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ENVIRONMENTAL (SU(SnQ(D(B March/April 1988

A Davcom Business Publication

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Quebec City to build world's largest UV wastewater facility Atikokan chooses ozone for drinking water treatment

Waste reduction strategies for the circuit board industry Removal of trace organics Fine bubble aeration evolves

Beach pollution remediation

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Circle reply card No. 127

SLUDGE SAMPLER

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The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

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Oakvllle, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telefax (416)849-6776

Circle reply card No. 126

Circle reply card No. 125


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ENVIRONMENTAL

gncv

Valuable

CONTENTS

Information Available Free On

The Environmental Evangelists Editorial Comment by Tom Davey

Request

Industry Update

Readers can obtain valuable

Information on products and services

advertised

or

published In this Issue. This

free service Is conveniently available through the READER

SERVICE CARD bound Into each Issue.

To obtain Information, simply circle the relevant numbers ontheREADERSERVICECARD

of all the Items which may help you. Circle as many Items as you wish, there are no limitations. READER SERVICE NUMBERS are listed at the bottom of all advertisements as well as Items listed In our

new

products

or

March/April 1988, Vol. 1 No. 2 Issued April, 1988

other

sections.

Try to keep your requests on one card - your colleagues may wish to use the second card - then mall the card which Is self addressed.

If the cards have already been used - simply drop us a line with the READER SERVICE NUMBERS for fast action.

Reader Feedback - The place where readers have their say New fine-bubble diffusers maintain efficiency and reduce

maintenance costs. Article by James Brooker and Bruce Zimmerman

Evaluating beach pollution.

Guide $15.00 single Issue.

Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

6 12 14

Gore & Storrie Staff article

16

Pollution prevention is emphasized in Quebec City. An AQTE Photo Report from Quebec City by Steve Davey

18

Quebec City to have world's largest UV facility.

19

Atikokan is first to use ozone.

Article by K. Sakamoto, P.Eng.

22

Waste reduction strategies for the printed circuit board

24

A living legend speaks out.

29

industry. Article by Dr. Bernard Fleet and Jay Kassirer

Discourses by Dr. Abel Wolman

drinking water. Article by John Hilton, P.Eng.

Pilot-scale studies for the removal of trace organics from

30

What's New? A range of new products and services for the convenience of specifiers

32

Consultants' Directory

34

Cost and pricing - a major CWWA concern.

38

Ltd. No part ot ttiis puDiicaiion may oe

reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $25.00 for one year, $35.00 for two years, $5.00 per single Issue; U.S.A. $32.00, $47.00 for two years; other foreign $53.00. Directory & Buyers'

4

Comment by W.H. Gates, P.Eng., CWWA President

Cover photo - Several new methodologies for water and wastewater treatment are highlighted

in this issue, graphically depicted in this artistic photograph, courtesy Gore & Storrie Limited.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Editorial Comment

The environmental evangelists

When we first moved to

our country retreat, the community wasn't big enough to have a vil

lage idiot Rapid urban develop ment has clearly rectified the omis sion.

The hills are alive with

ecological zealots pontificating on drinking water safety, highway proposals, PCBs, landfills and many other issues. While protesters are particularly active in our region, I have come across the itreed on three continents.

Not since Johann Gutenberg invented movable type in 1450 has so much gibberish about environ mental matters been puitlished by some protest groups. All too fre

quently, their dire warnings are combined with a nauseating air of moral superiority. Indeed, some

protesters are the environmental equivalents of certain television evangelists. Both species warn of impending catastrophes - then solicit donations to continue the

river flows in Russia and Brazil are

By Tom Davey

ance of lakes is the envy of the world.

epitomized the misconceptions which plague the environmental • The author employs a spurious Catch 22 argument when he links engineering fraternity. He wrote: the soaring sales of bottled water For many years, environmental ists have been sounding alarms about the gradual destruction of the environment but govern ments refused to act, largely be cause voters were not sufficiently concerned.

Now people realize that no one can escape the harmful effects of industrial wastes and pollution. Toxic wastes are in the food chain and in our drinking water. It is a sad commentary on the

have been stampeded into buying bottled water because of inflama-

tory statements by single issue pres sure groups - not because of the condition of the waters. If a false fire alarm sounds in a theatre, the

rapid exodus is due to the alarmist; it

is

not

a

reflection

on

the

performers. The waterworks industry is only too well aware that our raw water

sources contain a variety of toxins and it is making progress on a range of treatment processes. But the peo

In less than ninety words, this author manages to make major errors of fact, as well as misinterpre

could read analytical data on the

tations, which cannot ite allowed to

pass unchallenged. • Canada is not the country with the

complex environmental situations

most fresh water; the USSR and

with sensational statements which

Brazil have flows which greatly exceed this country's estimated 100,000 cubic metres per second. Russia's Lake Baikal, for example,

problems. Invariaitly, they find a willing ally in the news media. A newspaper columnist recently

with the actual state of Canadian

fresh water sources. Many people

state of the environment that in the country with the most fresh water, the .sale of bottled water is becoming a thriving industry.

good work. Politicians compound the proitlem. Too often they respond to

owe more to electoral opportunism than to honest attempts to solve

greater than ours, Canada's abund

contains as much fresh water as all of the Great Lakes combined. While

ple who seek refuge in bottled waters might be startled if they various

irrands.

Arsenic, lead,

copper, sulphates and magnesium are only a few of the compounds which have been found in many bottled waters, sometimes at levels

exceeding those of the untreated waters in Lake Ontario. But even

here, trace substances in bottled waters are usually well below the limits in our drinking water stand ards. 1 for one enjoy many brands which I drink with confidence.

• The third misconception is the inference that it was the modern 'environmentalists' who first issued

warnings to indifferent governments who refused to act.

The facts are

otherwise. It is generally recognized that the citizens' environment movement began in 1969 with the itirth of Pollution

Probe at the University of Toronto. Probe spawned dozens of likeminded groups across Canada and unquestionably focussed attention on serious areas of environmental

neglect, performing a valuable pub lic service.

To paraphrase Voltaire, if they did not exist, it would be necessary The late Pat Bourgeois, left, with Stan Mason of BC in Vancouver. Dedicated

to invent them. The noun'enufron-

engineers have been advancing the state of the art for generations through their professional associations. Countless hours of leisure time have been freely given by these and other professionals in pursuit of a better environment.

mentalists'crept into the media lex icon at this time and reporters eagerly sought them out as 'autho-

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


ritative' sources, regardless of com petence or relevance.

It was a

perfect match;a press with an insat iable appetite for sensationalism mating with an eloquent protest movement brimming with moral indignation. Many of their warn ings were justifiable, often being based on engineering and scientific studies from professionals in the health and engineering fields. But some of the apocalyptic warnings - many on drinking water - were based on anecdotal evidence rather than the scientific methodol

ogy accepted throughout the world. Professional advice - based on long training, education and experience in engineering and science - was lar gely ignored in favour of those groups who orchestrated politi cians and the media with great dex terity. But even as the protest move ments were taking their first stri dent steps, the Ontario Government was already in the midst of a water and wastewater treatment construc

tion surge which was unparalleled anywhere in the world. Prodded by such engineering giants as Dr. Albert Edward Berry, billions of

dollars were spent on environmen tal projects in Ontario over the past three decades. It is important to realize that most of these projects were planned long before the birth of the protest movement. The

cholera and other water borne dis

eases were commonplace. As such afflictions were often confined to

the poorer districts, authorities were sometimes callously indiffer ent to sanitary engineering propos

Ontario Water Resources Commis

als. Some Canadian cities had the

sion, for example, commissioned massive water and wastewater pro grams as soon as it was created in 1954, under Dr. Berry's leadership. Similar projects got underway in the West, thanks to some dedicated engineers who founded the Western Canada Water &: Sewage Confer ence, well before the era of protest. In Quebec, engineers, such as Pat Bourgeois,founded the Association Quebecoise des Techniques de I'Eau over 25 years ago, when pub lic and political interest in the ecol ogy was scant. AQTE members, using their technical expertise like blunt instruments, waged war on government apathy. The current

dubious distinction of having higher infant mortality rates than major European cities. Tangible remedial action came about only through the strenuous efforts of engineers, such as Tho

environmental construction boom

in Quebec is rooted in AQTE's tire less efforts - not the activist groups. But major environmental acti vism from engineering profession als had begun several generations earlier, when deaths from typhoid.

mas and Samuel Reefer, Willis

Chipman, Doctor Albert Edward Berry, and Winnipeg's Bill Hurst, often in opposition to the vested interests of the day. Some pioneer ing consulting engineers too, played a significant role in develop ing treatment systems which had a major effect on public health. Some of today's self-annointed environmentalists might do well to study this record. They might dis cover the ecological wheel they think they invented was, in fact, gaining momentum around the turn of the century. It was a wheel built by engineers and scientists, not articulate but technically illiter ate protesters. ES&E

Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever addi tional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. , Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact I Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water

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Division, Oakville, Ontario, 416/82^9821; Calgary, Alberta, 403/255-9797

WE MAKE WATER WORK

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

Circle reply card No. 102


Industry Update Steve Bonk to make history in Florida member organization. During a recent visit to Ottawa,I heard a live radio interview with

Steve, who represented the water works industry with great know ledge and integrity. Steve

1

Bonk's induction

as

AWWA President, plus the broad technical programme and major Exposition, represent excellent opportunities for a memorable con ference.

A record attendance is

expected. The Canadian Hotel this year will be the Sheraton World;this con cept was very popular in Kansas City last year, and this year's hotel is bigger and better. The equipment Exposition will again feature a significant Canadian presence, which made a big mark last year. Steve Bonk will officially

Steven Bonk, left, is seen against a background which epitomizes his inter national responsibilities - Niagara Fails. With him is Mike Provart, centre, a become AWWA President at the Past Ontario Section AWWA Chairman. Mike was recently elected the Annual Banquet on Wednesday, section's international Director. Lou Vogele,a Past Section Chairman, is on the June 22 at the Plaza International right. Photo by Tom Davey Ballroom in the Peabody Hotel. History will be made in June when a no surprise to find him Chairman of Entertainment will include the Canadian will become AWWA the General Policy Council,receiving Canadian Brass, and will be follow the Fuller Award, then running for, ed by a special event,the President's President at the National Confer ence in Orlando, Florida, June 19- and being elected, Vice-President of Reception. All Canadians attending the the AWWA. 23. The President will he Ottawa's

Steve Bonk, his induction culmin

ating many years of dedicated AWWA service. My first recollection of Steve goes back several years to an Ontario Section Education Com

mittee Seminar. In subsequent years, as I got to know Steve, it was

Environment Quebec proposes new

conservation strategy Quebec's Environment Ministry recently introduced a policy propos al to incorporate a conservation

strategy into all aspects of its environmental protection activities. Operating under the theme"Conser vation: Agent of Progress",this new thrust also takes into account the

concept of sustainable development included in the Brundtland Com

mission report. The proposal calls for a clearlydefined agenda, with a schedule of objectives in various environmental sectors, by which progress will be measured. The Ministry wants to inaugurate a system of "manage ment by result." This would mean a management method based on the achievement of regularly-defined operational objectives for environ mental conservation and protection.

The committment involved for

Conference are invited to attend this

Steve and his wife, Norma, is impressive - as is the stamina requir ed. In the four years Steve will have served on the Executive, the Bonks

Reception in the Orlando Room of the Peabody Hotel to wish Steve

To hack up its commitment in this area and ensure compliance with environmental laws, the Ministry also intends to reinforce its environmental inspection activities and make its certificates of approval the subject of rigorous monitoring and follow-up.

dian Association on Water Pollu tion Research and Control.

well.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. will have visited the Conferences of Mr. Holme is a Trustee of the all 42 Sections, as well as tended to A WWA, Ont. Section and is also on the affairs of the 40,000 plus ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.

Workshop to be held on statistical

methods

Point source discharges are mon itored to determine if they meet regulatory compliance limits, esti mate pollutant loadings to lakes or rivers, and characterize treat ment plant performance. To facilitate

communications

betwe

en managers, engineers, and statisticians, a workshop on the

During the three-day work shop, technical papers will be presented on sampling design, setting and detecting compliance limits, data display and presenta tion, mass contaminant loading estimation, trend detection and estimation, and intervention analysis. Speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency, Environment Canada, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Water Research Centre (U.K.), the Thames Water Authority (U.K.) and a number of universities confirmed.

have

been

The workshop will he held at the

Canada

Centre

for

Inland

statistical aspects of evaluating point source discharges is being jointly sponsored by Environment Canada, the Ontario Ministry of

Waters, in Burlington, Sept. 1214, 1988. For further information contact Jean Stafford (416) 336-4590, Wastewater Technology Centre, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington,

the Environment and the Cana

Ont.

L7R

4A6.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Vancouver to host 1988

Science

board

quality problems and develop recommendations.

appointment

pulp and paper

Dr. Chant will be working on the board with representatives of other Canadian and U.S. govern ment agencies, industry and the public to help resolve the serious water pollution problems of the

environment conference The Canadian Pulp & Paper Associ ation's 1988 Environment Confer

ence will be held October 25-26,1988 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Vancouver, B.C.

Great

Papers will be presented on a variety of topics, including: •hazardous waste handling disposal •treatment of mechanical pulp

ments - air/water

•contingency

planning/risk

assessment

• effects of oxygen bleaching •effects of chlorinated organics In conjunction with this Confer ence, a seminar on the treatment of chemithermomechanical pulping effluents will be held October 27, 1988 at the same hotel.

This

Basin.

The

20-

sentation from Canada and the U.S. Members serve without

remuneration in a personal and professional capacity and not as representatives of their employers or any organizations. Dr. Chant is an internationally recognized biologist and environmental

effluents

•TRS - treatment and analysis •control of particulate emissions •anaerobic treatment systems •monitoring of receiving environ

Lakes

member hoard has equal repre

OWMC chairman and president, Donald Chant, has accepted a three-year term as a member of

scientist and has served on num

the International Joint Commis

man

sion's

mental Advisory Council in Ottawa and currently is chair man of the $1 million per year Wildlife Toxicology Grants Pro gram funded by Environment

Science

Advisory

Board.

The board was created as a result of the 1978 Canada-United States Great Lakes Water

Quality Agreement to assist the commission in reviewing scientif ic knowledge, evaluate water

erous advisory panels in Canada and the U.S. He is a past chair of the

Canadian

Canada and the World Fund of Canada.

Environ

Wildlife

seminar is sponsored by Environ ment Canada and the Provincial Environment Ministries of Alberta and British Columbia. Further information on both the Conference and the Seminar can be

obtained from Nick Boulthee, Techncial Section, CPPA, Tel: (514) 866-6621.

Canada and Nova Scotia

sign acid rain agreement An agreement limiting acid raincausing emissions in Nova Scotia to 204,000 tonnes per year by 1994 was recently signed by federal Environ

Proctor & Redfern organizes plant tours An operators' tour of four large sewage treatment plants on the shore of Lake Ontario was organized by The Proctor & Redfern Group after several people expressed

report prepared by Brian Evans on the cost effectiveness of various

sludge treatment systems for the Canada Centre for Inland Waters.

Plant supervisors involved in the day-to-day operations of the plants, interest. superintendents and senior admin Some 50 supervisors and istrators, Ontario Ministry of the management from the Duffin Creek Environment officials and CCIW WPCP, Highland Creek STP, staff involved in the report came to Hamilton Woodward Avenue STP gether with designers to exchange and the Lakeview WPCP toured each information and ideas to improve

other's facilities on March 3, 1988.

plant performance and communica The interest was generated by a tions between plant operators.

ment Minister Tom McMillan and

his Nova Scotia counterpart Roland Thornhill.

The agreement is an integral part of Canada's overall program to reduce allowable sulphur dioxide

emissions in eastern Canada to 2.3 million tonnes per year by 1994 - a dramatic decrease from the 1980 allowable level of 4.6 million tonnes. In addition to the 1994 emission

ceiling, the agreement also provides for co-operative programs in research and monitoring, technol ogy transfer and information sharing on acid rain. Although much of the acid rain falling in Atlantic Canada origin ates in the United States and central

Canada, local sources such as coal and oil-fired power plants, pulp and paper mills, oil refineries and smelters are responsible for about 10 per cent of the region's acid rain.

Nancy Scott and Jack Boyer of Ottawa discussing plant operations with Gerry Healy of Lakeview on right.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Industry Update:

Specify

Greenhouse Effect could flood Saint John

Left, Tom McMillan, Federal Environment Minister, has spent a busy year

speaking at environmental conferences across Canada and the United States. Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering's Sales Director, is on the extreme right. Photo Tom Davey Federal Environment Minister Tom

McMillan has released a study of

what may happen if sea levels rise dramatically because of the socalled greenhouse effect. The study, one of a series to be discussed in

June at a major Environment Canada-sponsored conference on global change, predicts the conse

quences for Saint John, N.B., of a one-metre sea level increase.

The study found that in Saint

because it works. When these four problems appear

in your water system in any combination, you can have major headaches. Problems have

solutions. Aqua-Mag can assume primary water treatment responsi bility as well as being compatible with existing chemical additives. See Aqua-Mag work with our pre-application Demonstrator Kit available from your local distributor. It's worth a look if your Municipality is one of the M.O.E.'s reported 29.5%

John two residential areas are at

risk; road and rail systems would be heavily inundated by water causing extensive disruption and isolating the city from communities to the east; industrial facilities near the harbour, including the local sugar refinery and the shipyard, could he significantly affected; sewage and industrial waste treatment lagoons would be inundated during storm surges, releasing large volumes of contaminants in the short term and

requiring a long time to return to

water quality.

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Elevated bacterial counts in recrea tional water have resulted in the

closure of a number of bathing beaches across Ontario during recent summers.

This summer, the provincial Ministry of the Environment, and the Upper Thames River Conserva tion Authority, will demonstrate a

new approach to ensuring accept able water quality at bathing beaches.

The treatment system, designed

by Canviro Consultants is believed

Circle reply card No. 103

Saint John is vulnerable to inunda

tion in a storm surge. The main structure and switchyards would need to be flood proofed; municipal

planning in the Marsh Creek and West Saint John areas would have

to be reviewed to minimize potential flooding. The Courtenay Bay Causeway would have to be rebuilt and the sluicing structures modified to protect the Marsh Creek area behind the structure; wharves around the inundated.

harbour

would

be

In releasing the study, Mr. McMillan said: "Because global warming caused by pollution can have profound effects, it is vital that Canadians know everything there is to be understood on the subject, both to reduce the likelihood of

disaster and to prepare us all for it should it happen.

UV treatment could keep Ontario's beaches open

who are disatisfied with their

Specify Aqua-Mag, it works!

normal after the waters recede; the New Brunswick power plant in E ast

to be the first of its kind in North

America. It will pump lake water through an ultraviolet light reactor for disinfection. After disinfection, water will be recycled to the beach, which will be isolated from the rest

of the lake by a plastic liner. Demon strated success of the new technol

ogy could lead to applications at other beaches throughout Ontario. Use of ultraviolet light for disin fections will eliminate the unpleas ant side effects of chlorine when

used for the same purpose.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Candidate sites sought for organics removal in aquifers

removal of selected organic contam inants from liquid industrial waste

Candidate sites are being soughtfor in-situ ground water decontamina tion using a new high silica zeolitesilicalite molecular sieve process, developed by Union Carbide under

Dusanka Filipovich, P.Eng. says that the silicalite Molecular Sieves media are crystalline, inor ganic, microbiologically stable, elec trically neutral and acid resistant. This adsorbent is particularly effec tive in sorbing volatile, low molecu lar weight, polar and non-polar organics as well as organics that are completely miscible in water. Silicalite sieves are stable in air up to

the name PeroxsivTM.

While PeroxsivTM water purifica tion system can be designed to treat a wide range of specific toxins, up to six Angstroms in size, it has been found to be especially suitable for re clamation of groundwater contam inated with volatile priority pollu tants such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenolics, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, trichloroethane and other halogenated hydro carbons. Consequently, Union Carbide

Canada

would

welcome

proposals for PeroxsivTM demon stration unit candidate sites, with principal focus on aquifer restora tion involving treatment of groundwaters underlying both existing and

decommissioned

industrial

sites, leaking underground storage tanks or similar units. In addition, the qualification assessment pro gram for the plant site selection study of PeroxsivTM System for the

discharge to a local receiving water body.

effluent streams, has commenced. New participants are welcome.

Elliplical lO-ring of straight channel Near-circu a

lO-ring of zig-zag channe

Fig. 1 Idealised channel system in silicalite. To avoid possible confusion caused by the perspective, the dimensions of'the

channels along b are shown at upper centre.

1300°C.

Peroxsiv tm System enhances

silicalite's unique adsorption prop erties with a simple in-situ regenera tion procedure, resulting in a cataly tic conversion of previously concen trated toxic organics into harmless products. A peroxygen solution is used in the process to destructively oxidize the organics in the presence of the high silica zeolite. Another advantage, Mrs. Filipovich notes, is that the PeroxsivTM technology

P & R acquires Sudbury operation of Albery,

eliminates the need for either land

fill disposal of residual toxins or the incineration process. Both disposal methods may pose offsite environ mental problems whereas PeroxsivTM

Limited has acquired the Sudbury operation of APD from Sandwell Swan Wooster effective March 1, 1988. The acquisition of the resour ces of APD's Sudbury operation

allows for a safe desorbate effluent

enhances

Pullerits, Dickson &

Associates (APD) Doug Scott, P.Eng, Vice President of Proctor & Redfern's Northern

Ontario regional offices is pleased to announce that Proctor & Redfern

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Circle reply card No. 104 Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

Circle reply card No. 105


Industry Update= growing industrial engineering strength located in Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Marie and Don Mills.

Alberta sewerage system

improves river basin A new sewage transmission system in the County of Parkland, west of Edmonton, will improve the environment of the Sturgeon River basin as well as providing for the

long term growth requirements of the region. The new transmission system collects sewage from existing outfalls in Stony Plain and Spruce Grove and conveys it through the County of Parkland and the City of Edmonton to the new Capital Region Sewage Treatment Plant. Before the new transmission

system was installed, sewage was treated in lagoons and discharged into Big Lake. Construction of the new system included 22 km of gravity sewers ranging in diameter from 600 mm to

1350 mm, a 27-metre diameter 104 ML/d capacity sewage lift station on the shore of Big Lake and a 16 km long, 900 mm diameter sewage forcemain.

The $24,000,000 project was funded and managed by Alberta Transportation and Utilities. Associated Engineering provided Alberta Transportation and Utilities with engineering services from development of the project concept through construction to system commissioning.

"The pipelines involved construc tion through very difficult ground conditions and required special foundation design and installation techniques," says Associated Engineering project manager Bill Harvey. "The lift station was con structed on the shore of Big Lake 15 metres below the ground surface in shale and under artesian conditions. The substructure was constructed

by using a sinking caisson technique

G&S patents bloenergy process A Canadian patent has been allowed for a process which treats industrial wastewaters while generating signi ficant amounts of fuel gas. The first installation of the HYAN process won the 1986 Schreyer Award - the

top honour of the Canadian Con sulting Engineering Awards Pro gram - for Gore & Storrie Limited, Toronto. United States patents for HYAN were granted in 1987 and a major U.S. corporation is now licen ced to offer the technology through out the U.S. HYAN is one of a number of aero

bic and anaerobic processes Gore & Storrie has developed as consulting engineers since 1919. The firm's philosophy has always been to select, or develop, the most appro priate technology for each pollution problem. HYAN has proven to he a major breakthrough in both wastewater treatment and energy recovery. It has successfully operated at fullscale at the Lakeview Water Pollu

tion Control Plant in Mississauga,

Ontario, since April 1985. At Lakeview, HYAN has removed 80 to 85% of the pollution from a major waste stream with significant savings in treatment costs while producing valuable fuel gas. The costs savings and fuel gas value will pay back the original investment in less than 3% years, demonstrating that expen sive wastewater treatment problems

Overflow Piping

Suspended—> Growth Zone

Recirc ulation

Piping Feed and Recirculation

Recirculation

Piping

Piping

The station incorporates a 1000kilowatt engine alternator for full standby power and peak shaving for the main pumping equipment,as well

as

a

smaller

100-kilowatt

engine alternator for standby power for all the other essential equip ment. Primary control is provided through a programmable logic con troller backed up by a hardwired backup relay control panel. The station was commissioned in

April, 1987 and is now being operat ed by the Capital Region Sewage Commission.

Mobile

treatment

industrial

of

wastes

Linde, a division of Union Carbide has successfully demon strated its oxygen combustion system in a modified mobile, rotary kiln incinerator. The Linde Oxygen Combustion System enables the unit to incin

The Hybrid Anaerobic Process

Design of the hybrid anaerobic process followed six years of labora tory and pilot scale studies. The studies were funded, some jointly, others directly, by Environment Canada,the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Region of Peel and Gore & Storrie Limited.

The

cooperative spirit which prevailed among the engineering staff of the public and private sectors was a major factor in the development of this all-Canadian HYAN technology. Steve Black, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.,is

Manager of Gore & Storrie's Wastewater Technology Division - respon sible for the selection and develop ment of treatment processes. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc., is Manager of Gore & Industrial

original maximum capacity. The pure oxygen combustion system improved the thermal efficiency of the incinerator by over 60%. It also reduced flue gas volume dramatically and the dust carry over was mitigated. Destruction and removal efficiencies of hazardous waste exceeded EPA

Wastewater

Division. He was responsible for the can sometimes be transformed into development of the HYAN process cost-saving energy-producing and its application at the Lakeview Water Pollution Control Plant. opportunities.

10

subsoils."

erate dioxin and PCB contamin ated soil at a rate of 200% of the

Gas -=>1

Storrie's

— casting concrete above ground and progressively sinking the struc ture through the extremely wet

requirements.

Unique design of the patented burner allows up to 100% oxygen in place of air for incineration with improvements over conven tional oxy-fuel burners. As a result, temperature distributions in the rotary kiln are uniform with

low

NOx

emissions.

The oxygen combustion system, controlled by a program mable controller, provided much better response and flexibility than

conventional air-based

systems. The system generated an extremely stable flame and responded very well to the transient condition of the rotary kiln. Kiln puff occurrence was virtually eliminated in the opera tion

of

the

mobile

incinerator.

A computer model of the incinerator was developed and used for the process design of the Linde system, with excellent predictability of the actual test results.

Contact Union Carbide

Canada Limited, Linde Division, 123 Eglinton Avenue, East, Toronto, Ontario, M4P 1J3. Attn. - Mike Douglas.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


ALTECH Environmental Consulting Ltd. Helping You Achieve Excelience in Environmental Control The pursuit of environmental excellence in industry today is now more challenging than ever. As environmental problems become increasingly complex, the need for

experienced planning and decision making is particularly acute. ALTECH offers a complete range of services in Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety management from Environmental Audits to the design and detailed engineering of solutions. We specialize in providing industrial managers with the confidence that his operation is performing to the government and community standards. inplant air sampling services or our WHMIS imple mentation packages may be important. In all cases, we support our full service with training seminars designed to maximize the effectiveness of our solutions.

"Productivity ....Creativity ....Exceiiencel"

dm Alex R. Keen, President

Who We Are ALTECH is a group of environmental and occupa tional health professionals. We specialize in serving industry in Canada and we understand the variety of different challenges you are faced with. ALTECH provides accessible, senior environmental and health and safety management services as well as creative, high quality technical engineering and scientific ser vices to support your industrial programs. Your com mitment to a responsible environmental and health and safety approach is what we specialize in.

What We Do ALTECH provides management programs, engine ering designs and conducts scientific and trouble shooting investigations tailored to specifically address your issues and problems. Our approach to any project is based on requirements for legal compli ance, cost effectiveness and good corporate practice. We listen very carfully to our client's needs and are proud of our ability to consistently provide solutions that work!

We are experts in waste management including the development and application of new and innovative technologies. Because of our knowledge base in indus try, our Industrial Waste Audit, developed by ALTECH, provides a unique process with which to investigate and significantly reduce waste disposal costs. Our expertise in water pollution, both in treat ment technology and scientific impact, will help you address developing issues in water management. The development of water pollution studies and abatement strategies to help meet Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA)requirements is our specialty. We have in-house air dispersion modelling and stack testing capabilities and can help you meet the require ments of the new Clean Air Program (CAP). Where occupational health and safety is a concern, our Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

What Makes Us Unique Our unique combination of experience provides us with intimate knowledge of how industry operates and how environmental and occupational health and

safety issues impact on daily operations. Our creative approach results in innovative solutions that are prac tical and cost effective. We are experts in identifying

opportunities where you can save, or even profit,from good environmental control. In addition to our com mitment to technical excellence, ALTECH maintains

a Regulatory Affairs Specialist to ensure that environ mental and health and safety compliance is addressed in a professional manner. Through all occasions we work to exemplify our Commitment Statement; "Productivity Creativity Excellence!" Our recommendations always take into considera

tion your daily operation. We have extensive indus trial experience - we know what matters to you.

The Cornerstone The cornerstone of our business is the Environmental

Audit. It is our industrial experience and investiga

tive techniques that make ALTECH the best choice to conduct this important function. ALTECH has devel oped a 42 page Protocol that acts as a blueprint for the large number of Audits we have conducted to date. This comprehensive assessment of environmental management systems measures compliance and risks of non-compliance and results in recommendations that can define the elements of a good environmental

program tailored to the operation.

How We Do It At your request we will provide a walk through assess ment of your operation, at no charge and with no obligation. The results of our survey are reported directly to you before we leave. It will he an objective assessment designed to give you confidence in where you stand with your operation. Call us now for a free assessment or for more infor mation on ALTECH.

Circle reply card No. 106

ALTECH ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD. 225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

(416) 226-0148 11


Reader Feedback Dear Tom:

I very much appreciated receiving your new publication Environ mental Science & Engineering, an informative magazine long over

will find most challenging. W. Weinstein, P.Eng. Executive Director

Consulting Engineers of Ontario

due.

Your editorial, castigating price competition as a means of selecting professional services, is very percep tive, particularly in an era of great concern about the preservation, pro tection and enhancement of the environment.

I commend you on your forth right approach and trust that your readers requiring Consulting Engineering services will make their selection on the basis ofcompe tence - not price. It will produce desired technical results in a timely manner and save significant capital and operating expense at an engine ering price of less than 1% of the life cycle cost of the project. I look forward to future editions

and trust you will maintain the high standard of content contained in

your inaugural effort - a task you

Dear Tom:

I have just finished reading your Jan./Feb. issue and wish to con

gratulate you on this fine contri bution to our industry. Being an equipment supplier in this business since 1973, I really appreciated your editorial on the low bidding system. I especially liked your section on companies who do R & D to improve and upgrade their pro ducts yet often get no considera tion when bidding on price alone. In fact, the opposite can he a fact of our business where

those who reduce the quality of their equipment to drive down the market price get the job. James M. Brooker, President, Pollution Control Association of Ontario.

Dear Tom: Three cheers and best wishes for the future success of Environ

mental Science and Engineering. Such a publication has been needed for some time hut the goals you have set will require stamina to achieve. Let me add this;in my own thirtyseven years in the waterworks field, I have observed that single purpose utility commissions generally manage and operate superior systems to those controlled by municipal councils whose budgetpriorizing is often categorized by what is visually and politically appealing. Really, as A.Q.T.E. pres ident Lanctot stated, "There should be no choice between the construc

tion of arenas and the purification of drinking water." Good luck.

H.F. McCoubrey, P.Eng. Manager-Engineer Smiths Falls Water Commission

Space

precludes printing all the

letters received. More feedback next issue.

companies if an air disaster occur nearly every situation the govern I enjoyed your editorial comment red in Canada. I suspect the low-hid ment should be the regulators and on the subject of the low-bid system is the wrong one to use for industry the actual producers of system in the inaugural issue of this service and it has been recom goods and services. Government "Environmental Science and mended that the ROMP take on the agencies usually perform well as Engineering". You eloquently dis duty. If this occurs,then the low bid regulatory agencies, hut poorly as cussed the subject with a slant system has failed the industry, the manufacturers and suppliers of towards the engineering profession. government and the public. goods and services. Canada Post My comment is that there are many The analytical industry is in a bears eloquent testimony to what service industries facing the same similar dilema. Major decisions happens when governments go out dilema. costing millions of dollars are side their regulatory territory. When a service is purchased, the based on analytical data MISA has started along this new buyer is usually basing his decision produced in a variety oflabora route as the Ontario Government on three basic factors; price, quality tories. It is possible to produce very has now realized that its programs and the time required to deliver the accurate data in most laboratories will only work ifit has the support of product. Of these three issues, given sufficient time and resources. many players. The same process is gradually quality is the most difficult to quan- Several ingredients are necessary, titate; I think your article gave refer including standardized methods unfolding in the scientific commun ence to this point and how the low and quality control programs. ity in Canada. But I have a major bid system may not be the best Experienced laboratories know the concern and that is the single pur value of these programs - but who is pose of my letter to you, Tom. method for purchasing "services". There needs to be a controlling A good example of how the low- taking the responsibility to factor with respect to the service establish them? hid system is currently failing us is Proper standards are I am a true believer in the free industry. unfolding in the news. Airlines are required with a continuous monitor enterprise system and the ability of responsible for airport security and they sub-contract the work to secur the private sector. Privatization ing of the service level by the appro ity firms. Selection of the winning programs of various governments priate governmental body. It is not bids has been in many cases,strictly are good programs and necessary sufficient for governments to pro on price. As a result many of the today because the previous govern duce legislation only. For the scien better and more experienced firms ments took the work upon them tific community to be strong in no longer bid on these jobs. The selves. Of course whenever this Canada, we need good accreditation quality of security is now so poor occurs, it becomes impossible for and on-going quality assurance programs. Analytical data is only a that the matter has reached our industry to compete and the govern House of Commons as a major ment becomes the sole supplier. piece of paper otherwise. The best security issue. We sometimes rely This is at the opposite end of the environmental decisions demand the best analytical technology. scale to the low-bid system. on students with two hours of train ing to protect our lives in the air, not What Canada needs then is a bal John W. Martin, P.Eng., to even mention the potential cost to ance between free enterprise initia President the airline and the insurance tive and government control. In Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Dear Tom:

12

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


HELPCLEAN UP ONTARIO'SWATERWAY • Ontario's waters are a precious resource. It is no longer acceptable to use them OS a dumping ground for discharges that threaten ourdrinking water, fisheries and wildlife.

• The Ontario government is now adopting tough new measures to stop water pollution at its source. MISA —Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement— will systematically cut back the flow of toxic pollutants with enforceable regulations that get tougher as abatement technology gets better. • All of Ontario's municipal sewage treatment plants and major industries will be regulated under the Environmental Protection Act. Convicted violators of the actface recently increased fines of up to $100,000 a day and jail sentences. • MISA first imposes monitoring regulations which require dischargers to report the presence and quantities of toxic substances in their effluent.This

information is then used to formulate abatement regulations which set limits — at the source —on toxic discharge. • Butthat's just the start. Water and biological studies will determine if these limits adequately protect the quality of the receiving water body and its

aquatic inhabitants. If they do not, more stringent limits will be set. • MISA is tough, but also fair. Full public consultation ploys a vital role in each step of the program. Before regulations ore mode low, your help is necessary. Monitoring regulations for the organic chemical and pulp and paper industries will soon be issued in draftform.Take this opportunity to make your voice heard.Your comments ore invited. Your comments ore necessary.

Our goal-the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminantsfrom all discharges into Ontario's waterways. For further information on the

upcoming regulations, please contact:

STOPPING WATER POLLUTION AT ITS SOURCE

MISA Communications 135 St. Glair Avenue West

6th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M4V1P5

(416)323-4648 The Honourable

Jim Bradley Minister

MISA Environment Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement Ontario Circle reply card No. 107 Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

13


New fine-bubble diffusers maintain

efficiency and reduce maintenance costs

The aeration process in wastewater

plants is usually the single largest electrical user, often accounting for 50 to 90 percent of the total bill. Aeration is usually accomplished by either mechanical or diffused air systems. There are two basic types of diffused air systems, coarse and fine-bubble, both of which have inherent advantages and disadvan tages.

Coarse bubble systems usually have very low maintenance require ments, but because the bubble size is relatively large, the percentage of oxygen transfer into the wastewater is very low. From an energy aspect, the system is very inefficient. Inef ficiencies were identified in some of

the first diffused aeration systems at the turn of the century, causing

engineers of the time to develop the first generation of fine-bubble dif fusers - ceramic plates which created extremely small bubbles. An ideal fine-bubble diffused air

system would have the entire floor covered with the diffuser media. The

entire basin would be completely mixed and the oxygen equally dis persed. The first fine-bubble ceram ic systems were set up this way but, as is often the case with great theories, they did not always work out.

By James Brooker and

treatment

The reasons were that the

oxygen uptake rates in mostactivat-

Bruce Zimmerman

Eimco Process Equipment

build increasing power costs. The only answer to these fouling problems is to clean the diffuser with acid solutions, or to refire the diffuser media in a kiln.

These

ed were low. The permeability ofthe

cleaning procedures are often expensive and disruptive to the treatment process by taking basins

ceramic material was not very con

out of service.

sistent, causing the air to be distri buted unevenly. Additionally, biological solids settled and grew on the plates. The fine pores plugged and a new type of coarse bubble dif

also been identified with ceramic dome diffusers. Whenever the air

ed sludge systems are relatively low, and in turn the air flow rates requir

fuser was created.

Designers tried to rectify the uneven air distribution by limiting the size of the ceramic media and

placing a flow control orifice below the media. The ceramic dome was

created. High oxygen transfer was achieved and, in turn, energy costs were significantly reduced. However, the ceramic domes still were subject to clogging on the

inside, because of impurities in the air supply. A second form of clogg ing is the growth of a biological slime layer on the outside. These two types of clogging cause coales cence of the fine bubbles into coarse bubbles. Another coarse bubble dif

fuser is formed. In turn, the excel lent oxygen transfer capabilities of the ceramic dome diffusers are sig nificantly reduced. The plugging of the diffuser media also causes back pressure to

I

Another operational problem has

flow is disrupted or turned off, the wastewater backflows through the diffuser and the air distribution

piping fills with water. This gener ally does not cause damage to the diffusion system, but it does promote biological slime growth on the diffuser. More important is what happens to the blowers. Because the air distribution piping is full of water, increased back pres sure is experienced. With centrifugal blowers this increased back pressure can cause the blowers to surge. Posi

tive displacement blowers will have an increased power draw, some times overloading the blower motor. To overcome the problems with ceramic diffusers many alternative types of diffuser media have been evaluated, one being polyethylene. Polyethylene was found to have many of the excellent performance characteristics of ceramics, but it also has the same fouling problems. The second type of media which achieved recognition is plasticized PVC. Slits are cut into the PVC to create bubbles. The slits did not

achieve as high an oxygen transfer efficiency as ceramics, but they did not foul like the ceramics. The prob lem with PVC diffusers is that the

elasticity of the diffuser can be short lived. When the diffuser loses elas

ticity the oxygen transfer efficiency drops, and does not appreciably recover with cleaning. To overcome the problems with ceramic, polyethylene, and PVC media

diffusers Eimco Process

Equipment Company introduced a line of diffusers made from a special ly formulated rubber membrane. The membrane has small slits cut

into it which open when air is applied creating fine bubbles. The slits close when the air flow Elastox diffusers at St. Lawrence Starch. 14

to the diffuser is disrupted. This preEnuironmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Air distribution

makes it particularly suitable for basins with lower oxygen demands. The design does not incorporate a

piping will not fill with water and

lift limiter. Instead it relies on the

solids will not foul the underside of the membrane. The membrane's

closing of the pores, and contraction of the membrane about the support tube to prevent backflow. The support tube contains a void which, in operation, fills with water instead of air. This minimizes the buoyant

vents wastewater and biological solids from backflowing through the membrane.

smooth texture, coupled with the flexing action, significantly reduces the quantity of organic slimes or inorganic scales which traditionally accumulate on, and foul diffusers. Eimco's rubber membrane dif

Rubber membrane diffusers are

also capable of higher air flows than ceramic and PVC diffusers, while maintaining high oxygen transfer

restricts the expansion of the mem brane to optimize the oxygen transfer efficiencies of the diffuser. It also acts as redundant backflow

prevention when the air flow is disrupted.

Expands Lift Limiter

Air Pressure Applied

ant stress on the pipe connection.

urations. The first is the Elastox-D

less steel lift limiter/check valve vulcanized into the membrane and located at its center. This lift limiter

Elastomer Membrane

force on the diffuser and the result

fusers come in two different config disc diffuser. The diffuser is approx imately 300mm (12 inches) in diameter, with the membrane being supported on a polypropylene support disc. The disc has a stain

Pore

Openings Expand

efficiencies.

This allows fewer dif

fusers to be utilized in retrofit appli cations, and less piping in new installations. In addition, rubber membrane diffusers can use large pore sized air filtration units, rather than sub-micron type filtration systems used with conventionalfine bubble systems. This significantly reduces capital and operational

Pore

Openings

Elastomer

Contract

Contracts

Preventing Leakage

Diffuser Body

Toward

Lift Limiter Seals

Air Passage

3

a No Air Pressure

costs.

Testing performed at actual field

The diffusers also come in the

installations has demonstrated that

Elastox-T tube configuration. The tube diffuser utilizes a cylindrical polypropylene support tube. The tube diffuser's large surface area

the membrane maintains its physi cal properties and oxygen transfer capabilities through extended service periods. This long life.

coupled with the extremely low maintenance requirements, make rubber

membrane

diffusers

an

extremely cost-effective aeration system alternative.

FANTASTIC FLOATLESS LIQUID LEVEL SWITCH

SriRi!Ksg Submersible Cast Iron

Comminutors Choose it Cuts it... Shreds it

Reliable accurate

buildup

Protect pumps from rags, plastics, cans and other wastewater debris.

ยงel.

G.E.T. IIMDUSTRIES Box 64D, Brampton, Ontario, Canada LBV 2L6

Tel:(4161 451-9900 โ€ข Fax:(416)451-4490 Telex: 06963548

Circle reply card No. 108 Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

Dqvis Controls LIMITED

4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3 416/233-3211

Telex 06-967684

Circle reply card No. 109 15


Evaluating beach pollution before commencing remedial public works FIGURE 8.14 I

TEN

DAY RUN

protection such as three, sixmonth, or one year rainfall

STARTING AUG 24 MODELED DATA

events. WOODBINE A WOODBINE C

AUGUST 24 AUGUST 25 AUGUST 26 AUGUST 27 AUGUST 28 AUGUST 29 AUGUST 30 AUGUST 35 SEPT.! SEPT. 2 SEPT, 3 HOUR 00:00 HOUR 00.00 HOUR 00.00 HOUR 00 00 HOUR 0000 HOUR 00.00 HOUROO.OO HOUR 0000 HOUR 00:00 HOUR 00.00 HOUR 0000

FC = Fecal Coliform

WOODBINE D

The calibrated model is also used to evaluate the effective ness of various abatement works

to reduce beach pollution for the designated design storm. For

CALIBRATION DATA

* WOODBINE

Toronto's Eastern Beaches, the

pollution abatement works con sisted of landfilling a badly con taminated sediment area, and a

5 ..yi

I

u_

f

V

'

\l

U

1 V

i;

sj.'

overflow interceptor, which discbarges to detention tanks for the one year return period

OF STORM CURRENT I EAST I WEST

I WEST

stormwater and combined sewer

I I

t ( W. IE.

ARROW INDICATES BEGINNING TIME

I WEST

I EAST

DIRECTIONS

storm.

120. HOURS

The detention tanks have a 10

Chart i llustrates the beach bacteria densities as predicted by the water quality model and actual field data collected each day at the beach location. Note: At each storm event the bacterial densities increase rapidly due to storm runoff. The return to low levels is dependent upon the receiving water direction and

storm intensity. This article and graphics were prepared by Gore & Storrie

Pollution signs have be Limited.

come a familiar sight at many Ontario urban beaches.

The

pollution contaminant used in most beach evaluations is an intestinal bacteria common to all warm blooded animals.

When used in this way the indi cator bacteria are referred to as

the fecal coliform density (FC). In receiving waters, these bacteria die, mortality rates being a function of many factors. In general FC densities are reduced by a factor of 10 within 20 hours after discbarge. Before pollution abatement works are undertaken, it is obviously necessary to identify causes. This is not a simple task because a major source of con tamination is often from storm-

waters which, in the summer time, are randomly-occurring short-time events. Additionally, many storm-water and combined sewer overflow discbarges can also affect an urban beach.

Each of these discbarges have different discbarge time char acteristics, depending on the rainfall aerial distribution, the topography of the drainage basin and other factors. Ctber

contamination sources, like 16

sewage, animal and bird feces, contaminated sediments, bacterial regrowtb, etc., may also be significant factors. The various sources must evaluated and ranked

be in

importance before cost-effective abatement programs can be developed. The first step is to quantify ail the various loading sources as functions of time and the result

ing bacterial densities in the beach area as functions of time and location. Because runoff

events are generally highly variable over short time periods, it is necessary to use an intense spatial and time sampling pro

gram to quantify loadings and beach

bacterial densities.

A

special sampling program was developed. It is obviously very expensive to

measure

ail the rainfall

events, consequently numerical prediction models are developed and calibrated with the measurements from at least

three rainfall events. Now, the calibrated model can be used to

predict the impact of any rain fall event and all receiving water conditions. If the major cause of beach pollution is runoff, it is necessary to select a level of

hour retention period, which should reduce the suspended solids by 90% and the fecal coliforms by 60 to 80%. These tanks can be discharged to the treat ment plant, or pump discharged through an outfall 400 m from shore, after the storm has passed. Flushing systems were incorporated in the detention tank design, with the flushing water discharging to the treat ment plant. A similar study process was used for Britannia Beach in Ottawa on Lac Descbenes. In

this case, the most cost-effective method for abating beach pollu tion was to extend a pier 140 m further offshore to deflect up stream contaminated shore dis

cbarges. This work was completed in June 1987. While it is premature to make definitive statements regarding the effec tiveness of the pier extension because of record low

water

levels, the beach was not af fected by four reasonably sized rainfall events in July. A pump circulation system has been designed to prevent high bacter ial densities occurring in the beach area during dry weather periods. These examples show that beach bacterial density predic tion models are a very useful method for determining the most cost-effective abatement works for recreational beaches and can save millions of dollars.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Inproved Oxygen Tpansfer Efficiency

EIMCOELASTOX Non-Clog Rne Bubble Air Diffuser Fop New Installations and an Effective Way to Reduce Enepgy Costs by Retrefittlng Existing Facilities Eimco ELASTOX Fine Bubble Rubber Diffuser Stainless Steel Lift Limiter and Back Flow Valve

Polypropylene Support Disc

Rubber Membrane

Threaded Connection

Fine bubble air diffusers inherently provide supe rior oxygen transfer as compared to coarse bub ble diffusers. However, conventional fine bubble

diffusers often become clogged and require extensive maintenance to keep operational. Eimco Elastox diffusers overcome clogging due to a unique FLEXIBLE ELASTOMER MEM BRANE. Elasticity of the membrane assures nonclog operation even under adverse conditions. When air pressure is applied, the membrane lifts

away from the disc, distributing air equally across the membrane which expands with the increased pressure. Pores in the membrane then open to permit formation of the fine bubbles.

Stainless Steel

Clamping Ring

ELASTOX DIFFUSERS PROVIDE • NON-CLOG OPERATION • VIRTUALLY NO MAINTENANCE • HIGH OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY • LARGE AIR LOADING • INTERMITTENT OPERATION WITHOUT WATER BACKFLOW • ABLE TO PERFORM WITH STANDARD AIR FILTRATION • EASY TO INSTALL • CONTINUOUS OPERATION

• LOW PRESSURE DROP ACROSS DIFFUSER • REDUCED COALESCENCE OF AIR BUBBLES

@EIMCO PROCESS EQUIPMENT, 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 416/625-6070 Telex 06-961455

Circle reply card No. 110


Pollution Prevention Is emphasized In Quebec City Prevention of pollution - not just treatment - is increasingly import ant in Quebec. To underline the importance that he attributes to pre vention of pollution, Quebec's Mini ster of the Environment, Clifford Lincoln, announced two new pro jects at the annual congress of the Association quebecoise des techni ques de I'eau (AQTE) in Quebec City. Production without Pollution is a

series of information sheets, each one of which covers examples in

Quebec of preventing pollution. Frequently measures taken are not very complex. Often an adaptation of the production process has result ed in a reduction, at source, in the volume and loadings of the effluent. Each sheet not only explains the

actual procedure used, but also stresses the advantages, hoth econ omic and ecological, of adopting a particular technology. The first three brochures give examples of industries who have substantially reduced the costs of treating their wastes. La Fromagerie Agropur d'Oka, by attacking every source of pollution, did not

have to build a second treatment

plant, thought necessary for the expansion of their facilities. They have saved $270,000 and, moreover, the quality of their effluent is well within provincial quidelines. La Compagnie QueNord de Magog is the largest manufacturer of sodium chlorate in the world. It has achieved substantial economies

by lowering its consumption of water and energy. It has eliminated almost all its wastewater and air

emissions and has reduced its pro duction of toxic waste by 95%. La Compagnie Galvano, which is the largestzinc galvanizing plant in Quebec, has been able to clean up its effluents with an an nual saving of more than $350,000.

sectors: pulp and paper, metallurgy, mining, chemicals, petroleum and surface finishing. A report is sched uled for the autumn of 1988.

Another Ministry project due for

publication this fall is Quebec's first assessment of drinking water sup plies. He invited AQTE members to collaborate with his Ministry and outlined a number of initiatives in

progress or planned, pertaining to drinking water quality. Among the proposed initiatives, he said, are amendments to Quebec's drinking water regulations, which are intend ed to close existing gaps and make regulations more effective.

The 1988 AQTE Congress was handled with the usual flair which

It has also been able to increase the

was combined with an emphasis on

productivity of the plant by more than 100 percent.

media relations. This is an associa tion unafraid of criticism - an associ ation which offers an extended

M. Lincoln also announced the

award of a research grant of$90,000 to the Centre de recherche indus-

trielle du Quebec (CRIQ) which will provide an inventory of the best methods to reduce, recycle or treat industrial wastes. This research will concentrate on six industrial

welcome to the press, backed up with every facility to assist reporters. AQTE's record in overcoming poli tical inertia in environmental matters shows that attention to

communications pays off. Photo Report by Steve Davey

Tuvaux

ANRON

maple leaf PLASTICS â– 'S.ASriQues kPlI leaf

o c>M)i

^

:

Exhibitions are a popular feature of AQTE meetings. 18

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Quebec City to have world's largest UV facility An

ultraviolet (UV) disinfection

system has been selected for Quebec City's new $380 million wastewater treatment facility. The consulting group on the projectle Consortium PCRB, decided that new UV purifi cation systems from Trojan Tech

nologies, of London, Ontario, are preferable to traditional disinfection chemical methods. Pilot scale tests

indicated superiority of Trojan's

unique "open channel" design over other

American

and

Swiss

UV

systems and particularly over potentially hazardous chlorine disinfection. The project, said to be the largest of its kind in the world, consists of two large treatment plants located in the east and west ends of the city. When fully opera tional in 1991,the plants will have a combined sewage treatment capacity of 212 million gallons per day.

Trojan

Technologies is

best

known for its line of household UV

water purifiers. However, for sever al years, revenues from this busin

Michel RIvard, President of the Urban Community of Quebec executive com mittee, is flanked by the two major contractors behind the world's largest UV water treatment facility during the official contract signing ceremony. Olaf M. SkorzewskI, left, is President of Degremont Infiico, the prime contractor for the $380 million project. H.J. (Hank) VanderLaan is President of Trojan Technologies Inc., developer and supplier of the new ultraviolet purification system. The signing took place February 11, in Quebec City, where the new plant will treat nearly 200 million gallons of municipal wastewater per day.

ment for industrial UV applications. The mega-project, worth about $7 million to Trojan, will be engineered

project recently awarded to Trojan is a 42.0 million gallon per day system for York, Pennsylvania. UV technology has been tested and approved in many countries as an environmentally-safe alterna

at the firm's London facilities. The

tive to chemical disinfectants such

equipment will be built under license by Degremont-Infilco

as chlorine. Ultraviolet light destroys bacteria and viruses without adding anything to effluent

ess has been directed back into the

company's research and develop

Ltd. of Montreal.

Another major

PROJECT DATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS: Le consortium PCRB

which Is an association of the following: Petite, Andy, Bertraund, Lemieux and Associates, Inc., Carrier Trottier, Aubin and Associates, The Consulting Group Roche & Associates, The ERR Consulting Group.

EAST

WEST

Suspended Solids:

(403,000 MYDAY) 106 MGD (342,000 MVDAY) 90 MGD 35 mg/1 35 mg/1

UV Transmission:

40%

40%

20,000/100 ML 290 with 16 lamps

240 with 16 lamps

Effluent Fecal Conform: UV Modules:

Effective ARC length 58" of lamp: 4,640 Number of lamps:

20,000/100 ML

58"

3,840

No. of UV Banks In each channel:

2

2

No. of channels:

5

5

Effluent Channel Dimensions:

Length Width

Depth Depth of effluent in channel:

installed

since

1983, eliminate

approximately 1500 tons of chlorine per year from effluent discharged into rivers and lakes. The Quebec project alone will account for almost half that amount. According to Trojan's president Hank Vanderlaan, "Not only does our system eliminate the need for potentially hazardous chemicals but, as an open channel design, it's a lot less capital-inten sive to install and maintain". Hank Vanderlaan notes that the

Quebec decision has caught the attention of world environmental

SYSTEM DATA

Peak Flow:

and without changing water chem istry. Trojan officials estimate that the 100 municipal systems they've

13.5 m (44 ft.) 1.84 m (72 inches) 2.0 m (6 ft.)

11.5 m (38 ft.) 1.525 m (60 Inches) 2.0 m (6 ft.)

1016 mm (40 Inches)

1016 mm ( 40 inches)

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

ists, scientists, engineers and municipal governments. "Our success with smaller residential and

commercial applications in the early 80's created so much interest in our technology that we were encouraged to develop it further for municipal applications". He added that the resulting demand has seen Trojan modular UV systems installed in cities throughout the U.S., Canada, New Zealand and Australia. New and retrofit systems for Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Quebec and New Zealand are under construction in Trojan's London facilities. The company expects the success of the Quebec project will open the door to other large city projects internationally and plans are under way to meet that demand. 19


The editorial depth of ENVIRONMENTAL Editorial quality is the essence of any magazine. But quality can only flow from a deep understanding of subject matter, a close relationship with industry leaders and a capability to inject vigorous leadership into complex situations. We believe that ES&E has staff credentials which are unrivalled by any environmental maga zine in North America.

Tom Davey ES&E's Editor, Tom Davey,has worked as a journal ist in London's Fleet Street, Australia and Canada. He

was the first Canadian ever to win a first prize in the Editorial Category of the J.H. Neal Awards - the 'Pulitzers of the American Business Press'. The presen tation took place in New York in 1971. Shortly afterwards, the same articles won him an Award of Excellence in the Canadian Business Press

Competition, the K.R. Wilson Awards. Three other Wilson awards followed in quick succession before his writing was honoured once more in the United States this time by the Washington-based Water Pollution Control Federation.

After examining a body of his work,including inves tigative articles on pesticides, drinking water safety, and other environmental topics, the WPCF presented him with its Schlenz Medal in Las Vegas, Nevada. Neither the Neal nor Schlenz awards had ever been won

by anyone working outside the United States before. Fittingly, just prior to receiving the Schlenz Medal, Tom was elected President of the Canadian Science

Writers' Association, later winning a CSWA award for an article on Occupational Health and Safety. In 1982, Tom won a Neal Award of Merit in New

York for an editorial Let them eat sludge cake. This

Tom Davey

Steve Davey

editorial was later reprinted in Canada's national newspaper. The Globe ir Mail. Several other media, including The Montreal Gazette, The Toronto Star, The Toronto Sun, The Kingston Whig Standard, Canada ir The World, The Financial Post and Readers' Digest have published, reprinted or quoted his articles over the years. Such coverage was much appreciated by those engineers and

scientists who were long frustrated with false public perceptions of environmental subjects. A reader wrote; His ability to perceive and under stand an issue, coupled with his lucid descriptions, make him one of the most influential and respected commentators on the environmental scene.

assaaiM!

1

Another

wrote: Combines humour with a serious message better than anyone I know. The Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario honoured him in 1986 by inducting him as an honorary member of its prestigious Order of the Sons of Martha. The APEO's citation read: Tom Davey has eloquently defended the engineer's role on environ Canada's first J.H. Neal Award

mental issues when others had remained silent.

So far Tom has won some 30 writing awards; three of them are international honours and six are national

prizes.

He was retained by the Pollution Control

Association of Ontario to write Recollections - an

environmental history of Ontario.

He is also the

author of All The Views Fit To Print - a collection of

editorials and essays. One of the articles in his book. The Invisible Profession was later expanded into a television drama-documentary which retained the

20

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Canadian Authors' Associaticjn.

This combination of journalistic flair and environ mental insight gives ES&E a leadership role which few in the environmental media can challenge.

Steve Davey Working as a Managing Editor of three magazines covering the environmental, process and instrumentatioir industries, ES&E's Sales Director, Steve Davey, wrote diverse artic les cm water and wastewater treatment, Canada's first

Sons of l\/fartha Plaque

Schlenz Award

original title. Tom later worked as a vvriterand advisor for this film, which premiered as part of the 1987 Canada-wide Engineering Centennial Celebrations. He has lectured at the University of Toronto's Institute for Environmental Studies for several years and is currently an Associate of the Institute - a link with academe which gives valuable insights into scien tific research projects. Additionally, he has given papers to national and international conferences, including a meeting on Toxic Spills in Rome, Italy, convened by the World Health Organization and the Eurojjean Economic

Community.

during more than four years with Southam Business Publications.

Steve travelled widely during this period, meeting engineers, consultants and government staff from many provinces. He has also done many photo-reports of Pollution Control Association of Ontario seminars

and meetings and AWWA Conferences in the United States and Canada.

A skilled photographer, Steve has shot several magazine covers including both studio and field photo graphy. He has also done many photo-es.say.s of major environmental conferences.

He has interviewed and

photographed both Federal and Provincial Ministers of the Environment.

He has also presented papers to the

In 1986 Steve won an Award of Excellence for his

American Water Works Association, Ontario Section, the Pollution Control Association of Ontario, the

writing and graphic design in a comprehensive article on global water conditions. He brings a wide know ledge of the industry to his role as Sales Director of ES&E.

Society for Technical

Communication and the

! C.i'.Vt

International Workshop on "Rehabilitation Following Chemical Accidents", Instltuto Superlore dl Sanlta. Rome. November, 1982. The convenors, WHO, EEC and the Italian government Invited scientists and specialists from Warsaw

Pact countries, Europe, Asia, North America and Australia to present papers and discuss various scenarios and options. Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

21


Atikokan is first to use Ozone

The Township of Atikokan

ed carbon were pilot tested. Ozona tion for colour removal and taste

Water Treatment Plant is the first in Ontario to use ozone. Construction was

and odour control, chemical coagu lation of remaining colour followed by direct filtration was selected as the treatment process. Cost for

completed in March 1988 at a cost of $4.3 million. The plant replaces a 35year old pumphouse which supplied fluoridated

and

disinfected

colour removal with a combination of ozone and alum is less than either ozone or alum alone.

river

water to the community.

Design 20-year water demands

The raw water from the Atikokan

River is typical of Northern Ontario water: soft, unbuffered and coloured by humic substances leached from trees and plants. The humics also cause a "swampy" taste. Iron, dis solved from unlined watermains, aggravates the colour and taste problems. Many residents were obtaining drinking water from a well at the airport. A study of water sources by

are:

• Average day: • Maximum day: • Peak hour:

fire flows is taken from an on-site

storage reservoir. Designed by Dillon, the treat ment plant takes raw water from the

River was the best practical source of water. Required treatment

Atikokan River.

included;

By K. Sakamoto, P.Eng.

Conventional

colour

removal

processes are ineffective in winter

104 L/s

• Maximum day plus fire: 228 L/s The plant is designed to treat 6000 m-'/day. Water to meet the daily short-term peak demands and

Dillon concluded that the Atikokan

• colour removal, • taste and odour control, •stabilization ofthe aggressive water, • disinfection by chlorination.

3000 m-Vday 6000 m'Vday

M.M. Dillon Limited

because alum floe does not settle

readily. A number of alternatives, including ozonation and adsorption on biologically regenerated activat-

A new low lift

pumphouse pumps the raw water 800m towards the Town to the Treat ment Plant which is across the road

from the Community Centre and borders the Municipal Golf Course. The Plant is screened by existing trees.

Raw water is first treated by bub bling ozonized air through it. Ozone is a strong oxidant which oxidizes (bleaches) humic compounds to reduce colour and swampy tastes. Required ozone dosage is about 3 mg/L. The ozone system is capable

ALL WEATHER FIBERGLASS COVERS more than 600 installations

ENGINEERED FOR MUNICIPAL APPLICATIONS

of an 8 mg/L dose. Round covers

Rectangular Barrel covers

Rectangular arch covers

Since ozone is an unstable gas,it must be produced on site as required. The ozone system comprises: • two air preparation units to produce clean, dry, oil-free compressed air, •two Corona discharge ozone gener ators, each capable of producing 23 kg of ozone per day at a maximum concentration of 1.5 per cent ozone in air, • a co-current ozone contact tank

providing ten minutes' retention for the raw water, • an off-gas destruction unit to destroy any ozone left in the air exhausted from the ozone contact tank.

Ozone is a toxic, corrosive gas. All ozone generation and use are confined to a single room isolated from the rest of the plant. The

I

Ozone Room and Filter Room air is

fixed and floating digesters

canbar

Box 280,1 Canbar St., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 4A7

monitored continuously for traces of ozone. On detection of ozone, the generators automatically shut

(519)886-2880, Telex 069-55255, Fax (519)886-5546

down.

Circle reply card No. 111 22

To protect the environment, the off-gas exhaust stack is monitored

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


for ozone to prevent accidental releases of ozone.

Colour causing humics are coag ulated and flocculated with alum

and polyelectrolyte before filtration in four dual media (anthracite and silica sand)filters. Design filter rate is 8.6 m-'/hr/m'-. The filters are constant level filters. The filter effluent control

DUAL MEDIA FUJERS

valve opens further to compensate for increased head loss as solids accumulate in the filter.

Filters are cleaned by surface wash and water backwashing when head loss reaches 1.5m of water column. Backwash can also be initi

SLLXX% TO SANfTABY SEWER

ated manually at the operator's con venience. Wash water is discharged

4TOWNSHIP OF ATIKOKAN

Diixon

WATER TREAtMENT PLANT S0€MAT;C

to a wash water decant tank and solids are allowed to settle. The clear water is decanted to a small

stream running through the golf course. The sludge, containing about 0.1 per cent solids, is pumped to a sanitary sewer when the added flow will not disrupt the Sewage

tion grid. There is no elevated stor age. The high lift pumps can meet peak demands(228 L/s) with one of the large pumps out of service. Ozone is a very effective disin fectant - superior to chlorine against viruses and cysts. Current practice in Ontario requires the

than one day), • low trihalomethane concentrations

because the THM precursors are removed before chlorination.

ual in the distribution system.

Post-chlorination is provided to "top-up" residual chlorine in the water pumped into the distribution system. Additionally, watermains are being swabbed to clean them of 35 years of accumulated deposits.

the reservoir.

Chlorine is dosed at the filter efflu ent. This ensures:

plant will provide Atikokans with

The high lift pumps maintain pressure in the municipal distribu-

• effective disinfection by providing long contact times (normally more

table and attractive water.

Treatment Plant. Filtered water is dosed with fluor

ide, lime for pH correction and stab ilization of the aggressive water and chlorinated before discharging to

maintenance of a free chlorine resid

This brand new water treatment

an abundant supply of safe, pala

Lick waste water handling problems with Gorman-Rupp pumps With thousands in service, Gorman-

Rupp pumps are engineered for high performance and built for reliability and long life. Features such as solids handling capabilities, easily removable end-plate for quick servicing and space-age control technology for safe, precise operation, make Gorman-Rupp pumps your best solution.

T-Series Emergency Standby Pump with Autostart air-cooled engine. 3" to 10" sizes.

MX

Duplex T-Series Pump Package with piping, valves and controls for automatic,

unattended operation. Can be programmed to operate in sequence or as standby. 3"to IC'sizes.

Portable, engine-driven, self-priming

Standard pumps are available in

Trash Pumps. Gas, diesel, LPG or natural gas powered.

abrasive resistant stainless steel,

cast-iron with corrosive and

depending on the model.

Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas. Ont. N5P 3R7

GORMANRUPP

Phone:(519)631-2870 Telex: 064-73530

Distributors across Canada. Consult the Yellow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

Circle reply card No. 112 Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

23


ZERO DISCHARGE COMES OF AGE

Waste reduction strategies for the printed circuit board industry

The rules of the game

are changing. Yester day's waste manage ment strategies are often not adequate for today, let

By Bernard Fieet, D.Sc., and Jay Kassirer, M.B.A.*, SCADA Systems Incorporated, Rexdale, Ontario.

alone for tomorrow. As Canadian businesses reevaluate

report is concerned with the situ ation in California, there are two reasons why its findings are rele

their options, 'zero' (or minimal) discharge is emerging as the strategy of choice. The Printed Circuit Board Industry in partic ular has been making major strides in reducing the amount of wastes that it produces, and an increasing number of firms are turning to 'sludgeless' waste treatment systems. This article reviews the reasons behind these

trends, and the technologies that are making them possible. It draws on the findings of a recent study that was conducted by SCADA Systems for the California Government, and reviews a more detailed econom

ic survey conducted by SCADA Systems and the University of Toronto for the Ontario Ministry of

the

Environment.

Lessons

from

California

same

as

Government

on

waste reduction strategies for the Printed Circuit Board Industry (Judd et ah, 1987). Although the

those

in

California.

Secondly, California, with its stricter environmental legislation, provides us with a glimpse of things to come. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment, for

example, is clearly leaning to wards precedents established by the US EPA. In turn, EPA's Hazardous

Solid

Waste

Act

amendments to RCRA concerning landfill restrictions, were fash ioned after California's landfill restrictions which have been in

place for some time now. In California, as in Canada, the majority of printed circuit hoard

California

SCADA Systems, in conjunc tion with Cal-tech Associates, recently completed a study for the

vant to the Canadian scene as

well. Firstly, the types and qualities of wastes generated here in Canada are basically the

manufacturers still

use

conventional, sludge generating methods of handling their wastes. These plants have been caught in a serious squeeze as pretreatment standards of wastewater discharges have tightened and land disposal restrictions for

heavy metal wastes have been implemented. The impact of this regulatory squeeze has been heightened by a dramatic increase in disposal prices for hazardous wastes, and by a rise in water costs. Furthermore, many of these plants are being required to obtain hazardous waste Treatment Storage & Disposal (TS&D) permits, or else to go through the expensive and time consuming process of obtaining an exemption, in order to dispose of their sludge. And to put the icing on the cake, even when the sludge is disposed of, there remains a significant risk of future legal liability. Sludge, as one leading electronics executive summed it up, is a per manent liability on a company's balance

sheet.

Technologies for waste reduction The report reviews technologies available for waste minimization, starting with waste audits/plant assessments and associated in-

plant process changes. While these are usually simple low cost measures for reducing total demands on

a

waste treatment

system, they are rarely able to provide a total waste manage ment solution. And as long as a plant continues to rely on con ventional sludge-based treatment it will still be saddled

Figure 1: Inteorated Metal Waste Recovery System for a PCB Plant

with the

associated problems already dis cussed.

Bectrochemlcal I

Solid Metals

Recovery [

Dumps

Chemical Reuse

easier to treat chemistries.

Chemical Reuse

IX Regeneration isolutions

Unchelated / Chelated Metal

Recovery

Deburrer

Heavy Metal Free Solutions

Dl Water

All other Rinses

Ion Exchange

Fume Scrubber

Anion/Cation

etc.

Demineralization

Solutions

D Water

I

RHrate Scrubt)er Pumice

Water

HydroCyclone

Pumice Filter Solids

Rlter

Developer & Stripper Solutions

24

Rftrate Solids

Evaporative

How

ever, these have not proven too popular in the industry because they are often too sensitive to equipment and operating para meters, and because firms have

Ion Exchange inses

Included in the report's recom mendations for waste reduction, are process changes to less toxic,

Heavy Metal Free Salts

Recovery

S^saration Dry Film Solids

been

reluctant to

switch

from

established operating practices in today's sensitive markets. The report reviews some of the proven technologies for re cycling heavy metals that can be applied in the printed circuit board industry for specific waste streams.

These include electro

lytic recovery, ion-exchange, membrane separation techniques, evaporative recovery, adsorption

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


and biotechnology.

The relative

merits of each technology is examined, along with its areas of applications within the Printed Circuit Board Industry.

ment, tin/lead stream treatment, final discharge control, etc., can he packaged or skid mounted for ease of installation. Component parts are microprocessor control led and can operate as individual

Some recent research and advancements in these areas

(stand-alone) treatment units or

which might provide promise for

can also be network linked to a

the

central supervisory controller. There has been a significant advance in the efficiency and

future

are

also

reviewed.

Integrated waste management Two key points emerge from the study. First, no single tech

nology provides the ideal method of solving all of the printed circuit board industry's waste management problems. Instead, optimal solutions will likely rely on the synergy of a number of proven treatment and recovery technologies along with an appropriate control and monitor ing system. Second, the optimum solution is likely to vary according to the type and size of the facility, geographic location, and the type of product

process water.

Because of the

dramatic reduction in the volume

of process water being discharged, the process water can be batchcollected and tested for compli

ance before being discharged. Secondly, it is possible to avoid the escalating transport and disposal costs, and the legal liability problems, associated

Valves

Figure 2:

Pumps Elec. Recovery Control

Alarms Interlocks

Flow Monitor Accumulative

Chemical Addition

Batch makeup

Bath usage

[X Adjust

Level Control

Discharge Monitor

Programabie

Discharge Control

Contro er

AmoHour

s

Treatment Control

Rin^ Controls D.I. Monitoring

Chem. Makeup

SCADANET Process Control

Filter Control Alarms

Heater Control

Temp. Monitor Safetv Interlock

manufactured.

Figure 1 is a schematic process flow diagram for an integrated zero-discharge waste management system for a printed circuit board plant (Fleet et al., 1986 and 1987). Dilute metal bearing waste streams (process rinses) are treated by ion-exchange while high concentration sources (spent process baths, etchants, spills, etc.) are treated by an electrowinning process. The elec trolytic recovery process is also used to treat the eluent from the

ion-exchange columns after strip ping. The treated waste stream after leaving the ion-exchange may be discharged directly to sewer after appropriate pH adjustment. Alternatively, a demineralization process can be used to remove the small amounts of inert salts which

remain after ion-exchange treat ment, and the resulting high purity de-ionized water recycled to the manufacturing processes. Up to 90% of total process water can be recycled by this method. The electrorecovery of the high metal concentration process sources and ion-exchange eluate is

carried

out in

an

electrowin

ning cell which has stainless steel planar cathodes. The pro duct from this operation is a metallic sheet of copper or nickel, etc., which can readily be peeled off the cathode. In some situations

this

metal

can

be

reused or, alternatively it can be sold as scrap. The various segments of the overall waste management system, acid copper stream treat

nductivi

reliability of such systems, due to the

use of distributed

micro

processor control systems. In this type of control scheme, a range of remote monitoring and control stations, such as pH con trol, conductivity, flow control, and metals monitoring, are con nected to a central supervising controller (which can be an inexpensive personal computer), to provide overall monitoring, control, and data recording (figure 2). There are three key benefits of this approach. The first major benefit is the increased level of

discharge assurance that can be provided. Unlike conventional treatment which is operating at its performance limits to meet present discharge standards, the zero-discharge system is capable of meeting much stricter stand ards. In addition, because most

conventional systems discharge high volumes of treated process water, it is not practical for them to store the effluent before

discharge. Process water must therefore be discharged continu ously, and excursions beyond allowable effluent limits are only discovered after the fact.

In con

trast, the zero-discharge system

can recycle the bulk of a plant's

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

with sludges that must be dis posed of in landfill sites. Almost all of

the

metallic

wastes

are

of the metallic wastes are segregat ed and then recovered as sheet metal. The small amount of mixed

metallic wastes (which are more practical to precipitate) can be treated with a sodium borohydride process that converts the dissolved metals to a much denser,pure metallic sludge. The metals can then be recovered electrochemically or, alternatively can be sold to a metal

refiner.

Finally, there are additional cost savings from recycling the bulk of the plant's process water as high purity de-ionized water. With water and sewer use costs

at $1.00 to $3.00 per thousand gallons, this amount can be sig nificant.

In

order to show the advan

tages of the integrated zero discharge approach, the State of California has partially funded SCADA to design and install such a system for AeroScientific, one of the ten largest printed circuit board manufacturers in the United States. This demon

stration system will be capable of completely eliminating the generation of hazardous heavy 25


metal sludges and of recycling over 90% of the plant's process water.

The economics

The report also includes a preliminary economic comparison of integrated zero-discharge recovery systems with conven tional sludge-based treatment for a large printed circuit board firm (100,000 gallons/day of process water). This comparison analysis shows that recovery systems can

be cost-competitive with tradition al sludge-based systems, even without any credit for recycled metals or reduced liabilities. And

the recovery systems are predict ed to become increasingly cost effective

in

the

future.

Plants which generate waste quantities smaller than a certain breakeven point are not able to justify the higher capital costs associated with the integrated zero discharge, resource recovery approach. However, as land dis posal, water and legal costs con tinue to escalate, this breakeven point will get lower and lower. Looking towards the future, smaller plants will want to develop the flexibility to move

towards the zero discharge approach. They can proceed stepwise by installing segments of an integrated zero discharge system on selected major waste streams. At the same time, they can minimize the sludge generat ed from the other waste streams

by the use of advanced microfiltration techniques, or make the sludge more recyclable using the sodium borohydride process. The Canadian Scene

While the report discussed above explains the movement towards zero discharge waste management, it only attempts to provide a prelim inary economic analysis of the trends

and

current situation in

This study makes use of an econ omic model developed by VHB Research and Consulting, that uses standard LOTUS software to vary a number of critical factors including prices (e.g. of sludge disposal, water, equipment, etc.), time horizon used for comparitive evaluation, and dis count rate (the rate that is tradition ally used in determining capital re covery). By varying these factors over time, the study will explore the future attractiveness of zero dis

charge systems compared with con ventional sludge-generating ones. It will also provide a useful struc ture for decision makers who want

to apply a similar analysis to their own plants. Conclusion

California. A study currently being conducted by SCADA Systems and the University of Toronto for the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment (Fleet et al., in press) will explore these economics in greater

In conclusion, resource recycling is no longer an environmentally desirable luxury. Mounting public concern has led to increasingly stringent environmental regula

detail. It is based on interviews with

tions and levels of enforcement. Effluent levels in Canada are

over fifty printed circuit board man ufacturers and metal finishers in

Ontario and with equipment manu facturers and government sources; and on a five year literature review including work done by the US EPA.

expected to be lowered to match those of the US EPA's. And, as has happened in the US,stricter require ments will likely be set for landfill sites that are allowed to handle toxic metal wastes. In the United States

this has significantly reduced the

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Circle reply card No. 113 26

availability of such sites, causing disposal costs to rise dramatically. In addition, Canadian water costs are expected to increase, and there is

the spectre of legal liability for plants that produce toxic sludge. Consequently, zero discharge, resource recovery systems provide the only practical long term waste management solution for the Printed Circuit Board Industry. For larger companies, the zerodischarge route is already viable economically and promises a cost advantage in the long run. Even smaller companies with an eye to the future are implementing it step by step, in a manner that will allow their waste systems to evolve into integrated zero discharge systems overtime. These systems are becom ing essential in order to remain com petitive. Zero-discharge has come of age.

* Dr. Fleet Is President of SCADA

Systems and was a key tectinlcal advisor

to

botti

of

the

studies

mentioned In this article. Jay Kasslrer has recently been appointed as Marketing Coordina tor for SCADA Systems and was previously working with the University of Toronto as Project Manager for the MOE study. Publisher's note: A full list of refer

ences Is available on written request only from the editor.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Dillon recommends Industrial pretreatment Industries should be required to pretreat wastewaters before discbarge into Ontario's sewer systems, according to a consultant's report.

The consultant preferred sectorby-sector pre-treatment standards to a single standard for greater over all reduction of toxic pollution.

Standards should be formulated for

Dillon

that

charged into our waterways," said Environment Minister Jim Bradley. "My officials are evaluating the Dillon recommendations, and 1 hope to announce our proposed

each industrial sector, and should

abatement requirements be set by

course of action to fold into the other

be set at an abatement level attain

the province and enforced by munic ipalities. Provincial regulations

parts of MISA," be said.

able by the best available technology which is economically achievable, said the report by M.M. Dillon Ltd. This approach is consistent with MISA regulations being developed for industries that discbarge directly to waterways. As part of Environment Ontario's Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA), Dillon was com missioned by the ministry to survey the industrial world for methods

which could be adopted to reduce pollution from the province's estimated 11,700 sewer dischargers. An earlier report identified eight sewer use control programs compat ible with MISA. The report released in March analyzes each approach based on environmental-technical, economic, legislative and adminis trative factors.

also

recommended

The preferred sewer use option

would ensure uniform environmen

will be contained in a discussion

tal requirements everywhere in Ontario, avoid duplication of effort and relieve smaller municipalities of the financial burden of regulation development.

paper which will review various alternatives to fund the program, including user pay,sewer connection charges and grants.

Municipal enforcement of regulations is recommended because many Ontario munici palities have enforcement staff, equipment and programs in place. Provincial enforcement

The public will be invited to review the paper and both phases of the consultant's study. Once public review is complete, MlSA's sewer use control program will be chosen.

would be made available to smaller

communities, under the system pro posed by Dillon.

Copies of the report. Evaluation

"Many industrial chemicals are

of Municipal Sewer Use Control Options - Phase II, are available

hazardous even in small amounts.

from the Public Information Centre

We cannot rely entirely on our sewage treatment plants to remove them before sewage effluent is dis

Environment.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


A living legend speaks out ES&E's editors have twice been priviieged to hear the iegendary Dr. Abe Wolman. Four years ago he dom inated the AWWA meeting in Washington, D.C. More recentiy he focussed on members of the Water Pollu tion Control Federation. Now in his mid-nineties, the great American Scientist gave another thoughtprovoking presentation which moved hundreds of environmental professionals to rise to a standing ovation when he concluded. With Canadian Environment Minister Tom McMillan alongside him on the platform. Dr. Wolman ranged widely and deeply over several ecological disciplines. In a later interview, we asked him for a transcript, excerpts of which we reproduce, courtesy Dr. Wolman and the WPCF.

The first sanitary engineer in

mechanism, electronically, is in

biblical times was Moses who

parts per quadrillion, aided and

You will have to do much better

collected

bis

marched

them

abetted by that marvelous fish, the trout. Between the two they stop discharges when either or both indicate you are violating official standards for discharge. This I find is a great revolution.

than that. It will cost you some money to do it. Having thrown it at you, I say,"you take it out".

people and from

the

bondage of Egypt. The environ mental principles which be enunciated were quite simple: "At the end of every day bury your human and other waste". We violate that, of course, from time to time.

When I began work(about the middle 19tb Century), I began with one part of something in 10,000 parts of water; and with a reasonable progression of time, I went from one part per hundred thousand, to one part per million, to one part per billion, and to one part per trillion. I want to remind you

at the moment.

Werner Stumm, a retired pro fessor at the University of Zurich, is the prime mover in the creation of the instrumenta tion for the identification of the infinitesimal. He likewise is on the search for the identification of what is unknown in the waters of the world. He visited

our University to give a series of seminars and became a profes sor at Harvard. His game is the development of the instrumen tation.

He said to me: "Dr.

Wolman, I will soon be able to announce parts per quadrillion," which, not much later he did. I asked him, "what do you want

There will be some residuals that

escaped you. You are very proud of a performance of 90 percent, 92 percent, 93 percent, ignoring the fact that the other 4, 5,6, or 7 percent is a lot of tonnage that goes into all of our waters. I remind you of that fact. Our Canadian representative. Environment

m

Minister

Tom

McMillan, has already pointed out that charges to consumers for waste handling and for the

production of safe drinking water

that I don't understand all the

zeros, not even in the U.S. national deficit, which is run ning parallel to parts per trillion

They are no longer sufficient.

When I first began, I used to meet with the public in small numbers, on bond issues and so on, but never in my life have I encountered

what

we

now

dignify as public perception — the sovereignty of attitude of the people, which I share. But we have a perception which is a compound of fear, of ignorance, of a degree of hysteria, and more important than anything else for this group here, a complete mis trust of officialdom, private or public. With that feeling, we have to do something. Forty years ago I said to industry, commerce, agriculture, and all other sources of wastes, "I want a completely closed cycle within your operations." I

are very, very small. The produc er of safe drinking water does a marvelous job everywhere in the U.S. on community water systems at a cheap price and a very high percentage of efficien cy, but not high enough.

The underlying basic princi ple of every process in wastewater

treatment

has

not

changed since Moses. I would repeat it a dozen times ~ it has not changed. And in the last

150 years, which we like to call the miraculous period of the evolution of the art of treatment, the same thing is true. My peers would say, "Why, you must have lost your mind," and maybe I have, but they say, "Look at all the improvements made."

me to do with that?" He looked

was then not so naive to believe

at me and said, "That's not my problem, it's yours." And, of course, he was correct. I add one thing with respect to that. In certain operating regimes in large enterprises in the United States, the control

that that was completely pos sible; you will have some residuals, and those residuals will be thrown back to you. As I have said before, you have done some marvelous accomplish

With what, the settling tank? The same principle was used 150 years ago. The debate has nothing to do with the shift in the principles. All we do is argue: Should the tank be long and rectangular? Should it be square? Should it be 6 feet deep or 20 feet deep?

ments in the treatment of waste.

Continued on page 35

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

29


Pilot-scale studies for the removal

of trace organlcs from drinking water

The presence of synthetic

undertaken to determine the best

organic chemicals(SOCs)

John N. Hiiton, P.Eng.

at trace levels in finished

MacLaren Plansearch Inc.

drinking water supplies is of concern for many reasons,includ ing the possibility of adverse health effects on consumers. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to re-evaluate conventional treat

ment methods, as well as alternate technologies, for reducing SOCs found in drinking water. In 1985, MacLaren Plansearch was contracted by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for a pilot-scale water treatment study. The study program, expected to be finished in 1989, has three objectives:

Willowdale, Ontario

more than 300 organic chemicals found in the Niagara River and the Great Lakes, 34 monitoring SOCs were selected. They represented 11 different

chemical

classes

and

exhibited a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Analytical methodologies were then developed for each of the 34 monitoring SOCs. Instrument and method detection limits were estab lished at levels lower than those used in standard methods.

treatment for the removal of trace

A pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant was designed,fabri cated of chemically inert materials,

levels of SOCs;

and installed at the Niagara Falls,

2. Determine the effectiveness of

Ontario, Water Treatment Plant. The pilot-scale plant underwent complete initial testing during the preliminary phase.

1. Determine the effectiveness of

optimized conventional water

conventional treatment followed by granular activated carbon adsorp tion (GAC)for the removal of SOCs at trace levels; and 3. Determine the process operational parameters for the optimized opera

In order to evaluate the conven

tional treatment processes, seven SOCs were selected from the list of

plants and GAC adsorbers used in conjunction with conventional

34 target compounds for spiking into the pilot-scale plant's raw water supply. Since the background level

treatment.

of SOCs in the raw water is both

This paper summarizes the methodology used and the test results obtained for the first objec tive which was recently completed.

variable and very low, spiking is necessary to ensure that a constant, known concentration of SOCs is maintained in the raw water.

Preliminary Groundwork

Experimental Program

tion of full-scale water treatment

A preliminary phase of ground work was completed prior to the actual pilot-scale experiments. This included the selection of a group of SOCs for monitoring and spiking purposes. From an initial list of

The experimental program for the evaluation of the conventional

water treatment process for the removal of SOCs (objective 1) con sisted of three stages. Jar testing studies were first

Summary Results of Conventional Evaluation Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons Spiked Influent

Compound

Geometric Mean

Settled Effluent Geometric Mean

Filtered 1Effluent

Percent Removal

Geometric Mean

Percent Removal

Anthracene

May

September Naphthalene May

September Pyrene May September Notes:

8.271

7.894

4.6

4.507

45.5

5.034

5.079

-0.9

4.305

14.5

of water.

The jar testing results of the two best coagulant systems were then assessed in the dynamic conditions of the pilot plant. An identical matrix of dose and pH combinations was used. Cost to produce the best quality water was also evaluated. The coagulant and operating condi tions that gave the best water quality results in the pilot plant were chosen for the subsequent pilot plant evaluation of the removal of the seven spiking SOCs. This, the third stage ofthe experi mental program, was begun in May, 1987. The pilot plant was operated for a period of two weeks. Samples were taken of the spiked raw water influent, the settled water, and the filtered water on the last six days of the run. Duplicates of 33% of the samples were analyzed. A second two-week run was completed in September, 1987.

PACl was used as the primary coagulant at a dosage of 8 mg/L. No secondary coagulant was used. The raw water was adjusted to a pH of 7.1 by addition of 2N nitric acid which was used instead of sulphuric acid because of the effect of the sul

2.720

3.475

-27.7

3.157

-16.1

6.759

8.694

-28.6

7.896

-16.8

5.588

5.151

7.8

4.080

27.0

4.137

4.386

-6.0

3.826

7.5

phate ion on the coagulation process. Results and Discussion

1. Ail Concentrations are in ug/L.

2. Results are Corrected for Recovery of Surrogates. 30

performing coagulant(s) for the removal of turbidity and natural organic matter, and to establish the optimum coagulant dose and opera ting pH. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UVA) at 254 nm were used as a measure of organic levels in the water. Turbidity, colour, pH, and alkalinity measurements were also made. Tests for each of the coagu lants used a matrix of dose and pH levels. The three primary coagu lants evaluated were alum, polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and ferric chloride. They were ranked according to performance and cost for treating a given volume of water at the optimum pH and coagulant dose conditions. Five secondary coagulants were also tested to deter mine if they could be used to reduce the amount of primary coagulant required to produce the same quality

The Niagara Falls raw water used during the jar testing program was typically characterized by a tur bidity of 1-2 NTU,DOC between 2-3 mg/L,colour of less than 5 ACU,pH

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


in the range of 8.3-8.5, and alkalinity of approximately 100 (as mg/L

Summary Results of Conventional Evaluation

CaCOM). In the jar tests using primary

Base-Neutral Compounds Spiked

coagulants only, alum, ferric chlor ide, and PACl had comparable per

Influent

formance levels when evaluated for

Geometric

Geometric

Mean

Mean

May

1.542

0.246

84,1

0.019

98.8

September

2.533

0.329

87.0

0.042

98.3

Compound

their ability to remove turbidity, DOC, and UVA. Filtered water quality from these tests at optimum pH and dose conditions showed turbidities of below 0.1 NTU, DOC levels near 1.0 mg/L, and removals of total UVA of approximately 70 per cent for all coagulants. However, the quality of settled water tested with ferric chloride showed higher turbidities at all pH and dose levels, as well as significantly higher UVA

Settled Effluent

Filtered Effluent

Percent Removal

Geometric Mean

Percent Removal

Decachlorobiphenyl

Gamma-BHC

May

September p,p'- DDT May

4,657

4.167

10.5

4.950

-6.3

5.659

5.354

5.4

4.786

15.4

2.603

1.665

36.0

1.209

53.6

0.838

43.1

30.2 Septemtier 1.474 1.029 Notes: 1. All Concentrations are In ug/L. 2. Results are Corrected for Recovery of Surrogates.

levels.

Less acid was required to adjust the pH level when PACl was used. PACl was therefore most cost-effec

tive of the three coagulants. It also

outperformed alum for turbidity and UVA removal at higher pH values in cold waters as well as at warmer temperatures. Alum and PACl were then tested

in the pilot plant. Both coagulants were found to produce similar warm temperature water qualities with respect to filtered water turbidity and UVA. Optimum operating con-

ditions were approximately pH 7.1 at a dose of 8 mg/L for PACl, com pared to pH 6.0 and a dose of 16 mg/L for alum. Similarly,PAC1 had more favourable operating pH con

summertime dose of 10 mg/L and an ambient pH of 8.3. As shown in the Tables, the pilot-

ditions for maximum UVA removal

scale results demonstrate that the use of PACl in conventional treat ment is effective for the removal of

than alum. These results generally confirmed the jar test observations. Treatment in the pilot plant using PAClatapHof7.1 resulted in finished waters with lower turbidity and DOC levels than the Niagara Falls WTP. This plant utilizes alum as the sole coagulant, typically at a

decachlorobiphenyl, less for p,p'DDT and anthracene, and less still for gamma-BHC pyrene and 2,4,6trichlorophenol. There was virtual ly no removal of napthalene. At present, the observed removal effic iencies of the spiked SOCs in the Continued on page 38

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Self-cleaning dissolved oxygen monitors HF

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Iron and manganese removal system Low operating and maintenance costs and high quality water are only a few features of the Electromatic I iron and manganese removal system. According to the manufacturer, this space and cost-efficient source water treatment unit will

Suspended monitor

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Linear

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specifically designed to tie-up the soluble iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium and silica in water, while remaining stable to about 212 degrees F.

Aqua-Mag completely inhibits corrosion caused by electrolytic action and dissolved oxygen and has the ability to dissolve exist ing deposits from systems. Savings are said to he substantial when automatically dispensing Aqua-Mag into systems by lowering chlorine demand, reducing sludge, dimin ished

bacteria

levels

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hack-

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Aqua-Mag also deposits a microscopic film corrosion. Rehab Sales

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New cathodic protection system prevents interior corrosion of steel storage tanks

chain

phosphate which comes in a

The

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phosphate solves many water treatment problems is

Circle reply card No. 155

flow/level

taken.

Developed in the United Kingdom, these units are claimed to be virtually standard in all

Aqua-Mag

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A new system has been devel inhibitors. oped by Duratron Systems Ltd. Internal corrosion protection to catbodically protect the inside is achieved on below-ground surfaces of both above and storage tanks by expanding below-ground steel storage upon the external zinc cathodic tanks from corrosion. Extremely protection system. A graphite cost-effective, it can be factory electrode is buried adjacent to installed on new tanks and used the zinc anode and attached by to retrofit existing tanks. wire to the tank's isolated While cathodic and coating bottom steel wear plate. Differ protection have virtually remov ences in electrical potentials are ed the threat of external tank such that the wear plate elec corrosion, recent studies have trode sacrifices itself to protect shown that internal corrosion, the inside surface of the tank, because of the inevitable build

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS

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Then we move to that pile of stone which we inelegantly call the trickling filter. There is a tremendous evolution in it; it takes up acres and acres of land. In place of the stone we used anthracite coal; in place of the anthracite

coal

we

are

CJ

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Comprehensive

now

using plastics.

Environmental

Then let's move to that other miracle of evolution in treat

Analyses

ment - activated sludge. It's the same old activated sludge. We must move away from the orthodox management and

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rato

Ana

178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario N2H 5M5 1-519-579-4230

treatment of waste. That is not

intended as an insult to practi tioners out there. It is intended

to warn you that there is some thing more, something differ ent, something recognizing the tremendous progress in science and technology of the last two decades, maybe even of the last five years. It was predictable in fact by the end of October 1987.

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DELCAIM

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Let me give you some examples. The Japanese have been operating for well over a year a fairly large pilot plant in

M.M. DILLON LIMITED

SIILlL©ri)

which there is no resemblance to

TORONTO

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any of the processes we use. They are producing microorgan isms previously unheard of, so arranged that they will do all of

environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto,Ontario M4G 3C2

Telephone(416)485-7715 Tax(416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie

35


Consultants for water and pollution control projects

the purification of the sewage at

Knox

a cost that is 20 percent less than the orthodox operations. They

Martin

take their cue from the fact that

in the production of beer, wine

Kretch Limited

and cheese, they have doing that for years.

Consulting Engineers, Planners. Landscape Architects. 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton .Ontario. L6T 4J5(416)459-4780

MacLaren Engineers

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Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management Consultants • Water supply, treatment & distribution • Wastewater collection, treatment, & disposal

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We

have

discovered

been micro

organisms in deep strata of the wells in our own country and elsewhere that

I

am

sure

we

never knew were there. They are marvelous consumers of waste

and we have now begun to generate them for exactly that purpose. At a recent meeting,the

subject was oil refinery waste —

• Energy from waste

• Computer sciences

• Water resources engineering

• Economic & social studies

which is difficult to handle, and

• Biological surveys

• Laboratory services

very costly. A guy came along

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lavalin

Marshall Macklln Monaghan Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

275 Duncan

Rd., Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2Y1

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paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

and said "I wouldn't do what you are intending to do -- build oil

refinery waste purification systems at astronomical costs. I would do the same thing with these well organized and manag ed microorganisms; and he did itat a fraction of the cost of the

more familiar air stripping, regen eration of carbon, filtration, and everything else." We now have an indication of in-situ removal of containments

from groundwater without ultimately losing those wells. Amazing techniques are being used, not by civil engineers, but biochemists, geneticists, and so on. The oil refinery waste exper ience is an indication of what

they are doing. There is a major company in the United States, I think a sub-

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief

division

POLLUTECH LIMITED Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

of

one

in

West

Germany, which has done something we have struggled with all our lives. They break down phenols through that new group of microorganisms. Phenols have been a first class

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The Applied Physics Labora tory, a branch of my own univer sity, Johns Hopkins, has just announced what you can do with Superfund dumps. Run two electrodes, one at one end and one at the other, run electric

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36

al currents through them under the conditions that you examine, of course, in advance, and you end up in a period of exposure with the manufacture of glass ~ non-leachable over a relatively long life expectation.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


Unfortunately, at this moment, cost data on large scale experience are not avail able. Supporting data are becoming available from other investigators. These are my reasons why you should move into a new ballpark. Now why do these microorganisms take the stage?

THE

PROCTOR & REDFERN GROUP Engineering, Planning, Architecture, Landscape Architecture 45 Green Belt Drive

Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 3K3

(416) 445-3600

It is because we have now found

in the strata of deep wells that they thrive and live apparently on nothing. More important, we find them at the bottom of the

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Engineers Architects and Planners

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988

I

37


Cost and pricing — a major CWWA concern known which of them do so, how

they do it and whether others can do similarly. The Association believes, as well, that the other side of the coin — the

By W.H. Gates, P.Eng. President, Canadian Water &

The pricing of Canada's Wastewater Association

municipal

water and

wastewater

services

is

becoming one of the industry's hottest topics of discus sion. The 1985 report of the Inquiry on Federal Water Policy(Currents of Change) noted that: When water is provided without a price attached to it, users cannot be expected to recognize the value of the resource or the costs of supplying it and of disposing of it safely once it has been used. After suggesting that the federal and provincial governments jointly agree on an appropriate means offinancing the construction and upgrading of municipal systems, the report recommended that a major study be undertaken to determine appropriate pricing struc tures.

Since then, all requests from the

provinces or municipalities for fed eral funding of infrastructure up

grading and expansion have been met with the response that raising

prices will solve municipal woes. Similarly, the concept ofa fair value

for water through realistic pricing, was made a cornerstone of the

Federal Water Policy released in November, 1987.

For its

part, the Canadian

Water & Wastewater Association

believes that adjustments to current pricing practices very well may be necessary, but it also believes that knowledge of current price structures, of the ways in which

they generate demand or preclude self-sufficiency in the industry - or even of the different ways in which they are calculated and recorded from utility to utility - is inadequate. Of course, a number of utilities do price their services so as to recover their costs, but it is not widely 38

real costs of the system — is an area in which current knowledge also is inadequate. The manager of a given system knows full well the costs of his own system, but is unlikely to have data that would permit him to compare his capital or operating costs with those of other systems. Nor is he likely to have a basis for evaluating the relative technological or economic efficiency of proposed or existing systems. Nor, to take another example, is the industry, as a whole, able at this time to gauge the financial implications of the expanding body of environmental protection legislation and regula tions.

For these reasons, CWWA has

proposed undertaking a comprehen sive study of the costs, as well as the pricing, of municipal water and wastewater systems. The main pur pose of the study would be to provide

study of some aspects of current price structures. Yet more than two years after the

publication of Currents of Change, and despite the high pro file given to the need to rely increas ingly on prices as a means offinanc ing municipal systems, nothing has been produced that would help utili ties to move towards more rational

price structures. CWWA believes that because it

represents Canada's water and wastewater utilities, it is in the best

position to direct the study and to assemble

and

assess the

data

required. In our view,the information such a study would provide is essential to meeting the increasing demands being placed on our water and wastewater systems. We feel it is imperative that utilities be able to operate from a position of know ledge about the costs involved and the prices that need to be set to meet these costs. It is unfortunate that action to

wards obtaining the necessary

a tool to facilitate cost comparisons

information has been so slow in

and a data base that could increase

coming. We intend in the coming

the efficiency of expenditures on the one hand; and that would aid in the development of rational - and pub licly-acceptable - price structures on

sively and hope, in coming issues of ES&E to be able to report some

months to pursue support aggres

success.

the other.

As proposed, the study would have eleven components, including a review of current knowledge and

practices, assessment of existing data bases, examination of existing legislation regulating utility financ ing and price-setting, methods of determining and allocating service costs, a review of the costs and bene fits of universal metering, alterna tive rate setting methods and recom mendations for their implementation. The CWWA envisions co-ordinat

ing the overall study with guidance provided by a steering committee comprising federal, provincial, municipal and public representatives. Support for the proposal is being sought from federal and provincial environment departments. In addition, participation of the Feder ation of Canadian Municipalities has been invited through its Task Force on Municipal Infrastructure. Both the federal government and the provincial governments seem generally to acknowledge the need for more information. Together, through the Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Minis

ters (CCREM) they inaugurated a

Pilot-scale studies (cont'd.)

pilot plant are being related to their physical-chemical properties in order to extrapolate the results to other SOCs.

The results of this phase (objec tive 1) of the overall study indicate that the conventional water treat

ment process can be optimized for the removal of dissolved organic carbon. However, it was found that the conventional treatment process is not effective for the removal of SOCs. Tests to evaluate the effectiveness of GAG contactors as an add-on to

the conventional treatment process for the removal of SOCs from drink

ing water (objective 2 of the overall study program) are now underway. Editor's

Note:

A

more

detailed

discussion of the pilot plant results can be found in Part B - Water Quality Research, Proceedings Technology Transfer Conference, November 30-

December 1, 1987. The Proceedings are

available

from

the

Research

Management Office, Environment Ontario.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Mar/Apr 1988


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Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March-April 1988  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March-April 1988  

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