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Helmuth Lemme

ISBN 978-1-907920-87-5

What would today’s rock and pop music be without electric lead and bass guitars? These instruments have been setting the tone for more than sixty years. Their underlying sound is determined largely by their electrical components. But, how do they actually work? Almost no one is able to explain this to the true musician with no technical background. This book answers many questions simply, in an easily-understandable manner.

For the interested musician (and others), this book unveils, in a simple and well-grounded way, what have, until now, been regarded as manufacturer secrets. The examination explores deep within the guitar, including pickups and electrical environment, so that guitar electronics are no longer considered highly secret. With a few deft interventions, many instruments can be rendered more versatile and made to sound a lot better – in the most cost-effective manner.

The author is an experienced electronics professional and active musician. He has thoroughly tested everything described here, in practice

Electric Guitar Enhanced 2nd Edition

Sound Secrets and Technology ENHANCED SECOND EDITION

● Helmuth Lemme

Helmuth Lemme has over 50 years of experience in electronics. He has played electric guitar and bass in numerous rock and jazz bands over the years. In 1977 he wrote his first book about electric guitars and continues to dedicate the majority of his free time to music electronics.

Sound Secrets and Technology

Electric Guitar - Sound Secrets and Technology

Electric Guitar

9 781907 920875

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Electric Guitar Sound Secrets and Technology 2nd Edition

â—? Helmuth Lemme

an Elektor Publication

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This is an Elektor Publication. Elektor is the media brand of

Elektor International Media B.V. 78 York Street London W1H 1DP, UK Phone: (+44) (0)20 7692 8344 © Elektor International Media BV 2020 First published in the United Kingdom 2020

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any material form, including

photocopying, or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication, without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers. The publishers have used their best efforts in ensuring the correctness of the information contained in this book. They do not assume, and hereby disclaim, any liability to any party for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in this book, whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident or any other cause.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

ISBN 978-1-907920-87-5

Catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Prepress production: DMC ¦ dave@daverid.com Printed in the Netherlands by Wilco

Elektor is part of EIM, the world’s leading source of essential technical information and electronics products for pro engineers, electronics designers, and the companies seeking to engage them. Each day, our international team develops and delivers high-quality content - via a variety of media channels (e.g., magazines, video, digital media, and social media) in several languages - relating to electronics design and DIY electronics. www.elektor.com

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents ● A Book as a Bridge between Two Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chapter 1 ● History and Construction Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

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The Beginning: Hawaiian and Full-Body Archtop Guitars . Les Paul and Leo Fender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Triumph of the Solid-body Guitar . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semi-acoustic Guitars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Electric Bass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 2 ● The Mechanics of the Electric Guitar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

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What Determines the Sound? . The Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Neck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Resonances . . . . .

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Chapter 3 ● Magnetic Pickups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.1 ● Market Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 ● The Most Common Constructions . . 3.3 ● Manufacturing Quality . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 ● Function and Transfer Characteristic . 3.5 ● Pickup Measuring Techniques . . . . . 3.6 ● Low-Impedance Pickups . . . . . . . . 3.7 ● Further Sound Affecting Factors . . . 3.8 ● Active Pickups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 ● DIY and Modification of Pickups . . . 3.10 ● Exotic Pickup Principles . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 4 ● Piezo Pickups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 4.1 4.2

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Construction and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Electrical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Chapter 5 ● The Position of the Pickups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 5.1 5.2

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Single Pickup Transfer Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Combination of Multiple Pickups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Chapter 6 ● Guitar Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

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‘Classic’ Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intricacies of Coil Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Passive Wiring for Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Active Electronics in Mass-Produced Instruments . Active Electronics for DIY Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shielding, Grounding, Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 184 192 201 211 218 222

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Electric Guitar ● Sound Secrets and Technology Chapter 7 ● Guitar Synthesizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

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The Precursors: "Organ Guitars" . Analog Guitar Synthesizers . . . . . Digital Guitar Synthesizers . . . . Guitar Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 8 ● Feedback in Electric Guitars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 8.1 8.2 8.3

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String or Body Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Pickup Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Endless Sustain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Chapter 9 ● The DIY Electric Guitar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 9.1 9.2

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Repairing Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Building your own Electric Guitar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Chapter 10 ● Guitar Collecting as a Passion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Chapter 11 ● Tips for Buying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 11.1 11.2 11.3

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The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Mechanical Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Electrical Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

● Epilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 ● About The Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 ● Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 ● Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

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Preface

● A Book as a Bridge between Two Worlds Where or what would modern popular music be today without electric guitars and basses? Over the past decades these instruments have set the tone, and experienced an explosively expanding distribution. The top players are treated like heroes presenting stimulating shows on stage with their freedom of movement and performance, in comparison to rather static keyboard players and drummers. A cult following has arisen surrounding these instruments, also strongly influenced by clever marketing strategies of manufacturers and dealers. Brand names dominate the market and the guitar’s symbolic value is no longer based on its practical value. The idolization of electric guitars has taken on absurd forms. However, in this line of business – as is always the case in a free economy – a ruthless competitive battle rages in the background, with a potential for self-destruction. The romanticism is only a façade. This book aims to disillusion the fictitious world and bring it back down to earth. A clarification of false opinions is urgently necessary. It is aimed at musicians and should be seen as a beneficial asset. Many musicians are short of money, but are nevertheless often tricked into buying overpriced guitars or spare parts – this should not happen. Every musician wants to have the “best“ possible sound. The electrical equipment – pickups and internal wiring of an instrument – play a decisive role here. It is possible to improve this on many a commercial instrument. Once the art of modification has been understood, good sound can be achieved for little money. It depends less on the price of the parts used than on application of the right know-how. This book’s first aim is not to increase manufacturer’s sales. Instead, it addresses the average consumer who is technically oriented; to help them invest their money as efficiently as possible. The communication between musicians and technicians is often difficult. Musicians are usually emotionally-led artists who express their work through sound and lyrics, while technicians have to wind wires around magnets and measure physical values. These are two entirely different worlds and the ‘translation’ between the two can sometimes be difficult. This book attempts to build a bridge between them. Guitar electronics is a narrow, specialized branch of electroacoustics which until now has not been taken very seriously in technical literature. However the interest is there; many a musician would like to know more about the operation of his or her instrument. This book aims to close this gap; not being content to stay at a superficial level, it delves astutely into the innards of electric guitars and basses. The main emphasis is on the pickups and their electrical environment – an area that’s usually not too familiar even to instrument builders. The manufacturers prefer not to disclose their secrets and instead choose to spread misleading information solely to their commercial advantage. It has become apparent that a new systematic view on guitar electronics is desperately

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Electric Guitar ● Sound Secrets and Technology

needed. The guitar’s sound is shaped by many different parts that interact with each other to become the complete system. Therefore, it is not sufficient to describe the parts separately from each other. This can be compared to chemistry: even if all the properties of hydrogen and oxygen are known, the properties of water can still not be predicted based only on the knowledge of those of both in isolation. A common question is ‘What does this or that pickup sound like?’ This question is incompletely phrased; it should actually be: ‘How does the combination of this or that pickup with that cable and other components transfer the sound material produced by strings and body?’ So as not to exceed the scope of this book, it is assumed that reader is factually familiar with certain fundamentals of electronics. Those who already have some basic existing knowledge of alternating current behavior and the design of electronic circuits can use the knowledge found here to modify and improve their electric guitar or bass with great success. Even those who do not yet have such knowledge can learn – using their own guitar experiments as a pathway to the intriguing world of electronics. Personally I have been fascinated by electric guitars and basses since about 1966. I have acquired an extensive collection since then and have experimented a lot. Many instruments belonging to friends and customers have also been at my disposal; they allowed me to try out my ideas. For nearly every model I experimented with how the sonic possibilities could be improved. I see no benefit to keeping my knowledge secret and so I decided to share it via this book. It was important for me to find a balance between technical and theoretical precision on the one hand and practical clarity for the musician/electronics hobbyist on the other. This was not always an easy task. Those who are not interested in theoretical discourses – for example the discussion of mechanical resonances in section 2.5 – can skip those parts and still profit from other parts of the book. However a full understanding is only possible with a good knowledge of the entire guitar system – including how the mechanical structure affects the signal produced by the instrument. Some musicians can be extremely sensitive in regarding their sound. Consequently the technical background should be examined meticulously, resulting in the search for the ultimate sound becoming visible and tangible. This knowledge becomes a tool with which you can begin to shape your sound. This helps to avoid the result being subject merely to chance but instead becoming something which can be purposely formed to meet your own ideals. This book attempts to address as many people as possible as tastes vary immensely. Even if not all the knowledge here is used in practice, it is always useful to know what is possible and what not. Nowadays there are thousands of models and hundreds of manufacturers of electric guitars and basses. I have tried my best to remain as neutral as possible. However there are many companies who only have copied from others and therefore my focus lies on the original innovators in this field.

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Preface

In order to write this book, I have spoken and corresponded with many musicians and manufacturers and have experienced very different opinions. With some I was not in accordance while others helped to support me strongly in my work, which is based on a solid background in electronics as it applies to electric guitars. I am very grateful to a number of people who helped support me in writing this book. I would like thank especially Prof. Dr. Manfred Zollner (Technological University of Regensburg), Prof. Dr. Helmut Fleischer (Bundeswehr University, Munich), Tilmann Zwicker; Anna McCarthy and Robert K. Watson for the translation from German to English, and finally Gary Swift for revising the complete text of this second edition. I wish you all a good sound! Munich, January 2020 Helmuth Lemme

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Electric Guitar ● Sound Secrets and Technology

Chapter 1 ● History and Construction Types 1.1

The Beginning: Hawaiian and Full-Body Archtop Guitars

Taking a look at today’s electric guitars one might find it hard to believe that this type of musical instrument is well over 90 years old. Its origins can be found in the United States somewhere in the 1920s. In those days, guitarists found it difficult to be heard where jazz and entertainment orchestras with brass sections and drums were in high demand, resulting in guitarists being desperately in need of greater volume. The first innovation to make a louder guitar was the metal resonator with a metal cone similar to that of a loudspeaker, built by National and Dobro. This increased the sound volume a little, but still proved inadequate to compete with drums and horns. At that time, in addition to guitars being played in the normal “Spanish“ (upright) position, Hawaiian guitars were also very popular. They were placed flat on a table or on the player’s knees, hence the name ‘lap steel guitar’. Instead of frets on the fingerboard, there is a row of simple orientation lines. Intonation is achieved by pressing down the strings using a steel bar. To accommodate barring the strings without hitting the bar against the neck, the string action is set very high. The neck, in most cases, has a square profile – and, in some models (such as the Weissenborn) the neck was actually a full-depth hollow extension of the body itself. The resonance body is shaped like a normal acoustic guitar and volume is low. This type of instrument has enjoyed a resurgence in popularity in recent years. Following the development of electrical amplification and its successful use in record players, some people began to experiment with the application of this principle to guitars. Lloyd Loar, a musician and instrument developer who was at that time working for the Gibson company in Kalamazoo, Michigan, is presumed to be the first to have equipped a guitar with a pickup device and connected it to an amplifier. The Gibson company was founded by Orville H. Gibson (1856 – 1918), whose essential innovation to the guitar was the introduction of arched tops and backs modeled on the violin body. This construction type was absolutely new to guitars, producing a beautiful and full sound, leading to the company’s legendary reputation. He sold his company in 1902 to a group of investors. It continouosly grew and was always striving to produce top quality. Lloyd Loar’s greatest success – produced from 1923 – was the full-body guitar ‘L5’, which did not have a round or oval sound-hole, but two f-holes; once again inspired by the violin. Its voluminous, singing sound ensured an enthusiastic acceptance amongst the then jazz musicians. Eddie Lang, the most famous guitarist at that time contributed greatly to its distribution. Further models of this construction type were ‘L7’, ‘L12’, ‘L50’, amongst others. The most expensive model was the ‘Super 400’, introduced in 1934, its name indicating its price: $400, which was an exorbitant sum at that time. Lloyd Loar was fascinated by the idea of electric amplification and in 1923 he invented an electrostatic capacitive pickup. Sadly, due to its operating principle it had very high impedance and produced strong interference, proving to be practically unusable. In 1933 Loar left Gibson and founded his own company ‘Vivi tone’, which was not very successful.

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Chapter 1 ● History and Construction Types

Lester Polfuss (born in 1915) had also been experimenting in this field, ever since his school days. Later on he became very famous under the pseudonym Les Paul. His technique used the piezoelectric crystal of a record player pickup to detect the vibrations of the guitar top using the audio section of a radio as the amplifier. Others inserted microphones into the guitar body. At the time, most microphones used grains of carbon to create a variable resistance when cyclically compressed by sound waves. These microphones were inadequate for the task. In addition to the guitar sound, they also picked up airborne sound, which subsequently resulted in unwanted acoustic feedback. An important subsequent development was the invention of pickup elements sensitive to the string vibrations only and neglecting air sound and mechanical movements of the guitar top. These pickups consisted of magnets and coils. Most probably George Beauchamp was the inventor. Two men by the names of Horace Rowe and Harold DeArmond were also pioneers in this field, developing the first commercially available detachable guitar pickups. The electric guitars created in the 1920s were in every respect hand-built instruments. Due to the growing interest in these instruments, some musicians started considering how to implement mass-production. George Beauchamp and Paul Barth were the essential trailblazers in this endeavor. Their experiments very soon led them to the groundbreaking idea that there was no need for a resonating body when electric amplification was being used. In order to achieve a long sustaining tone they constructed the neck and body out of a single piece of cast aluminum. Adolph Rickenbacher (born in 1886, emigrated from Switzerland to Los Angeles), who had already produced the metal bodies for the resonator guitars, was given the production order. The headstock of these new instruments carried his name, which was later Americanized by changing the ‘h‘ to a ‘k‘: Rickenbacker. The first models were called ‘A22’ and ‘A25’ (referring to the string scales of 22 or 25 inches, respectively). These were Hawaiian guitars with a similar form to that of banjos (fig. 1.1), which were available up until the 1950s. It did not take long for musicians to nickname this model ‘Frying Pan’ because of its unique form. The pickup consisted of two horseshoe magnets and a coil. Suitable amps built similarly to those used for record players were also available to order. The aluminum guitars had the disadvantage that the heat of the stage lights caused the guitar to go slightly out of tune. From 1935, Rickenbacker introduced an alternative material: Bakelite - a very hard, brittle synthetic material with unforeseen high quality sound properties (fig. 1.2). The body was given a ‘waist’ , which more closely resembled a traditional guitar. For ease of production the necks were screwed on, which was new, but had no negative effect on the sound quality. These instruments came in many different variations, and were well appreciated by Country/Western and ‘Hillbilly‘ (later called “Bluegrass“) musicians. A few of the models even used actual frets and could accommodate the Spanish style of playing – these were the ancestors of today’s solid-body electric guitars. Nevertheless, sales were slow; as the time was not yet ripe for these early electric instruments. The boom of the Hawaiian guitars lasted into the 1960s, but with the rise of Rock & Roll they lost popularity.. From around 1932, Rickenbacker began to equip fullbody archtop guitars with an L5 styled wood resonating body (supplied by the companies Harmony and Kay) and he began putting his name on the headstock. In the early 1950s

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Electric Guitar ● Sound Secrets and Technology

he sold his company to F. C. Hall. Rickenbacker died in 1976, at the respectable age of 90.

Fig. 1.1. The first electric series production model: Hawaiian guitar by Adolph Rickenbacher, 1931, called ‘Frying-Pan’.

Fig. 1.2. Made of Bakelite: Rickenbacher Hawaiian guitar around 1937.

His success soon inspired other manufacturers, especially Gibson, who in 1935 began constructing an electric Hawaiian guitar made of solid wood. It had a cavity for the electromagnetic pickup, which was still very bulky. It was named ‘EH-150’. This was soon

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followed by the ‘ES-150’ (fig. 1.3), a normally playable archtop guitar (‘EH’ stands for Electric Hawaiian, ‘ES’ stands for ‘Electric Spanish’, and the associated number was the selling price in the catalog of the day.) It had the body of an ‘L50’, but was equipped with a pickup. The electric mandolin ‘EM-150’ and finally the electronic tenor banjo ‘ETB150’ followed. An amplifier suitable for all four instruments was also available and had an output of 15 watts. Compared to the power of today’s amplifiers this may seem rather low, particularly because the loudspeakers were far less efficient than today’s, but this still led to a considerable volume gain, in comparison to the unplugged instruments.

Fig. 1.3. One of the first archtop electric guitars playable in normal position: Gibson ‘ES-150’, about 1936.

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On the earliest recordings of electric guitars, you can hear the guitarist Eddie Durham. However, Charlie Christian was the one to become most affiliated with this new movement and who went on to become very well known. In the late thirties he was a member of the Benny Goodman orchestra. In the early 1940s, together with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Thelonius Monk, they took the first step from old into new jazz with a brand new style coined ‘Bebop’. Charlie broke new ground by introducing his guitar (the ‘ES-150’) as an equivalent solo instrument to the trumpet or the saxophone. This was only made possible by the introduction of electronic amplification. He is said to have shouted, ”Guitarmen, wake up and pluck wire for sound, let ‘em hear you play!”. The new sound soon found enthusiastic fans and the electric guitar spread fast within the American jazz scene. Another electric guitar pioneer was the famous blues musician T-Bone Walker. During the Second World War (in the USA, 1941 to 1945), nearly all guitar manufacturers ceased production. However, following the war, production skyrocketed. Gibson developed many new models, often shaped with a ‘cutaway’ – ‘ES-5’ (the first guitar with three pickups), ‘ES-125’, ‘ES-175’, ‘ES-350’ and many others. In 1951 the two top pre-war models became the ‘L5CES’ and the ‘Super 400 CES’ (fig. 1.4). Some of them were designed tailored to the needs of great guitarists, such as Johnny Smith, Barney Kessel (fig. 1.5), Tal Farlow or Howard Roberts and the models were then named after them. There are a number of guitar history books available, which have dealt in great detail with the myriad of Gibson models.

Fig. 1.4. Gibson’s top of the line ‘Super 400 CES’.

Fig. 1.5. Rare double-cutaway archtop: Gibson ‘Barney Kessel Regular’.

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Following Gibson’s success, other American companies started bringing out their own versions of archtop electric guitars: Rickenbacker, Epiphone (bought up by Gibson in 1957; for distribution reasons the name continued to be used for a second product line), National, Dobro, Harmony, Kay, Gretsch, and Guild. Even some very small but high class manufacturers such as John D’Angelico (began production in 1932, died in 1964), Elmer Stromberg, James L. D’Aquisto, and Robert Benedetto, had great success. Following the Second World War, interest grew rapidly in Germany also. Jazz, once forbidden by the Nazis and known only as a ‘degenerate’ form of music, became very popular and generated high demand for electric guitars. The first European companies in production were previously manufacturers of violins and Spanish guitars. Framus and Hofner were the best known ones, alongside other smaller manufacturers such as Wenzel Rossmeisl (‘Roger’ guitars), Arnold Hoyer, Anton Pilar, Felix Starke (‘Este’ guitars), Gustav Glassl (who manufactured many guitars for Hopf), and, especially Artur Lang. The rise of rock music in the 1960s lessened the demand for hollow body archtop guitars, but through the years demand for these instruments has again risen considerably. Nowadays, guitar builders such as Klaus Roder, Stefan Sonntag, Stefan Hahl, Joe Striebel register high demand for these guitars.

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1.2

Les Paul and Leo Fender

Among electric guitars, solid-bodies are by far the most popular. The first solids for a normal ‘Spanish’ playing position were Rickenbacker’s models with Bakelite bodies, but they were very short-lived as there were only a few advocates of solid guitar bodies at that time. One of them was the previously mentioned Les Paul; a professional guitarist and soon one of the most sparkling personalities the U.S. guitar scene. He experimented enthusiastically, partly with off the shelf acoustic guitars (early on he had a Gibson ‘L5’) and partly with his own numerous constructions. He saw no importance in the resonance produced by a hollow body; his main aim being to find a long sustain of the string vibrations. This went so far that in one of his tests he even equipped a railway track with strings. Although the early sounds he created were more or less by chance, Les Paul found out that different tonal colors are caused by different numbers of wire turns on the pickup coils and that the position of the pickups plays an important role in the instrument’s sound. His best known piece he built himself in 1941 using a thick 4” by 4” crosscut hardwood block as a middle section, to which he mounted two hollow lateral body parts of an Epiphone guitar and a Gibson neck. On the block, he mounted – probably the first to do this – two pickups, to achieve different tonal colors. On the outside, this instrument looked like a normal full-body acoustic guitar. He called it ‘The Log’ and also played it on stage on numerous occasions. From 1941 to 1947 he approached Gibson repeatedly, trying to convince them to manufacture his solid-body designs. They rejected him curtly however as they saw no place for his ‘broom-stick’ amongst their upscale acoustic guitars. His musical success continued to grow, and he produced a string of hits together with his wife Mary Ford, long before the rise of Rock & Roll. He invested a lot of time in the further development of studio technology and developed many new recording techniques such as multi-track recording. In his multi-tracked pieces one or two guitars frequently sound an octave higher and twice as fast as normal. He achieved this by recording with the tape recorder set to half speed. He also invented the ‘flanging’ effect by playing two equal tracks in parallel and intermittently slowing one of the tape reels. Flanging was later achieved by electronic circuits and became very popular in the form of a little effect unit. Other inventions of his are double-tracking and tape echo, and the sound on sound recording technique with one recording head and several playback heads to play the sound over and over. Les Paul did not remain the only one developing the solid-body guitar. Paul Bigsby, later of vibrato tailpiece and pedal steel guitar fame, introduced some models built to the specifications of guitarist Merle Travis in 1947, which already had many similar features to later models. These included the shape of the 6-inline headstock and the neck through body construction. These innovative designs were sadly not commercially successful and only a few specimens were ultimately produced. The man who helped the solid-body guitar achieve its biggest breakthrough was Clarence Leonidas “Leo” Fender, born in 1909. Although his biography reads like the American Dream come true, in reality he worked hard for every cent he earned. At a very early date,

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Fender became interested in electronic technology with the rise of radio. In the early 1930s he founded his own radio repair workshop in Fullerton near Los Angeles. Soon he was fixing not only radios, but also record players and the first electric guitars and guitar amplifiers such as Rickenbacker, Gibson, National and others. That is how he first came into contact with the local music scene. He lent out amplifiers and soon began building his own, many of them for the then popular Hawaiian guitars. Together with Doc Kauffman he founded the K&F company. Due to the electrified hollow-body guitars frequently having problems with acoustic feedback at high volume, Fender developed his first solid-body guitar in 1943. This was not a Hawaiian guitar but one for the normal Spanish playing position. This instrument remained the only prototype as the business was sidelined during the second world war. However, production grew rapidly post-war. Kauffman left in 1946, and Fender’s company was then called ‘Fender Electric Instruments‘. The production of Hawaiian or lap steel guitars and amplifiers increased. Fender could hardly play guitar himself, but he had an excellent ear for good sound and developed the best contacts with almost all guitarists in and around Los Angeles, whose wishes he took into account. Fender’s amplifiers and instruments were highly successful with musicians because of their outstanding sound. They were very robust and could not easily be damaged by frequent transport to gigs. Their special sound quality had an emphasis on treble and bass frequencies and some attenuation at midrange frequencies. This was more successful with musicians than a strictly linear frequency response. Country and Western musicians were the target group as the Rock & Roll era had not yet begun. Around 1950 Fender returned to the idea of a solid-body guitar for the normal playing position. He developed two models, the ‘Esquire’ with one pickup (at the bridge) and the ‘Broadcaster’ with two pickups. He was not allowed to keep the latter name because a drum set by Gretsch already carried the same name. So he renamed it ‘Telecaster’. The construction was designed as simple as possible in order to speed up production. It consisted of a one piece maple neck, i.e. without an extra fingerboard glued on, screwed to a body made of ash (fig 1.6). These guitars were soon successful with Country and Western guitarists around Los Angeles and subsequently all across the U.S.A. The ‘Telecaster’ became a runaway success and the breakthrough for solid-body construction was a fact. Even today the demand has not decreased and the whole world has become used to its awkward shape. The ‘Tele’ has become a classic and is still built in large quantities, with hardly any technical changes. Its piercing sound marked the direction for the whole further development of the electric guitar. There was less demand for the cheaper ‘Esquire’ and it was discontinued in the 1960s.

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Fig. 1.6. The first successful solid-body guitar: Fender Fig. 1.7. The most played and copied electric guitar in ‘Telecaster’ with original “ashtray“ bridge cover. This the world: Fender ‘Stratocaster’. cover was often removed by players who like to palmmute the strings using the edge of their hand on the bridge.

Encouraged by the success of the Telecaster, Fender together with designer Fred Tavares, started to develop a new improved model in 1953. He introduced this model to the public a year later as the ‘Stratocaster’ (fig. 1.7). It featured three pickups and a newly designed shape, optimally adapted to the player’s body. This solid guitar body had a “belly cut“ on the back, and an arm bevel on the top. So, unlike the slab-bodied Telecaster, it was much more comfortable against the player’s forearm and ribcage. At first the body was made of ash, and later alder was used. When Rock & Roll began, the Strat was accepted enthusiastically. It defined the whole sound of this era and eventually became the most successful electric guitar of all time. Its efficient and comfortable shape has been copied by

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many other manufacturers. Many of Fender’s later solid body guitar models did not achieve the high sales volumes of the first ones. In 1957 the ‘Jazzmaster’ (fig. 1.8) appeared, and in 1961 the ‘Jaguar’ was released. These were designed to be top models, but were much less popular than the ‘Tele‘ and ‘Strat‘ models. However, they have enjoyed a small comeback in recent years due to the nostalgic trend for reissued vintage instruments. Cheaper models were also made, that went by the name of ‘Mustang’ or ‘Bronco’. The line of amplifier models continued to grow.

Fig. 1.8. Fender ‘Jazzmaster’: a top 1960s model never enjoyed the widespread popularity of the Tele or Strat. However, there is nothing better for Surf music!

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The factory expanded very rapidly. In 1953 sales amounted to 1 million dollars, and by 1964 it had increased to 40 millions. Soon Leo Fender lost his ability to oversee the whole operation and was completely overburdened with responsibility. He was more suited to the role of developer of new innovation than top manager and boss of 600 employees. In 1965, due to health problems, he sold his enterprise to the radio and TV group CBS (Columbia Broadcasting Service) for 13 million dollars. Owing to pressure from the new owners, the whole company was restructured and even in the area of production many things were modified. Numerous musicians at the time said that the quality of guitars and amps dropped and that some inferior products left the factory, which would not have previously passed the final check. Among other things, the pickups tended to feed back and the old nitrocellulose lacquer finish was changed to polyester finish. ‘Pre-CBS’ era equipment soon became known as premium quality. However, the product range and the quantities continued to grow and new instruments and amplifiers were in constant production. In the 1970s and 1980s the wishes of the musicians and the end product drifted further and further apart. Fender left the original unified model and began producing a whole number of different variations of Telecaster and Stratocaster. The body shape remained the same, but smaller technical details were designed differently. Now, different versions that are nearly the same as the old models from the 50s (‘Vintage’-type) stand alongside the modernized models with all the technical improvements (‘American Standard’ and other series). Many are named after well-known guitarists whose ideas influenced the construction: Stevie Ray Vaughan, Tom Delonge, Richie Sambora, Eric Clapton, Yngwie Malmsteen, Danny Gatton and many more. Meanwhile, there are now so many variants of Telecaster and Stratocaster being produced, with new models being introduced and existing models being discontinued, that it is difficult to keep track. Another trend is that new models continued to appear that combined elements of various old models and names to become ‘Jagmaster’ or ‘Jagstang’, among others. The goal was to offer a model for every taste. In 1985, the factory was separated from the CBS group and became an independent company once again. Nowadays production takes place in the USA, Mexico and Asia (where they go by the name of ‘Squier’). Fender does not want to make public the amount of guitars produced to this day, but one could presume that, by now, it is sure to run into several millions. In addition to the large-scale production, Fender founded the Custom Shop in 1987 – a specialist workshop for one-of-a-kind models and limited editions, designed according to customers’ wishes. These often featured extravagant paintwork, unsual types of wood, special electronics, etc. The prices were more realistic for wealthy rock stars than for the average consumer. The enterprise managed to regain success and acclaim following the business decline of the 1980s. After retreating from management, Leo Fender continued to work as a developer for some years, but ultimately left the CBS company. His aim was to set up a smaller company, which he could be in charge of again. In 1973, together with some previous employees, he set up the company Music Man. He brought in a lot of experience and developed new guitars (fig. 1.9) and amplifiers, but the market reacted hesitantly. He finally discontinued

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the amplifiers and sold the company name to Ernie Ball. Together with his long-standing employee George Fullerton, he then formed the company G & L (for George & Leo) in 1980, which managed to combine old Fender know-how with a series of further technical developments. Leo Fender died in 1991, but his name as the pioneer of the electric guitar will live on.

Fig. 1.9. Leo Fender checking a Music Man guitar.

The success of Fender was no secret to Theodore “Ted“ McCarty, President of Gibson since 1948. He was aware that something new was happening with Leo Fender and that this young upstart could become serious competition. It became obvious that solid-body guitars were in demand after all, and so he decided to also take a shot at it. To make sure that the renowned name of the company was in no risk of being damaged, he made sure that the best possible model was to be produced. After careful testing of different wood types, the result was found in a two-layered body; a thick block made of mahogany on the bottom and a layer of maple on top carved in a way similar to the acoustic archtop models. This was done to prevent the new guitar looking as cheap as the ‘Telecasters’ (which at Gibson were only known as the ‘toilet lid with strings’). At that time by no-one but Gibson was built such a construction. The neck was glued instead of screwed on; the gold painted top matched the current fashion in show business – everything was of the highest quality available at the time. The guitar had two single-coil pickups with cream-colored plastic covers (type ‘P90’, or ‘soap bar’ as some liked to call it) and four potentiometers for individual volume and tone control of each pickup. In terms of sales promotion Gibson was looking for a guitarist with a talent to play and success with the audience, capable of convincing others that a solid-body guitar was just as important as the hollow-body guitars. They remembered Les Paul who was still touring

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the country and was consistently becoming more famous with his home-made ‘Log’ guitar. When Gibson presented the new prototype to him in 1951, he was immediately convinced and agreed to appear solely with this guitar in public. And so this model was baptized the ‘Les Paul Model’ (fig. 1.10). After a small alteration to the tailpiece, it went into production in 1952 and cost around $250.

Fig. 1.10. Early Gibson ‘Les Paul Model", mid 1950s

A deluxe version followed in 1954, the ‘Les Paul Custom’ with high gloss black paint and gold-plated metal parts. Musicians called it ‘Black Beauty’ or, because of the very low frets, ‘Fretless Wonder’. Les Paul did all he could on the advertising side of things, playing these guitars at all his concerts and using them for studio recordings. As of 1957, both models received the newly developed ‘humbucking’ pickups. In 1958, the design was altered: the standard version was given a brown-yellow shaded top (‘sunburst’), and the ‘Custom’ had a third pickup added to it in the middle.

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However, sales remained limited. Fender continued to dominate the market for solidbody guitars in 1960. Nobody wanted the Les Pauls with its more conservative design and mellower sound. So, Gibson decided on a completely different design and changed the production. Les Paul‘s name remained on these guitars up until his contract with Gibson expired in 1962. After that they were called ‘SG’ (for Solid Guitar) (fig. 1.11). This model became a great success, especially in the 1970s and many versions appeared over the course of time. Notable SG players include Eric Clapton, Tony Iommi, Robby Krieger, Pete Townshend and Angus Young. The ‘SG Custom’ was the top model with its three goldplated humbucking pickups.

Fig. 1.11. Gibson ‘SG’, successor of the ‘Les Paul’ guitar. This one is an ‘SG Special’ with a simple wraparound bridge/tailpiece.

In the mid 1960s, a stylistic change in popular music took place. The ‘Beat’ era, with its semi-acoustic guitars, came to an end and Blues became increasingly popular. The Les Paul

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guitars with the humbucking pickups proved to be very popular with the leading guitarists of this era – Eric Clapton, Peter Green, Keith Richards, Mike Bloomfield and some others. Only this model managed to deliver the warm sound and very long sustain. After that, a high demand for the non-sellers from 1960 was on the rise. Since production was limited to 1500-2000 pieces, second-hand prices rocketed and far surpassed the original prices. These guitars are now collector’s items and are in an astronomical price range. In 1968 Gibson finally listened to the wishes of the musicians and started to produce Les Paul guitars again, which were slightly different in detail. Innumerable different versions were produced and they are among the most popular electric guitars in the world. Fig. 1.12 is a rare deluxe version: the ‘Les Paul Artisan’ with three pickups and elaborate inlays. The ‘Les Paul Professional’ (1969) and the ‘Les Paul Recording’ (1971), with special electronics, were poorly selling extravagances. The guitar in fig. 1.13, depicted in the hands of its master, also belongs to this series – a one-of-a-kind model with a built-in microphone and remote control for a tape recorder, which could play previously recorded accompanying tracks. Following the ‘Les Pauls’ and ‘SG’s’, Gibson put many other solid-body guitars on the market. In 1958, the ‘Explorer’ and the ‘Flying V’ were miserable market failures due to their bizarre shapes. Nowadays though they belong to one of the most sought-after collector’s items. In 1963 the ‘Firebirds’ were developed, with the aim of being serious competition for the Fender models, but they also only became recognized much later on. Many other models followed suit (these models are described in greater detail in numerous American books that deal with this topic).

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Fig. 1.12. Gibson ‘Les Paul Artisan’, a rare deluxe Fig. 1.13. Les Paul with a prototype of the Gibson model with three pickups and elaborate inlays, 1970s. ‘Les Paul Professional’ with novel electric circuitry, a microphone and a remote control for a tape recorder.

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1.3

The Triumph of the Solid-body Guitar

The success of Fender and Gibson inspired many other guitar manufacturers in the USA and elsewhere to also start producing solid-body guitars. However, it was initially difficult for other companies to get their name established. The models developed by Guild, Gretsch, Rickenbacker, Danelectro, National etc. in the 1950s and 1960s, remained in the background. At least on the European market, German manufacturers Framus, Hofner, Hoyer and Hopf were more successful. In Great Britain, Burns and Vox were well known, and in Italy it was Eko. The Japanese came more strongly onto the market as of 1970; Ibanez, Aria and Yamaha became the leading Japanese brands. Prompted by the great demand for Fender and Gibson models, German and Japanese manufacturers started to imitate their body shapes in the late 1960s. Initially, the similarities were slight, but after some years they resembled the originals exactly, right down to the last screw and could be distinguished by the name on the headstock only. At first, these imitations could not match the quality of the originals in sound quality, but this changed considerably over time. While Fender and Gibson were resting on their laurels, some models even exceeded theirs, especially in the overall workmanship. Competition and pricing pressure resulted in the German manufacturers losing the battle; Framus and Hoyer went bankrupt; Hofner survived but moved its focus from mass production to high quality workmanship. In the last few years, many new companies with few employees and with the highest quality workmanship have appeared across the country. Framus has risen from the dead as the guitar department of Warwick. By far the largest amount of guitars still originate from the USA and eastern Asia. In the 1970s labor costs caused some U.S. companies to transfer part of their production to Japan in order to offer their superior guitar know-how at more reasonable prices. These instruments were often given alternative names. The instruments that were produced under Fender management were named ‘Squier’, after an old string supplier Fender had bought up in the 1950s. Gibson on the other hand revived the name ‘Epiphone’, while Guild came up with the name ‘DeArmond’ (Harold DeArmond was an early designer of electric guitar pickups), which vanished after a short time. But when, in the 1980s, Japanese wages also rose and the economic miracle took place in South Korea and Taiwan, part of the guitar production was taken out of Japan and moved to these countries. Even the Japanese enterprises adapted to the trend and transferred their production to neighboring countries with lower pay. Meanwhile Korea had lost the wage battle with China and Indonesia, whilst Fender manufactured its intermediate models in neighboring Mexico. The number of manufacturers continues to grow. New brand names arise out of nothing and old ones re-appear – it is often not clear if they stem from an industrial concern or a small workshop. The number of available models has grown into the thousands. In comparison to the early days though, the diversity in design has decreased. Only very few manufacturers develop ideas of their own. Most of them are just knock-offs – i.e. style and technology copied from the successful models. Apparently, they seem to think this is a lucrative path

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to take and so the copying has no end in sight, although these companies can hardly make a name for themselves this way. Thankfully, some manufacturers do create new models of their own. Full-time woodcarvers occasionally put their talent to show and come up with the craziest designs (e.g. at ESP). And even in their case, the fundamental construction for the most part is still based on the old principles of Fender and Gibson. Among American manufacturers, Paul Reed Smith (PRS) has built an outstanding reputation for itself (fig. 1.14). Other younger companies having gained acclaim are B. C. Rich, Tom Anderson, Brian Moore, Heritage, and Hamer. Their guitars most often have an excellent sound and are of high quality workmanship. The style, however, goes more or less along the well-trodden paths.

Fig. 1.14. A dream of many a guitarist: Paul Reed Smith '513'

Fig. 1.15. Alembic ‘Tribute’ with the shape of Jerry Garcia’s guitar.

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Companies having introduced real pioneering innovations are rare. One such company is Alembic, since 1969; a small company from Santa Rosa, California. Alembic vowed to deliver only the most exquisite quality, without consideration of price. Fig. 1.15 shows the ‘Telluride’, whose shape is based on Jerry Garcia’s guitars of the Grateful Dead (built by Doug Irwin). The basses by Alembic became better known than their other guitars; more about them in section 1.5.

Fig. 1.16. Veering off the well-trodden paths with new ideas of their own: Parker ‘Fly’

Ned Steinberger’s designs were regarded as revolutionary. He created headless guitars and basses made from carbon fiber embedded in epoxy resin, see fig. 1.32. (Germany)

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manufactured guitars and basses of the same material, but unlike Steinberger’s, they were completely hollow. Parker uses basswood in the provocatively designed ‘Fly’ (cover and fig. 1.16), which is coated with a carbon fibre mat on the back, through which stability is fundamentally increased. In addition to the ‘normal’ electromagnetic pickups, a piezo pickup is installed in the bridge. This piezo pickup proved to be one of the first to function really well. Travis Bean used aluminum necks going through the body (fig. 2.22), so the construction of the old ‘Frying pan’ Rickenbacker returned. Kramer bolted aluminum necks onto wooden bodies. The design of the guitars by Ulrich Teuffel (Germany, fig. 1.17) and Gittler (Israel) are of another style all together.

Fig. 1.17. Here, the designer was able to let off some steam: ‘Teuffel’ guitar (Germany, 2001).

While the typical electric guitar has six strings, there were and are many variations. Since 1964, there have been 12-string electric guitars and rare models with 9 or 10 strings, where three or four high strings are doubled. Since the 1990s, 7-string guitars became popular with an additional deep B string. This idea was not new; Gretsch had already built these, unsuccessfully, in the1960s under the name ‘George Van Eps’ 7-string guitar. Occasionally, there were 8-string guitars with two deeper strings below E (e.g. by Hopf, Germany). ‘Tenor guitars’, which are four-stringed and usually tuned in fifths, have died

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out. Most of these were hollow-body acoustics. Solid-bodies by Gibson, with Les Paul or SG shapes, were extremely rare. Double neck guitars caused a real sensation. The most well-known model is the ‘EDS1275’ by Gibson, a type of double ‘SG’ with six and twelve strings, which were played by John McLaughlin of the Mahavishnu Orchestra and Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin. Rickenbacker also made a 6/12-string model (fig. 1.24). Fender made some specimens in their Custom Shop. Combinations of guitars with bass guitars or mandolins, are less common; old models by Gibson fetch high collector’s prices. Occasionally one finds models with numerous necks: Career (Korea) offers a model with three necks and guitarist Rick Nielsen ordered a custom Hamer guitar with five necks: it’s all about the show! Sales volumes of different models are subject to constant fluctuations in popularity. This is predominantly caused by trends and is especially influenced by the current crop of top guitarists. These people are much sought-after potential endorsers for manufacturers. High sales figures are not proof of high quality, and commercial failure is not proof of poor quality. The manufacturer’s sales and marketing department plays the decisive role in a product becoming popular or a flop. The electric guitar market is often backlogged with unsalable models, due to badly organized distribution. Alongside the solid-body guitar with magnetic pickups, another type, inspired by electrified acoustic guitars, has become more widespread. The introduction of good quality piezo pickups mounted in the bridge have given the guitar a sound more similar to that of an acoustic, but without the body resonance. There are types with steel strings and others with nylon strings. Fig. 1.18 shows a model based on a Spanish classical (‘Melody’, Italy,) but which is actually a solid body. The Ibanez ‘Talman’ (fig. 1.19) looks a bit like a ‘Stratocaster’. The sound of these instruments is similar to acoustic guitars; nevertheless that ‘certain something’ is missing. A solid-body can never supersede the resonance of a hollow body.

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Fig. 1.18. Outside classical, inside solid, with nylon Fig. 1.19. Like an electric guitar but with nylon strings: strings: ‘Melody’ (Italy). Ibanez ‘Talman’ – here with selected ‘cloud’ grain.

The exotic ‘Stick’ (fig. 1.20) developed by Emmett Chapman, brings this section to a close. In this case, the strings are not plucked, instead the frets are tapped and played with both hands. With so many strings, it is important to mute the strings that are not being played to avoid unwanted notes. There are many different versions of this instrument type with various numbers of strings, tunings and woods, even one made of carbon fiber material.

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Fig. 1.20. Played on the fingerboard with both hands: ‘The Stick’ by Emmett Chapman.

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● Index Symbols 12-string guitar 29, 30, 33, 35, 41, 59, 206, 234, 239, 253, 254, 264 4x5-switch 191, 194, 195 5-string bass 41, 43, 44, 49 6-string bass 41, 43, 45 A Acousticaster 35, 36 acoustic bass 44 acoustic feedback 11, 17, 34, 37, 40, 62, 81, 95, 145, 153, 206, 207, 241-246 active electronics 41-43, 92, 93, 127, 129, 133, 138, 147, 157-159, 168, 179, 182, 187, 199, 201-217, 268 active pickups 138-142, 243 Adamas 63 admittance 73 aged 96, 261 airborne sound 11, 95, 141, 243 Alembic 27, 28, 41-43, 59, 60, 65, 67, 88, 92, 129, 164, 203, 204, 208, 215, 265 Alnico 81, 83, 90, 100, 106, 122-125, 133, 144, 146 aluminum 11, 29, 54, 63, 64, 67, 100, 219, 220, 248, 252 Alumitone 129, 130 Ampeg 44, 227 amplifier 10, 11, 13, 17, 19, 20, 21, 37, 46, 47, 78, 101, 104, 110, 112, 128, 132, 157, 170, 192, 197, 201, 202, 206, 208, 211-215, 218-222, 234-238, 241-244, 268, 271 Antiquity 116, 119, 261 archtop guitar 10-15, 21, 57, 60-62, 105, 153, 201, 256, 261, 267 Aria 26, 204 Armstrong, Dan 63, 164 Armstrong, Kent 77 ARP Avatar 226-227 Artist Series 35 202-204, 208 attack 111, 202, 208, 212, 227, 229, 230 AWG 81, 112, 143, 144, 259 B Baggs, L. R. 156, 206 bakelite 11, 12, 16, 63, 66 Ball, Ernie 21 bandpass 202 bar magnet 82-90, 94, 96, 122, 127, 146 Barden, Joe 77, 86, 94, 95, 117, 134 baritone guitar 45, 48 Barney Kessel guitar 14 Bartolini 77, 98, 99, 107, 138

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bass attenuation 215 BassCut 200 Bass V 41 Bass VI 41, 94 Bassline 44 Bassman 37 battery 138-141, 144, 159, 160, 207-210, 213-217, 245 Bean, Travis 29, 67 Benedetto, Robert 15 Bigsby, Paul 16, 53 blade switch 173, 174, 176, 188-194, 197, 199 Bluesbird 59 Blueshawk 93, 179 bobbin 84, 95-97, 112, 124, 127, 136, 143-146, 167, 259 body feedback 241 brass 54, 69, 82, 95, 121, 122, 147, 249 bridge 15, 18, 22, 23, 29, 30, 35, 36, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51-55, 59, 61-63, 66, 67, 69, 73-75, 109, 141, 148, 150-153, 157-159, 161-163, 166, 174, 188, 197, 201, 220, 226, 227, 232, 234, 238, 239, 243, 245, 249, 253, 264, 267 Broadcaster 17, 66, 174, 255, 259 Bronco 19, 81 Bruce, Jack 37 Burns 26, 128, 193 Burstbucker 116, 134 bypass 141, 159, 179, 182, 208 Byrdland 31, 48, 62 C C-Switch 199 cable 8, 46, 78, 101, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 120, 124, 128, 129, 130, 138, 146, 148, 150, 152, 155-159, 164, 170, 180, 183, 185, 187, 195-197, 206, 208, 211, 212, 218-22, 227, 238, 240, 243, 246, 248, 268 cable capacitance 104, 106, 108, 109, 120, 141, 150, 155, 156, 169, 171, 183, 195, 197 capacitance 46, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121, 138, 156, 166, 169, 183, 195, 197, 198, 211, 212, 221, 222 capacitor 104, 108, 109, 124, 125, 128, 129, 138, 139, 144, 145, 155, 159, 169-174, 179, 182, 187, 188, 193-200, 204, 205, 206, 207, 209, 212, 213, 216, 238, 248, 250 carbon fiber 28, 29, 31, 42, 43, 63, 65, 67, 68, 70 Casino 33 Casio 232 CBS 18, 20, 255 ceramic magnet 82, 83, 100, 122, 124, 125, 144 ceramic capacitors 171 Chapman, Emmett 31,32 Citation 257 Christian, Charlie 14

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Clapton, Eric 20, 23, 24, 47, 203, 204, 208 coil 11, 16, 77, 81, 82-109, 112-116, 121-147, 161, 167, 168, 169, 172, 175, 179, 184218, 220, 239, 242, 243, 250, 259 coil imbalance 134, 259 coil splitting 108, 116, 129, 133, 146, 148, 169, 172, 186, 187, 189 Comanche 91, 125 compression 111, 135, 202, 226, 238 conductance 73, 74, 125 contact pickup 70, 153, 154 contact cleaner 247 copper foil 147, 219, 220 Coronado Bass 40 Coronado 33 Coura, Peter 150 COSM 233, 235 crossover 158 crunch 85, 111, 124,125, 137 Custom Shop 20, 30, 118, 256 cutoff frequency 102, 155, 214 D Danelectro 26, 41, 55, 63 D'Angelico 15, 257 D'Aquisto 15, 257 DC resistance 96, 100, 101, 112, 115, 116, 121, 134 dead spot 70, 71, 269 DeArmond 11, 26, 45, 79, 81, 82, 83, 92, 95, 105, 116, 133, 134, 164, 165, 200, 242, 257, 259 digital guitar synthesizer 230 DiMarzio 77, 83, 86, 87, 90, 91, 94, 108, 117, 129, 133, 134, 137, 163, 187, 188, 189, 214 diode 209, 210 distortion 46, 77, 86, 99, 111, 112, 115, 124, 125, 134, 135, 137, 157, 163, 164, 171, 202, 222, 223, 233, 239, 240 DIY electronics 211-217 DIY guitar 247-253 DIY pickups 143, 146 Doderer 44 Dog Ear 83 double bass 37, 40, 44, 45, 54, 150, 236 double coil pickup 81, 84, 85, 86, 108, 116, 131, 132 double neck guitar 30, 33, 35, 59, 265 Dual Sound humbucker 77, 86, 87, 108, 117, 187 Duesenberg 59, 60 dummy coil 92, 93, 129, 203 dynamic compressor 202 dynamics 111, 141, 142, 202, 203, 230, 231, 235

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Index

Dobro 10, 15, 236 E EB-0 37, 88, 89 EB-1 37 EB-2 40, 55, 88 EB-3 37, 55, 88, 89, 117 EB-4L 92 EB-750 40 E-Bow 243 eddy currents 101, 105, 106, 119, 121, 123, 125, 144, 146, 220 EDS-1275 30 EH-150 12 Eko 26 electric bass 37-45 electrodynamic pickup 150, 151, 227 electromagnet 243, 244 Elite Stratocaster 93, 193, 203 EM-150 13 EMG 77, 138-142, 213 endless sustain 227, 241, 243-246 Epiphone 15, 16, 26, 33, 34, 40, 132, 179 epoxy resin 28, 42, 43, 63, 67, 68, 95, 109, 138, 141, 147, 148, 226, 242, 249, 264, 268 equivalent circuit 101, 102, 104, 123, 124 Eric Clapton Stratocaster 203, 204 ES Artist 35, 202 ES-125 14 ES-150 13, 14, 84 ES-175 14, 40, 62 ES-225 33 ES-300 163, 164 ES-330 33, 59 ES-335 34, 40, 59, 84, 178, 179, 202, 225, 247, 255 ES-345 34, 179, 180, 181, 247 ES-350 14 ES-350T 33 ES-355 34, 179, 180, 181, 247 ES-5 14 Esquire 17, 174 ETB150 13 expander 202, 203 Explorer 24, 254, 255 Eyb, Gunter 55, 190

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F fakes 171, 259, 260 feedback 11, 17, 34, 40, 62, 81, 95, 145, 153, 206, 207, 241-245 , 268 Fender 18-21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33, 35, 37-41, 44, 45, 48, 49, 53-56, 59, 66, 67, 70, 74, 79, 81, 84, 87, 90-96, 100, 105, 106, 109, 110, 114-118, 121, 122, 124, 125, 127, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 145, 146, 156, 158, 167-178, 182, 183, 187-191, 193, 198, 200, 203, 204, 207, 208, 236, 241, 247, 249, 253, 254, 255, 256, 259, 260, 264, 269 Fender basses 37-41, 44, 45, 49, 54, 55, 67, 70, 91, 125, 170, 175, 187, 198, 249 Fender humbucker 87, 88, 96, 112, 132, 134 Fender, Leo 16, 17, 18, 21, 37, 48, 53, 66, 69, 84, 134, 163, 261 Fernandes 244, 245 ferrite 83, 100, 107, 124, 125, 144 f-holes 10, 35, 59, 202, 247, 268 field lines 82, 98, 126, 133 Filtertron 84, 86, 122, 133 Firebird 24, 37, 67, 265 Firebird X 239, 235 Fishman 141, 153, 154, 156, 158, 159, 204, 206, 207 Flagship 159, 160 flatsawn 56, 57 flatwound 48 Fleischer, Helmut 50, 70-74 Floyd Rose 53 Flying V 24, 253 fmax 103 Fralin, Lindy 77, 134 Framus 15, 26, 33, 35, 39, 53, 55, 59, 61, 62, 93,164, 166, 181,189, 200, 201, 253, 258 frequency extictions 131, 164, 166 fretless 22, 44, 45, 236 frets 10, 11, 22, 31, 37, 41, 44, 45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 109, 135, 136, 150, 162, 223, 224, 227, 236, 241, 243, 245, 252, 259, 263, 264, 265, 267 Frying Pan 11, 12, 29, 67 fundamental 49, 50, 51, 52, 69, 70, 71, 96, 98, 104, 111, 131, 132, 135, 136, 151, 161, 162, 163, 166, 167, 212, 224, 226, 241, 244 fuzz 227, 228, 241 G G&L 37 German silver 85, 95, 98, 121, 122 Gibson 10-17, 21-27, 30, 33-35, 37, 40, 42, 48, 49, 52, 55, 58-62, 64, 67, 74, 79, 82-90, 92-94, 100, 106, 108-110, 115-117, 122, 128, 131-134, 137, 146, 148, 157, 163, 164, 166, 167, 170, 172, 173, 175, 178-184, 187, 189, 199, 202-204, 208, 214, 220, 236, 239, 242, 249-251, 253-257, 259, 260, 265, 266, 269 Gibson basses 37, 55, 88-90, 117, 128, 187, 214 Gibson humbucker 86, 88, 94, 109, 122, 133, 148, 259 Gibson, Orville 10

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GK-2A 231 Godin 35, 36, 44, 152, 158, 204, 205, 207 Godwin 224, 225 Goldtop 22, 58, 254 ground 81, 86, 104, 133, 140, 147, 148, 159, 160, 168, 171, 184, 186, 190, 194, 208, 214, 218-220, 248 GR-1 231 GR-33 233 GR-55 233 GR-300 231, 235 GR-500 151, 227 GR-700 230, 231 Grabber Bass 164 Gretsch 15, 17, 26, 29, 33, 34, 35, 54, 55, 59, 83, 84, 86, 93, 107, 116, 122, 133, 147, 170, 181, 218, 236, 256 GS-500 151, 227 Guild 15, 26, 35, 45, 59, 61, 83, 184, 248 Guitorgan 225 guitar synthesizer 93, 149, 223-240 H Hagstrom 227 Hahl 15 Hamer 27, 30 hand-wound 97, 121 Harmonic Restructure Modeling 235 harmonics 49- 51, 56, 69, 96, 105, 131-136, 151, 161-163, 166, 167, 218, 223-226, 234, 235, 241, 244, 245 Harmony 11, 15, 165 Hawaiian guitar 10-13, 17, 63, 163 headless 28, 43, 44 Hendrix, Jimi, 33, 241, 244 Henry 101, 106, 107, 115-117, 129, 134, 179, 259 Heritage 27 hexaphonic pickup 93, 226, 227, 231-234 HiLotron 218 Hofner 15, 26, 33, 35, 39, 40, 49, 55, 62, 83, 86, 96, 117, 147, 148, 158, 200, 201, 202, 218, 249, 250, 257, 258, 271 Hopf 15, 26, 29, 150 Hot Stuff 87, 94, 137 Hoyer 15, 26, 59, 93, 181, 198, 201, 218, 258 HRM 235 hum 77, 84-93, 95, 108, 129, 130, 132, 134, 139, 142, 147, 157, 159, 167, 172, 175, 176, 187, 188, 189, 203, 206, 211, 214, 218-222, 239, 243, 248, 250 hum compensation 55, 108, 129, 172, 175, 188, 203, 250 humbucker 22- 24, 77-79, 81, 83-92, 96,97, 101, 107-109, 112, 113, 115-119, 122, 123,

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127-134, 137-141, 145-149, 163, 164, 169, 172, 173, 175, 176, 178, 181, 182, 184, 185190, 194, 195, 198, 200, 204, 214, 218, 220, 227, 233, 239, 242, 248, 250, 254, 255, 257, 259 Hyak 67,68 I Ibanez 26, 30, 31, 63, 92, 129, 164, 176, 188-190, 207, 250-253 impedance 10, 46, 100-113, 119-120, 128-132, 138, 143-147, 155-158, 170, 195, 197, 205-213 impedance converter 109, 110, 120, 147, 158, 205, 211- 213, 245 inductance 102, 103, 104, 108, 110, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 131, 132, 136, 163, 165, 170, 172, 179, 184, 191, 193, 195 interference 10, 85, 86, 122, 129, 134, 139, 147, 157, 175, 187, 189, 195, 197, 206, 211, 214, 218-222, 243 intermodulation 135, 227, 239 intonation 10, 52, 54, 55, 264 J Jagmaster 20 Jagstang 20 Jaguar 19, 41, 48, 55, 81, 90, 91, 94, 109, 119, 170, 182, 183, 200 Jan Akkerman guitar 59, 189 Jazz Bass 37, 39, 45, 70, 81, 91, 117-119, 170, 175, 182, 198, 199, 220, 247 Jazzmaster 19, 81, 91, 119, 121, 134, 170, 182, 183, 220 Johnny Smith guitar 14 K Kahler 53 Kauffman, Doc 17, 53 Kay 11, 15 Kinman 77, 90 Kramer 29, 67 L L5 10, 11, 16 L5CES 14, 33, 178, 258 L5T 33, 62 L6S 87, 117, 166, 189 Lace 77, 84, 91, 117, 118, 129, 130 laminated wood 33, 60-62, 67, 242, 258 Lang, Artur 15, 60, 61, 258, 259 Lawrence, Bill 77, 87, 91, 94 LCR meter 120 lead circonate titanate 152 LED 41, 113, 151, 208, 232, 235 Les Paul (musician) 11, 16, 21, 22, 23, 25, 152, 164, 219

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Index

Les Paul (guitar) 22-25, 30, 34, 37, 54, 57-59, 62, 64, 75, 79, 83, 84, 87, 152, 166, 178, 181, 199, 201, 213, 216, 217, 227, 249, 255-257, 261 Les Paul Artisan 25, 26, 182, 254, 257 Les Paul Artist 202 Les Paul Professional 25, 26, 90, 128, 245, 247, 251, 252 Les Paul Recording 24, 90, 128, 131 Les Paul Signature 59, 128, 128 Les Paul Triumph Bass 128, 129, 132, 167 Lightwave 151 Line6 236 load capacitance 103-109, 113-116, 120, 122, 124, 125, 138, 155, 156, 166, 169, 170, 195, 198, 204, 205, 207, 212, 213, 216, 222, 245 loudness 126, 127 loudspeaker 10, 13, 46, 47, 76, 95, 99, 100, 103, 105, 111, 112, 135, 136, 157, 158, 168, 201, 202, 208, 215, 221, 234, 235, 242, 243, 268 Loar, Lloyd 10, 37 Log guitar 16, 22 Lover, Seth 84, 88 low impedance 128, 129, 132, 138, 143, 144, 197 lowpass filter 102, 103, 112, 123, 129, 155, 156, 172, 204, 227, 247 Lucille 35, 179-181 M machine wound 97, 121 McCarty, Theodore 21 magnet 11, 51, 77-115, 122-127, 133-138, 141, 144-150, 157, 167, 175, 176, 182, 193, 203, 214, 227, 244, 245, 260, 262 magnet aging 125 magnetic aperture 134 magnetic flux 90, 98, 112, 127, 135 magnetic pickups 12, 29, 30, 48, 76-161, 197, 205-207, 209, 236, 247, 250 McCartney, Paul 38, 39 MCI 225 mechanical harp 35 mechanical resonance 59-75, 238, 262, 269 mechanical vibration spectrum 70 Megaswitch 190, 191 Melody 30, 31 Melody Maker 82 metal cover 54, 81, 82, 87, 95, 101, 109, 121-123, 126, 145-148, 198, 243, 268 microphone 11, 24, 25, 47, 76, 92, 95, 99, 128, 141, 222, 242, 243 microphony 81, 95, 100, 109, 121, 141, 145, 214, 220, 243, 268 MIDI 231, 232, 235, 236-239 mini humbucker 87, 132, 239 Moog guitar 246, 247 Music Man 20, 21, 37, 55, 93, 158, 203, 207

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Music Master 74 Mustang 19, 81, 167, 174, 175, 193, 242 Mustang Bass 37, 49, 55, 91 mute 55, 58 N National 10, 15, 17, 26 neck 10, 11, 16, 17, 21, 29, 30, 33, 35, 37, 39, 40-44, 46, 51, 52, 59, 60-76, 80, 81, 83, 88, 92, 109, 154, 208, 224, 227, 234, 248, 250, 253, 254, 257, 260-262, 264-267, 269, 270 neodymium 100, 141 nickel 45, 48, 85, 88, 95, 100, 109, 121, 209, 243 nitro varhish 20, 62 Nocaster 118, 256 Noiseless 90, 117, 118, 127 nonlinear 46, 98-100, 115, 124, 135, 137, 157, 164, 171, 223 notch filter 179, 180, 206 nut 53, 64, 65, 69, 112, 249, 265 nylon strings 30, 31, 45, 62, 76, 152, 157, 234, 255 O ON/ON/ON-Switch 188 operational amplifier 110, 209, 211, 215, 227 organ guitar 223-225 out of phase 91, 96, 166-169, 174, 175, 184, 188, 189, 193, 239 output impedance 102, 128, 157, 170 output voltage 77, 98, 99, 102, 108, 111, 123-125, 128, 131, 137, 138, 141, 155, 171, 189, 193-195, 197, 212-214, 251 Ovation 63, 92, 105, 152, 206 overdrive 33, 77, 105, 107, 109, 111, 124, 135, 137, 139, 157, 197, 200, 212-215, 222, 233, 234, 268 overtones 49, 50, 52, 69, 70, 71, 76, 98, 111, 115, 122, 127, 131, 134, 135, 137, 138, 151, 153, 155, 212 Oyster 153 P P100 90 P90 21, 83, 90, 94, 100, 117, 119, 204, 255 PA system 47, 222 Paradis 238, 239 parallel connection 87, 90, 96, 97, 108, 110, 117, 129, 133, 141, 157, 158, 166, 169, 173, 176, 181, 187-190, 193, 194, 197, 239 Parker 28, 29, 158, 207 partial vibrations 49 Pastorius, Jaco 45 patent applied for 79, 84, 115, 116, 133, 137, 243, 255, 256, 260

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Index

Paul, Les (musician) 11, 16, 21, 22, 23, 25, 152, 164, 219 Peavey 167, 186 permeability 98, 101, 124-126, 146 PG380 232 Pickup Analyzer 96, 113-115, 121, 123, 126 pickup feedback 243, 268 piezo pickup 11, 29, 30, 36, 44, 45, 48, 62, 63, 70, 76, 92, 132, 141, 152-160, 204-207, 211, 236, 238, 239, 247, 250 pliability 69,74 plywood 60, 63, 258 polarity 85, 96, 125, 129, 144, 146, 148, 149, 167, 168, 172, 182, 206, 209 potentiometer (pot) 21, 46, 59, 93, 104, 105, 108-114, 120, 138-141, 148, 155, 157, 159, 167, 169-173, 175, 177-182, 185-187, 188, 193, 195-200, 203, 204, 209, 212-216, 219, 220, 224, 226, 230, 238, 239, 248-250, 260, 268 Powerbridge 152,153, 159 Power Chip 158-160, 204 preamp 111, 120, 128, 129, 138-141, 144, 158, 159, 197, 202, 203, 205-207, 212-214, 245, 251 Pre-CBS 20 Precision Bass 37, 38, 44, 70, 81, 91, 117-119, 125, 130, 146, 172, 187, 220, 248-250, 256 protective diode 209, 210 PRS 27, 148, 189, 190, 195 push/pull pot 167, 181, 186, 196, 198, 216 Q Q figure 103, 105-108, 116, 117, 119, 120 quartersawn 56, 57 R radio transmission 222 rare earth 100, 141 RD77 202, 203 Relic 118, 261 resonance 16, 30, 33, 35, 40, 44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 59, 69-75, 96, 99, 102-107, 109-113, 120-125, 127, 130-133, 138-140, 144-147, 155, 169-171, 177, 179, 182, 183, 198, 211216, 220, 221, 224, 234, 238, 240, 245, 247, 253, 260, 262, 269 resonant frequency 102-109, 112, 113, 121-125, 127-133, 138, 144, 146, 166, 171, 186, 189, 193, 195-199, 204, 211, 212, 215, 227, 230 resonant circuit 102, 103, 150, 169, 179, 180, 198 Reumont, Gerhard von 56 reversed polarity 168 reverse wound 92, 167 reversible permeability 124, 126 Rickenbacker (guitars) 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 26, 29, 30, 33, 35, 59, 63, 64, 66, 67, 79, 82, 85, 109, 116, 117, 170, 179, 181, 236, 260

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Rickenbacker, Adolph 11, 12 Rickenbacker bass 38, 39, 65 Rick-o-Sound 181 Riviera 34 Roger 15, 254 Roland 152, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231 rosewood 76 Rossmeisl, Roger 15, 38, 258 Rossmeisl, Wenzel 15, 38 rotary switch 108, 109, 129, 179, 189, 196-200, 204, 205, 212, 216, 250, 251 roundwound 48 S sample variations 96, 115, 121, 126, 256 scale 11, 37, 39-41, 48-50, 72, 131, 132, 161-163, 166, 234 scatter winding 121, 134 Schaller 53, 88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 122, 137, 138, 147, 153, 154, 159, 190, 249, 250 Schertler 154 semiacoustic guitar 23, 33-36, 39, 48, 53, 54, 56, 59, 62, 63, 128, 152, 217, 220, 225, 242, 248, 257, 268 semi-solid 34, 35, 40, 48, 55, 56, 59, 69, 242 series connection 101, 117, 133, 166, 170, 171, 189, 191, 194, 195, 198 Seymour Duncan 77, 88, 89, 100, 116, 117, 119, 120, 136-138, 262 SG 23, 24, 30, 37, 64, 74, 132, 178, 152, 178, 181, 182, 199, 202, 256 SG Custom 23, 132, 181, 182, 199 Shadow 92, 93, 117, 138, 141, 152, 154, 206 Sheraton 34 shield 85, 90, 101, 104, 122, 139, 147, 148, 159, 160, 183-185, 195, 211, 218-221, 249 short circuit 96, 97, 104, 106, 107, 109, 120, 121, 123, 133, 143, 160, 182, 186, 194, 209, 260 signal processor 234, 236, 237, 240 silicone 147, 148 single coil 21, 77, 80, 81, 84, 89-92, 95, 96, 102, 108, 112, 113, 115, 123, 130-134, 136, 139, 140, 146, 148, 167, 185-190, 195, 214, Sitar 55, 236 slanted pickup 163, 234 slug 82, 83, 85, 87, 94, 101, 122, 125, 146, 147, 260 Smith, Paul Reed 27, 54, 59, 61, 146, 189 Soap Bar 21, 83 soft-magnetic steel 77, 82-85, 87, 90, 94, 101,106, 107, 109, 122, 127, 133, 146, 147 solid-body 11, 16-34, 37, 39, 54, 56, 57, 59, 67, 72, 73, 76, 150, 152, 154, 223, 233, 242, 269 Sonntag, Stefan 15, 60, 61 split humbucker 91, 133, 146, 187 split pickup 125, 172 spruce top 33, 61, 62, 242, 258

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Index

Squier 20, 26, 117 stacked humbucker 90, 129, 139, 140, 251 staggered 136, 137 standing waves 50, 131, 161 Starcaster 35 Starfire 35 state-variable filter 207, 215 Status 43, 44, 67 steel strings 30, 62, 76, 82, 92, 152, 231, 255 Steinberger 28, 29, 42, 43, 63, 67 stereo 93, 159, 180, 181, 206, 208 Stick 31,32 stiff string 51, 52 Stratitis 51, 96, 127, 136 Stratocaster 18-20, 30, 37, 51, 53, 54, 56, 70-75, 78, 81, 82, 83, 88, 89, 91-94, 96, 106, 107, 114, 115, 117-119, 122, 127, 133, 134, 144, 148, 152, 153, 159, 163, 166-170, 175-177, 185, 189, 190, 192-195, 197, 198, 203, 204, 208, 216-218, 220, 232, 249, 256, 257, 260, 262, 266, 270 Stromberg 15, 258 Super 400 10, 14, 60, 79, 258, 270 Super Chet 59 Super Distortion 77, 87, 137, 163 Super Humbucker 87, 88, 94 Super Strat 193 Supertron 87, 107, 133 sustain 11, 16, 24, 39, 50, 54-56, 66, 70, 73, 74, 111, 202, 227, 228, 230, 242, 244-247, 253, 269 sustain block 39, 40, 59 Sustainiac 244, 245 T Tavares, Fred 18 Talman 30,31 TBX tone control 177, 178, 203 Telecaster 17, 18, 20, 21, 48, 52, 55, 56, 59, 64, 81, 89, 109, 117, 122, 133, 148, 159, 163, 166, 170, 173-175, 185, 188-190, 193, 194, 198, 199, 218, 220, 248, 256, 260 Telecaster Thinline 59 Telstar Bass 150 Tennessean 34, 35 Tenor guitar 29 Tesla 127 Teuffel 29 Thunderbird 37, 67, 266, 267 toggle switch 160, 178-183, 187, 204, 213, 250 tone control 21, 46, 61, 92, 104, 105, 108, 110, 139, 159, 168, 171-178, 180-182, 195, 196, 198, 199, 206, 207, 212, 268

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tone transfer chain 46, 47, 103 transfer characteristic 46, 76, 77, 79, 80, 87, 97-106, 120, 121, 124-126, 128, 134, 138, 144, 147, 157, 161, 199, 204, 260 transformer 84, 87, 102, 106, 107, 109, 121, 128-130, 133, 150, 186, 218, 243, 251 transmission coefficient 161-167 transmitter 102, 220, 222, 242 transmitting coil 112, 113 Travis Bean 29, 67 treble 17, 43, 48, 100, 105, 108, 109, 131, 132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 147, 151, 155, 156, 159, 163, 169-174, 177-179, 182, 185, 195, 198, 202, 203, 206, 207, 212-215 triboelectricity 220 truss rod 38, 64-66, 250, 253, 265 Tunomatic Bridge 52, 152 Tutmarc, Paul 37 twang 105, 109, 132, 198 tweeter 105, 132, 157, 215 two-dimensional tone control 198, 215 U Unicorn 60 V Variax 236, 237 Varitone 179, 180 varnish 56, 63 V-Bass 235 VB-99 236 Verythin 250, 251, 271 VG-8 234 VG-88 234, 235 VG-99 235 VGM 234 vibration transfer 54, 152 vibrato 16, 53, 227, 228, 230, 232, 242, 267 vintage 19, 20, 79, 83, 90, 118, 136, 143, 184, 220, 233, 249, 255, 260-262, 264 violin bass 39, 40, 49, 83, 202 volume control 110, 138, 155, 156, 159, 169, 170-173, 175, 178, 179, 182, 188, 203, 207, 208, 211-213, 246, 250, 268 Vox 26, 201, 223, 224 W Wah-Wah 202 Wal 204 Warwick 26 wave node 50, 161, 166 wavelength 50, 131, 134

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Index

wax 81, 95, 109, 129, 145, 146, 214, 243, 253, 268 White Falcon 93, 257 winding machine 145 winding short-circuit 96, 97, 106, 107, 109, 120, 121, 133, 143 wireless transmission 220, 222, 240 Workbench 238 Y Yamaha 26, 191, 193

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Helmuth Lemme

ISBN 978-1-907920-87-5

What would today’s rock and pop music be without electric lead and bass guitars? These instruments have been setting the tone for more than sixty years. Their underlying sound is determined largely by their electrical components. But, how do they actually work? Almost no one is able to explain this to the true musician with no technical background. This book answers many questions simply, in an easily-understandable manner.

For the interested musician (and others), this book unveils, in a simple and well-grounded way, what have, until now, been regarded as manufacturer secrets. The examination explores deep within the guitar, including pickups and electrical environment, so that guitar electronics are no longer considered highly secret. With a few deft interventions, many instruments can be rendered more versatile and made to sound a lot better – in the most cost-effective manner.

The author is an experienced electronics professional and active musician. He has thoroughly tested everything described here, in practice

Electric Guitar Enhanced 2nd Edition

Sound Secrets and Technology ENHANCED SECOND EDITION

● Helmuth Lemme

Helmuth Lemme has over 50 years of experience in electronics. He has played electric guitar and bass in numerous rock and jazz bands over the years. In 1977 he wrote his first book about electric guitars and continues to dedicate the majority of his free time to music electronics.

Sound Secrets and Technology

Electric Guitar - Sound Secrets and Technology

Electric Guitar

9 781907 920875

Elektor International Media BV

www.elektor.com

Helmuth Lemme LEARN DESIGN SHARE

LEARN DESIGN SHARE

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10/02/2020 15:58:27

Profile for Elektor

Electric Guitar, 2nd Edition (Extract)  

What would today’s rock and pop music be without electric lead and bass guitars? These instruments have been setting the tone for more than...

Electric Guitar, 2nd Edition (Extract)  

What would today’s rock and pop music be without electric lead and bass guitars? These instruments have been setting the tone for more than...

Profile for eimworld

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