November/december 2018 PROFESSIONAL TREE CARE FOR T REE SURGEONS
CHAMPIONING WOMEN IN ARB MEET CONSULTANT MICHELLE RYAN
B R I TA I N ’ S B AT S A R E U N D E R T H R E AT HELP THE PROTECTED SPECIES SURVIVE
INSIDE CAPEL MANOR COLLEGE
T R A I N I N G T H E N E X T G E N E R AT I O N
WHERE’S YOUR TIPPING POINT?
WHY WAST E M UST BE HANDLED RESPONSIBLY
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November /decembe r 2018 PROFESSIONAL TREE CARE FOR T REE SURGEONS
CHAM PIONI NG WOME N IN ARB
MEET CONSULTANT MICHELL E RYAN
B R I TA I N ’ S B AT S A R E U N D E R T H R E AT
november/december 2018 • Volume 5 • Issue 09
HELP THE PROTECTED SPECIES SURVIVE
INSIDE CAPEL MANOR COLLEGE
T R A I N I N G T H E N E X T G E N E R AT I O N
WHERE’S YOUR TIPPING POINT?
WHY WAST E MUST BE HANDLED RESPONSIB LY COVER.indd 1 21/11/2018 15:02
omen working in arb are surprisingly prevalent in this issue and Anna Murphy, an arboricultural officer for Derby City Council, addressed under representation and possible solutions at a recent conference. Yet judging by past generations, women are already tried and tested in the work. Last month, many Armistice Day events were held, commemorating the end of World World One. Much emphasis was rightly on the loss of life and courage of those fighting at the front. But as Anna highlighted, this was the first time women in numbers took arb jobs
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and old footage exists of them sawing logs manually as part of the war effort. Move on to World War Two and The Timber Corps – a branch of the Women’s Land Army – is set up. Their work was crucial because the German occupation of Norway caused timber shortages. ‘Lumber Jills’, chopped down trees, loaded timber onto lorries and undertook forestry management work. Flexible working opportunities, technology and increased awareness about arb roles may be a more positive reason for more women to consider the sector today. Times are changing slowly and there are some fantastic educational facilities for
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everyone who is interested in arb. Check out Capel Manor College in this issue as well as the bats and trees course provided by Place Services in Essex. I hope you enjoy the issue and as ever, your feedback is appreciated – you can email firstname.lastname@example.org and with that, there is just space to wish everyone a very happy Christmas and New Year – see you in 2019.
Ltd and may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publishers. The publishers cannot accept responsibility for loss of, or damage to, uncommissioned photographs or manuscripts. MANAGEMENT Managing Director – Jim Wilkinson Editorial Director – Lisa Wilkinson Business Development Manager – Jamie Wilkinson FOLLOW US ONLINE www.proarbmagazine.com Follow us on Twitter @ProArbmagazine Like us on Facebook Proarbmagazine Connect to our LinkedIn group Pro Arb UK For careers in arboriculture
and horticulture go to www.horticulturecareers.co.uk Every week we send out ‘Pro Arb: The Tuesday Recap’, in which we highlight the most popular news stories from the last week. If you aren’t subscribed to The Tuesday Recap but would like to be, please email Amber Bernabe at email@example.com If you would like to send us press releases to post online and potentially feature in The Tuesday Recap, please email Max Dodd at firstname.lastname@example.org
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Pro Arb | November/December 2018
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s t n e cont
/ r e b m Nove ber Decem 2018 40
news & views 6 > N ews
Updates to keep you informed
10 > N ews extra
Learning from local authority tree officers at their recent conference
14 > I nterview – Michelle Ryan
She’s the arboricultural consultant with Aecom, who’s also encouraging more women to work in arb
22 > W aste management – tip responsibly
The do’s and don’ts, plus a new directory helps find tip sites wherever you’re working
26 > E ducating tomorrow’s arborists Capel Manor’s Dave McGown is committed to bringing on the next generation
28 > T he apprentices are out in the field DC Vickers has the latest on BCA’s apprenticeship programme
30 > b usiness zone – Guide to employment status
features 18 > D r Duncan Slater’s casebook
Spotlight on some unusual examples of tree occlusion
21 > Takeaways from Cavanagh v Witley
Jonathan Hazell has some timely advice following this important ruling
If you employ anyone, you need to know this
32 > b usiness zone – Federation of Small Businesses Is this business organisation right for you?
34 > B ats – protect and survive
These protected mammals must be on the arborist’s radar
48 46 36 > P ests and diseases – The Spotty Horror Show Guidance on a perennial problem from Barlett Tree’s Glynn Percival
kit 38 > M eet the supplier
Catch up with Douglas Ghinn from Först, the leading chipper manufacturer
40 > C hristmas gift ideas A tree-mendous wishlist
44 > G et ahead, get
Options for high level protection
46 > F ocus on personal protective equipment The latest thinking on staying safe while working
48 > P roduct DNA
Power and balance – the Stihl MS 201 TC-M
51 > A ncient tree forum
Captain Lowther’s lasting legacy
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
NEWS & VIEWS
THE WINNERS OF THE 2018 TREE OF THE YEAR Northern Island Scotland
England The public voted to crown Nellie’s Tree in Aberford, Leeds, its 2018 winner. The tree was grafted from three saplings to form an N by Vic Stead who would make a daily walk to see his girlfriend Nellie. They would later marry. The winning trees for Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland are also below, going live on the BBC’s The One Show on Wednesday 17 October. The winners of each country’s Tree of the Year are: Northern Ireland: The Giant Sequoia, Castlewellan Forest Park, County Down
Wales England: Nellie’s Tree, Aberford, Leeds Scotland: Netty’s Tree, Eriskay, Outer Hebrides Wales: Pwllpriddog Oak, Rhandirmwyn, Carmarthenshire Now in its ﬁfth year, the Woodland Trust’s Tree of the Year contest aims to showcase the UK’s best trees to help drive up interest in their value and protection. The charity is now asking the public to whittle the four national winners down to ONE to represent the UK in February’s European Tree of the Year competition.
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
A ROUNDUP OF ALL THE LATEST ARBORICULTURE NEWS FROM AROUND THE UK. FOR MORE STORIES VISIT WWW.PROARBMAGAZINE.COM
LOCAL AUTHORITY COMPETITION – THE FIGHT CONTINUES Tree surgeon Jon Smith’s campaign against his local authority continues. Reading Borough Council has been pursuing tree care work that is the bread and butter of many small independent ﬁrms, such as Jon’s company, Big Heart Tree Care. Jon believes local authorities with larger resources in tree care will take on paid-for work, leaving less for independent ﬁrms. He says the high costs of advertising, such as on Google, makes it far harder for small businesses to market themselves. He also has concerns about how privatised services run by local authorities are being funded. However, Reading has denied it uses any council tax receipts for this and that capital equipment is funded via either customer payments or ‘borrowing’ under accepted practices for capital equipment. Published details are not available and the council has said a ‘commercial accounting framework’ is being established. Dave Arnold, who runs Wokingham-based Tree Solutions, is opposed to local authorities using either rate payers’ funds or
other grants to fund commercial services and he is concerned about the spread of such services. Dave says he would like to see the Federation of Small Businesses getting involved and action from the CMA. According to Sue Barnes, director with consultancy Barnes Associates and fellow of the Arboricultural Association: “It always seems unfair when a large local authority sets up in competition. They do have certain rules to abide by, apparently, but it never seems very transparent in accounting terms. “Some local authorities do this for surveying and contracting, which sometimes seems like a conﬂict of interest.” She adds: “The market should settle down in time and there should be enough work if the pricing is fair but at commercial rates.” Sue adds: “You can’t always win against the ‘big boys with big pockets’ but you can win on service and quality, which will pay oﬀ in the end. “I hope Big Heart Tree Care recovers and ﬂourishes.”
NEWS & VIEWS
EMPLOYERS SHOULD ‘ENCOURAGE WOMEN TO WORK IN ARB’ Employers were called on by a local authority tree oﬃcer to ensure they are not creating unnecessary barriers for women wanting to work in arboriculture. Women are under-represented within local authority and tree surgery work. Anna Murphy, arboricultural oﬃcer with Derby City Council, spoke at the Tree Oﬃcers’ Conference, which took place recently in Telford and has conducted research among women working in arb. She found that 60% reported practical experience was either deemed ‘essential’ or ‘desirable’, but this calls into question whether employers should be setting barriers. According to Anna: “If women are still ﬁnding it diﬃcult to ﬁnd employment as arborists or are
not coming forward into the practical side of the industry, then this will remain an issue. “Creating barriers for both men and women who may not have ever climbed a tree or pollarded is not forward looking. They may however have transferable skills and qualiﬁcations, outstanding knowledge of tree dynamics, pest and disease and great communication skills – every thing you need to be a great manager of trees in the urban environment.” She added: “More female lecturers to become mentors of young women would be beneﬁcial. She also called on brands within arb to think hard about how they portray women in advertising, saying: “Some women are professionally portrayed, others aren’t.”
SHEFFIELD COUNCIL PROPOSES DEAL TO CUT DOWN FEWER TREES
The council paused the felling temporarily in March after dozens of protesters were arrested while attempting to stop trees being chopped down. About 5,500 trees have so far been removed and replaced with saplings as part of a 25-year, £2.2bn private ﬁnance initiative deal with the contractor Amey. Under the agreement, which was signed by the Labour council in 2012, the company is tasked with maintaining the city’s roads and pavements, including its 36,000 roadside trees. The council says Amey only removes trees if they are “dangerous, dying, diseased, dead, damaging” or their roots prevent the use of wheelchairs and buggies on pavements. The protesters argue the company is chopping down healthy trees because they are more expensive and diﬃcult to maintain than young saplings. Speaking following three days of mediated talks with Amey and Sheﬃeld Tree Action Groups (Stag), which opposes the felling, Lewis Dagnall, a councillor, told the BBC the company would spend more to retain more trees. In a later statement, Dagnall said: “Sheﬃeld City Council and Amey have tabled a proposal to retain some of the 300 trees that had originally been earmarked
for replacement, and phase the work on others. Amey has proposed to fund additional engineering solutions to make this possible at no additional cost to the council. “We have also proposed that part of the way forward is for the council to develop a new street tree strategy for the city, co-produced with other stakeholders.” He said the council would give Stag a few weeks to scrutinise the proposals before opening them to a wider public consultation. In a statement, Stag said: “Sheﬃeld City Council has made a statement on TV news indicating that they have a plan for future tree fellings but giving no details. “Stag has been in conﬁdential discussions with [Sheﬃeld City Council] over the past four weeks. We continue to explore possible plans with [the council] and are committed to doing everything we can to help resolve this painful dispute between citizens and council.” The group added that it had no mandate to approve any plan put forward by the council and it was up to individual tree campaigners and groups whether they accepted the proposals. In June, a freedom of information request by the Sunday Times found more than 110,000 trees had been cut down by councils across the UK since 2015.
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
NEWS & VIEWS
£20K CRAWLEY TREE DESTROYED BY DRONE USER An oak tree in Crawley, West Sussex, and said to be worth £20,000, had to be felled after it was severely damaged by a man attempting to retrieve his drone. Police are now looking for the man and have issued a photograph of someone they are seeking to help with their enquiries. A man is understood to have been ﬂ ying the drone which became trapped in the tree The mature and healthy tree, located in Tilgate Forest Golf Centre, was damaged when the man cut into it with a chainsaw, as he tried to free the drone. He
was reported to the police by a dog walker who was on the golf course and saw the man standing near the tree, which by then had large cuts in it. A tree surgeon also called the police and reported that the tree was in a dangerous condition. Permission was granted and the tree was cut down. Local councillor Chris Mullins said: “This is a disgraceful act and a massive overreaction. I can’t understand how someone ﬂies a drone – which they didn’t have permission to do – into a tree and decides the best course
of action is to try and chop the tree down. “The estimated value of a tree this age is around £20,000 and the cost to replace it with a tree of suitable size will be high. There is considerable public sentiment that the person responsible should face justice and we are fully supporting the police investigation.”
Crawley Borough Council said it did not permit anybody to carry out unauthorised work on its trees and does not normally allow the use of, or over ﬂ ying by, drones in parks, green spaces and other council-owned land for recreational or commercial purposes. It emphasised, that in this case, no such permission was given.
HAIX BRINGS DEALERS TOGETHER AT CROATIA EVENT
Footwear manufacturer Haix brought together its dealers from across the world at a recent gathering in Zagreb, Croatia. Dealers from some 27 countries, including from Europe, Asia and South America, met to ﬁnd out more about Haix and planned launches for 2019. There was also an ‘access all areas’ factory tour, which is based in Mala Subotica. Representatives from the UK included Arco, WorkWare and Bond Safety and this was the ﬁrst time that Haix, which has
its headquarters in Bavaria, Germany, has organised such an event in its 70-year history. The brand was started by CEO Eward Hairmerl, who said he wanted to design functional ﬁre-ﬁghting boots, after ﬁnding the rubber ones he was issued with were not up to scratch. Around 1.2 million pairs of Haix footwear are now supplied to customers annually and the business can manufacture up to 10,000 pairs daily. It employs 1,300 staﬀ and has ﬁve international branches. Haix is also promoting the fact it is a ‘made in Europe’ brand, with raw materials sourced only from Europe and manufactured solely in Germany and Croatia. Simon Ash, Haix UK sales manager, said: “At Haix, everything we do is created with the end user in mind,
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
and this extends across our entire supply chain. To be able to take our key distributors from the UK to see where it all happens in Croatia was a fantastic experience. Echoing our event’s motto was ‘grow together’, we wanted to motivate our dealers and set the course for an even more successful year.” Nick McLaren, Arco’s category manager for footwear said: “This international event
demonstrated why Haix is known as a quality brand with footwear to match. The sophisticated manufacturing process ensures safety footwear excellence, and its ‘Made in Europe’ promise is a captivating campaign that shows its genuine commitment to quality to its customers. It was interesting to get an inside perspective of the shoe production and the brand’s plans for 2019.”
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NEWS & VIEWS
Lessons from the news other side extra TREE OFFICERS AND TREE SURGEONS MAY HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES, BUT THEY ALSO HAVE MUCH IN COMMON AND CAN LEARN FROM EACH OTHER, AS A RECENT CONFERENCE DEMONSTRATED
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
NEWS & VIEWS
This was the third year of the National Tree Officers’ Conference, which was held in Telford on 6 November and the event was a sell-out. Despite working in lean teams and with limited budgets and resources, record numbers came to share their expertise, experiences and to network. Some 260 delegates attended, which was a 10% increase on 2017 and 25% up on 2016. Key themes were professionalism and diversity in addition to learning from tree officers both from the UK and other countries. The event was organised by the Municipal Tree Officers Association, the London Tree Officers Association and the Institute of Chartered Foresters. The willingness to share knowledge was evident and there was certainly plenty of relevance for all those working in arboriculture.
Andy McCutcheon, principal environment services officer for Guernsey, depicting some of his challenges of maintaining tree health in the densely populated Crown dependency. The island has been impacted by Dutch elm disease and ash dieback but one of the biggest threats is the Asian hornet, an invasive species which kills bees. This insect is causing a huge amount of concern because bee numbers are already dwindling and they are vital for pollination of many crops. Although isolated numbers of Asian hornets have been seen in the UK, as yet, no nests have been discovered, unlike in Guernsey and efforts are underway to try and eradicate the insect. Protection is a priority Next, Andrew Igoea, arboricultural officer from the Isle of Man Government, explained that there is a strong commitment to
ensuring trees survive for the long term and this is promoted through the island’s Tree Preservation Act. Trees are granted a basic level of protection that states those with a stem diameter greater than 8cm measured at a point 1.5m above ground level must be licensed by the Department of Environment, Food & Agriculture (DEFA) if they are to be felled. It is possible to remove or prune branches provided it does not result in the demise or death of a tree. However, even more stringent rules are applied to registered trees, which applies to those with significant amenity value and in these cases, no work of any kind can be undertaken with permission from the authorities. Those who damage trees recklessly by illegally felling or limbing can be up to £20,000 per tree. Attendees based in the UK were able to pick up a number of
differences and similarities to their own situations. So, somewhat surprisingly, it was revealed that Guernsey has tight budgets for its tree spend and is in part reliant on volunteering to plant and protect trees. Guernsey’s Trees for Life project is one example which has also sought to encourage people to give up their time and get involved and bring in private sector investment. Meanwhile, the Isle of Man’s tough rules certainly appealed to those who wanted to see the UK introduce more effective protection. Tree surgeons are largely private sector, but some are employed directly by local authorities or are contracted by them. There is no doubt that the impact of the massive government cuts has affected both those working in-house and those relying on work – recent years have been enormously challenging.
Insight from overseas The international element included a presentation from Denmark’s Lars Schultz-Christensen, a tree officer who leads a team that cares for urban trees in Copenhagen. He had conducted a scientific study showing the impact of GIS mapping and irrigation bags on young tree stock and the remarkable difference this made to their growth. Certainly, at its simplest, the message for those charged with planting, is that tree health, particularly in urban areas, calls for a planned approach to include a wide variety for biodiversity, a commitment to ensure that watering is delivered accurately and with regular measurements taken to gauge effectiveness. There was also insight from warmer climes, with
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 11
NEWS & VIEWS
Austerity bites Russell Horsey, senior arboricultural officer for Bristol City Council emphasised that austerity was still very much in force within local government. He said he had chosen to work as proactively as possible, which included working with politicians of all affiliations and with other departments and organisations to secure more funding. “If we can work with departments like health and transport we should secure more funding for trees – as Defra’s budget will go down even further.” One successful initiative came via a transport infrastructure project where some £11.6 million of funding came for trees to be planted along cycle lanes and a bus upgrading project that resulted in a further £550,000 for new trees, or nearly 20 times his annual tree-planting budget. “Trees slow traffic down and increasing bus usage and more cycling all brings benefits for Bristol,” he said.
North Somerset has also been subject to severe austerity with a 50% cut in its budget and being required to manage 300,000 trees on £150,000 a year and with just three tree surgeons to assist. According to principal tree officer, Linda Saretok, the priority is now on risk management and seeking to avoid harm as far as possible. Diseases under the microscope Many tree surgeons will be required to fell trees affected by serious conditions such as ash dieback, also known as Chalara. But, learning about these conditions is important in order to advise those who may be affected and also to learn about developments in disease management. Tom Russell-Grant, arboricultural and woodland officer for Norwich County Council said budget restraints had made assessing trees harder but that inventory management was essential to monitor the spread of
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
the disease which is a particular issue in Norfolk as the UK’s first case of the pathogen was identified there in 2012. He said the disease continued to spread but was not rampant. The council has a strategy to fell those trees where there is a 75% or more canopy loss. But, notably, it is also keeping a very close watching brief on those trees that appear able to tolerate or resist infection – this is viewed as of vital scientific importance to help scientists
develop resistant ash trees for the future. “The thing not to do is to cut down existing trees. They are the gene pool for the future.” Local authorities are increasingly relying on additional ways to raise revenue to support their natural resources and Philip Louis, tree and woodlands officer with the London Borough of Bexley explained that volunteer and community involvement was also important at Lesnes Abbey Woods, an 87 hectare site in the south east of London. It too is focused on biosecurity as the historic woodland has been hit with numerous diseases including sudden oak death, acute oak decline, sweet chestnut blight, ash dieback, gall wasps and oak processionary moth. It was clear that tree officers will need more evidence and that saving money, whether in staffing, on procurement and technology systems is an entrenched way of working. For tree surgeons equally, there are no indications that any rise in work will be coming their way, but this event did highlight the professionalism and resourcefulness of those who do the very necessary job of a local authority tree officer. Images ©ICF/Rob Hawkins
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A woman’s place is...
working with trees! MICHELLE RYAN HAS A REWARDING CAREER AS AN ARBORICULTURAL CONSULTANT AND THROUGH HER WORK WITH THE ARBORICULTURAL ASSOCIATION SHE IS ENCOURAGING OTHER WOMEN TO EXPLORE THEIR CAREER OPTIONS IN THIS SECTOR TOO
his June, Michelle Ryan became chair of the Women in Arboriculture Group, which is run by the Arboricultural Association. This is a new special interest group and it aims to engage with women working with trees at all levels in areas such as tree surgery, consultancy, academics, suppliers, tree oﬃcers and support staﬀ. Michelle is already on AA’s board and its education and training committee. The idea for the group came about early in the year and one of its key aims is to raise awareness – as the lack of this is a big problem – about the range of career options and also bring women together who are already in the ﬁeld. The group will work with schools and colleges, help with work experience placements and promote the achievements of women. Spreading the word The group is also seeking volunteers to help spread the word, change perceptions and to get involved in areas such as: • promoting the industry • visiting schools and colleges • developing the mentor programme • supporting those with less experience • sharing knowledge • standing up for those who are being subjected to discrimination.
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
Michelle Ryan Interview.indd 14
The most recent survey on AA membership (from 2016) showed only 13% were female and even though the number of females on college courses is rising, it is only a gradual increase. ‘I know this from my own experience at university that far more girls chose horticulture, but actually, there are some fantastic opportunities within arb and there is a lot of variety. You also don’t need a degree and there is a lot of scope to study while you work – how far you go is up to you, and that includes up
Diﬀerent entry points There are plenty of diﬀerent routes to working with trees, from graduate entry, apprenticeships or for some, a job may become available straight from school. But, there is no doubt that with so many excellent further education courses available, that some study will pay oﬀ. Michelle says: “After completing a BTEC National Diploma in Horticulture, I knew I wanted to progress further into higher education and took a full
There are plenty of different routes to working with trees, from graduate entry, apprenticeships or for some, a job may become available straight from school to a PhD. What’s more, because there is a shortage of qualiﬁed people there is a very good chance of ﬁnding employment.” As far as work goes, she says there should be no barriers: “Look at Bo Hammarstrand, she’s a Swedish arborist who works in the UK and Sweden, is an NPTC trainer and assessor, a climbing competitor and head judge of the UK 3ATC climbing competitions.”
honours degree at Myerscough College, part of the University of Central Lancashire.” She says anyone thinking of doing the same needs to be aware that while it contains practical elements, it is a BSc and as such, is academically rigorous. “It was really enjoyable but hard work – a lot of study and while there was use of tools, it certainly felt like a degree. Overall, being in a minority as a female wasn’t
NEWS & VIEWS
Swinging into action: Swedish climber Boel Hammarstrand ©Pedro Gredos Pérez Almería a problem as there was a good mix of people on the course.” But once graduated, Michelle came across a stumbling block common to many entering the world of work – many employers want practical experience and being able to drive and owning a car were also common requirements. “I had not realised how hard it would be to get my first arb job. I ended up getting an office manager role, with the sole intention of saving some money and getting my driving test out of the way.” On the road to success A year later and now with a car, Michelle secured her first arb role, working as an arboricultural technician for consultancy JCA. “It was only when I started work that I realised how much there was still to learn, in fact with trees, you never stop learning.” Much of the work involved a wide variety of surveys, covering areas such as subsidence, safety, mortgages and development. Michelle worked in urban and rural locations to gain a wide range of experience, then moved to environmental planning consultants, Tyler Grange. It was here that she gained knowledge of the planning system, including high-level site appraisals, TPO objections, site monitoring, BS5837: 2012 reports, impact assessments
and comprehensive method statements. For her next career move, she joined AECOM, a global, US-owned infrastructure company. “This was an exciting role and once you have a foot in the door, moving onto roles within arb becomes much easier, as you build your experience and confidence.” Her current role includes working on a wide variety of projects including condition surveys, impact assessments and tree protection guidance. Michelle has also worked at quarries, coastal defences, heritage sites, flood alleviation schemes and on high-rise construction and demolition projects.
Michelle has also developed considerable understanding of the complexities of the planning system. “If you are working in consultancy, you need to be up to speed with planning and understand the process and terminology, things like local plans, development consent orders – this is essential.” She has also noted the pressures many local authorities are under. “There are some excellent tree officers I work with but it can be tough for them with budget cuts etc. For many the emphasis is more often than not on firefighting, rather than having the necessary funds to be as pro-active as they would like.”
Major clients Michelle has also worked for clients including Transport for London, the Environment Agency and Highways England. She has also gained expertise in drawing and reviewing CAD plans, producing quotes and mentoring less experienced employees. Her focus now is on continuing to develop her knowledge and she says one of the best parts of the job is that, “there is no typical day. I get to spend a lot of time outdoors – just recently I monitored the tree protection fencing for one of Newton’s apple trees at the National Physical Laboratory, but this is also balanced with being indoors writing reports and quotes.”
Advocating for trees But Michelle’s own role is not without its challenges. “I’m passionate about trees and want to raise understanding about how important they are and to preserve them. I try to ensure that I am always giving my clients the best advice with a focus on tree retention wherever possible. But, I will often be dealing with people who want to get rid of them. Sometimes trees do need to be felled and you have to accept that, it’s important to be pragmatic. At the same time, it’s also encouraging that more people are realising how much trees add in terms of value to homes, businesses and people’s lives.”
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 15
F I R S T
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S E R U FEAT / r e b November Decem 2018
18 > Dr Duncan Slater’s casebook Objects in trees – the phenomenon of occlusion
21 > A court case to consider
Jonathan Hazell on why Cavanagh v Witley is a cautionary tale
22 > Recycling rights and fly-tipping wrongs
It’s an unavoidable by-product of the job but are you managing waste correctly?
26 > Inspiring education – inside Capel Manor A college focused on bringing on the next generation
28 > The apprentices get out and about
Field trips and expert presentations bring learning to life
30 > Business zone – A question of status Peninsula’s Alan Price on why understanding employees’ status is crucial
32 > Business zone – Is the FSB right for you?
Check out the trade association for small ﬁrms
34 > Be aware of bats
Why arborists need to be fully briefed on these protected mammals
36 > The Spotty Horror Show
Bartletts’ Glynn Percival on the challenges of leaf spot diseases
FEATURES COVER.indd 21
One of my interests is how trees can grow and ‘swallow up’ other objects: this process is known as ‘occlusion’ and our urban trees have been found occluding all sorts of odd objects – park benches, bicycles and golf balls. I have quite a few images of trees that have occluded metal railings or part of a wire fence, which happens quite frequently on low-maintenance or neglected sites.
MANY TREES WHICH SHOULD BE ENHANCING URBAN LANDSCAPES ARE SADLY NEGLECTED; DR DUNCAN SLATER IS CALLING FOR CHANGE
Much at stake This example of extreme neglect is a car-park birch tree (Betula pendula Roth.) It must have been in contact with its supporting stake for several years for this level of occlusion to occur. This has malformed the stem of the tree – not a good start for a tree that could potentially be in place for several decades. Our urban forests consist of a wide range of trees and shrubs in various planting locations – gardens, parks, street trees and landscaped areas. In my experience, this problem of neglect is most often seen on
commercial and privately-owned sites. Typically, some money is put into the initial landscaping scheme to fulﬁl the conditions set in the planning permission for the development, but little money is invested into the future care of these the planted trees and shrubs in the future. If we are serious about the value of our urban forests and if we intend to enhance them for future generations to enjoy, then things need to change. We need to ensure retail parks and other commercial landscaped areas receive the
level of maintenance needed to produce good quality tree stock on these sites. There is much at stake here – the future ‘greenness’ of our towns and cities has, to some extent, been handed over to commercial companies as they develop within our towns and cities. We should insist tree planting and maintenance is part of any such development, so we end up with well-greened urban areas, not just slabs of concrete, patches of tarmac and empty pits where the trees used to be.
Duncan Slater is senior lecturer in arboriculture at Myerscough College
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
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Sitting on the fence
Occlusion of objects can result in some interesting biomechanical changes in trees. Pictured here is a sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) that has occluded an old Victorian park railing, with the sequence showing a ‘time lapse’ over 10 years. The growth rate of the tree has slowed, as it is mature, so not that much of the railing has come to be occluded over the last decade.
However, if you look at the diameter of the trunk of the tree above the railing and compare it with the trunk’s diameter below the railing, it is clear 10 years on that there has been a change. By ‘sitting on the fence’, the upper part of the trunk has grown more, and the highly-supported lower side of the trunk has not grown half as much. This is due to a lack of mechanical
stimulation of the trunk below the occlusion of the metal rail – this additional support has ‘switched off’ the process known as ‘Thigmomorphogenesis’ – Thigmo for short – in the tree’s lower trunk. Thigmo is a complicated word for the way in which a tree acclimates to the forces and loading that it senses. By resting on this metal rail for decades, the lower part of this tree does
not match up with the strength needed to hold up the upper part of the tree, becoming more and more reliant on the railing for support, which could lead to problems if the railing rusts away or is damaged. This is a good example of Thigmo in action but oddly, although scientifically validated and taught to plant scientists on a regular basis, the scientific work in this area has not properly filtered through to arboricultural textbooks and articles. I believe it should be part of the curriculum of all advanced arboricultural educational courses. In particular, a good understanding of Thigmo can really help an arborist interpret what is happening to the structure of a tree and what can be done to prevent an unwanted failure.
Plane gets a grilling The image shows a London plane tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.) that has, for many years, been absorbing a metal grill that acted as a small ornamental barrier at the base of the planting, which probably had flowering plants in at some point, before the tree’s trunk grew wider and occluded this metalwork. Many people find images like this intriguing as it looks like the tree growth has ‘flowed’ over the object. The early stages of
DUNCAN SLATER.indd 19
secondary growth in trees does produce soft tissues, which are made rigid later in the process, which helps to explain this appearance of a ‘gloopy’ or flowing material. Wood, when mature, is relatively stiff – but the
cambium that produces it is a set of very soft-walled cells. I enjoyed sharing this image at conference talks in New York State and Ontario, Canada last month. In particular, because I told them that this is how British
arboriculturists make sure that a tree can never be felled: allow a big metal grill to be absorbed into the base of a tree like this, and it is permanently chainsaw-proof. For a moment, the audience believed me!
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Choked up When I saw this dead limb in a sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) growing in Alexandra Park, Manchester, there was something about the interface between the dead limb and the rest of the tree that made me look more closely: the shape around the attachment was wrong. On closer inspection, I could see the ‘choke chain’, as pictured. A chain had been wrapped around the base of the limb some considerable time before and the tree had tried to occlude it but had failed. The limb has essentially been throttled now. Why anyone would put a chain up there, I don’t know, but it caused the death of a good third of this tree. The girdling of a tree by wire, string, washing-line or chain can sometimes just result in the occlusion of the girdling object – this process may leave some
marks on the bark, or you can see a bit of the washing line sticking out of the stem, but it has little consequence to the ongoing life and structure of the tree. In other instances, it’s quite the opposite – the stem or branch of the tree fails to occlude around the object and the part above the obstruction dies off because it gets throttled. To my mind, there are two key factors involved in whether trees get throttled in this way or not. In young and vigorous trees, secondary growth is rapid, so young trees are much more likely to fully occlude a length of wire or string than a mature tree that is growing very slowly – so the age and growth-rate of the tree is the first key factor. The second factor is that it matters how broad and wide the girdling object is: the thinner it is,
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DUNCAN SLATER.indd 20
the more likely it is that the tree will occlude it with only minor harm – the wider and thicker it is, the more likely it is to cause major damage or ‘throttle’ that part of the tree. To prove the influence of that second factor, I recently set up a rather cruel experiment in a set of young birch trees, putting different diameter cable ties around their main stem at eye level, to see what thickness of cable tie they will readily occlude and which cable tie is too broad and ends up strangling the tops of the trees. One year into this experiment and parts of some of the smallest diameter cable ties are already occluded into the stems of some of these birch trees. Why be so cruel to these trees? What could such an experiment hope to show? Well, it’s no joke: there is a modern trend to strap Christmas
lights and other ornamental lights to trees in the UK (and elsewhere) and they are often strapped to the trees by cable ties. I have seen quite a lot of damage done by this practice, so this experiment will hopefully highlight how damaging this is and what can happen to cable ties around the branches and stems of amenity trees. This casebook is full of examples where trees have been neglected and thus bad things happen to them. Young tree plantings on private commercial sites in particular can receive low levels of maintenance or none at all, unfortunately. If you are a bit of an ‘urban tree watcher’, you will notice the dead and dying trees in supermarket car parks and around retail and commercial sites in your local area on a regular basis.
A cautionary case VIEWS
J O N AT H A N HAZELL
he following musings arise from the recent Court of Appeal judgement, Cavanagh v Witley Parish Council, and serve to illustrate a few different points which follow my simple mantra – define, design, deliver. In January 2012, after stormy weather during the night, a lime tree some 25–30m high, fell and collided with a bus being driven on the adjoining A283, and the claimant was badly injured. The tree had been subject to inspections every three years, and in 2006 and 2009 no defects were present. The initial judgement was that the cause of the failure was a fungal decay that had begun to develop after the 2009 inspection. Why being specific matters I took away a number of thoughts from my reading of both the initial judgement and the subsequent appeal, the most obvious being that the case deliberated over and decided upon a point of law. Something that should be remembered when responding to a client’s brief is to be specific.
Jonathon Hazell.indd 21
THE LEGAL ACTION FOLLOWING AN ACCIDENT INVOLVING A TREE QUESTIONS THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THOSE CONDUCTING SURVEYS AND THE NEED FOR ABSOLUTE CLARIT Y ON WHAT WORK WILL BE DELIVERED So, what do I mean by that? In this case the client specifically asked for information about this particular tree, and it was apparent that the inspection did not fully respond to that element of the brief and the consequences, whatever the cause, were dramatic and regrettable. So, if you are helping to define the scope of a project – and not simply an enterprise-wide tree survey, be clear and rule in and rule out what you will and will not be doing. Again, in this particular case, the initial judgement decided that a rigid three-year cyclical inspection for the parish council’s trees was inadequate.
neighbour, then try to incorporate that flexibility within the brief. Survey questioned The design of the survey was questioned in the initial case and the judgement was that rather than a uniform three-year cycle
In general terms, the accepted good practice within the professional arboricultural community is to be evidence-led In general terms, the accepted good practice within the professional arboricultural community is to be evidence-led. In other words, if the condition of one tree suggests to a competent arboricultural professional that it needs to be assessed in and out of leaf, or more frequently than its
of inspection regardless of the tree’s position, age or condition, “what was required here was distinction.” I often suggest that subsequent inspections are carried out at a different time of year to see the tree in different circumstances, in high summer to look at the
canopy, in autumn to look for fungal fruiting bodies, in winter to look at the architecture and in spring to look for vigour. Again, remember this flexibility when considering the design of your response to other briefs. In terms of delivery, a misunderstanding that is reported in the initial judgement was the meaning of “No works” – I have said before how important I think it is to ensure that when you report to your client you provide them with enough information in a usable format to pass over the liability and responsibility for your findings, and for any works that you suggest may be necessary. You do not want to have to try to explain what you meant before the court. Jonathan Hazell is an arboricultural consultant. jhazell.com
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 21
Whether tipping or recycling
– take the right route
Bullman’s directory is based on experience
DEALING WITH WASTE IS A KEY PART OF THE DAY JOB AND HANDLED WELL, IT CAN PROVIDE AN EXTRA LINE OF BUSINESS. OUR GUIDE OUTLINES HOW TO STAY COMPLIANT AND ALSO FOCUSES ON A NEW TIP SITE DIRECTORY, WHICH PROMISES TO BE A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR THE ARBORIST COMMUNITY
he vast majority of tree surgeons take their responsibilities for dealing with waste seriously and certainly for many, selling logs and woodchips can be a valuable source of income. But, a number of incidents this year show that not all follow the rules. Damaging the environment and reputations Flouting the law can result in serious consequences with prosecutions and extremely damaging publicity can follow. In October, Richard Carrington of Stump Up, based in Macclesﬁeld, was ordered to pay £3,085 in ﬁnes for ﬂy tipping and ordered to carry out 100 hours’ unpaid community work, following prosecution by Cheshire East Council’s community enforcement team.
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
Carrington pleaded guilty to knowingly depositing controlled waste without an environmental permit, when he appeared at South Cheshire Magistrates’ Court. He had dumped waste on land oﬀ the A34 at Moreton, near Congleton. Spotted tipping Carrington was spotted by a local farmer when unloading his tipper truck in a ﬁeld, leaving a pile of felled timber, wood chip, a brokenup wooden gate and protective workwear, including goggles and masks. He was also challenged by a member of the public, who used his vehicle to block Carrington from leaving the scene and police were called. According to local councillor, Janet Clowes: “Fly-tipping is a blight on our countryside and
this council will not hesitate to prosecute. I want to express my sincere thanks to the local farmer and members of the public who took action to ensure this individual was caught in the act and who called the police. The heavy ﬁne in this case sends out a strong message that the courts, as well as the council, take ﬂy-tipping extremely seriously.” Caught on CCTV In June and July, tree surgeon Darren Pasque and his nephew Christopher Pasque, went before the courts after being caught ﬂy-tipping twice by hidden cameras. The pair were on Salthouse Heath a 99-hectare Norfolk coastal heathland, home to rare plants and wildlife including adders, lizards, hares, roe dear and uncommon bird
Fly-tipping – the facts • Fly-tipping is the illegal disposal of household, industrial, commercial or other ‘controlled’ waste without a waste management licence and can be liquid or solid • For the 2016/17 year, local authorities in England dealt with around one million ﬂy-tipping incidents, a 7% increase from the previous year • Two thirds (67%) of ﬂy-tips involved household waste, increasing by 8% from 2015/16 • The estimated cost of clearance for ﬂy-tipping to local authorities in England in 2016/17 was £57.7 million • Local authorities are responsible for investigating, clearing and taking appropriate enforcement action in relation species such as linnet, tree creeper, kestrel, red kite, buzzard and the turtle dove. Darren Pasque, who runs Gresham-based Tree Matters, was ﬁlmed illegally dumping waste on the heath, but the local council had installed covert cameras after people had complained about ﬂy-tipping. Christopher Pasque pleaded guilty to being the owner of a vehicle from which waste was deposited and was ﬁned £130, with a victim surcharge of £30 and a contribution to costs of £534.25. Darren Pasque was ﬁned £400 and £564.25 in other costs. Darren Pasque told the court that a customer had said it was permissible to leave green waste on the heath, but admitted he had been foolish to rely on that information. Cliﬀord Large, chairman of Salthouse Heath trustees, said: “Fly-tipping is a stain on the countryside and leaves us with signiﬁcant clean-up costs. I’m delighted this prosecution was successful, and I hope it acts as a warning.” What is green waste? The waste most tree surgeons create is ‘green’ and is mostly ‘arisings’ as waste wood is known. It comes from felling and other tree work and when providing other garden services. The waste is biodegradable and high in nitrogen – as opposed to brown waste, which
to small scale ﬂy-tipping on public land • The Environment Agency is responsible for dealing with larger-scale ﬂy- tipping (more than a lorry load), hazardous waste and ﬂy-tipping by organised gangs • It is normally the responsibility of the landowner to remove the waste and dispose of it on private land. Local authorities and the Environment Agency have legal powers to require landowners to do this • Fly-tipping is a criminal oﬀence punishable by a ﬁne of up to £50,000 or 12 months’ imprisonment if convicted in a Magistrates’ Court. The oﬀence can attract an unlimited ﬁne and up to ﬁve years imprisonment if convicted in a Crown Court. There are also ﬁxed penalty notices and having a vehicle seized. has high levels of carbon. It falls into three categories – woodchip, timber and nonchippable waste, the latter often comes from hedge trimmings and sweepings that may contain soil and be unsuitable to go into a standard chipper, since it could damage the blades. However, after being processed, this is then often used as biomass fuel at power stations. Because green waste is biodegradable, it can be broken down into its base compounds
by other organisms and so it is valuable for the ecosystem – it should not be sent to landﬁll. Woodchip is useful for gardens but needs to be stored for several months and composted before being used as mulch. If used too early, it can have an adverse eﬀect on plants because the nitrogen required for the bacteria that breaks down the wood is removed from the soil. The law and waste Waste materials generated through work must be disposed of safely as laid out in the Environmental Protection Act 1990. Tree surgeons must register with the appropriate authority to obtain a licence, whether they sell or dispose of their waste or have someone else do it for them. This is either the Environment Agency, Natural Resources Wales, the Northern Ireland Environment Agency or the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Types of licence There are two types of licence – lower and upper tier. Lower tier relates to waste generated as a result of a job, the licence is free and lasts indeﬁnitely. An upper tier licence relates to non-green waste, so tree surgeons who also do other work, such as fencing or hard landscaping would need this. The waste
Messy business: Cheshire East secured a prosecution
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 23
could be items such as old fence panels, paving slabs or soil. An upper tier registration lasts for three years and costs £154.00 for new applications and £105.00 for renewal applications. Details also need to be updated if address or management details change, a change of business services or if someone in management is convicted of an environmental offence. Arborists are allowed to treat waste wood by chipping, shredding, cutting or pulverising, as this makes it easier to store and transport. Rules also state it is permissible to treat or store up to 500 tonnes of waste over any seven-day period and for up to three months after treatment. It is also permissible to burn waste of plant tissue and untreated wood in the open of up Tree surgeons stop gang dumping waste Two tree surgeons have received widespread praise for helping catch a gang of fly-tippers. Callum Chase, 25, and brother Connor, 23, spotted three men unloading mattresses and chairs from a van in Kensworth, Bedfordshire. The tree surgeons stopped and confronted the men who denied they were doing anything wrong. The brothers were then joined by their boss and two other passing workmen, who used their vans to box in the fly-tippers. They spent the next two hours waiting for police and ensured the waste was put back in the van. The local council is now investigating with a view to taking possible legal action.
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
to 10 tonnes of waste in any 24-hour period. An exemption allows up to 20 tonnes of waste at any one time to be stored and for waste to be stored for up to six months before burning, to allow certain wood waste to dry out. Burning must take place on open land, not in an incinerator or a building and not cause nuisance to neighbours. Not registering could result in a fine of £5,000 being issued. Recycling – a valuable new resource Most arborists are environmentally conscious and will also look to sell any by-products locally, so as to avoid excessive road transport. But, some jobs do involve travelling and where there is unfamiliarity with an area, the Arbtalk Tip Site Directory is set to prove invaluable. Callum said: “The first hour was almost a constant argument with the men, about why they couldn’t be fly-tipping and not realising at all why they were doing something wrong. We’d say, ‘no you are not allowed to do that’, and they’d reply, ‘But there is rubbish already here’ – there were beer bottles, bags, etc. “They kept saying they didn’t do it all, only the mattresses and the chair. “One of the men, who was in the van, panicked, and started reversing, but my brother was leaning against the van to stop it.” Police took the men’s details and statements which were then passed to Central Bedfordshire Council.
According to Steve Bullman, who founded Arbtalk and is also an arborist: “As an arborist of 22 years I’m all too aware of the need to offload vehicles part way through the day. This is not a problem when working locally, but for companies working outside of their usual area, a place to unload can make a massive difference to the job. You might need to offload part way through the day to be able to fit all their wood chips or timber in. Having somewhere local to tip can make the difference between a job getting done or not.” He adds: “In many cases, the best-case scenario is when you have an hour to spend hunting round the local area, knocking at farmers’ doors. But, in the worst-case scenario, you don’t get the job finished and this is where the tip site directory comes in. “The idea is to save tree surgeons time by putting them in touch with people in need of wood chippings and timber near them. This is a UK first – there is an American version which is similar but has limited coverage in the UK.” The directory launched on 19 October, taking over a year to develop and is being sponsored by Timberwolf. It initially had 800 tip sites listed, but since its launch, a further 50 have been added, with new ones being included daily. “I’d encourage people to keep checking back if they don’t see anything on their first visit as its always changing.” How the directory works The listings, which can be easily searched, are made up of a variety of sites, from recycling sites, to farms and equestrian centres, allotments and homeowners. Steve adds: “Many of the tip sites have listed specific things they will or will not accept. Users should make sure they read through the listing thoroughly and give the tip site owner an honest account of what you propose to tip before arriving.” He continues: “Feedback is important so we can continue to improve the directory and the best way is to leave a review each time you visit a tip site – this can be found at the bottom of each listing. “In addition, we welcome feedback on how we can improve the directory and any features you think we should implement in future.”
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Bringing on the
next generation FOR THOSE WHO WANT TO WORK WITH TREES, BEING A STUDENT AT CAPEL MANOR COLLEGE OPENS THE DOOR TO MANY OPPORTUNITIES
apel Manor is London’s only landbased college with ﬁve campuses spread out across the capital. For those wanting to work in arboriculture and a taste of London life, this is the place to be. Arboricultural education is based at Bullsmoor Lane, Enﬁeld, a 74-acre parkland setting in London’s north east. Arboriculture courses are also held on the Crystal Palace campus and at Gunnersbury Park. Arboriculture team leader Dave McGown has been in the role for ﬁve years. Dave has a gift for teaching and apart from his academic qualiﬁcations, has plenty of experience at the sharp end too – he is a former tree surgeon and had run his own business, based in Dumfries and Galloway. He ﬁrst began working in education in 2013, when he took on work at Capel Manor as an
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
NPTC assessor for the Level 2 and 3 Trees and Timber apprenticeship, looking at safety and developing learning both at college and in the workplace. “I was asked to participate in lectures, but initially was not sure it was for me – but I gained conﬁdence and found teaching rewarding and I wanted to develop my career in education.” Accordingly, Dave moved out of tree surgery to become a full-time educator, taking a teaching qualiﬁcation at the University of Greenwich. He is now involved in a range of courses, including full time, part time, short and an apprenticeship programme. Capel Manor was involved in the development of the new Arborist Standard, which launched last year and now has 36 students currently on the programme.
Apprenticeships in action He says the quality of the apprenticeship is excellent and it has a high retention rate. “It’s a great way to be earning – the pay is a bit above the minimum for apprentices – but also to gain all round experience and to have the support of the college and the other apprentices when they get together.” Dave also works closely with the employers who take on the apprentices. “They are really important and we have some excellent employers who make sure the apprentices learn on the job and are well looked after, while we interact with them and provide structured training when they are on day release.” Areas covered would include gaining knowledge around tree care, including planting, maintenance and pests and diseases, equipment such as chippers and tools, legislation and planning. For those who want to run a tree surgery business, Capel Manor also oﬀers a business management module, providing the basics on
Capel’s ﬁrst-rate facilities enable students to practise their chainsaw skills competence such as legal matters, insurance and quoting for business. “I can often tell at an early stage who will be motivated to have their own businesses, whereas others might want to work for someone else, at least initially, to gain some experience.” Dave adds qualiﬁcations and raising awareness matters. “Consumers should be able to recognise an arborist is someone with skills and knowledge and they don’t get work by knocking on doors. You don’t get someone oﬀ the street to come in and ﬁx your boiler and equally, someone who is unqualiﬁed should not be working on a tree. At worst, there could be a serious accident and the homeowner may be liable.” He believes now is the right time to consider arboriculture. “The tree surgery route, whether on the ground or climbing is one route as is working as a tree oﬃcer for a local authority. But, there’s growing emphasis on urban trees and this creates opportunities. When you have developments, trees are often a core part of this and people who understand how to select, plant and care for trees.” Last year, research showed there were only around 38 suitably qualiﬁed applicants for every 100 arboricultural jobs available. Jobs galore He points out that London National Park City, which launches next May, is an example of an initiative that puts the value of trees ﬁrmly on the map. This is a range of projects which aims
to make London “greener, healthier and wilder” with an aim to make more than half of the city’s area green and involving planners, developers and volunteers to plant more trees, protect wildlife and encourage more people to enjoy being outdoors. As for the students, being outdoors is a big part of the job, and Dave says: “Doing an arb course does involve study, but the reasons many choose this area is because they don’t want to be stuck in a classroom all day. I grab any opportunity to get outdoors with the students and love to make teaching fun.” Chainsaws and climbing, of course, do have plenty of appeal for some, although there is great attention paid to safety and most aerial work comes typically at a level 3 (advanced) stage. “Obviously, you get some horror stories, but I focus on how to use tools and climb safely and this is something we build up as the students progress.’ He adds that modern teaching looks to provide students with a range of experiences, so whether on a full-time course or apprenticeship, there are opportunities to meet suppliers of equipment and go on site visits. There is also growing use of survey technology and CAD models as those working with trees are increasingly using these to gather and analyse data and map trees, as well as diagnose diseases. Climb to the top At Capel Manor, there are also superb facilities at the Bartlett Arboricultural Training Centre, a £600,000 facility which includes a challenging indoor climbing wall, climbing tree, laboratory and workshops. “We have a close connection with Bartlett Tree Experts and it’s wonderful having support from them,” says Dave. Having top notch facilities does help create enthusiasm and Dave says he has seen some students start to develop a love of learning which did not exist previously. “I didn’t always enjoy school and never saw myself as academic – I preferred sports and being outside. But, once I got into a subject I enjoyed at college, your attitude changes and you start ﬂying with the study aspects.” He adds each year a growing number of female students take arboriculture courses. “It’s a male-dominated industry, but the female
students are excellent and very driven – they keep male student on their toes.” One apprentice, Annie Price, is a student member of the Arboriculture Association, who works for High Elms Tree Surgery. She was a winner at Capel Manor’s student awards last year for improvement and she is now in full-time employment in the industry, with high ﬂying ambitions, having commented: “As much as I love being a groundie and doing the work with the branches using a chipper and the groundsaws, my ultimate goal is to one day be a climber; being up in the trees is the fun side of the work and where I really want to be.”
Apprentices taking part in the Arboriculture Association student climbing competition Dave adds that there are also opportunities for those later in life to learn and change job roles. “I have someone on the apprenticeship programme who is 36 and was worried it was too late – it isn’t. There is a perception that a lot of work is felling trees and climbing, but there are many other roles. And ﬁnally, he points to the example of an 86-year-old who recently came on a chainsaw maintenance course with his grandson. “There is always time to learn and we should keep doing this – I’m a good example of that.”
A Capel Manor College student reaching new heights as he perfects his climbing skills
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 27
Tasting all that
trees can offer ARBORICULTURE IS A MULTI-FACETED SECTOR AND THE APPRENTICES HAVE BEEN ENJOYING A SUPERB RANGE OF INSIGHTS INTO IT OF LATE, AS DC VICKERS REPORTS
VIEWS DC V IC K E R S
elivering the arborist apprenticeship oﬀering at BCA has it advantages and disadvantages. On the downside, before I started there in March earlier this year, there was no provision at all for arboriculture and that meant that if we were to oﬀer it, then I would have to write it. Still, the ﬂipside to that was that as there was no provision, I could write it from scratch and this was a fantastic opportunity to include the most up-to-date information I could ﬁnd. But I think the biggest thing, for me at least, was the rekindling of my enthusiasm for the subject. Tree staking rules Since the last update, the apprentices have started the planting and aftercare module, which took a broad-brush look at planting suitable trees for the environment, tree staking and tree protection.
Mike Glover, managing director of Barcham Trees, talks to the apprentices during a recent visit It would be fair to say that I became a little obsessive over tree staking and I took a series of images while on holiday in the South of France to show the apprentices. A beautiful, shade-giving treelined avenue was all I needed to stop the car, jump out and highlight the fact that the trees had had tarmac laid right up to the stem; I thought this was going to be ideal for the course, even if my wife was less than impressed.
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DC Vickers.indd 28
Assessing at the Big Rescue Meanwhile on 14 September, I was invited to be an instructor/ assessor at the recent Big Rescue
NPTC 206/306 (old CS38) ticket and with proceeds donated to the Air Ambulance Service. During the lunch break, I found myself
I found myself walking around the fields taking pictures of various tree protection systems Event – this was a special training day, aimed at climbers with the
walking around the ﬁelds taking pictures of various tree protection
FEATURES proved hugely useful to them during this assignment. On the Friday, Howard Gray from GreenBlue Urban, came down to talk to the apprentices about planting trees in an urban environment and the considerations that have to be taken into account. GreenBlue is a consultancy formed to conduct research into urban tree planting practices and provide solutions that assist trees to establish in towns and cities.
Chris, one of the apprentices, involved with constructing the elements that make up a tree pit from GreenBlue Urban systems and analysing any damage caused by the method of securing the tree(s) to the stakes. Of course, I blame fellow columnist Duncan Slater, who in the recent Arboriculture Journal, had written a paper regarding tree staking based on some research carried out in London.
decide on a planting scheme, selecting whatever trees they wanted. That was the extent of the initial scope for the assignment and as the week went on, it provided plenty of opportunity to bring in new areas of consideration, namely:
Without support from the industry, the arborist apprenticeship would not be able to provide these fabulous insights into the sector The scene had been set for the October week session, but with three of the apprentices undertaking their tree climbing and aerial rescue assessments on the Monday, the remaining apprentices undertook a revision session regarding plant taxonomy as this had been highlighted as a ‘weak’ area for them. With the group back together, an assignment was set to select and photograph two diﬀerent areas where they would then
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1. Were there choices of tree species suitable for the environment they had chosen? 2. Was the soil type acceptable for the tree(s) they wanted (we used SoilScapes to check this)? 3. What were the mature height and spread speciﬁcations and did these ﬁt in the available space? Did the eventual height of the tree aﬀect light for neighbouring
buildings (we used SunCalc to get an idea of the likely impact)? 4. How would the tree be staked and protected? 5. What were the logistics of planting the tree – did it need pits to be dug using a digger and telescopic handlers to lift into position, or could it be be planted by hand using a spade? Barcham visit A trip to Barcham Trees, which is Europe’s largest tree supplier and based in Cambridgeshire, took place on a Wednesday, and the apprentices were taken around by managing director, Mike Glover. He gave them a fabulous insight into what goes into growing and supplying trees and a couple of the apprentices also very cleverly took the opportunity to quiz Mike on their tree choices and whether there were other alternatives worth considering! Barcham Trees had also very kindly provided each of the apprentices with a copy of their Time for Trees book, which
Cityscaping This was an interesting and pertinent discussion and was followed up with an opportunity for the apprentices to build a tree pit to see how the framework goes together to create a strong and resilient underground structure capable of being built within the conﬁnes of an urban location. So, I would just like to add my thanks to Mike Glover at Barcham Trees, and Caroline Vickers for arranging the visit, as well as to Howard Grey and Helen Pope at GreenBlue Urban for sorting out the presentation and practical elements. Without support from the industry, the arborist apprenticeship would not be able to provide these fabulous insights into the sector. Congratulations also to apprentices Christopher, Ben and Corey for passing their tree climbing and rescue too!
DC Vickers has been tasked with developing the resources for and managing the arboriculture provision at BCA. DC is a qualiﬁed teacher and is also a City & Guilds NPTC assessor, covering many of the chainsaw units. For more information, contact DC at firstname.lastname@example.org or on LinkedIn at linkedin.com/in/dcvickers
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 29
BUSINESS ZONE | FEATURES
Rights and responsibilities UNDERSTANDING THE LEGAL SITUATION AROUND THE STAFF YOU TAKE ON IS CRUCIAL TO AVOIDING PROBLEMATIC MATTERS DEVELOPING AT A LATER DATE, EXPLAINS ALAN PRICE
mployment status has been a contentious issue in recent times as business owners and staﬀ dispute the true nature of their respective working arrangements. As a business owner, it is important you are familiar with the diﬀerences between the three main categories of employment – employee, worker and self-employed. This will help determine the rights of the individual and the obligations you have towards them and an outline is as follows: Employee: This is an individual who has a contract of service, whether express or implied, and is under the control of the employer, without the right to send a replacement. Within the contract, an employee must be informed of their agreed upon pay and working hours as well as other main conditions of employment. Worker: They also work within the terms of a contract, however, the main diﬀerence to an employee is usually that a worker will be able to turn work down. Additionally,
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depending on the relationship, the employer may have a limited right to control where and when the work is done. Self-employed: While there is currently no legal deﬁnition of self-employment, case law has dictated that these individuals carry on a business on their own account. They have freedom to decide when and where they work. They will usually provide the main items of equipment used to carry out the work and are free to send other individuals to carry out this work in their place. It is important to understand these main characteristics in order to accurately deﬁne individual roles in your organisation. It is also important in recruiting to ensure job adverts contain the correct terminology and do not mislead potential applicants. A key issue surrounding employment status focuses on the rights aﬀorded to certain individuals. However, there are rights which are speciﬁc to certain categories of employment and it is important you are aware of this.
Employees are aﬀorded the most extensive set of employment rights, including the right to minimum 5.6 weeks of paid annual leave per year, protection from unfair dismissal, and protection under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006. In terms of pay, business owners have an obligation to ensure employees are paid according to national minimum/living wage (NMW) requirements, while self-employed contractors will set down the rate that they charge for the services provided. Although current legislation only requires business owners to issue itemised pay statements to employees this law will be changing, with this right being extended to workers as of 6 April 2019. This new ruling represents the government’s eﬀorts to reduce the risk of national minimum wage exploitation and business owners should ensure payroll processes are adjusted accordingly before this order comes into force.
FEATURES | BUSINESS ZONE
While workers are entitled to some employment rights, including the right to paid annual leave and minimum wage, there are several rights aﬀorded to employees which workers are not entitled to. These include the right to a minimum notice period if their employment will be ending and the right to request ﬂexible working hours. Due to the nature of self-employed work these individuals are responsible for their own employment arrangements, and very few employment rights apply. Avoiding a tribunal It is important that business owners have a clear understanding of how an individual’s employment status impacts their entitlement to speciﬁc employment rights as erroneously withholding an individual’s rights could result in a costly employment tribunal claim. When deciding on employment status, disputes tribunals will strongly consider the practical manner of the working relationship and the level of control a business exerts over an individual. It is regularly agreed that employees
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are subject to a fairly high level of control, including being subject to disciplinary and capability procedures. Workers meanwhile have more autonomy as they do not have to accept work that is oﬀered to them, whereas self-employed individuals are not subject to any control by the organisation they work for and are free to agree their own terms of service on a case by case basis. The gig economy Many of the issues in the gig economy, a newly emerging labour market which oﬀers increased ﬂexibility, have surrounded so called ‘bogus self-employment’. This involves business owners claiming individuals are self-employed contractors when in fact the reality of their working arrangement and level of control they exert over these individuals suggests they are workers. Recent cases involving Pimlico Plumbers and Uber have seen tribunals take a close look at this issue of control, focusing on the degree to which the business dictates how and when the individual works. As such business owners need to carefully consider
the true nature of these relationships to avoid costly tribunal claims. Current uncertainty surrounding employment status shows no sign of stopping, as gig economy participation continues to increase on a monthly basis. To mitigate this, business owners should be aware of the importance of getting employment status correct and stay on top of legal developments. Meanwhile, the government currently has an open consultation on its response to the Taylor Review of Modern Working Practices on several aspects of the employment status debate, which ultimately seeks to provide more clarity on this area for individuals and employers alike. Alan Price is Peninsula’s employment law director. Launched in 1983, the company oﬀers HR, employment law, tax and payroll advice, employee assistance programmes, and health and safety support and training. www.peninsulagrouplimited.com email@example.com
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 31
BUSINESS ZONE | FEATURES
Strength in numbers
ARE YOU A SMALLER OPERATOR? IF SO, YOU MAY WANT TO CONSIDER MEMBERSHIP OF AN ORGANISATION THAT ADVOCATES INTERESTS OF SMALL BUSINESSES. COMMERCIAL DIRECTOR, DAVE STALLON, SETS OUT THE REASONS FOR JOINING THE FSB
unning your own business and doing what you love can be very rewarding. At the same time, there are many challenges faced by the self-employed and small business owners. From increased regulations around data protection, health and safety law compliance, to auto enrolment in pensions of employees, to HR issues and late payments and access to finance. The FSBâ€™s mission is to help smaller businesses and the self-employed achieve their ambitions. We pride ourselves on being a member-led organisation and all our members have one this in common â€“ they all run businesses. This is what makes the FSB the leading voice of the 5.7 million small businesses and the self-employed in the UK. We know which day-to-day issues affect smaller businesses the most. Our members have access to a 24-hour legal advice line, insurance specialists that understand the diverse needs of small businesses, and a
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whole range of other inclusive benefits and services, including a medical and health advice service called FSB Care. The organisation, which was founded more than 40 years ago, is a powerful voice heard in governments at all levels, as well as offering its members a range of inclusive benefits to positively impact on the day-today running of their businesses. For example, while continuing to campaign to end the late payments crisis, the FSB also offers its members access to an effective bespoke debt recovery service. We also successfully lobbied for a bank referral scheme, to ensure smaller firms have access to funding options other than high street banks. We also offer members business banking and access to
an exclusive alternative finance platform. Members also have access to hundreds of networking events across the UK each year which stimulate learning and networking opportunities. Many find these valuable to their own businesses. Members also receive a quarterly First Voice magazine, focused on their needs. For more information, see www.fsb.org.uk
DAVE STALLON COMMERCIAL DIRECTOR WWW.PROARBMAGAZINE.COM
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FOR MORE DETAILS CONTACT: EVENT DIRECTOR JAMIE WILKINSON T: 01903 777 570 E: firstname.lastname@example.org
and survive ARBORISTS NEED TO BE BAT AWARE – THEY ARE PROTECTED ANIMALS AND THERE ARE PENALTIES FOR THOSE WHO FAIL TO FOLLOW THE LAW. IGNORANCE IS NO EXCUSE AND A TRAINING COURSE IS WORTH TAKING BOTH TO IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE AND AVOID PROSECUTION
hat do the Grey long-eared, the Greater Horseshoe, the Daubenton and the Barbastelle have in common? If you know your bats, you’ll know the answer – these are just four of the 18 species that live in the UK. Tree surgeons, because of the nature of the job, are more likely than many to have seen a bat – the world’s only mammal capable of true and sustained flight. Some bats live in properties, while others use trees. But many old barns, for example, have been converted into homes and there is no doubt some developers cleared out
Pro Arb | November/December 2018
roosts illegally. Any development which results in trees being felled is bad news for bats. Chemicals, pollution and traffic all pose threats. Arborists and bats It is a wise precaution to conduct a basic survey to see if there is any evidence of bats. Attending a course to learn about how to do this could be extremely worthwhile. It not only helps ensure the arborist stays within the law, but also means they can advise clients more effectively and help protect bats too. Courses run by Place Services, part of Essex County Council, help anyone working with trees conduct ground-based assessments on where bats could be within trees and how to handle situations if they are found. Training can be organised on a bespoke basis for organisations anywhere in the UK and are also held in Essex on a scheduled basis. An introductory course lasts a day and the expert leading this training is Sue Hooton, Place Services’ principal ecologist. She comments: “We can provide some useful teaching in a day, which is both classroom based to understand the basics around bats and the law, but also we visit
a country park which could be a habitat for bats and conduct some basic preliminary surveys, looking at particular trees’ risk – so if this is negligible, low, medium or high risk. This helps decide if a tree should be subject to further investigation.” Where are they? Sue says: “Bats take a timeshare approach and they use certain trees for a range of purposes and at different times of the year. I’ve had to make numerous visits back to a particular tree before I know if a hunch was right.” Given their scarcity, everyone should be making efforts to improve bats’ survival rates and ensure their numbers increase. Bats can live relatively long lives – 20 years or more. Sue’s teaching provides insight into the lifecycle and on when bats hibernate (winter months) and when they are likely to be active, such as during the mating season. Female bats also congregate in numbers when they are raising their young in a ‘maternity’ roost. Trees are often essential for them to live – they provide feeding grounds as they attract the insects which bats eat, they are navigation aids and places to sleep and hibernate.
Bats and the law The Wildlife and Countryside Act and European legislation, known as the Habitats directive, protects bats, their breeding sites and resting places. It is against the law to deliberately: • capture, injure or kill bats • damage or destroy a breeding or resting place • obstruct access to their resting or sheltering places • possess, sell, control or transport live or dead bats or parts of them • intentionally or recklessly disturb a bat while it is in a structure or place of shelter or protection. Fines are up to £5,000 per bat and up to six months in jail. Sue says: “Awareness can make a big difference. So, if you believe bats may be present, stop doing any work on the tree. Check for signs and hold back from doing any work on neighbouring trees too. You should also avoid using any insecticides or treating timber.” When a licence is needed If work to a tree is viewed as necessary and bats are present, approval needs to be given for this to go ahead via a mitigation licence from the government. The aim is
Spotting the signs It makes sense for arborists to do preliminary checks before doing any work on a tree and to know who to speak to should they need further guidance. As Sue points out, a tree that is old and may appear to need work could be a favourite with bats. “They tend to like hollow trees and those that have holes such as those made by woodpeckers. They may hide behind ivy and if you can put your thumb in a fissure, a bat could get in it. They also tend to like trees that have old and flaking wood.” Other signs of bat activity can include crumbly droppings, claw marks, squeaking and a ‘peanut’ smell. It is also worth remembering just how small some bats are - the commonest British bat, the Pipistrelle, weighs five grams, the same as a 20p coin. Many, says Sue, are the size of a smoke alarm battery.
to minimise harm to bats and if required, to relocate them. This is specialist work and a licensed bat expert needs to be engaged. They can conduct more detailed surveys and advise on how to complete the government’s application form. What if you are bitten by a bat? Being bitten by a bat is a rare occurrence, but if this happens, perhaps if picking up an injured bat, then it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Sue advises: “Some bats carry rabies, although the live virus has only been found in one species. Although very rare there have been a few fatalities and you should contact a local hospital immediately to see if they have
appropriate treatment. Provided you deal with any incidents promptly, treatment can be sorted, but do not leave it.” As a licence holder herself, Sue has had the vaccination and says this is a straightforward process and does not result in serious side effects.
Bat and tree assessment courses are run by Place Services, a public sector provider of integrated environmental assessment, planning, design and management services. Anyone interested in learning more about bats should visit www.placeservices.co.uk or email email@example.com
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 35
FEATURES GLYNN PERCIVAL EXPLAINS HOW THIS UBIQUITOUS LEAF PROBLEM OCCURS AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT
PDEISSEATSE The Spotty
w at c h
Horror Show Another type of spore may be produced by the fungus within these spots. These spores are capable of causing secondary infections on other leaves. In general, leaf spot fungi are favoured by cool, wet weather early in the growing season.
eaf spot diseases have been common over the past 20 to 30 years with most regularly found on urban trees.
Symptoms Most leaf spot diseases are caused by fungal infection rather than bacteria or insects. Once a leaf is infected, resulting spots vary in size from that of a pinhead to spots that encompass the entire leaf as shown above. Dead areas on the leaves are usually brown, black, tan or reddish in colour. If infection rates are high, partial to complete defoliation may occur. Life cycle Most leaf spot fungi have a similar life cycle. The fungus overwinters on fallen leaves. Then, in the spring during or following rain, spores produced by the fungus are discharged and carried by wind to newly emerging leaves. If a ﬁlm of water is present on the leaf, the spore germinates and penetrates the leaf causing infection. In a few days to several weeks, depending on temperature, small spots appear on the leaves and as the fungus grows, the spots enlarge.
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Pest and disease.indd 36
Hosts Most ornamental trees and shrubs are subject to attack by one or more leaf infecting fungi. Oak, maple, sycamore, ash, walnut, elm, hawthorn, willow and horse chestnut are commonly attacked. Symptoms of leaf spot vary from small, black, pinhead lesions to large spots that merge to cover large portions of the leaf. As many as 10 diﬀerent leaf spot fungi have been found on a single rhododendron. Trees which are subject to serious injury when attacked by a leaf spot fungus are those under stress, such as recently transplanted trees, trees under drought conditions or trees weakened by continuous insect attack. The additional stress of a leaf spot disease on an already weak tree may cause death. Management Arborists have a number of options: • Live with the problem If the tree is in good vigour then the spread of the leaf spot can be restricted by the trees own defence systems within the leaf. If the degree of disﬁgurement and/or defoliation becomes objectionable i.e. the tree becomes weakened by adverse environmental conditions or construction damage then control measures may be required.
• Remove infected leaves and dead twigs Raking up and disposing of infected leaves as they drop and pruning out dead twigs can help control leaf spot by removing spores that can reinfect new leaves. • Keep foliage dry Avoid overhead watering. Apply water to the soil under the canopy and water early in the day so the foliage can dry before night. Overhead watering can also spread the disease by splashing fungal spores from one plant to another. Prune and space plants to allow for good air circulation to promote the rapid drying of foliage. • Keep plants healthy Since most plants can tolerate some degree of leaf spot defoliation, keep plants in good health by appropriate mulching, irrigation and fertilisation so they can recover quickly following heavy infection. • Fungicide sprays Generally, fungicide application is warranted if: • repeated defoliations occur in one year or subsequent years • the plant is under stress • the plant is in decline • the plant is a needled evergreen • the disease is black spot of roses. To be eﬀective fungicide sprays should start at bud break before symptoms are observed and continue at 10 to 14 days throughout April and May. • Replace the plant For plants that are chronically plagued by leaf spot it maybe convenient to replace a plant with a diﬀerent species or a variety that is more resistant. Dr Glynn Percival is plant physiologist/technical support specialist at Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory www.bartletttree.co.uk
KNovi tember/ r e b m e Dec 2018
38 > Meet the supplier
Discover Först’s winning formula of great wood chipper products and service
40 > Christmas gift ideas
Kit collectables with the arborist in mind
44 > Helmets
Get a head start with these quality models
46 > Personal protective equipment New arrivals to boost safety at work
48 > Product DNA
Top-handled power – Stihl’s MS 201 TC-M
KIT COVER.indd 21
e h t t e e M supplier
örst is synonymous with wood chippers, with tree surgeons typically describing the brand as being robust, reliable and having plenty of aggression when it comes to doing an eﬃ cient job. But although it’s such a well-established brand, Först’s strong reputation has developed surprisingly quickly, since the brand was founded in 2013. The business is run by Ray Gardner and Douglas Ghinn and the two business partners, have worked together for many years. Douglas says: “We were importing a German brand into the UK and in so doing gaining experience of the market, ﬁnding out what customers wanted in terms of product and service and talking to many tree surgeons ﬁrst-hand about their business needs. “When we were faced with some substantial price rises on the range we were importing, we had no option but to look at developing our own machine which is where Först all started. “Our aim was to oﬀer a superior wood chipper and to focus on service. We knew ‘cheapest’ wasn’t the place to be, but excellent value for money was. “Due to our experience in the industry and our business model of selling direct and servicing locally we absolutely knew we could deliver.”
38 Pro Arb | November/December 2018
Meet the supplier.indd 38
A FIRM FAVOURITE WITH MANY TREE SURGEONS, THIS RANGE OF WOOD CHIPPERS IS A UK MARKET-LEADER AND IS ALSO EXPERIENCING RAPID GROWTH IN EUROPE. PRO ARB CAUGHT UP WITH DIRECTOR DOUGLAS GHINN
Three-year warranty Douglas says having a single focus on wood chippers and staying close to the arborist community have been crucial. “We were able to start with a clean slate and develop a product which gave our customers the things they were asking for. “If customers have any questions regarding the products or service, they can speak to someone who is going to be genuinely knowledgeable and all our models are covered by a three year warranty.” A reliable chipper is a must for any tree
on a ﬁnance or lease arrangement and this makes having a superior chipper aﬀordable.” Först oﬀers both new and used models and also has a hire ﬂeet of some 120 machines. “Hiring can be a convenient option but typically most of our customers who hire will already have their own chipper, but have extra work and so they need the additional capacity.” Beneﬁts of the FörstGrip In terms of its range, Först oﬀers wheeled, tracked and PTO chippers and one unique
Our aim was to offer a superior wood chipper and to focus on service. We knew ‘cheapest’ wasn’t the place to be, but excellent value for money was surgeon and can be a sizeable investment. Douglas says while some hire, most do choose to buy: “We understand that a chipper to an arborist is like a plane to an airline, without it you can’t function. Many new tree surgeons will start oﬀ with a Först but more often than not, it will be an upgrade. We welcome part exchange, in fact the majority of our business is done this way and we also oﬀer ﬁnance options. Most of our customers choose to pay monthly
feature is the manufacturer’s unique feed roller system called FörstGrip, which results in powerful crushing. The FörstGrip top feed roller climbs on an arc towards the timber, pulling material down towards the ﬂywheel and naturally climbing butt ends to make the infeed grip exceptional, which breaks the toughest of forks and limbs. Douglas says that there is growing interest in petrol models because of the next state of the Stage V emissions regulations, which
come into force next year on 1 January. The new EU rules impact on machines for construction, agriculture, materials handling, industrial use and generators and are aimed at reducing particulate and NOx emissions. Petrol takes oﬀ According to Douglas: “One of our best sellers is the ST6P, our latest machine and our ﬁrst sub 750kg chipper. It’s powered by a 37hp petrol engine and although under 750kg it has Först’s characteristic strength and performance which is akin to a dieselpowered machine. It is also quieter so is suitable for working in more built-up areas.” The lighter engine, shorter chassis and GPR panels means the STP6 can keep the same chipping chamber, ﬂywheel, hopper, and feed roller system as on the diesel machine. Först is also showing that manufacturing is alive and well in the UK. The machines are produced at the company’s production facility in Andover, Hampshire. This is also where sales, distribution and handling takes place from two depots, A further depot is to be set up in Doncaster early in 2019 to cater for the north and Scotland. The business is also growing fast in Europe and in 2016, subsidiary Först Gmbh was set up in Germany and is wholly owned by the British parent company and operates from two locations. Först has also built up a network of dealers to supply the brand across Europe in France, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Russia and New Zealand. These strategic dealership partnerships solely distribute Först chippers in their territories.
success of whatever Brexit deal we end up with and is positive about global trading
Först is also showing that manufacturing is alive and well in the UK. The machines are produced at the company’s production facility in Andover, Hampshire Looking ahead, Douglas says he is optimistic and determined to make a
Meet the supplier.indd 39
opportunities. “We’re not complacent, we have achieved a lot in a short time and
we are absolutely committed to this market. I believe we have the best product out there and equally, our service is second to none,” says Douglas. “For any tree surgeon who wants to see what we do and what we can oﬀer them, then please check us out and equally important, see what other customers are saying.” To ﬁnd out more, visit: www.forst-woodchippers.com
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 39
n o S U C O F king stoc fillers
All I want
for Christmas FOR THE ARBORIST WHO HAS EVERYTHING – A SELECTION OF GIFTS TO MAKE WORKING LIFE SWEET – JUST ADD THEM TO THE WISH LIST
Bring out the Biosecurity kits
Biosecurity is a hot topic and one that many arborists want to get up to speed on. What is more, with growing concern that pests and pathogens are becoming increasingly prevalent, being aware of and using control measures can play an important role in protecting tree health. The Arboricultural Association says: “Biosecurity is the single most important subject in terms of safeguarding the future of our trees,” and it has also produced a guidance note called the Application of Biosecurity in Arboriculture. Sorbus International worked with experts including the Forest Commission to produce biosecurity kits. To practise simple biosecurity measures, a kit should be stored in the vehicle as the arborist goes about their work. Stored in a handy holdall, the standard kit is priced at £56.06 and contains: • Boot scraper • Hard brush • Long handle brush • Collapsible water container • Flexible bucket • Chemical protective gloves • Chemical goggles • Disposable biohazard bags x 100 Another option is the Biosecurity Lite Kit which is a scaled down version of the above. It is suited to those working in urban or remote environments and who need to carry the kit with them most of the time. It is packed in a convenient drawstring bag, containing: • 250ml spray bottle • 1 litre collapsible bottle • Bootbuddy boot cleaner • Hand sanitiser • Nitrile gloves • Biohazard waste sacks x 50 Sorbus is also a distributor for disinfectants such as Propellar, which is used on metal products and Cleankill sanitiser which is ideal for boots, tyres and other equipment. www.sorbus-intl.co.uk
40 Pro Arb | November/December 2018
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Smell the coffee
Fed up with instant or buying expensive take-outs? Makita’s new cordless coﬀee maker – the DCM501Z - brings great coﬀee to the outdoors and can be used with either pods or freshly ground beans. The coﬀee maker is compatible with Makita’s LXT and CXT lithium ion batteries. Features include: • Dedicated battery ports • Weights 2.2kg with an 18V battery • Carry handle • Can brew 260ml of coﬀee on a single CXT 10.8V – 12VMAX battery or a 3.0Ah 14.4V battery; 320ml of fresh coﬀee on an 18V 3.0Ah battery, and up to 640ml of coﬀee on an 18V 6.0Ah battery • Comes with its own dedicated cups and commercial cups up to 90mm high ﬁt the machine • Coﬀee brewed in ﬁve minutes • Integral sensor turns oﬀ power supply automatically. *Check retailers for pricing, but it is around the £80 mark. www.makitauk.com
Ready for the chop
Chainsaws are brilliant, but they don’t always cut it. There are plenty of times when a handy small tool is needed and these three axes from Wilkinson Sword ﬁt the bill for felling, making kindling or splitting wood. The Hatchet Axe is aimed at smaller tasks such as making kindling and can be used either single or double handed – priced at £19.99. The Felling Axe is for more robust tasks such as felling trees and chopping more substantial logs and thick branches – it retails for £39.99. The Splitting Axe splits wood and has an extra lip across the blade to facilitate this. It also has a solid ﬂat face at the other end of the cutting edge which is a useful aid when splitting gnarly hard wood – it is priced at £39.99.
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In addition, there is a heavy duty 1.6kg drop forged carbon steel grenade splitting wedge aimed at large logs – the Grenade Splitter costs £9.99. The axes all include: • a strong forged carbon steel head which enables them to penetrate wood easily • evenly balanced construction for a natural feel through the swing motion • For increased safety, each axe features a non-slip grip and comes with a protective head cover for security whilst transporting and during storage • A 10-year guarantee www.wilkinsonsword-tools.co.uk
Pro Arb | November/December 2018 41
IF YOU’RE LOOKING FOR GIFTS WITH AN ARBORIST ANGLE, THEN LOOK NO FURTHER THAN BUXTONS. CHECK OUT WWW.BUXTONS.NET TO SEE THESE AND MANY MORE TREE-MENDOUS IDEAS…
FOCUS on stocking fillers
Cosy up with Pfanner Protos
This Inuit jacket from Pfanner Protos is spot on for cold weather and is warm but breathable. Look cool, but feel toasty as the knitted construction means great insulation. Price: £84
Bag it up
A sight for saw eyes
A capacious duﬀel bag that is rugged and stylish – this is among the most practical of gifts from Husqvarna. It has an impressive 70L capacity, removable shoulder straps and contains organising bags inside for optimal storage. Price: £60
Look sharp in this terriﬁc t-shirt which plays on the Steven Spielberg classic movie. It’s made of 100% combed cotton and is a Fair Wear garment. Price: £23.94
Don’t be a meanie – treat them to this beanie
This new Husqvarna wool beanie will keep head cosy when the weather turns cold. It is made with traceable merino wool and is part of the brand’s latest range. Price: £21
42 Pro Arb | November/December 2018
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Start ‘em young
Delight a junior arborist with this fabulous Stihl toy chainsaw. It’s just got the amount of realism to ignite their enthusiasm and comes with a rubber chain that moves around like a real chainsaw, a pull start cord and it even makes realistic chainsaw sounds. Price: £18
No place like gnome
Guaranteed to brighten up any tree surgeon’s garden is this super cute Stihl gnome, ready and waiting for when you get home with a chainsaw in hand. Price: £19.80
THE SALES TEAM AT BUXTONS IS READY AND WAITING TO HELP YOU PICK OUT SOME CRACKING CHRISTMAS GIFTS, SO EMAIL THEM AT SALES@BUXTONS.NET
These boots are made for working
Arborists should invest in the best footwear they can – so opt for comfort and safety with a pair of Haix’s Protector Pro boots. Haix is a leading provider of quality functional footwear and these boots meet the EN ISO 20345:2011 safety standard with class 1 cut protection, tested to withstand cuts from a chainsaw speed of 20 m/s. A four-ply Gore Tex membrane provides defence in all conditions keeping feet fresh and comfortable. Supporting the wearer, the inner lining of the boot provides comfort all year round and the flexible heel cup allows for ease of movement and no pressure points. The Haix Protector Pro has a deep tread to guarantee a firm grip on any terrain and provides outstanding insulation against the heat and cold, while the sole of the boot offers puncture resistance to protect against any sharp objects encountered underfoot. The boots are fastened using a classical lacing system with high quality hooks that ensure quick lacing and easy adjustment. RRP £214.90. www.haix.co.uk
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Pro Arb | November/December 2018 43
Head in the right direction FOCUS ON Helmets
A QUALITY HELMET MATTERS SO CHOOSE SUITABLE HEADGEAR THAT FITS PROPERLY AND IS SOUNDLY CONSTRUCTTED TO ENSURE PROPER PROTECTION WHATEVER THE JOB
o one in arb needs reminding that head injuries can be extremely serious. Falling branches or even an unexpected fall from a tree show why a well-ﬁ tting and robust helmet is a must, whether working on the ground or climbing. We’ve selected a range of helmets that are well worth checking out.
PowerTec’s chainsaw safety combination helmet – an affordable all-round solution
his keenly-priced combination helmet is an in-house brand from HSC MSC and includes ear defenders, mesh and visor. It is comfortable, lightweight comes in a stylish design and allows full head protection, including eyes, ears, face and head. The helmets are manufactured in Europe, have CE certiﬁ cation and retail for around £25 to £35. The helmet is supplied with a 6-point harness,
polyethylene (HDPE) shell, chin strap, rain channel, slot for ear muﬀ s clear and mesh visors. Notably, the adjustable mesh visor allows only a 20% light leakage, helping to ensure good visibility. A ratchet system allows the user to alter the helmet’s size with a simple twist of a knob, allowing a range of sizes from 54cm to 62cm. Find out more at: www.hscmsc.co.uk
Protos Integral – innovative head protection for maximum safety
rotos Integral was more than 12 years in development and is the world’s ﬁ rst integrated safety helmet – this is innovative headwear for maximum protection. The Austrian company aimed to develop a safety helmet that could integrate ear, facial and neck protection, as well as chin strap and ventilation between the inner and outer shells.
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The helmet comes in a range of designs and for the arboriculture industry, the appropriate model is the Protos Integral Arborist and it is equipped a chin strap and additional crash absorber for working at height. With 25 standard colour combinations available from stock in the UK and Ireland, you are sure to ﬁnd a design to suit you. Further, there is the ability to transform the helmet for any mission. This is because the uncomplicated modular principle, gives you the ability for any accessories, such as ear defenders protective glasses, visor, hygiene kits, torch or the Protos BT-COM, which can be easily added or removed. The Protos Bluetooth Communication (BT-COM) was launched at the APF show in September 2018 and has set the next milestone in the ﬁeld of occupational safety. The advanced Bluetooth wireless technology allows the connection of four BT-COM communication units, providing uninterrupted intercom connection between up to four operators. The Protos BT-COM capsule connects into the existing Protos ear defender bracket. No wiring, drilling or clamps are required to ﬁt onto the helmet. All the BT-COM technical components are incorporated in the ear defender capsule and with no cables and connectors, this guarantees maximum comfort with no risk of snagging. With a range of up to 600 metres and a battery operating time of up to 12 hours, the Protos BT-COM will go through one working day without problems. Recharging the battery is easily done via the USB on the Protos charging bracket. Outwear is the sole UK and Ireland distributor for Protos and also distributes other brands including Pfanner and Woolpower. Pricing starts from around £180. To ﬁnd out more about their products go to: www.outwearltd.co.uk where you will ﬁnd a list of stockists to buy products online or in store. Or call them on 01576 490100.
Husqvarna’s technical helmet – sturdy, versatile and lightweight
he Husqvarna forest technical protective helmet oﬀers ear protection and visor for maximum safety. Key features include a one-hand ratchet, which allows the user to quickly and easily adjust the size of the helmet while wearing it and a textile 6-point harness provides comfort and minimises pressure. The free view visor has been designed for better protection of the user’s face and provides perfect visibility both when folded up or down. It is also etched to achieve lowweight and low-light reduction. There is also a mesh ventilation system where extra wide holes are featured for a comfortable head temperature. The holes
are covered by a metal mesh to prevent dirt and water from passing through. In addition, a UV expire indicator, meaning the helmet’s protective capability decreases when exposed to UV light. The indicator shows the current condition of the helmet and lets you know when it is time to replace it. The helmet has been tested in extreme conditions and works in temperatures of up to -40 and for maximum comfort the hearing protectors can be adjusted both horizontally and vertically. As an added extra, an optional integrated FM radio is available in the hearing protectors and a head lamp slot is built into the helmet. The helmet is priced at £93.33. Find out more at: www.husqvarna.com.
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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SHOULD ENSURE THAT WORKERS ARE PROTECTED FROM HEAD TO TOE. GIVEN THE RISKS IN WORKING WITH TREES, CONSIDERED CHOICES SHOULD BE MADE, WHETHER BUYING FOR PERSONAL USE OR AS AN EMPLOYER
This April, more stringent PPE regulations came into force with the new EU Personal Protective Equipment Regulation, which replaced a 30-year old former directive, and aims to bring rules up to date and ensuring there is compliance from all those involved in the supply chain such as manufacturers, importers and distributors. Those buying PPE items should always ensure the product is CE marked (Conformité Européenne) to ensure it meets approved standards and in the UK, the HSE is the enforcing authority and a number of guides on this topic are available on its website. But, a further beneﬁt for those buying PPE is that innovations in the sector have made items far more wearable, in terms of being lighter or more portable and we have examples of some recent advances. Chainsaw trousers Those who were working 10 years or more ago will remember that the weight of chainsaw trousers was restrictive. Times have changed and new materials mean that protection can exist in a lightweight form – they now weigh little more than work jeans. According to Kerry Wade of Sorbus International: “We have seen more and more tree surgeons and chainsaw users looking for higher quality workwear, something that lasts, something comfortable, well ﬁtted and practical. We think the Breatheﬂex Pro trousers from Arbortec do a pretty good job at matching the above criteria.”
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Performs like a pro The Arbortec BreatheFlex chainsaw trouser has been designed for optimum performance along with a crotch stretch panel and a reinforced lower leg for added abrasion resistance. The tool carrying loops are strong and durable and the zipper system is designed with heavy use in mind. This chainsaw trouser has been developed with advanced quantum fabric for optimal performance and features both a cargo pocket and a waterproof pocket for storing your mobile device or other items. Whether in the trees or on the ground, these trousers will keep the wearer at peak performance and most importantly safe and protected. Sizes range from XS to 3XL in both Type A and Type C variations. Pricing starts from £180. For more information, see www.sorbus-intl.co.uk
A helpful harness A harness is a vital piece of safety equipment, used by arborists to secure themselves via an anchored rope, while working at height. There is a variety available including full-body and work positioning – a good harness has strength but also allows easy access to tools. HSC MSC has an improved padded heavy-duty harness (MPMD3217) which now comes with an additional reinforced back panel and larger straps, to ensure one size ﬁts all, no matter what build. This premium padded harness features a quick release clip and is suitable for large equipment, including brushcutters. There is also a quick release mechanism and a tough plastic pad, to protect the user’s thigh. For more information, see www.hscmsc.co.uk
On the ground Stump grinders are powerful machines and without proper PPE, can be dangerous, with wood splinters ﬂying around and the risk that buried rocks or metal can be struck. Correct positioning of the machine is essential and gloves, helmets and goggles should always be worn. A grinding guard is another vital piece of kit. This new model from Treehog, is of a robust design to reduce the risk of damage from ﬂying debris. It can be set up and dismantled and packed in the carry bag provided within 60 seconds. The guard is supported with a weighted bottom edge and ground pins are also available for soft surfaces. The guard is available from Arbortec and is priced at £299. For more information, see www.arbortec.com
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he MS 201 TC-M features Stihl M-Tronic and 2-MIX technology as standard. M-Tronic is a Stihl engine management system that measures and regulates the fuel and air mix at all times. Much like the technology in modern day cars, its main purpose is to ensure the engine always receives what it needs to perform at its best. M-Tronic constantly measures internal operating systems as well as external factors, such as temperature, elevation and fuel quality to ensure the machine delivers high performance at all times. Thanks to the memory function, each time the engine is started, the saw will be ready and primed for full performance, provided conditions have not changed.
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MAKING THE CUT
STIHL’S MS 201 TC-M IS IDEAL FOR PROFESSIONALS LOOKING FOR HIGH TORQUE AND PERFORMANCE FROM A PERFECTLY BALANCED MACHINE
Fuel in a ﬂash The M-Tronic technology in the MS 201 TC-M also makes manual carburettor adjustments unnecessary. In place of the high, low and idle screw settings, is a solenoid valve, which takes a matter of milliseconds to deliver the right amount of fuel into the engine. Furthermore, because of the electronic cold/warm start recognition, there is only one start position on the combi-lever. The engine starts after fewer pulls and with no change of position, and can immediately accelerate up to speed – even after a cold start. The compensator featured in the carburettor prevents the fuel-air mixture getting richer as the air ﬁlter becomes clogged. This ensures that the correct quantity of fuel is delivered to the carburettor
depending on the quantity of air passing through the air ﬁlter to deliver a constant fuel to air ratio. Quick change When it comes to changing the cutting attachment, the captive nuts on the sprocket cover allow for quick changing of the chain and also ensure no risk of losing the nuts on the sprocket. The MS 201 TC-M features an eﬀective anti-vibration system that dampens oscillations from the machine’s engine to signiﬁcantly reduce vibrations at the handles. When used with the Stihl E Light guide bar, the overall weight is reduced to keep the saw perfectly balanced.
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ANCIENT TREE COLUMN
A soldier’s column
he Lowther Estate in the Lake District has a long and proud association with trees and woodlands, which dates at least as far back as the ﬁrst granting of ‘free warren’ by Edward I in 1283 – a type of privilege granted by a sovereign in medieval England, allowing the killing of certain types of game without sanction. This was followed by the imparking of 200 acres – of what must have been superlative pasture woodland – to create the ﬁrst Lowther Deer Park. The estate is home to many ﬁne examples of ancient and veteran trees, many of which have interesting stories attached to them and the Waterloo Beech is no exception. They are situated in a large grove which is part of the woodland adjacent to the river Lowther and the road and popular footpath, which runs between the Lowther Caravan Park on the outskirts of Penrith and the Lowther North Park at Low Gardens.
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RETURNING FROM THE HORRORS OF BATTLE, CAPTAIN LOWTHER BROUGHT SEEDLINGS HOME TO BECOME TREES THAT CONTINUE TO ENCHANT MODERN-DAY VISITORS; IAN JACK, CHAIR OF THE CUMBRIA ANCIENT TREE FORUM, EXPLAINS
The trees form an awe-inspiring cathedral stand in which the dwarfed observer can experience the true majesty of nature at work. Most of the specimens are in excess of 35m in height and many will be over 10 cubic metres in volume. The story attached to the trees is that a notable member of the Lowther family was one of Wellington’s captains and an aide-de-camp at the Battle of Waterloo. The day after the heat, noise, smoke and carnage of the battle, Captain Lowther sought peace and solace with a few other oﬃcers by walking in the woodlands close to their encampment. He collected a number of seedlings which were growing profusely on the woodland ﬂoor and took them back to his home at Lowther and planted them down by the river. Those readers who are historians, or fans of the Sharpe novels, will know that the Battle of Waterloo was fought on 18 June 1815 and, according to Wellington, was ‘’a damned close run thing’’.
What is interesting is that if you walk in that woodland grove beneath those beautiful trees around that date in a good mast year you will see the ground carpeted in the kind of beech seedlings which Captain Lowther may have collected and planted down by the river. What is more intriguing, however, is that if you chance to visit the woodlands of the Forêt de Soigne close to the Battleﬁeld site at Waterloo, where the dwellers of Brussels like to go to play and relax, the trees are so similar in shape, size and form that you could be back in the grove by the river at Lowther.
The Ancient Tree Forum champions the biological, cultural and heritage value of Britain’s ancient and veteran trees, and provides advice on their value and management. www.ancienttreeforum.co.uk ©Ancient Tree Forum
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