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November 2003

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A ^S^nt John installs new

wa|er tank tf meet its grdflttng Proposed federal ammonia: regulations causing concern B#st management practices for biosolids land applications

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ISSN-0835-605X November 2003 Vol. 16 No. 5

Issued November, 2003

fSSf invites articies (approx, 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazaroous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an article for con sideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit ail submissions without notice.

CONSULTANTSTORUM

FEATURES Could even Dr. Samuel Johnson's wit cope with Toronto's ongoing garbage crisis? - Editorial by Tom Davey

26 Perceptions and misperceptions of the consulting engineer

12

The world's water is in crisis - Report from WEFTEC 2003

28 Consultants should support our professional

13

Applying modern processes to older water treatment plants

associations

16

Proposed federal ammonia regulations causing concern

18

Best management practices for biosolids land

30 The ethics of body snatching

31

applications 22

Why we no longer lead in environmental innovation

Laboratory to commercialize radiation technology for

33 Bill Ainley receives ACEC's top award in

Homeland Security 23

29 What does it mean to be a consulting engineer?

Winnipeg

Hanson introduces leasing alternative for Stormceptor units

24 39

Concrete pipe debuts under Highway 401 medians CSO project in Portland benefits from environmental

TANKS & CONTAINMENT

engineering 47

Canada's forests, past and present

50

Water management building blocks, breakthroughs and opportunities

35

52

Is submetering an environmental must?

56

Electronics waste debate should consider small business

DEPARTMENTS Feedback

34 Portable track spill containment pans protect unloading sites Cover story- Saint John installs TecStore tank to meet its growing needs

36 Double wall polyethylene tanks can reduce costs and expedite compliance 42 Steel tank institute develops new oil-water separator standard

8

Environmental News

63

Ad Index

25

Classifieds

63

Literature Reviews

58

Professional Cards

65

Product Review

59

Datepad

70

4 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

44 Passing the buck in MTBE leaks

45 Measuring emissions from heavy oil storage tanks

46 Measuring and maintaining tank levels


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Editorial

Could even Dr.Johnson's wit cope with Toronto's ongoing garbage crises?

Alit le over three decades ago, Ontario had but one environ

mental lawyer, Henry Landis, who worked for the Ontario

Water Resources Commission, which

later mutated into the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Perhaps, at some Biblical urging, lawyers went forth and multiplied. Ironically, it was pro bono lawyers who emerged from the

morass to challenge the status

garbage trucks a day on return trips to Michigan. A conservative guess might put the total mileage of these garbage trucks at 50,000 miles per week. Moreover, can you imagine the dioxins and other toxic combustibles being discharged from 100 heavy diesel truck exhausts.

Environmental

toxic wastes solutions

Association and other activities.

CELA was greatly assisted by news reporters who, while often innocent of scientific realities,

were capable of creating eye catching headlines which caused public alarm, seldom reflected in epidemiological reality. Erro neous news coverage, when allied with political correctness, ineptness and dogma, has cost

one

without a

could have done much to restore

and upgrade our water and wastewater infrastructure, improve ana lytical monitoring and remediate toxic sites. Instead, hundreds of millions were squandered on proj ects doomed to failure. There are

many other examples but more trees would have to be slaughtered simply to list them.

Canadians hundreds of millions

over the years. Currently, Toronto faces its most serious garbage crisis. If it

The

were made into a film it could be an environmental remake of From

Editor

and

molecule of waste actually either being treated or disposed of. In this case, the word "disposal", for both endeavours, is an oxymoron. These levels of wasted funding

Law

By Tom Davey,

Conservative

Socialist, while political opposites, became "equal opportunity wastrels". Millions in public funds were lavished on garbage and

lA

Here To Eternity, a veritable tri umph of ecological evangelists over professional engineers and chemists. In the 1990s, the Ontario NDP, under the then Environment Minister Ruth Grier, created the Interim Waste Authority (IWA) which spent some $80 million seeking a waste disposal solution without a sin gle bag of garbage ever being interred. But now the largest city in Canada has fumbled its way into a serious garbage crisis. Currently, Toronto is sending about one hundred huge

It is ironic that two governments, one

quo of the MOE and wage war on polluting industries through the Canadian

(OWMC) which spent $120 million over a ten year period seeking both the technology and a site to treat haz ardous wastes. Apart from large num bers of reports and studies - which must have slaughtered quite a few trees - no treatment facility was ever built.

driving to Michigan and back, several days a week? To me,such consumption of diesel fuel is, ironically, another

environmental

crises

helped in the new breed of envi ronmental lawyers which has pro gressed almost exponentially. At first, the realities of environmental sciences exceeded the technical grasp of many otherwise eloquent lawyers. But today's environmental lawyers

form of incineration - without its ben

have added considerable technical and

efits of actually disposing of the garbage. This trucking is certainly not environmentally benign. In teenage argot - we should not keep on trucking. And how can Michigan, a state

its own garbage? I'll tell you why political ineptness and scientific igno

scientific knowledge to their legal weaponry and have emerged as signif icant and formidable players in a field long dominated, albeit anonymously, by engineers and chemists. But the law is possibly the oldest learned profession - note my choice of words. Even when Henry VIII con ducted his murderous serial polygamy, he tried to clothe his butchery with legal apparel. Stalin, too, paid lip serv ice to a judicial system with his infa

rance.

mous show trials.

which is a fraction of the size of

Ontario, find room for Toronto's garbage? And how is it that Ontario, larger in area than half of Continental Europe, cannot find sites to deal with

Years earlier, the same malaise caused Ontario, under a Conservative

government, to create the Ontario Waste Management Corporation

Dr. Samuel Johnson, renowned for

his Epicurean appetite as well as his wit and wisdom, compiled his famous dictionary on Gough Square which

November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 7


EnvironmentalScience

Editorial

& Engineering Editor & Publisher

TOM DAVEY

E-mail: lom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.oom Sales Director

PENNY DAVEY

E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginla@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com President

STEVE DAVEY

E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical A dvisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, l\/lanitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario

Bill De Angeiis, P.Eng. AWS Engineers & Planners Corp., Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.K Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Services, British Columbia

still stands in close proximity to the heart of the British legal world. His house is situated close by London's Inns of Court, the Old Bailey, and the Royal Courts of Justice. Johnson, in fact and probably in spirit, clearly was close to the legal system. He once famously remarked;

all that the client might fairly do for himself. Both the medical and engineering professions have borne the brunt of lawyers' wit when testifying and legal eloquence is one of the great weapons of the legal profession. Sometimes they meet their match. One dogged

"I do not like to speak ill ofany man; but I strongly suggest yonder gentle man to be an attorney." When I used this quote some years ago, it evoked more response than any other single

case once asked of a pathologist whether he could be sure the patient was dead when he began the autopsy. The pathologist asserted, "the patient

issue.

was indeed dead."

But, as in any legal case, one should not judge before reviewing all the evi

But the lawyer persisted: "How can you be sure, Doctor?" "Because his brain is sitting in ajar on my deslH, was the defining reply. However, rather unwisely, the lawyer would not give up: "But could the patient still have been alive, never

dence. Dr. Johnson also made the fol

lowing observation to his biographer, Boswell, to whom he said: "It rarely happens that a man isfit to plead his own cause. Lawyers are a class of the community, who, by study and experi ence, have acquired the art and power ofarranging evidence, and ofapplying to the points at issue what the law has settled. A lawyer is to dofor his client

cross-examiner in a Massachusetts

theless?"

"It'spossible", retorted the patholo gist, "that he could still be alive and practicing law somewhere". Game set and mismatch. ■

FEEDBACK

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Dear Mr. Davey:

British Columbia

The Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers'

Marie Meunier

John Meunier/USFilter, Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. information contained in ES&E has been complied from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the Information contained In this magazine Is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide Informa tion rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs.

Canadian Publications Mail Sales

nmhBPA

Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 40065446

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 for one year (plus $3.15 GST). USA $75.00(US)for one year.

All advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)7274666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com

Association represents Daimler Chrysler Canada, Inc., Ford Motor Company of Canada, and General Motors of Canada. After reviewing the September,2003 article by Dr. Tahir R. Khan titled. What is Wrong with Our Air Pollution Strategies?, our repre sentatives would like to provide addi tional information to the clean air

debate from the automotive perspective. Dr. Khan correctly describes how smog is formed and accurately depicts its appearance in the atmosphere. What we take issue with is his assignment of blame, by association, almost entirely on the products of the auto industry. The auto industry has a strong track record of tailpipe emission reductions. The emissions of new vehicles current

ly sold are down to approximately 5% of emissions of vehicles from the early 70s. Recent federal legislation will require new vehicles to forther reduce smog-forming emissions down to approximately 1% of that of a vehicle from the early 70s. This level of con trol will apply to cars and light-duty trucks offered for sale over the rest of

this decade. This recent regulation reflects the latest evolution of smog control technology that has been devel

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

oped. The average vehicle under the new regulations will be so clean that: • ten cars will emit fewer smog-caus ing emissions over their lifetimes(over 1.5 million kilometres) than burning a cord of wood in a fire place, • the application of less than 4 litres (a std. tin) of water based interior house paint will emit more smog-causing emissions than a vehicle driven 8,800 kilometres (Toronto to Vancouver and back). Dr. Khan quotes figures from Air Quality in Ontario 2000 Report show ing that despite the increase in popula tion and congestion in Ontario, an increasingly older vehicle fleet, and gasoline quality that has not kept pace with emissions technology, NOx is down 10%, VOC emissions are down approximately 16%, particulate matter has been reduced 18% and ozone con centration has leveled off between

1991 and 2000. Widely accepted mod eling shows that the greatest propor tion of these reductions and improve ments to air quality can be attributed to the auto industry's introduction of cleaner technology vehicles. Mark A. Nantais, President, Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers'Association

continued overleaf...


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FEEDBACK Re: ES&E November 2002 issue:

the scapegoat for failed projects and even pollution. But maybe all of us, engineers and environment loving per

Thefearfulfrustrations offenestration I have read your comments on the august deliberation of our respected government and find a certain note of almost scatological humour in the arti

falo - there is a limit to resource. Let us

cle which I find, to put it mildly, inap

remember from the passenger pigeon -

propriate. After consideration, deliberation and a great deal of research I can only conclude, as I have so often done in the past, the following: the loonies have taken over the bin. Thank you.

there is a critical limit to resource. Let

William James Stone

sons need to remember there is no free lunch. Let us remember from the buf

us remember Lake Erie - no body of

officials and Council should not need

water is an infinite resource for use or

any further motivation to discover the

abuse.

Tom, the final chapter may take some time to write, but one can be sure, there is no free lunch, even if we as lovers of the environment think we

Re: September 2003 issue: Best looking issue so far! Outstanding editorial from Tom also - keep up the good words. Don't ride in a Sea King any time soon! We appreciate your support! Mike Saubert, Director of Marketing, American Concrete Pipe Association

have found one. Energy, the ultimate commodity, will yet come to haunt us. Let us as community, as engineers, and as those who respect the environment, not be fooled that there will be no

impacts, there is no perpetual motion. John Van Egmond,P.Eng., RE. Egmond Associates

Dear Tom,

Re: Battle over sewage spill bound

Thanks for your reports and magazine over the years. They are always useful

for court

Can someone please write an Idiots

for consideration.

Guide to Canadian Government so I

I am intrigued that the Deep Lake Cooling initiative receives good feed

can understand the lawsuit currently underway between the Regional Municipality of York and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment! The spill into the Tannery Creek that de-evolved Fairy Lake in Newmarket from a nature preserve into a cesspool, expos es more than just faulty pumping sys tems but also what is wrong with the way we Canadians do government. To

back and can only hope it works. I am impressed that people are will ing to consider this alternative, it does seem a novel approach. But if the con servation, environmental, and engi neering industry has taught us any thing, it is that there are no free lunch es.

What I mean is this. It seems likely

me it is a "white collar" "make work

to me that the lake has taken 100s of

project" and a waste of tax dollars. After years of living under the

years to reach its current state of tem

peratures, flows, etc. It seems likely

Tories Common Sense Revolution and

the lake thermals and colder fish habi

their simplification of systems (as advertised on the TV ads), I can't understand how one level of govern ment suing another for a large fine (paid by taxpayers) makes common sense. I really don't even understand why judges and lawyers are attempting to solve this major problem in the first place.

tats will be disrupted. The energy of a city cannot help but impact on extract ed water. The impacts will come two ways.

At one end a volume of water is

captured to provide for cooling. A vol ume of water is captured for use. Basic physics tells us this water must be replaced (from the warmer water above in the end). Eventually new energy rich waters will enter the pump zone.

At the other end the water will be

heated and new energy from land

based uses will be added. This energy rich water will be added to the lake as

well. This too is basic physics, energy is conserved.

So why write? Engineers are often

to blame, then York Region should immediately adopt the new processes. We do not need the Ministry of the Environment blowing the whistle here like York Region is some big industrial polluter. They should be here advising, eontaining the spills and rehabilitating ^ the affected water bodies. York Region

It seems to make sense to me that

engineers, the experts who design and maintain these systems, need to troubleshoot the spills and produce reports. These reports should be public and attach blame to machines, people or both. If people are to blame, then they should take responsibility and be pun ished. If machines are to blame, they should be replaced or reinforced with redundancy systems. If processes are

10 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

causes of these environmental disas

ters. They should be hopping mad for answers.

The clear winnei^s of this fecal mess

are the legal firms hired to battle on behalf of the plaintiff and defendant. They cannot be blamed for wasting taxpayers money. Defending corporate misdeeds deserves a hefty price tag; after all, lawyers are residents and tax payers too and might not be too keen on defending environmental offenders. We who live in York Region are losers, first being denied access to parkland in affected areas and then suffering the spill "fallout" in its many forms. The expression "adding insult to injury" comes to mind when one con siders the Newmarket parent that first had to explain to their child why the turtle and fish died and then why their taxes paid for faulty sewage systems and the subsequent fines for their fail ure. No easy explanation. In conclusion, I will offer my own explanation for why govermuent sues government as in this case, which is, money is the only tool to motivate gov ernment to change. The unchecked growth of York Region is starting to produce water shortages and sewage spills with maddening regularity. My guess is that the writing is on the wall. Tim Denommee, Mount Albert Dear Tom:

Just received your September edition lots of solid info, as usual!...much appreciated. One of my functions at WEF will be to counsel US companies on doing business in Canada. I'd like to refer them to ES&E both for possi ble advertising and sample issues, etc. Richard Vinson, Commercial Rep., Atlantic Provinces Environmental

Industries Sector Specialist Canada U.S. Commercial Service

ES&E welcomes comments and

suggestions from our readers Send to; tom@esemag.com


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Conference Report

WEFTEC 2003 - "World's water Is In a major crisis" By Steve Davey,

used that they no longer flow into the

Environmental

Mediterranean Sea.

Science &

• The Mediterranean Sea now has an

Engineering

estimated 1,200 invasive species and its average temperature has risen by 2 degrees C. • During recent military conflicts, some nine tonnes of mercury were spilled into the Danube River.

Jean-Michel Cousteau, explorer, environmentalist, educator, film producer and architect, received

a standing ovation after his keynote presentation at WEFTEC 2003 which took place in Los Angeles on October 11-15. The son of famed ocean explorer, Jacques Cousteau, he is President of Ocean Futures Society, a non-profit

Mr. Cousteau also showed some

startling video footage of the damage caused when the tanker Prestige sank last year off the Spanish coast. He

With an adroit use of both ver

bal and video imagery, he outlined

He also showed excerpts from a documentary he is making on an expe dition to an uninhabited Hawaiian island. The island's beaches were liter

ally covered in hundreds of tonnes of abandoned fishing nets, and garbage including millions of disposable ciga rette lighters. Eating smaller pieces of garbage results in the death of countless birds, whose bodies litter

marine environment.

numerous situations, which backed up his opening claim that "the

• Many rivers in Greece are so over

coastal areas.

That he could evoke a standing ovation from a highly technical audience of environmental profes sionals speaks volumes of Mr. Cousteau's eloquence and passion in his concerns for the fragile

marine conservation and education

• 27% of the world's coral reefs are dead.

hulled tankers and the establishment of

spills response teams in vulnerable

the beaches.

organization dedicated to develop ing marine education programs.

world's water is in a major crisis": • Some five to ten thousand people die each day worldwide due to a lack of safe drinking water. • Where the Mississippi River dis charges into the Gulf of Mexico there is a dead zone the size ofPennsylvania.

As a result of the Prestige sinking, Cousteau's Ocean Futures Society has called for an immediate ban on single

27% of the world's coral reefs are dead.

pointed out, incredulously, that when the Exxon Valdez sank some 13 years ago, the coastline was largely cleaned by manual labour. Remediation options have not improved since then and clean-up of the Prestige's oil was also largely done by buckets, shovels and wipes.

His Ocean Futures Society is also actively involved in programs and projects that it hopes will change perception, behaviour and policy relating to clean water, coastal marine habitats, marine mammals and sustainable fisheries.

As membership is free, the society is dependent on public support in the form of charitable donations. For more information on the Ocean Futures

Society, visit www.oceanfutures.org. ■

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Applying modern processes to older plants

Recent E-coli and Crypto-

Lesser Slave Lake provides the By Garry Drachenberg,P.Eng. sporidium outbreaks in water supply for Canyon Creek. As it and Sutha Suthaker,Ph.D.,P.Eng., Canada have focused public is a shallow lake, water quality varies Associated Engineering attention on drinking water seasonally, posing treatment chal quality and water safety. Responding lenges. During the summer, organic to public concerns, the community of and algae laden water can yield light, Canyon Creek in north central Alberta fragile, difficult to settle floe parti embarked on a program to improve cles. Plant throughput must be cur their drinking water quality. tailed during such periods to produce Assisted by consultant, Associated turbidity compliant water. In the win Engineering, the community adopted ter, when anoxic conditions prevail a water treatment upgrade scheme underneath the ice cover, iron and that optimizes the use of modern manganese can present problems. processes and the existing conven The existing facility is a conven tional plant. tional package treatment plant consisting of a flash mix The community of Canyon Creek is nestled in the heart tank, three mechanically agitated flocculation tanks, one of the Municipal District of Lesser Slave River, a region of clarifier with tube settlers, and a two-compartment filter. virtually unspoiled land and lakes, and home to abundant The manufacturer-rated plant capacity is 900 m^/d. wildlife, fish, and resources. The Municipal District has a During peak demand periods, operators run the plant 20% strong economic base comprising farming, forestry, and oil over the rated capacity and 60% over the recommended and gas industries. throughput for organic laden waters. The capacity shortfall In recent years, the community of 1,000 has become a and inability to consistently meet treated water turbidity destination point for fishing enthusiasts, wind surfers, targets drove the decision to investigate upgrade alterna kayakers, canoeists, and beach lovers. Summer tourism and tives. community growth have taxed the limits of the existing The treatment objectives established for the plant water and wastewater infrastructure. upgrade were as follows: continued overleaf...

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www.metconeng.com

November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 13


Water Treatment

and back-pulse pumps, membrane air scour blowers, instruments, program mable logic controller, and a motor control centre. When water demand and/or more

To obtain competitive equipment supply quotations, three additional

stringent water quality guidelines dic tate, the community will implement Phase II: converting the existing con ventional plant to a pretreatment unit and operating the existing plant in series with the membrane plant. Phase II capacity expansion of the membrane process can be accomplished by removing the existing membrane cas settes, installing two, higher capacity cassettes, and replacing the permeate pumps and blowers. The system design also allows for operating either the existing water treatment plant or the membrane plant on its own. Blending the old and new treatment technologies has presented interesting regulatory challenges. One ofthe more interesting regulatory rulings has been the requirement of different treated water turbidity limits for the different

• Owner and public concern regarding

vendors were invited to submit letters

processes.

water-borne disease outbreaks.

of interest for the project, as well as undertake pilot testing. Pilot testing was necessary to demonstrate satisfac tory performance and to pre-qualify vendors for the project. Two vendors submitted letters of interest and set up pilot plants. Pilot testing took place from August to November 2001. Upon completing pilot testing, ven

A ZeeM/eed membrane module being lifted Into place through a roof hatch.

• Minimize risk of parasite passage. • Minimize disinfection byproduct (DBP)formation risk. • Maximize aesthetic quality. • Meet current and pending more stringent Alberta Environment (AENV)Approval requirements. The Municipal District also identi fied the following considerations for the upgraded treatment plant: • Operation personnel familiarity and satisfaction with the existing treatment process.

• Logistical challenges posed by wide geographic area covered by opera tional personnel, i.e., if a quick re sponse is needed. • Need for treatment process less sus ceptible to upset and capable ofremote monitoring. • Exposure to the membrane pilot test ing work undertaken at the Town of Slave Lake.

Based on a preliminary screening of technical and qualitative factors, three options were evaluated to satisfy the above objectives and considera tions:

Option 1 - Expansion via additional conventional treatment capacity; Option 2 - Expansion via additional membrane treatment capacity; and. Option 3 - A regional water line to Slave Lake.

Analysis showed that Option 1 had the lowest capital cost and Option 3, the highest capital costs. Option 2 membrane treatment had the highest ranking, allowing maximum flexibility to address both water quality and capacity issues. Option 2 also met process and water quality require ments. Membrane treatment was, therefore, selected for implementation. In cooperation with a neighbouring community, the Town of Slave Lake, the Municipal District shared in the

membrane treatment pilot testing costs and pilot testing data. In the fall of 2000,the Town of Slave Lake complet ed membrane pilot testing using a pro prietary vendor technology. Pilot test ing validated the suitability of this ven dor's membrane filtration equipment for the Lesser Slave Lake water source

during the late summer/fall period when challenging water conditions were encountered.

dors were invited to submit detailed

price proposals for a chemical feed system, pre-treatment system (en hanced coagulation capable) and dualtrain membrane treatment system. The contract documents also specified a process warranty for turbidity, parti cle counts, total organic carbon(TOC), net flow rate, and net treated water pro duction between chemical cleanings of

The different limits are based on the

changes proposed by the FederalProvincial-Territorial Committee on

Drinking Water(CDW)in conjunction with Health Canada. The proposed guideline is technology specific, rec ognizing the varying treatment capa bilities of treatment technologies in reducing turbidities. The Alberta Environment Approval for this project, in which multiple tur bidity target requirements have been set, is the first of its kind in the Province of Alberta.

As part of the project, the Muni cipal District upgraded its SCADA system, implementing a leading edge, remote control monitoring and report ing capability. This initiative recog

the membranes. Zenon Environmental

nizes Alberta Environment's intent to

was awarded the equipment supply contract after a comprehensive evalua

provide web access of drinking water quality data from all municipalities to

tion and formal interviews.

increase consumer confidence in the

The upgraded treatment plant has a

25-year design capacity of 1,879 m^/d, implemented in two phases. Phase I involves operating the exist ing plant in parallel with the new, 954

quality of drinking water. With SCADA upgrades, the Municipal District has the system in place to enable on-line electronic reporting of their daily operations.

m^/d package membrane treatment plant. The package plant comprises one dual-train, skid-mounted Zee Weed* Membrane system, complete with membrane elements, epoxy-coated, steel membrane tanks designed for future membrane expansion, permeate

14 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

Garry

Drachenberg

and

Sutha

Suthaker are Senior Water Process

Engineers with Associated Engine ering in Edmonton, Alberta. Contact: drachenbergg@ae.ca or suthakers@ ae.ca.


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Wastewater Regulations find it difficult to support the announced requirement to reduce ammonia nitrogen to 16 mg/L or less at any time during the period of June 1,

Proposed federal ammonia regulations cause CWWA

2004 to September 30, 2004. Ammonia does not bio-accumulate

By George Powell,P.Eng.,

municipalities discharging 5,000 m3/d or more of sewage effluent to surface water. There will be many municipali ties for which this requirement has a very significant price tag, estimated by

in the aquatic environment; on the con trary, it dissipates rapidly. Ammonia cannot be controlled by P2 planning since the major source is domestic

Senior Vice

the Canadian Water and Wastewater

charges. Further, runoff from agricul tural land is also a significant contrib utor, and would not be controlled by this regulation. This is not to say there are not spe

concern

President,

Association (CWWA) to be in excess

CH2M HILL

of $5 billion.

Most of us in the wastewater pro fession welcome legislation that pro

On June 7,2003,Environment

Canada published in the Canada Gazette, a notice requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Pre vention Plans for Ammonia Dissolved in Water, Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents. This notice has created considerable reaction across Canada in those

tects public health and the environ ment. As an example, the requirement to reduce the total residual chlorine in

wastewater effluents is broadly sup ported since chlorine is a persistent substance that bio-accumulates in the

environment, and there is scientific evidence that it is harmful. And it is

recognized that disinfection is required to protect water supplies and the recre ational use of our waterways in Canada.

Many in the profession, however.

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wastewater and not industrial dis

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(See page 25)

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Wastewater Regulations tives already protect against these cir cumstances.

There are, however, many large wastewater facilities discharging to lakes and large rivers where ammonia discharges have never been observed to be a problem. These include the large secondary treatment facilities in the Greater Toronto Area, in Hamilton,

in Winnipeg, Edmonton and Vancouver. To my knowledge, fish kills have not been a problem reported in these areas despite the fact ammonia levels are higher than the proposed

municipalities properly plan for what is going or coming down the pipe under future regulations to be announced by Environment Canada? Clarification of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities is needed. Municipalities would like to have one gatekeeper and consistent policies. Sustainable environmental policies are built by involving stakeholders in a meaningful way to develop proper understanding and consensus on the

path forward. Environmental policy should be based on knowledge and consensus; however, to date Environ ment Canada has not provided the needed information nor scientific basis

to justify the conclusions and policy they have announced. The CWWA estimates the cost of this program at $5.1 billion - to date Environment

Canada has not been able to identify any social, environmental or economic benefit that will result. ■

limits. Prior to the Gazette announcement

in June, Environment Canada held consultation sessions in 13 centres across Canada in 2002. While this

process was intended to inform stake holders and to receive feedback. Environment Canada has not in my opinion acknowledged nor reflected the concerns expressed at these meet ings. Under the Canadian Environmental

Protection Act the federal government

Most of us in the

wastewater profession welcome legislation that protects public health

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and the environment.

has the right to become involved in municipal systems. Such involvement

value In the industry. Multi-channel system configurations, maintenance-free self-cleaning sensors, and superior performance for the full range of clarifier applications.

is most welcome when it is construc

tive; however, the continued down

loading of all matters of governance on municipalities without treating them as equal partners has been a continuing political problem. Most municipalities are not aware of any justification for the specific ammonia controls being mandated for their discharges, and question such a blanket regulation. It is the one shoe fits all approach that is primarily at issue with Environment Canada's present proposal. At a meeting with the Canadian

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share with the major stakeholders pres ent where they were going. Without a well-defined and agreed plan, how can

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17


losoii

L

I' 1 '' 4

'^"■■'ihir ^ «B««—

Best Management Practices for Hamilton's biosolids land applications

Closer scrutiny of land applica

By Kim Ireland, Irwin Oslnga, Peter Burrowes, John Helka and Dan Chauvin

tion programs by the public, the reluctance of many farm ers to use biosolids, and

increasing regulatory controls on agri cultural application of Class B biosolids is resulting in many munici palities reviewing their existing biosolids management system and looking for alternatives. Adding to these concerns are the potential for new, more stringent regulations under Ontario's new Nutrient Management Act (NMA) that were under develop ment at the inception of this project. To improve the public acceptance and to promote responsible, informed biosolids management practices, the City of Hamilton is participating in a pilot Environmental Management

everyone involved in the land applica tion program understands their respon sibilities including those involved in source control, biosolids processing at the WWTP, the land application con tractor

and

the

end-user

of

the

biosolids, the farmer. The most effec tive way of determining the status of the program is to conduct a systematic audit of all the components, as dis cussed below.

Biosolids quality Protecting biosolids quality is criti cal in land application programs. Important biosolids quality character istics include: nutrient content (nitro gen, phosphorus), pathogen content, metals and priority pollutant organics, the potential for odours, and dewatered cake consistency. See Table 1.

System (EMS) with the Ontario

The nutrient content and fertilizer

Federation of Agriculture (OFA), the

value of dewatered biosolids are high er than alternative biosolids products.

Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and Environment Canada.

One of the components of Hamilton's EMS program is the audit of the land application program to identify best management practices (BMPs) to improve the existing land application program, to protect the goodwill the City has within the farm ing community, and ensure that there is

The value to the fanner for the nutri

ents is about $300 per hectare (ha) (based on nutrient costs at $0.70/kg for nitrogen and phosphorus and $0.35/kg for potassium). The additional value of dewatered biosolids is up to $200/ha in supplying micronutrients, such as cop per, zinc and sulphur, as well as the

ammonia, pungent, putrid type of smell. Odours were not characterized, however, the typical odour characteris tics of dewatered biosolids from other sources are shown in Table 2. Odour studies at other WWTPs

indicate that odours during transport and application of dewatered biosolids can develop for several reasons, including how wastewater and bio

solids processing facilities are operat ed, the type of dewatering facility, the type of dewatering equipment, the type and dosage of polymer, the storage time, as well as weather conditions.

Site assessment and approval Sites for biosolids application are selected based on several site charac

teristics, including soil properties, soil quality, type of crop, depth to groundwater, depth to bedrock, site topogra phy, and setback distances to wells, watercourses, and residences.

The typical soil quality where biosolids were applied in the Hamilton area is discussed below.

Soil type

The majority of sites had clay soils, with low permeabilities. As a result,

lime value when waste lime materials

more than 60% of the sites were tile

are used with the biosolids to raise the

drained. Immediate incorporation on the same day of application was required to incorporate the biosolids throughout the soil, and to break up soil macro-pores to reduce the risk of biosolids leaching to the tile drains. continued overleaf...

little opportunity for negative publicity or the need for enforcement action by

soil pH.

the Ministry of the Environment. The strong dependency on rural-

tered biosolids are the concerns and

urban linkages with land application of biosolids makes it mandatory that

Hamilton's dewatered biosolids had an odour characteristic described as an

The concerns with the use of dewa

application restrictions related to pathogens, as well as the potential for nuisance complaints related to odours.

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003


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Biosolids Biosolids Product

Class

Nutrient Content(% of TS)

TS

(pathogens) (%. w/w) Nitrogen Phosphorus

Potassium

(total)

(total)

(total)

Nitrogen Phosphorus

Potassium

Dewatered

B

25

4

3

0.5

164

240

40

Dried

A

92

3

3

0.5

84

240

40

Alkaline

A

65

1.5

1.5

0.2

84

240

32

Compost

A

55

1.5

1.5

0.2

36

240

32

(pelletized)

Table 1: Fertilizer value of alternative types of biosolids. Odour Characterisfc(ppmv)' 'typical range of values ^CH2IVI HILL 2001

Effect of Storage Time

Odour Characteristic Dewatered Biosolids Odour Threshold

(typical) Odour Units(OU/m^)

50 - 800

Ammonia

<1-10

Hydrogen Sulphide

<2-20

Methyl mercaptan

increase 5

-

-

<0,0005 - 600

TMA^ alkaline (high pH) biosolids DMDS

VOCs* digested biosolids

Site topography Over 80% of the sites had slopes

Fertilizer Equivalent(kg/ha)

Increase

0-3

0.004

Increase

0-90

0.006

Increase (short term)

1-5

-

(CH2M HILL 1999)

less than 2%. Greater setback dis

tances are required with higher site slopes. Also, due to the concern with phosphorus run-off to surface waters, sites with high plant available phos phorus concentrations will have reduced application rates determined by a phosphorus index. Depth to groundwater and bedrock A minimum depth to groundwater of 0.9 m and a minimum depth to bedrock of 1.5 m is required to ensure that a sufficient depth of unsaturated topsoil is available to retain the nutri ents as well as metals in the topsoil and avoid leaching to the groundwater. All of the Hamilton land application sites met this requirement. Spot checks with a Dutch auger were used to confirm the minimum depths at the time of application. Nutrient management planning All of the farmers in the program had an understanding of nutrient man agement plans (NMPs) and had com

pleted varying levels of informal NMPs. None of the farmers had com-

Table 2: Odour risk assessment for dewatered biosolids.

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20 Environmental Sdence & Engineering, November 2003

For more information, circle reply card No. 113 (See page 25)


Biosolids pleted a formal NMP

similar to the require ments under the Nutrient

Management Act. Metal loadings Typical metal concen trations and loadings in biosolids

and

in

soils

before and after biosolids

application are shown in Table 3. In most cases, biosolids are expected to have an insignificant effect on soil metal con

centrations, with future applications often limited by high background metal concentrations for

Soil Metal Concentrations(mg/kg)

Metal Concentration (mg/kg IS) Metal

Hamilton

Maximum

Biosolids

Allowable^

Before Biosolids

(Avg. Mar-May'02) (MOE/OMAF

Application

After Biosolids

Maximum Allowable^

Application (Table 2, Column 3)

1996)

Arsenic(As) Cadmium (Cd) Cobalt(Co) Chromium (Cr) Copper(Cu) Mercury(Hg) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) Lead (Pb) Selenium (Se) Zinc(Zn)

3,7

170

3.2

3.22

14

4.4

34

0.8

0.82

1.6 120

236

340

16

17.2

6.0

2800

23

23 03

20

757

1700

14

17.8

100

119

11

21

21.6

60

0.4

94

0.05

0.05

0.5 4

44

420

2

2.2

41

1100

23

23.2

32

11

34

0.4

0.46

1.6

872

4200

64

68.4

220

one or more metals. The

example in Table 3 shows a potential site with cad mium

Table 3: Biosolids metal concentrations and accumulations on land application sites.

concentrations

above the maximum allowable soil concentration of 20

mg/kg. Land application operation Contractor responsibilities for the land application of biosolids are to properly transport and apply the biosolids in a safe, repeatable manner that benefits soil and crop fertility. Certificates of Approval (C of As) for Organic Soil Conditioning Sites identity several conditions that must be followed, including minimum setback distances, maximum nutrient and solids loading application rates, requirements for temporary storage of biosolids cake on farm sites, farmer agreement and notification require ments, timing for incorporation of biosolids into the soil, and restrictions during wet weather and winter conditions. Metal accumulations in soils due to biosolids applica tion are negligible, with soil metal concentration increas es typically less than 10%. The land application season is typically from April to November of each year.

Kim Ireland, Irwin Osinga and Peter Burrowes are with

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November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 21


Security

National lab to commercialize radiation

detection technology for Homeland Security

The ORTEC business unit of AMETEK, Inc. has signed a licensing agreement with the University of California's

Lawrence Livermore National Labor

atory to commercialize its RadScout

radiation detection technology. ORTEC will incorporate the technology into its next generation of advanced, portable nuclear detection systems. These high-performance, high-res olution portable systems will be used at border crossings, cargo ship docks and transportation terminals to detect and differentiate between potentially dangerous radioactive materials and otherwise harmless radiation sources.

ORTEC plans to market the instru ments as the Detective and Detective-

EX. The detectors are part of a suite of technologies offered by ORTEC for Homeland Security. "The detectors will provide first

responders, HAZMAT teams, fire departments, government authorities and others with the ability to screen

objects for potentially dangerous nuclear material and determine quick ly whether or not they pose a threat. Those include the more than six mil

lion cargo containers that enter the United States each year," notes Jon Kidder, Vice President and General

Manager of AMETEK Advanced Measurement Technology (AMT) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. "The RadScout represents a break through in radiation detector technolo

gy by reducing existing bulky equip ment into a lightweight, battery-pow ered device that can be either perma nently mounted or fully portable," comments Dr. Michael R. Anastasio, Director of the Lawrence Livermore

National Laboratory. The detector features a miniaturized

Advanced portable detection system from ORTEC scans cargo container for potentiaiiy dangerous radioactive materials.

HOBO Weather Station The new HOBO Weather

Station records temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil moisture, soil temperature, etc.

refrigeration system that eliminates the need to carry liquid nitrogen to cool the device's high-purity germanium crystals. Those crystals are used to detect minute amounts of neutrons and

gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials.

RadScout incorporates ORTEC's high-purity germanium detector with a

• Smart sensors - just plug in and begin logging!

miniaturized refrigeration system pro duced by Hymatic Engineering Ltd. Additional features of the easy-to-use RadScout include an internal comput

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wiring required • Runs for one year on 4 AA batteries

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sion, real-time search and isotope identification, memory-stick storage and on-board field analysis capability. ORTEC has more than 40 years of experience in the design and manufac ture of highly sensitive radiation detec tors. They are used by government and industrial laboratories, nuclear facili ties and medical research, and in nuclear safeguards.

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For more information on ORTEC radi Vancouver:604-872-7894 Montreal:514-735-5267 Burlington: 905-333-5510

22

For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)

ation detectors, contact ORTEC Products, www.ortec-online.com.


Hanson introduces leasing alternative for Stormceptor units

An agreement between Hanson

Pipe & Products Canada Inc. and Kerotec Leasing Ltd. gives developers, municipali ties and consulting engineers a new flexibility in specifying Stormceptor'" oil and sediment removal systems. These systems are designed for park ing lots, existing developments, public works yards, automobile service sta tions, transfer stations, docking sta tions, bus depots, rail yards, new res idential developments, urban cores, airports, military bases and many other projects. Leasing arrangements are available for three, five, or seven-year terms and options include: flexible start-up dates, a maintenance service package for the term of the lease; third party care of assets with less chance for environ

mental mishaps. Additional assets may be added to the lease as required. When the lease ends, lessees own the units.

According to Hanson, this new way of acquiring Stormceptors means that infrastructure costs are

menting leasing arrangements of infra structure products.

For further details please contact: Scott Kirby, Hanson Pipe & Products Canada Inc. Tel:l (888) 888-3222, Eniail: skirby@hanson pipe.ca.

Stormceptors were recently used at an MTO truck impoundment yard in Toronto to prevent contamination from leaking vehicles.

levels in effluent

very costly if controlled effectivefy.

moved to

"additional rent". Customers should

see an immediate savings in taxes and budgeted expenditures. The impact of budget overruns is significantly re duced as servicing costs are rolled into scheduled payments over the term of the lease, along with responsibility and obligation of servicing oil and sedi ment removal units. Once funding issues are removed through the lease option, projects should move ahead more quickly. Companies involved in launching this new alternative to acquiring buried infrastructure include: Hanson Pipe and Products Canada, Inc., Stormcep tor Canada Inc., Minotaur Guardian Service Limited, and Kerotec. Hanson

produces concrete pipe and precast concrete products with 96 production facilities in 19 US states and Canada.

Stormceptor is a leading supplier of engineered stormwater treatment structures that remove oil and sedi ment from stormwater runoff.

Minotaur develops and provides cus tom programs of inspection, monitor ing and maintenance of Stormceptor units. Kerotec is also the corporation responsible for customizing and imple

Effluent pH Peace of Mind? ProMinent offers the entire pH effluent discipline from initial analysis to final equipment installation. When assigning a single source supplier the responsibility of design, fobricotion ond instollotion of your plont's effluent system, you ore ensuring thot the best possible result is ochieved to occomplish neutrolizotion. The resulting chemicol injection ond mixing/storoge system will optimize the performonce ond economic evoluotion of the project.

From the Experts in Chemical Feed

ph.519-836-5692 www.prominenf.ca For more information, circie reply card No. 138 (See page 25)

23


Infrastructure

Concrete pipe

#6 B

debuts under

Highway 401 medians By Mark Eaton,Con Cast Pipe

Installation of approximately 7 kilometres of sulphate-resistant RCP under 401 median.

New special provisions in the Ministry of

to projects.

Transportation Ontario (MTO) contracts for major highways address the long-overdue quality standards for the acceptance of drainage product specifications. As a minimum quality control procedure

At the begirming of Stage 2 of the contract, AECON received approximately 35 loads of RCP for immediate installation by its crews. Key to the safety of the job site and movement of product into the site was the maintenance

for pipe products, the contractor must now inspect the pipe received at the job site and complete a comprehensive checklist that includes a letter signed by a professional engineer that states that all pipe supplied to the contract

of a haul road for deliveries and movement of equipment. All construction had to take place without significantly interrupting the flow of traffic on Highway 401 since it connects major urban centres in Ontario with Quebec and

complies with the contract documents.

the US.

Highway 401 widening between Regional Road 97 and Homer Watson Boulevard in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo was the first contract that specified reinforced concrete pipe(RCP)for median drainage. AECON worked with Delcan (contract administrator) and Con Cast Pipe to ensure that the quality ofthe installation matched the qual ity of the product shipped to the site. The contract called for the widening of Highway 401

Proper scheduling and no delays in delivery of product were critical considerations of the contractor in accepting the specification for concrete pipe. Because quality prod uct was delivered on site when required and soil conditions were favourable, the crews discovered that working with concrete pipe did not cause any delays in constructing the storm sewer. With the right equipment and experienced pipe installation crews on site, any misconceptions about difficulties in laying concrete pipe due to lengths, weights and durability were soon left behind. The pipe-laying phase of the project was completed within the scheduled time.

from four lanes to six, over a distance of 7.8 km from 2.0

km west of Cedar Creek Road (Regional Road 97) to 1.3 km west of Homer Watson Boulevard (Regional Road 28). Included in the contract was the construction of a concrete

median barrier, the reconstruction of the eastbound ramps of the Cedar Creek Road interchange and improvements to the horizontal curve west of Roseville Road (Regional Road 46). AECON's five crews, who worked simultane

ously about 750 metres to one kilometre apart, installed approximately 7 km of the sulphate-resistant RCP median storm sewer. Shipped to the project were: • 61 metres of 1050 mm diameter(50D) RCP; • 293 metres of 600 mm diameter(50D) RCP; • 435 metres of 525 mm diameter(50D) RCP; • 1,944 metres of450 mm diameter(50D) RCP; • 2,454 metres of 375 mm diameter(50D) RCP; and, • 1,597 metres of 300 mm diameter(50D) RCP. Pipe supplied to the project is considered small diame ter, suggesting that applications for this range of concrete pipe are not limited to alternate products such as high-den

sity polyethylene conduit or corrugated metal pipe. Since

Changes introduced to MTO's contracts are monumen

tal in terms of recognizing the inconsistency of contract specifications with respect to quality assurance and quali ty control. Situations where there may be lack of uniform ity and supporting logic for the specification of gravity pipe are beginning to fade. Design guidelines used by MTO incorporate life cycle costing and cost/benefit methodologies into the selection process of pipe materials used for drainage installations. In addition, other risk fac

tors such as corrosion and abrasion are incorporated into the selection process to assist designers in specifying the most appropriate, cost-effective pipe material for environ mental conditions encountered.

Reinforced concrete pipe has long been excluded from use as a product for storm sewers under the concrete barri

ers of 400 series highway medians. MTO's special provi sions have opened new opportunities for Ontario's traveling public and taxpayers to enjoy the benefits of reinforced

400 series highways are managed during winter conditions

concrete pipelines. MTO is monitoring the success of the

with periodic applications of sand and salt mixes, the pipe

Highway 401/Regional Road 97 project as it issues the spe cial provisions for gravity drainage products on other high

design had to withstand any potential corrosion from road salts. Today's standard concrete pipe design accounts for

way projects.

harsh environments such as road salts in stormwater and

snowmelt by testing for concrete density and appropriate placement of steel reinforcement before product is shipped 24 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

For more information, contact Mark Eaton of Con Cast Pipe at meaton@concastpipe.com


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Over the years, ES&E's Consultants' Forum has received wide acceptance among all sectors of our readership. Municipal engineers, analytical chemists, government agencies and technical people in the industrial sector, all rely on the skills of consulting engineers. Annually, ES&E invites consultants to submit their views on any topic they feel relevant. The resulting viewpoints are as diverse as the professionals who serve Canadians. As this year's ACEC award winner in Winnipeg shows, consultants can combine their skills with a generosity of spirit to benefit the urgent needs of less fortunate countries. Ironically, their contribu tions to public health and industrial safety in Canada still remain largely unknown to the public they serve so well.

Bill AInley, winner of this year's ACEC award, supervised the construction of 30 new wells in

remote villages of Ethiopia, ultimately providing clean water for over 40,000 people.

Tom Davey, Publisher

Perceptions and misperceptlons of the consulting engineer

â&#x2013; have been an environmental con

By Anita Smith, P.Eng.

sulting engineer for almost 20 years and greatly enjoy what I do.

Executive Vice President,

When

MacViro Consultants Inc.

asked

"what

would

I

change", other than higher salaries, greater professional recognition and fewer working hours, I wouldn't change a thing. However, there exist certain perceptions and misperceptions on which I offer my comments. The first misperception held by the general public is the notion that engi neers are rowdy, beer-drinking slobs or, even worse, calculator-toting geeks. Engineers provide tremendous value to society, as we see everyday with advances that improve our quality of life - magnificent buildings, everimproving modes of transportation, powerful computers, hi-tech communi cation systems, automation, etc., just to name a few. Many of these advances have been designed by engineers, yet, the engineering profession still strug gles for the recognition and status given to other professions such as lawyers and doctors. We must do a bet ter job of promoting the engineering profession and be deservedly proud of our contribution to society.

appointing as a consulting engineer to sometimes be treated as a commodity rather than being viewed as a partner working with the client to solve prob lems. On the issue of value-based con

The second issue is the dirty word "consultant". Engineering consultants, in many cases, are lumped into the generalized group of all consulting services, many of which have nothing to do with engineering. The consultant term has been "devalued" through a few bad consultant experiences, again, many of which may have had nothing to do with engineering. Consulting engineering companies provide spe cialized engineering services, with experts in particular fields. They exist to help clients with technical issues and, in many cases, provide an essen tial public service. It is, therefore, dis

26 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

sultant selection, recent improvements have been noticed in the public sector consultant selection process. However, there are still too many municipalities that award engineering consulting services based on price. As with most things you purchase, you get what you pay for. If you award consulting engi neering services based solely on price, you likely will not receive the best engineering value. High quality engi neering can result in a better design, which significantly reduces the capital cost and lowers the overall project cost. In any case, shouldn't a fair price be paid for a job well done? The environmental industry is now booming, and it is expected that this will continue for sometime. Accord

ingly, as a consulting engineer in the environmental field, the future looks very bright - we should enjoy and be proud of the profession we have cho sen. â&#x2013;


CH2M HILL is one ofCanada's largest multi-disciplinary engineering finns, with more than 400 employees in 11 offices across the country, including new offices in Victoria and Kamloops, British Columbia, and Edmonton, Alberta. We are expanding the breadth and depth of our resources in Energy, Environment, and Systems(EE&S)engineering to ensure that we continue to provide cost-effective, ecologically sound solutions that address our clients' increasingly specialized needs. John Murray, President of CH2M HILL in Canada, is pleased to welcome senior EE&S specialists to our offices in British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario. These professionals bring with them a wealth of experience â&#x20AC;&#x201D; many of them have extensive prior experience working collaboratively from various offices across Canada to deliver innovative projects driven by aggressive schedules.

Energy, Environment & Systems Specialists Bruce Tucker, M.Sc., CEA, EMS-LA, P.Eng., Senior Vice President Bruce is responsible for CH2M HILL's EE&S group in Canada. He has been consulting on environmental, health and safety, and energy management issues since 1985, and has consulted on or managed the EE&S portfolios of numerous national and multinational clients. Bruce has the unique experience of working in the industrial sector with one of the "Big Three" North American automakers. He will continue to build upon the EE&S group's success established since the mid-1970s.

Bill Hayes, P.Eng., Senior Vice President

%

A registered professional engineer in British Columbia,Alberta, and Saskatchewan Bill has more than 25 years of experience in infrastructure and facilities projects for public and industrial clients. For the past 10 years he has been involved with site remediation and restoration of industrial sites and waste management projects in Western Canada. Bill works with CH2M HILL clients in Western Canada to provide them with the full suite of integrated services for

project development, planning, design, construction, operations, and management of their infrastructure and facilities.

Ann Duffy, MCS, Vice President With over 20 years of experience, Ann leads the CH2M HILL Sustainable Business consulting practice and the firm's internal training and corporate sustainability performance program in Canada. Ann works with teams to develop strategic, practical, and innovative solutions to improve performance, transparency, stakeholder relations and overall competitiveness for public and private sector clients. Services focus on corporate sustainability planning, management, and reporting, resource-use efficiency, process optimization, and "smart" infrastnicture planning and design.

Brian Whiffin, P.Eng. Brian's career has encompassed a variety of environmental management projects involving the characterization and reduction of environmental risk/liability. He has considerable experience in environmental auditing and management; designing and conducting field investigations; conducting environmental risk assessments and feasibility studies/ decision analysis; waste site remediation; negotiating with regulatory authorities; applied research; waste management; and project management.

Mary MacDonald, M.Sc. As director of sustainable development systems at CH2M HILL in Canada, Mary specializes in translating broad sustainability commitments into practical, down-to-earth strategies and tools designed to maximize the environmental, economic, and social benefits of a move toward greater sustainability. She has spent nearly two decades working on integrated solutions to sustainability challenges for industry, local and national governments, non-govemmental organizations, and for multi-agency projects in Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America.

CH2MHILL Responsible Solutions tor a Sustainable Future'" C092003001TOR

www.ch2mhlllcanada.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 116(See page 25)


Consultants'

Forum u

Membership has its benefits - supporting our professional associations By Frank Belfiy, P.Eng. Kerr Wood Leidal Associates, BC

issues. Associations have responded proactively to address topics of imme diate public concern, such as: impacts of water quality on both small and large communities, possible effeets of terrorism and vandalism on our infra

Professional associations play

an integral role in the develop ment of our engineering indus try. The existence of well-run professional associations offers multi level benefits: to the industry as a whole, to consultants and public organizations, and to its individual members.

structure, and managing water shortages. Associations also offer a unique opportunity for fundraising by non profit organizations. As an example, many associations raise funds for water and sanitation projects in third

The most obvious benefit to the

Members are able to enhance their

knowledge base and keep abreast of the latest in technology and its applica tions, through conference presenta tions, operator training, publications and manufacturer/supplier tradeshows.

Personal enrichment arises from a

sense of belonging to a fellowship that shares the same ideals and works

towards the same goals. Healthy competition is the finest stimulator of growth in any industry; however, a well-run professional asso ciation must mandate accountability and fairness to prevent over-represen tation of a single company. Usually,

world countries. The enthusiasm of the

association members are conscien

participating members in these events significantly enhances the social atmosphere of association programs. All association members develop an appreciation for the wealth of our nat

tious, aware of the implicit marketing

ural resources when faced with aware

ness of the plight of people who lack clean drinking water or sanitation facilities.

engineering industry provided by pro fessional associations is the platform for education and technology transfer.

networking possibilities are endless. Members will build relationships with other professionals who, often unex pectedly, they will one day work with, compete with, or work for at some point in their career. Recognition for innovative project work is achieved through awards or publications.

For the private sector, there are sig nificant direct and indirect marketing opportunities that benefit all types of private sector services. Consultants have an opportunity to present their projects and participate in discussion forums. Tradeshows improve exposure and name recognition for technologies and services.

benefits from their contributions, and

avoid leveraging their membership to navigate an obvious commercial plug for their own organization. And what motivates association members to volunteer his or her time

and energy to professional associa tions? It is a sense of social responsi bility, an obligation to give back to the industry, and recognition that no one has succeeded without the guidance and knowledge offered by others. Our field, though technology based, has evolved beyond the mindset of stiff-necked competition and "holding one's cards close". There is a circular reference that exists in the business

Individuals gain many intrinsic rewards from association membership. Through association involvement, members have a unique opportunity to develop and finesse their softer skills

world - what an individual contributes

vide communication channels and the

tion, and organization and planning, by presenting papers and hosting semi

to benefit the industry, benefits all organizations and the people belong ing to them. Association members who have committed their personal efforts for the good of the industry have usu ally, and not coincidentally, enjoyed the utmost of success and recognition

forum for addressing high-profile

nars or stakeholder consultations. The

in their fields. ■

Out-of-town conferences offer excel

lent respite from the daily workload and a chance to build relationships with clients and become reacquainted with former colleagues and classmates. Professional associations also pro

such as written and oral communica

Creating Value through Service and Innovation Water Resources,Water, Wastewater & Solid Waste

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• Burnaby Lethbrldge

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28 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

• St. Catharines

ASSOCIATED ENGINEERING

For more information, circie reply card No. 117 (See page 25)


Consultants'

Forum

What does it mean to be a consulting engineer?

Who is responsible for the

' What does/should the Consulting By Terry Hardy, P.Eng. Engineer designation mean to the public? Consulting Engineer desig President & CEO, Ainley • What are the appropriate attributes or nation? If your answer is the Consulting Engineers of Group, and Chair, Consulting requirements of a consulting engineer? • How should those attributes or require Ontario (CEO), you're in good company Engineers of Ontario ments be evaluated and measured? if not in the majority! It's my experience While the proposed review process that most people involved in engineering, would draw heavily on the past experi be they practitioners, owners or various ence of PEO's Consulting Engineering levels of government, mistakenly believe Designation Committee, CEO firmly that being a Designated Consulting believes that it should also consider the Engineer means that the firm is a member current needs and expectations of the of CEO. I only wish this were the case. public and ofthose who use and rely upon Contrary to this widespread impres consulting engineering services. sion, the Consulting Engineer designation Since its formation in 1975, CEO has actually falls under the jurisdiction of grown to be the voice of consulting engineering firms Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO), in accordance with across Ontario and actively promotes consulting engineer Regulation 941 of the Professional Engineers Act. ing services to government,industry and the general public. Moreover, the designation applies to individual licensed The organization represents consulting firms of all sizes professional engineers, not consulting engineering firms. and disciplines and, by extension, the vast majority of engi Why is it that PEO administers a program aimed at the neers, technologists, technicians and others involved in the business aspects of the engineering profession, whereas consulting engineering industry. CEO clearly has a vested there isn't a comparable program which focuses on the interest in the Consulting Engineer designation and looks technical aspects of the profession? Why was it that a num forward to cooperating with PEO with a view to enhancing ber of years ago, back in the 1980s, PEO decided to aban what it truly means to be a Consulting Engineer. ■ don its Specialist designation program while retaining the Consulting Engineering designation? This decision was puzzling since it seemed to indicate that PEO felt it more important to regulate who could call themselves a consult ing engineer rather than who could claim to be a technical expert.

While PEO is mandated to regulate the right to practice

professional engineering in accordance with the Professional Engineers Act, the lack of a technical desig nation process sometimes results in the "right to practice" amounting to little more than a "right to title". As a result, I question whether the best interests of the public are always as protected as they would be if technical designa tions were regulated. An individual licensed professional engineer is governed by ethics when it comes to the provi sion of engineering services and normally an electrical engineer would not offer, say, structural engineering serv ices unless he or she is skilled in both disciplines. That being said, how does a member of the public or, perhaps, even a small, unsophisticated client go about determining whether a particular engineer has the right training and experience to perform a particular task? I understand that PEO has recognized this situation and is currently consid ering ways to address it. A few weeks ago, John Gamble, President of CEO, and I, met with Ken McMartin, President of PEO, and Kim Allen, CEO and Registrar of PEO, to discuss the Consulting Engineer designation and to explore how the two organizations might cooperate in carrying out a review of the designation program. As an initial step, we proposed that a joint review panel be formed to address and answer the following fundamental questions: • What is the purpose of the Consulting Engineering des ignation?

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current opportunities. For more information, circle reply card No. 118 (See page 25)

29


Consultants'

Forum that commitment is returned to the

The ethics of body snatching By Bill De Angelis, REng., MBA, Vice President, AWSEngineers & Planners

The munici

pal consult ing industry

past twenty years.

Certainly in the minds of the con

sulting contingent, short-term require ments for staff take precedence over strategic hiring and training initiatives; the work is here today, and we need people who can step up to the plate today to accomplish that work effi ciently, to achieve profitability targets necessaiy to keep our finus afloat. In many cases we are not planning for our longterm survival as consulting engineers. Our goal should be to develop a cul ture of sustainability within our own

company after graduation, in the form of an acclimatized young engineer. Share Engineering Staff': In many cases, we compete for the same assign ments. Depending on workloads, staff might be "loaned at a cost" to competi tors in cases where workload and

staffing levels do not mix. In such a scenario both firms win; the busier

advertisements for skilled technical

sector, and to achieve that end we must

staff. Stampedes from municipalities.

look both near and far at the same time.

Vacancies all over. Musical chairs in

Wholesale exchanges of staff are not the answer. How can we get out of this

firm can ramp up for an assignment without increasing its base comple ment, and the less busy firm can main tain its base complement without hav ing to reduce staff. Offer Competitive Salaries and Benefits: Ensure that staff are remu nerated fairly for their work. If we are consistent in pay schemes, then staff will often stay put. However, company culture also plays a part in staff reten

situation?

tion, in that the work environment

in greater demand in the Ontario mar ketplace, and never has there been such

Commitment: Change the way we think about employees. Hire staff and show a commitment to them. In many

must be conducive to learning, sharing and professional development.

a shortage. How have we gotten our

cases

Our main goal is to develop a frame

selves into this situation, and more

returned.

work that will ensure our survival as a

importantly, is there a way out? Getting in was easy. Hire fewer new

Employment Contracts: Guarantee an engineer employment for a certain period, and, in return, assist with train ing and mentoring. New Canadian Engineers: We are

provider of consulting services; how ever, part of our responsibility should be to act as a training ground for tech nical engineers that will migrate to the public sector. This is not necessarily a bad thing; the experience gained work ing in the consulting world assists municipal engineers in achieving their capital program goals. At the end of the day, the more effective a municipality is at initiating and managing capital projects, the greater the amount of work that flows

seems to be in the midst of a

feeding frenzy. Headhunters busy at work luring staff from one firm to another. Local newspapers full of

the engineering fraternity; resumes and references flying in all directions. Intellectual services have never been

graduate engineers, work intermediate and senior staff harder, don't mentor

and don't formalize succession plan ning processes. Implement in-house programs to do more with less. Throw in a spate of retirements from munici palities and movement begins to occur from the consulting sector to the pub

that

commitment

will

be

seeing changes within our regulatory bodies that are making it easier for new Canadian engineers to be able to practice while gaining experience.

lic sector to fill the voids. This is not a

Take the initiative to tap into this avail able resource pool.

new phenomenon, but it is certainly now proceeding with greater speed than many of us have observed in the

Develop Universit)' Links: Commit to hiring a certain number of under graduate students each term. Often

□ELCAIM

Provide Public Sector Talent Pool:

to the consulting sector. ■

Vancouver • Victoria • Hamilton • London • Niagara Falls • Toronto • Ottawa and overseas

Leaders in innovation and technology

Delcan's EnvironmentalDivision brings a globalperspective to environmentalprojects from environmental monitoring andprotection projects in Latin America to Best Practices reviews for potable water and wastewater systems for the Walkerton Inquiry and the new National Sustainable MunicipalInfrastructure Guide.

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Contact: Doug Langley, Vice President, Environmental Division,

133 Wynford Dr., Toronto, ON M3C1K1 (416)441-4111 Visitourwebsiteatwww.delcan.com

30 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)


Consultants'

Forum

Why we no longer lead in environmental innovation

Over the course of the current

There certainly is no need for gov ernment to duplicate the type of tech nical expertise that is already available from the private sector. Government does, however, need to make available the resources to provide the necessary and appropriate expertise at the provincial Ministries of the Environ

By Rui De Carvalho, M.Eng., REng., President,

twelve months we will be

ushering in new govern ments and new leaders at the

RJ Burnside & Associates

municipal, provincial and federal lev els. Let's hope that this will also bring us new leadership and vision in many critical areas and especially in the environment. It is not that we don't

ment and at Environment Canada to

already have ample legislation and reg

ensure that there is a consistent and

ulation. In fact most countries in the

accurate interpretation of environmen tal regulation. Moreover, there is a need to support the development of leadership of the type that existed in years past, and of a sustainable techni cal capacity that will interface with the private sector, special interest groups and legislators to ensure that we as a country are at the forefront of irmova-

world, even those at a much different

level of development have plenty of legislation that make profound state ments on the protection of human health and of the environment. What is

normally lacking in these countries is regulatory frameworks to appropriate ly administer and reinforce legislation. In Canada we are most fortunate in

that we do have both the legislation and, for the most part, the correspon ding regulatory framework. After the tragic wake up call of the Walkerton drinking water tragedy, as most munic ipalities will attest to, at present, the

most noticeable component of that reg ulatory framework in Ontario, is enforcement. Years ago, smaller municipalities looked to their Ministry of the Environment District Offices for guid ance and direction on any number of issues; today no one will dare make that call, because it will be difficult to

find someone and before you know it, investigators will be at the door.

tion in the environment. The failure of our leaders to take

these measures will result in a regres sive, looking back approach at what went wrong. The agenda of those spe cial interest groups, with the most resources to retain the best lawyers, continued overleaf...

Creating Value through Service and Innovation Environmental, infrastructure,

and Transportation Solutions Alistair Black, President and CEO of Associated Engineering, and Biii Chishoim, Vice President - Ontario, are pleased to announce the following staff appointments. Marcy Jordan, P.Eng., a specialist in wastewater management, will lead our wastewater management sector in Ontario. Marcy's experience encompasses wastewater treatment, collection, disposal,

Eiia Edwards, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., a water process specialist, will lead our water supply and treatment sector In Ontario. Elia's

experience includes process analysis, optimization, design, and construction. He offers expertise in state-of-the-art technologies, such as ballasted flocculation,

and reuse. She has worked on a wide

variety of projects in Ontario and the United States, ranging from small systems to major regional facilities.

natural and membrane filtration, ozonation, and ultravioiet disinfection.

Mike Hribljan, M.Eng., P.Eng., will assume responsibility for quality programs in our Ontario operation and will provide specialist process wastewater engineering support company-wide. He will also continue to provide program management assistance to clients in the environmental infrastructure sector. Mike

has 18 years of experience specializing in wastewater engineering.

John Conlin, M.B.A., R.P.P., P.Eng. has joined our St. Catharines office as a Senior Municipal Engineer and Planner. John brings 35 years of experience in urban and private sector planning, urban infrastructure engineering, as well as water and wastewater engineering. John's experience also includes heavy civil construction.

These changes reflect our significant growth in Ontario, our ongoing commitment to improve the quality of our products and services, as well as our commitment to career advancement within the firm.

See our website for employment opportunities in Toronto, Saskatoon, Edmonton and Calgary.

ASSOCIATED wwv/.ae.ca

Offices Across Canada

For more Information, circle reply card No. 120 (See page 25)

JKr

ENGINEERING

November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 31


Consultants'

Forum will dominate, because of the lack of a

strong and technically-sound voice. The downloading of the administra tion of critical environmental regula tions to lower tier government agencies

for a few years know that the pendu lum does swing. The last cycle, which actually started well over a decade ago, was particularly bad and has had some very undesirable results. We are no longer leading in environmental inno vation but we are rather, just trying to keep up. Let's hope that we have learned

will result not only in bad decisions, but also a greater frequency in engag ing legal-based mechanisms, such as the Ontario Municipal Board and envi

such as some conservation authorities

ronmental tribunals, for the resolution of disagreements. It would be interest

and municipalities, that lack both the resources and visionary leadership.

ing to determine not only the costs to society but also the adverse impacts on the environment that result from con

ISIJagger Hims ■I LIMIT E D ; %:hnvironmenlal Consullut^ hflginccrs

tinuing to do business in this manner. The trucking of Toronto's garbage to Michigan has to be one of the better examples of the bad decisions that are being made.

from some of our mistakes and that

environmental leadership and vision once again become a priority and that the need for a look back will be only that which will contribute to the

improvement of our future. ■

Those of us who have been around

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32 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

pumping stations - Combined sewer overflow

management

and selection

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Cortsultants'

Forum

Bill AInley receives ACEC's top award in Winnipeg

The founder and current

slum dwellers in Phnom Penh and, the

year previous, provided technical advice regarding a rural water distribu tion system intended to restore eroded family farms in the Philippines. Bill Ainley's Beaubien Award is, perhaps, best summed up by David McKenzie, Executive Director of HOPE International Development Agency: "ft is with a real pleasure and sincerity that HOPE International Development Agency endorses and

Chairman ofthe Ainiey Group, Consulting Engineers and Planners, Peter William (Bill) Ainiey, P.Eng., was selected as this year's recipient of the Beaubien Award

for his lifetime contributions to the

Canadian consulting engineering industry. He was formally presented with the award at the Association of

Consulting Engineers of Canada (ACEC) Canadian Consulting Awards Annual Dinner, held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, on October 25, 2003. The Beaubien Award, which was

originally introduced in 1984, repre sents the highest individual mark of distinction conferred by ACEC. It is awarded annually to a Canadian con sulting engineer who has served the profession in an exceptional way through diligent work within the Association and by contributing to the local, national and international com

munity. The award was named after Dr. James deGaspe Beaubien, CBE, the founding President of ACEC in 1925. Bill Ainiey has always been active in his profession and, in 1982, he was elected President of the Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO), the largest provincial member organiza tion of ACEC.

In 1987, Bill turned his attention to the

international

scene

when

he

responded to the horrors of the

commends the work of Mr. William

Bill AInley with an Ethiopian child.

Ethiopian famine. Under the auspices of HOPE International Development Agency (a British Columbia-based aid organization which focuses on water supply to impoverished, under-devel oped countries), he and his wife, Trudy, embarked on an eight-month mission to Ethiopia where he organ ized the construction of 30 new wells

in remote villages, ultimately provid ing clean water for over 40,000 people. He followed up on this trip with several other missions, including a return visit to Ethiopia and a journey to Cambodia in 1994, where he advised on the restoration of concrete control-structures and earth berms

destroyed by agents of the Khmer Rouge. As recently as 2002, he made his way back to Cambodia to report on the Cambodian government's resettle ment plans for approximately 15,000

(Bill) Ainiey who has worked with, and supported, HOPE International for the past sixteen years. Bill Ainiey has generously volunteered his time and engineering expertise to help the poor in Ethiopia, Cambodia and the Philippines where clean water is only a dream for many rural families living in these countries. "He has been an invaluable asset to HOPE International's work with the

poorest of the poor by not only provid ing his extensive engineering experi ence but also providing his leadership and management skills. Over the many years HOPE has known Bill Ainiey, we have grown to appreciate and admire his passion to provide clean drinking water, hope and a decent quality of life to poor families in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Bill Ainiey is an encourage ment and model for all in making our world a better place". â&#x2013;

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November 2003, Environmental Sdence & Engineering 33


Stora qe Ta n ks &j ntafnmen Tanks are used for a vast variety of applications in industry and municipal ities. This special ES&E section focusses on the diversity and capabilities of modern tanks, regulations and case histories.

Photo left: A diver prepares to go into the Nicoiai Shaft in early May 2003. See article on page 39. Photo: Sue Bednarz

Portable track spill containment pans

To prevent contaminating the

Containment and Countermeasures

groundwater and soil around (SPCC). By Merrill E. Bishop, President their tank unloading sites, These track pans have the addi Trans Environmental Systems, Inc. Buffalo Color needed spill tional benefit that they can be containment pans. Rail sidings closed up between uses and not col make it a difficult task to install per lect rainwater or need to have snow manent track spill pans and, moreover, the railroads would removed from them. The model FLT has large, hinged flap not spot tankcars in the proper place so the plant workers panels that close over the top for storage yet open out to would have to relocate protect an area 10 ft. by 12 some of their pump-off ft. These containment pans equipment every time a weigh only 1,600 lbs. and different tankcar was can be easily maneuvered delivered. They needed by light duty forklift containment pans that trucks. The Model FLT, could be relocated to wher when closed, is only 10 ft. ever the tankcars ended up. by 6 ft. and they are They selected the designed to be stacked out unique, patented Forklift side for storage. Transportable Spill Con Buffalo Color uses three tainment pans made by of these Forklift Trans Trans Environmental Sy portable track pans either stems, Inc. of Charlottes-

under the received tankcars

ville, Virginia, for the job. or under tanker trucks to Not only did these contain keep any accidental release Forklift Transportable Spin Containment pan in use. ment pans actually hold a from contaminating the liquid spill (approximately 300 ground or requiring expensive US gallons), they were equipped with NPT hose connec cleaning of a concrete slab. The Trans Environmental tion hubs so that this portable pan could be connected to a Systems pans have saved hundreds of man-hours of clean full volume containment vessel, or moat, to comply with up, rainwater pumping, and snow removal over the last five the US EPA 40 CFR 112 regulation on Spill Prevention, years. For more information visit www.transenvsys.com.â&#x2013; 34 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003


Ifti

Saint John installs TecStore tank

to meet its growing needs

Bringing its water system into

the 21st century and comply ing with provincial standards were the main goals ofthe city of Saint John, New Brunswick, when it decided in 2000 to install a new

potable water tank. The city's old rivet ed tank built in 1935 had a capacity of 250,000 imperial gallons - not enough

include plastic caps over the bolts and a conical floor that allows dirt to be

swept away when the water drains. ADI Limited, of Saint John, New Brunswick, were the consulting engi neers on the project. As the new tank is in a residential

to meet the needs of the 25,000 cus

tomers in the city's western section, especially in case of an emergency. "We needed extra water to fight fires and for other emergency water situations," said Dean Price, project engineer in the Saint John Municipal Operations and Engineering depart

historic military lookout which is a couple of hundred years old and was also used in the First and Second

World Wars to watch out for ships and submarines along the coast. A lot of people visit the museum and can see

ment. "We also needed to be able to

meet peak demand in the middle ofthe day when we couldn't get water fast enough from the lake." The site is 250

the tank. The old tank will be demolished in

feet above sea level.

The city's tank selection process focused on a choice between bolted tanks and welded steel. "We consid

ered a welded tank assembled on site, but didn't want to have to do sandblast

ing and painting near the houses in the area," Price explained."We decided to go with a bolted tank because the pan els are prepainted and shipped here and because its factory epoxy finish is expected to last longer." The city financed about half of the total cost, with additional funding coming from the provincial and feder al governments. Site work began in 2001 and the infrastructure was built in 2002.

A seven-man crew from Greatario

Engineered Storage in Innerkip, Ontario, began installation of the TecStore tank in July this year. The work went quickly except for delays caused by driving rain and wind. The new tank is 64 feet in diameter and 56

feet high with a 2-foot side wall and a concrete base. Capacity is 1.2 million imperial gallons. A small control building was also built nearby for reinjecting chlorine and keeping it at safe levels.

The new tank is painted a custom blue with an aluminum geodesic dome. Adhesive letters spell out the Saint John name on the side. Extras

Saint John harbour.

area on a hill overlooking the harbour,

a few months. "The old paint is peel ing, so we're looking forward to seeing it come down," Price said. After testing and cleaning are completed in late October, the new tank was scheduled to go on line in November, 2003.

appearance was an important consider ation. It is next to Martello Tower, the

For more information, contact

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35


Tanks & Co n

t

Double wall polyethylene tanks can reduce costs and expedite compliance By Michael Spurrier, MBA, Snyder Industries Inc.

While US federal contain

ment regulations do not

offer much detail in sec

ondary containment sys tem designs and plumbing apparatus requirements, state and local govern ments are becoming increasingly stringent in the formulation and enforcement of chemical containment

legislation. Containment systems thought to be modern in recent years are now found to be inadequate and not compliant

with forthcoming regulatory dead lines. New technologies in double wall tank designs for above ground storage are providing more options in address ing the performance and cost concerns related to the prevention of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents re leased into the environment. Double

wall tanks are being increasingly uti lized as an alternative or supplement to secondary containment requirements. A variety of material constructions are now available in double wall tank

systems to ensure chemical compati bility with most hazardous substances being stored. Specifically, new advancements in rotationally moulded polyethylene containment systems are offering timely, cost-effective solu tions to the ever-changing regulations. While the use of basic polyethylene tanks in non-critical water and agricul tural applications is widely known, the enhancements in resins, processes, and designs are increasing the use of engi neered polyethylene tank and contain ment systems often in demanding haz ardous chemical and waste applica tions.

Resin selection and processing make a difference

Polyethylene materials(PE) used in double wall tank systems provide broad chemical resistance at a compa rably low cost, especially in corrosive and oxidizing chemical services. PE containment suppliers should be able to offer and support chemical specific recommendations that PE resin is best

A recent installation of an indoor tank farm of 1100 USG Captor Containment Tanks which are storing various industrial chemicals.

suited for a particular application. All PE tank and containment systems are constructed

of

either

linear

or

crosslinkable PE. Linear PE is capable of being recycled and welded, and it also meets the requirements of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Regulation 177.1520. Crosslinkable PE is a tough material that cannot be recycled or welded, and should not be used for a food or potable water appli

modern design advancements can pro vide specific structural integrity fea tures to handle a variety of mechanical and climatic stresses absorbed in daily operations throughout a tank's useful life. Rotational moulding is a unique plastic process in that the raw material utilized to form the finished part is never exposed to any pressure during the moulding process, which elimi nates built-in stresses inherent in most

cation.

other plastic processes. As a result,

Unfortunately, some refer to all PE tank products as being of HDPE, or high-density polyethylene, material construction. Consequently, decision-

tanks manufactured from the rotation

tions in resin density, and the different performance attributes inherent in the variety of resin choices. Different materials and process methods can cause variations in the density and other physical characteristics of a

al moulding process have superior impact strength, which can be dem onstrated through a manufacturer's quality test data. An example of demanding impact test criteria is a 400 ft./lb. impact at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Impact test statistics are important because the greater the PE's impact strength the better the tank's overall physical prop

tank's construction. Therefore, it is

erties. The ideal tank cure will maxi

important that purchasers and specify ing engineers know and compare the density of the resin used in their tank and containment systems, because generally speaking, as the molecular weight of polyethylene increases, the resistance to chemical permeation and environmental stress cracking im

mize impact strength at the highest possible resin density. When compar ing polyethylene tank suppliers, pur chasers and specifying engineers should inquire about the tank manu facturer's documented impact test cri

makers are not educated on the varia

proves.

The process utilized to manufacture most PE double wall tanks, rotational moulding, has evolved to the point that

36 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

teria for the tank sizes under consider ation.

Design features can increase safety and value One of the most misunderstood ele

ments of tank design is the measure-


C,Q fiita-r ment of specific gravity, which relates to the amount of weight a particular tank is designed to safely store. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) committee formu lated design standards for polyethylene storage tanks, which applies to the individual tanks within a double wall

containment system. When followed, these standards help ensure consisten cy and safety in polyethylene tank sys tem design and manufacturing. Unfortunately, there are a number of

attachments. Flat areas provide a stronger and more uniform sealing sur face for fitting installations than tradi

ever-changing overflow capacity requirements, because there is no pos sibility of rainwater causing an over

tional rounded tank surfaces.

flow situation in the case of an inner

Rotationally moulded, double wall tanks are now

available

with an

enclosed design, where the inner and outer tank are interlocked, and the outer containment tank is protected from collecting any debris, rain or ice. The enclosed design helps address

tank failure or leak. Open top contain ment systems are becoming obsolete in outdoor applications because of the complications caused by the possibili ty of rain water coming in contact with residual or spilled hazardous material continued overleaf...

PE tanks used in hazardous chemical

applications that may not meet ASTM standards. Consequently, purchasers and specifying engineers should require containment system suppliers to provide wall thickness audits and corresponding calculations to verify ASTM standards have been met before

a contaimnent system is accepted.

The rotational moulding process allows much flexibility in the mould ing of different tank features without incurring additional labour or parts costs. Tank features that can be easily incorporated within the rotational moulding process, like seismic tie down lugs, top lifting eyes, and bottom drain outlets, are extremely labour intensive when supplied on a fabricat ed tank, which increases the total pro curement costs for a containment sys

Diverse Plastic Tanks is your source for double wall containment

storage tanks

tem.

More and more specifications are calling for seismic restraints on their containment systems, so it is becoming increasingly important to invest in con tainment tanks that have the ability to be retrofitted with seismic restraining systems in preparation for any possible regulatory changes in this regard. Moulded-in top lifting eyes allow larger empty tanks to be accessed and maneuvered more easily by crane and hoist material handling equipment,

u

which reduces the cost of tank han

dling and installation and increases the safety factor for workers involved in tank installations. Rotational moulding produces seamless one piece tanks, so the entire tank surface and moulded-in

outlets are free of weld seams, which overcomes the potential leak paths and structural weaknesses that can be

Diverse Plastic Tanks inc.

attributed to substandard or compro mised welding procedures. Another

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tributes to the reduction of leak paths is the integration of large flat surfaces on the tank for more secure fitting

Ph:(905) 607-5189 Fax: (905) 607-9835

For more information, circle reply card No. 123 (See page 25)

37


Tanks $i Co ntalnmant found in the outer containment tank.

Furthermore, the sight of any liquid in the outer containment tank can create a

which certainly decreases the chance of a leak through the omission of any fitting connections in the liquid phase

perception of concern, even if it is just

of the inner tank's sidewall. Of course,

water.

lation easier and more cost-effective

the pumping equipment required to effectively discharge material from the top of a double wall tank could be complex in design and very expensive, especially in corrosive and oxidizing

than other tank material construction.

chemical services. However, there is

The durability of a properly moulded and designed double wall tank addresses the damage expense that can occur with the handling and shipping

new technology available that enables gravity discharge through the means of a transition fitting that effectively seals

The lightweight, durable polyethyl ene construction of a double wall tank

makes shipping, handling, and instal

the inner and outer tanks within the fit

be

ting outlet. The gravity discharge capa bility of a transition fitting provides better ease of use and greater costeffectiveness in tank unloading. The decision for top or bottom unloading is an argument of cost and ease of use versus safety considerations. Applications warrant discussion Purchasers and specifying engi neers should place much importance on the data collection process in each secondary containment application,

plumbed from the top rather than through the secondary tank sidewall.

turer's representative. Type of chemi-

of the heavier steel or more brittle

fiberglass tank systems. Moreover, the light shipping weight of PE tanks can reduce comparable freight costs. Existing concrete dike systems that have grown out of compliance can often be remedied by the addition of double wall PE tanks, which increases

the safety factor at a cost far less than investing in a new dike system. Most industry officials agree that a true

double

wall tank should

and discuss details with the manufac

Storage tanks that simply will not rust!

A 550 USG Captor Containment Tank.

cal, concentration, specific gravity, temperature range, dimensions, me chanical loading, physical location are all examples of the information that should be discussed before making a decision on a double wall tank or con

tainment design. The resulting data will put the tank manufacturer in a bet ter position to recommend a material or process technology that will maxi mize the physical properties of the PE containment system. Before making a final decision on a PE tank or containment supplier, deci sion-makers should verify competitive quotations are meeting comparable specification requirements. Here are some points to consider: • Can the tank manufacturer provide wall thickness audits to verify ASTM D-1998-96 standards have been met?

• What is the standard impact test cri teria used by the manufacturer for the tanks under consideration?

• What is the processed density ofthe

Fiberglass ttuiks that deliver more than

PE tank's finished wall?

twice the service Ufe of other tanks

• Does the tank manufacturer's war

ranty cover the specific chemical application? • What chemical compatibility test ing has the manufacturer completed to support their material recommenda

Waste water, septic & sewage holding tank systems are maintenancefree with a unique two chamber design that provides better separation and less carry-over of scum and sludge.

Domestic fuel oil

tions?

storage tanks

• What is the containment system's seismic rating or capability?

virtually eliminate the risk of environmental contamination

Underground storage tanks Corrosion free inlernally and externally, ZCL tanks provide you with continuous protection against leaks due to corrosion. Ideal tor sate storage ot all fuel types, water and most hazardous liquids.

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shipped and installed as a unit? • What is the track record and viabil

Oil/Water separator tanks provide high performance solutions for reducing oil and fuel in run-off water streams. No moving parts and only minimal maintenance is required thanks to corrosion free internal and external components. Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck stops, vehicle repair shops and parking lots.

• Can the tank or containment be

For more information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)

in a tank manufacturer's capabilities, double wall PE tanks can be a very cost-effective solution to a variety of hazai'dous chemical and waste services.

Michael Spurrier is Managing Director of Snyder Industries Industrial Tank Division,e-mail: tanks@plastictanks.ca.


Tanks ^

CSO project in Portland benefits from environmental engineering

It is hard to imagine the type of

municipal infrastructure required to manage the Pacific Northwest's annual heavy rainfall. One of the situations plaguing a seasonally waterdrenched city is a combined sewer

overflow (CSO) which occurs because combined sewer pipes are not large enough to carry both stormwater and sanitary flow to the treatment plant. During a CSO, stormwater fills the combined sewers. The over

flows carry bacteria from the untreated sewage, as well as other stormwater pollutants directly into the river. In 1991, the city of Portland, Oregon's Environmental Ser vices division recognized the need to reduce its CSOs from

the nearby Columbia and Willamette Rivers. To date, Portland has reached the half

way mark in its 20-year effort to stem CSOs - completely stopping the CSOs from the Columbia Slough and now concentrating on the Willa mette River projects. Geology proves challenging One of the main projects is the building of the West Side pipeline, a S293 (US) million sewer improvement dubbed by locals as the "West Side Big Pipe." One ofthe main contrib

Paul G. Cummins, Baker Tanks

includes building an 18,500-foot pipeline on the west side of the Willamette River, and a large pump station on the east side of the river on Swan Island in North Portland. The Nicolai Street shaft is the first

sive mining experience, while S.A. Healy, Impregilo's Chicago-based sis ter company, has extensive under ground construction experience. There are only a handful offirms in the world that can do this kind of specialized work.

"The geology on this job is extremely challenging," notes Jim McDonald, project manager for Impreglio/S.A. Healy. "All of this work is being performed in silt and sand that is below the water

table. The soil is extremely wet and very permeable which makes it difficult to excavate.

To support the excavation, we are using a variety of deep foun dation techniques that are cut ting edge, such as slurry wall construction and jet grouting." McDonald adds that they have generally been able to con trol the water from the deeper shaft and tunnel construction

without having to discharge it. However, surface excavations have resulted in large amounts of water that must be filtered

and disposed of in an environ mentally compliant manner. "We use Baker Weir tanks

for filtering the sediment from the groundwater," he says. "A big advantage is that we're working in an urban area and utors to the West Side CSO's these steel tanks take up a A diver prepares to go into the Nicoiai Shaft in construction success is Baker smaller footprint than others. early May 2003. Photo: Sue Bednarz Tanks, who provide temporary We're able to run our discharge liquid and solid containment water through the Baker Weir rentals. tanks, then release into the city sewer. of four access shafts to be built that The West Side CSO is a project connect to a 120-foot deep, four-mile The six sites on this job each have a designed to reduce the volume of long, 14-foot diameter tunnel at vari number of their tanks because even if untreated combined sewage that over ous locations along the alignment. The we don't get water when we excavate, flows into the Willamette River during shafts will be used for a variety of we have to be prepared in case we do." Providing an efficient solution rainstorms. Attesting to the environ functions such as providing personnel mental effectiveness of this operation, and equipment access, surge storage To stabilize the porous ground and the prior Columbia Slough project capacity and air venting. The Swan construct the shafts, Impreglio/S.A. reduced CSOs to the Slough by 99 per Island pump station will eventually be Healy called upon a joint venture of cent. Additionally, over the past 11 the connecting point between the east subcontractors Bencor, Petrifond, and years, Portland's Environmental and west side sections of the CSO Pacchiosi to perform the $50(US)mil lion slurry wall construction and jet Services has removed 1.8 billion gal project. The east side section is still in grout ground improvement. lons of stormwater from the combined the design phase. sewer system and has reduced total The general contractor for the proj "We have been using as many as seven Baker EZ Access tanks in each CSO volume by 53 percent annually. ect is a joint venture between two com The undertaking - the largest public panies, Impregilo and S.A. Healy. location," says Vince Luongo, Bencor, works project in the city's history - Impregilo is an Italian firm with exten continued overleaf... November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 39


lanks & contafnm#n:t Petrifond, and Pacchiosi project manager. "The Baker

.I

tanks contain the bentonite that stabilizes the trenches that

we're excavating to form the Nicolai shaft construction for

the tunnel-boring machine(TBM)entry." In August 2003, the contractors used the Nicolai shaft as a launching point for two TBMs - one tunneling north and the other tunnel ing south - to build the CSO tunnel. The tunnel-boring machines were specially manufactured in Germany for this project.

To assemble the sophisticated equipment below ground, the Impreglio/Healy crew lowered the machine parts - the largest weighing in at 85 tons - a piece at a time to the bottom of the 60-foot-wide shaft. The 10-man team

The undertaking - the largest public works project in the city's history - includes building an 18,500-foot pipeline on the west side

Custom manifolds connect pumps and filtrations sys tems on the east and ivesf sections of the project.

of the Willamette River.

the 14-foot diameter concrete lining at the tail of the machine, hydraulic jacks move the cutter foiward and make room to install the next ring." Using this method, it is estimated that it will take about

of mechanics and labourers then hooked up motors, attached hydraulic hoses, programmed the guidance sys tem, and cormected the water and slurry pipes. Once assembled, the TBMs began chewing a tunnel 16 feet in diameter through the earth. "The machines bore at one end and spit out the 3- to 5-foot-long concrete pre-cast pipe rings at the other," says McDonald. "After we install

11 months to bore the north tunnel to Swan Island; the south tunnel is expected to take 23 months. Baker's local branch in Portland, Oregon provided the 21,000-gallon EZ Access tanks to assist with the solids and liquids containment on the construction site. The tanks' four proprietary hinged deck lid panels lift up for a

visual inspection of all the internal contents. Additionally, Baker installed 6-inch valves to customize each tank for

the job.

1

I

Creating innovative solutions Ofspecial note is Bencor, Petrifond and Pacchiosi's jet grouting process. The jet grout process involves pumping high-pressured air, water and cement into the 330 feet deep holes. This has only been done a few times at this depth. The air and water erode the soil in a column form. Then the soil is flushed out of the ground to the surface and the jets backfill behind the flushed soil with the grout to form a stabilized cemented ground. The result is a water-impermeable ground well suited for excavation and

I718NC

construction.

Baker EZ Access Tanks assist In containing solid and

For more information contact: pcummins@baker tanks.com. â&#x2013;

liquid particles on the construction site.

UN Approved IBC

TRANS^

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Contractors and rental companies worried about complying with the new UN regulations for the transport

of diesel fuel now have the option of buying a specially bunded (double walled) and baffled IBC from Bundit - the TRANSCUBE.

The TRANSCUBE was developed in Europe specifically to comply with UN requirements, and the 2000 litre size is now being manufactured and sold in North America. The TRANSCUBE was tested in the USA in January, 2003, and received DOT/UN Certification which is legal to use in Canada. For more information contact:

IHIII0IT6 DIESEL REIOJEL SYSTEMS

40 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

Unit 511, 4A-3421 Portage Avenue Winnipeg, Manitoba R3K 2C9 Tel:(204) 895-0010, Fax:(204) 897-3236

For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 25)


Storage & Containment Product Sho^

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Diverse Plastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, con tainment tanks and a complete line of "UN" approved intermediate bulk con tainers (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder Industries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gallons.

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November 2003, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 41


fante, & ^ . Containment

Steel Tank Institute develops new oil-water separator standard By Wayne Geyer, Steel Tank Institute

certain models. Of course, efficiency is a function of several factors, espe cially the influent oil concentration. ULC-S656 currently requires oil-water separators to be tested with an influent

■■■■he US Steel Tank Institute

I (STI) is a recognized R&D

I organization for underground I and aboveground storage tanks.

oil concentration of 2,000 ppm, com pared to the 200 ppm established with in the UL 2215 standard in the United

States. Accordingly, the AquaSweep

Tanks built to STI standards are also

Model 3 tested to ULC-S656 has a

widely installed throughout Canada and appropriately meet ULC listings and regulatory codes. STI has now developed a standard for a state-of-theart oil-water separator conforming to

rated efficiency of 15 ppm (15 mg/L).

ULC-S656 "Standard for Oil Water

Separators". The STI specification is the AquaSweep™ Gravity Oil Water Separator and is designed for gravity removal of non-emulsified hydrocar bon lightweight oils with a specific gravity of less than 0.95, and related petroleum products from stormwater runoff. Sizes are available from 1,325 to 190,000 litres (350 - 50,000 US gal lons) with flow-through rates from 125 to 37,850 litres per minute (33 - 10,000 US gallons per minute). The AquaSweep standard includes five different models to provide a high degree of application functionality.

The five models tested to UL 2215 are

rated for 5 - 10 ppm effluent. The five AquaSweep models employ various arrangements of coalescer materials, panels and plates. Selection of the correct separator size and model requires knowledge of the oil-contaminated wastewater mixture

and proper design review by the responsible engineer. Among the con

R&D testing being performed at Westeel in Regina. ator when the oil needs to be removed.

siderations: maximum inflow rate; required oil removal efficiency; specif ic gravity of incoming oils; maximum

Heavier suspended solids (sludge) sep arate and are collected in a settling

incoming oil concentration; and oper ating temperature. STI is developing a software pro gram to help design specifiers deter mine the correct model depending on

sludge baffle prevents solids from entering the outlet pipe. Typical applications are at bulk oil

the above and other considerations. All

AquaSweep models incorporate an internal diffusion panel which reduces

chamber for efficient removal while a

terminals, oil transfer areas, vehicle

maintenance areas, fueling facilities, parking lots and machine shops. Oilwater separators are intended to collect and separate free oil from water; they oil in the water. AquaSweep is not intended for use with compoimds such as antifreeze, degreasers, alcohols, gasoline, solvents, detergents, dis

coalescers which attract oil. The result

turbulence and flow, allowing light weight oil to collect and rise within the tank where it can be further processed or discarded into the wastewater sys tem. Oil storage capacity is 40 percent of tank liquid level sensors and control

is a much higher separation efficiency - less than 5 parts per million (ppm) for

panels are available to sense the oil level within the tank and alert the oper-

AquaSweep oil-water separators can be either underground or above-

In addition to traditional oil-water

separators which use parallel plates of corrugated galvanized steel to separate oil from water, the AquaSweep tech nology also incorporates oleophalic

do not remove the soluble fraction of

solved solids and emulsified oils.

C^B APPROVED MOBJA^E IBC TANKS Hassan Steel has redesigned this utility product to be more compact, easier to handle with an all around better design and best of ali, to meet the latest Transport Canada regu lations. These mobiie tanks will withstand the rigors of working in the fieid to safely supply fuel to any location. Whether mounted in your truck or trailer we have the best design to suit you needs. • Built to CGSB 43.146-02 specs • Available In 3 different shapes In multiple sizes

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42 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

a

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)


Ianks& ^ ^ Containment ground, although most installations are underground. Underground separators can be either single or double-wall, with corrosion protection ofthe exteri or tank constructed to recognized STI standards including the sti-P3®, ACT100® and Permatank®, all of which comply with ULC S601.3. Aboveground separators, fabricated to STI standards, including Fireguard®, com ply with ULC S655. Regulations Regulatory compliance is a key rea son why oil-water separators are being increasingly installed throughout North America. For example, the pro posed Federal Storage Tank System Regulation, under the Canadian Enviromnental Protection Act, CEPA, Part 9, pertains to tanks on federal lands and dictates oil-water separators be used to treat product releases and that stormwater runoff from product transfer areas be designed for a one-inten-year storm. Like other USTs or ASTs, oil-water separators must incor porate various requirements such as spill-containment devices - in this case, at the point of oil removal. Other requirements of the CEPA Federal Tank Regulation include: • Monthly measurement and record ing of the thickness of the free oil layer and separated solids accumulation, unless the separator is electronically

water program, authorized in the EPA Clean Water Act.

The NPDES is a

two-phased approach to addressing stormwater discharge into navigable waterways and sewer systems. Medium and large municipalities are

covered in 40 CFR Parts 401-471.

Also applicable is the Spill Prevention Control and

Countermeasure Plan

(SPCC), 40 CFR Part 112, which addresses prevention of oil pollution into navigable waters. Whether in Canada or the United

States, the key to stormwater quality management is elimination or reduc

Regulatory compliance is a key reason why oil-water separators are being increasingly installed throughout

tion of accidental and chronic low-

North America. charged with NPDES enforcement. Also,

under

the

Storm

Water

Management Program, every munici pality must develop a stormwater man agement plan which includes a certain degree of monitoring and sampling. Within the Clean Water Act, the NPDES and the Water Quality Programs are covered in 40 CFR Parts 122-131, while effluent guidelines are

level releases of oil-polluted water. A working oil-water separator is an important part of a well-designed stormwater drainage system, and is an excellent tool toward compliance with the various stormwater programs. In addition to regulatory compli ance, the use of oil-water separators is a proactive measure of environmental preservation and helps maintain prop erty values. Better insurance rates and benefits can also be realized.

Wayne Geyer is Executive VicePresident ofthe Steel Tank Institute, email: wgeyer@steeltank.com. Add itional information can be accessed online at www.steeltank.com.

Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater, Leachate Storage and Industrial Storage.

monitored. Measurements must be

made as close to the baffle as possible. • Measurement and recording of the thickness of the free oil layer and sep

®/S

arated solids accumulation after a

product release. • Removal of the free oil layer contin uously via automatic skimmer or at a maximum depth of 50 mm. • Removal of the sludge layer from an oil-water separator at a maximum

depth of 150 mm or at the maximum depth allowed by an automatic removal device.

• Discharge of gasoline, solvents, used oil, glycol, detergents or sludge from outside the storage tank system directly to an oil-water separator is prohibited. • Disposal of free oil, separated solids and water must be in confor

mance with applicable provincial or territorial regulations, guidelines and policies. In the US, a key regulatory driver is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm-

I.

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43


Passing the buck in MTBE leaks

Ifan industry makes a mess on pub

lic land, it is expected to clean up after itself. Common sense sug gests that, if an industry pollutes the public water supply, it ought to clean up that mess, too. But politics isn't always about com mon sense. Sometimes powerful inter ests receive special treatment at the expense of ordinary citizens. That's what's happening in Washington right now, as lawmakers working on a wideranging energy bill consider granting gasoline manufacturers liability immu nity - so called "safe harbour" â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in cases of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) water contamination.

By Jack W. Hoffbuhr, American Water Works Association

the US are repeatedly discovering that MTBE also seeps into drinking water, fouls it, and renders it undrinkable. As

gasoline escapes through leaky storage tanks, spills during traffic accidents and drips from gas-station nozzles, MTBE can quietly and seriously con taminate our most precious resource. A recent study by the US Geologi cal Survey found MTBE contamina tion in 55 percent of the metropolitan water systems that were tested. Even

Gasoline makers relish this blank-

small amounts of MTBE can make

check protection, because it means they are not accountable for a mess

drinking water smell and taste like tur pentine. Health concerns related to MTBE range from headaches and dizziness to burning of the nose and throat, disorientation and nausea. Most alarmingly, the US Environmen tal Protection Agency has classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen.

that will cost some $29 billion to clean

up. They would rather pass the buck to local water utilities.

MTBE is a chemical commonly used in gasoline for more than two decades. But communities throughout

In South Tahoe, California, severe MTBE contamination led to a lawsuit

filed by the local public utility against several MTBE producers, seeking con tamination clean-up costs. In that case, the jury found that MTBE was a defeetive product, resulting in a settlement in which manufacturers agreed to pay more than $50 million in clean-up costs. Factored into the jury's decision were documents demonstrating that gasoline manufacturers have known for years that MTBE spreads in the environment farther and faster than

other constituents of gasoline and is enormously expensive to clean up. The good news is that there is a movement afoot to eliminate the use of

MTBE in gasoline supplies. The chem ical is now banned in 17 states.

Unfortunately, the damage has already been done in many regions, and some body has to address that damage. So who should pay? The industry that created MTBE pollution, or the local communities that suffer from it?

Let's hope US Congressional lawmak ers choose cormnon sense over special interests. We could all drink to that. â&#x2013;

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Enviro Vault is the patented concept of installing an "Internal Chamber" inside a tank to house valves, heat ers, level controls, and spill contain

Preventing spills eliminates costly site reclamations.

issue. The Enviro Vault can

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be installed in steel, fiber

Enviro Vault equipped tanks are the safest, most environmentally friendly

glass or plastic tanks.

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44 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

Designs for New and Existing Tanks Enviro Vault designs can be incorporated into any new tank by any licensed manufacturer or welder.

We also feature "weld-in" and "bolt-in" retrofit models

for use in existing tanks.

For more information, circle reply card No. 128 (See page 25)


Measuring emissions from heavy oil storage tanks

Amethod to measure air pollu

tion emissions from heavy oil storage tanks has been devel oped by two scientists from the Environmental Energy Technolo gies Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (EETD), Donald Lucas and David Littlejohn. The method measures hydrocarbon emissions using a simple oil-sampling device fashioned from parts available

members were satisfied that the new

By Alan Chen, Environmental Energy Technologies Division News

technology was accurate, inexpensive, and could be used reliably by the pri vate firms that provide measurement services. The Lab team worked with all

local and state regulators to gain offi cial approval from local air districts, the California Air Resources Board,

and the U.S. EPA for the testing meth ods. Then they taught commercial ven dors, selected by HOST, to use the test method and technology.

at hardware stores for less than $20. Older measurement methods that were

One result of this work was that

developed for lighter oils overestimat ed emissions from heavy oil tanks by orders of magnitude. The researchers were approached by the Heavy Oil Storage Tank (HOST) Committee, which represents three air quality districts in Southern California, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the California Air Resources Board, as well as members from the industry that these agencies regulate: oil companies and the

continued measurements demonstrated

Western States Petroleum Association.

HOST was seeking new, accurate methods to inexpensively measure emissions from heavy oil storage tanks. By working with industry, they hoped to develop a consensus method for measuring these emissions. Inexpensive components The new technology consists of a simple sampler built from off-the-shelf parts and used with the Tank Atmosphere Perturbation method, which measures the total gas emissions (reactive organic compounds, carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane) from a tank. The method involves blowing air into a tank headspace to perturb the concentrations of gases there and then taking measurements as the concentra tions return to their equilibrium state. The samples are collected and then analyzed in the lab. Thousands of oil storage tanks dot the landscape of oil-rich counties in southern

and

central

California.

Typically 30 feet high and 40 to 50 feet across, they store the crude oil extract ed by pumps scattered across numer ous oil fields, which can be as small as

a few acres. HOST approached EETD, seeking an inexpensive, reliable, and accurate method of measuring the emissions from these storage tanks to address the various concerns of its

that oil tanks' emission levels were

Oil-sampling device developed for heavy oil tank emissions test.

members. The region's air quality dis tricts needed a way of determining the magnitude of the contribution that these tanks made to air pollution prob lems in the region, particularly the Central Valley, which has one of the worst air pollution problems in the nation today, including high levels of ozone and particulates. The oil indus try stood to lose tens of millions of dollars mitigating a problem whose magnitude was unknown because the standard Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) method, which is well-suited for liq uids like gasoline, does not work at all for heavy crude oil. For example, one of the steps in the RVP method calls for cooling the liquid in an ice bath and transferring it to the analysis system. Existing tests fail because crude oil thickens like peanut butter once cooled.

The Berkeley Lab researchers went into the field to study oil tanks made available to them by HOST members and developed the test method. HOST issued no mandates on how to proceed; the Lab team took a leadership role in conducting the research, and meetings were run by a mediator who ensured that all parties reached consensus as the work progressed. Transferring the technology After developing the oil sampler and measurement method, Lucas and Littlejohn made numerous measure ments of tanks operated by HOST

much lower than expected. This helped both regulators, who, once they knew that the problem was not as large as they had feared, could free up resources to address other, larger pol lution sources in their districts. The

industry also benefited by avoiding expenditures of tens of millions of dol lars that would have been required to alter the tanks if they had been found to be a significant source of pollution. Reprinted from the Environmental Energy Technologies Division News. For more information contact: Don Lucas, e-mail: D_Lvcas@lbl.gov.

PMC pressure transmitters now available from Cancoppas

Cancoppas is pleased to announce the addition of PMC pressure trans mitters to its portfolio of products. Founded in 1963, PMC created a niche for itself in the precise and reliable measurement of pressure, level and vacuum on processes involving corrosive, viscous and clogging fluids. PMC products have been designed to routinely survive process and environmental rigours with minimal maintenance.

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members. Their measurements demon

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strated to regulators that the approach yielded accurate results. Oil industry

www.cancoppas.com

Circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)

45


Tanks & Containment

Measuring and maintaining

20mA output also provides constant remote tank level readings when linked to a PLC or DCS.

tank levels

Fluid tank operators can utilize a

Alarm and shutdown functions are

open storage tank operators.

float and gauge combination, or a transmitter to obtain a contin

uous reading of open storage

United

Electric

Controls' One

Series gauge pressure switch measures and maintains levels in open storage

also performed to signal nearempty/near-full conditions using the integral switches. The dual control provides two set points for signaling both high and low tank levels. In the absence of a PLC or DCS, the switch acts as a stand-alone level controller by

tank levels. While a

tanks and vented reac

simple gauge may be less costly and good for providing a local read ing, a much more expensive transmitter is often necessary in

tor vessels. The pres sure generated by the "head" or height of

cycling a filling pump and/or opening

fluid above the instru

in the tank.

ment is converted to a

Ultimately, the One Series performs multiple tasks that would normally require a variety of mechanical and/or electronic devices. By using this con trol tank, operators obtain the alarm

order to monitor levels

digital readout dis played on the elec

from a remote location

tronic

such as a plant's auto

maximum

mated control room. In

the

addition, a separate control is required to signal when the fluid level is nearempty or near-full. Combining the local and remote readout functions of a gauge and a transmitter, with the capacity of a switch in a single control can yield sig nificant cost reductions for multiple

located as closely as possible to the bottom

measurement units. In addition to the

local indicator, the One Series' 4-

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is

expressed in psi or water column

^jyOUNG Squalimetrics

Solinst

instrument

between the instrument and the bottom of the tank cannot be measured. The measurement readout can be

Davisa 1^^ Met One Instruments

ii

For

accuracy,

of the tank, as any height of fluid

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a drain valve to maintain a certain level

and shutdown functions of a tradition

al pressure switch, the local measure ment indication of a gauge, and the remote monitoring capacity of a trans mitter, all in one easy-to-use electronic device. The main advantage, however, is that the cost of this control is halfthe

price of a basic transmitter. For

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Sponsored and Attended by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water For more Information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)


Environmental Management

Canada's forests,past and present A survey of student perceptions about the environment By Liv Fredricksen & Steven Hansen, The Fraser Institute

Canada's history is closely inter

twined with the forests that

cover about half (45 percent) of the land. Forestry played a key role in building the economies of provinces such as Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia. Sustainable har

vesting and modern processing tech niques in the lumber, and pulp and paper manufacturing industries have established a Canadian $44 billion

export industry (2001 figures). Flowever, Canada's forests also pro vide prime habitat for endangered and secure species, and breeding habitat for spawning salmon. The majestic old growth forests on the west coast have spiritual significance to some aborigi nal peoples. They are also popular des tinations for tourists, and support a growing eco-tourism industry. Beauty, however, is in the eye of the beholder. Consider a 200-year-old red cedar forest. An eco-tourist might want to develop hiking trails through it and access points for river rafting to attract business. An environmentalist, on the other hand, might view it as "Spirit Bear" habitat, and seek to have it pro tected from all human access. A logger might see its greatest value in its con

surveyed (mostly from Alberta and British Columbia) cited deforestation as the environmental problem of great est concern in Canada. However, the students are using a very general, umbrella term when they are probably referring to a series of smaller, local

ized problems - clearcuts, habitat frag mentation, erosion, or the loss of old growth. Canada's forest cover is vast, about

418 million hectares. High profile areas such as Clayoquot Sound and the recently renamed Great Bear Rainforest comprise a small fraction of our forest land, and while there is legit imate concern about the loss of small, key, habitat and eco-tourism areas, only about half of Canada's forests are classified as "commercial", and only about 0.2 percent of the forest is har vested in any given year. The over whelming majority of our trees are not being considered for logging. In fact, as a result of regeneration and the forestation of agricultural land, the volume of Canada's forest actually increased by 4 percent between 1979 and 1994(FPAC, 2003). We asked students whether, in recent years, the amount of wood har vested in Canadian forests exceeded

The absence of a freehold owner to

the amount of new growth, or if the reverse was true. Fifty-eight percent of students surveyed believed that harvest exceeded growth, while thirty-five percent believed that growth exceeded harvest (see figure 1). Eight percent did not provide an answer. In fact, although harvest occasion ally exceeds Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) levels on a province-byprovince basis, overall Canadian har

make unilateral decisions makes these

vest levels have never exceeded total

conflicts difficult to resolve; tempers often flare, leading to demonstrations

AACs. Further, the provincial AACs are set at levels that represent a frac tion of the new growth in commercial

version to lumber.

While everyone values Canada's trees, the desire to use them in mutual

ly exclusive ways often leads to con flict. And because 94 percent of Canada's forestland is publicly owned, property rights are not clearly defined.

and even violence.

The Fraser Institute conducted its

forests are not taken into considera

about the environment at a series of

tion. Therefore, growth very much exceeded harvest in recent years. In

try over the 2002/3 school year. Some of the questions focused on issues sur rounding the forest industry. The results of the responses given by the 316 students who participated follow. Thirteen percent of the students

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forests. Protected and non-commercial

second survey of student perceptions student seminars held across the coun

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fact, the 1.03 million hectares of forest harvested in 1999 are a fraction of the 6 million hectares of forest that were

lost to insect infestation, and the 1.4 million hectares lost to forest fires.

continued overleaf... Circle reply card No. 144

47


Environmental Management We also asked the students whether

Figure 2

Figure 1

they considered acid rain to be a seri

60

ous threat to Canadian forests.

50 -

The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) pub lished the results of its 10-year study

40 30

on the effects of acid rain over a

20

decade ago, finding that while acid 10 Don't YesNorain may be harming some lakes and know/ No Harvest Growth some trees, it is far less of a problem exceeds exceeds Don't know/ growth harvest in the United States than is generally No answer believed. In fact, it may be affecting Figure 1: In recent years, has the amount of wood harvested exceeded the some crops and trees beneficially amount of new growth in Canadian forests? Figure 2: Is acid rain a serious (NAPAP, 1990). The Canadian situa threat to Canadian forests? tion is generally believed to parallel the American one, yet the students surveyed are evenly split on the question; 47 percent said only alkaline ash. This ash is believed to have artificially that acid rain is a threat, 47 percent said that it is not, and 6 neutralized what were naturally acidic waters. However, as percent do not know (see figure 2). This could indicate that the forests have grown back, and with the emergence of the NAPAP findings aren't making their way into schools. more sustainable methods of forestry, the lakes and rivers Students seldom learn, for example, that the high acidity have been slowly reverting to their natural state of acidity of Nova Scotia's lakes and streams is unlikely to be the (Krug, 1992, pp. 40-41). Yet this does not appear to be an result of acid rain since rainfall over Nova Scotia is not dra ecologic perspective that students learn. matically acidic. A look into the province's history provides Although Canada's forests are in no immediate risk of a more likely scenario. decline from commercial harvesting, they are a constant About a hundred years ago, traditional forestry practices source of conflict. Until all concerned parties are able to involved mass burning. In fact, at one point, the southwest come to a compromise, issues of incompatible use are ern part of Nova Scotia was burned to the bedrock, leaving unlikely to be resolved under present management conditions.

The Seventh SPE International Conference on

Health,Safety & Environment ^ in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

NEW HORIZONS IN HSE:

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Are you aware of the hottest HSE issues in the E&P industry? The SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production gives you the opportunity to: • Learn from more than 200 technical presentations.

• Attend high-level panel discussions including "HSE Principles, Profitability, and Ethics," "Global Climate Change," "Canadian Oii Sands Projects—Are They

Sustainabie?" "Ciient and Contractor Relationships," "Road Impact Assessment," and "HIV/AIDS—The Challenge of the Future." • Network with more than 1,500 attendees. • Visit exhibiting companies from around the world.

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For more information and to register, visit www.spe.org or call +1.972.952.9393. . "SdclBty of Petwleum Enginesr^)

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48 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

For more information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Environmental Management One avenue that might be considered is private steward

ship. If property rights were assigned to the forests, individ uals and groups could purchase the land they required for their needs, be they commercial, ecological, or spiritual, and pursue their goals without fear of protest. Fears about privatization are unwarranted when it comes to Canada's forests. Loggers would only seek to buy prop erty that was commercially viable, and many logging com panies voluntarily adhere to industry best practice environ mental standards as a matter of course. Instead of paying stumpage fees, they would deposit into public coffers the purchase price of the land. Further, if they owned the land, they would have more incentive to avoid inefficient and wasteful harvesting techniques.

about the safety of Canada's forests may explain that policy aversion - when one feels that a risk is much higher than it actually is, one seeks management techniques that are more rigid, and less nuanced. Straightening out student percep tions about current forest trends could be key to removing

the panic mentality, and allowing forest protection via pri vate stewardship.

Article reprinted fi-om Eraser Forum, July 2003, with the permission ofThe Eraser Institute.

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November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 49


Water Management

Water management building blocks, breakthroughs and opportunities By Peter Gray,Frontline Environmental Management Inc.,and Dave Schultz,Grand River Conservation Authority

Humans cannot go without

drinking water for more than 3 to 5 days without perishing. Ironically, it is this source of life that carries many of the diseases, such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, malaria, dengue fever and e-coli bacteria which cause the majority of deaths on a daily basis around the world. According to World Vision, up to 40,000 children die each day from disease, dehydration and malnutrition, all of which are directly linked to water. In the developed world, these risks have been virtually eliminated due to the use of chlorine to disinfect

potable water; however, there is increasing competition for water use and the impacts of land uses on the quality of water consumed.

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What are we doing as Canadians to understand the interrelation between

land use, or urban living, and water quality and quantity? We have to know and understand a variety of compo nents directly associated with water, including research and education; stakeholder communication; gover nance; monitoring/assessment and planning. Options for implementing strategies to protect our water supplies are being devised. Businesses on the cutting edge of environmental and water issues meet

annually in a wide variety of panels to discuss such issues. On September 12, 2003, approximately 400 people gath ered at the Third Annual Grand River

Watershed Water Forum in Cambridge, Ontario, on the grounds of the Grand

River Conservation Authority to dis cuss this very topic. In its first two years, the Forum has become an important gathering of experts on water issues, trends and ini tiatives. This year, the theme of the Forum was "Building Blocks, Break throughs and Opportunities." The pro gram was designed to provide govern ment leaders, businesses, scientists, farmers, and others, with the informa tion they need to protect and improve our vital water resources.

Speakers representing government agencies, environmental organizations, industry, and farm groups, discussed innovative technologies, the latest information on watershed manage ment and the impact of new govern ment legislation and regulations. Keynote speakers included William Cosgrove, a Montreal business con sultant and vice-president of the World Water Council, an International Water Policy Think Tank dedicated to strengthening the movement for improved management of the world's water resources. He provided a global

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Water Management perspective to the challenges facing global water issues. Dr. Stephen Born, professor of urban and regional planning at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, focused in on watersheds, and provid ed a perspective on watershed manage ment while drawing on his experiences in Thailand, Tunisia, Mexico, New Zealand and Australia. The wrap-up presentation was made by Mr. Gord Miller, Environmental Commissioner for Ontario. Mr. Miller, who is respon sible to the Ontario Legislature for monitoring government compliance with the Environmental Bill of Rights, reviewed his latest report and addressed some of the key issues fac ing the management of water resources in Ontario.

A new part of the program this year was the presentation of a report on the State of the Grand River Watershed by GRCA Chief Administrative Officer, Paul Emerson. The Water Forum also

provided opportunities for businesses and organizations to exhibit informa tion on their services and products in a

tradeshow type format. As the world's population exceeds six billion individu

als, the earth's water resources are experiencing the serious effects of urban

living in terms of water quali ty and quantity. Before long, water will become the most

precious natural resource on

the planet. In Canada, and more specifically, in Ontario, we are fortunate to have a

seemingly endless supply of clean water. Yet the issues dis

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indicated that, unless man

aged appropriately, Canadian water resources will continue to be

impacted by our growing population. Various urban and rural pressures that increase the potential for contaminat ing our water supply, including his toric, current and future residential, agricultural and industrial uses, are expanding. To ensure the good health of the world's water resources, new partner-

ships and relationships need to be built, resources need to be pooled, crit ical issues need to be collectively addressed, and strategies need to be developed and implemented so that future growth can take place while maintaining watershed health. The Water Forum proceedings are available through www. grandriverca.

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51


Water Metering

By Brian Brittsan,

Wellspring International

TheWorld Water Report predicts

that by the middle of this cen tury, as many as 7 billion peo ple in 60 countries will be short

of water. Best case scenario: 2 billion

people in 48 countries. Currently 1.1 billion people lack access to even the most marginally treated water, and 2.4 billion lack access to adequate sanita tion.

What's driving the crisis? There is no shortage of factors, but primarily it comes from a finite supply of water and an ever-expanding population. Even though access to fresh, clean water is a major problem for develop ing countries, it also impacts North American consumers and businesses. A recent Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) study suggests that the United States alone will have to spend between $300 billion to $1 trillion over

the next two decades to upgrade its aging water infrastructure. The upgrades will include repairing, replacing or upgrading drinking and wastewater facilities, meeting new quality standards and servicing an exploding population. How can we obtain more water

while cutting these enormous costs? First of all, it is important to realize that by far the cheapest cost of new water supply comes from conserva tion. Conservation costs approximate ly $300 per acre-foot (the volume of water required to cover one acre of land by one foot of water). Conventional methods of obtaining new water (dams, water transfers) check in at around $600/acre foot. And then there is desalinization - over

$2,500 per acre-foot. Submetering So how can we jump-start conser

vation on an immediate, widespread basis? Enter water submetering. Metering water is nothing new -the majority of homes in North America are metered. However submetering the practice of metering water within

individual multifamily (apartment/ condo) units - is fairly uncommon, and represents a potential $17 billion market in North America alone.

Submetering brings together some pretty diverse bedfellows, including: environmentalists, real estate develop ers, landlords, tenants, and politicians. Why? Because submetering: • Lowers utility costs by encouraging conservation.

• Is an accurate, fair, resident-friendly system.

get the idea. Some perspective The average person in North America consumes 80(US) gallons of water per day. Multiplied by 365, that person will consume 29,200 gallons per year. At 2.1 people per apartment, that's 61,320 gallons of water con sumption per year from one apartment alone. In dollar terms, that's $5.00 per 1,000 gallons, so 5 x 61 = $305 per year paid by the owner. Water submetering decouples utili ty expense from the rent. As it stands right now, water is oftentimes included

• Protects landlords from rapidly rising water rates. • Increases property value. • Requires no owner investment. Owners love submetering because of the instant, capitalized impact to their properties. Tenants appreciate it because they are billed according to

the rent. However, since water is a "fixed" price to the resident, there is

individual use. Environmentalists

five in IIB.

love it because submetered apartments use anywhere from 18-36% less water than un-submetered apartments. You

Residents will do some strange things when they aren't responsible for the water bill. We've heard a variety of

52 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

in the rent, so as utilities go up, so does

no incentive to conserve. In other

words, a single woman in apartment I lA will pay the same as the family of


Water Metering anecdotal evidence from customers

regarding just how cavalier tenants will be when someone else is paying the water bill. Like the girl who leaves the shower on at night "so she can sleep better." Or the woman who would keep the hot water running in the bathtub during the night "to keep the evil ones out." Whatever their motives, the con sumption would drop when a bill with their name on it appeared in the mail. In fact, study after study suggests when renters are responsible for pay ing for their own water, consumption drops by an average of 18-39%. Landlords and property owners also benefit, because they can decouple utility expenses from the rent, meaning they do not have to risk losing tenants with multiple rent increases. Submetering in action Joe Pryzant is a Wellspring cus

By placing wireless submeters at every point-of-use (washer, sink, tub, etc.), these meters read, log and transmit usage data to a centrally-located trans mitter, which uploads the information to the Internet, where landlord, tenant and Wellspring can access the informa tion. Whether the motive is environmen

tal or financial, everyone benefits by submetering the world's most precious

resource. Its supply is finite, the demands placed on it infinite. And as the demands increase, so will the price. Conservation is the cheapest price to pay.

Brian Brittsan is president of Wellspring International in San Diego, California. For more information, con tact Christopher Dale at cdale@well springwireless.com.

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tomer and owner with submeters in

two of his apartment complexes in the Houston, Texas, area. Alexander

House is 232 units. Sharpstown is 395 imits. Between the two properties, Joe owns 627 units. Employing the above math, Joe's properties consume over 38 million (US) gallons of water per year. Assuming consumption drops by 25% after submetering, Joe's two prop erties will save 9.6 millions of water

per year. Not to mention Joe will save

nearly (US)$50,000 in utility expens es.

"Wellspring has worked wonders for me," says Joe Pryzant."In this time of falling occupancies and increasing expenses for insurance, taxes, and util ities, Wellspring has enabled me to boost profits, increase my property values, and save our drought-stricken state millions of gallons of water." Submetering everywhere When it comes to plumbing, there are two different types of apartments: garden-style with a single water pipe feed, and high-rise units serviced by multiple "riser" pipes. Until recently, only the garden-style apartments could be metered for water. One pipe, one meter. After all, if one riser pipe is servicing the kitchen sinks on floors 2, 5 and 15, how can those units possibly

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be metered?

Since 40% of existing US apart ments are garden-style, and 60% are high-rise, it was a question that needed an answer. Wellspring has developed the technology to submeter any build ing with any type of plumbing system.

For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 25)

53


Biosolids

Major changes in store for sewage sludge disposal in Europe

The more than 10,000 municipal

contains toxic organic compounds that,

cost of sewage disposal may double or

it is feared, do not break down chemi

even increase fivefold in the future.

sewage treatment plants in Germany produce over 2.4 mil

cally but instead reach ever higher con

lion tons of sewage sludge

centrations in the soil. For this reason,

every year, the highest volume in Europe. The other 14 EU members produce an additional 5.6 million tons. The large German contribution to this total, 30 per cent, is due to the fact that around 91 per cent of the population is served by public sewage treatment plants. Within the EU as a whole, access to public sewage treatment plants is avail

the EU is planning an amendment of the directive on sewage sludge (86/278/EWG) which will drastically

able to only 77 per cent of the popula tion on average. Today, 37 per cent of the sewage sludge produced in Germany is used as fertilizer in the agricultural sector. However, some changes are in store. The use of sewage sludge as fer tilizer on agricultural land has been the

target of criticism. Although the nutri ents contained in sludge are welcome to farmers, the sludge also carries heavy metals and in some cases, even

reduce the permissible concentrations of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds. The legislators are consid ering new threshold values that would reduce the concentrations to anywhere between one-half and one-fifth of their

former levels. Moreover, other organic compounds that have not previously been taken into account, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzol sulphonates, will be added to the list of restricted sub stances.

The massive use of alternative tech

nologies would make the disposal of sewage sludge much more expensive. Today, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is considerably less costly than incineration, for example. The

On the other hand, there is no lack

of effective thermic processes for dis posing ofsewage sludge. One example is the tried and tested process of sta tionary fluidized solids incineration, which would make it possible to recov er phosphates from the non-burned residue. Another possibility would be to incinerate the sludge together with other refuse in incineration plants, coal-fired power plants or cement fac tories. Still further options are pyrolysis, gasification to produce synthetic gas.

Mechanical-biological processes can also be used to treat sewage sludge prior to its use in landfills, and both aerobic composting and anaerobic (oxygen-ffee) fermentation methods exist for this purpose. The political and technical possibil ities in this area were among the topics discussed at this year's ENTSORGA Trade Fair, held in Cologne, Germany, a

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Environmental NEWS

The world's fisheries are In crisis

Mounting scientific evidence

of dramatic declines in

global fish catches, was recently confirmed by a cover story in the journal Nature. Populations of predatory fish such as tuna have declined by 90 per cent over the last few decades.

Increasingly, many are making the case that farming fish offers a solution to meeting the growing demand for seafood that catching fish cannot pro vide. Between 1985 and 2000, for

example, fish production from aquaculture increased fourfold to over 45

million metric tons. Aquaculture now accounts for roughly one-third of the world's total supply of food fish. A new report by the SeaWeb Aquaculture Clearinghouse strongly disputes the notion that fish farming will prove any kind of panacea. Authored by Michael Weber, What Price Farmed Fish: A Review of the Environmental and Social Costs of Farming Carnivorous Fish, examines

the detrimental environmental health

effects of salmon farming and draws implications for the farming of other popular carnivorous fish such as tuna, halibut, cod, and grouper. While acknowledging that aquacul ture has a pivotal role to play in meet ing the need for growing human popu lations for high-quality protein, the

report warns that, unless significant changes are made regarding industry practices, the farming of additional carnivorous species will precipitate many of the same harmful effects as generated with salmon farming. Some

ments several other recent ocean con

servation reports, including the Pew Ocean Commission's America's Living

Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change, which calls for sweeping changes in US ocean policy, including a moratorium on coastal fish farming.

of these effects include displacement

of wild fish populations; discharge of

The World Wildlife Fund, in conjunc

untreated wastes into coastal waters;

tion

and the use of unsustainable amounts

Federation, also released a report.

of wild fish for feed. Indeed, instead of helping to solve the overfishing crises worldwide, aquaculture could easily exacerbate the problems and create new ones, damaging important and already-stressed coastal areas. What Price Farmed Fish comple-

Protecting Wild Salmon from Impacts ofSalmon Aquaculture: A Country-byCountry Progress Report, which gives failing grades to all farmed salmon producing countries in the Atlantic. Contact: www.AquacultureClearing

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55


Hazardous Waste

Electronics waste debate should consider small business

US electronics makers are fe ling the pressure to

cut a deal for a national takeback program, given

that 26 states have introduced no less than 52 bills

that would force the issue of recycling one way or another. Both California and Massachusetts lawmakers are

moving on manufacturer "takeback"(or EPR) bills. The stakes are high, because, if states try to implement a patchwork of individual "takeback" laws, "it could be dis astrous," says publisher Michele Raymond, of Raymond Communications, who has been tracking recycling policy for 15 years. "Many of these bills have not been thought through very well. There is a presumption that there are only a few computer 'manufacturers' out there, and that there will magically be US markets for all of the material generated." Consumers are now up to their ears in piles of E-junk collecting in their garages and basements. Without a coher ent national plan they will be stuck paying for needlessly complex recycling systems, with very little environmental benefit.

"If a state wants to require reporting and takeback of electronics items, they will have to locate all of the manu-

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Engineering MAGAZINE

Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar environmental protection industry since 1988

A great

facturers," she notes. One often ignored fact is that a large percentage of computers sold are 'boxes', assembled by local computer firms.

Moreover, the majority of electronics items and parts are made in Asia, so finding and forcing some of these compa nies to report and take back or pay fees could be nearly impossible. Most of the bills focus on keeping cathode ray tubes (CRTs)out of landfills. In fact, four states have now banned CRTs from landfills (California, Massachusetts, Maine and Minnesota). While no one wants the leaded glass in incinerators or

landfills, recyclers say that within a few years, there may not be any US markets for recycled CRT glass. Since Dow Corning is closing its Pennsylvania leaded glass plant, there are only four US manufacturers left, and they are having a difficult time competing with cheap Chinese imports. A number of the state bills would ban exports of used electronics unless the receiving country has comparable working conditions to the US. But there will have to be some exports of electronics or components to Asia, because that is where electronics are now made.

China's recent ban on imports of scrap electronics has not stopped the flow of old electronics to illegal operations, because they seem to get in 'underground', according to a recent Washington Post story. However, the policy has stopped the critical feedstock for legitimate Chinese recy clers, and there are no opportunities for low income Chinese people to obtain refurbished computers. Many more state bills would ban all heavy metals, brominated flame retardants and polyvinyl chloride in elec tronics, with no exemptions. These are more stringent than the European Union RoHS directive, which has exemp tions.

While there is no argument that lead and mercury should be phased out of products when feasible, there is little evi dence that today's electronics are leaching heavy metals in landfills. A European study found more lead in the environ ment from fishing sinkers than lead solder in circuit boards. Other technical reports cite concern that the expensive lead solder replacements may have worse environmental attrib utes, and may be more difficult to recycle. A more recent study from the High Density Packaging User Group found that there was no cadmium, chromium VI or mercury used in today's circuit boards, contrary to estimates from a 1998 study widely quoted in the media. The big issue is not toxicity or whether retailers can take

advertising opportunity for your products and services!

people's garages. There are hundreds of millions of old computers, TVs, printers out there in storage. That's going to take the cooperation of government and industry to cope

Call Penny Davey or Denlse Simpson at

Michele Raymond is critical of industry on one point: computers need to he designed for upgradability, not obso lescence. "Long life would mean less waste. In this econo my, small businesses cannot afford to replace their comput ers every two years."

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back old units, but how to deal with the really old stuff in

with. No one has a clear handle on the volume or toxicity and no one wants to foot the bill.

Michele Raymond is Publisher of State Recycling Laws Update and Recycling Laws International. For more infor mation call 301-345-4237 or check www.raymond.com.

56 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003


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Concrete Pipe vs CSR The techni cal data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Ontario Concrete Pipe

Urecon has been supplying preinsulated pipe to the HVAC, munic ipal and industrial sectors for over 30 years. • U.I.P® factory insulated piping systems • Tfiermocable® heat-trace cable and related accessories

Association

• Portafoam® Paks

Circle reply card No. 206

• Engineering and computer design assistance

• District heating and cooling systems • LOGSTOR pre-insulated flexible pipe (in coils) Visit www.urecon.com Urecon

Circle reply card No. 207

58 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003


Product and Service Showcase New 5100 and 5150

ACTIFLO® package plants

slurry pumps ITT Flygt has launched its next gen eration of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically to handle the most

abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial envi ronments. The pumps have the latest ITT

Flygt

technology

incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life, according to the company. Visit www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

Sediment flusher

The HYDROVEX" SFT is designed to clean the sediments, grit and debris out of CSO/SSO/Stormwater

retention

tanks. Of considerably lower capital and maintenance cost than other meth

The Actiflo" package plants are designed to treat a wide range of appli cations: drinking water, industrial process water, primary and tertiary waste treatment. By efficiently remov ing turbidity, color, suspended solids, metals,TOC,taste and odor, the process ensures that the water it produces is of the highest quality. Though the systems are very compact, they offer compara ble performances to systems built on a larger scale. Comes complete with all the necessary monitoring equipment.

ods, the HYDROVEX"SFT is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total water content of the HYDROVEX"SFT is released instant

ly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave

which

will flush away the

sediments

and debris to a

sump at the end of the tank. John Meunier Inc.

John Meunier Inc.

Circle reply card No. 217

Circle reply card No. 218

Circle reply card No. 219

Moving-bed bio-reactor

Package water and wastewater plants Adapted to Your Needs

to have and to hold 'till

Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached

death parts your parts!

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is increased DO,

Only Canadian Welding Bureau certi fied fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2 for aluminum. Assure the

integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all

increased contact time of the mixed

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer

your welded products are manufac tured by a Canadian Welding Bureau

efficient BOD reduction and nitrifica

certified fabricator.

tion can easily be accomplished.

MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 220

Parkson

Circle reply card No. 221

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment

Plants

worldwide. The

Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 222 1

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Series Stormceptor system

Small drinking water systems

Developed for the treatment of larger

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants. This ultrafiltration system is cost-effective, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistently producing high quality water.

The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of operation as the wellknown In-line Inter

ceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an

area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the inter

nal by-pass function, ensuring that all sedi ment and oil removed from stormwater

run-off remains trapped within the stor age chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 223

catchment areas, the

new

Series

Stormceptor system employs the same operating principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stormceptor systems. The system receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two sepa rate treatment chambers before recom-

bining into a single outlet pipe. It effec tively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 224

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 225

November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineermg%59


and Service Showcase

Fj HDPE pipe in-service report The

American

Concrete

Filter media expansion monitor

Pipe

The Aysix EPA

Association (AGFA) has released a report on the condition of HDPE pipe

2000 is the first underwater

in-service in six states in the U.S. The

ultrasonic mon

report, prepared by Wiss, Janney,

itor designed to continuously

Elstner Associates, Inc., Northbrook,

IL., reviews the per-

monitor media

with large diameter

expansion during filter backwash. The local backlit LCD provides a continu ous readout of media expansion in

HDPE culvert and

Inches or Centimeters and as a Percent

cross drains. The 64

of media depth. Media depth and media loss are also conveniently dis played for 1 - 4 filters. The system sup ports filter backwash optimization, automatic backwash control, and helps prevent media loss, www.cancoppas.com. Cancoppas

formance associated

page report includes

tables, graphs and 45 full-colour photographs. For a copy of the report, contact the AGFA Resource Centre, 800-290-2272. Nonmember

cost; $18.00 (U.S.) ps&h. American Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 208

Engineering services

Providing the complete spectrum of services needed to plan, design and construct water and wastewater infra

structure including: Traditional engi neering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/real time con trol, and structured wetlands/recre

ational water quality. American Water Services

Circle reply Card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 210

Waste oxidizer systems

Drive solutions for water and wastewater

Comstoch Eco Waste Solutions Inc. manufactures

Comstock Canada Ltd.

eco-Ifiendly waste oxidizer systems. These state-of-the-art gasification based systems are approved for use in

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc

For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben

tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100

efits. For wastewater treatment the

Canada and the U.S. Destruction of

special waste streams such as munici pal, industrial, oil & gas, pathological, pharmaceutical, medical and infectious waste is accomplished through the Clean-Buming Waste Oxidizer.

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Comstock Canada Ltd.

VLTÂŽ drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance costs.

Eco Waste Solutions

Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 212

Circle reply card No. 213

Solids handling pumps

New pump doubles impeller

Water quality treatment

and wearplate life Canada Ltd., has intro

The Stormceptor* is a patented water quality treatment

duced the Super T Series''''^ of self-prim ing centrifugal pumps.

storm drain sys tems. Stormceptor

Based on the T Series

removes free oil

solids-handling trash pumps, the new Super T Series is said to double impeller and

solids from storm-

Gorman-Rupp

Because Gorman-

Rupp T Series^" pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the

suction

line

down in the liquid.

of

wearplate life to decrease downtime

structure

and

for

suspended

water, preventing spills and nonpoint source pol lution from entering downstream lakes and rivers. Hanson Pipe & Products

Service or maintenance can be per formed quickly and simply with com mon hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or

nance of the clearance between the

Canada, Inc. is the exclusive manufac

cranes required, and never any need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp of Canada

impeller and wearplate results in the dramatic increase in impeller and wearplate life of the Super T Series

turer of the precast concrete Stormceptor System in Ontario. Hanson Pipe & Products Canada

Circle reply card No. 214

and keep the pump operating at maxi mum efficiency. External shimless wearplate adjustment for easy mainte

pump. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 215

60 EnvironmentalScience & Engineering, November 2003

Circle reply Card No. 216


>s?«

7';.

Product and Service SI Effluent pH peace of mind ProMinent offers the entire pH plant effluent discipline - from initial analy sis to the final installation.

The resulting injection and mixing/stor

announced

rosion resistant materi-

the instrument to

, . als for long life; mouldS; ' ed one-piece construc tion for high strength and rigidity; smooth gelcoat finish on

analyze sulfite ac cording to Standard

interior surface to reduce friction and

ance and eco

debris build-up; light weight for ease of installation. Available in the permanent type, insert (or invert) type and exit (or cutback) type. Sizes available from 4" through 48".

nomic evalua of

are designed for use in the metering of liquids / in pipelines and round bottom open channels. They feature; Cor

S:

system

will optimize the perform

tion

sulfite titrations

Hach Company has

;i)

chemical

Automatic titrator performs

Palmer-Bowlus flumes

N

equipment

age

Fiberglass reinforced polyester flumes

the

project. www.prominent.ca ProMinent

improvements

to

the AutoCAT 9000

amperometric titra tor, which enable

Method 4500 SOB 2- B, in the 0-20

mg/L range. Additional improvements include a chlorine dioxide generator efficiency method, and a simplified time-saving screening method for chlo rite. For more information, request lit erature 2533 (spec sheet). Hach Company

Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 237

Circle reply card No. 235

Circle reply card No. 236

Dissolved oxygen monitoring using iuminescence

Fiowmeter for open channels and part-filled pipes

The HACH LOG

Mainstream

probe uses no anodes, cathodes or electrolyte solu tions. The probe

the area-velocity method to give a continuous or time

sampled measure

has no membrane

to clean or replace, no electrolyte solutions to replenish and does not require frequent calibration. It can be used in many places throughout the wastewater treatment plant, such as aeration basins, aerobic and anaerobic digesters and nitrification and de-nitrification tanks. For more information, request literature 2442(spec sheet). Hach Company

uses

ment of fluid flow.

Suitable for any liquid containing bub bles or suspended solids, even in minute quantities, the velocity probe detects reflected ultrasound. Appli cations: effluent monitoring, wastewater treatment, industrial flow meas

urement, irrigation channels, river/ stream flow measurement and water distribution. Summa Products

Circle reply card No. 238

Circle reply card No. 239

Multi-stage fiiter for smali systems

Transformer replacement

TRANS-CYCLE

INDUSTRIES,INC.(TCI) "Total turn key service"

TCI provides full PCB disposal services including: • Disposal of All PCB Wastes includ ing: Transformers, Capacitors, Light Ballasts and Lead Shielded Cable

• On site draining • Oil storage and draining • Site remediation and decontamination

• Fully funded closure bond • PCB analysis(CAEAL proficiency tested) • Full transportation services www.tci-pcb.com Trans-Cycle Industries Circle reply card No. 240

PISTA® Grit Chamber The Smith & Loveless PISTA' Grit Chamber

maintains the highest proven grit removal effi ciencies over a wide

range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula

PCB Disposal is one of the most active PCB companies in askarel transformer replacement. Currently we are replac ing PCB transformers in two different high-rise office towers in downtown Toronto. PCB Disposal provides a turnkey service including supplying replacement transformers, disposal of

PCB units and installation and testing

tions of less than 1,500.

of new transformers.

MS Filter Inc.

PCB Disposal Circle reply card No. 242

Circle reply card No. 241

design. It removes grit and other dis crete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumula tion in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equip ment. Minimum space is required for installation, and it boasts low overall installation, operation and maintenance costs. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are avail able. Smith & Loveless

Circle reply card No. 243

November 2003, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 61


roduct and Service Showcase Membrane Bioreactor(MBR) ZENON's ZeeWeed®

MBR produces terti ary quality effluent and simplifies waste-

Internal drop structure

^

The new internal drop is an

M ™I

proven

system

il

cal

places conventional

from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MOD.

This 72" Type A Megaflex from Red Valve Co. Inc., being installed in a large

and

economical

mid-western

installation and mainte

city, is de signed to par tially close

nance present. For your future work, insist on the

stormwater

challenges the external drop construction,

re

filtration and combines clarification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expand ed in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes

friendly

industry

alternative to the physi-

water treatment. The

internal drop structure to ensure a safe and eco

nomical drop connec tion solution. See your local precast concrete producer today for more details or contact the OCPA for further information.

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 226

Circle reply card No. 227

Raked bar screens

Metering and control systems

CDS Technologies Inc. now offers Raked Bar Screens designed for screening CSO discharges to any receiving waters. The

screen,

which is continu

ally raked by a hydraulically driven cleaning mechanism,

■ai

allows water to

pass through to overflow while retaining the screenings within the flow. Suitable for most CSO

applications, the CDS Raked Bar Screen is an efficient, reliable and cost-

effective solution, cds@cdstech.com. CDS Technologies

Red Valve's 72" Megaflex solves CSO problem

n

rif=l. 'o *

and

contain

flows

within

the collection system piping. This con trol strategy minimizes combined sewer

overflow volume and frequency. The Type A Megaflex offers full-port open ing and no moving parts. The elastomer sleeve is the only wetted part. Available in sizes from 30" to 84". Visit us at www.redvalve.com.

Red Valve Company Inc. Circle reply card No. 228

Phoenix underdrain system The AWl Phoenix Underdrain System is the complete underdrain system to optimize both vertical and horizontal pressure fil ters. With the

lowest profile

Emec Sri is a leader in the field of

metering and control systems of chem

available

icals for water treatment in manufac

the

turing and industrial processes. Emec offers a wide range of metering pumps,

on

market

today, its fil tered

water

control instruments, electrodes, sen sors, mixers, tanks and accessories for

pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm from

the whole metering and control

rosion-resistant stainless steel, it pro vides custom hydraulic distribution

process. Visit our website at www.

performancequip.com or e-mail info@ performancequip.com for more infor mation.

Performance Fluid Equipment Inc.

the filter floor. Manufactured from cor

with a guaranteed uniform air scour

distribution. Flow distribution is engi neered in-house at AWI's hydraulic research facility. AWI

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 230

Circle reply card No. 231

Disposable bailer

Corrosion protection

Hazardous waste treatment

The Waterra Disposable Bailer, con structed from clear PVC, offers many

New hazardous waste treatment

advantages over polyethylene dispos

FLR and ConTech!

and recycling facility from

able bailers. Waterra's Bailers are

extremely rigid and far more durable and signifi cantly more heavy than polyethylene. They are as heavy as many weighted mod els - so they sink faster. Our bailers

are

clear so your sample can be inspected while still in the bailer. Waterra

Treatment of fluorescent lamps, RGBs, mercury and other dangerous goods. Complete lamp recycling pro grams, treatment

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to pro vide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Denso North America Inc.

Circle reply card No. 232

Circle reply card No. 233

62 Environmental Science & Enqineerinq, November 2003

of PCB-contaminated electrical

equipment mercury

and con

taining materials. Transfer/treatment of other general hazardous waste. Contact FLR at 1-800-324-9018 or ConTech at 1-800-324-8997. Con Tech - PCB

Containment Technology

Circle reply card No. 234


Environmental NEWS Fund. As well, the judge ordered the municipality to arrange and pay for all

Progressive wastewater technologies

work needed to ensure that the landfill

provide renewable

meets requirements of the federal

The charges alleged that toxic sub stances samples from the decommis sioned City of Moncton landfill were acutely lethal to fish, and that the toxic

energy source

Fisheries Act. It is estimated that reme

substances entered Jonathan Creek and

USFilter and Paques bv of the Netherlands have signed an exclusive license agreement encompassing three of Paques' biological wastewater treat ment technologies. USFilter will design and supply Paques' Biopaq® IC and UASB anaerobic technologies and

diation costs could be as high as $700,000. The City must monitor the landfill and report regularly to

the Petitcodiac River. In addition, the

Circox® aerobic reactors for all indus

trial applications in the United States and Canada. The agreement also includes the Thiopaq® gas cleaning technology for specific applications. Paques anaerobic technology is used worldwide to treat high strength biodegradable wastewater, producing energy-rich biogas as a byproduct, which can be used for steam or power generation. Aerobic technologies com plement the anaerobic treatment process, enabling treated water to be discharged directly into the environ ment. Not only does this technology drastically reduce residuals, but it is also very compact, providing even urban industrial facilities with a high rate treatment process that can signifi cantly reduce sewer fees.

Environment Canada on test results. If

there are any continuing or new prob lems, the municipality must then immediately address them. Enforcement Officers of Environ

ment Canada's Atlantic Region laid charges last February under Section 36(3) of the federal Fisheries Act.

-/[(jaaMzd'/'

landfill closure plan selected by the municipality did not comply with the Fisheries Act. Charges were laid against the City of Moncton; the Commissioner of Public Works for the

City of Moncton; an engineering con sulting firm and an employee of the consulting firm. Charges against the Commissioner of Public Works have

been dropped.

77 ORCHARD ROAD

B)

AJAX, ONTARIO

CORP.

L1S6K9

TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX;(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting lino Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 193(See page 25)

BAY COR FIBRE TECH Inc. - Max performance/easy optimizoble fine screening - Sludge thickening: typ. WAS 0.5-1 to 6-8%+ & more Brantford, Ontario - Master difficult municlpal/food/industrlal tasks Tel; (519)751-7787 - Flexible control strategies; totally enclosed units Fax:(519)751-7712 - Largest capacity/unit models/most std. features info@baycorfibre.com - Proven & reliable; permanent value in treatment www.baycorfibre.com The BEST FINE SCREEN in the WORLD!

576 Elgin St., Unit D

Moncton pleads guilty in landfill case The municipality of the City of Moncton has pleaded guilty to federal environmental charges related to a decommissioned landfill. This is the

first time that a municipality has been prosecuted by Environment Canada for landfill problems. A provincial court judge ordered the City to pay a fine of $10,000, to contribute $20,000 to the Jonathan Creek Restoration Committee, and to contribute $5,000 to the federal gov ernment's Environmental Damages

For more information, circle reply card No. 194(See page 25)

O^ctopus floating fine bubble systems

VENT-O-MAT "Anti-Surge/Anti-Shock"

Bio^Bloc fine bubbie fixed-film bio-reactors

10-year warranty

for ideal cold

Air Release/Vacuum Break Valves

nitrification+

for Sewage & Water

HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL 762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2 Fax: 905-777-8678

Phone: 905-777-9494

info@hydrologic.ca

www.hydroiogic.ca

FBC

For more information, circle reply card No. 195(See page 25)

,

FILTER MEDIA ANTHRACITE

QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL CARBON - GARNET - ILWIENITE

^

IWS.

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL

BARRIE

SASKATOON

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

nthrafilter

4

WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE 1-800-461-9636

Media & Goal Ltd.

After Hours Emergency Pager:(705)734-3277

20 SHARP ROAD,BRANTFORD, ONTARIO N3T5L8

\

TEL:(519)751-1060 FAX:(519)751-0617

342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

For more information, circle reply card No. 192

Tel:(705)733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 196(See page 25)

November 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 63


Environmental NEWS

New federal regulations for the use and release of TCE and PERC The Government of Canada recently announced new regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection

Act (CEPA) that will bring about a 65%

reduction

in

the

use

of

trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) in substances used in solvent degreasing operations. Solvent degreasing involves the use

already introduced new control tech nologies or switched to alternative sol vents or cleaning processes. In fact, recent data indicates a significant reduction in the use ofTCE and PERC

in solvent degreasing operations from 1995 to 2000. These new regulations will accelerate this trend. Most of the

PERC in Canada is used in dry clean ing operations. Regulations requiring dry-cleaners to reduce PERC use and emissions by 70% by 2005 came into effect in March 2003.

of solvents to clean soils from surfaces

prior to manufacturing processes such as painting, plating, repair or product assembly. Solvent degreasing is used by many industries including automo bile, auto parts, aerospace, furniture, appliance, primary metals and elec

Federal regs to Improve environmental emergency responses Canada's Minister of the Environment, David Anderson, recently announced

tronics.

new regulations requiring commercial

The regulations will require solvent degreasing operations that exceed a

and industrial facilities who own or

certain threshold, to reduce the use of TCE and PERC by 65% by 2007 and

through reduced use, ultimately reduce the release of these substances into the environment. Some facilities have

control listed dangerous substances above the specified threshold quanti ties to prepare and implement environ mental emergency plans detailing pre vention, preparedness, response and recovery measures in case of an envi-

ronmental emergency. Commercial and industrial facilities

that store or use any of the 174 sub stances initially targeted, and that meet the specified rninimum quantities, will be required to provide the quantities and locations of the substances to

Environment Canada. Approximately 1,500 facilities are expected to be required to comply with the regula tions. Facilities that are subject to the regulations may be required to devel op, implement and test an enviromnental emergency plan before December 9, 2004.

Ontario moves to Improve water well construction

and decommissioning standards Ontario's recently amended Wells Regulation was designed to reduce the risk of contamination for the approxi mately three million Ontarians who depend on wells for drinking water. New rules include:

• Mandatory training and continuing education for those who construct

wells;

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

Residuals an American Water Services'company

800-465-21 15 www.trimaxenv.comlwww.amerlcanwaterservlces.com For more information, circle reply card No. 197(See page 25)

PIERALISI Dewatering Centrifuges 30,000+ installed worldwide! cost-effective, energy-efficient, quiet 10 year bowl warranty; from 5 usgpm up! also Screw Conveyors & Polymer Mixing Systems

Vanderbeken Enterprises Ltd. 15525 Cliff Avenue, White Roch B.C. V4B 1V8 toll free: 1-877-DRY-CAKE

fax: 604-535-2283

info@drycake.com

www.drycake.com

For more Information, circle reply card No. 198(See page 25)

Wilfley Weber,Inc. Denver, CO Phone: 303-770-2664 Fax: 303-889-7305

Web: www.wilfleyweber.com E-mail: wilfleyweb@aol.com

Wilfley Weber provides high quality diffused aeration systems for municipal and industrial applications. Fine huhhle, coarse huhhle & static tube systems. Fine bubble diffusers with 10+ years life expectancy in municipal wastewater. Systems designed for high efficiency resulting in lower operational costs. For more Information, circle reply card No. 199(See page 25)

64 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

• Tougher standards for well construc tion and decommissioning; • Mandatory placement of well tags on all new wells; • Clear requirements for constructing and decommissioning test holes and de-watering wells, and; • A requirement that all well drillers provide an information kit on the Wells Regulation to every new well owner.

Industrial baker fined

$5.25 million for ozone depletion The United States second largest baker has agreed to pay a(US)$5.25 million dollar fine for releasing ozone deplet ing substances into the atmosphere and to convert all of its industrial process refrigeration appliances to refrigerant systems that do not deplete the ozone layer. Earthgrains, a division of the Sara Lee Corporation, has consented to the fine and replacement program "to avoid protracted litigation," according to spokesman Matt Hall, hut the com pany denies all allegations against it lodged by the Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA). The United

States' complaint


facilities from West Virginia to California leaked refrigerants in excess of the 35 percent annualized leak rate permitted by regulation, and that Earthgrains failed to make prompt, proper repairs.

Maytag to distribute

BARRIE

for

distribution

of

COLLINGWOOD

CONSULTING

i

OTTAWA

PLANNERS

Creating Qnality Solutions Together

(613)822-1052

engineering^ operations management

infrastructure

E-mail: toronto@rvanderson.com

Toronto: 416.497.8600

www.rvanderson.com

Fax: 416.497.0342

its

ENGINEERS

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited environment

ultrafiltration units ZENON Environmental Inc. recently announced an agreement with Maytag Canada

BELLEVILLE

(705)726-3371 (613)966-4243 (705)445-3451

/

Zenon Environmental

Alnlev

Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering

alleges that Earthgrains' large industri al process appliances at 57 of its 67

Homespring'*''^ ultrafiltration unit in Canadian consumer residential retail channels.

\.

Welland

Ottawa

Sudbury

Moncton

Fredericton

Charlottetown

Homespring was launched under the Maytag brand name in Maytag Stores across Canada in early September and all Maytag Appliance Centres in October. Maytag will also provide installation and maintenance of the units through its service and support organization.

London

Bombay, Indi^

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS - SITE PLANNERS - LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

Specialists in a compretnensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Coiiingwood

Bracebridge

Orlilla Tel.(705) 325-1753

Tel.(705)444-2565

National Biosolids

EMail; lnfo(3cctatham.com

Tel.(705) 645-7756 Web: www.cctatham.com

Partnership certifies its first biosolids program The National Biosolids Partnership (NBP) is an alliance of the Water Environment Federation (WEE), Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (AMSA), and US Environ mental Protection Agency (EPA). It recently recognized the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD), Fountain Valley, California, as the first wastewater demonstration agency to successfully achieve independent, third-party verification of the Partnership's environmental manage ment system (EMS)for biosolids pro gram.

As the first wastewater agency admitted into the NBP EMS program, OCSD's achievement recognizes that

the agency has been independently verified as having an effective biosolids environmental management system. OCSD is one of 51 demonstration

agencies participating in the NBP EMS for biosolids program. An addi tional 6 to 10 agencies are expected to

undergo audits of their biosolids EMS in 2003 and be admitted to the EMS

Program. For more information about the NBP EMS program, visit: www.

30 YEARS DREDGING

Consolidated

HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDPE PIPE

(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,

Giroux

Municipal & Industrial Tel:(506) 684-5821, Fax:(506) 684-1915, Tel:(705) 235-5531, www.girouxinc.com

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Environmental NEWS

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Mining company fined for Nunavut fuel spill

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determine which of the 31 research

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A report from the summit is avail able on the WERE website (www. werf.org).

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Environmental NEWS

Confidence and optimism at September ENTSORGA trade fair in Cologne Optimism and confidence were the

water for such areas as the food indus

characteristic features of the 10th

try are needed.

ENTSORGA, which ran for five days

The supporting program featured panel discussions, general meetings and exhibitor press conferences. The final day of the fair was open to the public and contributed to underscoring the issue of environmental protection. Approximately 50,000 visitors from 75 countries, including 8,000 from

at the Koelnmesse exhibition centre in

September. The overwhelming majori ty of the more than 1,000 exhibitors from 25 countries expressed satisfac

i

tion with the discussions held and inter

national contacts made during the fair. A large number of delegations from the private sector and from public organizations around the world gained information on specific solutions for planned investment projects in a wide variety of fields, particularly those concerning wastewater treatment, water treatment and high-quality recy cling and materials reprocessing tech nologies. The driving force behind innovative environmental-protection measures remains waste-disposal service pro viders who will face major challenges as they work to implement new nation al and European guidelines, laws and regulations. The focal points include: the recycling of electric and electronic scrap, scrap cars and sewage sludge.

abroad, attended the show. ES&E's Penny Davey attended the Cologne show.

and the production of compost and substitute fuels.

DATEPAD April 18 - 20, 2004, Annual conference

The 33nd

of the Water

Exhibitors in the water and waste-

Environment Association, London,

water sectors also benefited from the

Ontario. A two day technical program will focus on such topics as: utility management, including sewer use bylaws and enforcement, alternative delivery, finance and partnering; watershed management; information management; collection systems and stormwater management; prelimi nary and primary treatment; biologi

new trade-fair concept. New exhibitors spoke of expectations being greatly exceeded. Some of the work focused

on the future reconditioning of the sewer network in Germany and the upgrading of the sewage treatment sys tem to meet EU standards. But demand

was also particularly strong from east ern European countries where substan tial improvements both in sewage sys tems and in preparation of process

Windsor student represents Canada at SJWP

cal treattnent; advanced treatment; biosolids management; odour con trol; new technologies and research; operations; small community issues; septage disposal. The symposium

At the Canada Wide

also includes a 115-booth tradeshow.

Science

For further information please con tact: WEAO, Tel: (416) 410-6933, Fax: (416) 410-1626, e-mail: weao @weao.org.

Fair

in

Calgary this May, the entry of Ildiko Beres, a Windsor high school student, was selected

from

four

water-related projects by the Canadian Stockholm

Junior

Water Prize Commit tee.

Ildiko is a senior

from W.C. Kennedy Collegiate Institute. For her project, Ildiko authored the research

paper, "Go Green: HRH Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden presents award to ildiko Beres.

Construction

of

a

Bioreporting System for the Detection of

Heavy Metal Ion Contamination". In August, Ildiko, a Windsor high school student, traveled to Sweden to compete against almost 60 entries from 26 countries for the prestigious International Stockholm Junior Water Prize (SJWP). Claire Reid from South Africa won first place this year. Ms. Reid investi gated an effective technique for successfully planting seeds in water-scarce areas to improve rural life. The international award includes a crystal water drop sculpture and $5,000 US, presented by HRH Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, patron of the SJWP. 70 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2003

May 12 & 13, 2004, The 6th Annual Canadian Environmental Conference

& Tradeshow - CANECT 2004 (In corporating the Ontario Environ mental Tradeshow and the Environ

mental Management, Compliance & Engineering Conference), Toronto Congress Centre. This event is coorganized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine {ES&E) and Canadian Environmental Regu lation & Compliance News. As the leading event of its kind in Canada for the past eleven years, the 2003 tradeshow and conference attracted

some 2,000 conference delegates and tradeshow visitors. This event attracts

senior people responsible for envi ronmental engineering, regulations and complianee issues. For further information please contact ES&E, Tel: (905) 727-4666, Fax:(905) 8417271, e-mail: steve@esemag.com, www.esemag.com.


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 2003  

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