic level, existing sampling approaches (either direct-push, conventional or even test pitting) can be combined with on-site testing to provide the assessor with real-time data during a sampling program. More detailed site information can be collected through direct-push probes calibrated to collect soil stratigraphy, groundwater and/or free product plumes, as well as soil gas levels. This real-time data can then be used by the assessor to refine or add sampling locations, while abandoning other locations determined to be not as critical to the investigation. By refining the conceptual site model in real time, a more robust risk profile of the site can be developed by collecting more detailed information where required, and clearly delineating those areas from less affected parts of the site. This improves site understanding at a lower overall cost, since repeat visits to the site are less likely, and gives greater confidence in managing risk and liability. Paul Wilson is with AEL environment. E-mail: email@example.com
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Large power station cooling pumps refurbished in eight weeks
power station recently sent out a tender for their cooling water pumps to be removed, serviced and returned to use. A Belzona authorized contractor won the tender, so they removed, overhauled and re-installed two of the 48” CW circulating pumps, which were failing to deliver sufficient flow to satisfy customer demand. Each pump weighed over 11 tonnes, without the motor. After removal, the pumps were transported to the contractor’s service centre and underwent a major refurbishment program. Belzona® 1111 (Super Metal), a
Pump before restoration (bottom) and after restoration (top).
two-component repair composite, based on a ceramic steel reinforced polymer system, was specified for the rebuild repairs to the damaged diffuser vanes. Belzona® 1311 (Ceramic R-Metal) was used to repair areas of high erosioncorrosion pitting. This product was selected as it can be easily applied by hand
Belzona 1311 was used to repair areas of high erosion-corrosion pitting. 34 | March 2013
to damaged metallic components. Also, once the diffuser vanes were repaired, it would protect against erosion-corrosion. Belzona® 1341 (Supermetalglide) was specified for the internal coating of fluid flow areas, including the impellors and diffusers. With this coating, an efficiency enhancement of up to 5% can normally be achieved on new pumps. As well as making equipment more efficient, this product also extends service life. The main pump exteriors were coated with two coats of Belzona® 5811 (Immersion Grade), to give long-term immersion protection. Post refurbishment, the pumps were returned to the power station, where they were installed, aligned and commissioned by the contractor. Both were returned to service within an eight-week period and within budget. For more information, visit www.belzona.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Evaluating landfill runoff treatment options for Iqaluit By Ken Johnson
he City of Iqaluit is the largest community in Nunavut and its capital. It is located in the southeast part of Baffin Island, 2,300 km east of Yellowknife and 2,800 km northwest of Edmonton. For eight months of the year, the average daily temperature is below freezing. Each year the City produces approximately 10,000 m3 of compacted garbage, which enters the landfill and includes residential, commercial and industrial waste. The landfill operation uses the area method, which involves placing waste above grade against a berm, compacting it, using a wheeled loader, and covering it with mulch. Commissioned in 1994, it was the first â€œengineeredâ€? landfill site for the City. Previous landfill operations consisted of ad hoc sites around the community that were never properly engineered and were operated on a dump-and-burn basis. The 1994 site featured placement of waste in cells and limited diversion, a perimeter fence, and a runoff management system to segregate clean off-site water and contaminated on-site water. Waste burning
was still an integral part of the landfill operation. Minor improvements were made in subsequent years and waste burning was finally discontinued in 1999. A major upgrade was started in 2005 with the planning and design of drainage improvements for better segregation of clean off-site water and contaminated on-site water. Drainage improvements The drainage improvements were constructed in 2006 and included a system of berms, ditches, detention ponds and a retention pond. A perimeter berm structure diverts off-site runoff around the site and diverts on-site runoff into a ditch collection system. On-site runoff flows into detention ponds, which are ultimately pumped out into a retention pond for longer-term storage. The runoff retention pond was constructed as part of the 2006 improvements and has approximately 5,000 m3 of storage volume. It provides storage before runoff is decanted into the receiving water system. Some sample results from the retention pond exceeded limits for iron, man-
ganese and zinc as well as for BOD5, TSS, aluminum, copper and lead, as required by the City of Iqaluit Water Licence (2006) and the Guidelines for the Discharge of Treated Municipal Wastewater in the Northwest Territories. Because of these high values, the City has investigated treatment options for the runoff in the retention pond. Constructed wetland technology Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that are designed and constructed to utilize the natural functions of wetland vegetation, soils and soil microbial populations to treat contaminants in wastewater streams. As wastewater flows slowly through a wetland, pollutants are removed through physical, chemical and biological processes. Physical processes include entrapment, sedimentation and adsorption. Biological processes include nitrification and denitrification, and the uptake of nutrients and metals by plants and by organisms that occupy the bedding media. Iqaluitâ€™s cold climate would limit the operating season for the wetland, but it continued overleaf...
Iqaluit landfill following drainage improvements in 2006, which included completion of a perimeter berm for off-site and on-site runoff management and construction of a series of on-site drainage ponds. 36 | March 2013
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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#"/ " ( .(#" 5 #)& #"(&# 4 " #*&'/ ! 6 # # &(!"( 5 / (#&!+(& 6 )!$ ((#"' 3 $$" )('/ "" &'/ )'" ('/ #+ ) ("/ #&(, *'/ (#&! &"' 5 '(& ' 4 ' # &'/ ' #"(#""1 "0 #!$&''"0 " &!#* # !#'()&/ ') $)&/ &#" #, " ' #,"/ #!$ ( #3"&(#" ('
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ES&E Mar2013_3_2012 13-03-27 8:07 PM Page 38
City of Iqaluit landfill showing runoff management systems after 2006 drainage improvements.
would still be able to operate from June to October. The wetland system would be developed in two phases, at an estimated cost of $300,000 for each phase. Membrane bioreactor technology Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) combine the membrane filtration process with a suspended growth bioreactor to degrade contaminants. An immersed MBR was recommended as the most appropriate MBR technology for Iqaluit because of the lower energy demand when compared to side-stream MBR configurations. To treat landfill runoff, an anoxic and aerobic tank would be required in front of the MBR for nitrogen removal. The MBR system would be able to produce effluent that is well below any guideline limits. The MBR would only be in operation for the summer months (120 days) and would require proper storage and maintenance work during the winter. Commissioning the MBR for each season would be a difficult task. The cost estimate for a MBR for only one season of operation was $2.4 million (including a 40% contingency allowance for construction and engineering services). Geomembrane physical-chemical treatment system The geomembrane physical-chemical treatment process involves chemical treatment, solid filtration and neutralization, all carried out continuously. Landfill runoff properties are characterized initially, and contaminants that require removal are identified. A chemical treatment process 38 | March 2013
Operation of geomembrane filtration system, without pretreatment, for treatment of Iqaluit landfill runoff in 2010.
is designed to precipitate contaminants from solution and to flocculate them into larger filterable particles. The geomembrane then works as a physical barrier to remove suspended solids. Solids that remain in the geomembrane can then be returned to the landfill. The cost to Iqaluit of the geomembrane equipment (pumps, tanks, geomembrane, piping, fittings, chemicals for one season and transportation) was estimated to be $75,000. An additional cost was an operator. For the 2010 discharge event, the cost of operator time and expenses per seasonal treatment and discharge event would be $25,000. Supplies for seasonal treatment events were estimated to be $10,000. Estimated total cost for a single discharge event would be approximately $100,000. Geomembrane filtration-only system The City of Iqaluit has purchased and utilized a geomembrane filtration system on two discharge events from the retention pond. The first event was in July 2010 and the second was in June 2011. The filter used by the City has a nominal pore size of 450 microns. Pore size decreases during operation as the tube captures suspended solids. The City has not used any chemical pre-treatment on the runoff. As discussed, pre-treatment could enhance contaminant removal through flocculation of dissolved contaminants. Performance of the geomembrane in removing contaminants, based on the very limited sampling in 2010 (unfiltered discharge versus filtered discharge), was
encouraging, with substantial reductions in aluminum, iron, zinc and turbidity reported by the City. Results reported in 2011 did not show significant signs of contaminant removal, which suggests that the City may wish to consider chemical pre-treatment in the future, as part of the geomembrane filtration process. Conclusions and recommendation The City has investigated potential treatment processes that may be applied to landfill runoff, including wetland treatment, membrane treatment and geomembrane physical-chemical treatment. Based on the capital cost of the three options, the membrane treatment option is not financially viable. The wetland treatment option may be financially viable, but negotiation is required with landowners. Negotiation could take a considerable amount of time and may not be successful, depending on the stakeholders involved. The City has implemented a physical filtration process on a trial basis. The performance of filtration alone for treatment of landfill runoff has been inconclusive.Therefore, it is recommended that the City use chemical treatment in advance of the filtration process. The geomembrane physical-chemical proposal is financially viable and operationally practical for City staff. Ken Johnson is with Stantec Consulting. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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NEWS Xylem employees recognized by Hydraulic Institute Xylem’s chief mechanical engineer, Paul Ruzicka, and James Roberts, chief product engineer, were recently honored by the Hydraulic Institute (HI) for their technical leadership and contributions in the creation of new ANSI/HI standards for pumps. Paul Ruzicka, an active committee chair, has been a member of the Institute for 21 years and was recognized for his work on two standards. The first was Rotodynamic Pumps Guideline for NPSH Margin, ANSI/HI 9.6.12012. The second was Rotodynamic (Centrifugal and Vertical) Pumps - Guideline for Allowable Operating Region, ANSI/HI 9.6.32012. James Roberts worked with Paul Ruzicka on these standards. James Roberts was honored for his contributions to three standards committees. He has participated in more than a dozen HI committees in his 18 years of membership. He was recognized for his work as a member of the committee that developed Rotodynamic Pumps for Pump Intake Design, ANSI/HI 9.8-2012. www.xyleminc.com
Water RF commits to 2013 research The Water Research Foundation’s (WaterRF) Board of Trustees has approved $4.88 million in 2013 funding for its research programs. This research budget will be leveraged with partnerships and in-kind support increasing the total amount of funds dedicated to water research. The approved funds are allocated to the three research programs as follows: 1. The Focus Area Program identifies a limited number of broadly relevant subscriber issues and solves them with a targeted, multi-
year research response. Approximately $2.93 million has been allocated to this program. 2. The Emerging Opportunities Program enables WaterRF to respond quickly to emergent subscriber challenges and research ideas identified throughout the year. Approximately $976,000 has been allocated to this program. 3. The Tailored Collaboration Program enables WaterRF to partner with utility subscribers on research that may be more limited or regional in impact. Approximately $976,000 has been allocated to this program. www.WaterRF.org
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Non-intrusive ultrasonic technology provides accurate measurements By Jack Sine
he Jacksonville JEA water district in Florida is the seventh largest publicly owned water district in the U.S., with 4,208 miles of water lines. As such, management must know precisely how much water it is removing from the aquifer. However, measurements showed that significantly more water was being distributed than withdrawn from the wells. The problem seemed to be with the magnetic flow meters. Their probes come directly into contact with water being pumped from the wells. Out of 135 artesian wells, 35 of them pump water that is high in minerals, such as calcium, iron, and manganese. Minerals collect on the probes, degrading their signal, which then results in lower than actual flows being reported. How magnetic flow meters work In a magnetic flow meter, a magnetic field is generated and channeled into the liquid flowing through the pipe. Following Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, flow of a conductive liquid through the magnetic field will cause a voltage signal to be sensed by electrodes located on the flow tube walls. When the fluid moves faster, more voltage is generated. Faraday’s Law states that the voltage generated is proportional to the movement of the flowing liquid. The electronic transmitter processes
Two ultrasonic pulses are sent through the medium.
the voltage signal to determine liquid flow. However, as minerals accumulate on the electrodes, voltage decreases. “We are required by state law to calibrate all of our flow meters every three years,” said Rodney Williams, water reliability and wastewater reuse specialist at JEA. “That works fine for the meters that are not exposed to high mineral levels. But we are required to be accurate to within five per cent, and those 35 troublesome wells began to degrade six
Measurements showed more water was being distributed than withdrawn. 40 | March 2013
months after cleaning.” The cleaning itself was an expensive problem in terms of labour.“You have to remove the entire meter, clean it with a light acid solution and reinstall it,” said Williams.“It can take up to half a day. Those 35 meters had to be cleaned several times within the three year period to maintain the required accuracy.” “Magmeters cost about one thousand dollars per inch of pipe diameter,” said Williams. “So a magmeter for a 12-inch pipe costs more than ten thousand dollars. We thought that ideally we should replace them with a less costly, more efficient meter. But what to use?” An ultrasonic solution According to JEA manager Shawn Arnold, “when ultrasonics were suggested, we weren’t immediately excited.” We already had a portable clamp-on ultrasonic that we used to calibrate the magmeters, but it took a long time to install. We had to be very precise, zero it out, and then there was a long list of procedures we had to follow to calibrate the magmeters. However, we installed an ultrasonic flow meter, manufactured by Flexim Americas and tested it against magmeters we had just calibrated. Accuracy was excellent.” How ultrasonic meters work One of the major benefits of ultrasonic flow meters is that, unlike traditional meters, they contain no moving parts and do not need frequent calibration and maintenance. Measurements are made using the transit-time difference method. It exploits the fact that the transmission speed of an ultrasonic signal depends on the flow velocity of the carrier medium. An ultrasonic signal moves slower against the flow direction of the medium and faster when it is in the flow direction. For the measurement, two ultrasonic pulses are sent through the medium, one in the flow direction and the second against it. The meter’s transducers work alternately as emitter and receiver. The transit time of the signal sent in the flow direction is shorter than that of the signal sent against the flow. The meter measures the transit time difference and cal-
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The meter measures the transit time difference and calculates flow velocity.
culates the average flow velocity. Since ultrasound signals propagate in solids, the meter can be mounted directly onto the pipe non-invasively. Advantages of ultrasonic meters A decision was made to replace the magmeters with ultrasonic flow meters. The first ones to be replaced were in the
35 “trouble” wells with high mineral content. It was calculated that avoiding three cleanings of a magmeter would pay for the Flexim ultrasonic meter that replaced it. One of the other great features of ultrasonic flow meters is that one meter can be used on any pipes from 4inch to 48-inch. The transducers just had
to be changed. Since ultrasonic meters are not directly exposed to the flow, there is no degradation of accuracy. Almost as an afterthought, it was decided to check the accuracy of the Venturi meter that was used to measure the output of one of the plants to the distribution system. During high use hours, the Venturi proved accurate when checked against the ultrasonic. The problem came at night during low flow use. The utility switched over to a smaller pump and the Venturi meter couldn’t accurately read the lower flow. “Eventually, we will replace the Venturi with an ultrasonic flow meter,” said Arnold. “But there is no bypass on that plant, so we will have to replace it when we are in shutdown. Eventually, we will replace all of the magmeters with ultrasonic meters, so all 135 wells will be measured accurately and consistently. In the meantime, we’ll use our new portable for checking the remaining magmeters to assure accuracy.” Jack Sine is a freelance writer specializing in the HVAC marketplace. E-mail: email@example.com
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The perils of uncertainty in soil and groundwater analysis of brownfield sites By Dr. George Duncan
hen it comes to assessing or cleaning up a contaminated site, most of the decision-making is based on laboratory analysis of the soil and groundwater. If your lab results exceed the government-established, generic “maximum allowable limits,” there are two options. You can clean up the site to bring it below the limits, or you can hire a risk assessor to establish site-specific, risk-based limits, to see if your site meets these. Risk-based limits are typically much higher than the generic ones, so meeting them can be a lot easier. However, applying them to your site can only be done after you have convinced the authorities (and the banks) that your risk calculations are reasonable and acceptable. This can be a lengthy process, taking up to a year to complete. If your site does not meet the risk-based limits, then your only option is to clean it up, using one or more cleanup methods. All of this is based on a piece of paper issued by the laboratory, duly signed and certified, and backed up by several pages of quality control data reassuring you that everything was done under the strictest protocols available. There is no disputing that today’s accredited laboratories produce reliable results in reasonable time, so there is no need to question their results. Or is there? What about results that fall just above the allowable limits? Under the present “carved-in-stone” statutory limits, even the slightest excess must be cleaned up before the site can be declared “clean”. This means the cleanup must continue until the lab results fall below the allowable limits. The problem here is that contaminant levels from the source to the edge of the contaminated area typically do not decrease linearly, but asymptotically. This means the point at which the clean site condition is reached is approached quite gradually, with lots of “just-above-limit” samples along the way. So the question that needs to be asked is, how certain is the lab result or, more appropriately, how much uncertainty is in
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the lab result. This is not a question most consultants ever ask because the accepted tenet is that, as long as the lab is accredited, the result is reliable and unquestionable. However, it is extremely important to understand that all results reported on a certificate of analysis carry within them a built-in uncertainty. This arises from the various stages in the analytical method used to produce the result. The good news is that labs have to measure this and report it as part of their accreditation exercise, so it is a known quantity. The bad news is that most consultants are unaware of it and never ask to see it. Uncertainty in measurement What is uncertainty in measurement and why is it important in site assessments and cleanups? Wikipedia defines uncertainty in measurement as follows: “Measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity... All measurements are subject to uncertainty and a measured value is only complete if it is accompanied by a statement of the associated uncertainty.” Note that last sentence! It means that most site assessments and cleanups are being conducted based on incomplete measurements. In simpler terms, this is saying that every reported lab result has man accompanying plus-or-minus range of uncertainty associated with it and it is certain only that the result lies some-
where between these limits. For the consultant assessing or cleaning up a site and receiving lab results just above the limits, the question to be asked is, how certain am I that this result is an actual exceedence? A quick look at the lab’s uncertainty limits for that particular analysis may well show a range that goes far above and far below both the certificate result and the statutory limit. In which case, the consultant is entirely uncertain that the exceedence is real! This is especially true for trace contaminants in soils (and to a lesser extent in groundwaters) where uncertainty limits can be ±100% or more and still be acceptable to the regulatory authorities. For trace organics, a quick look at the “surrogate recovery” values reported on the certificate of analysis will indicate how good the lab method is at recovering a measured addition of a known compound to the sample. Recoveries of 60–130% are not that uncommon. However, it is a clear indication that the very best the lab method can do with a known amount of compound in a sample is to produce a result somewhere between 60% and 120% of the true value. That should tell you something about the other numbers on the certificate describing the unknown levels you asked the lab to provide. Remember, if the lab mresult exceeds the limit by even 5 or 10% — clean it up!
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Site Remediation Even more uncertainty All the above relates to the unavoidable and accepted uncertainty in the laboratory method. But what about the uncertainty in the field where tiny amounts of soil and groundwater are being sent to laboratories and the results are being interpreted as representative of many tons of soil? This is where the uncertainty takes a quantum leap upwards and, unlike the lab analysis, is never measured. Does anyone really want to argue that a 2g sample of soil analyzed at the lab is truly representative of 10 million grams (10 tonnes) in the field? Yes, the consultant sends in about 50–100g of soil but the lab only analyzes 2–3g of it. If the sample is only two parts per million of the whole, what does that say about a contaminant that is two parts per million of the sample and exceeds the allowable limit? The uncertainty here may not be measured but it will be enormous, making the conclusions in the assessment/cleanup report meaningless. Currently, this issue is being dealt with by simply ignoring it. Consultants continue to struggle with soil results that sometimes exceed and sometimes fall below the limits. Asking for a reanalysis (sometimes) to see if the slight excess is “real”, often results in either an increase further above the limit or, happily, a decrease below the limit. But you must realize that you cannot possibly get a reliable single, duplicate or triplicate result in these near-limit samples. Even if you perform the lab analysis 10 times and take the average, you may still be way off the actual contaminant distribution in the field. The way forward Carved-in-stone allowable limits need to be reassessed in the light of the uncertainty in measuring contaminant levels, both in the lab and in the field. No one would put up with a speeding ticket from a police officer whose radar gun was accurate to ±50 km/h, so why do we put up with contaminant results that are far more uncertain? Building permits are being denied, needless cleanups are being conducted and needed cleanups are being left undone, all because no one will address this serious issue. Some might argue that we should “play safe” and keep the present system. If the lab result exceeds the limit, we clean up the site. But the same argument can be applied to results just below the limit, which would mean a contaminated site would not be cleaned up. What’s the point of spending millions of dollars on a seriously deficient system of site assessment and cleanup? Can we at least raise the allowable limits to take care of the lab uncertainty issue, just as the police radar guns do? The “play-safe” approach is already built into the very conservative allowable limits, where every conceivable human, animal and plant risk was considered. Raising these to accommodate the uncertainty doesn’t seem all that unreasonable.
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Dr. George Duncan is a Principal Consultant with A & A Environmental Services, Inc. in Woodstock, Ontario. www.aaenvironmental.ca www.msumississauga.com www.esemag.com
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Thermodynamic method used for pump performance and efficiency testing program By Fabian Papa & Djordje Radulj
hrough the sponsorship of the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) Conservation Fund and the participation of eight municipalities, an industry-leading field assessment and benchmarking study of the performance and energy efficiency of water pumps was conducted by HydraTek & Associates Inc., in collaboration with the University of Toronto and Robertson Technology Pty Ltd. of Australia. The purpose of the program was to raise awareness of pump energy efficiency to promote energy conservation efforts. It involved testing more than 150 water pumps from a cross-section of municipalities of varying size and locations across Ontario, training workshops, and the preparation of a report, which will be made available in 2013. Technology There are generally two acceptable
Figure 1.Â Efficiency loss for sample pump test.
methods for testing pump performance and efficiency: conventional and thermodynamic. Each method, when applied under the right conditions, can yield accurate and
reliable results. The reality, however, is that the piping configuration surrounding pumps is often not ideal for certain measurements, particularly in relation to flow.
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Pumps Both methods measure power input to the pump motor and make assumptions on motor efficiency. Both methods also measure the head differential between the suction and discharge sides of the pump. The conventional method measures flow directly and then calculates pump efficiency, whereas the thermodynamic method measures temperature gain in the fluid across the pump which is a direct measurement of the amount of energy lost (i.e., inefficiency). The ability of the thermodynamic method to measure pump efficiency directly and without the need for flow measurements, which are often difficult to obtain accurately and reliably in the field, has earned it the reputation of being generally the most accurate technology available for this purpose. Furthermore, with an accurate measurement of efficiency, flow can then be computed. It is also worth noting that the use of the thermodynamic method allows for multiple pumps to be operated during testing. This is often not the case with the conventional method, where flow measurements are typically only possible on
Figure 2. Example of pump refurbishment.
common discharge headers. The majority of the tests conducted in this program employed the thermodynamic method. In cases where this method could not be used, or in cases
where comparisons between the methods were sought, the conventional method was used. continued overleaf...
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Overhead shot of pump testing.
Pump basics and overall results Energy efficiency of a pump is the degree to which it can convert the mechanical power provided by its motor into water power, being the combination of flow and head (pressure). This efficiency is variable across the applicable flow range of the pump. It typically exhibits a range where efficiencies are highest, as
well as a best efficiency point (BEP). Decisions relating to pump selection and operation are generally based on manufacturers’ information on head and efficiency curves in relation to flow rate for the pump in its original condition. Over time, however, pump components deteriorate, giving rise to lower efficiencies. The average age of the pumps tested
in this program was 25, with the oldest being 61 years. Accordingly, some efficiency degradation was to be expected. Average peak efficiency of all pumps tested was found to be 77.2%. Average operating efficiency, being the point where the pumps are most commonly operating, was found to be 73.7%. These values are considerably less than the average peak efficiencies of the pumps in their original state (86.4%). Equally as interesting is that the average wire-to-water efficiency (i.e., the combined efficiency of the pump, motor, and if applicable, variable frequency drive) was found to be less than 70%. One of the parameters measured in this program was termed the Efficiency Loss. It is defined as the difference between the manufacturer’s original BEP and the tested BEP. Test results indicate that both the head produced by the pump, as well as the energy efficiency with which it does so, is significantly less than its originally manufactured state. For the sample test result shown, the Efficiency Loss is 13.6%.The average of all test results is 9.3%. (See Figure 1.)
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Pumps Many pumps are not operated at their BEP. Therefore an additional reduction in energy efficiency results which, when combined with the Efficiency Loss, has been defined as the Overall Efficiency Gap. The average value of this is 12.7%. These differences are significant, particularly because of the amount of power consumed by pumping. Also, hydraulic models being used to support numerous decisions are using potentially inaccurate information. Performance indicators and benchmarking Given the number of pumps tested, the results are useful for observing various performance indicators across such a large sample set, and for industry benchmarking purposes. While several performance indicators were assessed, a new metric was developed which was found to be both more intuitive as well as more reliable than its alternatives. The Pump Energy Indicator (PEI) is a measure of the amount of energy input, per unit of flow produced, per unit of head produced. Units used in this program are kW/Mm3/m H2O. This metric normalizes the rate of power consumption,
Installation of thermodynamic method instrument.
against the service delivered by the pump, which is a combination of flow and head. Several applications of this metric have been developed and will be discussed in greater depth in the upcoming report. Results of the program indicated that the average PEI for the manufacturerâ€™s BEP was 3,350, while the average of the
test results was 3,770. This represents a 12.5% increase in energy consumption for the level of service delivered. Based on the statistical distribution of results, pumps with PEIs in excess of 4,000 were noted to be significantly underperforming. Pump refurbishment This testing program took place over continued overleaf...
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Pumps approximately two years. During this time, two pumps that were tested early on in the program underwent refurbishment and were then tested again. The results were impressive (see Figure 2). Using the Pump Energy Indicator (PEI) metric, the following results were obtained: • Before Refurbishment PEI @ BEP = 3,860 kW/Mm3/m H2O • After Refurbishment PEI @ BEP = 3,340 kW/Mm3/m H2O Accordingly, the improvement resulted in a 13.5% reduction in power consumption, in relation to the level of service delivered at the BEP after refurbishment. The recovered Efficiency Loss, as identified in Figure 2, is 11.4% which is 65% of the total Efficiency Loss. The other pump recovered 71% of its Efficiency Loss. Summary of findings A quick summary of the key findings follows for ease of reference: • Average Peak Efficiency: 77.2% • Average Operating Efficiency: 73.7% • Average Efficiency Loss: 9.3% • Average Overall Efficiency Gap: 12.7% • Average PEI @ BEP: 3,770 kW/Mm3/m H2O
Other benefits In addition to the potential savings in energy and operating costs, pump performance and efficiency testing allows operators to identify underperforming infrastructure, provides information to support asset management decisions, and provides accurate and reliable data for hydraulic modelling. This is a key tool in developing optimization strategies. There are three factors which strongly influence the potential for energy savings in pumps; size of the pump motor; utilization rate of the pump; and the degree of inefficiency. It was found that pumps with motor sizes of 150 hp or larger had more potential for savings, while those below this threshold had less potential. Similarly, pumps which are utilized more than 20%-30% of the time offered potential savings. This assessment is based on the current price of electricity, and, as prices rise, the business case strengthens for proactive intervention, whether through refurbishment, changes in operating protocols, or a combination of both. With respect to testing frequency, it was
The authors acknowledge the sponsorship of the Ontario Power Authority and the participation of the following municipalities and/or their water utilities: Region of Durham; Region of Halton; City of Hamilton; City of Ottawa; Region of Peel; Sault Ste. Marie Public Utilities Commission; Region of Waterloo; and Windsor Utilities Commission. Fabian Papa and Djordje Radulj are with HydraTek & Associates Inc. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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generally found that pumps with motors of 1,000 hp or larger often justify annual, or bi-annual testing, or even continuous monitoring, given the amount of power consumed. Additional detailed results, as well as guidance on pump testing prioritization, economic assessments supporting pump refurbishment and other related matters will be available in the final report. It will be made available to the public later in 2013.
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Accurate measurement of chemical metering pump pulsating flow By Michael McNulty
s chemical metering pumps have become an integral part of many processes, there has been a growing demand for verification of actual flow from the pump. There are a number of ways to infer flow from a chemical metering pump, (e.g., pressure monitoring, flow/impulse monitoring) but nothing to accurately and independently measure the true volume of each pump stroke and hence pump flow. As a typical chemical metering pump stroke is normally only approximately 100 ms, the flow during this pump stroke is difficult to measure, especially with small pumps. To answer this demand, engineers at ProMinent developed the world’s first flow meter designed specifically to measure the volume per stroke of chemical metering pumps. Measurement principle The DulcoFlow® flow meter is based on the ultrasonic flow measurement principle and time of flight measurement. For this time of flight measurement, a sound signal is alternately transmitted in and against the direction of flow. The time difference is then a measure of the mean flow velocity. From this data, each stroke volume can be measured and the flow of the pump measured in real time. Use of the ultrasound measurement method automatically compensates for any temperature changes in the chemical. By doing this, the volume of each pump stroke can be accurately measured, regardless of how many strokes per minute the pump operates at. The DulcoFlow design incorporates two sizes. For low flow, a type 05 tube is used; this is able to measure from approximately 0.03 ml per stroke to about 13 l/hr. The larger size, with a type 08 tube, is able to measure from approximately 0.05 ml per stroke to approximately 50 l/hr. Measuring accuracy is better than 2%. Due to the aggressive nature of many chemicals, flow measurement is carried out inside a chemically resistant PVDF pipe, with no contact with the sensors and www.esemag.com
no moving parts. This is to ensure a long service life and wear-free operation. Interface A two-line display, status LEDs and four membrane pushbuttons keep the operation simple. The four pushbuttons are used to program and adjust the instrument. Two LEDs provide information about current instrument status, as well as measurement status. Instantaneous flow and totalised flow can be shown in litres or gallons on the display. The volume of each pump stroke can also be displayed. If required, the density of the chemical can be entered, then mass flow in kg/hr. or lbs. /hr. etc., can be displayed. Interfering influences, such as air bubbles, are identified and an error message generated on the display. Output signals As this flow meter is to be integrated into processes, there are two output signals that can be used. The first is a pump stroke volume verification signal that is sent back to a chemical metering pump. The pump stroke volume, with an adjustable + / - range, can be set on the DulcoFlow to feed back to the metering pump to verify required flow. This enables an alarm signal to be generated if the pump stroke volume is above or
below the preset +/- range. This can replace the traditional pressure, flow/impulse style flow monitors. The second output is an isolated 4 – 20 mA signal, which is available for recording purposes and is scalable to the range of flow needed to measure. This output signal can also be integrated to ProMinent‘s Delta chemical metering pump. Then, this signal can be used to maintain a flow set point. The DulcoFlow is able to measure chemicals with a viscosity of up to 2,000 centipoise (cP). Low conductivity of the chemical has no influence on measurement. It has connections at inlet and outlet to accommodate standard size tubing or pipe. It can easily be retrofitted into existing chemical metering pump installations, with pressures of up to 232 psi. Virtually all chemicals can be measured with this device. In the short time it has been available there are more than 1,000 installations around the world using the flow meter successfully. Michael McNulty is with ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd. E-mail: email@example.com
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Hybrid remediation technology improves fuel spill cleanup By Jim Swales
t is estimated that during the exploration, production, refining, transport and storage of petroleum and petroleum products, 600,000 metric tons per year leak into the environment through accidental spills. The 2010 BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico is officially the largest accidental spill in history. Eleven people lost their lives as a result, and after 85 days (spilling as much as 2.5 million gallons/day) a fragile ecosystem including 572 miles of Gulf shoreline was dramatically impacted. After investigations were complete, many fingers were pointed at the neglect that caused the accident in the first place. The cleanup process should continue to receive the same scrutiny. It often appears as though the pollution is dispersed as quickly as possible, with good optics for the media being the end goal. However, the mess often remains just below the surface, ruining
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wildlife habitat and peopleâ€™s livelihoods, sometimes permanently. Physical removal only deals with a fraction of the spilled product. Petroleum products quickly spread, disperse, sub-
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merge, evaporate, weather, penetrate porous surfaces, emulsify, and poison waterfowl and marine life. Fortunately, hybrid technologies have been developed based on a better understanding of science and past experiences, in order to mitigate the crippling damage of these monster spills. Spill management is extremely dynamic. The cleanup approach is based on the unique environment in which the spill occurs. Sensitivities and variables of each spill vary greatly. These include the type and volume of fuel, climate, type of water (fresh or salty), type of water body (rivers, streams, lakes, oceans), and type of shoreline. Each shoreline has a different degree of sensitivity. For example, exposed rocky shores, sea walls, piers and exposed wave-cut platforms are less vulnerable than environments that incorporate dense foliage and porous soils. These include fine-grained sand beaches, exposed tidal flats, sheltered rocky shores and tidal flats, salt marshes and mangroves. After a spill, conventional resources are mobilized to a site. There is a collaborative effort using local and imported resources, including manpower, equipment, and private and government experts, to capture and contain the free product in order to mitigate damage. Recovery and containment of free product often incorporate both physical
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An estimated 10.4 million feet of sorbent and containment booms were used in the recent BP Gulf of Mexico spill.
and chemical methods. Physical methods include booming, skimming, wiping, adsorbing materials, mechanical removal, washing, sediment relocation, tilling and burning. Although it is debatable whether the impact on the environment warrants their use, chemicals are often applied to the spill, including dispersants, demulsifiers, solidifiers and surface-film chemicals. In the 2010 BP Gulf of Mexico spill, it is estimated that 1.82 million gallons of dispersants were used and 10.4 million feet of sorbent and containment booms were deployed. It has been decided that the bulk of the remaining spill in the Gulf will be left to break down naturally. Nature provides excellent and cost-effective processes, which continue to prove effective at degrading crude, once mechanical and chemical processes have run their course. However, these important processes can be accelerated to bring back shorelines to their prespill state or as close to it as possible. Some microbes are more effective at degrading crude than others. The types of indigenous bacteria and sources of supporting nutrients, oxygen and enzymes will vary from site to site. Each location is unique. It will need to be determined if bioaumentation, or biostimulation, are required. There are many natural hydrocarbondegrading microbes, yeasts and fungi that can provide an aid to the cleanup services. They include Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Cornybacterium, Flavowww.esemag.com
Porous sand can easily absorb spilled oil.
bacterium, Nocardia, Pseudimonas, Vibrio Asper- gillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Trichoderma. Each strain has its unique support systems and performs differently in varying environments. Also, how they are applied will vary from site to site. The addition of nutrients, adjustments to PH, addition of oxygen (for aerobic bacteria), implementing methods for reaching hydrocarbons that have penetrated into subsurface, maintaining optimum moisture content, adjusting strategies according to temperature and climate, are all factors that a contractor must consider when developing and implementing remediation strategies. Advantages of BIM 200 To this end, manufacturers have created and developed remediation technologies that are effective tools in many applications. One such product is Golden Environmental’s BIM 200, which incorporates multiple important elements for spill cleanups, making it a great workhorse for shorelines. It contains surfactants for desorbing and dispersing, incorporates enzymes to support natural bioremediation (biostimulation) and increase the hydrocarbon-digesting microbe population (bioaugmentation). BIM 200 has been recognized as “environmentally preferred” with its UL Environmental Certification - UL 2792. There are many porous surface areas that can absorb sticky crude oil. Nonporous surfaces in the environment do not create as great a challenge for clean-
ing. However, the rocks and soils of a shoreline create an ideal medium for oil to attach itself to. Desorption becomes a challenge for cleaning or remediation. The problem is exacerbated as the oil thickens and becoming denser through the weathering process. Surfactants have a role to play in breaking up the surface tension of water, allowing it to penetrate into oil and lifting it from surfaces with less physical force. Enzymes are proteins found in all organisms. They play an important role as a catalyst in bio reactions, accelerating the biological processes involved in bioremediation. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. From these products the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction is lowered, dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. As a result, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. Shoreline cleanup is no simple task, but learning from the past, taking the time to understand the unique environment of each spill and then utilizing effective and proven tools, such as BIM 200, will mitigate damage from these devastating events. Jim Swales is with Golden Environmental Products Inc. www.goldenenviro.ca March 2013 | 51
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Controlling trihalomethane levels in dynamic water treatment systems By Dr. Mark R. Brown and Prof. Krishna Persaud
isinfectant byproducts are the result of a complex reaction between naturally occurring organic matter in drinking water and oxidizing disinfectants. The formation of complex compounds in the form of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids has been identified as a health risk and is tightly controlled by legislation across the developed world. Typically, the maximum allowed level for total THMs is 80 μg/l. For many years, it has been assumed that THM levels in drinking water change slowly throughout the year, according to the season and source water variations. This was predicated on data from laboratory samples which were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on a monthly or quarterly basis. Advances in testing and monitoring techniques have resulted in a new understanding of the rate of change of THMs in drinking water. Levels change significantly on an hourly, not monthly, basis (see Figure 1). The ability to understand and accurately monitor these rapid variations in THMs is essential for plant managers and scientists if they are to effectively and safely operate complex water treatment plants. Historically, secondary parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC) were used as predictive markers and correlated against THM. TOC is the amount of carbon bound in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator
of water quality. Due to the complexity in the formation of THMs, this can prove unreliable. A study of 73 surface water systems concluded: “Overall, no universal relationship was found that can be used to predict disinfection byproduct formation based on (TOC) Total Organic Carbon values in the source water or finished water. While such a relationship may be possible at an individual treatment system, the relationship will be developed empirically on a system-by-system basis.” In order to have confidence, frequent THM testing is required to validate and improve any model developed. This will have significant initial and on-going costs for the plant, typically in the region of $50,000 for initial laboratory costs alone. Therefore, a direct method of monitoring THMs in the treated water at high frequency would be a simpler and more accurate method of providing essential data required to effectively operate the plant. The following technologies are currently available: 1. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. It is a method approved by most legislative frameworks for testing THM levels. This is a laboratory procedure with high capital costs and requires highly skilled operators. Typical costs are $100–300 per sample and results are obtained in 7–14
days. This makes this method cost-restrictive for frequent sampling. The time delay does not allow for operational decisions to be taken confidently. 2. Mobile laboratory methods based on gas chromatography have been developed to provide grab samples on site and return results in 1–2 hours. This method requires investment in helium gas handling and storage procedures. More importantly, a skilled operator must be present throughout the sampling regime, making frequent sampling cost-prohibitive. 3. Automated laboratory methods involve “purge and trap” extraction, followed by a chemical reaction, producing a coloured product, which is then quantified spectrophotometrically. The minimum cycle time for these instruments is four hours, and they require complex reagent handling systems to provide security in the water plant environment. Reagent costs and disposal of analyzed water form a significant operational cost for these units and are cost-prohibitive for routine use. 4. Electronic sensor systems are based on analysis of controlled headspace by electronic sensors, which are specifically modified to be sensitive to the total THM spectrum of compounds. By their nature, they require no reagents, produce no waste products, are solid-state, and frequency of unattended sampling is 20–30 minutes. The frequency of data generation allows known hourly rapid changes in
Figure 1. Rapid changes in total THM monitored at a conventional treatment plant. 52 | March 2013
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Figure 2. Real-time TTHM measurements between the treatment plant and distribution network.
Figure 3. Continuous monitoring of TTHMS over a period of 60 days.
Figure 4. TTHM levels monitored in the disinfection building, compared to GC-MS analysis of spot samples analyzed by two laboratories.
THM levels to be effectively monitored. Example of a sensor system in use The water plant considered as an example is a surface-water-fed plant utilizing enhanced coagulation, filtration and disinfection by chlorine gas. This is representative of the common technologies in use across Canada, the U.S. and Western Europe. The objective was to profile THM throughout the distribution system; to provide a safe control level for TTHM (non THM) at the plant outlet; and to optimally control the treatment processes with real-time data to the set control parameters. Initially, 12 months of historical laboratory samples were used for a distribution network profile that identified “hot spots” for high TTHM levels, primarily at point-of-use zones with high residence times. Data shown in Figure 2 identifies, with a high degree of certainty, the worstcase increase in TTHM between the treatment plant and the distribution network A monitor was placed at this location and at the outlet from the water treatment plant storage tank. Results of continuous monitoring for a period of 60 days are presented in Figure 3, which validates the differential in TTHM over this period. This data provides a high level of certainty that controlling TTHM in the storage tank to <60 μg/l will result in a TTHM within the network, that is below 80 μg/l. Multisensor Systems Ltd. supplied an continued overleaf...
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The monitor provides THM data from the outlet side of the water storage tank.
MS2000-SYS THM Monitor to provide THM data from the outlet of the water treatment plant storage tank. This was used to provide positive feedback to the treatment regime. Enhanced coagulation plant chemical feed parameters, filtration
speed and chlorine disinfection levels were individually optimized to gain optimum THM removal efficiencies. The Multisensor monitoring system operates in a non-contact, reagent-less mode, providing accurate TTHM data
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three times per hour. This is stored internally and output into the SCADA system by means of a standard 4-20mA signal. This signal was integrated into the plant control system and used to optimize each process step from direct TTHM readings. The technology is based on known principles derived from Henry’s Gas Law to predict the relationship between THM in the gas phase and the dissolved phase in a controlled sample tank, then sampling the headspace using modified electronic sensors. The sensors are sensitive to the THM group of compounds and have been developed by Multisensor Systems and the University of Manchester. As seen in Figure 4, the increase in chemical feed in the form of ferric sulphate and polymer has a significant and direct effect on the finished water TTHM value. Continuously modifying the dosage automatically, with trigger points at 50 and 57 μg/l TTHM, allows high-quality water with acceptable TTHM to be produced in the storage tank and to leave the plant into the network. The process reduced chemical dosage by 31% over this period, with a calculated net saving of $72,300 annually. Throughout the test period, output from the Multisensor MS2000-SYS was validated against laboratory GC-MS results from two independent and approved laboratories. The monitor was found to be accurate to ±10% of the approved method as specified. New scientific knowledge has indicated that TTHM levels are volatile and change rapidly, based on many factors in water treatment plants. This makes effective treatment optimization difficult without frequent and costly laboratory analysis. Sensor systems such as the one used in this example, allow plant operators and managers to control the process based on accurate and immediate TTHM levels They provide significant chemical savings, while delivering good-quality water to the network. The ability to monitor TTHM accurately and react immediately to rising trends minimizes the chance of spiked or non-conforming water entering the distribution network. For more information, E-mail: info@AvensysSolutions.com
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Wastewater pretreatment system installed at Dr Pepper bottling plant how bacteria worked in different aeration environments. He then designed an approach to wastewater treatment that replicated the efficient and effective processes that occur in a natural environment. Baswood's chairman of the board, actor Edward Norton, is the United Nations Ambassador for Biodiversity, a
trustee of Conservation International, a member of the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) Advisory Council and a long-time advocate for sustainable technologies. For more information, visit www.baswood.com
Baswood's chairman of the board, actor Edward Norton.
aswood Corporation recently announced the start of fullscale operations of its BioViperTM biological pretreatment system at a Dr Pepper Snapple Group (DPS) bottling plant in Houston, Texas. The company says its system significantly lowers the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the bottling plant’s effluent, while supporting DPS’s environmental sustainability goals. With digestion rates of 75 to 90 percent, the system provides a reduction in the plant’s organic loading, which allows DPS to minimize its burden on the City of Houston’s wastewater treatment operations. According to Basswood, its proprietary BioViper system requires 40 percent less energy to operate than traditional digestion systems and 25 percent less energy than other emerging technologies. In addition to a smaller carbon footprint, the pretreatment system occupies a small physical footprint. The modular and scalable system can expand if additional capacity is required for the plant’s bottling operations. BioViper is based on the firm’s Aerobic/Anaerobic Integrated Media System, which maximizes biological treatment efficiency by utilizing its Dry Cycle Aerobic/Anaerobic Digestion technology. As wastewater passes through distinct treatment zones within the system, sequential treatment results in accelerated digestion of organic wastes, virtually odor free. The technology was developed and patented by Paul Baskis, a microbiologist and inventor, who studied rivers and saw www.esemag.com
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Reusing grey water safely and efficiently requires an organized design procedure By Bob Boulware
rey water from the shower, hand basin and kitchen sink can be routed to a leach field, a waterway with hyacinths or other biodegrading plants, a dry well/ French drain application, or even a decorative planting bed. Leach fields, unlike septic fields, do not handle black water. Some municipalities do not differentiate between grey water and conventional septic systems and, as a result, require an organized design procedure to avoid problems. The recommended steps in designing a leach field for grey water management are: investigate the permit process; prepare the plan; design the grey water system; submit the plan for review and approval; install the system; arrange for inspection and approval; use, monitor and maintain the system. More often than not, the authority having jurisdiction will assign the same methodology to leach field design as to a septic field. This means that the leach field will be assumed to handle black water and, therefore, will be sized according to the number of bedrooms in a house, or the total number of fixture units in a commercial building. Some jurisdictions are more open to engineered systems than others. Those that balk at them are concerned that failure of an installation would reflect badly on public health agencies for relinquishing control to a new technology. These concerns can be addressed by showing competence and thoroughness in methodology. Three concepts interrelate in the handling of grey water: evaporation, absorption and transpiration. The local rate of evaporation from the soil to atmosphere is a function of relative humidity and
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wind velocity. Such information can usually be found at local university agronomy departments. A soils engineer can determine the rate of absorption of grey water into the soil, usually after analysis of a soil sample. Horticulture or agriculture sources can provide data on the transpiration of water into plants as part of their growing process. These terms may be used in combination (e.g., evaporation, evapoabsorption and evapotranspiration), each referring to the primary method of handling grey water. Absorption into the soil, which is how a septic field works, may not be possible due to soil conditions, water table or proximity to a nearby body of water. In such cases, a water barrier is used, and grey water is processed by evapotranspiration. Designing grey water evaporation fields Assuming a calculated approach to determining water volume is accepted by the local jurisdiction, the following is a
guide to the fundamentals of designing grey water evaporation fields and how to determine the size required for a typical grey water application, in concert with a composting toilet installation. 1. Determine expected system demand. This is the first step in sizing a leach field. The following is an example of the fundamentals involved in determining demand for a typical single-family house: • The use of water is partly based on the flow rate of the domestic water supply pump. Most pumps are set at 40 lb pressure. At that pressure, the average shower uses about 1.25 – 1.5 gpm. Using that rate, you can determine that a 15-minute shower will use 22 gallons of water. • Flush versions of composting toilets use only about 1 pint per flush. This amount can be evaporated in the composting system itself, resulting in no water discharge. • The average person should use only about 1 gallon a day for good hygiene.
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Wastewater Management • Washing dishes should take only 2 gallons per day per person. • A high-efficiency, front-loading washing machine uses about 15 gallons per load. A normal top-loader uses about 40 gallons and has less capacity. Using the high-efficiency machine and two loads of laundry per person per week equals 30 gallons per week, or about 2 gallons per day per person. Thus, the total water use per person per day is approximately 27 gallons. 2. Size of the evaporation field. Determining the amount of water that will be used in the dwelling per month is based on the number of people who can sleep in the house, not the number of bathrooms. If you conclude that each person’s use is a minimum of 27 gallons per day, total usage is 810 gallons per person per month. University agronomy departments gather information about local soil evaporation rates as part of their efforts to monitor those rates in conjunction with agricultural crop growth. If you divide the total usage of 810 gallons by the evaporation rate of 11.4 gallons per sq ft, you get 71 sq ft per person. That means you need an evaporation field that has a 71-sq ft surface area for each person living in our example house. Thus you can estimate that a house with two people living full-time would need an evaporation field of about 142 sq ft, or 10 X 14.2 ft in dimension. Keep in mind that guests will boost system demand, so increasing evaporation field size for added capacity is advisable in some situations. 3. Boost evaporation rates. The evaporation rates we have used to calculate the field size are based on straight evaporation of water from the ground. If the local climate allows, the rate can be boosted significantly by the use of broadleaf plants. Some studies have shown that plants with large leaves can expel water into the air five times faster than an open pool of water. Thus, if a system is designed to cover just the two people living in the house, planting a full field should make it possible to boost capacity to evaporate enough water to accommodate any guests. Care must be taken to ensure that excessive rainwater does not get into the field. Evaporation rates take normal rainwww.esemag.com
fall into account, but not runoff draining into the field. Be sure to raise the ground around the field to prevent rainfall runoff. Also, a plastic roof can be constructed over the evaporation field, allowing light to enter for the plants, while keeping rainwater completely out of the field. Do not allow rain runoff from the roof to fall in the field. For proper operation of an evapotranspiration field, an important concept to remember is that evaporation per square
foot must exceed rainfall per square foot, where absorption into the soil does not occur.
Bob Boulware is with Design-Aire Engineering, Inc. E-mail: bboulware@ design-aire.com
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Montreal locates water main leaks using advanced detection technology By Stewart Day and Brian Brochu
hile leaks on large-diameter water transmission mains are less frequent than those on smaller distribution mains, they account for a much higher volume of water loss, due to their size and operating pressure. Historically, utilities usually repair leaks only when they become visible at the surface. However, many pipeline leaks never reach the surface and go undetected for long periods of time beneath the ground. With infrastructure aging across North America, these types of unseen leaks on large-diameter transmission mains are more common than ever, as pipes begin to reach or exceed their planned useful life. Leaks are not only costly from a water loss and revenue standpoint, but are often a preliminary indication that a pipeline will eventually fail. For most utilities, a large-diameter pipeline failure erodes public confidence in service reliability and can cost millions to mitigate. Regular leak detection surveys can identify the leaks that might not be visible at the surface and most likely have been leaking for a long time. This allows for proactive repair as well as an understanding of the overall condition of the pipeline. A key factor in leak detection is the ability to locate the leak precisely and make an accurate estimation of its size.
Pure Technologies staff prepare inserting the tethered leak detection tool into a live pipeline.
This is particularly important in large cities that cannot afford to stop traffic, shut down water service and dig up a large portion of a city street to find a leak whose location is uncertain. Pine Avenue pipeline leak In February 2012, this was precisely what happened for the City of Montreal. The City operates a pipeline on Pine Av-
Excavating and repairing a suspected leak in a high-traffic area that turns out to be a pinhole leak can cost more than the resulting benefit of repairing it. The utility can then make a prioritized plan for repairing leaks in the most costeffective manner. Excavating and repairing a suspected leak in a high-traffic area that turns out to be a pinhole leak can cost more than the resulting benefit of repairing it. Similarly, it is ineffective to know that a large portion of a pipeline has a leak without being able to closely narrow down the location. 58 | March 2013
enue in downtown Montreal, which features 80-year-old, 34-inch cage and cylinder Bonna-type pipe. This is a variation of reinforced concrete cylinder pipe. The pipeline is a critical supply of potable water for the western portion of a major sector. Based on previous leak detection surveys and inspections on the pipeline, the City was aware that leaks were present on
the 1.3-km stretch of pipeline. Given the importance of the pipeline, locating and repairing the leaks was made a priority to ensure service reliability, reduce water loss and avoid a potential pipe failure. The City attempted to locate the leaks using non-invasive forms of leak detection with little success. While these methods were able to identify the presence of the leaks, they were unable to provide reliable enough location estimates for the City to dig up the street. The City then contracted Pure Technologies to identify the precise location of the leaks. Its SaharaÂŽ leak detection platform is a non-destructive leak detection tool, which is pulled by a small drag chute in the water flow. It features an acoustic leak detection sensor and inline CCTV, and remains tethered to the surface. Because the tool can be closely controlled, the acoustic sensor is brought right to the leak source. The sensor is also tracked along the surface by an operator, allowing for accurate marking of leaks in real time. In February 2012, the City completed
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Large leak identified with non-intrusive leak detection technology along Pine Avenue.
its first tethered leak detection survey on Pine Avenue, locating nine leaks in the 1.3 km inspection. City staff was surprised at the number of leaks identified, as other leak detection technologies suggested that there would be only one major leak and possibly another minor one. The use of the tethered system qualified the nine leaks as being from small to large in size. To avoid major commuter disruption, the City rerouted traffic and thoroughly planned the inspection to avoid high traf-
fic times. For example, they started inspection in the mid-morning when traffic slows, as opposed to during morning rush hour. In addition to traffic control, tethered leak detection surveys present some unavoidable environmental challenges that require adjustments. Water mains sometimes run under a busy highway or an environmental obstacle like a river, making it unsafe for the staff member on the ground to track the tool and mark the exact leak location. In such cases, the op-
erator needs to review potential leaks more closely by winching the tool back and forth to determine the exact location, using reference points on the pipe. Free-flowing systems also require close control of the flow rate to ensure the tool reaches its full intended distance. To achieve this and maximize efficiency, the City of Montreal worked closely with leak detection experts throughout the inspections to control flow rates. An added benefit of tethered platforms is that leaks, cracks and gas pockets are located and marked in real time. This eliminates the need for data analysis and allows problems to be mitigated quickly after inspection. Also, because the tool can be winched back and forth when a leak is suspected, it is usually possible to find precise leak locations on even the most challenging areas of a pipeline. In August 2012, all nine leaks identified in the inspection were excavated for repair by the City. The locations had been precisely identified and marked, and all leaks were found within one metre of the marked location, though most were within 0.5 metre. All of the located leaks were also the size that corresponded with estimates made by the tethered system.
Stewart Day and Brian Brochu are with Pure Technologies Ltd., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com.
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Designing, selecting and operating a storm drainage pumping system By Jahangir Chowdhury
n a typical storm drainage pumping system, the run-off from a drainage area is collected in a convergence manhole (MH) before entering the pump station’s wet well. It is then pumped directly to a discharge MH through a force main header and flows to a natural stream through a short length gravity sewer and headwall. The drainage system should be designed for a 100 year storm or regional flood, with 100% redundancy in pumping capacity. It is recommended that at least two pumps run simultaneously during 100 year storm flow conditions, with one pump operating during normal conditions. Design of the storm drainage pumping system consists of the following: (See Figure 1) 1. Design of incoming sewer 2. Design of wet well of pump station 3. Design of gravity sewer between discharge MH and natural stream 4. Design of force main header 5. Pump selection 6. Pump station operation Design of incoming sewer The incoming sewer connects the convergence MH to the pump station’s wet well. The convergence MH is located immediately upstream of the pump station. The incoming sewer should
concrete elevation is the LWL elevation, minus minimum submergence depth of the proposed pump. The last duty pump start elevation should not be higher than the 100 year water level elevation in the convergence MH, minus the maximum loss of head in the incoming sewer. Start elevation between each of the duty pumps should not be less than 150mm. Design of gravity sewer The gravity sewer connects the pump discharge MH with the concrete headwall located at the bank of the natural stream. The
It is recommended that at least two pumps run simultaneously during 100 year storm flow conditions, with one pump operating during normal conditions. be designed so that it is not surcharged under all flow conditions. Hydraulic analysis formulas for gravity sewers which are flowing partly full are to be applied. Hydraulic analysis and capacity can be computed using Manning’s equation, assuming a material roughness of 0.013. Selection of the sewer size should be based on the optimum slope of the sewer and the relatively lower water level at the convergence MH, during a 100 year storm flow. (See Figure 2) Design of wet well The wet well should be designed so there is enough capacity to accommodate the required number of pumps as per the Hydraulic Institute Standards, and to provide adequate storage of stormwater between first duty (or lead) pump starts and stops. Anticipated water depth between first duty pump start and stop can be determined using the working volume equation (volume = minimum pump cycle time x flow/4). Stop elevation of the first duty pump is the low water level (LWL) of the wet well. The bottom slab top of the wet well’s 60 | March 2013
Figure 3. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Stormwater Management discharge MH is located in the vicinity of the natural stream. A gravity sewer is to be designed so that, under all flow conditions, it is not surcharged. Also, during the 100 year storm, the water level in the natural stream should not be greater than the natural streams designated high water level (HWL). (See Figure 3) Hydraulic analysis formulas for gravity sewers flowing partly full are to be applied. Hydraulic analysis and capacity can be computed using Manningâ€™s equation, assuming a material roughness of 0.013. Selection of the sewer size should be based on optimum slope of the sewer and lower water level at the discharge MH. Design of force main header The force main header should be designed so that, during a100 year flow, velocity to the force main does not exceed 3 m/s. The recommended velocity is in the range of 1.8-3.0 m/s. Hydraulic analysis formulas for pressure pipes flowing full are to be applied. Hydraulic analysis and capacity can be calculated using Hazen-Williams equation, assuming a material roughness of C=120. The force main profile should be designed to prevent formation of air pockets in the alignment. It should also be designed so that all joints are restrained to prevent them from pulling apart. Pump selection Appropriate pumps can be selected by matching pump head flow (H-Q) curve (received from the supplier) against the calculated system H-Q curves. Points of intersection when the pump H-Q curve is
superimposed on the system H-Q curves, in the vicinity of their optimum efficiency points, represent the pump operating points. At these points the head developed by the pump must be equal to the total dynamic head loss in the system and, of course, the flow rate in pump and force main are equal. The system H-Q curve is represented by total dynamic head (TDH) versus flow for all flow rates within the maximum pumping capacity. The TDH is the total head required to make the stormwater flow from LWL of wet well to HWL of
discharge MH. It is made up of two components: static head and dynamic head losses. Static head is equal to the vertical distance between wet well and discharge MH. Maximum static head is the vertical lift between the elevation of HWL in the discharge MH during 100 year flow and LWL elevation in the wet well. Minimum static head is the vertical lift between the LWL elevation of the natural stream and HWL elevation in the wet well. Total head losses due to friction, valves, fitcontinued overleaf...
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Stormwater Management tings, entrance and exit in the pump station and force main header with the variation of flows can be determined using the Hazen-Williams equation. System H-Q curves must be established for both minimum and maximum static heads. For pump selection, the maximum system H-Q curve can be utilized. The minimum system H-Q curve can be determined to ensure that the proposed pump cannot approach run-out conditions. Also, that there will be enough pumping capacity to accommodate extreme hydraulic conditions. System-head calculations and curves for two conditions follow: • LWL in the wet well, HWL in the discharge MH during 100 year flow and Hazen-Williams factor C = 120. • HWL elevation in the wet well, LWL in the discharge MH and Hazen-Williams factor C = 140. (See Figure 4) To avoid pump cavitations, the net positive suction head required for a selected pump should also be checked against the net positive suction head available for a given system to ensure that the latter is greater than the former.
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Stormwater Management Pump station operation Operation of storm drainage pumps is sequenced with the water level in the wet well. Each pump starts and stops automatically when the water level in the wet well reaches the set points. An ultrasonic level transducer and a backup pressure level transmitter in the well continuously monitor water levels and send this data to the main programmable logic control (PLC) to direct the operating sequence of pumps. The operator should have the capability of initiating an automatic duty rotation of the pumps, or taking the pumps out of service. An ultrasonic level transducer is to be the primary controller and a pressure level transmitter is to be provided for redundancy. The operator should be able to select either the ultrasonic level sensor or pressure level transmitter to be used in the wet well for control purposes. If there is a loss of echo and the primary level sensor is unreliable, the standby pressure level transmitter alone will be used for control. In addition to the ultrasonic control and pressure level transmitter, five floats will act as a backup for an emer-
gency, or PLC failure. (See Figure 5) In the event of a pump failure, an alarm is activated and the next pump in the duty sequence will begin to operate. Check valve proximity switches are used to ‘prove flow’ for the pumps. In the event the pump is called on to start, and there is ‘no flow’ indicated at the check valve, the pump shuts down, an alarm is generated and the next pump in the duty sequence begins to operate. As water level in the wet well rises to a set elevation, the first pump in the duty pump sequence starts. When it is running and the water level drops to a set elevation, the pump shuts down. When it is running and the water level rises to a set elevation, the pump which is second in the duty sequence is triggered. When both first and second duty pumps are running and the water level rises to a set elevation, the HWL emergency alarm activates and, if the first duty pump fails then the pump which is next in duty sequence starts. Should the water level continue to rise, the HHWL emergency alarm activates and, if the second duty pump fails, then the pump which is next
in the sequence starts. Pumps are programmed to start and shut down at defined elevations in order to keep the upstream convergence MH from surcharging. When all duty pumps are running and the water level drops to a set elevation, the last duty pump shuts down first. As the water level continues to drop to set elevations, the duty pumps shut down one after another. The first duty pump shuts down last. The information discussed here is intended to be a useful tool for anyone who deals with the design of new or upgrade of existing gravity sewer, pressure sewer, pump selection and pump station operation. It is based on general information from the Windsor-Essex Parkway project that will be operated by Windsor Essex Mobility Group, with the support of Infrastructure Ontario and the Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Jahangir Chowdhury is with Hatch Mott MacDonald Group, E-mail: Jahangir.firstname.lastname@example.org
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