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A METROPOLITAN STRATEGY FOR THE NETHERLANDS

HE ATIONAL ECTIVES tIP Final Debate

NAi|tIP Final Debate REPORT 29 03 12


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COLOphON

DEltaMetropolis Association

Collaborating Universities: Delft University of Technology, Maurits de Hoog Utrecht University, Martin Dijst and Bas Spierings University of Amsterdam, Willem Salet and Sako Musterd Erasmus University Rotterdam, Geert Teisman and Lasse Gerrits VU University Amsterdam, Henri de Groot, Peter Nijkamp and Erik Verhoef Leiden University, The Hague campus Jouke de Vries Leiden University, Leo Lucassen

Deltametropolis Association is a broad public organisation that focuses on shaping sustainable development in Randstad Holland. The association brings together businesses, public interest groups, research institutions and governmental institutions. Deltametropolis Association enables and works towards creating a socially supported design of the Randstad metropolitan area, focused on welfare, prosperity and strengthening its international competitiveness. Deltametropolis Association offers a platform for discussion: it creates the space to develop new ideas and critically discuss Randstad Holland outside the usual frameworks. It is a laboratory for prioritising innovative issues and for promoting the debate on the future of Randstad Holland. Through this, the association aims to promote new ideas on the development of Randstad Holland and to help apply these in everyday practice. Apply for membership at www.deltametropool.nl/nl/membership

REPORT tIP Final Debate 29.03.2011 Association Deltametropolis, Rotterdam

www.deltametropool.nl twitter.com/deltametropool SEP 2011 - MAR 2012 TUD | BERND FESEL 22 09

tIP reports can be downloaded at www.theInternationalPersepctives.nl.

LECTURE SERIES

UU | CHRISTIAN LICOPPE 13 10

THE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES CULTURAL CLUSTERS

“Do you know the value the MoMA brand contributes to the brand New York?”

Text: Inge Hartkoorn, David Dooghe, Paul Gerretsen Pictures: Fred Ernst Contact: David Dooghe Programma@deltametropool.nl +31 10 20 41 599

ADMISSION EUR 5,-

FREE FOR STUDENT AND MEMBERS OF DELTAMETROPOLIS ASSOCIATION

PROGRAMME STARTS AT 19:30

UVA | PAUL LECROART 03 11

SOCIAL NETWORK CITY

From Urban Public Places to ‘Hybrid Ecologies’.

EUR | STEPHEN MARSHALL 24 11

FLAGSHIP SELF DEVELOPMENTS ORGANISING CITY Large scale urban developments in national urbanisation strategies.

VU | PHILIP MCCANN 15 12

KNOWLEDGE CLUSTERS

Higher education institutions and their employment role in local economies.

ULcL | DOUG SAUNDERS 16 02

ATTRACTIVE CITY

"Migration is the most significant and misunderstood global event of our era."

How cities are put together.

ULcDH | ERIC CORIJN 26 01

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS Capital cities and 'Downstairs Globalisation'.

NAi | 29 03

FINAL DEBATE

tIP is organised by Deltametropolis Associa- from a different perspective, how facilities or tion in cooperation with the universities of activities are important for RHS and conseRandstad Holland (RHS). Each tIP illustrates, quently contribute to its international image.

Registration required: www.theInternationalPerspectives.nl


tHE iNTERNATIONAL PeRSPECTIVES

Index

Towards a Metropolitan Strategy for the Netherlands

Paul Gerretsen & David Dooghe

P2

Introduction Final Debate P 10

Peter Haasbroek & Jaap Modder

Transcript Final Debate P 18

Jaap Modder, Marnix Norder, Jan Brouwer, Pascal Lamberigts & Luuk Boelens

Lessons from the ‘Flemish Diamond’

Joachim Declerck

P 36

Conclusion P 44

Jaap Modder

1


Introduction

Towards a Metropolitan Strategy for the Netherlands

Paul Gerretsen David Dooghe

This report reflects on the International Perspectives (tIP) Final Debate, that was held at the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) on the 29th of March 2012. The debate investigated whether the Netherlands needs a metropolitan strategy, and if so, what form this should take on. This debate formed the concluding session of tIP series, which took place between September 2011 and March 2012. tIP was a project initiated by the Deltametropolis Association and organised in collaboration with all the universities in Randstad Holland. It consisted of seven lectures and expert meetings, that aimed to define what produces a successful urbanity. By exploring this topic, tIP started an important process of formulating the future metropolitan development of Randstad Holland. This question is particularly relevant for the Netherlands because, although it is very internationally oriented, it lacks a strong, dense, central metropolitan area, which many other comparable economies do possess. Our search therefore asked: can the Netherlands build on a metropolitan identity to create such a central metropolitan area? And what is needed to produce it? The wealth of material that tIP produced has given many incentives to carry this project forth. Now follows a central statement of reflective lessons, offering a retrospective of the overall tIP series. tIP has given much insight into worldwide urban development issues and clearly revealed that international orientated, large urban regions, i.e. ‘the metropolises’, are the main attractors in the world. These metropolises grow and organise themselves in international networks: they are the economic powerhouses, and increasingly the global command centres, in which countries are increasingly servicing the metropolis and not visa versa. Besides being strong and continually growing, they are also the places where innovation and renewal takes place. It is therefore sometimes said that the crucial societal and environmental challenges of the world can only be solved in cities. Metropolises do not just create a variety of interesting places and programmes: they also increasingly form an autonomous functioning biotope, with its own food and

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Paul Gerretsen

David Dooghe

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Introduction

energy provisions. The region and metropolitan centres are therefore influencing each other more and more, directly contributing to the overall quality of the metropolitan region. ‘The metropolis’ is now extensively being researched. tIP focussed on the activities that take place in urban areas, as there play a crucial role in transforming urban regions into metropolises. In the tIP sessions with Christian Licoppe and Philip McCann we learnt, for example, that consumption plays an increasingly important role in attracting the modern urbanite, making consumption the most important urban production factor. The development of the metropolitan centres is therefore becoming increasingly dependent on large scale changes that take place in an increasingly mobile and unpredictable population. As was made apparent in the sixth tIP with Doug Saunders, this does not only apply to the higher educated urban nomad. The expansion of development possibilities is of upmost importance for attracting and maintaining all types of people. Infrastructure will remain essential, but now plays a less significan role in shaping the eventual development of the global city hierarchy. Metropolitan development in the Netherlands Metropolitanisation in the Netherlands has always been a tricky subject. In its economy and trade, and subsequently in its culture and education, a standard was developed in the Netherlands which far exceeded the expectations based on its structural and demographic dimensions. Due to historical legal rule and explicit policy decisions in the post-war period, a large metropolitan centre was circumverted in the Netherlands. Instead, a swarm of small cities was sustained. This has resulted in the fact that the Netherlands contains no city larger than 1 million inhabitants. Amsterdam however, managed to develop within this context as a micro-metropolis. The relativly small size of Dutch cities has many benefits. They tend to have a compact historical centre, where living, working and shopping can easily be combined. Dutch cities are very accessible by bicycle and furthermore, they are relatively easy to access through their public transportation services. Suburbs and problematic neighbourhoods are limited, and a well-equipped cultural life is always at arms-length. Dutch cities are places with a big national appeal, that will increasingly attract people and grow, particularly on account of the shrinking populations in rural areas. Dutch cities have (up until recently) managed to become relatively important economical centres and influential driving forces for economic activities. Stable management and timely awareness of its distinctive geographical position with regard to the larger production and consumption markets in North-western Europe seem to persistently determine the future of the Netherlands and its urban cores. Particularly Rotterdam’s harbour and Schiphol are regional driving forces and examples of where this has happened succesfully. Several strong economical sectors have managed to develop here, without a strong metropolis to support them. Nevertheless, as an urban system operating in an increasingly global world, the Netherlands, as a whole, is lagging behind. At the end of the twentieth century, the concept of the ‘network city’ was introduced in an attempt to unite the need for an internationally recognised position and the existing structure of small Dutch cities. The concept was not made truly operational however, as it was not applied as a steering tool. With the exception of a loose application of its definition in regional public transport development, it was primarily used as a concept to keep everyone happy. Indicative perhaps, were governmental discussions 4


Introduction

in the South Wing of Randstad Holland on whether it was a network city or an urban network. This conceptual nitpicking distracts from the true question of how the urban mass in the Netherlands can develop into a metropolis. Is Zwolle, as model for the typical small Dutch city, perhaps not enough? As a member of the Dutch House of Representatives recently remarked during a procedural hearing on the vision for Randstad Holland: “Why do we actually need a metropolitan development vision?” With the Rutte I government, the metropolitan scale has remained limited to just a couple of sentences in the coalition agreement (and even that is being renegotiated). Besides that, and together with the involvement of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment in the International Architectural Biennial Rotterdam, an important attempt has been made to improve the international position of the Netherlands in Minister Verhagen’s TOP-Sector programme. The TOP-Sector programme, which in many cases is directly related to the metropolitan urban environment, was formulated by the Central government, and is centred on developing and strengthening a number of the most important national economic sectors. The tIP series revealed that several of the guestspeakers were critical of this TOP-Sector approach. In their view, clustering approaches aimed at specific sectors essentially means that the focus primarily lies on looking back instead of forward, i.e. establishment versus growth, where creating new developments is seen as an obstacle, instead of a catalyst for innovation. As Philip McCann explained in the seventh tIP session: In the past centuries real cluster developments have focused on the negative aspects of barriers and on the essential conditions of learning, sharing and matching. Furthermore, the focus is increasingly placed on the organisation of the urban environment in which the cluster can come into existence. It is questionable how long the Netherlands will deny the need for a consistent metropolitan strategy. With the increasing significance of ‘the city’, the emphasis on development and growth is increasingly focussing on the Netherlands as a city, or as part of a North-Western European urban region, as opposed to an actual country. Making City: Establishing a metropolitan programme The 2012 International Architecture Biennial in Rotterdam (IABR) has initiated an international study on the establishment of the above mentioned global urban reality. Under the theme ‘Making City’ the IABR has researched the potential and possibilities of active interventions as opposed to merely analysing desired changes. A brief indication of examples of what this research delivered is described in Joachim Declerck’s presentation on page 36 of this booklet. tIP Final Debate was coupled with the IABR as a teaser for the activities that will be taking place in the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) in the coming months. Questions on whether we should steer towards a metropolitan scale, if present circumstances allow for this steering and the role that design plays in this, are after all pressing questions that need answering. For over a decade, the Deltametropolis Association has focussed on this theme. It has continuously aspired to carry out further debates on these matters, even though discussions in the Netherlands are often narrowed down to the city regional level (as this scale simply happens to have the most cohesion). In an increasingly globalised world, a political and professional culture has arisen in the Netherlands where the metropolitan scale is regarded as ‘suspicious’ from onset. This is because it is associated with solely 5


Introduction

considering internal funding and power struggles. Two years ago, and parallel with Maurits de Hoog’s (TUD) research on interaction environments as new urban places, the Deltametropolis Association started to research what activities and provisions contribute to a metropolitan programme. The result was tIP series, which aimed to take the first steps in reintroducing a metropolitan programme, beyond merely infrastructural and landscape issues. tIP particularly focussed on the human activities that are accommodated in a metropolitan programme. It looked at what urban programmes may be needed to transform the current ‘modestly’ sized Dutch city to a larger scaled urbanity. Out of this, it became apparent that there was the need for a practical task response to find ways to nurture and strengthen these programmes. In short: it resulted in the search for a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands. With our knowledge on the metropolitan development of the Netherlands, the Deltametropolis Association has worked in close collaboration with all the universities in Randstad Holland to formulate the International Perspectives (tIP) lecture series and to develop a metropolitan strategy. The series consisted of a series of seven public lectures, in which various international guest speakers were asked to share their insights on a number of predetermined topics. Following each lecture, an expert meeting was held, to place the guest speaker’s presentation in the context of recent Dutch university research and a specific case study in the Netherlands. The international guest speakers were therefore seen as the motivation and stimulus to discuss specific metropolitan strategies. tIP programme: guest speakers and collaborating universities For a discussion on cultural clusters, we collaborated with Maurits de Hoog (Delft University of Technology - TUD) to invite Bernd Fesel, Economist and Deputy Director at the European Centre for the Creative Economy. “You could say there already is open innovation, open source – now it is time for open policy!” To discuss the influence of mobile technology and social networks, we collaborated with Martin Dijst and Bas Spierings (Utrecht University - UU), to invite Christian Licoppe, Sociologist and Head of the Social Science Department and Professor of Sociology at Telecom Paris-Tech.“Crowds are not just mobile moving bodies, but also people connected to each other through digital networks.” For his insights on the influence of large-scale projects, we collaborated with Willem Salet and Sako Musterd (University of Amsterdam - UVA), to invite Paul Lecroart, Senior Urban Planner at the Urban Planning and Development Institute in the Paris Ile-de-France Region.“What do you gain when you lose an Olympic bid? As Hamburg and Paris have shown: a lot can be gained from losing.” For a discussion on urban scale and structure, we collaborated with Lasse Gerrits and Geert Teisman (Erasmus University Rotterdam - EUR), to invite Stephen Marshall, Civil Engineer and Senior Lecturer at the Barlett School of Planning, University College of London (UCL). “If you look at London 500yrs ago, you would say it was quite an important city, with lot of things and people there, whether it was Shakespeare or whatever. It was quite a small place, but it had something about it, what you would call a metropolitan atmosphere. So it is not about the size, it clearly can’t be, and it must be some combination of perhaps the activities, the functions that go on there, the catch-

6


Introduction

ment – the degree the place represents the centre of a network shall we say, of things that are centered on that location and so on.” To share his insights on binding international organisations to the city, we collaborated with Wim Willems (Leiden University, Campus The Hague - ULcDH), to invite Eric Corijn, Professor of Social and Cultural Geography at the Free University of Brussels and Director of COSMOPOLIS. “The human species is becoming an urban citizen and our current mindset is not prepared for this.” To discuss his recent research in Antwerp and the different ways of binding migrants to cities, we collaborated with Leo Lucassen (Leiden University, Campus Leiden - ULcL), to invite Doug Saunders, Journalist, European Bureau Chief for ‘The Globe and Mail’ and author of the bestseller ‘Arrival City’. “Randstad Holland is a place where the economy and society of where new immigrants want to become part of, does not coincident with the way it is governed. Mega-regional urban governance can thus be an important factor to consider for the integration processes in Randstad Holland.” To discuss knowledge clusters, we collaborated with Henri de Groot and Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam - VU), to invite Philip McCann, Professor of Economic Geography at the University of Groningen and Special Advisor to the European Commissioner for Regional Policy 2010-2012.“Place matters more than ever, this is an absolutely central issue and it goes across all sectors.” Common threads: First steps towards a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands The outcome of the lectures and corresponding expert meetings revealed that a number of common themes were present throughout the series. These form the starting point for a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands. In doing so, the Deltametropolis Association tried to avoid naming specific clusters of metropolitan programmes because these appeared to be the outcome, rather than the actual cause. What was clear, however, was that there was a clear structural dimension to filling in such a metropolitan strategy. 1. Each session touched on the importance of imbedding the international scale into the local context Provisions and activities that convey an international story have an important iconic effect in the urban field in which they are located, these therefore also have a strong local effect. The presence of international provisions and activities differs greatly per city in the Netherlands. This effectively means that the nodes in Dutch cities do not compete at a national scale, but on a North-Western European scale. International nodes are not only the places where international provisions and activities take place, but also the places where many international migrants live. The intensity in which these migrants maintain bonds with their originating countries is inversely proportional to the opportunities that they are offered in the country of arrival. 2. Changing from centre-periphery relationships, to network thinking In the past few decades, several new international centres have developed in the peripheral areas beside the centres of larger Dutch cities. Even within the larger cities, some areas have become more important than the actual city as a whole. This trend will increase over the next few years due to the accessibility of these places and the types of places. The metropolis will develop along the services and provisions of the centre, and the mutual connections that are formed in-between these functions. The synergy between different centres will therefore develop less out of the accessibility of these cen7


Introduction

tres, but more through the economic, cultural and/or social connection between these centres. 3. Preserving and strengthening the public character of public spaces The metropolis is characterised by places where people meet and come together. It therefore requires a public character and safety in its public spaces. The metropolis offers an abundance of activities. Flexible and temporary use of public spaces and buildings should therefore always be possible. The use of location-aware social media can strengthen the attractiveness of places, by making existing local activities more visible. The activities produce mobility between places in the metropolis. This requires the adaption of normal behavioural patterns by its users. 4. A move from sector policies to integrated policies. Large-scale urban development plans can no longer be solved through zoning. Urban challenges therefore need to be tackled in their full complexity and connectivity in networks at different scale levels. The current culture of allocating responsibility for specific issues through strict divisions in public administration is inadequate in tackling the real issues that these developments entail. This is because these issues often overlap. It is therefore important to find an optimal combination of public administration, which will have to function more as a network. 5. Urban development always necessitates collaborative parties and multiple forms of alliances This requires an equal role between the public sector, private sector and civil society. It needs to be an open form of collaboration, based on content and responsibility. The Netherlands is rich in its different formations of self organising collaborations. These involve both collaborations of stakeholders working on joint ambitions, as those working on conflicting or opposing aspirations. This tradition seems to be disappearing however. The current crisis in both the public and private sector therefore calls for new forms of collaboration. These are the initial impressions which we believe should be centrally addressed when forming a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands. Public Interest We have been very pleased with the amount of public interest we received during this lecture series. If the statistics of attendees were to be seen as a measure of interest in the development of a metropolitan strategy, the following (insignificant) conclusions could be drawn: - In terms of origin, it appears that the South Wing is more interested in focussing on a metropolitan strategy than the North Wing - The municipalities that were especially interested were The Hague, followed by Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Delft was virtually absent. - The universities that were most interessed were TUD (surprising, considering the previous point), and Leiden. - In terms of who should take the strategy lead, the attendance figures speak for themselves: everyone! 1/3 public organisations, 1/3 private organisations and 1/3 civil society organisations.

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visitor Origin

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Municipalities

STrategy Lead

9

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universities


TIP Final Debate

Introduction

Introduction Final Debate

Is the Netherlands prepared to compete with the growing metropolises around the world? And what is the metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands? These are the two central questions in tIP Final Debate, which formed part of ‘The Metropolan Programme’ of the Deltametropolis Association. The debate started with an opening speech by Peter Haasbroek, Director at the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi). He pointed out that the NAi was a natural location to host such a debate, as it was also where the ‘Architecture of Consequence’ innovation programme was introduced in 2009. Moreover, the NAi is also hosting the fifth International Architecture Biennial in Rotterdam (IABR). Its programme covers similar themes on urbanity and international urban development and tIP’s Final Debate therefore offers a useful and relevant introduction to

Peter Haasbroek Jaap Modder

TIP Final Debate

Introduction

the IABR. The debate was moderated by Jaap Modder, Chairman of the Regional Board, City region Arnhem Nijmegen and Member of the Deltametropolis association Executive Board.

stad Holland therefore functions as a type of ‘metropolis in denial’. This is not unique to Randstad Holland however: the Flemish Diamond (Vlaamse Ruit) also struggles with bridging the gap between the need for shaping its metropolitan region on the one hand, and having a culture and society on the other that continually denies its necessity and appeal. In this sense, the Netherlands and Belgium seem to share a common feeling of apprehension towards the metropolis. Nevertheless, that world is changing. Recent demographic changes, the knowledge economy and globalisation are all contributing to a move back to the city. From a planning perspective, government authorities are now faced with two options: should they facilitate these movements? Or should they refrain from any involvement? Historical indication would suggest that full gov-

Jaap Modder Exploring the need for a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands, and the consequential shape it can take on, is a theme that fits wholly within the IABR’s ‘Making Cities’ framework. In this sense, it reflects Dutch tradition as the Netherlands is about making cities. Looking at the past seven tIP lectures and expert meetings however, one could say that the emphasis on thinking about metropolitan regions is shifting from making to organising these regions. As was alluded to throughout the whole tIP series, Rand10


Peter Haasbroek

Jaap Modder

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TIP Final Debate

Introduction

ernmental participation in planning does not work, so what are the alternatives? The final debate, and preceding tIP lectures and expert meetings, were therefore held with this idea in mind: that the themes are beyond purely government controlled occurrences, responsibilities and patterns. The International Perspectives series originally started off as a quest to formulate a metropolitan strategy for Randstad Holland. Since then, it has been up-scaled to finding a metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands, as it was felt that it would not make sense to exclude important knowledge regions such as Eindhoven. Thinking about a metropolitan strategy therefore needs to be broader, as was suggested in the fourth tIP by Stephen Marshall. In his view, a higher scale level, i.e. that of North-Western Europe, makes more sense. As the following debate

and presentations will demonstrate, however, the final debate resulted in a quest for finding a metropolitan strategy for the Lowlands. tIP series The constitution of the participants of the lecture series confirmed that we were on the right path with our programme that focussd on the triple helix, and not just governmental strategies. In that sense, the programmes of the Deltametropolis Association are also subdivided into these three themes, with SprintCity, Landscape and the Metropolitan Programme. It is, however, important to differentiate between the programme on the one hand, and the strategy on the other. This is what many of the lectures and expert meetings were about, with much emphasis on what elements such a programme needs to include. The search was thus to look at what

TIP Final Debate

Introduction

such a metropolitan climate would entail, to discover what type of strategy fits in a metropolitan programme, and who should take the initiative in leading this process.

different societal groups. In the expert meeting that followed, much debate arose on the role of cultural clusters: the meeting looked at what actually constitutes a cultural cluster, and how programmes can, and should, be created for them. A group involving the four big cities in Randstad Holland has formed since tIP#1, to further investigate these questions. According to Loes Verhaart, the central theme of the expert meeting was that not only the infrastructure should be taken on board, but also the innovative economic programme. This offers many opportunities because cultural clusters are very important for the economic value of the city. The economic programme carries with it the broader political programme. A broad approach is therefore crucial, and this applies to all the themes of tIP. What has happened as a practical response following the first tIP, was that

Reflections from the audience Before the debate started, audience members were asked for their opinions on tIP series, and what they believed were the lessons that stood out. For the first tIP lecture, Loes Verhaart (Urban Designer, Municipality of The Hague) commented that what really struck her was that different groups were established in the Ruhr area that have really helped its cultural programme. These groups were not based on providing money however: they were motivated by people’s personal drive to accentuate certain themes. The programme therefore really involved the civil society and

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Loes verhaart

Joop de Boer

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TIP Final Debate

Introduction

a follow-up took place in The Hague, through an anthropological quest in the city. For this, the public was approached to see what their views were on the city. This type of approach is important and interesting, because these themes cross over all the different scales and dimensions. The second tIP lecture left an impression on Joop de Boer (Owner of Golfstromen). For him, it was interesting to learn about proximity games: especially those that are currently popular in Tokyo and run on the Nintendo DS game console. In order to play these games, two console players need to be in close proximity to each other. This has had a big impact on interaction patterns in public places in Tokyo, as these are places where people continually cross one another, effectively making density an opportunity for brief game encounters. Strangers now play

games while they are travelling by public transport for example, but the game has also created patterns where people gather in particular places in the city, in order to play the game. What is striking, is that these people simply play the game together with no further interaction. It has created a new layer of gathering in public places, which is digital, but which simultaneously manifests itself in the city. Christian Licoppe also looked at the way this game was played in Paris, and discovered that, compared to Tokyo, the Parisians used the game as a ‘fun’ experience: it was played less fanatically and people interacted both digitally and socially. Besides this, the game encounters in Paris were preplanned and organised in a park: they did not spontaneously occur in public places, as was the case in Tokyo. In the expert meeting, Martin Dijst paid

TIP Final Debate

Introduction

a lot of attention to how e-shopping will influence the future of the retail sector in urban centres. Annemiek Rijckenberg (Senior Advisor on Urban Development) found the lack of developments and increasing vacancy levels in the Dutch innercities worrying. Closely following tIP#2, much research was published on this topic, before which it was a relatively untouched theme as the focus was primarily only on industrial terrains and office spaces. There is now thus more attention on vacancy levels on shopping streets, and particularly on vacant spaces located outside the core shopping areas in the biggest cities. The expert meeting highlighted that traditional shops (or ‘in-store shopping’) is under threat. E-shopping is becoming more popular per sector, and there is little that can be done to stop this. New concepts to stimulate in-store shopping are emerging however, but

these vary largely per country. In England, for example, charity shops are popular on the high streets, which is something that is more or less absent in the Netherlands. Maybe this will be an approach that the Netherlands will adopt one day. The expert meeting revealed that the planned overproduction is currently not being acknowledged in the retail sector. It did not end with any specific conclusions as such, but it did highlight the significant trends that are currently taking place. The third tIP lecture and expert meeting focussed on flagship developments around the world, including the repercussions of winning and losing Olympic bids. This is a very prevalent topic, as the House of Commons is presently already nervous with the prospects of the Olympic Games potentially being held in the Netherlands in 2028, and how much this can, and will, cost. Willem Salet led the 14


Annemiek Rijckenberg

Rick vermeulen

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TIP Final Debate

Introduction

expert meeting, which primarily focussed on the Zuidas; Amsterdam. Rick Vermeulen (PhD candidate at the University of Amsterdam) was impressed with the lecture’s focus on how influential a powerful vision can be in mobilising activities in a city. These visions enable cities to go beyond merely realising fragmented projects. One of the examples that particularly impressed Vermeulen was Cheonggyecheon in Seoul. Here, a motorway that ran directly through the towncentre was transformed into a beautiful green boulevard and river that is popularly used. The expert meeting covered many different projects where the municipalities played a big role in creating visions with a long-term perspective. The fourth tIP looked at the self organising city, and followed a philosophical approach on concepts such as Randstad Holland, the metropolis and the Zuidas. The

central assumption was that urban planners are often consumed with grouping things together and subsequently giving it a big name, without really questioning what this actually contributes to these places and how it may change the city. tIP#4 therefore offered new ways of managing and planning, with New York as an example where zoning and urban codes play an important role. An audience member did, however, criticise this lecture as being ‘too spatially focussed’. He claimed that these types of partnerships are usually not about spatial issues, but about regulatory processes and programmes that are not necessarily about spatial issues. The fifth tIP lecture and expert meeting looked at international organisations, particularly in The Hague, and what lessons it can learn from Brussels. For this tIP, Lodewijk Lacroix (Senior procesmanager at The Hague

TIP Final Debate

Introduction

Region - Stadsgewest Haaglanden) recognised many of the points that Paul Gerretsen mentioned earlier in his summarising speech, especially the emphasis he placed on connecting the international aspects of the city with the area in which it is located. tIP#5 focussed on this, emphasising that this relationship should be exploited at both levels in order to change the current situation in The Hague where the international organisations are functioning more as a type of city within a city. Lacroix felt that developing the international functions in The Hague, in the current political climate that is not exactly ‘pro-international’, is a challenge in itself. Annemiek Rijckenberg also added that what she particularly liked about tIP#5 was that it covered two contrasting scenarios, where the expats were regarded as positive contributions to the city on the one hand (desired

immigrants which the city should cater for), and as a burden and hindrance on the other. These two worlds are clearly not meeting in The Hague, and according to Rijckenberg, that was the main message of the fifth tIP session. Due to time constrictions, tIP#6 and tIP#7 were not reflected upon with the audience.

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Lodewijk Lacroix

Final DEbate

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TIP Final Debate

Transcript

Transcript Final Debate

The Final Debate consisted of four guest speakers: Marnix Norder, Jan Brouwer, Pascal Lamberigts and Luuk Boelens. As moderator, Jaap Modder asked them their views on a potential metropolitan strategy for the Netherlands.

Jaap Modder Marnix Norder Jan Brouwer Pascal Lamberigts Luuk Boelens

Marnix Norder: Alderman at The Hague Jaap Modder: Eric Corijn was very positive about the The Hague as an international city (tIP#5). His advice was to involve the expats more in an easily accessible manner, so that they feel they really belong to The Hague and are an important part of it. Besides this, Corijn also advised The Hague to seek out sister cities in the international networks. These are the two key points that I took out of the session. Do these suggestions also reflect your way of thinking?

TIP Final Debate

Transcript

Marnix Norder: Yes, they do in terms of trying to unite the city, and trying to make it one city as much as possible. This is a difficult task however, because The Hague has always been one of the most segregated cities in The Netherlands: the difference between the rich and poor has always been big. The aldermen of the city have therefore tried to narrow this gap, but they have always only partly succeeded. This is also the current situation in The Hague. Some projects do work however, such as those which focus on introducing expats to the city of The Hague. It is important to note, that expats are generally seen as being very rich, but this is not always the case. Of course, those that work for the top international institutions earn a lot, but there is also a very big middle category of expats who earn

average salaries, live in average neighbourhoods, but who also have a very international background. The challenge is therefore trying to find ways to let all the different categories participate in the city. The growth of international institutions in The Hague is really very big. It was announced yesterday, for example, that International Cyber Crime Fighters, a European institution, will be returning to Eurojust in The Hague. You’ll see that these things grow very quickly: it’ll start off having 5 to 20 people, and within no time, it will have grown to 200 people. Jaap Modder: The Hague also accommodates human rights activists, right? Marnix Norder: Indeed, with the project Shelter City. In the last year, we started to really focus on institutes that complement

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TIP Final Debate

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knowledge: i.e. knowledge institutes and the organisation of new knowledge. The number of educational institutions is really growing in The Hague: it now contains many of the auxiliary branches of Leiden University. There are also talks of possibly combining the strengths of the universities of Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam. It is logical to concentrate public administration in The Hague, for example, as this is also where the national politics takes place. It is still a matter of patience, but combining international knowledge and strengths will draw in new (international) students, different subjects and types of study. In this sense, it becomes a stronger centre and powerful attractor. This is something we should be proud of and nurture. Jaap Modder: Is The Hague able to make this the new pride of the inhabitants of The

Hague? Or will they continue to think that this is just an elitist project? Because Eric Corijn argued that the title of an international city still needs to be grasped in The Hague, so that the city, and the people that live there, can be proud of that international element. Marnix Norder: A bit. Everyone enjoys seeing footage of The Hague on CNN, whether it is about the International Criminal Court, Milesovic or Mladić. In this sense, it really does work. It exudes character and we, as well as the common inhabitant of The Hague, are very happy with this. Besides this, I think that the formation of a metropolitan region, together with Rotterdam, will be very good for the international appeal. Rotterdam complements The Hague well: it is also a very international city, but more so in terms of transport, shipping and logistics. The Hague does not have this, and

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is therefore a completely different city. In this sense, and in terms of sharing knowledge, Erasmus University will really benefit from using The Hague to educate its students in public administration and economics. Similarly, The Hague will benefit from the fact that it contains the international institutions, which we believe are part of the city. They belong there, like a type of Greater London. Jaap Modder: Corijn did give some criticism during the lecture and expert meeting on the way that The Hague is grasping its international character. Is the metropolitan region currently not too much a toy for politicians and statesmen? Something which has totally not (yet) been grasped by the people that actually live in the South wing? Marnix Norder: Yes, I agree: it is absolutely too much a toy for politicians right

now. But still, it is something that is going to come. In 2013, the Law on Common Arrangements for the Plus City Regions will expire. This means that the framework law will expire as well, and that at least one facilitator will resurface: the transport region. Both the aldermen of The Hague and Rotterdam, and hopefully the delegates of South-Holland, will be in this, leading the network of regional public transport. People will notice this. Jaap Modder: As a governmental authority, what can you do to stimulate the regional economy? Marnix Norder: Let me put it this way: it is a bit like copulation between hedgehogs, i.e. it is very careful. And this makes sense, because there is no history of collaboration. This can therefore not be achieved simply by grouping a bunch of areas together and in ten years’ time calling it a city. This is not how it 19


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works, and should also not be what we want. Although some may believe this transport region is merely window dressing, this is not the case. It is a huge step and involves a collaboration which may take 20 years to form. That shouldn’t be a problem. Jaap Modder: What do you associate with this metropolitan region? What differentiates it from the city? And what are your personal associations with it? Marnix Norder: I have to say: I think that it is currently a very exciting time for urban development. E-shopping, as was mentioned previously, is becoming more popular: this will have a tremendous impact on the city and on urbanisation. We also discussed office spaces, and its decline, which will continue in the coming years, even if the economy picks up again. People have internalised this, and the question now is: where does the effect of

e-shopping end? I think that there currently isn’t enough public debate on what will happen after e-shopping: what will follow? And how will this affect our (social) behaviour? Because it will impact everything. Business meetings for example: with the new changes, office spaces may be even less required. So I believe that the thinking process on this new society is still in its infancy. In terms of a metropolitan city, I believe that what is now urban will become stronger, and what is not urban will simply run empty. Cities will increasingly be chosen by the quality of their functions and provisions. This quality will become an increasingly important factor, followed by the combination of provisions in a compact denisity. In The Hague, the centre is really growing, with new office spaces being built: the periphery, however, is experiencing problems with increasing vacancy levels.

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This is the same for shopping: the shopping areal in the centre is a booming business: we are literally building new buildings on two different locations. We are completely sucking out the life of the periphery, however. The periphery is thus running empty and these are the developments that are currently taking place. I believe that the peripheral areas should therefore start specialising in other suburban qualities, such as sports, greenery and such. Jan Brouwer: Philosopher and Director of ABF Cultuur Jaap Modder: Our next guest has been a lot of different things in his life, but these days he is a philosopher. Marnix Norder has just claimed that the city is becoming “a big sponge, which is sucking out the life of the

region, and leaving the peripheral areas empty”. I am exaggerating a little, but do you think that this is what we are going to be experiencing in our lifetime? Jan Brouwer: The last decades have been driven by what trendwatchers call the different ‘i’s. One of these ‘i’s is individualisation, as well as institutionalisation, which comes with it. Individuals are increasingly living alone, and this is only possible because they are surrounded by many institutions. When people get sick, or become unemployed, these institutions support them. This is an important driver for keeping the metropolis in existence, and I believe this is slowly disappearing. Humans are social beings after all, and I believe that the Randstad 2040 document plans to build 1 million new houses by 2040, will not happen.

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Jan brouwer

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Jaap Modder: Because the individualisation trends are starting to decline? How many one-person households do you think there are in Amsterdam? Jan Brouwer: Amsterdam is a forerunner in these sorts of things: individualisation there is already declining. The past few years have seen increasing occupancy, partly due to necessity, as Amsterdam is very expensive. That is proof for my previous point: the institutions are pulling back, and it therefore just becomes too expensive to live alone. Jaap Modder: Okay, so the assumption is that the trend of individualisation will not grow as was initially expected. What are the consequences of this? Jan Brouwer: The metropolis will have to organise itself differently: as one big area that constantly expands and attracts new people. This can still happen in many places

around the world, but I do not believe it will happen here. Individualisation has brought with it two things: much housing, as well as many automobiles. We currently have 8 million cars and every decade, 5 million new ones are added. For housing, this figure is 1 million new houses per decade. These are enormous amounts, and I believe this era is over. Jaap Modder: What will the consequences be for the South Wing of Randstad Holland? Jan Brouwer: The South Wing is also a forerunner. It is way ahead of any other region in the Netherlands in terms of re-use and investing in the existing urban areas. Jaap Modder: If you compare The Hague and Rotterdam, The Hague, as Marnix said, is still growing, but Rotterdam is starting to shrink. Is Rotterdam therefore not a type of Dutch Donut City? Where people are fleeing

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outward-bound? What will this mean for Rotterdam? Jan Brouwer: Rotterdam is already shrinking, so in the next few years, you will see that those living there, that are effectively sustained by its import industry, will decline. This is already declining, and this is why Rotterdam is now shrinking. Jaap Modder: These cities want to eventually function as one metropolitan region. Marnix has already indicated that this is a matter of patience, a long term perspective. In your personal opinion, do you think a metropolitan programme is necessary? And if so, what components do you believe are necessary for it? Jan Brouwer: Necessary, necessary… in a certain sense, this is a very complex societal choice. I don’t think it is so much about people

deciding to create a metropolitan area, however: I believe the area needs to organically meet the requirements for such an area so to speak. Jaap Modder: For the past 50 years, we have been focussing on the Randstad Holland scale. In the last Minister’s documents, however, Randstad Holland wasn’t even mentioned. This concept seems to have been replaced by ‘Metropolitan Region Amsterdam’, and the South Wing. This is a break in the general trend. I personally don’t think this is so illogical: maybe this way of thinking is more promising than thinking in terms of Randstad Holland? But, if you let go of your scepticism, what do you believe still needs to happen to really make it into a metropolitan region? Jan Brouwer: It is important to think in

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terms of what you can expect to face in the future. The current signals from shopping are indicating this future. Thirty years ago, I worked for the former Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), and at that time, we were also in the middle of a crisis. We were wrong to follow the third policy document on spatial planning for 2000, because this document was based on the trends of the past, not the future. At the time, we believed we were just experiencing a dip: that we had to temporarily live with less, and that the problem would solve itself, and that we could then continue as we did before. But such a dip should be taken more seriously: it is a clear signal that something is structurally wrong. One can only speculate what these structural problems are, but we need to be aware of this. Thirty years ago, we did not foresee the

growth in automation. In the meantime, the whole business world has become automated. This has in turn enabled the development of the business services sector, as they instantly embraced what businesses were doing, and what they could still potentially do. The industry has therefore tremendously improved in terms of quality, and because of this, it now functions much better. Now, we are seeing the informatisation of households, and I believe this is what we should focus on. Besides this, there is also a continuous stress on how to improve the services sector: to make it more efficient and customer friendly. This sector is not one of the TOP-Sectors that the Netherlands is focussing on however. There are a vast amount of efficient institutions in the Netherlands, and I therefore believe we should direct our knowledge on this important sector.

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Pascal Lamberigts: Strategic Policy Advisor at Royal Haskoning /RS2040 Jaap Modder: Pascal Lamberigts, you are a planner working on metropolitan programmes at that regional level. What do you think of Jan Brouwer’s scepticism? Of his argument that people should also look at the things that governments are not looking at: to not only focus on the programmatic issues, but to also explore other possible issues? Pascal Lamberigts: I agree with him. We need to be careful these days, because we are too focussed on programmes. With the current crisis, there are fewer programmes, and this often leads to vision or strategy changes. Personally, I am involved in the Fifth Structural Vision for Randstad 2040, and the Vision of the Future of Almere. With both, it struck me that the factors that contribute

to metropolitan development have been the same for the past thirty years. Interconnectivity, identity and creating mass: those are the factors that contribute to metropolitan development. I am tempted to say that regardless of the trends, I have not yet come across any scenario or trend that detracts from those three factors. Thinking in terms of a metropolis requires large scale thinking. This used to be the motto of VROM: ‘Think big’. Besides this, I would like to add: act small. Small interventions can make a big impact after all. For example: the ‘SS Rotterdam’ in Rotterdam and its relationship with the Katendrecht neighbourhood. This is about an existing ship and an existing neighbourhood so to speak. Once these two were linked, you could almost speak of a metropolitan intervention. It is a pity that this area is not better connected

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with the public transport system however: if this was the case, then I would say it is a type of metropolitan intervention, also with the masses it attracts, even though these are on a smaller scale. Another example would be the website of the municipality of The Hague. I would recommend you all to check this out, as, instead of demonstrating all its plans and projects, this site has mapped out all the areas where there are vacant buildings and spaces, inviting people to submit their own ideas for these spaces. Jaap Modder: Did you know that Marnix? Marnix Norder: Yes, of course: I launched it, and it really works. A number of initiatives have been received this way. This map has been on the website since October, and for three of the proposals, planning permission has been requested. These are all ideas

which would never have happened otherwise, or even been thought of. It is thus a new type of urban planning and I am very happy with it. Organic urban planning may be a bit of a buzzword, but it really does work. Jaap Modder: Okay, that’s a good example. But, in terms of the metropolitan region, how necessary would you say it is? We all feel that something needs to be done at that scale level, but what? Pascal Lamberigts: I do think it is necessary. If you look at the Structural Vision of Randstad 2040, you would be forgiven for thinking that the word ‘Randstad’ was only mentioned on the cover. If you read it well, it basically says that the first step that should be taken in developing the area is to link transport and the region at the North and South Wing level, not Randstad Holland.

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Jaap Modder: So you think that it is only the symbolic message that has disappeared? Pascal Lamberigts: The symbolic message has disappeared, and with time, maybe we can strive towards that, but all the analysis has shown that the first step should be at the regional level: urbanisation where the regional public transport is better interlinked. This has been a component of our metropolitan strategy for the past thirty years, and we have now been struggling with it for over twenty years and we still aren’t doing it adequately! Jaap Modder: What about identity? In terms of the South Wing metropolitan region, how can its identity be strengthened? Pascal Lamberigts: Everone has their own interpretation of identity. If you ask me personally what images come to mind

when I think of metropolitan programmes or strategies, then I would think in terms of an Olympic national plan. The metropolitan programme is interwoven in the structure of Barcelona, as well as in the existing structure of London, which will host the upcoming Games. I believe these are examples of interventions that have really captured and strengthened the identity of the place in both cities. Audience member: I would like to rectify the Donut-City story of Rotterdam. For one, Rotterdam has actually been growing again since 2008, and secondly, we shouldn’t forget that Rotterdam has a very specific history, which we all know about. Its ‘donut’ actually came into being in the Second World War, and for a long time, we have attempted to make Rotterdam’s centre a real centre again.

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This is also covered by the IABR this year, and we are getting there, but it is a very slow process. The city is gradually becoming more metropolitan. My question is therefore: do the participants of the debate think this will actually ever really happen in Rotterdam? Jan Brouwer: I hope so, but it is absolutely crucial that Rotterdam makes better use of its profile. This also applies to The Hague. Both cities have an enormous capital in terms of their 100-150 different nationalities. With all these different nationalities, these cities encapsulate an international network that no multinational can compete with. The problem, however, is that Rotterdam and The Hague are underutilising this potential. This is a big problem, because this ultimately represents three quarters of the city. If the cities therefore manage to make better use of their profile, and really apply this potential in the

international network, then these cities can definitely become great attractors. On one hand, it is great when a city can attract so many international people, but with this also comes the fact that many people, all over the world, are not connected to it. There are many projects which have the knowledge, skills and ability to mobilise these contacts. For example in Delft, which, at a much smaller scale, is busy creating a world market for itself. This is very simple, where products attract people to the area through their contacts so to speak. Jaap Modder: Yes, Pascal would call that a metropolitan intervention. Audience member: Lecroart spoke of flagship developments, but these were primarily the really big projects in Paris. He talked about the importance of taking the time to realise these projects, and that these projects

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should constantly be adjusted to fit the next infrastructural plans. These projects involve heavy metropolitan programmes, similar to what Barcelona has done, and what London is doing now. I believe, however, that the smaller scaled flagships can also have a really big impact. For example, if you look at Doug Saunders’ work in Antwerp, he is really busy observing, smelling and feeling the city: as a journalist, he is literally located in the place that he is examining, and he has talked to the people that make that place what it is. If you then look at the panel members today, the majority are politicians, scientists or people that work for consultant agency. I believe that it is important to also involve other actors: the real entrepreneurs of the city, and to link this with what Jan Brouwer said before about the

smaller projects. I believe these people are much more involved in sensing the city. For example, in The Hague, much of the international community has lived there for twentythirty years, but they have also seen much more of the world. These people potentially have many ideas and suggestions on how the city can be improved. This is something the city really needs to tap into, and that is basically my point: I believe that the smaller flagships are often more important than those large scaled developments. Would you agree? Jaap Modder: That’s an interesting question, especially for the Dutch House of Commons: should we focus on many different, small-scaled projects (and collectively call them metropolitan interventions), or should we aim for the level of the Olympic Games? Maybe that is too big, and we don’t want that.

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But will we be able to get there with just the smaller-scaled metropolitan interventions? Marnix Norder: No, you also need the icons. For example, look at the skyline of The Hague, which has just been expanded with three towers above 140m in height. A little further on, there is another one of 140m, and one of 100m. Everyone that talks about these five towers is incredibly enthusiastic, as it is an enormous amount of urbanity that is being added to the city. The skyline is now literally much more powerful: it represents pride and identity. This isn’t a small movement. On the other hand, however, you also have to have the smaller scaled projects, as these are also important. If you have a group of young people with an African background that want to organise a cultural event for example, then you need to of course facilitate

them by providing them with a space to materialise this in for example. This will give them the opportunity to host their event, influence the public and obtain a degree of economic gain from it. One of the changes that I am currently trying to introduce in the official civil service apparatus, is to move away from traditional planning, with all its rules and regulations, to enable more room to manoeuvre for those smaller projects. Jaap Modder: Towards the spontaneous city so to speak? Marnix Norder: Yes. We need to think more in terms of “You have a good idea, how can we implement this and where would you like it?”. This kind of mentality, which isn’t overly focussed on health and safety regulations. We need to move away from all those rules and create space for opportunities.

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Jan Brouwer: This is the first time that The Hague has given away fairly large pieces of land to the public. This was normally always planned and organised, but now these pieces of land are offered to the public, and this attracts a whole different crowd. Many are foreign entrepreneurs with ideas that mobilise a whole new public, and this is one way of shaping that metropolis. Marnix Norder: Yes, this is an incredibly fun, small-scaled entrepreneurship project. It has opened up a whole new way of managing and thinking about the city. In total, we gave away 69 plots and 7 DIY/renovation projects. The DIY/renovation projects were the first to go: an idea copied from Rotterdam. The unique thing about the plots of land, however, were that these were primarily located in the inner-city. The plots of land that were first

taken were surprisingly those in Laakhaven West; a problematic area along the old harbour. The government had made several attempts previously to encourage real estate companies to develop this area, but this never came about. This initiative, however, did attract many entrepreneurs in the public, that had ideas for these plots of land. These were mostly entrepreneurs with a foreign background, who had money to invest, a vision and were very passionate. It was positively overwhelming. I have been to several other building society meetings, involving many potential buyers for the houses that are up for sale. Those potential buyers are excited, but much more passively. The people buying the plots of land in The Hague, on the other hand, were extremely proactive: they were so excited and

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eager to take part. They soaked up all the information they could possibly obtain from the officials, and asked so many questions about what they could do; what they were and weren’t allowed to do; what the general plan was; when they could be ready by; when they could expect their licence, when they could start, if it was possible to do it in another way etc. They really had fiery passion. Jaap Modder: A productive attitude as opposed to a consumption attitude? Marnix Norder: Yes, and it was really heart-warming and inspirational. I would leave these meetings with a huge smile on my face, thinking that if these are the people that will help build The Hague, then bring on more of them! It was a real eye-opener for me to realise that urban planning could be done like this: it is just a matter of getting used to it and each other.

Jaap Modder: So, a spontaneous city, different planning paradigms and private ownership are all things that are needed in a metropolitan programme? Marnix Norder: Yes, and especially in the city. Anyone can pick an area for (re)development, but (re)developing the inner-city is a whole different challenge. I did not expect that this initiative would be received with so much enthusiasm and engagement: I hoped for it, but did not expect it to this extent. Luuk Boelens: Professor Social Geography and Planning, University of Utrecht Jaap Modder: You might be the only one who will answer the question that we asked all the panel members beforehand, namely: what can the Dutch learn for the metropolitan programme of the Netherlands from ex-

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amples from elsewhere? You live in Antwerp, so you are the only foreigner in the panel; maybe you are the only one that can really answer this? Luuk Boelens: I can tell you about my day today, as I believe this captures a metropolitan experience. I personally do not see the Deltametropolis as Randstad Holland. I see it as the whole area that stretches from Amsterdam to Lille, and from Lille to the RhineRuhr area. This morning, I was in Antwerp: in the renowned neighbourhood that Doug Saunders talked about in his lecture. After Antwerp, I went to the Flemish Government in Brussels, to discuss the spatial implications of technological developments. I then went to Balen, to discuss their plans to develop a programme between the large Nyrstar factory, SCK•CEN (the largest nuclear en-

ergy power plant and research centre in Mol) and the University College of Kempen. Following this, I went to the Rabobank in Weert, to discuss a cross-border venture programme that they want to set up. And now I am in Rotterdam. All of these places have been metropolitan. Jaap Modder: If we look at your day, can we deduct who is the main motivation: the government or society? Luuk Boelens: Society. Society is the motivation, and government is the facilitator. The figures for private commissioning have increased, but interestingly: the amounts have not. I therefore hope it will all go well, but this is only possible if the government facilitates more and adapts the rules and regulations. Besides this, civil society and businesses need to think about having more

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cross-overs. The Rabobank is now exploring this cross-border venture programme for example, and this is ultimately aimed at a metropolitan orientated society. Jaap Modder: Marnix agrees with you that the government needs to play a facilitating role: that people are offered the possibilities to do various things, which were previously much more difficult to carry out. Be it offering vacant properties or plots of land, the possibility to get involved is there and although the government doesn’t personally get involved, it does offer civil society the space and opportunity to do so themselves. That is the trick, and it sounds pretty simple. Luuk Boelens: Yes, it does sound very simple. Two students I know are currently examining the DIY/renovation housing projects in Rotterdam, and I don’t know the exact situation of what is happening there, but I have a

feeling that it involves a lot of governmental money, which I think is a shame. I could be wrong, but I think that the DIY/renovation housing in Rotterdam will come to an end, or people may even be evicted, because the project simply costs the government too much. I think it is a shame, because there are also other ways to organise it. Jaap Modder: Let us once again look at the differences between the metropolitan programme on the one hand, and the strategy on the other. The Delta metropolis has an agent, but if you start thinking in terms of the South Wing, I would say that we also need a superintendent: someone who oversees the overall programme and considers the elements that should be added to the South Wing metropolitan region to really make it a proper metropolitan region. On the other hand, there is the strategy. But firstly, in terms of the

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programme: what do you believe may be the missing pieces of that programme? Luuk Boelens: What is crucial for the coming period is that the institutional organisations that deal with the laws adjust their rules and regulations. They should do this, because this metropolitan region has a lot of provisions and services to offer compared to other metropolitan regions, and importantly, what it offers is very cheap. If you compare the housing prices to those in London or Paris, it is extremely cheap. Similarly, if you look at the number of transnational corporations that are located in this region, then about 20-25 of the Global 500 are located in this metropolitan region, which is comparable to what London has. We are thus a very cheap region in a prime location, and we have achieved all of this because of our close col-

laborative relationship with cooperations. I think that nothing has happened with this since the Second World War however. I hope that the current economic crisis will bring it back, but this can only be facilitated if the organisations, laws and regulations are adapted. This is something that I have been discussing with the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM). It is not about letting go of the rules and regulations: it is about changing them. So, if you want people to get involved in Joint Project Commissioning (CPO), then this needs to be enabled and stimulated through different financial constructions. Jaap Modder: That was also Stephen Marshall’s argument when he talked about urban codes: fundamentally, a new type of organic urban planning. His suggestion was to not

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completely abolish all the rules, but to create more freedom through different regulatory programmes. Annemiek Rijckenberg (audience): Besides that, his message was also to preserve the rules that we do have. In the Netherlands, it is always too much one or the other, but his point was about creating better rules that are taken seriously. Jaap Modder: So it is about creating that space for society. How will this be achieved though? Will it happen organically? If you look at the past lectures, for example, will Fesel’s cultural clusters, McCann’s knowledge clusters, Lecroart’s flagship developments and Corijn’s international organisations come about naturally if we change the rules? Just imagine: the conclusion for the metropolitan region is that the region needs a superintendent that will ensure that the

programme runs well. This will then happen through small-scaled metropolitan interventions that form by themselves. What else is then needed? Jan Brouwer: If you look at the dimensions of the area that are truly metropolitan in nature, i.e. places with high intensity and interaction, then the area is actually relatively small. Of course there are a few more places, such as a number of historical centres, but that’s about it. There are many more potential places, however, where intensity and (international) interaction can be stimulated through settlements policies, accessibility and so forth. Stedenbaan has researched the places where large-scale provisions currently lie along the Stedenbaan. These are potential centres with high levels of interaction and intensity: places where more mass can be created and which exude a certain degree of

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internationalism. I once made a simple map of the municipalities in the Netherlands, and the dimensions of their centres. From this, it became apparent that the more a city grows, the more significant the centre is for its surrounding environment. This in turn also creates more interaction. Amsterdam is not only the biggest city in the Netherlands, it also has a relatively big centre. If you therefore want a metropolitan region in South-Holland, then you will also need to broaden the area where the interaction and intensity takes place. This does not necessarily have to be the centres of Rotterdam or The Hague however: there are many other potential places, such as Delft for example. The campus there is currently an empty, barren area, with a lot of potential. It attracts many international people. Delft would really benefit from added facilities and

provisions in this area, as it would give the campus a whole new appeal. Jaap Modder: So Luuk: spatial planners still have enough work to do, it isn’t just about the small-scaled projects. Luuk Boelens: Yes, I’ll still be busy for a while. There is actually still a lot of work for spatial planners, but the type of work is very different from what it used to be. When I first worked for the Province of South-Holland, spatial planning was much more about mapping and ‘colouring in’ so to speak. These days, it is much more about facilitating and connecting people, and then ensuring that these are eventually given the spatial dimensions that give them spatial significance. This also means, that we now have different expectations of politicians. Luckily, Marnix is starting to think this way, because I remember that this wasn’t the case five years 30


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ago. Back then I wanted to start a project at the Moerwijk station with HaagWonen, and this didn’t go through because of the required safety rules and regulations that Marnix prescribed. Marnix Norder: Yes, that is true, but it was a whole different situation back then. At that time, things were very simple: why would you focus on small-scaled projects when you have large companies that are eagerly willing to invest in large-scaled projects involving 500 new homes for example? That was the attitude we had at the time. Investment and clients were easy to find, so we really didn’t have to do very much to attract them. Now, we have reached the end of that era and our decisions are now based on entirely different considerations. Sometimes you need a crisis to really change things. Necessity forces a change in the situation, and this change is

driven by the change in society. Today it seems everything is primarily organised around the individual. If you look in terms of institutions, you will see that these are experiencing growing individualism, in combination with collectivism. This means there is now a different type of contemplation process compared to before, and this requires new responses. Currently, the individual plays a much more significant role in urban planning. Before the war, individuals were also important, but following the war, the individual was largely forgotten because of mass production and commercialisation that was so popular at the time. Pascal Lamberigts: In terms of the strategies, can I just add that when we were working on the Structural Vision 2040, we were primarily focussed on having clear goals that, could preferably be quantified and measured.

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From what I remember, we were referred to examples in New York, where measurable goals were put in place which also left space for other initiatives to come about. The important thing was to be aware of the precise social dynamics that were happening and to respond to them. One idea I found interesting at the time (but which wasn’t further developed) was the idea that money that is made in one place should also be utilised there. One of the examples was the hotel sector, where tourist tax was being spent three streets further down the road, as opposed to the public space where the hotel was located. This could be applied to discussions about road pricing for example. These types of mechanisms are interventions that people tend to ignore because they are not physically visible, but they do tend to

work because they operate through civil society. We therefore need to move away from thinking in terms of large-scaled projects, and become willing to do some gardening so to speak. We need to be precise, and willing to take the time and effort to do it right. We need to really take these projects onboard and also be willing to intervene. This is a different strategy to the ones we have had up until now. Jaap Modder: What about having a metropolitan ‘feeling’? If you ask me in what part of the world I have a real metropolitan feeling, I would say that I have it in Brussels. Personally, I feel Brussels offers a real metropolitan experience. I do not really know why I have that feeling, but for some reason, the city radiates life: it is vibrant and energetic. Brussels exudes a real metropolitan feeling.

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In the Netherlands, I do not really get that feeling. Where in the world would you say that you experience that metropolitan feeling Luuk? Luuk Boelens: Brussels definitely has it, but it has it despite its strategy. You could almost say that Brussels has it because it lacks a strategy. During the day, you have all the European officials there, but at the same time, the city runs completely empty in the evening: it is totally deserted. Jaap Modder: What about you Marnix? When will you have that metropolitan feeling in The Hague? Or do you already have that feeling? Marnix Norder: No, when I think of a real metropolis, I think of cities like London or New York. The Hague is ten times smaller than those places. If you think in terms of a global metropolis, then even Amsterdam

doesn’t fit the bill. Metropolises have a certain degree of scale: a dynamic and vibrancy that we simply do not have in the Netherlands. I was at a real estate congress in London recently, and if you look at the projects that have been realised there in the last two to three years, it is absolutely baffling. The Hague literally fits in their expansion plan alone! So for The Hague, it is very different. We do live in a metropolitan region however, whether that includes the Rotterdam-The Hague area, or the whole Randstad Holland area. In that sense, what’s in a name? Jaap Modder: But can the metropolitan region continue to play an important role at a global scale with the nodes in those places and the small-scaled metropolitan interventions? Is this enough to remain important in the world? Marnix Norder: I think so, because in that

TIP Final Debate

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sense, Randstad Holland is a unique concept. We can divide it into two, four or eights, that doesn’t matter: to the outside world, we are seen as one. Also in terms of the investment climate: when Nike chose the location for its European distribution centre, Rotterdam was the logical choice. The Chinese also think on this larger scale. I recently heard of someone who owns a hotel in Purmerend: he advertises it as ‘Hotel Amsterdam’. This is logical though: for them, that is easily part Amsterdam. I mean, in some sense, it is just around the corner. I think that we need that scale of thinking, and that is something we find difficult. If we think like this however, then we essentially have one large, beautiful region with 5-6 million inhabitants. A region with an abundance of qualities: maybe not comparable to New York or London, but a region that

has many other qualities. If we want to retain young urban intellectuals, then we need to offer them an environment which appeals to them. These are, after all, the people that make the choice to stay or leave, and if there’s enough to keep them here, they may also persuade their friends to join them. These people could then make a living here, start up new businesses for example, and that is what we want. We therefore need to think in terms of a different kind of urbanity: one that offers a social living environment that ties people to the city. In that sense, I still believe in relatively aggressive competition between different urban regions, and boldy said you simply need to become one of those winners. Jaap Modder: We haven’t discussed what the South Wing metropolitan region will mean for the governance of that region yet. Should we follow Brussels, as Luuk ex-

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plained, by becoming a metropolis without any proper governance? Marnix, in your opinion, do you believe we need a type of governance desiderata to ensure that we can still make something decent out of this metropolitan region? Marnix Norder: Yes, I think it will still take many years to achieve though. I believe that with time, we need to have more centralised leadership through district councils, such as in Paris and London for example. Maybe the governance of The Hague, Rotterdam and Leiden could become one, to group their powers together to form a type of Greater London? In this way, they would gain a lot of power and greater leadership in terms of territory, town planning, the environment, economy and transport. That is a good combination, because you can then really make choices at that scale level. But, I fear that

this will still take many years to accomplish. Jaap Modder: Pascal, does Royal Haskoning also deal with these types of themes? Do you agree with this interpretation that we need to slowly head towards something like that? Pascal Lamberigts: I believe so. Regardless of the precise form it will take on, I believe that strong regional governance is necessary to fulfil the tasks at the regional level. Like I mentioned before, I also really believe in the smaller-scaled interventions. With Haskoning, which is currently undergoing a merger with DHV, it was clear since the first day following that decision that the two had become one. Since that first day, the offices displayed the flag of the other company to make that merger symbolically clear. So, I think it is important to remember how effective these symbols can be. If you hang the

TIP Final Debate

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flag of Rotterdam at the town house in The Hague, that will have an incredible effect for example. This should be remembered for our journey towards that regional governance. Luuk Boelens: Greater London as the governance structure of the South Wing metropolitan region? Don’t do that! Randstad Holland is not London, nor is it Paris. Randstad Holland is a metropolis and everyone envies it because it is made up of many little, successful cities consisting of 100-500 thousand inhabitants. They all have an agreeable climate where everyone wants to live. I don’t understand why we have to strive to become a London or Paris. That is absolutly rediculous! We should not try to become the next Greater London. In terms of governance, I would say we need to think more in terms of oliemannetjes (facilitators). We need them,

especially at the level of interaction between the Netherlands and Flanders. If I look at the different dynamics, then I completely agree that we need to focus more on the software and orgware. In other words, we need to focus on what already exists: we need to find new ways to give the existing spaces substance and form. Flanders is currently just spreading relatively aimlessly, but I believe that can also be used to strengthen one another. That is a totally different dynamic and way of thinking. Jan Brouwer: I also don’t see the benefit of having yet another layer of governance. I would much rather replace the existing intermediate layer (that layer which we keep discussing), by temporary governance. We currently have difficulty defining the projects and activities that should take place at the

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metropolitan scale level. This is why these projects and activities are still non-existent. I therefore advocate ‘light’ institutionalised temporary structures for these proposed activities, with the knowledge that these will immediately be disbanded once the activity has been completed. Marnix Norder: In The Hague region, we are contributing towards building the metropolitan region Rotterdam-The Hague. An important challenge for the coming period in terms of metropolitan leadership, will be dealing with the different working methods that the municipalities have in their mutual governmental collaborations. We currently have two city regions, both working with various municipalities, on forming a mutual plan to create something that everyone will be happy with. In essence, however, this collaboration could be described as ‘a congealing

inter-governmental distrust’. The important governmental task for the metropolitan region is to find ways where the municipalities increasingly work together in subservience to that triple helix. For example, to see how the municipalities can work together to ensure that businesses and knowledge institutions further develop to gain a better global competitiveness ranking and to form an improved establishment climate for companies. This can also be done at a very small scale, as Jan Brouwer was illustrating with Delft. We recently had a mini-symposium with the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) to share their state-of-theart knowledge with a number of people that are working on the metropolitan region. One of the things that really stood out was that South-Holland performs relatively poorly in

TIP Final Debate

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the private Research and Development (R&D) sector compared to other competing regions. PBL thus asked us what we, as collaborative municipalities, could do to strengthen the private R&D, especially now that Minister Verhagen TOP-Sector policies only function through the business world, and no longer through governments. The answer was actually rather simple: we need to encourage and facilitate the R&D entrepreneurs that we do have, by offering them easier access to provisions which they would otherwise not be able to afford by themselves. We need to create shared laboratory provisions, for example, so that these entrepreneurs can get started. Together with Delft, we are now working on this. My point therefore is that we need to try and work together: as collaborative municipalities, we need to collectively work with an inward objective to strengthen the rank-

ing of our overall economic competitiveness. We need to do this, and move away from that hinge which focusses on solving the spatial divisions between us. These are of course also important, but it can no longer be the only thing we focus on. Jaap Modder: I would like to thank you all for this lively debate. For me, the two key concepts that stood out in this debate are: ‘horizontal recompositioning’ and ‘smallscaled metropolitan interventions’.

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Lecture

Lessons from the ‘Flemish Diamond’

Joachim Declerck

According to Joachim Declerck (co-curator IABR), London forms the starting point for the thinking process behind metropolises. Urban regions, such as the Flemish Diamond and Randstad Holland tend to project cities of such a caliber as London, which have a complete different scale, into their existing urban systems in order to compete with these high profile cities. Metropolises are therefore seen as external projects that will be realised in the future, and that will involve all sorts of provisions.

Flemish Diamond The ‘Flemish Diamond’ consists of the area that incorporates the cities of Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp and Leuven. This area contains, attracts and produces the most wealth in Belgium and given its diamond-like formation, the title ‘Flemish Diamond’ (Vlaamse Ruit) has created the expectation that there is a metropolitan vision for the area. However, since the structural vision of Flanders (1997) the metropolitan vision for this area has not developed beyond its catchy title. The question today therefore is: how can the Flemish Diamond be further developed? Altough the Flemish Diamond lacks specific planning, as a metropolitan system, it performs well. Statistically, it is the fifth largest European urban region. It exist as an area with a maximum consumption capacity, one of the essential conditions which Paul Gerretsen referred to in his introductionspeech as being a key component in constituting a metropolis. The basis of the Flemish financial system, and the cornerstone of Flemish urbanisation is the ability of every individual citizen to acquire housing. This has resulted in maximum consumption of its landscape. In response, the structural vision did one thing: for the first time since the Second World War, it forged an upper limit as to what could become urbanised. With this limit, Flanders can currently still continue building its urban areas for at least the next twenty years before this maximum will be reached. According to Declerck, Flanders needs to move away from this focus on landscape consumption, and place more emphasis on creating a productive system. “Instead of focussing on network thinking, Flanders should concentrate on horizontal recompositioning and redistribution, where cooperation and collaboration play an important role”. One of the projects that focusses on this was a project submitted for the Belgian Pavilion at the Venice Biennial in 2011. This

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Lecture

project focussed on the ‘ambition of the territory’, where landscape wasn’t seen as a consumption territory without visions and conditions and requirements, but as a territory which should be respected in its own right and in its own ambitions. The territory should be seen as a passive, neutral playground. “Only by regarding territory as such, can the three large transformations of demographic growth, ecological transformation and economic transition, be understood.” In other words: only by approaching the metropolis through a rethinking process based on the existing urban system (and not on consumption) can we properly grasp what a metropolis entails. Europe Flanders is part of a Europe that is growing and becoming more urbanised: it is an important global growth area. Besides this, Flanders is also one of the important delta areas, where dense urbanisation and high economic productivity come together in an area with very fertile agricultural land. This combination entails important ecological and economic concerns. In economic terms, an important global transition is taking place, as was also mentioned in the lectures covering knowledge clusters and cultural clusters. In this transition, the new urban citizen is seen as the new intellectual. This idea is based on the assumption that we are the world’s ‘leading brains’, and that the rest of the globe is solely responsible for the remaining body. This assumption is no longer valid however. These ‘brains’ now also exist in India and China etc. The challenge of the future is therefore to see how the ‘body’, i.e. the practical, applied secondary industry of production, can be brought back to the metropolis. Transnational system According to Declerck, Europe can only become an important player if it participates in the global system of urbanisation via the existing metropolises. If Europe does not find,

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identify and apply its leverage and influence on the existing global metropolitan system, then Europe will not succeed in resolving its crises, and subsequently Europe will be omitted from that world system. The team for the Belgian Pavilion at the Venice Biennial 2011 therefore present the Flemish territory as a laboratory that examines the possibility of a metropolitan Europe. This research is approached through the logic and capacity of the territory itself. Importantly: it places emphasis on combining the past and future. It is important to remember that Europe is, and has always been, a system of cities, of places and nodes in networks. Within this system, Flanders has a historical network of economic mutually dependent cities, such as the Eurometropolis, a socio-economic cooperation territory between Lille, Kortrijk and Tournai. This historical network and system of complementary cities is the defining principle of Flanders. Since the Second World War, however, Flanders has actively forgot this transnational system of complementary cities. Instead, the influence of nation state thinking has resulted in a focus on regional governing systems that emphasise the consumption of territory. This has resulted in sprawl between the cities. One could therefore say that this is the territorial project of the welfare state, and that our welfare is thus consumptionbased. Presently, however, we have reached a point where this consumption-based welfare cannot be maintained any longer. Migration flows now naturally move around existing urban circles and this trend emphasises the need to move away from thinking in terms of the centre-periphery relationship, as the periphery is now also an essential node in metropolitan networks. We currently have a good understanding of the centre: we have all the policy instruments and visions to build it. What is lacking, however, is knowledge on how to build in the peripheral areas: in the metropolitan zones where various urban functions lie close to one another, but do not


joachim declerck

form a solid urban fabric. Flanders today is still completely reliant on its transnational system. Antwerp is heavily reliant on Rotterdam and its delta for the survival of its port for example, the development of Eastern Flanders is reliant on the Ruhr area and the development of Western Flanders depends on the Lille metropolis. This means that the Flemish identity is historically rooted on identities that are based on socio-economic systems that cross borders. Today’s socio-economic production apparatus is therefore also based on this identity, and this is what we need to change in order to regrasp them. In other words: Flanders needs a new future. This new future is already becoming reality in some cases, as can be seen with the Dutch MIRT programme (a multi-year programme for Infrastructure, Spatial Planning and Transport), which focuses on the potential collaboration between Rotterdam and Antwerp. This programme is being grasped enthusiastically at a political level, largely because we are currently experiencing an economic crisis. This crisis has made clear that we need to be more aware of the economic leverages that currently play: wealth is no longer ‘just present’, it needs to be generated at ground level. This means we need to reevaluate our current urban systems in order to envision a new future. From this point of view, the 2040 Vision, which reflects our present visions for the future, needs to focus more on a number of domains which were previously overlocked. One of these domains is the nine seaports in our ‘delta-city’. These may not have an explicit direct link with Randstad Holland or the Flemish Diamond, but they need to be acknowledged as they too have territorial significance. They need to be given a place in order to produce a metropolitan vision of quality. The economic sector in Brussels is taking the lead in this, as it recognises that dialogue between the French and Dutch speaking areas is essential for the economic development, preservation and strengthening of the me-

tropolis. It is therefore essential for this area that a horizontal redistribution of (income) wealth takes place: without it, the metropolis will never function in a qualitative manner. Horizontal wealth redistribution needs to be applied to the green spaces, the landscape and the former industrial activities in the East (i.e. Maastricht, Aachen, Hasselt and Liège) and the Eurometropolis (Lille, Kortrijk and Tournai), where there are still many employment opportunities. New ways need to be discovered to support the employment mobility in these areas and to strengthen the appeal of the universities, so that they attract students from beyond the nearby areas. The challenge for Flanders is therefore to see how it can operate within itself to contribute to the functioning of a bigger system of transnational metropolises. In other words: the scenario that is now being researched (and discussed with the Flemish government) focusses on how our historical system can be updated so that past and present are brought together. Importantly, this means that we should not ignore the welfare state phase with its emphasis on consumption, but re-work it so that it is brought back to the system of complementary metropolises which function as self-sufficient as possible. Interpreting the urban system in this construction will enable the Flemish Diamond to really engage in the global dynamics. It will allow it to grasp the true potential of ‘the ambition of the territory’, and not the dated ambition of the Flemish Diamond. The latter is ineffective in practice, as it is merely a statistical coincidence that these cities are located close together in this formation. The Flemish Diamond, as a system, does not function as a whole. One of the main challenges for the metropolis is to create a metropolitan programme based on the existing metropolitan system. The metropolis does not need to be reinvented to fit this programme, but it needs to be acknowledged that the metropolis exists and that it already has a certain way of functioning. The task is not to reinvent the metropolis, but to tweak it: to improve the 39


Lecture

way it functions. One of the issues that needs to be reconsidered in this challenge is territory, as agriculture, nature, urbanisation and industry all converge in this relatively small, but wealthy territory. Our future perspective thus needs to focus on the recompositioning of these territorial issues. In terms of agriculture Flanders is currently losing 5% of agricultural land annually due to growing urbanisation. This trend has several repercussions. How will it effect energy production? Where should this be localised? And up until what point should urbanisation be allowed to continue? If housing expansion in the future will be based on the current infrastructural system, then this will mean that the horizontal urbanisation that currently exists (along a number of axis that cross borders and allow us to be part of that urban delta) will be surpassed. Besides this, urbanisation is also placing increasing pressure on nature: floods are occurring much more frequently than before for example. There is thus clear confrontation between the ecological, urban and industrial development needs, and these confrontations clearly present themselves in these metropolises. The central question in forming a metropolis and supporting a metropolitan system therefore is: how can we design this ‘metropolitism’? New metabolic collaborations need to be organised in order to shape our metropolitan functioning. This means we shouldn’t regard issues simply as ‘cities are important, so they should offer many services, and metropolitan areas are even more important, so they should offer even more provisions’. This is a wrong way of thinking, as it follows a logic that does not correspond to the daily reality of the inhabitants of a metropolis and how their economic initiatives can be picked up and applied in a metropolitan project. The challenge therefore refers to developing new synergies that can help the metropolis come about. These include synergies between living, infrastructure and economy, and between (drinkable) water provisions, agricultural production and urbanisation. This will

develop our current system (that is based on sectors and controlled through planning), to a system that isn’t maintained, but developed. In this light, the metropolitan system should be seen as a factory which needs constant work, and will remain a continuous project. This is what we are currently testing. With the support of the Flemish government, and likely the governments of Lille, Germany and the Netherlands, our aim is to test how this ‘delta-city’ can be further developed, to find new concentrations in the ‘landscape of consumption’ that are not only based on our knowledge economy, but also on our agrarian activities for example. The three classical types of economy, which we have always believed to shift from agriculture to industry to knowledge, still exist together and in the metropolis, these three should all play an important role. In short, the aim is to move from consumption to an urban system that utilises its agricultural production, its secondary production and its knowledge production. This urban system should not only focus on its network (this of course already exists and we need to maintain it), but a system that focuses particulary on how those systems of horizontal recompositioning and redistribution can be discovered. International Architecture Biennial Rotterdam The IABR is fully engrossed in this philosophy of horizontal recompositioning and redistribution. It focuses on places around world that have adopted this philosophy, to see what strategies and collaborations they have used to realise these ambitions. The basic assumption is that cities are often seen as a problem in our region, because these are the places where all challenges tend to come together. Cities are not the problem: cities are the places where new collaborations are formed and where politics play a big role: Politics are important not in terms of having an overbearing say in all the information and ideas, but in terms of collaboration and interplay with other actors. Other actors have

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formed the initial ideas, which need further development through collaboration and the sharing of ideas in order to work towards orchestrating the answers to the societal challenges that are currently being faced. This also means that we need to rethink the meaning of the city. Currently, the ‘city’ is interpreted as anything that has a dense network of streets, with façades organised along them. The urban fabric is much more extensive than this, however. The ‘city’ in our metropolitan system is a fabric in which living and nature need to interact in a qualitative manner at all three levels of production. The fifth biennial is a collection of 33 projects, partly initiated by the biennial in Rotterdam, Istanbul and Sao Paulo, and with the support of the Dutch government. Seven of these projects are located in the Netherlands. All of the submissions were in response to a call for projects that involved a different type of dynamic: Not a bottum-up dynamic where societal actors are seen as being right, and the government being wrong; but projects that emphasise alliances, collaboration and partnerships to work on current and future challenges. An example of three of these projects below. IABR Example project #1: Brussels Canal, Brussels As mentioned before, the canal area in Brussels represents a challenge that we are currently completely incapable of dealing with: not in Brussels, not in Western Europe and not in the Western world generally. It represent the challenge of developing urban areas without using the knowledge economy and network clusters as the point of departure for forming an urban system. The problem in the canal area in Brussels is the fact that half of its population will never have access to this knowledge economy, even though they can (and do) function in other parts of its economic system. This challenge is similarly being faced in the South of Rotterdam and some parts of São Paulo. The question is thus: what does this mean for the urban develop41

ment in these places? More specifically: what does this mean for the urban development in these places where the housing quality is already below average standards? In Brussels, these places may still have their logistical function, but they also have a very fragile organised or unorganised informal economy. The informal activities in these places form the ingredients for a prospective plan for urban design, but also for new ideas on urban planning. These ideas are not based on the knowledge economy, but on smallscaled accumulative production that collectively can be meaningful for these places. In Brussels, an added challenge is that the city is experiencing a demographic explosion: in the next ten years, Brussels will experience a 20% population increase. How will this shape the city? This challenge calls for a new plan: a plan that isn’t actually a plan, but a standard for achieving a more dynamic system in the most important metropolitan production hub in the metropolis of Brussels. Three teams are currently working on three visions for the development of this area. IABR Example Project #2: La Défense Seine Arche: ‘Le Faisceau’, Paris This project relates to an idea for the future development of Paris, and particularly ‘Le Faisceau’, a nodal point of infrastructures to the North-West of La Défense. Le Faisceau exemplifies how the dynamic of ‘Le Grand Paris’ can be brought into motion through a clear vision of horizontal redistribution. The motivation of building around this new metropolitan transport network is not a response to the quantitative needs of optimising the transportation links in the different parts of Paris, but a motivation to build a system that focuses on horizontal redistribution by linking all the different places together. By doing so, La Défense is faced with a huge opportunity to transform its area into an important infrastructural node: ‘a new pole’ so to speak, that will transform it into a new international gateway. Importantly,


Lecture

agreements have to be made between the local governments that lie around the area: something which has not been achieved in the past. This agreement is necessary, however, as the development of that node in the city needs to be formed together at every place along the infrastructural line. The project effectively entails a redistribution of wealth between the wealthier areas and the poorer areas of Paris. It implies that the wealthier areas will financially contribute to the poorer areas, such as the North of Paris, forming a redistribution within the system of the Parisian metropolis. By subscribing the wealthier areas of the city to a system in which the poorer areas also play a role, a redistribution of the national and local development funds is created, which forms part of a larger redistribution within the project of Grand Paris. IABR Example Project #3: Strategic Sustainable Vision for the Municipality of Arnavutkรถy, Istanbul This project was initiated by the Biennial itself, as it does not only function as a revealer of best practices elsewhere, but also as a development biennial that sets its own developments. In this sense, the IABR functions as a cultural operator that works on specific challenges in particular places, through a contractual collaboration with governments from abroad and in the Netherlands. This particular project focusses on Southern Istanbul, where new developments around the sea of Marmara are taking place. This area is experiencing high levels of development, with increasing demographic and economic growth. The Northern part of Istanbul, with its agricultural land, forests and drinking water, is an essential component in supporting this metropolitan system. This water basin can potentially only support a population of 18 million people however, and there is now friction between the North and South of Istanbul. It has been established in the first Metropolitan planning document (approved in

2009/2010), that the Southern part of the sea of Marmara and the Northern part of the Black sea, need to be further developed. These developments, and the huge demographic pressures that stimulate it, are slowly eating away into the green spaces, creating patchworks of urbanisation in these important water basins that should essentially be protected. This has caused friction between the need to protect the ecosystem on the one hand (so that the city can continue to function), and the pressures that officials, such as the First Minister of Istanbul, are putting on the necessity for further growth and development. The metropolitan programme is currently planning to dig a second Bosphorus channel, which will effectively transform the European part of Istanbul into an island. Furthermore, there are also plans to build a third new motorway in the green Northern area, which will ensure that the whole Marmara metropolis is interconnected. In this sense, the metropolitan growth around the sea of Marmara will form as a type of production machine. The local government of Northern Istanbul is thus being confronted with two contradictory objectives, which it cannot solve by itself. The Biennial therefore stepped in to see how this situation can be resolved in compliance with the laws and regulations of the Master plan. The assignment was to find a way to halt the urban growth in the green areas, whilst simultaneously making way for the huge planned developments of the third motorway and new channel committed by the First Minister. In order to embark upon this challenge, an Istanbul laboratory was set up that consisted of two offices: one with specialised expertise from the Netherlands (primarily related to water management and landscape development), and one with specialised expertise from Belgium (mainly related to urban development and architecture). These offices worked together in a system of workshops, involving various local stakeholders and a number of ministries (specifically the 42


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Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Forestry). These parties all worked together to find a potential breakthrough for this challenge of contradictions, and this project is now being presented at the IABR. The project reinterpreted this assignment by seeing the urbanisation principles of water, Bosphorus and the Golden Horn, as elements that need to be sustained. Instead of forbidding urban growth in these water basins, the project allowed urbanisation, but limited to specific locations around these water basins. These specific locations are the edges and ridges that lie high in the hills of Istanbul, because urbanisation here can help stimulate agricultural production in the water basins. Agriculture is currently not taking place in these basins because its only available water source is drinking water, which the sector is prohibited from using for agriculture. By allowing urbanisation along the ridges of the water basins, waste water will be produced, which can be used to instigate agriculture in this area. Agriculture will thus make use of the waste water, whilst simultaneously protecting the drinking water in the basin. This system will thus function as a type of cruise ship, where all the water is recycled in a closed cycle of water production. By adopting this system, Istanbul will break the cycle of contradictions between the need for urban development and economic growth on the one hand, and the need to protect Istanbul’s ecology and the survival of its drinking water on the other. Besides this, the system will also breakthrough the current trend where the farmers that arrive in Istanbul’s central city from Eastern Turkey, disregard their agricultural skills in order to take part in the central city’s industrial and knowledge economy. By adopting this system, these different types of economy can be brought together and function alongside each other. Similar to the old Istanbul, the city will therefore be shaped by a mixed economy and an inward glance towards the drinking basins as the survival mechanism of Istanbul’s metropolis. 43

This project has been developed by the local government, and presented by the Mayor of Rotterdam to the Mayor of Metropolitan Istanbul, with the agreement that further research will be carried out to see if it can be scaled-up to form the basis for the further development of the metropolis of Istanbul. The project illustrates that a new metropolitan fabric can come about through the recomposition of the original spatial assignment: a fabric with new qualities that are not only determined by the central city, but also by that what lies outside it, and which functions as a fabric where the different spatial dynamics can be brought together in a constructive way. Instead of focussing on the contradictory ambitions, this framework focusses on collaboration between local actors, national actors and civil society organisations that all support the preservation of that water. These are effectively the market forces that want to invest, and through this system, they can be carried along to make these developments become reality. The aforementioned projects illustrate a brief glimpse of 3 of the 33 projects that will be presented at the fifth International Architecture Biennial in Rotterdam. They all represent an exploration around which much debate will arise. In this exploration, many different actors take part and the projects do not aim to formulate new models for the metropolitan system: every question, occasion and situation is different. They all however, carry with it a new planning dynamic where the city is not seen as a system of consumption, but as a system of production. The focus of the IABR is therefore on what our future welfare will produce: it is about the fact that we currently live in a metropolis, who’s biggest challenge is to form collaborations that focus on horizontal recompositioning and redistribution.


conclusion

Conclusion

Deltametropolis Association initially started this project with the title ‘the Metropolitan Strategy for Randstad Holland’. When preparing for the debate today, the title was changed to ‘the Metropolitan Strat egy for the Netherlands’. The debate has now Jaap Modder ended with a discussion on ‘the Metropolitan Strategy for the Lowlands’. I believe this may be the right scale to work with. In terms of strategy, Joachim Declerck has demonstrated that you can see that as a concept: firstly discovering the metropolis, and subsequently filling it out, or maintaining and facilitating it. In that sense, it is similar to gardening as the metropolis already exists, and all it needs is maintenance. Out of the debate, the two key concepts that stood out are: ‘horizontal recompositioning’ and ‘small-scaled metropolitan interventions’. The knowledge gathered with the lectures, expertmeetings and this final debate will be input for a publication, expected winter 2012. Furthermore the association and its partners will further develop the metropolitane strategy by testing it on case studies. tIP Reports available: A report has been written for each of the lecture and expert meeting sessions. These can be downloaded for free or ordered in print via the Deltametropolis Association’s website: www.theInternationalPerspectives.nl.

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TH INTERNA PERSPE


HE ATIONAL ECTIVES

report tIP: Final Debate (a Metropolitan Strategy for the Netherlands)  

This report reflects on the International Perspectives (tIP) Final Debate, that was held at the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) on...

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