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May/June 2014

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SPECIAL SECTION:

Storage Tanks, Containment & Spills Solving water hammer issues Recycling fracking water Sonar mapping storage ponds Protecting surface waters from WWTP discharges

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • May/June 2014 Vol. 27 No. 3 • Issued June 2014 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

FEATURES

Founding Editor

6

The importance of continued participation in associations and events

8

Surge suppression tank solves water hammer issues in Niagara-on-the-Lake water system

TOM DAVEY

Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Design and Production EINAR RICE

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PA Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering William Fernandes, Region of Peel

DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . 70-74 Product Showcase . . . 65-69 Professional Cards . . . 70-74 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

12 Eighty-eight kilometre long water pipeline installed by HDD in rural Alberta 16 City of London initiates stormwater education program 18 Removing phosphorus and nitrogen helps restore Swedish lake system 20 Geographical information systems (GIS) can be optimized to help environmental sustainability 22 Floating tiles help reduce algae and odours and increase capacity of lagoon 24 Progressive cavity metering pumps help deliver water treatment chemicals safely 28 Handling excess soil - how we got to where we are and where things are going

Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group

34 Properly protected stainless steel keeps corrosion at bay in WWTPs

Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec

36 Biological treatment system contributes to award winning wastewater reuse project

Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Tony Petrucci, Chisholm, Fleming & Assoc. Cordell Samuels, Region of Durham Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.

38 Addressing water-energy efficiency through variable frequency drives 40 Groundwater sampling procedures must meet applicable requirements 42 Protecting surface water quality from WWTP discharges through assimilative capacity studies 46 Improving water quality through proper tank mixing 50 Double containment piping system ensures safe transport of untreated fracking water 52 Sonar mapping of storage ponds offers operator safety and cost savings 53 Assessing the quality of laboratory data

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

PAGES 54-65 54 Measurement technology plays key role in righting the Costa Concordia 56 Magnetic antenna system solves problem after ban imposed on welding and epoxy on tanks 58 The evolution of secondary containment double walled steel tanks 60 How much has oil recovery improved since the Exxon Valdez spill?

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ESE Contents-May.June.14.indd 5

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Editorial Comment by Steve Davey

The importance of continued participation in associations and events

T

raditionally, most water and wastewater associations have been blessed with an abundance of volunteers. Cheerfully, they helped select seminar and conference locations, develop technical and social programs, chair sessions, organize tradeshows, liaise with government, etc. They and their employers recognized that such contributions to the associations were a vital part of networking, professional development and personal growth. For years, this pool of volunteers meant associations could offer minimal membership and conference registration fees. When I was president of the Water Environment Association of Ontario (WEAO) in 1995, over 10 per cent of the members volunteered in some capacity. In recent years, however, the changing business climate has meant the supply of volunteer labour has dried up considerably. This has forced many associations to increasingly hire paid professional staff members, to undertake the day-to-day operations. Others have also had to retain professional show management companies to facilitate their events. At the same time, as part of cost control, some managers in the consulting and government sectors, are choosing not to send staff to association events, or even support their membership. This WUHQGKDVKHOSHGVWLĂ€HDVVRFLDWLRQPHPbership growth and often curtailed attendance at association events. While at this year’s WEAO conference, I spoke to several consulting engineers and municipal plant operators, who said they could only attend because the event offered free tradeshow admission and because they took vacation time. For many consulting engineers I spoke to, the barrier to getting manager approval to attend is more than the event registration fee. Unless they go on their own time, attending cuts “billable hoursâ€? they generate for their ÂżUP,SRVWXODWHGWKDWSHUKDSVLWÂśVDOVR because they don’t want to invest too

6 | May/June 2014

Steve Comment_May.June.14.indd 6

WEFTEC 2013 was held in Chicago, attracting 22,589 attendees and 971 exhibitors. Its technical program featured more than 1,000 presentations.

heavily in a staffer’s professional development as the duration of employment at a consulting company seems to have shortened considerably in recent years. In essence, why pay to train a potential future competitor? These are very disturbing situations. Water and wastewater plants are essentially $10 million to $200 million 24/7 processing plants, that ensure both public health and environmental protection. As such, it should stand to reason that owners of these plants, with the inherent legal liability that entails, would want the people designing them and the operators running them to be experienced, quali¿HGKLJKO\PRWLYDWHGDQGUHVRXUFHIXO Recognizing the need for operator professional development, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) - and many of its regional Canadian associations – launched annual Operations Challenge competitions in 1988. The ¿UVWDQGVHFRQGSODFHWHDPVLQDUHJLRQal Challenge are then eligible to participate in the North America-wide Operations Challenge, which takes place at WEF’s annual conference. Over the years, many Operations Challenge participants have explained to me that preparing for these events, means learning much more than they would otherwise have had to for dayto-day work. Also, there are the extra EHQH¿WV RI GHYHORSLQJ D IDFHWRIDFH network of colleagues from other plants and regions, and sharing knowledge and experience with them.

Regional association shows are great for learning, networking and meeting equipment suppliers. However, many engineers and operators have told me WKDW LW ZDV QRW XQWLO WKH\ ZHUH ÂżQDOO\ able to attend such huge events as ACE DQG :()7(& WKDW WKH\ ZHUH ÂżQDOO\ able to see full scale pumps, valves, sludge dewatering equipment, etc., used throughout the industry. Also, due to the huge variety of exhibitors they were able to learn more about such other areas as monitoring and instrumentation products. It also gave them an idea ÂżQDOO\ RI WKH VFDOH DQG LPSRUWDQFH RI the water and wastewater sectors. Unfortunately, too many in managerial positions no longer see enough value in sending their staff to industry events. This is indeed a short-sighted “bean counterâ€? mentality. Water and wastewater plants are biologically, mechanically, and electronically complicated to design and run. As evidenced E\QXPHURXVDQGRIWHQFRVWO\ÂżQHVOHYied for operating permit violations, they break down even when run by highly TXDOLÂżHGDQGH[SHULHQFHGVWDII Surely, encouraging municipal operDWRUV WR H[FHHG WKHLU FXUUHQW TXDOLÂżcations, by supporting professional development events, like association conferences and shows, is money well spent. Steve Davey is Editor of ES&E Magazine. E-mail comments to steve@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Surge suppression tank solves water hammer issues in Niagara-on-the-Lake water system By Ryan Boone

T

he Town of Niagara-on-the -Lake is situated on the south shore of Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Niagara River. The Town owns and operates 190 km of water distribution mains and supplies 15,000 residents with drinking water. It had been experiencing issues associated with transient pressures in a 150 mm diameter asbestos cement (AC) watermain along Stewart Road. The 2300 metres long watermain was constructed in 1964. It was later extended in 1972 to service a local dairy facility. The dairy operates 24 hours per day from Monday to Friday, and has several automated pneumatically operated valves that are used for process water and cleaning operations. These valves open and close quickly, creating rapid changes in water demand. This results in velocity changes and pressure waves that are transferred back to the watermain. Transient pressure waves can cause what is commonly known as water hammer. The hammering effect results in watermain breaks as well as issues for residents connected to the system, such as pipes banging and failed hot water heaters.

Ni Niagara-on-the-Lake. th L k

Results of the pressure study clearO\ GHPRQVWUDWH WKDW VLJQL¿FDQW WUDQVLHQW pressures are occurring in the Stewart Road watermain. Maximum pressure observed in the system is nearly twice the Ministry of the Environment maximum recommended operating pressure of 700 kPa. Minimum pressure observed also exceeds the MOE guideline of 275 kPa un-

tive impacts to the operation. It was then clear that a method of managing surge pressures would be required to alleviate the watermain breaks and issues at nearby residences. Two options were explored for controlling surge pressures in the system. The ¿UVWZDVWKHLQVWDOODWLRQRIDSUHVVXUHUHOLHI valve (PRV) which would open automatically at a preset pressure to relieve surge Water Pressure kPa (psi) SUHVVXUHE\DOORZLQJZDWHUWRÀRZRXWRI the system. However, this option presented Average 593 (86) some challenges, such as rapid cycling of Pressure investigation Maximum 1365 (198) the PRV, which would lead to premature R.V. Anderson Associates Limited failure of the valve. Also, the pressure re(RVA) was retained by the Town to inMinimum 20 (3) OLHIYDOYHZRXOGQHHGWREHFRQ¿JXUHGWR vestigate solutions to this water hammer close very slowly, or it too would become problem. As part of the investigation, a Table 1: Measured water pressures. another source of transient pressures. This SUHVVXUH ORJJHU ZDV LQVWDOOHG RQ D ¿UH hydrant located near the dairy to record der normal conditions and 140 kPa under slow closing action would lead to large volsystem pressures. Special consideration ¿UHÀRZFRQGLWLRQV7KHIRUPHULVHVWDE- umes of wasted water, and, therefore, inwas given to the pressure at the hydrant lished to ensure adequate system pressure ÀDWHGFRVWVIRUWKH7RZQ'LVSRVLQJRIWKH whenever it dropped below 310 kPA or is available for all connected services. The ZDVWHGZDWHULQDQHFRQRPLFDQGHI¿FLHQW increased above 760 kPa. The pressure latter is established to ensure the system matter also presented challenges. For these reasons, it was determined ORJJHUZDVFRQ¿JXUHGWRUHFRUGV\VWHP remains pressurized even under extreme pressures at eight times per second when demand conditions, so as not to take on that the installation of a pressure relief outside of this range, and at one time per groundwater and possible contamination. YDOYH ZDV QRW D SUDFWLFDO RU HI¿FLHQW solution. second when inside the range. The rapRecommendations The second option was the installation id record rate was utilized to ensure that Following the completion of the of a bladder type surge suppression tank the fast acting pressure waves associated with transient events were captured in pressure study, RVA recommended im- at the dairy. The tank mitigates effects of provements that could be implemented surge pressures by reducing the amplitude the recorded data. The data observed over a period of LQSKDVHV7KH¿UVWZDVWRVORZGRZQWKH of the pressure wave. After consultation approximately one week is summarized opening and closing of the pneumatically with staff at the Town and the dairy, it was in Table 1. A detailed plot of the mea- actuated valves at the dairy facility. This determined that installing a bladder surge sured pressures over a 24 hour period can option was reviewed with the dairy, but it tank was a workable solution. could not be implemented without negacontinued overleaf... be seen in Figure 1. 8 | May/June 2014

57 MJ.14_Mitig.Water Hamr.indd 8

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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www.esemag.com

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Water Supply With the tank in service, surges developing at the fast acting valves travel back to the tank where the kinetic energy is absorbed by a heavy duty bladder and air cushion inside it. The energy of the transient event is eventually dissipated by the expansion and contraction of the bladder, much in the same way that a car’s shock absorbers work. Surge tank suppliers were called upon to determine the preferred size of the tank, based on system variables such DVSUHVVXUHÀRZDQGZDWHUXVHFKDUDFteristics. Once a suitable location was LGHQWL¿HGDWWKHGDLU\DVXUJHWDQNZDV installed and connected to the incoming ZDWHUVXSSO\OLQH7RFRQ¿UPWKHEHQH¿WV RI WKH VXUJH WDQN D SUHVVXUH ORJJHU ZDVRQFHDJDLQLQVWDOOHGRQWKH¿UHK\drant outside of the dairy. The results show that the surge tank VLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHGWKHXSVXUJHV DERYH static pressure) experienced in the system as a result of the dairy’s operations. There was also a modest improvement to the GRZQVXUJHV EHORZVWDWLFSUHVVXUH 7KH down-surges may represent the inability of the existing watermain to supply the GDLU\CVLQVWDQWDQHRXVZDWHUGHPDQGV 6HH Figure 1 and 2). The replacement of the existing 150 mm diameter asbestos-cement watermain with a new 200 mm diameter PVC watermain was also recommended to the Town. The watermain has reached the end of its service life, likely shortened by the frequency and severity of the transient pressures in the system. These pres-

Figure 1: Stewart Road watermain pressure - before surge tank.

Figure 2: Stewart Road watermain pressure - after surge tank.

sures have led to the weakening of the diameter pipe will lead to decreased vepipe and it is no longer reliable. locities, also helping to moderate surge Replacing the watermain with a larg- pressures. er diameter pipe will also help to further mitigate the transient events in the sysRyan Boone is with R.V. Anderson WHPDVZHOODVLQFUHDVLQJDYDLODEOH¿UH Associates Limited. ÀRZV DORQJ 6WHZDUW 5RDG 7KH ODUJHU Email: rboone@rvanderson.com

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Water Supply

Eighty-eight kilometre long water pipeline installed by HDD in rural Alberta

I

n early 2006, the Province of Alberta announced its decision to begin twinning Highway 63, the province’s deadliest road. This two-lane undivided highway is the only all-weather road that connects booming Fort McMurray to its southern neighbours. In order to accommodate the widening, the Village of Wandering River’s existing water treatment plant had to be demolished. This meant creating a new potable water supply source for the community. Wandering River is located in northeastern Alberta, 95 km from the Town of Athabasca and 200 km from Fort McMurray. Despite Wandering River’s population of approximately 100 people, its relative remoteness along Highway 63 makes it of strategic importance to the 11,000 vehicles that travel to and from the Alberta oil sands region daily. Athabasca County and Alberta Transportation determined that a regional potable water supply would be the most appropriate replacement water source, due to a combination of factors. These included the quality of water available through the recently constructed Aspen Regional Water system, the remoteness of the community relative to the popXODWLRQ WKH KLJK GHPDQG IRU TXDOL¿HG water treatment plant operators, future demand projections for the community and changing standards for drinking water quality in Alberta. ,Q DGGLWLRQ WR EHLQJ D QHW EHQH¿W WR the community of Wandering River, a regional water system extension also enabled a connection to the community of Grassland, 55 km to the south. Farms and acreage owners along the proposed system would also receive water service connections. This new regional line would be 88 km in length, extending from Boyle to Wandering River via Grassland, including a new potable water reservoir at :DQGHULQJ 5LYHU DQG UHVHUYRLU PRGL¿cations at Grassland.

12 | May/June 2014

59 MJ.14_Wandering River Stantec.indd 12

The pump room in the new Wandering River reservoir building.

Design-build process In order to achieve cost and schedule certainty on this time and budget sensitive project, the County and Alberta Transportation elected to proceed with a GHVLJQEXLOGGHOLYHU\PRGHOWKH¿UVWRI its kind in the province. This approach allowed the owner to reduce overall delivery timelines of the project by as much as 50 per cent. This project was also seen as a test case for the application of the design-build process in future regional water systems in Alberta. 7KURXJK D ¿YH PRQWK SURFHVV WKDW began in 2011 and included pre-quali¿FDWLRQ VXEPLWWDO RI SURSRVDOV E\ GHsign-build proponents, interviews and due diligence, Athabasca County selected Graham Design Builders, along with their key partners Stantec Consulting Ltd. and Pidherney’s Inc. The design-build team was awarded the project in late July 2011. Pipeline construction began in early September of that year, with a contract mandated completion of December 2012. Terms of reference With a 16 month design and construction period, the project was split

into three segments with separate inWHUQDOGHDGOLQHV7KH¿UVWVHJPHQWFRQsisted of a 33 km pipeline from Boyle to Grassland, with the second segment being the remaining 55 km of pipeline from Grassland to Wandering River. The Wandering River reservoir/pump KRXVHPDGHXSWKH¿QDOVHJPHQWRIWKH project. The owner’s engineer, Associated Engineering, supplied Terms of Reference for the project, which aided in streamlining the design process. These included several key parameters for the project including: • An alignment that extended primarily along municipal road allowances, with an additional 5 m right of way added to each side of the road. • System supply pressures, ranging from 98 to 560 kPa. • A minimum waterline internal diameter of 155 mm. • A minimum line pressure of 98 kPa at any point in the system. • A pipeline design flow of 2.5 L/s for Grassland and 1.5 L/s for Wandering River. • A 520 m3 two cell reservoir at Wandering River, with peak hour distribution pumping capacity of 2.34 L/s and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply a distribution system ranging in pressure from 350 – 550 kPa. • Truck-fill systems at Grassland and Wandering River, each with a capacity of 14 L/s. The pipeline Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) was selected as the choice method of installation for the pipeline, due to the tight timelines of this project. Drilling greatly reduces potential environmental impacts through minimum disturbance during construction activities. It is exempt from the requirement to obtain an approval under the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA). This exemption allowed for a reduction in the overall project timeline of up to six months. While scheduling impacts were the driving factor in the selection of HDD installation, it was also recognized that this method added value to the project in other areas. HDD reduced disturbed lands by approximately 90 per cent. This minimized top soil salvage, subsoil excavation, add-mixing of soils, re-vegetation, erosion, and crop dam-

age, while preserving the natural habitat for wildlife. In cultivated areas it minimized crop damage and reclamation required by private land owners. As a large portion of the waterline was installed within County road rightsof way, this approach also minimized disruption to motorists and limited the need to disturb private lands. Pipe selection High density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe is more commonly used in HDD installations. However, in this case the larger internal diameter of fusible polyvinyl chloride (FPVC) pipe allowed the use of 150mm nominal diameter pipe (155mm internal diameter). The greater wall thickness of HDPE pipe would have required the use of 200mm nominal diameter pipe. By downsizing the pipe diameter, the project was able to offer a cost savings to the client. FPVC Dimension Ration 26 pipe was suitable for HDD installation, providing the hydraulics required for the system and suitable pull strength to achieve cost-effective drill length. The pipe was manu-

factured by IPEX at its plant in Edmonton, Alberta, and delivered to the site over a four month period beginning in September 2011. This application of FPVC pipe represents both the largest project by length of directionally drilled FPVC and length of FPVC installed to date in the world. Fusing in winter As construction of the pipeline began in September, fusing of the FPVC pipe was scheduled to continue through Alberta’s winter months, which resulted in less than ideal fusing conditions. To address this, pipe fusing operations RFFXUUHG LQVLGH D SDLU RI UHWUR¿WWHG LQsulated shipping containers. Set endto-end, this allowed for a temperature controlled environment for fusing operations, pipe cooling and data collection. Fusing generally took place one to two weeks in advance of pipeline installation, and the shipping container shelter was relocated as needed. Wandering River Reservoir The new Wandering River Reservoir

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Water Supply was designed to meet the minimum requirement of 520m3 of active storage, ZLWKDWZRFHOOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQ7KLVSURYLGHGWKHFDSDELOLW\WRLVRODWHDFHOOIRU cleaning or other maintenance, without GLVUXSWLQJ RSHUDWLRQV $OVR LQFOXGHG LQ WKH UHVHUYRLU GHVLJQ ZDV D WUXFN¿OO V\VWHPDODEDVWDQGE\JHQHUDWRUWKUHH GLVWULEXWLRQSXPSVGHVLJQHGWRSURYLGH \HDUSHDNÀRZGHPDQGVDQGDVWDQGE\SXPS6SDFHZDVDOORFDWHGIRUD¿UH SXPSVKRXOG:DQGHULQJ5LYHU¶VGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPEHXSJUDGHGLQWKHIXWXUH WRHQDEOH¿UHÀRZGHOLYHU\ $GGLWLRQDO IXWXUH SODQQLQJ ZDV LQFRUSRUDWHGLQWRWKHGHVLJQDOORZLQJIRU a twinning of the reservoir, should the FRPPXQLW\JURZEH\RQGLWV\HDUGHVLJQKRUL]RQ Grassland Fill Point 7KH *UDVVODQG )LOO 3RLQW FRPSRQHQW RI WKH SURMHFW FRQVLVWHG RI D UHWUR¿W RI WKH H[LVWLQJ *UDVVODQG :DWHU 7UHDWPHQW 3ODQWDQGSRWDEOHZDWHUVWRUDJHUHVHUYRLU 7KHSURMHFWLQFOXGHGUHPRYDORIH[LVWLQJ ZDWHUWUHDWPHQWSODQWHTXLSPHQWWKHDGdition of a metering-run for water from

Shipping container shelter configuration used for fusing in winter conditions.

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*UDVVODQG )LOO 3RLQW ,W ZDV GHVLUHG SULPDULO\WRLQFUHDVHDFWLYHFKRULQHUHVLGXDO LQWKHQHZZDWHUOLQHEHWZHHQ*UDVVODQG DQG :DQGHULQJ 5LYHU 7KH OLQH UXQV IRU DSSUR[LPDWHO\NPZLWKDQHVWLPDWHG travel time in the order of two weeks, unGHUDYHUDJHGD\GHPDQGFRQGLWLRQV 7KLVFKDQJHSUHVHQWHGVXEVWDQWLDOGHVLJQFKDOOHQJHVGXHWRWKHKLJKSUHVVXUH LQWKHV\VWHP !N3D DWWKHLQMHFWLRQ SRLQWWKHORZÀRZLQWKHOLQHDQGWKHUHTXLUHGDGGLWLRQVRIERWKFKORULQHDQGDPPRQLD DW *UDVVODQG WR DFKLHYH D KLJKHU FKORUDPLQH FRQFHQWUDWLRQ7KH ORZ DPPRQLDGRVLQJZDVHVSHFLDOO\SUREOHPDWic, as ammonia solutions were not comPHUFLDOO\DYDLODEOHLQFRQFHQWUDWLRQVORZ HQRXJKWRDFFRPPRGDWHV\VWHPÀRZV 8OWLPDWHO\LWZDVGHWHUPLQHGWKDWWKH PRVW RSHUDWLRQDOO\ HI¿FLHQW DQG FRVWHIfective method to achieve the desired OHYHORIFKORUDPLQHGRVLQJLQWKHV\VWHP was to mix an ammonia solution on-site, XVLQJ DPPRQLD LQ SRZGHU IRUP $ WZR ZHHNVXSSO\RIGRVLQJVROXWLRQLVVWRUHG LQGLVWULEXWLRQFRQWDLQHUV7KHFKORUDPLQH ERRVWHU V\VWHPV ZHUH GHVLJQHG WR EH ORFDWHG ZLWKLQ WKH IRRWSULQW RI WKH XQXVHG ZDWHUWUHDWPHQWSODQWFODUL¿HUVDQG¿OWHUV Project execution One of the unique characteristics of WKLVSURMHFWLVWKDWLWZDVGHVLJQHGFRQVWUXFWHG DQG SXW LQWR RSHUDWLRQ LQ MXVW  PRQWKV 7KH TXLFN WXUQDURXQG EHWZHHQ DZDUG DQG FRQVWUXFWLRQ VWDUWXS ZDVDWWULEXWHGWRDIDVWWUDFNLQJRIPDQ\ RI WKH GHVLJQ DQG UHJXODWRU\ DSSURYDO

14 | May/June 2014

59 MJ.14_Wandering River Stantec.indd 14

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:37 PM


Water Supply activities. For example, many approvals for crossing of foreign highways and pipelines and powerlines, as well as environmental features were sought concurrently. Construction proceeded in areas where approvals were in place, even if approvals were still outstanding in nearby areas. While this approach led to several remobilizations across the alignment in the early months of construction, it was considered necessary to ensure project timelines were met. Overall, the directional drilling comSRQHQWRIWKHSURMHFWSURFHHGHGZHOOÂżQishing in April 2012, two months ahead of schedule. Commissioning of the work ZDV FRPSOHWHG LQ VHJPHQWV ÂżUVW ZLWK “bump testsâ€?, or short duration pressure tests, undertaken in advance of system swabbing. This was followed by full length pressure testing and disinfection. &RPPLVVLRQLQJ RI WKH ÂżUVW VHJPHQW of the line, from Boyle to Grassland occurred over a six week period in January and February. It was brought into service in mid-February. Commissioning of the second segment, from Grassland to Wandering River was completed in July ÂżYHPRQWKVDKHDGRIVFKHGXOH Warmer than average temperatures in January and February 2012 allowed for construction of the reservoir to begin ahead of schedule. Though there were a number of small delays common to the region, such as the delay in installation RI WKH JDV XWLOLW\ WHPSHUDWXUH Ă€XFWXD-

Reservoir commissioning with the majority of stakeholders represented.

tions during reservoir leakage testing DQG D QXPEHU RI WUXFNÂżOO UHGHVLJQV construction proceeded smoothly. Despite the challenges, the reservoir was completed and put into service in September 2012, three months ahead of schedule. With this project, Alberta embarked RQDVLJQLÂżFDQWQHZFKDSWHULQWKHFRQstruction of potable water systems. The design-build team undertook this project with the understanding that success or failure here would directly impact future opportunities to carry forward the design-build methodology for other municipal water systems. Through a committed team effort from the owners, operators, designers, contractors, sub-contractors and others, this project ZDVDGHÂżQLWHVXFFHVV The innovative technologies employed in the completion of this project

served to reduce costs, decrease construction timelines, minimize environmental impacts, and reduce disturbance to private land owners and motorists. Wandering River’s Pipeline/Reservoir provides a long-term, reliable solution for clean and safe drinking water to key communities along the Alberta energy corridor and the rural residents in between for many years to come. It was completed on budget and ahead of schedule. Recognition The project won a 2014 Award of Excellence for Water Resources and Energy Production from the Consulting Engineers of Alberta, and 2013 Project of the Year from the Alberta Public Works Association. For more information, E-mail: heather.dean@stantec.com

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59 MJ.14_Wandering River Stantec.indd 15

Soil Sampling Gas Probes & Monitoring Wells Injection Well Installations Well Maintenance Decommissioning Soil Cuttings Removal Mobile Water Treatment

LandsharkDrilling.ca May/June 2014 | 15

5/27/14 11:37 PM


Education

City of London initiates stormwater education program

O

il/grit separators (OGS) are a key tool in combating the non-point source pollution that accounts for 80 per cent of water pollution in North America. However, municipalities still face a big challenge, as many property owners don’t know they need to perform occasional cleanouts, or are simply unwilling to do this. Oil/grit separators must be emptied once every one to 10 years, depending on various factors. Severe winters with heavy runoff of water and road sand, or construction site erosion, for example, can accelerate the need for maintenance. Unfortunately, many businesses are unaware the device even exists under their property, and others balk at paying to have them serviced. “OGS devices single-handedly have the potential to immediately impact water quality. But we found a lack of awareness of oil/grit separators, their importance, their locations, and their maintenance requirements,â€? says Barry 2UU 6HZHU &RPSOLDQFH 2IÂżFHU IRU WKH City of London. The City of London embarked on a campaign to educate residents and business owners about the importance of oil/ grit separator maintenance. The proactive efforts include printed materials, in-person conversations and training, and adding OGS maintenance to business license requirements. A video on the City’s web site explains the devices in layman’s terms, with an entertaining approach designed to foster positive understanding and support. Along with raising general awareness, Orr is working to ease the burden of tracking all of the OGS devices across his jurisdiction. Having the capability to do so, would help enforce current or future maintenance requirements. A software pilot program, currently in development, will help his team track the devices and, by interacting with other departments, will automatically increase their numbers in newly built areas.

16 | May/June 2014

63 MJ.14_City London Storm.indd 16

Downtown London seen from the Thames river.

Stormceptor cutaway.

The Stormceptor oil/grit separator, manufactured in Ontario by Hanson Pipe & Precast and one of several OGS devices on the market, is a unique preFDVW FRQFUHWH GHYLFH WKDW ¿OWHUV UXQRII from hard-scaped surfaces, removing particles from 20 to 20,000 microns, along with free oils, heavy metals and QXWULHQWVWKDWDWWDFKWR¿QHVHGLPHQW The City of London’s work to increase awareness and maintenance of

oil/grit separators is just one component of a larger effort to educate the public on proper waste disposal and its impact on the local environment. This includes reaching out to the auto service industry about oil disposal, and teaching school children that toilets are not garbage cans. Hal Stratford is with Hanson Pipe & Precast. E-mail: hal.stratford@hanson.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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63 MJ.14_City London Storm.indd 17

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Wastewater Treatment

Removing phosphorus and nitrogen helps restore Swedish lake system

T

he historic university city of VäxjĂś, situated in the south of Sweden, is surrounded by beautiful lakes. For generations, the lakes had been harmed by serious indusWULDORXWĂ€RZVDQGLQFUHDVLQJOHYHOVRIUDZ sewage close to populated areas. It was calculated in the early 1970s, that one of the interconnecting system of lakes, Norra Bergundasjon, was receiving some ÂżYHWLPHVWKHDPRXQWRISKRVSKRUXVWKDW it could naturally absorb. This caused unsightly algae blooms, which led to eutrophic oxygen depletion and failure of the system to support aquatic life. 7KHÂżUVWVWHSLQWKHFLW\ÂśVSDWKWREHcoming the “Greenest City In Europe,â€? was to restore the lakes. This work started in the 1970s, with dredging to remove phosphorus leaking from lake bed sediments. Lake Trummen, the largest lake in WKHV\VWHPZDVWKHÂżUVWLQWKHZRUOGWR undergo dredging for this situation. Next, the phosphorus level discharged E\ 9l[M|ÂśV ZDVWHZDWHU WUHDWPHQW SODQW had to be reduced. At the same time nitrogen removal was necessary. This involves a two stage process, which converts ammonia to nitrates and helps increase lake oxygen levels. By discharging nitrates to the oxygen depleted lake waters, the bound oxygen in the nitrates can be consumed by micro-organisms. This creative and unusual solution is appropriate in

The finer slurry is pumped up to two sedimentation basins where it is sedimented out. Prior to the installation of the DynaSand plant these finer slag particles would have been simply discharged in the plant’s wastewater.

these circumstances. However, it would tend to cause problems if attempted in oxygen-rich waters, where the nitrates would be unlikely to break down. Nitrogen removal created a challenge, as the existing WWTP was too close to other properties to allow adding a nitriÂżFDWLRQSODQW7KLVPHDQWDQHZ::73 had to be designed and built, incorporating best available technology at the time. The Sundet WWTP was commissioned in 1994 and has a two-stage phosSKRUXV UHPRYDO SURFHVV 7KH ÂżUVW VWDJH

is located between the initial mechanical treatment and biological treatment processes. Chemicals are added to precipLWDWH SKRVSKRUXV ÀRFV ZKLFK DUH WKHQ removed by sedimentation. Locating the ¿UVWVWDJHRISKRVSKRUXVUHPRYDOEHIRUH biological treatment, allows removal of phosphorus laden sludge. This improves WKHQLWUL¿FDWLRQSURFHVV The second stage occurs in the continXRXV VDQG ¿OWHUV ZKLFK DUH WKH ODVW HOHment in the treatment process chain. This VWDJH FRQVLVWV RI  '\QD6DQG ¿OWHUV

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18 | May/June 2014

48 MJ.14_Swedish Lake.indd 18

www.parsons.com

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Wastewater Treatment from Nordic Water Products. Each of the six separate treatment lines in the plant is equipped with 10 units, housed in concrete structures/basins. At the time, the plant was one of the biggest continuous ¿OWHUSODQWVLQWKHZRUOGDQGWKH¿UVW'\QD6DQGV\VWHPLQ6ZHGHQWRXVHFRQFUHWH EDVLQV7RWDO¿OWHUDUHDLVP2 and the ¿OWUDWLRQUDWHLV¿YHWRWHQPHWUHVSHUKRXU 7KH SURFHGXUH LQ WKLV VWDJH LV YHU\ VLPLODU WR WKH ¿UVW WKH PDLQ GLIIHUHQFH EHLQJWKDWWKHÀRFVDUHUHPRYHGE\¿Otration and to a greater extent. The same ÀRF EXLOGLQJ DJHQWV DUH DGGHG MXVW EHIRUHWKHÀRZHQWHUVWKH¿OWHUSODQWZLWKout retention basins. It means that both ÀRFFXODWLRQFRDJXODWLRQDQGUHPRYDORI WKHÀRFVRFFXULQWKHFRQWLQXRXVPRYLQJ ¿OWHU EHG )ORFV UHPRYHG E\ WKH ¿OWHUV are then channelled back to the plant’s LQÀRZIRUUHWUHDWPHQW 7KH9l[M|SODQWZDVFRQVWUXFWHGIRU D SRSXODWLRQ HTXLYDOHQW RI  RI which 20,000 was designated from inGXVWULDOVRXUFHV$YHUDJHGDLO\LQÀRZDW WKH WLPH RI FRPPLVVLRQLQJ ZDV  m ZLWK D GHVLJQ ÀRZ RI  P/hr, ZLWK D PD[LPXP RI WZLFH WKDW YROXPH

In the DynaSand filter, fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled without interruption to the filtration process.

Total cost of the plant, including associ-

ated pump stations and pipework, was PLOOLRQ6ZHGLVKNURQD 7RWDOSKRVSKRUXVOHYHOVKDYHEHHQFRQVLVWHQWO\ UHGXFHG E\ DURXQG  SHU FHQW RYHU WKH ¿OWHUV DFKLHYLQJ DYHUDJH RXWOHW OHYHOVDURXQGPJO'HVLJQFULWHULDDOORZHG IRU D PD[LPXP OHYHO RI  PJO 6XVSHQGHGVROLGVKDYHEHHQUHGXFHGDWWKH RXWOHWE\EHWZHHQDQGSHUFHQWEXW W\SLFDOO\ZLWKLQWKHSHUFHQWUDQJH 7KLV UHSUHVHQWV DURXQG  PJO LQ QRUPDO RSHUDWLRQ'HVLJQSDUDPHWHUVDOORZXSWR PJO&KHPLFDOR[\JHQGHPDQGKDVDOVR IDOOHQZLWKWKH'\QD6DQG¿OWHUVW\SLFDOO\ UHGXFLQJLWE\SHUFHQW $VHSDUDWHSURMHFWDOORZVELRJDVIURP the plant to be collected and used as a fuel, WRKHOSSRZHUWKHFLW\¶VÀHHWRIYHKLFOHV %\ WKHVH FULWHULD DORQH WKH 6XQGHW Municipal waste water treatment plant is DVXFFHVVVWRU\%XWWKHORQJWHUPJRDORI FOHDQLQJXSWKHODNHV\VWHPLVDOVRVHHQ DVDVXFFHVVVWRU\5HVLGHQWVDQGYLVLWRUV FDQ QRZ VZLP HQMR\ ZDWHU VSRUWV DQG FDWFKFUD\¿VKLQWKHKHDUWRI9l[M| For more information, E-mail: mfeldthusen@nordicwater.se

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48 MJ.14_Swedish Lake.indd 19

May/June 2014 | 19

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Information Management

How GIS can be optimized to better help environmental sustainability By Indranil Seth

G

eographical information systems (GIS) can play a pivotal role in mitigating natural calamities and halting the negative impact of climate change, two important issues facing us today. One way to achieve sustainability in social, environmental and economic areas, is to increase cooperation and make spatial data accessible, compatible and analyzable. There needs to be more value-based interaction between GIS specialists and H[SHUWVLQWKHHQJLQHHULQJDQGVFLHQWL¿F community who are working on sustainability issues. This will facilitate a more common platform of understanding and knowledge sharing, no doubt leading to better utilization of GIS’s muscle power. GIS can serve as a medium for data integration which can prove to be very ben- towards planning and problem solving. H¿FLDO LQ GHWHUPLQLQJ WKH EHVW PDQDJHIn this regard, the abilities of GIS as ment practices for a sustainable approach a standalone tool and/or in cooperation

with other modeling/management tools need to be utilized to the fullest extent possible. For sustainable surface water

For over two decades SPD Sales team has remained dedicated to the promotion; supply and support of instrumentation and chemical feed products for the process control market. Our highly trained and qualified personnel provides full technical application and product support to industries and municipalities, putting forward the highest quality products and instrumentation solutions for our clients. We build strong, long lasting partnerships with our clients by providing comprehensive product support and calibration services.

64 Northam Drive Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 Phone: (905) 678-2882 Fax: (905) 293-9774 Email: sales@spdsales.com w w w. s pdsales.com TF: 800-811-2811

20 | May/June 2014

50 MJ.14_Sustain.GIS Rdy.indd 20

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Information Management management, a compatible stormwater management model can be integrated with available GIS data for the drainage area. This includes using land use maps, digital elevation models and piping network maps, to analyze problems and devise solutions. Past academic research and project management experience has shown that most of the time, data is available, but from different sources. This leads to incompatibilities with data sets. Traditional tools are unlikely to be as effective as GIS in dealing with such large volumes and varied forms of data. GIS can enable us to collect data of various shapes, sizes and scales, which can then be georeferenced to make them geographically compatible. From a processing standpoint, a major hurdle in using GIS technology is obtaining the right kind of data. Agencies at various levels of functioning (whether or not using GIS) need to increase their interaction level several fold, in order for GIS to work. Scan-

QLQJ GLJLWL]DWLRQ DQG JHRUHFWLÂżFDWLRQ of non-electronic data (e.g., hard copy maps) should become more feasible and economical. Another advantage is the ease with which such complex data systems and their relationships can be better understood and focused with GIS. People-to-people and people-to-data inter-

to share information with each other. In this regard, the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering can work with Geological Survey of Canada and Environment Canada, to make GIS data more compatible and accessible. A governmental body can set guidelines for standardization of GIS data and its capabilities. While dealing with sensitive information, a network sharing only the data required for sustainable development in a particular region can be developed. This can ensure that there is no compromise on the security of any member, or participating national and international agency. As we grow increasingly dependent on technology, we need to look at ways to become more sustainable in our growth. Undoubtedly, GIS is one such technology we can rely on to make our existence more sustainable.

As we grow increasingly dependent on technology, we need to look at ways to become more sustainable in our growth. Undoubtedly, GIS is one such technology we can rely on.

www.esemag.com

50 MJ.14_Sustain.GIS Rdy.indd 21

DFWLRQV VKRXOG EH DV VLJQL¿FDQW DV GDta-to-data interactions for this purpose. Creating accessible, yet secure, data repositories at different levels of goverQDQFH ZRXOG IDFLOLWDWH D VPRRWKHU ÀRZ of information for sustainability projects. On an international level, countries having governmental and private agencies working with GIS data need

Indranil Seth, PE, LEED Green Associate, is an environmental engineer with a mining engineering background. E-mail: indranil_seth@yahoo.com

May/June 2014 | 21

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Wastewater Treatment

Reduction of algae and odours leads to increased capacity of lagoon

T

reatment of municipal wastewater in lagoon-based wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is prevalent in Canada and very cost-effective for smaller communities where land is available and inexpensive. In fact, lagoons are, by far, the most popular wastewater treatment technology, and represent over 65 per cent of all existing WWTPs in Canada (2007). Approximately 800 municipal wastewater treatment facilities are using lagoons in Canada, with 150 of them in Ontario. Lagoons are generally inexpensive to build, simple to operate and, when properly designed and maintained, produce a WUHDWHGHIĂ€XHQWWKDWFDQEHGLVFKDUJHGWR the environment with minimal impact. Community growth and increasingly stringent environmental regulations can necessitate expansion or replacement of lagoon-based systems with more costly mechanical treatment plants, unless improved performance or increased capacity can be realized through optimization approaches. While lagoons are often considered to be passive treatment processes over which the operator has limited control, the operator can take measures to improve performance, reduce costs and generally optimize operation. Improvements in lagoon operations could potentially: realize additional capacity in the SODQWLPSURYHHIĂ€XHQWTXDOLW\WRUHGXFH the impact on the natural environment DQGPHHWPRUHVWULQJHQWSHUPLWUHTXLUHments; reduce energy use and costs; reduce chemical use and costs; and, reduce odour emissions. Nakusp, British Columbia, is a community using a sewage lagoon for a segment of their wastewater treatment. Nakusp is a village located on the shores of Upper Arrow Lake, a portion of the Columbia River, in the West Kootenay region of B.C. It has a population of around 1,569 and it is known primarily for its nearby hot springs, a popular destination for tourists, as well as its picturHVTXHPRXQWDLQODNHVLGHVHWWLQJ Being close to its maximum capacity

22 | May/June 2014

65 MJ.14_Reductn of algae-odours in lagoons.indd 22

Truckload of Hexa-Covers added to the Nakusp lagoon.

for both sewer and water treatment was restricting its population growth. Nakusp needed to look at improvements to

existing wastewater treatment facility and lagoon. The inability of the sewage lagoon to empty in time for more waste input was a sign that major changes needed to be made. Mike Pedersen, Director of Operations for Nakusp, looked at alternative solutions to control the massive amounts of algae in the pretreatment lagoon. Familiar with the Hexa-CoverŽ ÀRDWLQJ WLOHV KH IHOW WKH SURGXFW FRXOG

Hexa-Covers are designed so that the tile edges will “key� into each other. After 24 hours, the covers automatically link to each other, creating the lagoon cover. its existing water treatment system. Either it needed to build an expensive, all new process or somehow upgrade the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:40 PM


Wastewater Treatment nicely cover the lagoon, controlling the algae growth as the sunlight would not be able to penetrate into the water. Additionally, the tiles would enable the DHUDWLRQ SURFHVV DQG ÀXFWXDWLQJ ZDWHU levels to continue. +H[D&RYHUÀRDWLQJWLOHVSURYLGHDQ ideal cover for all forms of surface liquid. The immediate advantages are that Hexa-Cover covers up to 99 per cent of the lagoon’s total surface. This eliminates up to 95 per cent of evaporation and ensures that organic growth such as algae is eliminated, since sunlight cannot penetrate the cover. For Nakusp, the expectation of the Hexa-Covers was that they would prohibit the algae blooms in the sewer lagoons, resulting in a reduction of the amount of sludge to be managed, and therefore, having the water reenter the river system faster. The project began in September 2013. 103,600 Hexa-Cover tiles were placed into the lagoon to completely cover the 3700 m2VXUIDFH7KHÀRDWLQJ tiles are very easily installed. They are simply poured onto the surface and, under the effects of the wind and move-

103,600 Hexa-Cover tiles were placed into the lagoon.

ment of the liquid, will form themselves into a “lidâ€?. They are designed so that the tile edges will “keyâ€? into each other. After 24 hours, the covers automatically linked to each other, creating the lagoon cover. In addition to reducing the algae growth, the Hexa-Covers offer other EHQHÂżWVVXFKDV

• There will always be free access to the liquid, for measuring, emptying, mixing, etc. • Significant reduction in odours, evaporation and emissions (up to 95 per cent). • Reduces use of chemicals and other additives. • Significant reduction in evaporation and emissions. • The need to use potentially harmful additives will be reduced. • There are no running costs incurred by their use. In fact, in most situations there will be a reduction of total costs, since water consumption will be reduced and there will be energy savings in connection with cooling and mixing of the liquid. The village has been very proactive in wastewater treatment and has been able to take advantage of provincial green technology grants. A water reclamation system and the installation of the Hexa-Covers were covered through the grant monies. For further information, visit www.greatario.com

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May/June 2014 | 23

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Water Treatment

Certified progressive cavity metering pumps help deliver chemicals safely By Kathryn DeWell

M

ost water treatment facilities recognize that environmental protection is not only the responsibility of government agencies and organizations. In fact, most municipalities use government regulations as guidelines to establish and maintain their own basic standards as “Best Practicesâ€? for water safety. As a critical component of a water treatment system process, disinfection chemical metering pumps often come under the microscope because they meter chemicals that could be potentially harmful if not handled properly. However, they are not required to be NSF FHUWLÂżHGLQGLVLQIHFWLRQV\VWHPV NSF is a global independent public health and environmental organization that provides standards development, SURGXFW FHUWLÂżFDWLRQ WHVWLQJ DXGLWLQJ education and risk management services. The NSF mark on any product DIÂżOLDWHGZLWKGULQNLQJZDWHUWUHDWPHQW processes means that it complies with all standard requirements and assures water industry stakeholders that the product will not create adverse effects on the health of those consuming the drinking water, or on the environment. NSF/ANSI 61 Standard, “Drinking Water System Components - Health Effectsâ€?, sets health effects criteria for water system components. Currently 48 U.S. states require NSF/ANSI Standard 61 compliance of any product that is manufactured, sold or distributed for water treatment and comes into contact with drinking water. Types of products requiring NSF cerWLÂżFDWLRQLQFOXGHSURWHFWLYHEDUULHUPDterials like paints or coatings, joining and sealing materials such as adhesives, mechanical devices, water meters or valves, plumbing and piping related devices, and non-metallic potable water materials. This is essentially every component of a water treatment system. However, the USEPA’s Safe Drinking Water Act guidelines for drinking water treatment plants

24 | May/June 2014

42-Cavity Metering Pumps.indd 24

“The FerratorŽ� produces ferrate, a water treatment chemical generated onsite at water treatment facilities.

do not require NSF compliance for all mechanical chemical feeders. This is because feeders do not come in contact with ÂżQLVKHG GULQNLQJ ZDWHU RU SRVWWUHDWHG water in the distribution system. Metering pumps are used as feeders, primarily to convey and deliver precise dosage of chemicals for pretreatment during the drinking water treatment process. NSF 61 Section 8 provides a guidance for “high rate feedersâ€?, a category metering pumps fall into, and states a minimum ratio allowance, calculated on the basis of an area of the wetted surfacHVWRDVSHFLÂżFYROXPHRIZDWHUWUHDWHG This allows the exemption by a waiver allowance of appropriate Diluted Surface Area (DSA) ratio calculation meetLQJDVSHFLÂżFWKUHVKROGOHYHO0HWHULQJ pumps qualify for exemption with the '6$UDWLRFDOFXODWHGSHUDGHVLJQÂśVĂ€RZ UDWHIRUDVSHFLÂżFSODQWĂ€RZWKURXJKSXW However, as stated previously, many facilities require all parts of their treatment systems, including their metering SXPSVWREHFRQVWUXFWHGRI16)FHUWLÂżHG components as part of their own “Best Practicesâ€?, regardless of this omission. Ferrate Treatment Technologies,

LLC (FTT) is one such company utilizing “Best Practices�. FTT manufactures “The FerratorŽ� which produces ferrate, a water treatment chemical generated on-site at water treatment facilities. It is extremely powerful, environmentally friendly, and will not create disinfection byproducts. Ferrate is synthesized in a temperature-controlled reaction using FRPPHUFLDOJUDGHFKHPLFDOIHHGVWRFNV 50% sodium hydroxide, 13% sodium hypochlorite, and 40% ferric chloride. When dosed into water as a liquid, ferrate acts simultaneously as a disinfectant, oxidant, and coagulant. It will readily destroy all microorganisms; inactivate micro constituents such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products; oxidize organics and colour and odour-causing compounds; coagulate suspended material; and co-precipitate metals. In order to place their product in municipalities requiring total NSF compliance, it was essential that every component of FTT’s water treatment innovation be in compliance with NSF/ANSI 61 standards, including the chemical metering pumps. continued overleaf...

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Water Treatment Craig Alig, an Environmental EnJLQHHU DQG &KLHI 2SHUDWLQJ 2I¿FHU RI )77ZDVWDVNHGZLWKFKRRVLQJDSXPS WHFKQRORJ\WKDWZDVQRWRQO\16)$16,  6WDQGDUG FHUWL¿HG EXW WKDW ZDV DOVR FDSDEOHRIUHOLDEO\DQGSUHFLVHO\PHWHULQJDQGEOHQGLQJWKHYDULHW\RIIHHGVWRFN FKHPLFDOVQHHGHGWRSURGXFHIHUUDWH The initial design of FTT’s water WUHDWPHQW LQQRYDWLRQ LQFOXGHG GLDSKUDJPSXPSVDVWKHPDLQSXPSLQJHOHPHQWV+RZHYHUSXOVDWLRQDQGEOHQGLQJLVVXHVVRRQSURYHGWREHDSUREOHP )77GHFLGHGWRUHPRYHWKUHHGLDSKUDJP SXPSV DQG UHSODFH WKHP ZLWK SURJUHVVLYHFDYLW\SXPSV 3&3 ZKLFKSURYLGHGEHWWHUEOHQGLQJDQGÀRZFRQWURO 7KHXQLTXHGHVLJQRID3&3RIIHUHG VHYHUDO DGYDQWDJHV 7KLV LV GXH WR WKH VLPSOH SULQFLSOH RI WKH SXPSLQJ HOHPHQWZKLFKHPSOR\VDPHWDOURWRUDQG DUXEEHUVWDWRU7KHURWRUURWDWHVLQVLGH RIWKHVWDWRUIRUPLQJWZRFDYLWLHVDWWKH VXFWLRQ HQG RI WKH VWDWRU 2QH FDYLW\ FORVHVDVWKHRWKHURSHQVDQGWKHFDYLties progress from one end of the stator WR WKH RWKHU 7KH UHVXOW LV FRQWLQXRXV

26 | May/June 2014

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As a critical component of a water treatment system process, disinfection chemical metering pumps often come under the microscope.

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Water Treatment ZHUH QHHGHG 2WKHU EHQHÂżWV LQFOXGHG ORZ VKHDU UDWHV UXQGU\ DQG RYHUSUHV VXUH SURWHFWLRQ DQG QR YDSRXU ORFN 7KH3&3VDOVRKDGFRPSRQHQWVPDGHRI VSHFLDOL]HG PDWHULDOV MXVW IRU FKHPLFDO SURFHVVLQJWKDWZLOOUHVLVWZHDUDQGKROG XSLQFDXVWLFHQYLURQPHQWV %XWWKHUHZDVVWLOOWKHLVVXHRISURS HUFHUWLÂżFDWLRQLQÂżQGLQJDSURJUHVVLYH FDYLW\ SXPS WHFKQRORJ\ WKDW ZRUNHG ZHOO IRU WKHLU ZDWHU WUHDWPHQW LQQRYD WLRQ 'HVSLWH FKHPLFDO IHHGHUV QRW EH LQJUHTXLUHGWREH16)FHUWLÂżHGPDQ\ SRWHQWLDO HQGXVHUV RI )77ÂśV SURGXFW UHIXVHGWRLQFOXGHLQWKHLUIDFLOLW\DV\V WHP WKDW ZDV QRW HQWLUHO\ FRPSRVHG RI 16)FHUWLÂżHGSURGXFWV 7KH JHQHUDO FRQVHQVXV LV WKDW LI D WUHDWPHQWFKHPLFDOLVJHQHUDWHGRQVLWH QR HTXLSPHQW XVHG LQ WKH JHQHUDWLRQ SURFHVVFDQEHLQFRQWDFWZLWKDFKHP LFDOWREHDSSOLHGWRGULQNLQJZDWHUXQ OHVVWKHHTXLSPHQWKDVEHHQWHVWHGDQG FHUWLÂżHG DV PHHWLQJ WKH VSHFLÂżFDWLRQV RI16)$16,6WDQGDUG7KHUHDVRQ LQJLVWKDWLIWKHHTXLSPHQWWKDWFRPHV LQ FRQWDFW ZLWK WKH ZDWHU QHHGV WR EH

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$OLJ H[SODLQV ZK\ WKH FHUWL¿FDWLRQ RI WKH FKHPLFDO PHWHULQJ 3&3V XVHG LQ )77œV ZDWHU WUHDWPHQW LV LPSRUWDQW ³)HUUDWHLVDWUHDWPHQWFKHPLFDOJHQHU DWHG RQVLWH DW WKH SRLQW RI XVH E\ WKH )HUUDWRU (YHU\WKLQJ WKDW LV WRXFKHG E\WKHSURGXFWWKDWJRHVLQWRWKHZDWHU WKDW VRPHRQH GULQNV PXVW EH FRYHUHG ZLWK16)FHUWL¿FDWLRQWRHQVXUHZHDUH QRW DGGLQJ DQ\WKLQJ WR[LF ,I ZH XVH D QRQFHUWL¿HGSXPSZHDUHWDNLQJDULVN WKDWRXUV\VWHPFRXOGSRWHQWLDOO\H[FHHG 16) FHUWL¿FDWLRQ VSHFL¿FDWLRQV RI WKH HQGSURGXFW ³)77XVHVD3&3DVDFKHPLFDOPL[ LQJ GHYLFH EHFDXVH LW GRHV QRW H[DFHU EDWH WKH IRUPDWLRQ RI IRDP GXULQJ WKH FKHPLFDO UHDFWLRQ ZKLFK V\QWKHVL]HV IHUUDWH :H XVH WKH GRVLQJ SURJUHVVLYH FDYLW\ SXPSV WR GHOLYHU IHUUDWH WR LWV SRLQW RI XVH SULPDULO\ EHFDXVH RI WKHLU ORZPDLQWHQDQFHZKHQWKHZHWWHGFRP SRQHQWVRIWKHSXPSDUHH[SRVHGWRIHU UDWHRYHUWLPH´ Kathryn DeWell is with seepex Inc. E-mail: kdewell@seepex.net

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Soils Management

Handling excess soil – how we got to where we are and where things are going By A.J. (Al) Durand

P

roperly handling and managing the movement of excess construction soils or “cleanâ€? dirt has been a concern over the past 20-25 years in Ontario. Given the increased scrutiny on this subject over the past few years, the requirements and approaches involved in moving excess soil, in particular, are rapidly changing for the better. To understand where we are in Ontario with respect to clean soil, it is important to understand some historical perspectives. The old adage, if you don’t learn from history, you are doomed to repeat it, certainly applies. Some of the current issues or problems in handling excess soils in Ontario go back to the late 1980s and early 1990s. During this period, the emerging focus was shifting from health and safety driven concerns to broader, longer-term environmental concerns with respect to soil, air and water contamination. With respect to soil there were no recognized “standardsâ€? or rules, beyond accepted past practices typically used E\LQGXVWU\7RÂżOOWKLVJDSIRUFRQWDPLnated properties, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment worked with industry and other jurisdictions to develop practices to address contamination levels. For soils, this initially involved adopting the original Dutch ABC criteria and a focus on hydrocarbon contamination, the most pervasive one. In the mid-1990s, the MOE introduced the “Guidelines for Contaminated Sites in Ontarioâ€?, along with other protocols and approval processes for dealing with impacted soils. As knowledge, understanding and technical capabilities improved, industry and government realised there was a need to move away from a focus on “contaminationâ€? to one of encouraging site cleanups, property remediation and reuse. The practice of EURZQÂżHOG UHPHGLDWLRQ HYROYHG RXW RI this new way of thinking. Through the efforts of the National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) and, at the provin-

28 | May/June 2014

53 MJ.14_Handling Excss Soil.indd 28

Toronto’s Union Station expansion project has meant moving large volumes of soil.

cial level, through industry, government and stakeholder consultation, meanLQJIXO EURZQÂżHOG SROLF\ DQG OHJLVODtion emerged in the early 2000s. These approaches fundamentally recognized the need for technically sound, science-based soil quality standards to be matched with protocols and incentives to encourage the responsible redevelopPHQWRIEURZQÂżHOGSURSHUWLHV In Ontario, this evolution resulted in the %URZQÂżHOG 6WDWXWH /DZ $PHQGPHQW$FW. In 2004, the adoption of the Records of Site Condition Regula-

tion (O.Reg.153/04) incorporated new, made-in-Ontario, soil quality reference tables with contaminant threshold levels based on future land use. 7KH UHJXODWLRQ IXUWKHU GHÂżQHG VRLO sampling and testing protocols and the DSSOLFDWLRQ RI VLWHVSHFLÂżF ULVN DVVHVVment approaches. O.Reg.153/04, among RWKHU WKLQJV DOVR LGHQWLÂżHG WKH QHHG WR ÂżOH D 5HFRUG RI 6LWH &RQGLWLRQ 56&  report, attesting to the environmental quality of the soil and water at a remediated property. During this period, there FRQWLQXHGRYHUOHDI

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53 MJ.14_Handling Excss Soil.indd 29

W A T E R

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Soils Management was a general reference made to “inert ¿OO´ZKLFKE\GHIDXOWEHFDPHNQRZQDV ³FOHDQVRLO´7RGD\WKLVJHQHUDOO\PHDQV 2QWDULR7DEOHVRLOTXDOLW\VWDQGDUGV 7DEOH  VRLO FULWHULD DUH EDVHG RQ EDFNJURXQGVRLOTXDOLW\GDWDUHIHUUHGWR DV WKH 2QWDULR 7\SLFDO 5DQJH FULWHULD 7KHVHQXPEHUVDUHFRQVHUYDWLYHDQGQRW ULVNEDVHG,QWKHDEVHQFHRIFOHDU GLUHFWLRQ IRU FOHDQ VRLO KDQGOLQJ WKHUHKDVEHHQDFRPPRQXQGHU VWDQGLQJ WKDW DQ\WKLQJ WKDW ZDV QRW7DEOHVKRXOGE\GHIDXOWJR WRODQG¿OOVLWHV7KLVKDVEHHQWKH JHRWHFKQLFDOHTXLYDOHQWRIWKURZ LQJ RXW WKH EDE\ ZLWK WKH EDWK ZDWHUZLWKFOHDQVRLOEHLQJWKHEDE\ ,Q WKH SDVW ¿YH \HDUV SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ ODUJHXUEDQL]HGDUHDVVXFKDVWKH*UHDWHU 7RURQWR$UHDZHKDYHVHHQDORWRIGH YHORSPHQWZRUNLQIUDVWUXFWXUHDQGFRQ VWUXFWLRQSURMHFWVJHQHUDWLQJPXFKQHHG HGMREVDQGDQH[SDQGHGUHTXLUHPHQWWR ¿QG³JRRGKRPHV´IRUH[FHVVVRLOV 7KLV KDV UDLVHG VLJQL¿FDQW FRQFHUQV SDUWLFXODUO\LQFRPPXQLWLHVVXUURXQGLQJ WKH*7$ZKHUHODUJHYROXPHVRIH[FHVV VRLOV DUH PRYHG WR FRPPHUFLDO SULYDWH

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There has been growing recognition that both excess soils and marginally impacted soils should be seen as a resource and reused, not disposed of. DWODQG¿OOV7KLVZDVODUJHO\GULYHQE\ OHJDO OLDELOLW\ FRQFHUQV XQGHU D SROOXW HUSD\UHJLPH 5HJXODWRU\ FRQFHUQV DQG VRLO GLV SRVDOHQIRUFHPHQWDFWLRQVDUHFXUUHQWO\ WULJJHUHGE\LVVXHVWKDWXQGHUWKHEnvironmental Protection ActPD\FDXVHDQ DGYHUVHHIIHFWDWWKHUHFHLYLQJVLWHDUHD 7KLVDIWHUWKHIDFWUHJXODWLRQPLVVHVWKH RSSRUWXQLW\WRHIIHFWLYHO\SODQPDQDJH DQG HQVXUH WKDW H[FHVV ³FOHDQ´ VRLO LV KDQGOHGLQDVXVWDLQDEOHPDQQHU

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53 MJ.14_Handling Excss Soil.indd 30

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Soils Management RPPHQGHGSUDFWLFHVWREHQH¿FLDOO\DQG VXVWDLQDEO\UHXVHH[FHVVVRLOV $VZLWKWKHFRQWDPLQDWHGVRLOGHYHORSPHQWVLQWKHVWKH02(KDVORRNHG WRRWKHUMXULVGLFWLRQVDQGZRUNHGZLWKWKH 1HWKHUODQGVXQGHUDPHPRUDQGXPRIXQGHUVWDQGLQJWRVKDUHEURZQ¿HOGUHPHGLDWLRQWHFKQRORJ\LQFOXGLQJVRLOKDQGOLQJ DSSURDFKHVDQGEHVWSUDFWLFHV ,Q  02( UHOHDVHG D GUDIW GRFXPHQW FDOOHG ³Soil Management – A Guide for Best Management Practices´ 7KHGRFXPHQWRXWOLQHGDIUDPHZRUNIRU PRYLQJ VRLO IURP QRQ56& SURSHUWLHV WR UHFHLYLQJ VLWHV$VVRFLDWLRQV VXFK DV WKH 2QWDULR (QYLURQPHQWDO ,QGXVWU\ $VVRFLDWLRQ WKH &DQDGLDQ %URZQ¿HOGV 1HWZRUNWKH5HVLGHQWLDODQG&LYLO&RQVWUXFWLRQ$OOLDQFH RI 2QWDULR 5&&$2  DQGRWKHUVSURYLGHGIXUWKHUUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVDQGUHSRUWVRQWKHLGHQWL¿FDWLRQ RI LVVXHV$OVR WKH\ LGHQWL¿HG RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR VXSSRUW WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI HQYLURQPHQWDOO\ UHVSRQVLEOH SUDFWLFHV IRU GHDOLQJZLWKFOHDQH[FHVVVRLOLQ2QWDULR 5&&$2UHOHDVHGVHYHUDOUHSRUWVFRYHULQJ VRLO PDQDJHPHQW UHODWHG LVVXHV LQFOXGLQJ³Best Management Practices for Handling Excess Construction Soil in Ontario (Version 1)´ LQ 1RYHPEHU DQGDQXSGDWHG³Survey of Municipal Soil By-laws´LQ0DUFK 7KH³Best Management Practices´DUH EDVHGRQDVXFFHVVIXODSSURDFKGHYHORSHG LQWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRPE\DQRUJDQL]DWLRQ FDOOHG &RQWDPLQDWHG /DQG $SSOLFDWLRQV LQ 5HDO (QYLURQPHQWV &/$,5( 7KH 8.PRGHOLVUHIHUHQFHGDVD'H¿QLWLRQ RI :DVWH ¹ &RGH RI 3UDFWLFH &23  ,W HQFRXUDJHVWKHEHQH¿FLDOUHXVHRIH[FHVV VRLORQFHLWLVGHHPHGWRKDYHDQDFFHSWDEOH EHQH¿FLDO UHXVH DQG LV WKHQ DFFRUGLQJO\QRWDZDVWHE\GH¿QLWLRQ7KLVWKHQ SHUPLWV DSSOLFDWLRQ RI IRUPDO KDQGOLQJ SURWRFROV XQGHU WKH &23 LQFOXGLQJ WKH UHTXLUHGRYHUVLJKWWREHDSSOLHG 2WKHU 8. DQG 'XWFK SUDFWLFHV LQFOXGHWKHQHHGWRGHYHORSORFDOVRLOUHF\FOLQJDQGVRLOVWRUDJHGHSRWVWRIDFLOLWDWHWKHWLPHO\PRYHPHQWRIVRLOIURP DQGWRSURMHFWV ,Q 1RYHPEHU  WKH 02( SRVWHG WKH GUDIW 6RLO 0DQDJHPHQW *XLGH RQ WKH HQYLURQPHQWDO UHJLVWU\ IRU H[WHUQDO UHYLHZ )ROORZLQJ VWDNHKROGHU FRQVXOWDWLRQVLWUHOHDVHGWKH¿QDOUHYLVHG³Management of Excess Soil – A Guide for Best Management Practices´LQ-DQXDU\ www.esemag.com

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DXWKRULWLHVLQWHUPVRIWKHLUUROHLQGHYHOoping appropriate, consistent supporting VRLOKDQGOLQJE\ODZVDQGSODQQLQJDSSURYDOVIRUUHFHLYLQJVLWHV It has become apparent that, because RIORFDOFRPPXQLW\FRQFHUQVVLJQL¿FDQW IXUWKHU RXWUHDFK WUDLQLQJ DQG FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ LV UHTXLUHG DW WKH PXQLFLSDO OHYHO2QHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQXQGHUGHYHORSPHQWLVWRFUHDWHD³PRGHOVRLOXVHE\ ODZ´WKDWFRXOGDVVLVWPXQLFLSDOLWLHVDQG continued overleaf...

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Soils Management become the framework for implementing the new Soil Management Best Management Practices (BMPs). Another municipal area to be pursued is the standardization and inclusion of excess soil BMP requirements in the municipal procurement process, as a responsible soil handling approach and due diligence practice. Another application learned from the CL:AIRE approach is something called “soil matching” to facilitate the environmentally responsible, safe and cost-effective movement of excess soils. This involves soil screening requirements, professional oversight, and the tracking of soil shipments. During a CL:AIRE / RCCAO workshop, held in Toronto in September 2012, it was clear there was overwhelming support for the concept. In October 2013, RCCAO launched a new soil matching or soil dating web site and service called SOiiL – Supporting Ontario Infrastructure Investments and Lands (www.soiil.com). It allows those involved in soil handling projects to post excess soil disposal or receiving needs for potential matching with oth-

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53 MJ.14_Handling Excss Soil.indd 32

er entities. The electronic database is in the process of being populated with soil volume information and is intended to be a resource for excess soil related information, news and developments in Ontario and internationally. Going forward, there are a number of recent excess soil handling activities being launched. MOE has announced that it will EHFRQGXFWLQJDUHYLHZRI¿OOGLVSRVDOSROicies in Ontario over the next 18 months. This will cross over into other ministries within the provincial government. In December 2013, the City of Toronto’s planning and growth management committee adopted eight recommendations involving the management of excess soil from large redevelopment and construction projects. Within the recommendations are strategies to encourage creation of soil banks and to examine requirements for QPs to prepare soil management plans, including material management for city projects generating excess soil. 1HZLQLWLDWLYHVFDQVLJQL¿FDQWO\DQG positively impact the way we responsibly manage excess soil in Ontario. What

is required is strong leadership and responsible policy development, supporting sound, proven risk-based approachHVWREHQH¿FLDOO\UHXVHH[FHVVVRLOV In the absence of clear soil policy, municipalities, and local community groups, must all work together with industry and the appropriate provincial ministries involved, to implement innovative best management approaches. An overarching framework needs to be SXWLQSODFHWKDWLGHQWL¿HVDQGSRVLWLRQV the different soil handling players and respective issues. Ongoing outreach and stakeholder appropriate training is further required to communicate these new approaches and continuously share and improve developing practices. If these conditions for success in dealing with clean excess soil can be implemented in a timely fashion, we can vastly improve on the more than 20 years it took to put in place the practices and regulations we now have to handle impacted dirt. For more information, E-mail: adurand1590@rogers.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Once he reduced his energy costs by 55% after installing a VFD, savings in other parts of his business went into overdrive. Once you start seeing the benefits from our incentives for installing premium efficiency motors and VFDs, you’ll want to look into making other areas of your facility like lighting, aeration and compressed air systems more efficient too. When you do, you’ll be joining water and wastewater treatment facilities across Ontario who are already enjoying the savings that our programs deliver. Take a look at their stories and our incentives at

saveonenergy.ca/science-engineering

Subject to additional terms and conditions found at saveonenergy.ca. Subject to change without notice. OM

Official Mark of the Ontario Power Authority. www.esemag.com

53 MJ.14_Handling Excss Soil.indd 33

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Corrosion Prevention

Properly protected stainless steel keeps corrosion at bay in WWTPs

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orrosion prevention must be given a great deal of attention, because once it starts, it is a process that cannot be reversed. Due to the fact that equipment damaged by it has to be replaced, it is an absolute necessity to prevent corrosion at as many points as possible. There are many levels of corrosive damage that can attack metals and concrete; both of which are key components in wastewater treatment plants. Huber Technology uses a comprehensive treatment process for the stainless steel from which it manufactures its components to ensure corrosion protection. Wastewater treatment plant mechanisms experience two types of corrosion: atmospheric and immersion. Corrosion intensive components include buried piping, handrails, gratings, ladders, electrical junction boxes, and clarLÂżHU UDNH DUPV %DVLFDOO\ DQ\ PHWDOOLF mechanism within the treatment system, or even in the vicinity of the channels, is vulnerable to corrosion. +\GURJHQ VXOÂżGH ZKLFK LV XVXDOO\ present, has wide-ranging effects on wastewater systems, notably causing corrosion and odour problems. When severe immersion corrosion of components was reFHQWO\LGHQWLÂżHGLQDQG around the primary DQG VHFRQGDU\ FODULÂżers at two army wastewater treatment plants, K\GURJHQVXOÂżGHPRLVWXUHDQGKXPLGLW\ ZHUHLGHQWLÂżHGDVWKHFXOSULWV Careful selection and implementation of corrosion protected treatment system FRPSRQHQWV VXFK DV VFUHHQV DQG ÂżQH screens, grit separators and screw presses, are able to mitigate corrosion problems. It has been proved that installing corrosion-protected components, gives WWTPs the highest potential for maintaining a treatment system which is at low risk for corrosion. A low corrosive environment also positions plants for optimum operating conditions, reduced

Any metallic mechanism within the treatment system, or even in the vicinity of the channels, is vulnerable to corrosion.

maintenance and increased safety. In addition to moisture and hydroJHQVXOÂżGH::73VDUHVXEMHFWWRFRUrosion caused by microorganisms that thrive in the wastewater as it enters the headworks. The chlorine used to treat the wastewater before it is released as FOHDQHIĂ€XHQWLVDOVRFRUURVLYH

Pickling is one of the most efficient and least risky processes for attaining corrosion protection.

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So, how do you attain optimal corroVLRQ SURWHFWLRQ" %\ FUHDWLQJ D PHWDOOLcally-pure, stress-free surface that is as smooth as possible, manufacturers are able to attain optimal corrosion protection. This requires the elimination of: • Oxide layers, cinder and traces of tarnish. • Minute traces of other metals. • Chloride-, bromide- and iodine ions. • Stresses stemming from mechanical processing. There are four surface treatments to help achieve corrosion protection for

surfaces:  %ODVWLQJ UHTXLUHV WKDW WKH VXUIDFH EH blasted with glass beads. However, with this method there is a danger of introducing contamination through the blasting materials. 2. Abrasion is a technique where the coarse grain is worn away mechanically. The risk here is the introduction of new surface tension. 3. Polishing uses an electrochemical wear-off process where there is a risk of actually wearing away too much of the surface. 4. Pickling chemically wears off coarse grain using acid. This process produces spent acid that must be disposed of safely. Pickling 3LFNOLQJLVRQHRIWKHPRVWHIÂżFLHQW and least risky processes for attaining corrosion protection. The pickling bath is the best method for completing the process. It uses pickling acids and detergents to give corrosion protection to complete stainless steel components. 7KLVSLFNOLQJEDWKLVPRVWEHQHÂżFLDOLQ a central pickling plant and requires a TXDOLÂżHG DQG ZHOOWUDLQHG VWDII VWDWH

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Corrosion Prevention of-the-art installations and wastewater treatment, and orderly disposal of residual wastes. The pickling bath produces even treatment into hard-to-reach areas, reduces emission loads and environmental pollution, uses automation that frees the process of human errors and can be accomplished at a reasonable cost. Pickling process To begin with, the stainless steel item is fully immersed into the pickling bath. During this step, it is important to obVHUYHWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIWKHK\GURĂ€Xoric and nitric acids, the addition of acid resistant detergent at the exact concentration, and temperature and duration of the pickling bath.

using cold water also removes dissolved cinder and other surface deposits. It also avoids drying the surface too quickly, which allows stains to form. The oxygen content in the air allows

The pickling bath produces even treatment into hard-toreach areas, reduces emission loads and environmental pollution, uses automation that frees the process of human errors and can be accomplished at a reasonable cost.

a passive layer with a thickness of about —PRU¿YHWRWHQPROHFXOHOD\HUV to be formed. This passive layer is the requirement for the long life of stainless steel. The difference in overall performance and durability of products manufactured The all-important passive layer After each pickling process it is from treated stainless steel is evident in LPSRUWDQW WR ÀXVK WKH LWHP WKRURXJKO\ comments from the plant operators and with high-pressure cold water to avoid supervisors using them. Durability for the drying of acid residues. Residue will process critical components can, after prevent the formation of a passive layer. DOO LPSDFW WKH SODQWœV ¿QDQFLDO KHDOWK High-pressure washing equipment operational continuity and ultimate per-

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64 MJ.14_Corrosion at Bay.indd 35

formance within its municipal network. While some want to believe that all stainless steels are equal, the track record for components manufactured with adequately and correctly treated stainless

steel illustrates quite the opposite. Those who invest in such solutions reap bene¿WVIDUEH\RQGVLPSOHUHVLVWDQFHWRFRUrosion. They see smoother operational processes, high and more consistent performance, increased continuity in contribution to their plant and their municipality’s service network, and long-term cost savings. T.R. Gregg is with Huber Technology. For more information, visit www.huber-technology.com

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Wastewater Reuse

Biological treatment system contributes to award winning wastewater water reuse project

I

n 2003, the Emerald Coast Utility Authority (ECUA) commissioned a study for the relocation of the Main Street Wastewater Treatment Plant in downtown Pensacola, Florida. Developed in the 1940s, the plant site was limited, had an antiquated treatment process and struggled with odour problems. In 2002, Hurricane Ivan hit the Pensacola area, causing tremendous damDJH ,W Ă€RRGHG WKH 0DLQ 6WUHHW :DVWHwater Treatment Facility, halting plant operations for three days. Raw sewage spilled onto the city streets, expediting the urgency of relocating the plant. The ECUA used a number of criteria to evaluate various wastewater treatment plant processes, including ease of operation, ease of maintenance, reliability, proven performance, operational cost, capital cost, amount of labour and the type of residuals that were produced. 7R PHHW HIĂ€XHQW UHTXLUHPHQWV :HV 7HFK(QJLQHHULQJGHFLGHGRQDÂżYHVWDJH biological treatment system. The general concept of the staged biological system is to control the environment and the amount of food that the organisms get, encouraging various types or classes of organisms to grow, and controlling intracellular reactions. “Historically they are the most costeffective, produce the least amount of residuals, and have less impact on the environment than other types of processes,â€? said Mark Biesinger, chief process engineer at WesTech. As the goal was to provide for 100 SHUFHQWUHXVHRIWUHDWHGHIĂ€XHQWQXWULent limits at the new plant are very stringent at 3 mg/L total nitrogen and 0.4 mg/L total phosphorus. BOD in the efĂ€XHQWLVLQWKHPJ/UDQJHZKLOHWKH HIĂ€XHQWWRWDOQLWURJHQLVOHVVWKDWPJ/ and often at 1 mg/L. A small amount of alum is added to polish total phosphorus to below 0.4 mg/L. Following screening and grit removDOZDVWHZDWHUĂ€RZVLQWRWKHÂżUVWVWDJH of the oxidation ditch. These zones alORZ LQĂ€XHQW ZDVWHZDWHU DQG UHWXUQDF-

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The LANDY-7 aerators provide a guaranteed minimum efficiency of 1.7 kilograms of oxygen per horsepower hour.

tivated sludge (RAS) to mix together (mixed liquor) without oxygen or nitrate present. This fermentation is the primary step in the biological phosphorus removal process, which promotes increased phosphorus uptake in the aerobic zone, also known as luxury uptake.

aerated by slow-speed surface aerators to ensure complete oxidation of BOD and ammonia. The LANDY-7 aerators provide a JXDUDQWHHG PLQLPXP HIÂżFLHQF\ RI  kilograms of oxygen per horsepower KRXU7KLVLPSURYHGHIÂżFLHQF\SURYLGHV VLJQLÂżFDQWRSHUDWLRQDOFRVWVDYLQJVRYHU life of the treatment plant. Rapid solids removal is critical theFollowing the aeration zone, mixed OLTXRU Ă€RZV LQWR WKH SRVWDQR[LF ]RQH in warm liquid temperatures This zone removes any remaining nitrate to prevent denitrification through endogenous respiration. Finally, mixed liquor is aerated in the re-aeration and a secondary release zone to prevent anoxic or anaerobic conGLWLRQV LQ WKH VHFRQGDU\ FODULÂżHU 7KLV of phosphorus. FRXOG OHDG WR SRRU HIĂ€XHQW FODULW\ DQG secondary release of phosphorus. :DVWHZDWHU WKHQ Ă€RZV LQWR WKH After the oxidation ditch, mixed liquor pre-anoxic zone and is combined with HQWHUVWKHFODULÂżHURSWLPL]DWLRQSDFNDJH the nitrate recycle stream. In the ab- &23ÂŒ FODULÂżHUV7KHHQHUJ\GLVVLSDWsence of oxygen, nitrogen is removed as LQJ LQOHW Ă€RFFXODWLQJ IHHGZHOO VSLUDO QLWURJHQJDVWKURXJKWKHGHQLWULÂżFDWLRQ rake blades and sludge withdrawal ring, process. SURYLGHRSWLPXPFODULÂżFDWLRQDQGVROLGV Following the anaerobic and pre-an- UHPRYDODVZHOODVLPSURYHGXQGHUĂ€RZ oxic stages, mixed liquor enters the concentrations. aerobic channels. It is then blended and Spiral rake blades move solids to the Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:46 PM


Wastewater Reuse centre more than four times faster than conventional rake blades. Rapid solids removal is critical in warm liquid temSHUDWXUHV WR SUHYHQW GHQLWUL¿FDWLRQ DQG a secondary release of phosphorus. The sludge withdrawal ring reduces sludge inventory and blanket depth while maintaining high solids concenWUDWLRQV :HV7HFK¶V ¿[HG ULQJ DOVR UHduces operations and maintenance hassles by eliminating underwater seals. )ROORZLQJ WKH &23 FODUL¿HUV ZDVWHZDWHULV¿OWHUHGDQGGLVLQIHFWHGSULRUWR distribution to the reuse facilities. Emerald Coast Utility Authority and Gulf Power Company were named FRZLQQHUVLQWKHSDUWQHUVKLSFDWHJRU\ for the Sustainable Florida-Collins CenWUH%HVW3UDFWLFH$ZDUGV3URJUDP for their water reuse arrangement. Gulf Power is fed 3 – 6.5 MGD of reclaimed ZDWHUIURPWKHIDFLOLW\ZKLFKDOVRXVHV 0*'IRUZDVKGRZQ)XUWKHUPRUH the facility feeds 6.3 MGD of reclaimed water to International Paper Co. for industrial purposes. ³7KLV IDFLOLW\ LV H[WUHPHO\ LPSRUW-

WesTech Engineering was a partner in the Emerald Coast Utilities Authority’s Central Water Reclamation Facility Project near Pensacola, Florida.

DQW WR (VFDPELD &RXQW\ WR WKH ULYHUV and bays that we have in this sensitive HFRORJLFDO SDUW RI QRUWKZHVW )ORULGD´ VDLG(GZDUG70F0DWK(&8$GHSXW\ H[HFXWLYHGLUHFWRURIXWLOLW\RSHUDWLRQV “The ability to take millions of gallons HDFKGD\RXWRIVXUIDFHZDWHUGLVFKDUJH and be able to provide a treatment plant

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62 MJ.14_Emerald Coast.indd 37

For more information, E-mail: Tim Cook, tcook@westech-inc.com

Supplying a wide range of test kits and instrumentation for the detection and quantification of contaminants in soil, waste, water and air; ensuring your data quality objectives are met.

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XCG Consultants provides innovative, practical & sustainable environmental solutions in:

with advanced treatment levels for water that is 100 per cent reused by indusWU\DQGE\FURSLUULJDWLRQLVVRPHWKLQJ WKDW KDV D YHU\ WDQJLEOH EHQH¿W WR WKH UHFHLYLQJZDWHUVLQQRUWKZHVW)ORULGD´

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Western Regional Office 100, 18130-105 Avenue NW Edmonton, AB T5S 2T4 Phone: 1-800-560-4402 sales@ospreyscientific.com

Eastern Regional Office 3620B Laird Road, Unit 7 Mississauga, ON L5L 6A9 Fax: 1-877-820-9667 www.ospreyscientific.com

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Energy Efficiency

Addressing water-energy efficiency through variable frequency drives By John Masters

I

t is estimated that the water and wastewater treatment sector is the third largest energy consuming sector, accounting for approximately three to four per cent of a country’s total annual electricity consumption. For municipalities, where more than 35 per cent of total energy use is attributed to water and wastewater facilities, rising energy costs play a sigQL¿FDQW UROH LQ VHUYLFHV $W WKH VDPH time, a plant’s ability to treat, use and GHOLYHU ZDWHU HI¿FLHQWO\ E\ UHGXFLQJ water loss, also has a direct impact on its energy consumption and bottom line. 7UHDWPHQWSODQWVFRXOGVDYHWR per cent of annual energy consumption E\ LPSURYLQJ V\VWHP GHVLJQ PDWFKing component size to system loads, XSJUDGLQJ PRWRU HI¿FLHQF\ DQG XVLQJ For wastewater systems in particular, VFDs contribute to improved YDULDEOHVSHHGWHFKQRORJ\ aeration control, (QHUJ\ DQG ZDWHU HI¿FLHQF\ WKHUHIRUHVHUYHDVFULWLFDODQGSRZHUIXOWRROV E\ WDNLQJ DGYDQWDJH RI DI¿QLW\ ODZV J\FDQKHOSVDYHZDWHUDQGZDVWHZDWHU to reduce costs, enhance customer ser- which are mathematical formulas that WUHDWPHQW SODQWV XS WR  SHU FHQW RQ YLFHDQGLPSURYHVXVWDLQDELOLW\ describe the relationship between speed HOHFWULFDOFRVWVDQGSHUFHQWRQZDWHU and power. usage annually. 3URYHQWHFKQRORJLHVIRUHI¿FLHQF\ In rotating machinery, power conFor wastewater systems in particular, For both new plant designs and ret- sumption is directly proportional to the 9)'V FRQWULEXWH WR LPSURYHG DHUDWLRQ UR¿WSURMHFWVWKHUHDUHWZRWHFKQRORJ\ cube of speed, which means that re- control, when incorporated as part of paths that can be pursued to address GXFLQJPRWRUVSHHGE\MXVWSHUFHQW a systems approach that includes acHQHUJ\ DQG ZDWHU XVH QHZ ³LQQRYD- FRXOG SURGXFH HQHUJ\ VDYLQJV RI QHDU- FXUDWH UHOLDEOH LQSXW VLJQDOV$ W\SLFDO WLYH DQG DOWHUQDWLYH´ WHFKQRORJLHV DQG O\SHUFHQW VHH)LJXUH 7KH¿[HG wastewater treatment plant can expeDFFHSWHG ³LQQRYDWLYH DQG DOWHUQDWLYH´ IUHTXHQF\HOHFWULFDOFXUUHQWVXSSOLHGE\ ULHQFH ORDG ÀXFWXDWLRQV E\ D IDFWRU RI WHFKQRORJLHV7KHVHRIIHUSURYHQYDOXH WKHJULGLVYDULHGE\WKH9)'EHIRUHLW ¿YH RYHU D KRXU SHULRG 0DQXDOO\ to an application, including established reaches the motor. VFDs thereby reduce controlling aeration can cause excess design standards and ready adaptability. the motor’s rotational speed to match HQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQE\DVPXFKDV $OVR DFFHSWHG WHFKQRORJLHV RIWHQ DO- the workload more precisely and reduce WR  SHU FHQW$ 9)' FDQ FXW HQHUJ\ UHDG\KDYHWKHYDULRXVUHTXLUHGJRYHUQ- electricity consumption. XVH E\  SHU FHQW RU PRUH FRPSDUHG PHQWDODSSURYDOV 9DULDEOH IUHTXHQF\ GULYHV FDQ DOVR WR¿[HGVSHHGRSHUDWLRQLQFRPSUHVVRU 3URYHQ HQHUJ\VDYLQJ PHDVXUHV IRU SURYLGH LQWHOOLJHQW SXPS FRQWURO YLD D applications. water and wastewater include process cascade controller. Typically, the con$V DQ H[DPSOH D ZDVWHZDWHU WUHDWDGMXVWPHQWV LPSURYHPHQWV WR EORZ- stant speed pumps used at water and ment plant was operating three 75-HP er and pump sizing, intelligent pump wastewater treatment plants operate at centrifugal blowers, two of which supFRQWURO DQG PRWRU HI¿FLHQF\ XSJUDGHV PD[LPXP SHUIRUPDQFH DQG HI¿FLHQF\ plied air to four aeration basins, with )XUWKHUPRUH YDULDEOH VSHHG WHFKQROR- for only a percentage of each day. How- one backup blower. The plant’s disJ\ WKURXJK YDULDEOH IUHTXHQF\ GULYHV HYHU D FDVFDGH FRQWUROOHU FDQ UHFHLYH VROYHG R[\JHQ OHYHOV YDULHG IURP  (VFDs), offers the simplest implemen- pressure feedback signals, stage on ad- SSPWRSSPWKURXJKRXWDKRXU WDWLRQ DQG WKH JUHDWHVW HQHUJ\VDYLQJ GLWLRQDO SXPS GULYHV DV UHTXLUHG SUR- SHULRG$VSDUWRIDUHWUR¿WSURMHFWWKH potential. YLGHDPDVWHUVSHHGUHIHUHQFHVLJQDOWR SODQW LQVWDOOHG RQH +3 DQG RQH 9DULDEOHIUHTXHQF\GULYHVVHUYHDVDQ all pumps and ensure matched pressure +3 URWDU\ OREH EORZHU HDFK ZLWK D intermediary between the electrical grid DQGÀRZ Danfoss VLT®$48$ 'ULYH 7KLV QRW and a motor. They reduce energy use 7KLVXVHRIYDULDEOHVSHHGWHFKQROR- RQO\KHOSHGPDLQWDLQGLVVROYHGR[\JHQ

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:46 PM


Energy Efficiency levels at 2.2 ppm throughout the day, but also slashed annual energy costs by $50,000 to $60,000. Variable frequency drives can also address the interdependency of water and energy. In many countries, non-revenue water losses can exceed 30 per cent. Not only is energy wasted pumping and treating lost water, repairing holes or leaks is often costly and unrealistic. Constant pressure control schemes, like those assisted by VFDs, can reduce these water ORVVHV WKURXJK ÀRZ FRPSHQVDWLRQ ,Q fact, reducing pressure from 75 psi to 60 psi can save more than 2,000 m3 of water per year through only one 13 mm leak in a water system. Multiply this by the probable hundreds of leaks in a typical distribution system and the savings potential is tremendous. Despite the proven results of these highly effective technologies, deployment in North America, where energy is relatively cheap, is still low. Municipal budget constraints, combined with ¿UVWFRVW LQYHVWPHQW FKDOOHQJHV DQG D ODFNRI¿QDQFLQJPRGHOVDQGLQFHQWLYH

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56 MJ.14_Water-Energy.indd 39

Figure 1 – According to affinity laws for pumps and fans, reducing the motor speed by even 20 per cent could cut energy use by about 50 per cent.

programs, as well as limited policy and regulatory mandates, are proving significant barriers to their use. It is critical that the industry work together with policy-makers to develop price signals, implement rebates and credits for retroÂżWV DQG XVH VWDQGDUGV SURPRWLRQ DQG education to move these technologies forward.

It is only through the accelerated deployment of existing technologies, that KLJKO\HIÂżFLHQWV\VWHPVFDQEHFUHDWHG to encourage the rapid deployment of future technology developments for the water, wastewater and irrigation sectors. John Masters is with Danfoss. E-mail: jmasters@danfoss.com

May/June 2014 | 39

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Groundwater Sampling

Groundwater sampling procedures must meet applicable requirements By Thomas Dalzell

T

wo of the main goals of environmental investigations (EIs) are to protect and restore groundwater resources and restore or rehabilitate property for future use. It is not adequate just to know that there is contamination in the soil or groundwater. Contamination type and FRQFHQWUDWLRQPXVWEHVSHFLÂżFDOO\LGHQWLÂżHG,QYHVWLJDWLRQVQHHGWRDOVRGHWHUmine the exact vertical and lateral extent of the soil and/or groundwater that has been affected, the type of soil, and the characteristics of the groundwater lithologic zone. The goal of sampling is to closely represent actual subsurface conditions. Data is then used to develop a strategy to rehabilitate the property, protect human health and the environment. While some properties cannot be totally returned to pristine/untainted conditions, harmful conditions at the surface can be brought to acceptable levels. Even subsurface soil can also be improved to a point where groundwater quality will not get worse by migrating vertically, or moving laterally. Groundwater sampling Prior to installation of groundwater monitoring wells, groundwater samples can be collected through a variety of direct push tooling. There are several types of retractable groundwater samplers for situations where contaminants are dissolved in upper groundwater table levels. Samplers can also measure vertical delineation of contaminants in the groundwater. For conditions where direct push tooling is impractical or impossible, temporary groundwater monitoring wells can be installed. If a long-term groundwater monitoring program is needed at a possibly contaminated site, small diameter prepacked screen groundwater monitoring direct push wells can be installed.

An AMS PowerProbe™9500-D installing a monitoring well.

In addition, conventional groundwater monitoring wells can be installed if required by the project and applicable regulations. Direct push wells Direct push wells are approved and accepted by many regulatory agencies. ASTM International has several methods and/or procedures directly related to the use and installation of direct push

It is very important that all sampling and installation techniques are conducted in a way that does not negatively impact the soil and groundwater. Direct push wells can be secured exactly like conventional wells and development of the pre-packed section can be a simple surging. Sometimes for certain lithologies and depths, it is necessary to sample the soil in order to achieve the target depth when installing direct push wells. They can be used to calculate gradient magnitude and direction and there are a variety of small diameter instruments that can accurately measure depth, useful parameters and collect samples. Once the condition of the groundwater has been determined, the data can be used as part of the development of a remedial action plan.

It is very important that all sampling and installation techniques are conducted in a way that does not negatively impact the soil and groundwater.

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19 MJ.14_Groundwater Samp.indd 40

wells. They range from one-half-inch to two-inch nominal inside diameter. Practical achievable depth is based on lithology and the desired well inside diameter. In general, less than 24 metres below ground surface is the average depth, although it is possible to install direct push wells to depths of over 30 metres.

Summary and conclusions When conducting subsurface sampling, it is important, to have a variety of equipment and training in order to successfully complete all phases of the investigation. Dual or multiple combi-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Groundwater Sampling

It is important that monitoring and drilling rigs avoid disturbing the investigation and well location.

nation drill rigs, such as direct push rigs, can be ideal for the sampling of groundwater and installation of a variety of groundwater monitoring well types. For sites with limited access, having DGULOOULJWKDWFDQJHWWKURXJKGLI¿FXOW terrain, without excessively disturbing the investigation location, is vital. Field work which involves groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation must be conducted with pre-

Groundwater sampling using an AMS Port-A-Reel.

cise sampling procedures with a range of acceptable variances that can be applied to actual sampling conditions. %\IDLOLQJWRDOORFDWHVXI¿FLHQWWLPH for projects, sampling and installation can be rushed, preventing adequate decontamination, use of proper personal protective equipment (PPE) and thorRXJK¿HOGGRFXPHQWDWLRQ If the exact sampling procedure is not VSHFL¿HG¿HOGSHUVRQQHOPD\QRWKDYH

the correct items or the correct quantity of items, leading to improper sampling. Additionally, by not having the correct quantity of items, expendable onetime use items may get used repeatedly, permitting cross contamination between sampling events. Thomas D. Dalzell is with AMS. For more information, visit: www.ams-samplers.com

The Waterra FHT-45 high turbidity filter offers the most surface area available in a capsule designed specifically for groundwater monitoring. features • SMALL LOTS, PRE-CERTIFIED BY ICPMS • HIGH VOID VOLUME FOR LONG FILTER LIFE • MOLDED COMPOUND INLET IS STANDARD • HIGH QUALITY POLYETHERSULPHONE 0.45 FILTER MEDIA • UNIQUE OPEN PLEAT GEOMETRY FOR MAXIMUM MEDIA EXPOSURE • EACH FILTER IS PRE-RINSED WITH ONE LITRE OF DE-IONIZED WATER • MEDIUM TURBIDITY WATERRA FMT-45 & 0.2 MICRON CAP300X2 ALSO AVAILABLE

DISPOSABLE FILTERS www.waterra.com (CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited sales@waterra.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

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Wastewater Treatment

Protecting surface water quality from wastewater discharges through assimilative capacity studies By Carolyn Brown and Bruce Rodgers

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unicipalities and industries discharge treated wastewater into natural water bodies, such as streams, rivers and lakes. Although treated, these wastewaters contain trace contaminants, including nutrients, solids and metals. These substances may affect downstream water quality, for example, by contributing to the growth of nuisance algae, which can DOWHUÂżVKKDELWDWDQGDTXDWLFHFRV\VWHPV In order to protect water quality, federal and provincial regulations exist to limit the discharge of wastewaters. These regulations recognize the impracticality of total elimination of wastewater discharges, due to technological or economic constraints. Because of this, existing regulations permit wastewater discharge and accept some degree of water quality alteration. The question that often arises is, “what is an acceptable quantity of wastewater discharge and associated degree of water quality alteration?â€? Federal and provincial regulatory processes are similar, although the terminology used may vary. The federal process refers to wastewater strategies that ensure compliance ZLWK VLWHVSHFLÂżF HQvironmental quality objectives, whereas the provincial process refers to release limits that ensure compliance with environmental policy objectives. An assimilative capacity study (ACS) achieves both requirements, by quantifying discharge limits that protect the environment.

to the water body under known conditions, while ensuring compliance with environmental quality and/or policy objectives. Wastewater quantity can be expressed in terms of either discharge rate DQG GLVFKDUJH TXDOLW\ IRU VSHFLÂżF VXEVWDQFHVRUDVDPDVVORDGLQJIRUVSHFLÂżF substances.

An assimilative capacity study works through a series of steps, to quantify the capacity of the water body and determine safe release limits for discharge.

An assimilative capacity study works through a series of steps, to quantify the capacity of the water body and determine safe release limits for discharge. All municipalities and industries that What is assimilative capacity? Assimilative capacity refers to the discharge, or are planning to discharge capacity of a water body to receive wastewater to a natural water body, may wastewater without harmful effects. be required to undertake an ACS under 6SHFLÂżFDOO\LWUHIHUVWRWKHTXDQWLW\RI federal and provincial regulations. Studies may also be required for a wastewater that can be safely released

42 | May/June 2014

55 MJ.14_Protect Surface Water.indd 42

new discharge that is being proposed, RUIRUDVLJQL¿FDQWFKDQJHWRDQH[LVWLQJ discharge. Older discharges, which may ODFNVXI¿FLHQWWHFKQLFDOGRFXPHQWDWLRQ to support the existing license, may also need to undertake an ACS. 4XDOL¿HGVFLHQWLVWVDQGHQJLQHHUVDUH able to undertake an ACS. They should be experienced in environmental monitoring, environmental assessment and mathematical modeling of surface water systems. They should also have experience working with regulators, First Nations and diverse stakeholders. An ACS typically includes the following steps: Step 1: Characterize the receiving environment. The water body that receives the discharge should be characterized based on the following: • General description, including location, infrastructure and adjacent land use. • Resource utilization, which is proximity to source water for drinking and proximity to other identified discharges. continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment • Aquatic resources, which are types of biota, fisheries habitat, spawning habitat, environmentally sensitive areas. • Morphometry, meaning physical geometry, water levels, currents, and hydrology. • Statistical summaries of water quality characteristics and spatial and temporal trends. The more that is understood about the receiving environment, the better.

the substance concentration exceeding environmental quality objectives. Federal and provincial regulators generally specify conditions under ZKLFKWKH$&6VKRXOGGH¿QHDVVLPLODtive capacity. Such conditions can either EH¿[HGRUYDULDEOH $¿[HGFRQGLWLRQUHIHUVWRDXQLTXH worst case condition, under which asVLPLODWLYH FDSDFLW\ LV GH¿QHG :RUVW FDVH LV RIWHQ GH¿QHG EDVHG RQ FRQGLtions having a 5 per cent or 10 per cent probability of occurrence. For example, the worst case for a discharge to a small ULYHU FRXOG RFFXU GXULQJ D ORZ ÀRZ KDYLQJ D ¿YH SHU FHQW RU  SHU FHQW probability of occurrence. This provides

charge is required to inform the ACS, yet the results of the ACS are required to support the discharge limits.

Modelling an assimilative capacity study Most ACSs rely on mathematical models to calculate the assimilative capacity of the receiving environment and derive safe discharge limits. Given the diversity of conditions that can be encountered in practice, a broad array of Step 2: Determine the appropriate models exists. mixing zone. Most models supporting an ACS rely Discharge and receiving waters come on principles of mass conservation. This together within the mixing zone. These implies that the mass of a substance disexist for most receiving environments, charged, can be tracked through the waalthough they have greater ter body, and potential changrelevance for discharges into es in concentration, can be large water bodies. The spatial accounted for through mixing, extent of the mixing zone is inphysical and/or biochemical ÀXHQFHGE\WKHFKDUDFWHULVWLFV processes. of the receiving environment, Steady-state models, in ZKLFK DUH ZDWHU GHSWK ÀRZ which conditions remain condensity and quality, as well as stant in time, are the most comthe characteristics of the dismon type of model used to supFKDUJH VXFK DV UDWH FRQ¿JXport an ACS. ration, density and quality. Models can be further clasSome regulators specify the allow- a conservative interpretation of assimi- VL¿HG DV QHDU¿HOG DQG IDU¿HOG$ QHDU able size for the mixing zone, where- lative capacity. ¿HOGPRGHOFRQVLGHUVWKHFRPSOH[PL[LQJ as others specify objectives. A mixing A variable condition considers the processes that occur immediately upon zone should be as small as possible, not range of circumstances that occur in discharge. It is used most often to estimate be used as an alternative to reasonable natural water bodies. It allows for the the spatial extent of the mixing zone. Farand practical treatment, or harmful to utilization of the available assimilative ¿HOGPRGHOVW\SLFDOO\H[WHQGEH\RQGWKH aquatic biota. It also should not overlap capacity in the water body as condi- mixing zone, considering water quality efwith other mixing zones. tions vary. This approach can provide fects throughout the water body, including WKHVDPHGHJUHHRISURWHFWLRQDVD¿[HG DFFXPXODWLYHHIIHFWVZLWKRWKHULGHQWL¿HG Step 3: Establish environmental qual- condition, but generally requires greater discharges and/or complex physical and ity objectives. effort to manage the process. bio-chemical processes, such as dissolved Environmental quality objectives reoxygen kinetics. fer to the concentration of a substance Step 5: Characterize the quantity and Follow-up environmental monitorin the water body that protects human quality of the wastewater discharge. ing provides the most conclusive valiKHDOWK DTXDWLF OLIH DQG WKH EHQH¿FLDO The nature of the municipal or indus- dation of various assumptions included use of water. In many cases, these objec- WULDOIDFLOLW\JHQHUDOO\GH¿QHVWKHQDWXUH LQDQ$&60RQLWRULQJFDQLQFOXGH¿HOG tives correspond to federal or provincial of the wastewater discharge. The size sampling for analysis of water quality, water quality objectives, such as water and type of facility generally dictates or monitoring biological indicators to quality guidelines from the Canadian the quantity and quality of the waste- demonstrate protection of the aquatic Council of Ministers of the Environ- water discharge. However, results of resource. ment. In other cases, water quality ob- the ACS may also dictate the allowable For example, federal regulators reMHFWLYHVDUHVLWHVSHFL¿FDFFRXQWLQJIRU quantity and quality of wastewater that quire pulp and paper mills and mines to site conditions such as for water bodies can be safely discharged to the water undertake Environmental Effects Monwith naturally elevated water quality. body. itoring programs, to measure potential This may identify additional water effects to water, sediment and biota. Step 4: Quantify the assimilative ca- treatment or management, to ensure pacity in the receiving environment. compliance with environmental objecCarolyn Brown, M.Sc., and In simplest terms, assimilative ca- tives in the receiving environment. This Bruce Rodgers, M.Sc., P.Eng., pacity is the mass of a substance that can step may be iterative since the initial are with EcoMetrix. be discharged to the water body, without characterization of the wastewater disE-mail: cbrown@ecometrix.ca

In simplest terms, assimilative capacity is the mass of a substance that can be discharged to the water body, without the substance concentration exceeding environmental quality objectives.

44 | May/June 2014

55 MJ.14_Protect Surface Water.indd 44

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Treatment

Improving water quality through proper tank mixing By Joel Bleth

P

otable water storage tanks are a necessary part of the water distribution system, providing pressure and enough supply for daily and emergency use. Yet the AWWA estimates that 65 per cent, or over 200,000 tanks, have water quality problems. Problems can range from temperaWXUHVWUDWLÂżFDWLRQVWDJQDWLRQGHDG]RQHV DQGVKRUWFLUFXLWLQJWRELRÂżOPEXLOGXS ORVV RI UHVLGXDO QLWULÂżFDWLRQ HYHQWV DQG in northern climates, ice damage. These problems are common in both chlorine and chloramine water systems. These problems largely occur because ZDWHULQUHVHUYRLUVIRUPVWKLQKRUL]RQWDO layers. Understanding why water layering occurs is important, to ensure water quality and customer satisfaction. Differences in temperature, pressure and salinity create density layers A body of water may look solid, but LW LV LQ IDFW FRPSRVHG RI WKLQ KRUL]RQtal layers, caused by a combination of hydrogen bonding of water and gravity. Given a set of water of different densities, it requires less energy in nature for WKH ZDWHU WR IRUP LQWR WKLQ KRUL]RQWDO layers of the same density, than to mix together to form a homogeneous body. The effect is similar to a ream of printer paper. It may look like a solid block of paper, but each single sheet forms a VHSDUDWHDQGGLVWLQFWKRUL]RQWDOOD\HU,Q ZDWHUWKHVHKRUL]RQWDOGHQVLW\OD\HUVDUH caused by minute differences in temperature, pressure, or salinity, which is not typically a factor in potable water. In a water tank, the densest layer is at the bottom. Each layer above is progressively lighter. In summer, lower water layers are usually cooler and newer, with higher chlorine residual. Upper and mid-depth water layers are usually warmer, older and have less chlorine residual. In the world of tank hierarchy, gravity rules. A lighter layer cannot, by mild convective forces, displace a heavier layer.

46 | May/June 2014

47 MJ.14_Watermixing Medora.indd 46

'HQVLW\HIIHFWVRQLQĂ€RZ DQGRXWĂ€RZZDWHU 'XULQJÂżOOLQJFRROFKORULQDWHGZDWHU Ă€RZVLQWRWKHWDQNFDUU\LQJDQLPSRUWant dose of new chlorine. Since the inĂ€RZZDWHULVFRROHUWKDWGHQVLW\IDFWRU alone will usually overwhelm all other GHQVLW\IDFWRUVFDXVLQJWKHLQĂ€RZZDter to stay or settle to the bottom of the tank. As a result, the older tank water layers are “jacked-upâ€? and leveled by QHZ LQĂ€RZ ZKLFK FDQQRW EH FKDQJHG E\EDIĂ€HVFKHFNYDOYHVRUQR]]OHV Even if water is at a uniform temperature, density differences between KRUL]RQWDO OD\HUV FUHDWHG E\ SUHVVXUH from the water above, create a strong resistance to layer mixing. Regardless of whether the density differences are caused by temperature or pressure or both, the upper, lighter water cannot push its way into the outlet stream at the bottom of the tank. Direct mechanical lifting, which SXOOVZDWHURIIWKHWDQNĂ€RRULVWKHRQO\ way to defeat the force of gravity holding the densest layers to the bottom of the tank. +RZPL[LQJDIIHFWVZDWHUOD\HUV Mechanical tank mixers mix new

LQÀRZ ZDWHU WKURXJKRXW WKH HQWLUH ZDter body, keeping chlorine, temperature and water age as uniform as possible. The layering effect of stored water has DVLJQL¿FDQWHIIHFWRQKRZZHOODPL[er performs in tanks. The best approach is for a mixer to pull in water from the very bottom of the tank, where the densest layers are, and directly transport it toward the top of the tank. 7KHHIIHFWVRIVKHHWÀRZPL[LQJ One solution to combat the layering of ZDWHULVWRXVHDPHFKDQLFDO³VKHHWÀRZ´ mixer. This type of mixer sits on the tank ÀRRUDQGSXOOVZDWHULQIURPWRFHQtimetres above it. Water enters one end of the mixer, and is directed upward through a long slot at the top of it. Immediately after the water sheet leaves the slot, it starts GUDJJLQJLQGXFHGÀRZXSZDUGIURPWKH bottom of the tank. This 79-centimetre long sheet of water travels fast enough to reach the top of even 46-metre tall standpipes. The bottom 2.5 to 20 centimetres of the tank is mixed, because it is pulled into WKHPL[HUDVGLUHFWÀRZ7KLVOHDYHVRQO\ a few centimetres at the bottom, including any sediment, unmixed. continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:49 PM


Flush lifting handle Slam lock with SFNPWBCMFPQFOFS )PMEPQFOBSNIBOEMF Stainless hinges with UBNQFSQSPPGIBSEXBSF

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'BMMUISVQSPUFDUJPOHSBUJOH hinged, safety orange with lifting handle

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47 MJ.14_Watermixing Medora.indd 47

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Water Treatment 6KHHWÀRZ PL[HUV DUH FDSDEOH RI FRPSOHWHO\ PL[LQJ WDQNV DV ODUJH DV  P3 DQG FDQ DOVR EH HTXLSSHG ZLWKDFKHPLFDOLQMHFWLRQKRVHWRERRVW FKORULQH 6KHHWÀRZ PL[HU SHUIRUPDQFH LV JHQHUDOO\ XQDIIHFWHG E\ LWV ORFDWLRQ LQ WKHWDQN7KHPL[HUZRUNVHTXDOO\ZHOO SODFHG XQGHU D KDWFK IRU HDV\ LQVWDOODWLRQDQGPDLQWHQDQFHRULQWKHPLGGOH RIWKHWDQN6LQFHZDWHULVEHLQJSXOOHG LQWR WKH PL[HU IURP DFURVV WKH HQWLUH ÀRRUGXHWRWKHGHQVLW\EDVHGOD\HULQJ RIZDWHUWKHGLVFKDUJHVLGHRIWKHPL[HU ZLOOSXVKZDWHUDFURVVWKHHQWLUHWDQNWR NHHSWKHZDWHUVXUIDFHOHYHO 0L[HUVWKDWSXOOIURPWKHERWWRPRI WKH WDQN ZLOO VKRZ ZDWHU RI XQLIRUP WHPSHUDWXUHDQGFKORULQHFRQFHQWUDWLRQ WR ZLWKLQ  WR  FHQWLPHWUHV RI WKH ÀRRU7KH¿UVWPRQWKRIPL[LQJWKHWDQN FDQGHSUHVVUHVLGXDODVFKORULQHLVEHLQJ XVHG XS DV ELR¿OP LV EHLQJ NLOOHG %RRVWLQJ LW LV XVXDOO\ QRW UHTXLUHG GXULQJWKDW¿UVWPRQWK 7KHVH PL[HUV DUH DEVROXWHO\ QHFHVVDU\ WR SUHYHQW SUREOHPV RI DPPRQLD

Water in reservoirs forms thin horizontal layers due to density differences of temperature and pressure. Inflow water, with its higher chlorine concentrations, usually plummets to the bottom of the tank.

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www.WEFTEC.org Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:49 PM


Fracking Wastewaters

Double containment piping system ensures safe transport of untreated frac water

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rac water is a mixture of water, sand and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing to create ¿VVXUHVLQVKDOHDQGDFFHVVQDWural gas. While the water and sand in frac water is considered safe, various toxic chemicals are also added to help dissolve minerals and break down the shale. In addition to the toxic chemicals, significant amounts of water are used during hydraulic fracturing, which can cause water shortage issues in some areas. An average well generally requires about eight million gallons during its lifetime. Fortunately, initiatives to recycle frac water are now underway. Clarion Altela Environmental Services (CAES) is a joint venture between ACI Energy, Inc., an investment holding company, and Altela, Inc., a water desalination company. It opened in November 2012 to recycle frac water from the Marcellus and Utica Shale Basins,

Due to the chemicals and saline present in frac water, a double containment piping system was required to transport frac water.

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Finding the source of the contamination and completing the remediation of impacted soil and water will require the combined knowledge of an experienced team of environmental professionals with knowledge of the most up-todate regulatory requirements.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Fracking Wastewaters which stretch across much of Pennsylvania and Ohio. The CAES facility treats frac water and ultimately turns it into clean distilled water that is the same quality as rainwater. It can then be reused by the oil and gas industry. Safe disposal of frac water has been a serious challenge in the region as high volumes were being driven long distances by tanker trucks to injection wells in Ohio. CAES offers a lower cost and environmentally safe alternative, with the DGGHG EHQHÂżW RI UHGXFLQJ WUXFN WUDIÂżF by an estimated 150,000 truck miles per month. Due to the chemicals and saline present in frac water, a double containment piping system was required to transport frac water from incoming tank trucks to holding ponds and from there to the treatment processing equipment at CAES. “Frac water recycling is a fairly new process, and the project didn’t start out requiring a double containment system for the piping. During approvals, the Department of Environmental Protection decided to require double containment for any area where buried pipes would be transporting untreated frac water. This was to prevent any possibility of leakage into the surrounding soil,â€? explains Walter Smith, former mechanical engineer with Mid Penn Engineering, who designed the system. “Once the piping went inside the facility, we were able to transition to a single wall system.â€? The IPEX Guardian™ system was chosen for the double-containment piping. It consisted of a 10â€? PVC Schedule 80 carrier by 14â€? PVC Schedule 40 containment. From there, the size of the system reduced as it entered the pre-treatment area. Eventually, it transitioned to a smaller single-wall PVC Schedule 80 system, also from IPEX. According to Lake Randall, president of Mid Penn Engineering, the IPEX Guardian Double Containment Piping System not only saves on installation, but it is also of a higher standard for leak prevention. “PVC is resistant to chemicals, while still being able to handle the pressures of a pumping system like that used at CAES,â€? he added. Having never worked with any double-containment system, the Guardian V\VWHPZDV0LG3HQQ(QJLQHHULQJÂśVÂżUVW exposure to an IPEX product. “IPEX did www.esemag.com

67 MJ.14_Fracking Water Use.indd 51

an excellent job of responding to the requirements of the project and answering any questions. The deadlines were very tight on the CAES project, and IPEX were able to get us the product we needed, when we needed it,â€? said Smith. “Guardian is a good product, and we KDG YHU\ OLWWOH GLIÂżFXOW\ ZLWK LW´ VD\V Dan Luton, owner and president of Luton Plumbing and Heating who installed the system. “The training that IPEX provided was very helpful. They showed us some tricks to help ease installation, and once we got the hang of it, we were able to get a lot of pipe in the ground in a short amount of time.â€?

The Guardian system was installed at CAES without a single leak. Since the ¿UVWWUXFNORDGRIIUDFZDWHUDUULYHGWKH system has helped to reliably transport it through an innovative recycling process that ultimately allows for reuse. To reduce installation and maintenance costs, the system features a patented Centra-Lok™ design, reducing the required joints by 40-60 per cent, compared to traditional double-containment systems. Less joints means less potential for problems and greater overall system integrity. For more information, E-mail: Paul.Agapito@ipexna.com

May/June 2014 | 51

5/28/14 8:23 PM


Sludge Management

Sonar mapping of storage ponds offers safety and savings

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echnicians, technologists, environmental specialists and engineers in small boats have poked and prodded primaU\ DQG VHFRQGDU\ ZDVWHZDWHU HIÀXHQW ponds, cells and lagoons for years to obtain approximate depths to the sediment VXUIDFHDWGLVFUHWHSRVLWLRQV $FRXVWLF VRQDU VHGLPHQW GLVWULEXWLRQ VXUYH\V DUH DEOH WR DFFXUDWHO\ DQG TXLFNO\ PHDVXUH YROXPH DQG ORFDWH DUHDV RI VOXGJH ORDGLQJ ZLWKLQ DQ HQWLUH XQGHUZDWHU DUHD RI D SRQG FHOO RU ODJRRQ 6OXGJHYROXPHFRPSXWDWLRQVFDQEH LQFRUSRUDWHG LQWR D GUHGJLQJGHVOXGJLQJUHTXHVWIRUTXRWH7KLVRIIHUVDFRVW savings to owners as there may not be DQ\ ELOOLQJ UHGXFWLRQV IURP GUHGJLQJ FRPSDQLHV GXH WR ORZHU DFWXDO YROXPHV 3:0DNDU&RDWLQJV,QVSHFWLRQ/WG FRQGXFWVK\GURJUDSKLFEDWK\PHWULFVXUYH\V LQ PXQLFLSDO ZDVWHZDWHU ODJRRQV IURPDPDQQHGIRRWDOXPLQXPERDW ZLWK DQ RXWERDUG PRWRU ,W LV HTXLSSHG ZLWK D VLQJOH EHDP HFKR VRXQGHU V\VWHPLQFRUSRUDWLQJDWKUHHWUDQVGXFHUDUUD\5DZGDWDLVLQWHJUDWHGDQGFROOHFWHG LQWRDQRQERDUGFRPSXWHUV\VWHPZKLFK LVDEOHWRJHQHUDWHKLJKTXDOLW\EDWK\PHWU\VOXGJHDQGVHGLPHQWK\GURJUDSKLF VXUYH\V Navigation of the boat and sonar arUD\ LV SHUIRUPHG XVLQJ SUHFLVLRQ *36 NHHSLQJWKHVXUYH\V\VWHPRYHUDVHULHV of preplanned lines at an approximate VSDFLQJRI¿YHPHWUHLQWHUYDOV 3ULRUWRODXQFKLQJWKHVXUYH\YHVVHO IDOOSURWHFWLRQKDUQHVVHVSHUVRQDOÀRWDtion devices and vessel inspections are FRQGXFWHG 5HFHQWO\ KRZHYHU LQGXVtrial health and safety representatives VRXJKW VDIHU DOWHUQDWLYH PHWKRGV IRU FROOHFWLQJODJRRQVOXGJHGDWD7KLVSOXV WKH IDFW WKDW VRPH LQGXVWULDO SRQGV DUH VLPSO\ WRR KD]DUGRXV WR[LF RU FRUURVLYH WR FRQGXFW FRQYHQWLRQDO PDQQHG K\GURJUDSKLF VXUYH\V PHDQW DQRWKHU RSWLRQZDVQHHGHG 7RUHPRYHRSHUDWRUVIURPKD]DUGRXV HQYLURQPHQWV3:0DNDURXW¿WWHGD

52 | May/June 2014

51 MJ.14_Sonar Mapping.indd 52

To remove operators from hazardous environments, PW Makar outfitted a 27 kg, nearly two metre long sonar vessel.

NJQHDUO\WZRPHWUHORQJVRQDUYHVVHO While it might be mistaken for a rePRWHFRQWUROKREE\ERDWLWFRQGXFWVWKH VDPHK\GURJUDSKLFVXUYH\SURFHVVZLWK WKH VDPH HTXLSPHQW DV D FRQYHQWLRQDO PDQQHGVXUYH\ERDW ,WFDQEHHDVLO\ODXQFKHGLQWRLQGXVWULDO SRQGV FHOOV DQG ODJRRQV XVLQJ D OLJKW ZHLJKW SLWPDQ K\GUDOLIW WUXFN FUDQHRUDORQJH[WHQGHGJUDSSOHSROH The vessel’s position is monitored XVLQJ D JOREDO QDYLJDWLRQ VDWHOOLWH V\VWHP *166*36 DQGDQHFKRVRXQGHU W\SLFDOO\ZRUNLQJDWN+]DQGRU N+] LV XVHG WR SUHFLVHO\ PHDVXUH WKH GHSWK XQGHU WKH ERDW $FRXVWLF SXOVHV WUDYHOIURPWKHWUDQVGXFHULQWKHYHVVHO¶V KXOODQGUHÀHFWRIIRIWKHVWRUDJHSRQG ERWWRP7KHHFKRLVUHFHLYHGEDFNDWWKH WUDQVGXFHUDFHUWDLQWLPHODWHU7KLVWLPH LVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHGHSWKXQGHUWKHERDW The operator remains on shore, viewing boat position, heading, and the FRPSOHWHGVXUYH\WUDFNDWDGLVWDQFHRI XS WR  PHWUHV 'DWD LV WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJKWKHYHVVHO¶VORQJUDQJHZLUHOHVV OLQN$IWHUFROOHFWLQJLQLWLDOVXUYH\GDWD SRZHUIXO K\GURJUDSKLF VXUYH\LQJ VRIW-

ZDUHLVXVHGWRJHQHUDWHD¿QDOSURGXFW UHSRUW IURP WKH UDZ VRQDU DQG *166 *36GDWD %\'SORWWLQJVOXGJHDQGVHGLPHQW maps, areas which are overloaded can EHLGHQWL¿HG7KHVHUHSRUWVFDQEHVXEPLWWHG WR YDULRXV SURYLQFLDO PLQLVWULHV WRYHULI\FRPSOLDQFH In addition, this technology allows LQGXVWULHVDQGPXQLFLSDOLWLHVWRFRQGXFW SDUWLDOGUHGJLQJ7KLVFRVWVDYLQJVWHFKQLTXH VSHFL¿FDOO\ WDUJHWV VOXGJH RYHUORDGLQJDUHDV%\PDSSLQJRXWVHGLPHQW DQGVOXGJHORDGLQJRZQHUVPD\UHDOL]H DGGLWLRQDO VWRUDJH FDSDFLW\ RU UHGXFH WKHXVHRIFKHPLFDOVDQGHQHUJ\ ,QIRUPDWLRQLQWKHVXUYH\UHSRUWFDQ optimize storage performance and slow loading by redirecting intake piping, PL[HUVRUDHUDWRUV,QVWDOODWLRQRIÀRDWLQJEDIÀHVFXUWDLQVDFURVVVSHFL¿FDUHDV RIWKHSRQGFHOORUODJRRQFDQEHFRQ¿dently installed as heavily loaded areas DUHNQRZQ For more information, contact Paul Makar. E-mail: paul.makar@cogeco.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:51 PM


Guest Comment pair at any level. Recall your Grade 10 Chemistry teacher explaining the concept of accuracy versus precision: accuracy is how close the number is to the true number, precision is how repeatable the number is. Just because an instrument spits out the same number on a sample again and again, does not make it real. As a consumer of lab services, ask to see things such as the baseline run, quality control runs or the calibration curve of an instrument, and make sure it is from the time frame related to your sample analysis.

Assessing the quality of lab data means getting back to basics By Sylvia Rennie

S

cience is an ever-changing landscape. Those of us in the environmental lab business have ZLWQHVVHG ¿UVWKDQG WKH KXJH advances made in the tools of our trade over the past few decades. The new generation of analytical equipment and computer/instrument interfaces make it hard to imagine that there ever was a day when technicians would stand by their instruments and manually inject samples, or manually titrate samples to an end point. Automation and computerization have certainly taken over. Follow that notion too far though and it may have one mistakenly believing that this implies better numbers and better data. It also suggests that the end-user can reduce their due diligence when reviewing lab data, when, in fact, nothing could be further from the truth. Consumers of environmental lab data need to understand that the scienWL¿F SLOODUV RI ³3UHFLVLRQ´ DQG ³$FFXUDF\´DUHVRPHWKLQJWKDWLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQ re-engineering and sample processing speed might not necessarily take into account. Increasingly, the onus rests with you, the consumer, to assess the quality of your results and the quality of your lab. The following are some items you should consider: 1. The myth of intelligent instruments. No laboratory instrument is aware it LV ³GRLQJ FKHPLVWU\´ 7KLV PD\ VRXQG ÀLSSDQW EXW LI \RX JUHZ XS OLNH , GLG www.esemag.com

70 MJ.14_Asses.Lab Data_fin.indd 53

2. Same test methods can yield different results. Analytical methods typically conform to an industry standard such as an watching 2001: A Space Odyssey or $670 02( $3+$ RU (3$ VWDQGDUG witnessing the advent of your parents’ protocol. These standard methods should ¿UVW GLVKZDVKHU \RX OLNHO\ JRW FDXJKW ideally allow for apple-to-apple comup in the romanticism that machines parison of data. However, there are many somehow know what they are doing. interesting studies that point to cases Lab instruments don’t. They might be where split samples sent to different labs programmed to register wavelength or using the same instrumentation and refelectrical impulse, etc., but they certain- erence methods are statistically different. continued on page 64 ly don’t know chemistry. It takes many, many people-hours to set up, calibrate and validate a new piece of equipment. Everything from SURSHUÀRZUDWHVWRVHQVLWLYLWLHVWRFRPQuality Focused. puter interfaces needs to be considered. Customer Connected. All these steps can introduce errors along the way. Instrument manufacturMetcon is pleased to announce the ers themselves aren’t immune to errors. appointment of Matthew Nicolak as There have been misprints in technical their Director of Sales & Marketing. For over 15 years, Matthew has VSHFL¿FDWLRQV HUURUV LQ FDOFXODWLRQV LQ proudly provided products software modules and faulty setup proand services to the municipal cedures. All of this reinforces the fact sector and has activelyy that nothing is to be assumed correct supported numerous merous until it is proven. industry committees ttees ISO 17025 is the international stanand initiatives. dard that environmental labs conform Metcon to. It requires them to validate instruSpecializes in: ments prior to implementation and, un‡&KHPLFDO)HHG doubtedly, this is a good start. However, ‡'LVLQIHFWLRQ DV LQVWUXPHQWV IUHTXHQWO\ ³GULIW´ RYHU ‡)LOWUDWLRQ ‡,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQ time, a one-time validation on an instru‡3URFHVV ment that pushes through hundreds of ‡6DIHW\ samples a day is not realistic. A good lab will routinely perform daily multipoint calibration checks on analytical instrumentation, and seek to re-validate from ¿UVWSULQFLSDOVLQDWLPHO\PDQQHU Extra effort beyond the ISO standard should be made, as you can’t expect 905.738.2355 | www.metconeng.com technology to self-diagnose or self-reMay/June 2014 | 53

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

Measurement technology plays key role in righting the Costa Concordia

I

n January 2012, with more than 4,200 passengers and crew on board, the Costa Concordia struck a reef on the western coast of Italy, ripping a gaping hole in the side and leaving the ship half sunk in the water. Thirty-two people lost their lives in the accident. Since then, the 290 metre-long wreck had rested on its side, off the coast of the small vacation island of Giglio. The salvage operation was just as

spectacular as the accident. At a cost of €600 million, the Costa Concordia is the most expensive salvage operation in maritime history. The objective was to raise the giant cruise liner in a single piece, preventing an environmental disaster and sparing the people of Giglio months of wrecking works taking place on shore. “Uprighting the ship was an extremely delicate operation,” explained

Antonio Festa of Endress+Hauser Italy. “To keep it from breaking apart, the ship had to be carefully and very evenly rotated.” To carry out the operation, specialists deployed state-of-the-art level measurement technology. The salvage plan and preparations were one and a half years in the making, as a wreck of this size had never been raised in one piece before. The unprecedented project was awarded to an Amer-

1 To keep it from slipping or sinking,

the Costa Concordia wreck, which is listing in the water at 65 degrees, is secured with anchor blocks and chains.

54 | May/June 2014

66 MJ.14_Tanks_Costa Concordia.indd 54

2 Divers erect an undersea platform,

or so-called ‘false bottom’, on which the ship will rest a͉er being rotated. Sponsons and steel cables are attached to the port side of the ship.

3 In a careful and deliberate

operation, the Costa Concordia is horizontally rotated using hydraulic winches and by controlled Àlling of the sponsons.

Illustration: www.parbucklingproject.com

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Spills

ican-Italian consortium that brought in specialists from across Europe. “Our on-site partner was an Italian engineering ÂżUP´ VDLG )HVWD Âł(QGUHVV+DXVHU ZDV WKHQFRQWUDFWHGE\D%HOJLDQFRPSDQ\´ $ FUXFLDO UROH LQ WKH VDOYDJH DQG UHĂ€RDWLQJ HIIRUW ZDV SOD\HG E\ WKH VSRQVRQV DLUÂżOOHG FKDPEHUV WKDW FDQ EH ÂżOOHG ZLWK ZDWHU DQG WKHQ HPSWLHG DJDLQ 7KH VSRQVRQV DWWDFKHG WR WKH &RVWD&RQFRUGLDDFWOLNHJLDQWVWHHOOLIH

IURPEXFNOLQJZKLOHWKHVKLSZDVURWDWHG´ VDLG )HVWD $SDUW IURP GHOLYHULQJ SUHFLVH PHDVXUHPHQWV WKH :DWHUSLORW SUREHVDUHH[WUHPHO\UREXVWZLWKVWDQGLQJWKHKDUVKHIIHFWVRIVDOW\VHDZDWHU ,Q6HSWHPEHUVSHFLDOLVWVUDLVHG WKH FULSSOHG JLDQW GXULQJ D PDPPRWK KRXU RSHUDWLRQ $GGLWLRQDO VSRQVRQV KDYHVLQFHEHHQDWWDFKHGWRWKHVWDUERDUG Strength in equilibrium ³$FRQVWDQWO\UHOLDEOHOHYHOPHDVXUH- VLGHRIWKHVKLSIDFLQJODQG%HIRUHWKH PHQW ZDV QHFHVVDU\ WR NHHS WKH KXOO VXPPHU VHDVRQ EHJLQV WKH &RVWD &RQFRUGLDZLOOEHWRZHGRQLWV¿QDOMRXUQH\ WRDQ,WDOLDQSRUWZKHUHWKHIRUPHUSULGH RIWKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQZLOOEHVFUDSSHG

YHVWV ZKLFK VWDELOL]H WKH ZUHFN DQG SURYLGH EXR\DQF\ VHH JUDSKLF  :DWHU OHYHOLQWKHFKDPEHUVLVPHDVXUHGZLWK pressure sensors. Two Cerabar pressure WUDQVPLWWHUVVXSSO\UHIHUHQFHYDOXHVDQG :DWHUSLORWOHYHOSUREHVUHJLVWHUWKH VOLJKWHVWK\GURVWDWLFFKDQJHV

For more information, visit www.endress.com

4 Sponsons can now be attached

to the starboard side of the ship, facing land.

www.esemag.com

66 MJ.14_Tanks_Costa Concordia.indd 55

5 Using air pressure, the

seawater-Ă€lled sponsons are gradually emptied to give the wreck enough buoyancy to reĂ oat.

May/June 2014 | 55

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Spills

Magnemount antenna system solves problem after ban imposed on welding and epoxy on tanks By David Klein

T

he Otay Water District in southern California has 39 water tanks to service its 200,000 customers. Thirteen of those tanks have wireless communication antennas attached. Due to environmental and safety issues and concerns about damage from welding and epoxy, the district now requires all new antennas mounted to its water tanks, to be installed using a magnetic mounting system or other non-destructive alternative. The district also mandates those same standards any WLPHDQDQWHQQDLVPRGLÂżHGRUUHSODFHG and whenever the district schedules a tank to be painted. “It costs a half-million dollars to paint a water tank inside and out,â€? says Brandon DiPietro, inspector supervisor for the Otay Water District. He says

The district now requires all new antennas mounted to its water tanks, to be installed using a magnetic mounting system.

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56 | May/June 2014

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(USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

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Spills welding can damage the interior coating of the tank and hiring a diver to repair that damage is costly. The use of epoxy to attach antennas is also an issue. They have to grind through the exterior paint. There are expansion and contraction issues and eventually the epoxy mount needs to be replaced. Antennas mounted with epoxy have been known to fall off towers.

The system relies totally on magnets to attach the materials; no welding or epoxy coating is needed. Goodman Networks, a vendor for AT&T Mobility in San Diego, wanted to expand its coverage by attaching eight antennas to an Otay water tank. Tai Irish, senior project manager with *RRGPDQ ZDV FKDUJHG ZLWK ÂżQGLQJ D V\VWHP WKDW PHW DOO WKH VSHFLÂżFDWLRQV He contacted Metal & Cable Corp., Inc., manufacturer of the Magnemount Antenna System. He recommended AT&T use the system on the Otay tank. Non-invasive permanent solution The Magnemount Antenna System is a permanent, non-invasive technology that can quickly and easily secure anWHQQDVWRVWHHOVXUIDFHV,WLVVSHFLÂżFDOO\ designed to accommodate the curvature of water tanks. Because the system relies totally on magnets to attach the materials, no welding or epoxy coating is needed, avoiding potential damage to the tank. A layer of IDFWRU\LQVWDOOHG0\ODUÂżOPEHWZHHQWKH magnet and the steel tank stops any stray voltage from getting into the tank and damaging the coating system. Antennas are attached to 12-foot masts made of anodized extruded aluminum, using 300 grade stainless steel U-bolts, so rust is not a concern. The Magnemount system is available LQ ÂżYH EDVLF GHVLJQV7KH RQH VHOHFWHG for the AT&T/ Otay project was the Side Tank Mount (STM), where all eight antennas were attached to the side of the tank near the top of the steel structure. “Wind was the governing factor in this case,â€? said Al Di Donato, a structural engineer. “Antennas are like sails in the wind. www.esemag.com

14 MJ.14_Tank_Magnemount.indd 57

We have wind gusts here up to 80 miles per hour. They can shake the entire tank.� Taking that into consideration, Di Donato recommended the contractors install three magnetic plates for each antenna rather than the customary two plates. Every 61 cm by 61 cm plate in the Magnemount system is secured with 24 magnets. Each magnet provides 45 kilograms of vertical pull and 15 kilograms of shear strength. Using three plates for each antenna provided 3266 kilograms of vertical pull and 1089 kilograms of shear strength, far more than was necessary to hold the 2.4 metre panel antennas and the remote radio units (RRUs) that AT&T added to each of the antennas. The RRUs added an additional 50 kilograms of weight to each mast. Quick installation The installation of the antennas using the Magnemount system was quick and easy. Using a man-lift, two men were able to complete the entire job in just two days. The Water District said the time saved by using the Magnemount system rather than epoxy, also saved a lot of

Using the Magnemount system made installation quick and easy.

money. Epoxy would have taken much ORQJHU Âą WKUHHWRÂżYH GD\V WR SUHSDUH apply and cure, followed by testing. It took two days to install the Magnemount system and at a cost of $5,000 to $7,000 a day, the district realized substantial savings. David Klein is with Metal & Cable Inc. E-mail: david@metal-cable.com

MUNICIPAL • INDUSTRIAL

WATER • WASTEWATER • BIOENERGY

COMPLETE STORAGE SYSTEMS

www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 sales@greatario.com May/June 2014 | 57

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Spills

The evolution of secondary containment double walled steel tanks By Erika Henderson

T

he discovery of vast oil deposits in the early 20th century, brought with it a need to store large quantities of petroleum. Storage tanks were most often constructed of steel, due to its non-permeable nature, strength and better resistance to corrosion compared to contemporary materials. Tanks were often placed underground, to guard their contents against vandalism and theft. 7KH ¿UVW VHFRQGDU\ FRQWDLQPHQW steel tanks were underground double walled tanks, featuring two walls of steel physically separated with angles or channels to create an annular interstice several inches thick. The goal of this design was to create an enclosure that would contain 110 per cent of the primary tank capacity. These tanks were often small and the spaces between the Double wall tanks can be insulated, such as these cryogenic tanks. A layer of insulation is closely packed between the walls, keeping the product at -195°C. two walls were only inches. :LWKLQFUHDVHGNQRZOHGJHRI¿UHULVN DQGSUHYHQWLRQQHZ¿UHFRGHVHPHUJHG and contamination can occur in second- chosen because of limited space, proxthat included the use of secondary con- ary containments that do not have an imity to bodies of water, or risks posed tainment, insulated/protected tank con- attached roof. This collection must be by stored contents. VWUXFWLRQ RYHU¿OO SUHYHQWLRQ WKHUPDO discharged in compliance with all regulaDouble walled tanks require only a expansion and anti-siphon devices, and tions. Contents can also spill/splash over fraction of the space required by dikes special emergency vents. This made an open topped secondary containment and other forms of secondary containabove ground storage tanks with added following a tank failure, despite the extra ment and the double walls serve as dousafety features the most desired storage space provided for the containment. ble barriers against leaks and contamimethod. Double walled tanks are often used nation. Secondary containment can While small double walled be any structure chemically tanks are easy to handle and Small double walled tanks are easy to FRPSDWLEOHWRKROGDVXI¿FLHQW can be shop-built, larger volume of the primary tank’s tanks with interstitial space liquid capacity and remain handle and can be shop-built; larger tanks with of four feet are favoured in liquid tight until a cleanup can today’s market and must be interstitial space of four feet are favoured in ¿HOGHUHFWHG occur. It is one of several steps designed to protect the enviIn some cases, a double today’s market and must be field-erected. ronment from spillage, overbottom rather than double ¿OO RU OHDNDJH IURP VWRUDJH wall may be necessary. This tanks housing hazardous materials. The to store chemicals, oil, petroleum and often occurs on existing tanks not origtype of secondary containment required RWKHU KD]DUGRXVÀDPPDEOH PDWHULDOV inally designed for secondary containcan depend heavily on the tank’s location, They are most often designed, con- ment. Tanks that sit on a ring walled type of liquid being stored, and insurance structed and maintained to American foundation can have the primary bottom requirements. Petroleum Institute (API) 650, 653 and stabilized by pressure grouting sand unA dike system, berm, liner, concrete 620 standards. Double walled tanks, derneath. Then, another layer of sand or vault or double wall steel storage tank like most other steel welded tanks, are RWKHU DSSURYHG ¿OOLQJ LV SODFHG RQ WRS can be considered secondary contain- often custom fabricated to meet the of the primary bottom before a new tank ment. However, rainwater collection needs of the customer. They are often secondary tank bottom is installed on 58 | May/June 2014

61 MJ.14_Tank_Sec.Contain.indd 58

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Spills

The double bottom procedure.

top. Leak detection couplings and other visual alarm systems can be added for visual leak detection. Cathodic protection can be added for corrosion control. All tanks must be inspected, tested and maintained to remain a dependable storage vessel. The evaluation should include many aspects of the tank concerning integrity, secondary containment, VSLOOSUHYHQWLRQDQGÂżUHFRGHUHODWHGLVVXHV,QWHJULW\WHVWLQJLQcludes hydrostatic techniques, visual inspections, non-destructive shell thickness testing, or a combination of these methods

Double walled tanks are often used to store chemicals, oil, petroleum and other hazardous/flammable materials.

based on equipment design. Tank foundation and supports are also included in these inspections. Tank owners must become familiar with the many regulaWLRQVWKDWDSSO\WRVHFRQGDU\FRQWDLQPHQWDQGÂżUHSUHYHQWLRQ for their storage tanks. Failing to do so may result in cataVWURSKLFIDLOXUHÂżUHVDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOFRQWDPLQDWLRQ Erika Henderson is with Pittsburg Tank and Tower Inc. For more information, E-mail: sales@watertank.com

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Specializing in the science of corrosion prevention, ICCC has been providing high quality products and engineering services for the Cathodic Protection/ Corrosion Control industry for over 50 years. Magnesium & Zinc Anodes • Impressed Current Anodes • Rectifiers/Junction Boxes • Pipeline Cleaning Swabs • Cadweld/Thermoweld Products • Monolithic Isolating Joints • Pipeline Coatings • Contact ICCC for competitive pricing and “on-timeâ€? delivery.

E-mail: Contact@Rustrol.com Central Fax: 905-333-4313

www.Rustrol.com www.esemag.com

61 MJ.14_Tank_Sec.Contain.indd 59

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How much has oil recovery improved since the Exxon Valdez spill? By Allan Grawey

I

t has been 25 years since the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989. After running aground on the Bligh Reef, approximately 35,000 tonnes of oil spilled into the ocean. Exxon said it spent approximately $2.1 billion on cleanup, with the operation including 10,000 workers, 1,000 boats and 100 aircraft at its peak. Yet some beaches remain oiled to this day. Since then, oil spill recovery statistics KDYHKRYHUHGEHWZHHQÂżYHDQGSHUFHQW in spite of billions of dollars having been spent on equipment, training, drills and the establishment of strategically located, industry-sponsored response organizations. To prevent another Valdez-like spill in the U.S., oil spill recovery organizations were strategically located and equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, manned by well-trained, capable personnel, in accordance with regulations. The response industry assured the public that, in the event of another catastrophic oil spill, everything would be dealt with in a timely, effective manner. For all intents and purposes, current oil spill recovery regimes are more cosmetic than effective, and nothing has changed in the years since the Valdez spill. The global oil spill response industry has utilized the same methodologies for every oil spill since the Exxon Valdez, predictably recording the same results. Based upon industry numbers the global response industry fails to recover 90 per cent of any oil spilled. For the past 25 years the global spill response community has continued to operate with three basic response techniques: dispersants, in situ burning, and mechanical retrieval. As part of its efforts to implement the provisions of the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC) Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) Protocol 2000, Japan was prepared to investigate technologies that could be used to mitigate the impact of hazardous chemical releases at sea. The OPRC-HNS Protocol aims to

60 60||May/June May/June2014 2014

49 MJ.14_Tank_Exxon-Japanese Study.indd 60

This photo was taken three days after the Exxon Valdez grounded, just before a storm arrived.

provide a global framework for international co-operation in response to marine pollution involving hazardous and noxious substances. Imbibitive Technologies, a specialty sorbent manufacturer, was contacted by the Maritime Disaster Prevention Centre (MDPC) in Yokohama, Japan. Japan had experienced several chemical releases in past years and noted that the technologies that had been employed had been, for the most part, ineffective. MDPC was interested in discovering if sorbent polymer, including Imbiber BeadsÂŽ could be used to effectively “capture and containâ€? a broad range of hazardous chemicals. 162 of the most heavily imported HNS into Japan, including benzene, xylene, ethyl benzene, toluene, styrene, hexane, decane and dozens more, were selected for this study. The initial portion of the study was to include bench-scale testing of various sorbent materials, including Imbiber Beads, over a six-year period. This report will create a worldwide database, which will be used in the preparation and advancement of marine spill technologies. Imbiber Beads were tested in conjunction with a Japanese-produced powdered JHOOLQJDJHQW VROLGLÂżHU ZLWKDEXONGHQ-

sity of 0.4. The Imbiber Beads formulation WHVWHG KDV D VSHFLÂżF JUDYLW\ RI DSSUR[ 0.96. Their greater density allowed the super absorbent polymer to settle through the test liquids, but remain at the saltwater/ chemical interface. The less dense material required “stirringâ€? in order to facilitate intimate contact with the test liquids. No stirring was required for Imbiber Beads. MDPC observed as a result of this performance of the super absorbent SRO\PHU WKDW WKH ÂłVROLGLÂżFDWLRQ´ SURcess was rapid for the majority of the test HNS, whether in the presence of saltwater or not. 7KHDIÂżQLW\RI,PELEHU%HDGVWRHOLPLnate the liquid phase upon contact proved to be an advantage for the safety of response personnel and the potential to minimize secondary contamination. Of the initial 35 HNS included in the testing procedures, 23 of the liquids were immobilized completeO\ DQG LQ OHVV WKDQ ÂżYH PLQXWHV7KLV LQcluded seven of the top ten HNS imported into Japan: xylene, benzene, styrene monomer, toluene, cyclohexane, acrylonitrile and ethylene dichloride. MDPC noted that there is a difference in the mechanisms of “gelatinizationâ€? and “absorptionâ€?, which were continued overleaf...

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Spills demonstrated by the powdered gelling agent and absorbent polymer respectively. Imbiber Beads immediately reduced the rate of vapour release upon their application to the HNS between 83 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 95 per cent, depending upon the vapour pressure of the test liquid. The rate of vapour reduction increased to as high as 99 per cent, with butyl acetate. MDPC recognized that, in many incidents, it is the vapours which present most of the concern during response operations. After six years of evaluation and testing, MDPC placed strategic inventories of Imbiber Beads and the High Extension Rapid Oil Spill Systemâ&#x201E;˘ (HEROSÂŽ) spray delivery systems and recovery equipment at 23 high-risk locations throughout Japan. This was part of their national spill contingency plan for hazardous chemical spills at sea. The HEROS System is a multi-component system, which combines several inter-related technologies into an effective spill response tool. Elements of the system include helicopter delivery of Imbiber Beads; containment wrap barriers with sorbing pockets; and the use of ÂżUHÂżJKWLQJIRDPPRQLWRUVDGDSWHGIRU Imbiber Bead delivery. Imbiber Beads are a key element of the system, transforming the oil into a semi-solid mass that can be retrieved off the water using

Imbiber Beads fully captured and contained dozens of tested organic chemicals, immobilizing the spill and turning the liquid into a semi-solid.

existing recovery techniques. Pre-staged inventories at each monitoring location allows for the response operation to commence almost immediDWHO\ XSRQ QRWLÂżFDWLRQ $SSOLFDWLRQ RI Imbiber Beads through foam monitors, and used in conjunction with the HEROS wrap barrier system, will have the desired effect of immobilizing the release and localizing it until a full-blown response operation can arrive on site.

Recycling Options An additional advantage of deploying bulk Imbiber Beads onto an oil spill is the ability to harvest the blocks of agglomerated oil and reclaim it through a UHÂżQHU\SURFHVVHIIHFWLYHO\FORVLQJWKH environmental loop. In order to do this it is necessary to drop the blocks of â&#x20AC;&#x153;imbibedâ&#x20AC;? oil into H[FHVV RLO ZKLFK PRVW UHÂżQHULHV KDYH in abundance. Once in the excess oil,

Table 1. Test results from concentration of vapour for various chemicals. Imbiber Beads were found to reduce the rate of vapour release by up to 600 per cent, greatly reducing, if not completely eliminating the risk of fire, explosion or inhalation. 62 | May/June 2014

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Spills

Standard fire fighting foam monitors can be used to disperse Imbiber Beads onto water based spills.

Imbiber Beads will separate from their cohesive mass. They will remain swollen, but because they lose an amount of their rigidity during the imbibition process, they become more malleable, alORZLQJWKHPWRĂ&#x20AC;RZWKURXJKSLSHVJHDU SXPSVDQGRULÂżFHSODWHV 7KH\GRQRWPHOWDVWKHLUĂ&#x20AC;DVKSRLQW is 235°C. As a result, they do not change the viscosity of the liquid. By â&#x20AC;&#x153;thermally crackingâ&#x20AC;? them down to their basic components of water, carbon and hydrogen, only the recovered oil remains.

Imbibed liquids can be easily recovered from the water with something as simple as a standard fishing net.

This will have a slightly higher aromatic content due to some of the monomers used in the polymer mix. Energy from waste is also a disposal option, with one pound of Imbiber Beads generating 17,000 BTUs when incinerated. The addition of spilled hydrocarbons increases the energy value and makes them an excellent, clean burning fuel source, generating less than one per cent ash. Imbiber Beads do not change the basic chemical properties of any liquids

that they imbibe/absorb. As a result these materials should be handled in accordance with their chemical properties prior to imbibition. The work conducted by MDPC created a template for government and industry world-wide for effectively dealing with catastrophic oil and chemical spills at sea. Allan Grawey is with Imbibitive Technologies. E-mail: agrawey@imbiberbeads.com

Stormwater Treatment A one of a kind OGS for capturing debris, TSS & free oils from stormwater runoff.

The Stormceptor advantage: Â&#x2021; 3rdSDUW\ODE ÂżHOGWHVWHGSURYHQWRSUHYHQWUHOHDVHRIWUDSSHGÂżQHVLOWSDUWLFOHV Â&#x2021; 3HUIRUPDQFHYHULÂżHGE\WKH&DQDGLDQ(QYLURQPHQWDO7HFKQRORJ\9HULÂżFDWLRQ (79 3URJUDP Â&#x2021; 'HVLJQHGDQGVL]HGWRFDSWXUHDZLGHUDQJHRISDUWLFOHVDQGRYHURIIUHHRLOV Â&#x2021; )OH[LEO\GHVLJQHGZLWKPXOWLSOHFRQÂżJXUDWLRQV,QOLQH,QOHW6XEPHUJHG Â&#x2021; (QJLQHHUHGWRGHOLYHUFRQVLVWHQWHQYLURQPHQWDOFRPSOLDQFH 3HUIRUPDQFHFODLPYHULÂżHGE\WKH&DQDGLDQ(QYLURQPHQWDO 7HFKQRORJ\9HULÂżFDWLRQ3URJUDP

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49 MJ.14_Tank_Exxon-Japanese Study.indd 63

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info@imbriumsystems.com

May/June 2014 | 63

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Guest Comment Continued from page 53. A wonderful article entitled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Trouble at the Labâ&#x20AC;? (The Economist, 2013) really brings this concept to life, citing research studies that failed to yield the same results when replicated step by step. So how can this occur? Assuming the sample was taken according to proper split-sample sampling techniques (i.e., there are no chemical differences inherent in the sample itself), there are still many other factors at play. For extremely time-sensitive tests such as formaldehyde, differences between Lab â&#x20AC;&#x153;Aâ&#x20AC;? prepping the sample 12 hours before Lab â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bâ&#x20AC;? can make a difference (even if the method hold time is met by both labs). 7HPSHUDWXUHĂ&#x20AC;XFWXDWLRQVZKLOHLQWUDQsit are another contributing factor. Method-to-method variance and same-method variance are an issue as well. Bench-level technique also plays a huge role. Just as a good surgeon will have better clinical results than a lesser-skilled surgeon, the same holds true for laboratory staff. A well-trained, skilled lab analyst is key to ensuring that accuracy DQG SUHFLVLRQ DUH DSSDUHQW LQ WKH ÂżQDO number. Everything from having an organized and functional work station, excellent bench-level technique and an eye for detail are major contributing factors. We speak of â&#x20AC;&#x153;good handsâ&#x20AC;? in this industry too and we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t refer to it lightly. ISO 17025 does require that accreditHGODEVSDUWLFLSDWHLQD3URÂżFLHQF\7HVWing (PT) Program twice a year for each accredited method. Results must fall within an acceptable result range or the lab will have that test suspended from their scope of accreditation (double failures will mean a suspension). Again, this provides some reassurance, but unfortunately, when something as dear as accreditation is at stake, the consumer must not rely too heavily on the labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s PT track record as it probably ran and re-ran that sample with many extra quality control measures in place. It was likely not run as part of the dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s normal production. A conscientious consumer of lab services can help identify weak data by testing their lab with the inclusion of spiked samples. Knowing the experiHQFH DQG TXDOLÂżFDWLRQV RI WKH DQDO\VWV running your sample is also something you should feel comfortable discussing with your lab. 64 | May/June 2014

70 MJ.14_Asses.Lab Data_fin.indd 64

3. The need for speed. The focus on the â&#x20AC;&#x153;need for speedâ&#x20AC;? in the analytical testing industry undoubtedly comes at a cost. If doing it fast and cheap are the drivers, then expect that equipment maintenance, staff training and adherence to best-practices in

assess the quality of the work performed by their lab include: â&#x20AC;˘ Make the most out of incorporating field and trip blanks into your cooler orders and send the occasional blind sample duplicate as well. â&#x20AC;˘ Assess whether your lab is using additional Quality Control measures beyond control standards and duplicate analyses in their batches. Things to look for include the use of control charting in the lab to flag statistical variation in a method over time or the inclusion of matrix-specific Certified Reference Materials. â&#x20AC;˘ Ask your lab to define what a â&#x20AC;&#x153;batchâ&#x20AC;? of samples is for them in terms of â&#x20AC;&#x153;we run these quality control measures per batchâ&#x20AC;?. Is it every 20 samples, every 100, once a day, once per instrument run? An average batch size shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t exceed approximately 20 samples per test. â&#x20AC;˘ Understand the concept of statistics in your data when assessing your data set. If you are not certain, take a refresher course on the concept of allowable variance and relative per cent difference (RPD) between two numbers before deciding that they are too different. Also understand that RPD varies by analytical method and by matrix (soil versus water) to allow for known errors. analytical chemistry will start to slide. â&#x20AC;˘ Understand the concept of Method Some corners that might be cut are as Detection Limit when assessing your fundamental as labs failing to run muldata set. If a lab reports a blanket Detiple dilutions for samples, which is a tection Limit for an analysis, you must key step in ensuring the result range is consider that the actual detection level optimized for the calibration of the in(i.e., how low the lab can detect/report strument. that analyte in that particular sample) Critical steps may also be cut out in may be disappointingly above it. In standard methods, such as not running the worst case scenario, it may be so the accompanying moisture test for an far above the blanket Detection Limit organic analysis of soil (e.g., BTEX, (sometimes referred to as a Reportable F1-F4, etc.). This undoubtedly saves Detection Limit) that the result may time, but can seriously underestimate not pass the regulatory criteria you are the concentration of the contaminant in comparing to. Remember, less than the sample and can grossly misrepresent detect is only valid if you know what the true detection level of the sample. the â&#x20AC;&#x153;detectâ&#x20AC;? really is. Again, as a consumer, simply asking Overall, the onus to provide quality the lab to show you their dilution runs, data rests with the lab. However, in the or the moisture calculation for your soil era of automated high-throughput and VDPSOHLVHQRXJKWRJLYH\RXFRQÂżGHQFH price erosion, the onus to assess the that you are doing your part in assessing quality of your lab rests with you. the quality of your data and your lab. Sylvia Rennie is with Consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tool kit Testmark Laboratories Ltd. Other tools the consumer can use to E-mail: sylvia.rennie@testmark.ca

Ask your lab to define what a â&#x20AC;&#x153;batchâ&#x20AC;? of samples is for them in terms of â&#x20AC;&#x153;we run these quality control measures per batchâ&#x20AC;?.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/29/14 1:51 AM


Stormwater storage modules

Small double wall tanks, from 20 to 405 gallons, provide primary and secondary containment for hazardous and corrosive chemicals in one unit. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, and high-density crosslink resin tanks for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Web: www.assmann-usa.com

Brentwood’s StormTank® Stormwater Storage Modules are strong, lightweight, and offer the largest void space of any underground stormwater storage units on the market. The StormTank’s stackable, subsurface design allows for management of heavy water volumes and generation of serviceable space. Tel: 610-374-5109, Fax: 610-376-6022 E-mail: stormwater@ brentwoodindustries.com Web: www.brentwoodindustries.com

Assmann Corporation of America

Brentwood Industries

H2FLOW SBR

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

The H2FLOW SBR consists of FLUIDYNE Sequencing Batch Reactor internals integrated into a glass-fusedto-steel tank. It features jet aeration headers that never require replacement, and a solidsH[FOXGLQJ¿[HGGHFDQWHUZKLFKKDV been proven in many installations. Tel: 905-660-9775 :HEZZZKÀRZFRP

H2Flow Equipment

Corrosion protection

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush or roller. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona-ca.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca Spill Management

Spill containment systems

Containment system

Rentals

To avoid any major reoccuring expenses like oil/water filtration, shoveling snow and debris, or incurring tainted water disposal costs, Transport Environmental Systems offers open collector pan models and closeable lid models to help avoid collecting snow, rainwater and debris. Also available are roll-under spill collector pans and other products for train/tanker truck loading, unloading and spill containment. Tel: 252-571-0092, Fax: 252-489-2060 E-mail: info@transenvsys.com Web: www.transenvsys.com

Westeel’s C-Ring Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: info@westeel.com Web: www.westeel.com

Wise Environmental Solutions Inc. specializes in: frac, mini mixer, 4 motor mixer, open top, poly and double wall tank rentals, as well as vacuum, dewatering and environmental roll-off boxes. We pride ourselves on safety and offer competitive transportation and disposal rates. Tel: 519-860-5589 or 519-542-6667 E-mail: amanda@wiseenv.com Web: www.wiseenv.com

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Prevent pump ragging

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Phoenix Panel System

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Septage receiving automation

Online education

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7DNH\RXUH[SHUWLVHWRWKHQH[WOHYHO ZLWK$PHULFDQ3XEOLF8QLYHUVLW\ $38 $38RIIHUVPRUHWKDQ GHJUHHDQGFHUWL¿FDWHSURJUDPV LQFOXGLQJ(QYLURQPHQWDO6FLHQFH (QYLURQPHQWDO3ROLF\ 0DQDJHPHQW DQGPRUH±FRPSOHWHO\RQOLQH Tel: 877-777-9081 :HE6WXG\DW$38FRP(6(

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American Public University

Phoenix Underdrain System

Butterfly valves

â&#x20AC;¢ 2SWLPL]HVDOOW\SHVRIILOWHUV â&#x20AC;¢ ([WUHPHO\ORZSURILOHORZHVWDYDLODEOH â&#x20AC;¢ 0DQXIDFWXUHGIURPFRUURVLRQUHVLVWDQW  VWDLQOHVVVWHHO â&#x20AC;¢ 9DULDEOHFXVWRPRULILFHVL]LQJ â&#x20AC;¢ &XVWRPK\GUDXOLFGHVLJQ â&#x20AC;¢ *XDUDQWHHGXQLIRUPDLUVFRXU  GLVWULEXWLRQ â&#x20AC;¢ 5DSLGORZFRVWLQVWDOODWLRQ 7HO)D[ (PDLOLQIR#DZLILOWHUFRP :HEZZZDZLILOWHUFRP

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AWI

Stormwater protection

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Calibration system

6WRUPFHSWRUÂ&#x160;0$;LVOLFHQVHGDQGPDQXIDFWXUHGWKURXJKRXW4XHEHFE\/HFX\HU ZKRGHVLJQHGDQG LQVWDOOHG WZRXQLWV ZLWKLQD WUHDWPHQW WUDLQWR FDSWXUHDQG UHWDLQ766DQGK\GURFDUERQVZKLOHGHOLYHULQJVSLOOSURWHFWLRQ2YHUKHFWDUHVRI UXQRIIDQGVQRZPHOWIURPDORQJVLGH$XWRURXWHLVGLUHFWHGWRWKH6WRUPFHSWRU 0$;XQLWVORFDWHGMXVW RXWVLGHWKHJUHDWHU0RQWUHDODUHD Tel: 800-565-4801 (PDLOLQIR#LPEULXPV\VWHPVFRP :HEZZZVWRUPFHSWRUFRP Contech Engineered Solutions

3URYHQZRUOGZLGH IRUZHOORYHU \HDUV'HQVR 3HWURODWXP7DSHV RIIHUWKHEHVW PRVWHFRQRPLFDO ORQJWHUPFRUURVLRQSURWHFWLRQIRUDOO DERYHDQGEHORZJURXQGPHWDOVXUIDFHV 5HTXLULQJRQO\PLQLPXPVXUIDFHSUHSDUDWLRQDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOO\UHVSRQVLEOH 'HQVR3HWURODWXP7DSHLVWKHVROXWLRQWR \RXUFRUURVLRQSUREOHPVLQDQ\FRUURVLYH HQYLURQPHQW)RUDSSOLFDWLRQVLQPLQHV UHILQHULHVVWHHOPLOOVSXOS SDSHURLO JDVDQGWKHZDWHUZRUNVLQGXVWU\7KH DQVZHULV'HQVR 7HO)D[ (PDLOEODLU#GHQVRQDFDFRP :HEZZZGHQVRQDFRP

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:57 PM


Monitor chlorine gas

Process centrifuge

Endress+Hauserâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CSP44 portable sampler is a true water monitoring station. The addition of industrial Memosens based inputs allows for special event sampling, real time process monitoring and data logging S+253FRQGXFWLYLW\GLVVROYHG R[\JHQDQGWXUELGLW\ 7KH&63XVHV the same powerful controller found in Endress+Hauserâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Liquiline Analytical product portfolio. Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis

The Chlor-Scale 150® provides a simple and reliable way to monitor the exact amount of chlorine used and the amount remaining in the cylinder. Available with the electronic Wizard 4000® or SOLO G2®, or the hydraulic SOLO XT® or Century® dial. Tel: 800-893-6723 (PDLOLQIR#IRUFHÃ&#x20AC;RZFRP :HEZZZIRUFHÃ&#x20AC;RZFRP

The Model F-10300 process centrifuge is specifically designed for process control sampling applications to determine solids concentration in percent volume. The centrifuge test gives rapid results: six or more sludge samples can be run in 15 minutes in a lab centrifuge. The data obtained has been proven to be more than adequate for process control. Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: info@geneq.com Web: www.geneq.com

Endress+Hauser Canada

Force Flow

Geneq

Process mixing system 7KH+<'5$8/,; mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario. com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

DO logger

7KH+2%28'LVVROYHG Oxygen Logger features: monitoring with 0.2 mg/L accuracy; optical '2VHQVRUWHFKQRORJ\RSWLFDO86% LQWHUIDFHDQGHDV\WRUHSODFH'2 sensor cap. Software corrects for measurement drift from fouling. Tel: 604-872-7894 Fax: 604-872-0281 (PDLOVDOHVY#KRVNLQFD :HEZZZKRVNLQFD

Hoskin Scientific

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Ultrasonic metering *UH\OLQH¶VQHZ')0'RSSOHU )ORZ0HWHUPHDVXUHVÃ&#x20AC;RZIURP outside a pipe. ,WHPSOR\VWKH latest technology LQ'RSSOHUVLJQDO processing. Faster, cleaner processing, greater data resolution and an improved DELOLW\WR¿OWHURXWQRLVHDOOFRPELQHWR produce data accuracy far greater than previously possible.

DAF pilot unit

E-mail: info@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com

)RUGLI¿FXOWZDVWHZDWHUSUREOHPV GLVVROYHGDLUÃ&#x20AC;RWDWLRQ '$) PD\EH the right choice. Try out the H2FLOW '$)XQLWWRVHHLIWKHUHVXOWVPDNH sense to clarify your water. The VNLGPRXQWHGXQLWFRPSOHWHZLWK accessories, is designed to treat 80 /SP$Ã&#x20AC;DWEHGWUDLOHULVRSWLRQDO Tel: 905-660-9775 :HEZZZKÃ&#x20AC;RZFRP

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H2Flow Equipment

Water level logger

U20L, the new low cost HOBO Water Level Logger, measures water level, EDURPHWULFSUHVVXUHSUHVVXUH DEVROXWH  DQGWHPSHUDWXUH,WVVHOIFRQWDLQHGQRQ vented design enables easy deployment IRUXVHLQZHOOVVWUHDPVODNHVZHWODQGV DQGWLGDODUHDV,WKDVDGXUDEOHFHUDPLF pressure sensor.

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New portable sampler

Advanced MBR screen

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Huber has introduced the Rotamat® perforated plate screen RPPS STAR. Utilizing a patented pleated perforated plate increases throughput by 25%. This allows a smaller footprint, which results in reduced capital cost for screen and structure. Tel: 704-990-2055, Fax: 704-949-1020 E-mail: solutions@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net/RPPS

Hoskin Scientific

Huber Technology

May/June 2014 | 67

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Vertical screen technology

Double containment

Leak detection system

Huber Technology LQYHQWHGWKH5R. YHUWLFDOFRQÂżQHG space screen technology to physically screen out GHEULVLQFRQÂżQHG spaces such as SXPSVWDWLRQVZHW ZHOOVHWF7KUHH diameters are available with machine lengths as high as ~40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Over 700 units have been installed worldwide. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net

ClearGuardTM is DIDLOVDIH pressurerated clear containment piping system allowing for easy visual detection of leaks and minimizing risk for transport of aggressive chemicals in buildings. Clear-Guard Double Containment XWLOL]HV,3(;ÂśVSDWHQWHG&HQWUD/RNTM ÂżWWLQJGHVLJQZKLFKNHHSVWKHFDUULHU pipe perfectly centered inside the containment pipe. Fittings are available in clear or â&#x20AC;&#x153;cost savingâ&#x20AC;? opaque. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com

,3(;GRXEOH containment systems can be equipped with a patented Centra-Guardâ&#x201E;˘ point-of-collection leak detection system. Centra-Guard systems are available for aboveJURXQGVXVSHQGHG SLSLQJDSSOLFDWLRQV with sensors housed in VDGGOHW\SHFODPSVDV well as for below-grade SLSLQJV\VWHPVZLWKVHQVRUVORFDWHGLQ drip leg assemblies. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com

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Interpreter register Master Meterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ,QWHUSUHWHU5HJLVWHU6\VWHPEDVHG on proven DialogÂŽ 3G technolRJ\LVDXQLYHUVDO $05XSJUDGH that replaces the existing register RQDOPRVWDQ\EUDQGRIPHWHULQPLQXWHV ZLWKRXWVHUYLFHLQWHUUXSWLRQ,WGHOLYHUV $05WHFKQRORJ\ZLWKRXWZLUHVRU connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com Master Meter

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68 | May/June 2014

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Ultrasonic meter

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021,7$5,2EXLOGVĂ&#x20AC;XPHV,WGHVLJQV IDEULFDWHVLQVWDOOVDQGFHUWLÂżHVDFFXUDF\ and has for over 25 years. The CAD/ &$0SURFHVVKDVVLPSOLÂżHGWKH WDVN,QVWDOODWLRQVDUHHDVLHUDQGIDVWHU with crucial dimensions maintained. Accuracy is guaranteed. Tel: 519-748-8024 E-mail: randy@monitario.com Web: www.monitario.com

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Get incentives for energy efficient upgrades

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Filtration products Experience â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that is what sets Orival Water Filters apart from competitors. Twenty-seven years under one RZQHUVKLS with long-term application engineers on VWDIIPDNH 2ULYDO,QF\RXUUHOLDEOHSURYLGHURI ÂżOWUDWLRQSURGXFWV7KHFRPSDQ\KDV hundreds of automatic self-cleaning VFUHHQÂżOWHUPRGHOVZLWKDÂżOWHUIRU nearly every application. Tel: 800-568-9767 (PDLOÂżOWHUV#RULYDOFRP Web: www.orival.com

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5/27/14 11:57 PM


Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Grit removal system

PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

Pre-engineered pumps

Mechatronic drive system

ProMinent’s ProSIP Pump Series are pre-engineered for any chemical feed application and are both versatile and economical. They come with our exclusive three-year guarantee; all you have to do is plug them in. Ask us how ProSIP helps you live your life — ProMinently. Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

Movigear® is an intelligent system with its own control concept. Its high-quality networking helps reduce startup time and supports monitoring and maintenance tasks. When combined with a fractional user software, drive tasks can be resolved as quickly and easily as possible. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca

ProMinent Fluid Controls

SEW-Eurodrive

New App Interface The new Levelogger App Interface provides a wireless connection between your Levelogger water level datalogger, and the Solinst Levelogger App on your smart device. Use it to program, view and save real-time data, and download and E-mail data from the connected Levelogger. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst Canada

Groundwater sampling The HydraSleeve Discreet Interval No-Purge Sampler provides a formation quality sample with very little effort and cost. In independent studies, the HydraSleeve was found to be 50%-80% more cost-effective than other sampling methods. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Oil/water interface sensor

PVC or Polyethylene

EcoPlug Wellcaps

'6EF?E8F(DBE@@D :C4CBD>F;, C>(DBE@F?BE@; 3D<EFE?=A@FC=FD? C97@A+E:F+E@=CA? A3FB6EFA@C4C?D> ;$2F'6EF;, 5=E=F5>B@D=A?C< BE<6?A>A4/FBAF:E; BE<BF>C5C:=FD?:FCB= =E?=A@FC=F?ABF:D9; D4E:F-/F=B@A?4F=A>+E?B=2F+DC>D->EF8CB6 ECB6E@FC97E@CD>FA@F9EB@C<FBD7E=FD?:FA7E? A@F<>A=E:F@EE>F3A@9DB=2 'E>.F)10;,!#;0,&,*FD".F)10;,!#;0%1& ;9DC>.F=D>E=8DBE@@D2<A9 (E-.F88828DBE@@D2<A9

The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both eco-friendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter, and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

The EcoPlug™ offers the latest in well plug design and is the only well cap made from recycled materials. If you’re looking for a durable, tamper-proof well cap that will withstand repeated use (and abuse) over many years, the EcoPlug is an excellent fit for your requirements. This well cap is available for 3/4”, 1”, 2” and 4” monitoring wells. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

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Showcase Bonus Ads_May.June.14.indd 69

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Polymer makedown ProMinent’s Tomal Polyrex Polymer 0DNHGRZQ6\VWHPIRUVDIHDQGHI¿FLHQW activation of polymer solution is lowmaintenance, with a wide and ÀH[LEOHUDQJH Maximize energy while minimizing consumption. Easy operation and proven design means the PolyRex makes it easy for you — ask us how!

May/June 2014 | 69

5/27/14 11:58 PM


ES&E NEWS Parsons acquires Delcan

Now available in Canada! Tier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and Pressure Control Systems in both Bladder and Air over Water Solutions

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HYDRO-PULSE

Large Bubble Mixing Technology

IDEAL MIXING FOR: â&#x20AC;˘ Anoxic, Aeration & Swing Tanks â&#x20AC;˘ Drinking water storage tanks â&#x20AC;˘ Sludge Tanks â&#x20AC;˘ Channel Mixing Applications â&#x20AC;˘ Sewage pump station grease cap busting & odor control â&#x20AC;˘ Industrial and Food Processing Applications. . . and more!

â&#x20AC;˘ Innovative, air-burst driven mixing â&#x20AC;˘ Energy-efficient, up to 50% less power â&#x20AC;˘ No in-basin moving parts â&#x20AC;˘ Easy installation

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762 Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2

Five decades of excellence in infrastructure Â&#x2122;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2014;Â?ȹǭȸÂ&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2014;Â?

â&#x20AC;˘ ANTHRACITE â&#x20AC;˘ QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL â&#x20AC;˘ CARBON â&#x20AC;˘ GARNET ILMENITE â&#x20AC;˘ REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 â&#x20AC;˘ Tel: (519) 751-1080 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net â&#x20AC;˘ Web: www.anthrafilter.net

70 | May/June 2014

00-NEWS_MayJune.14.indd 70

Looking to expand its geographic footprint in transportation, Parsons has acquired Delcan, an international multidisciplinary engineering, planning, manDJHPHQWDQGWHFKQRORJ\ÂżUP Over its 60-year history, Delcan has been providing transportation solutions within the rail and transit, road and highway, structures, water, freight, DQG LQWHOOLJHQW WUDQVSRUWDWLRQ V\VWHPV Delcan has 800 employees working from more than 25 locations across the JOREH With revenues of $3 billion in 2013, Parsons is one of the largest transportation planning, engineering, and conVWUXFWLRQÂżUPVLQWKHZRUOG www.delcan.com

Increasing project totals encourage optimism Total capital cost of major projects in %& FRQWLQXHG WR ULVH LQ WKH \HDUHQG quarter of 2013, with total capital costs XS  SHU FHQW RYHU WKH VDPH SHULRG ODVW\HDU According to the Association of &RQVXOWLQJ (QJLQHHULQJ &RPSDQLHV Âą %ULWLVK &ROXPELD %& 03, 5HYLHZ total capital cost of major projects in %&UHDFKHGELOOLRQLQWKHIRXUWK quarter of 2013, far surpassing the $261 ELOOLRQPDUNDW\HDUHQG The oil and gas sector has seen sigQLÂżFDQW JURZWK LQ WKH ODVW TXDUWHU RI 2013 with the addition of two new LNG proposals and the provision of a capital FRVW HVWLPDWH IRU WKH :RRGÂżEUH /1* SURMHFWZRUWKELOOLRQ 0DMRU3URMHFW,QYHQWRU\+LJKlights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Year-end quarter 2013 vs Yearend quarter 2012: Â&#x2021; 5HVLGHQWLDO 0L[HG8VHVHFWRU SHUFHQWLQFUHDVHWRELOOLRQ Â&#x2021; &RPPHUFLDOVHFWRUSHUFHQWLQFUHDVHWRELOOLRQ Â&#x2021; 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ  :DUHKRXVLQJ VHFWRU  SHU FHQW LQFUHDVH WR  billion Â&#x2021; 0LQLQJVHFWRUSHUFHQWLQFUHDVH WRELOOLRQ Â&#x2021; 2LO  *DV VHFWRU  SHU FHQW LQFUHDVHWRELOOLRQ Â&#x2021; 8WLOLWLHVVHFWRUSHUFHQWLQFUHDVH WRELOOLRQ Â&#x2021; 0DQXIDFWXULQJVHFWRUSHUFHQW LQFUHDVHWRELOOLRQ Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:59 PM


ES&E NEWS • Public Services sector: 16.9 per cent drop to $7.3 billion • Other Services sector: 2.6 per cent drop to $23.4 billion www.acec-bc.com

Auto recycling’s successful mercury removal program Since 2008, more than 450,000 mercury-containing switches, totaling approximately 380 kilograms of mercury, have been removed and disposed of properly through an award-winning environmental program. The Switch Out program, jointly funded by the Canadian Steel Producers Association (CSPA) and the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association (CVMA), works with over 1,000 scrap yards, vehicle recyclers and dismantlers across Canada to have them remove mercury-containing switches that were used for convenience lighting and anti-lock braking systems from End of Life Vehicles (ELVs). In 2011, the program was recognized with the Ontario Minister of the Environment’s Award for Environmental Excellence. Steel is Canada’s most recycled product and in 2013, members of CSPA recycled some seven million tonnes of scrap steel. That is roughly the equivalent of the steel contained in seven million cars. While mercury used in these components was discontinued over 10 years ago, vehicles from that era are still being recycled. The purpose of the Switch Out program is to remove, recover and properly manage this mercury safely in older vehicles, before the scrap from these vehicles go through the recycling process to create new steel products. www.switchout.ca

High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Dry Ice Cleaning Hydro Vac Excavating

Markham, Ontario 905-747-8506 WeKnowWater@BV.com Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation

“Hydraulic Fracturing: Meeting the Nation’s Energy Needs While Protecting Groundwater Resources” presents WKH RI¿FLDO SRVLWLRQ RI WKH 1DWLRQDO Groundwater Association, and identi¿HVVWHSVWRWDNHWRSURWHFWJURXQGZDter and drinking water supplies while addressing energy needs through incontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

00-NEWS_MayJune.14.indd 71

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Specialists in a comprehensive range of Municipal, Environmental, Structural, Building, Water Resources, Transportation and Municipal Engineering Collingwood

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NGWA addresses fracking

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35 YEARS DREDGING HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDPE PIPE HDPE PIPELINE FUSING GEO TUBE DEWATERING Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction, Municipal & Industrial

Tel: (506) 684-5821 | Fax (506) 684-1915 | www.girouxinc.com May/June 2014 | 71

5/27/14 11:59 PM


ES&E NEWS Insitu Groundwater Contractors â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 â&#x20AC;˘ 150 Stevenson Street, South Guelph, ON N1E 5N7

Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems

www.insitucontractors.com

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. WWW.IWS.CA

WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE Performance Testing, Inspections, Well Rehabilitation & Repairs Lineshaft and Submersible Turbines 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-Mail: iws@iws.ca

INTERPROVINCIAL CORROSION CONTROL Leaders in the Cathodic Protection Industryâ&#x20AC;ŚSince 1957 CORROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS Burlington, Ontario Canada Regional Offices: Montreal, Calgary Lewiston, New York, USA

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Package Wastewater Treatment Plants/SBR/MBR/RBC/EA/DAF 72 | May/June 2014

00-NEWS_MayJune.14.indd 72

creased oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing. The paper supports additional studLHV ÂżHOGEDVHG UHVHDUFK DQG JURXQGZDWHU PRQLWRULQJ EXW IRXQG ÂłQR ZLGHspread water quality or quantity issues KDYHEHHQGHÂżQLWLYHO\GRFXPHQWHGWKDW DUH DWWULEXWDEOH WR WKH RLO DQG JDV K\draulic fracturing process itself.â&#x20AC;? However, the Association said there KDYHEHHQVHYHUDOFDVHVRIZDWHUFRQWDPLnation related to oil and gas activities such as faulty casing installations, unsealed DEDQGRQHGZHOOVRUSRRUPDQDJHPHQWRI materials/chemicals at the surface. The paper also said additional studies, PRQLWRULQJ DQG ÂżHOG EDVHG UHVHDUFK RQ potential groundwater contamination are QHHGHGÂłJLYHQWKHZLGHVSUHDGXVHRIKRUizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing.â&#x20AC;? The paper can be found at: www.ngwa.org.

N.S. pilot project announced The government of Nova Scotia will authorize a pilot project to dispose of two million litres of treated hydraulic IUDFWXULQJ ZDVWHZDWHU KHOG LQ 'HEHUW The treated water from Atlantic Industrial Services meets Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and +HDOWK&DQDGDJXLGHOLQHVWREHUHOHDVHG into freshwater. The company will transport two million litres of treated water from the DeEHUWKROGLQJSRQGVWRWKH/DIDUJH&DQDGDFHPHQWSODQWLQ%URRNÂżHOG7KHSLORW SURMHFW ZLOO FRQWLQXH IRU DERXW WKUHH ZHHNV ZLWK WKUHH WR ÂżYH WUXFNORDGV RI ZDWHUEHLQJPRYHGGDLO\ 7KH ZDWHU ZLOO EH XVHG DV FRRODQW LQ WKHNLOQDQGZLOOEHHYDSRUDWHGDWoC. /DIDUJHZLOOWHVWLWVHTXLSPHQWEHIRUHDQG after using the water for residual inorganic materials. Âł7KHVWRUDJHSRQGVLQ'HEHUWDQGLQ Kennetcook were not designed to house this water for the long term,â&#x20AC;? said RanG\'HORUH\(QYLURQPHQW0LQLVWHUÂł:H want to proceed with the pilot project DQG DVVHVV KRZ LW ZRUNV DV D SRVVLEOH solution.â&#x20AC;? Documents on hydraulic fracturing wastewater in Nova Scotia, including WHVWUHVXOWVDUHDYDLODEOHDWZZZQRYDVcotia.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/27/14 11:59 PM


ES&E NEWS Alberta invests in carbon capture As part of its 2014 budget, the government of Alberta will invest in two carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands upgrading. The government is investing almost $1.3 billion over 15 years in two large-scale, oil sands-related CCS projects: the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line and Quest Projects. The units will be used to capture carbon dioxide from upgrading, and then transport it through a 65 km underground pipeline to three injection wells north of the upgrader in Thorhild County. There it will be safely and permanently stored more than two kilometres underground. According to John Rhind, Shell Canada oil sands vice president, the Quest carbon capture and storage project will be WKH¿UVWFRPPHUFLDOVFDOH&&6SURMHFWLQ the world for an oil sands operation. These projects will start up in 2015 and will store 2.76 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. This is the equivalent of taking 550,000 cars off the road each year. www.alberta.ca

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APWA honours Hatch Mott MacDonald The American Public Works AssociDWLRQ KDV VHOHFWHG WKH .HVZLFN (IÀXent Outfall project as one of its Public Works Projects of the Year for 2014. Hatch Mott MacDonald was the prime consultant for the project. The project was carried out on behalf of the Regional Municipality of York, in collaboration with McNally Construction, the general contractor, and Ward and Burke, the micro-tunnel subcontractor. 7R LQFUHDVH HIÀXHQW FDSDFLW\ RI WKH Keswick Water Pollution Control Plant, Hatch Mott MacDonald recommended a combination of open-cut trenching, micro-tunneling, and marine dredging. 7KH SURMHFW LQFOXGHG WKH ¿UVW FXUYHG micro-tunnel drive completed in Canada, WKH¿UVWXQGHUZDWHUUHFHSWLRQRIDPLFUR tunnel drive completed in Canada, and WKH ¿UVW FRPSRXQG FXUYH PLFURWXQQHO drive completed in North America. www.hatchmott.com continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

00-NEWS_MayJune.14.indd 73

May/June 2014 | 73

5/28/14 12:00 AM


Advertiser INDEX

Company

Page

ES&E NEWS

ACG Technology ................................... 75 American Public University ................. 27 Associated Engineering ........................ 5 AWI ....................................................... 25 Chemline Plastics ................................ 30 Chemtrac.............................................. 51 CIMA Canada ....................................... 30 Cole Engineering .................................. 26 Contech Engineered Solutions ............ 63 Denso .................................................. 10 Endress + Hauser ................................ 11 Envirocan ........................................... 75 Force Flow............................................ 14 Geneq ................................................... 26 Greatario .............................................. 57 H2Flow ................................................ 59 Hoskin Scientific ............................ 21, 32 Huber Technology .................................. 9 Imbrium Systems................................. 63 Interprovincial Corrosion Control........ 59 Kusters Water ...................................... 39 Landshark Drilling ............................... 15 Master Meter ........................................ 3 Metcon ................................................. 53 MONITARIO........................................... 43 MSU Mississauga ................................ 47 Mueller ................................................. 35 Ontario Power Authority ...................... 33 Osprey Scientific.................................. 37 Parsons ................................................ 18 Pro Aqua............................................... 45 ProMinent............................................... 2 Rochon Environmental ........................ 50 SEW-Eurodrive ..................................... 19 Smith & Loveless ................................. 23 Solinst Canada ..................................... 31 SPD Sales ............................................. 20 Spill Management ................................ 61

Province takes over Calgary Gas Plus cleanup The Alberta government will undertake full remediation of the former Gas Plus site in Calgaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bowness area, while the site owner will still be liable for the cleanup costs. The government said that Gas Plus Inc./Handel Transport (Northern) Ltd. have consistently failed to remediate their north-west Calgary gas station site and the surrounding area to the remedial standards set by the province through an Environmental Protection Order. ConWDPLQDWLRQ UHVXOWHG IURP D VLJQLÂżFDQW release of gasoline from the formerly operating gas station in 2010. This was expected to begin, once access to the site and some off-site properties was obtained from Gas Plus/Handel Transport and owners of other affected properties. The government said this access can be achieved through court proceedings if required. Assessment of the contamination in the area is already underway by the departmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consultants. www.alberta.ca

lands for inspections. Support has also been added to allow third parties to remediate contaminated sites. Bill 73, the Environment Act, was approved by the Yukon Legislative Assembly on May 6, 2014. www.gov.yk.ca

Kelowna wins â&#x20AC;&#x153;best of the bestâ&#x20AC;? tap water test

After being compared to nearly a dozen other entrants in the inaugural British Columbia Water & Waste Associationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (BCWWA) â&#x20AC;&#x153;Best of the Bestâ&#x20AC;? tap water taste test challenge, the City of Kelowna was awarded top marks for their drinking water at the 2014 BCWWA annual conference in Whistler. Tap water entered was sampled by four water taste professionals, or â&#x20AC;&#x153;aqualiers,â&#x20AC;? who looked at appearance, aroma, taste, mouth feel, aftertaste and overall impression. They were not advised which communities had entered the competition. â&#x20AC;?Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gratifying when all our investments in innovative water treatment technology through the years, results in recognition for our clear, great tasting drinking water,â&#x20AC;? said Kelowna utility services manager, Kevin Van Vliet. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We need to Yukon updates also give credit to the wastewater treatEnvironment Act ment process we have, that returns clean The Government of Yukon updated the HIĂ&#x20AC;XHQW WR RXU GULQNLQJ ZDWHU VRXUFH territoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Environment Act, to respond Okanagan Lake.â&#x20AC;? to environmental management through The BCWWA said it is working to a modernized legal framework. raise awareness about the value of water, Yukon said that while the goals and to ensure public support for investments values of the Environment Act remain needed over the next decade, to provide unchanged, it has been amended to re- clean, safe water for future generations. duce risk to human health and the en- RBCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2014 Canadian Water Attitudes vironment, advance sustainable devel- Survey indicates that less than one-third opment, and improve consistency with of Canadians know where their drinking Yukonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s legislative practices. water comes from, and fewer than one Changes include enhanced abilities LQ ÂżYH DUH DZDUH RI WKHLU ZDWHU LQIUDto ban hazardous substances and allow- structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condition. LQJHQIRUFHPHQWRIÂżFHUVWRHQWHUSULYDWH www.bcwwa.org

Stantec ................................................. 19 Team-1 Academy................................. 76 Tervita .................................................. 29 Testmark Laboratories ........................ 50 Toronto Hydro .............................. INSERT Waterra Pumps .................. 13, 41, 49, 56 WEFTEC ................................................ 48 XCG Consultants .................................. 37 Xylem ..................................................... 7

74 | May/June 2014

00-NEWS_MayJune.14.indd 74

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

5/29/14 1:46 AM


Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Selfcleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® frontraked fine screens • FlexRake® frontraked bar screens • FlexRake® low flow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • SelfCleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater • Channel Monster® grinder for pump staons and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving staon • Auger Monster® fine screen system • Monster® fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforaons • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotang drum screens down to 2mm perfs • Raptor screenings washer press

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BULK MATERIAL HANDLING • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps open & closed designs

TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk®  cloth media tertiary filter • AquaDiamond® terary cloth media for traveling bridge filters

www.acgtechnology.com

DISINFECTION • UV disinfecon systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live boom dischargers • GBT & RDT for sludge thickening • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers

FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering portable and permanent; wireless data transmission • Inseron mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20 800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems • Coalescing oil/water separators • Inclined plate clarifiers PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS • Package potable water treatment plants • Package sanitary wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial process water treatment plants WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtraon systems removal of iron and manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium

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Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

5/21/14 7:52 AM


01 MJ.14_Cover Form Ads.indd 76

5/24/14 8:50 PM

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine May-June 2014  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine May-June 2014  

Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine features a special section on storage tanks, containment and spills. Articles include solvi...