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KATHERINE VANHOOSE

LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN

1

VERENIGING DELTAMETROPOOL, ROTTERDAM

1 Polder simply means claimed from the sea by dikes


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Let’s Talk About The Polders Again 16.08.2012 Deltametropolis Association, Rotterdam Text Katherine VanHoose Illustrations Katherine VanHoose, Merten Nefs Contact Merten Nefs, project manager +31 (0)10 413 0927 landschap@deltametropool.nl deltametropool.nl/nl/veenweidegebieden Let’s Talk About the Polders Again is the first publication of the ”Landschap van de Deltametropool” project, which is an initiative of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, the Cultural Heritage Agency of The Netherlands, DS Landscape Architects and the Deltametropolis Association. We welcome your participation in this project! If the topic interests you please contact us. For more information, updates and FactSheets visit http://deltametropool.nl/nl/veenweidegebieden.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN

Acknowledgements This report and this internship would not have been possible without the help of many people. First I’d like to thank Henk Ovink and the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment for facilitating this internship and giving me the opportunity to come to the Netherlands. This has opened a number of doors for my professional and personal development of which I can’t express how grateful I am. I would like to thank Paul Gerretsen for his hospitality and encouragement during the year, and for his unwavering confidence in our organization, and more specifically in the project when I sometimes had none. I would like to thank Merten Nefs, who although came along towards the end of the project, was an integral part of my internship before he joined the “landscape team,” and progressed the quality and volume of the project immensely after he came on board. For his continual support of me, I would like to thank Ernst Kuilder, the other intern and now my most significant other. I would also like to thank my friends whom I call colleagues for their help, support, general goodwill and kind-heartedness. For supplying the much needed data: Cultural Heritage Agency of The Netherlands, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment and DS Landscape Architects. And finally, I would also like to thank everyone else who gave to this project in some way or another, whether knowingly or unknowingly. Beste lezer, ik hoop dat je net zoveel geniet van het volgende verslag als ik genoot van het maken ervan. Katherine VanHoose

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN

A new aesthetic is now on the rise... From the air the landscape becomes a patchwork of open space, buildings, greenhouses and pastures… As we tear along the dikes and under the rivers we see the polders more and more for what they are: fragments from the past, an order that has defined our reality, but that we maintain only because we believe this heritage has something to teach us and that we can and must live with it. We create new nature, we exaggerate the pattern of land in water, and we fetishize the character of the Dutch city surrounded by polder as the essence of this part of Europe. In order to be convincing, however, this political and cultural vision demands a social, economic and political infrastructure. We shall see how long that structure remains visible. -Aaron Betsky, “The Polder Model”

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN

Table of Contents Introduction

8

Valuing Ecosystem Services

From Problem to Opportunity

11

14

From Opportunity to Development Perspectives

Zouteveensepolder Case Study Maps

21

Zouteveensepolder: The Middle of Midden-Delfland

Conclusions

Sources

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30

36

38

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN

The Deltametropolis

built-up area

Scale 1:400.000

water roads railways case study Zouteveensepolder possible other case studies

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: INTRODUCTION

1

Introduction An introduction to an important and often neglected topic: the “typical” Dutch veenweidegebieden (peat lands) in the Deltametropolis area in the Netherlands can be considered a landscape anomaly, both physically and technically. The green meadowland seen today is a result of an ingenious water system comprised of ditches, canals, reservoirs and pumping stations which transformed swampy marshlands into productive and usable land for agriculture dating back to the 12th century. Farms and settlements found their place on firmer soil, leaving the peatlands as open meadows, and for centuries the land provided fuel for the economy through the extraction of peat and agricultural exports.1 Landscape then became a water controller, a storage container and a processing machine. After the 1960s and onwards, the large, rectilinear parcels of land provided a blank canvas for experimentation in urban planning. The Dutch people who grew up with them, came to accept them, knew their history and built on and around them. Their cultural significance and role was often questioned against the economic value of new developments, and more often than not, the latter won the case. As technologies advanced, once practical machines like the giant windmills shifted from functional objects to cultural landmarks. The straight and narrow roads originally built for farmers with horses could barely accomodate the modern tractors that cultivated the land. The low horizon dotted by cows and sheep against a backdrop of buildings looks strange to us, rendering the landscape strikingly out of place as compared to the modern cities which suround them.

1 J.W. Zeeuw and Jan de Vries, Peat and the Dutch Golden Age: The Historical Meaning of Energy-attainability, p. 18

The process of urbanization often happens gradually, and in the case of the Deltametropolis. Following the ups and downs of the economy over the last 50 years, stakeholders, developers and policy-makers focus more on the quality and expansion of their urban areas, often leaving the landscape as an afterthought. As a result, the Deltametropolis has become a unique metropolitan area of several large cities at relatively short distances from one another, with a rural central zone with agricultural activities (see previous map). In the case of the Deltametropolis, urban “pressure” often conjures a negative loss of rural land at the expense of urban developments as a result of the decisions made in the last decades like the sprawl of the 1990s and 2000s. The concept of urban pressure, however, could be used to denote other positive, results like the migration of new residents, new economic activities, implementation of infrastructure, or the influx of visitors on rural landscapes. The physical boundaries between green (rural) and red (urban) surfaces have been blurred along with the role of both areas. Nowadays, rural areas are no longer simply rural areas and this trend is increasing. Instead they are a mix of spheres of influence and accessibility with new cultural distinctions, regional identity and economic relationships. Now, people visit these areas for an experience, an experience: one that is opposite to the experience of the urban areas. The relationship between urban and rural areas should therefore be considered as coexisting, rather than competing. In this context, the two areas can expect to become increasingly

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: INTRODUCTION

more dependent on each other. The role of agriculture and rural areas in an increasingly urban context is an ongoing discussion. Just as there are trends in the economy, so are there trends in the interest and preservation of nature and rural areas. This year is extremely important as current investment programs in agriculture and nature will end and the responsibility for these areas has been abandoned in light of recent policy changes. As urban areas continue to require quality infrastructure, services and residences, so will the Deltametropolis demand an equally as high rural environment that ensures access to recreation, local food and green services, as well as water management and good air quality. This will require new functions of land use in the rural areas, ranging from new economic developments, different caretaking roles and new levels of management on the part of municipalities and provinces. The key to a cohesive and quality Deltametropolis lies in its rural areas. It is here that we must focus our time, our energy and our concentration.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: INTRODUCTION

Landscapes have increasingly become afterthoughts. Photos: Merten Nefs

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND VALUES

2

Ecosystem Services and Values This year marks an important turning point in the future role of the veenweidegebieden of the Deltametropolis. Population growth and the demand for more space and resources and a growing economy will elicit new spatial arrangements. As providers of ecosystem goods and services, the rural areas will play a major role in this turn of events. A number of factors directly and indirectly affect one another in this complex story. The ecosystem services model proposed by De Groot and based on the Millenium Ecosystems Assessment2, an appraisal of ecosystems and the services they provide (such as clean water, food, forest products, flood control, and natural resources) offers a theoretical framework by which to frame this story. According to De Groot, ecosystems are an intermediate between processes and services and can therefore be defined as the “capacity to provide goods and services that satisfy human needs, directly and indirectly.�3 Four broad types of services are distinguished: Provisioning services, regulating services, habitat or supporting services, and cultural and amenity services. The services can be translated into three value categories: (1) natural or intrinsic value of the landscape, (2) socio-cultural value, and (3) economic value (see figure 1). The De Groot model translates these values into a total value which can be used in sustainable landscape planning and management. The cultural importance of natural ecosystems not only consists of tangible goods and services, but also includes many intangible,

2 The Millennium

Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was called for by the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000. Initiated in 2001, the objective of the MA was to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and the scientific basis for action needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. 3 R.S. de Groot, Functions of Nature: Evaluation of nature in environmental planning, management and decision making, p. 9

Figure 1: Framework for evaluating green spaces; bridging the gap between ecosystem services, value (ecological, sociocultural, and economic), and eventual sustainable landscape management and planning. Source: De Groot.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND VALUES

non-material or information services. De Groot’s defines information services as those “non-material, often intangible benefits derived from human interaction with ecosystems, such as inspiration for art, development of ecological knowledge and spiritual health.”4 Cultural values are critical driving forces in nature conservation and ecosystem management but are often difficult to represent in decision-making and policy forming processes. As discussed earlier, the history of the veenweidegebieden is a primary tenant of their characteristics. Heritage is a social, economic, and cultural resource which should be addressed when questioning the authenticity of the veenweidegebieden in regards to their future use.

4

De Groot, p. 121

By using this theoretical framework, the results of this project are therefore objective and may be used to derive development perspectives for the veenweidegebieden in the Deltametropolis. Initially there are many questions: What are the elements of the ecosystem that define and structure the area, and how are they used? What is the socio-cultural makeup and can it harbor different management techniques and structure? Is there economic activity and if so, can it be expanded upon? What historically valuable landscape elements should be preserved and may in the future contribute to the shaping of a new landscape? In terms of planning and management are there limitations or opportunities for landscaperelated development? In order to analyze the perception and valuation of the relationship between rural and urban areas and better understand the possible development perspectives, individual case studies became an appropriate tool for this research. More than any other type of landscape, the historical veenweidegebieden of the Deltametropolis have remained virtually untouched for centuries, providing a comparitive basis from which to analyze multiple examples and form hypotheses on the effect of urban “pressure”: 1. The historical veenweidegebieden near the cities will change significantly in the near future. If the scalingup of agriculture activities is not possible, the future lays in diversity, such as the coupling of farm activities with recreation, local sales to consumers, care functions, and energy production. This will require new forms of management on different levels of governance and from the various stakeholders. 2. The most promising transition comes from the veenweidegebieden themselves. Opportunities and scenarios are currently not mapped out or developed for relations between urban and rural areas. Collectives of farmers can work with urban entrepreneurs and organizations, tapping into new markets in the metropolitan region.

This report will first give an overview of the current trends in rural areas based on the three categories outlined in De Groot’s theory in an effort to test the validity of these hypotheses. It will also include an overview of the current spatial arrangements (i.e. how the Deltametropolis came to be as a result of these three categories) which follows De Groot’s theory. Four development perspectives will be made, outlining possible future uses for these areas given the current trends in ecological, socio-cultural and economic values. In the final sections, the results of one veenweidegebieden case study, the Zouteveensepolder in Midden-Delfland, will be analyzed and classified according to the development perspectives. An analysis is made of the intrinsic qualities of the area through a series of maps which can be found in the middle of this report. A number of factors will be looked at according to the three categories of classification: the natural or intrinsic qualities (soil type, height of the water table, topography), the socio-cultural qualities (residences, cultural heritage, recreation amenities and accessibility) and the economic qualities (land use, landscape objects, location of businesses and services and accessibility).

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND VALUES

farmers supplier

influence or power of stakeholders

retail and processors supplier research institutions

government

non-government organizations

trade

interest of stakeholders

Figure 2: Prioritization of stakeholders in the relationship between rural and urban areas. Source: AgrEE

Further research on this topic will include other veenweidegebieden5 with similar qualities, but potentially different development perspectives. It is the intent that the results of this research will provide a solid basis from which to address the right stakeholders and involving all interested parties from farmers, to non-governmental organizations or municipal, provincial and national levels of government (see figure 2). In this way, a total valuation including the advantages, limitations and opportunities will be communicated and discussed for determining the future use of these areas.

5 Possible case

studies for futher analysis include: Grote Polder/Zoeterwoude, Krommenie Woudpolder/ Zaanstad, Uitgeest, Castricum, and Polder Rijneveld/Boskoop.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: FROM PROBLEM TO OPPORTUNITY

3

From Problem to Opportunity A number of drivers, stakeholders and barriers effect the position of the veenweidegebieden. Based on the De Groot’s theory of ecosystem services the three categories are reviewed along with a brief overview of the history of the spatial arrangement of the Deltametropolis. (1) NATURAL OR INTRINSIC VALUATION OF THE LANDSCAPE After five centuries of pumping and maintenance, the western peat meadows of the Netherlands are in critical distress. As water is pumped out, the peat levels continue to disappear causing the land to dip lower than sea level. The problem is furthered by natural oxidation of the peat, which creates greenhouse gas emissions and accounts for about 2.5% of the total Dutch emissions.6 This problem is irreversible. The spongy ground subsides 0.5-2 meters on average every century, causing problems to the infrastructure, buildings and the inhabitants of these areas. As a seriously flood prone area, the sinking of the soil contributes in certain areas to a safety issue concerning the increased chance of flooding.7 Current changes in the climate also increase the vulnerability of these areas. Three aspects characterize the climate change effects: increase in average temperature, increase in the amount of rainfall and an increase in extreme weather situations. The expected sea level rise provides an imminent problem, making drainage even more complex. And on the other hand, dry periods will cause the sinking to increase further. While raising the water levels can temporarily ease this, the overall availability of water is a critical issue – too much or too little can both lead to problems. In addition the peat meadow areas in the Deltametropolis also serve as sanctuaries for protected bird species and have high ecological value.

6 A. Verhagen, J. Van Den Akker, C. Blok, W. Diemont, J. Joosten, M. Schouten, R. Schrijver, R. Den Uyl, P. Verweij, and J. Wosten, Peatlands and Carbon Flows, p. 7 7 Leonie van Beek and

Wietske Lutz, Feet in the Peat, p. 6

(2) SOCIO-CULTURAL VALUATION The social gap between the urban population and the rural areas is growing through the resistance of citizens to the large-scale farming practices of industrialized agriculture.8 Now more than ever people are concerned about where their food comes from and how it was grown or raised. Moreover, organic products are taking a stronger hold in the marketplace. As these trends continue, an opportunity for small farms to intensify and change their practices will arise. The demographics of those employed in the agriculture sector is also an issue along with the scaling of farms and the decrease in the amount of employees. The number of people employed is lower each year. Currently, only 10% of the population works in agriculture and in 2010, the average age of a person working in the agriculture sector was in the “40-45” age category.9 This number is expected to increase

8 AgrEE, Stakeholder and Driver Analysis on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture Country Report The Netherlands, p. 14

9 CBS Statline for Statisitcs Netherlands, “labor force by region” data, 2012

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: FROM PROBLEM TO OPPORTUNITY

hectares

30

25

sheep horse/pony number (left axis)

tree nurseries

area (right axis)

20

price index

cut flowers

1800

vegatables under glas

1600

fruit

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flower bulbs

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1200

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‘12

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dairy

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Se p ‘ Ja 03 n ‘ M 04 ay Se ‘04 p ‘0 Ja 4 n M ‘09 ay ‘0 Se 9 p ‘ Ja 09 n ‘0 M 6 ay Se ‘06 p ‘0 Ja 8 n M ‘07 ay ‘0 Se 7 p ‘ Ja 07 n ‘ M 08 ay Se ‘08 p ‘

‘10 ‘11

800

meat calves

5

‘09

1000

pigs

10

% of successors

Figure 3: Approximately 2/3 of dairy farmers headed by someone over the age of 55 has a successor. Source: CBS, 2013.

as technology improvements continue to replace actual workers, which will inevitably raise energy consumption levels. Even though the ages are getting higher and the amount of workers is getting lower, there is a surprising number of successors, especially in dairy farming (see figure 3). In 2012 the Central Bureau for Statistics released information stating nearly two thirds of the dairy farms headed by a farmer aged over 55 has a successor lined up. There is a successor available for 71 percent of the large holdings headed by someone over 55,kmand almost 56 percent for mid-sized holdings. These percentages are 90 and 68 percent for dairy farms,50which is considerably higher and provides a positive economic outlook.10 40 This will prove insignificant if the current owner cannot produce for the followers. Due to decreasing 30 20 incomes of livestock farming and higher land prices, land ownership is no longer popular. The price for 10 agricultural land has doubled since 1995, encouraged by the expectation value of the land near urban 0 11 areas. As the bigger farms -10 become bigger and the smaller farms continue to shrink, this will provide a huge challenge (see figure-204). 2

-30

-40

-50 (3) ECONOMIC VALUATION

1900 to 1960

1960 to 1980

1980 to 2006

In the 1960s and 1970s as a result of government intervention, technological innovation and reorganization of agricultural operations, nearly all branches of the agrarian sector witnessed a spectacular increase in production, positioning the Netherlands as one of the three largest exporters of agricultural products in the world.12, 13 For decades, Dutch agriculture has succeeded in maintaining its

120

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enterprises x 1,000

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10 CBS Statline for Statisitcs Netherlands, agriculture “Two Thirds of Dairy nature Farms Has a Successor”, forest web magazine, 2012 built-up 11 R.A.M. Schrijver and H.S.D. Naeff, Concurrentiepositie Melkveehouderij van Midden-Delfland, p. 26

12 Kees Schuyt and Ed Taverne, Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: Prosperity and Welfare 1950, p. 39

sheep 13 This period of overproduction in the tree nurseries 1960s is often termed cut flowers the “Dutch miracle”, vegatables under glas characterized by strong fruit economic growth and job flowercreation. bulbs horse/pony

number (left axis) area (right axis)

arable pigs meat calves poultry goat dairy 0

‘00 ‘01

‘02 ‘03

‘04 ‘05

‘06 ‘07

‘08 ‘09

‘10 ‘11

‘12

0

0

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Figure 4: While the number of enterprises has dropped, the size has increased just as dramatically. Source: CBS.

15

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: FROM PROBLEM TO OPPORTUNITY

lead over international competitors by continually investing in the renewal of agricultural production chains, leading to an extremely high level of expertise, infrastructure, commerce and logistics. As such, the influence of the global economy on the Dutch agricultural sector is extremely significant. The number of farms is decreasing rapidly, leading to the increase in scale (small farms being bought out by large scale operations). Likewise, the number of agricultural companies is lower each year. Between 2000 and 2010 the number saw a 25.7% drop. Greenhouse horticulture experienced the greatest decrease with 48.1%. Of the farms about 58% is managed by an owner who is 50 years or older.14 While the Dutch agriculture sector is made of many different types of activities and exports, dairy farming makes up one of the largest groups, namely in the veenweidegebieden of the Deltametropolis. Currently dairy farming is doing well as a result of high milk prices from consumer demands in Asia and Africa. The Dutch milk company FrieslandCampina is expecting to pay its member farmers a guaranteed price of approximately 36.50 euros per 100 kilogrammes of raw milk for the whole of 2013.15 While it is difficult to make predictions there is a clear upward trend (See figure 5). In the future however, this may not be the case and farmers will have to adjust accordingly. To cope with decreasing incomes scaling-up and further intensification of farms is taking place. High land prices and the pressure from urban areas vying for the same land however hinder this process. Dairy farmers are also threatened by changes in European subsidies through the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). Since the 1960s when the CAP was introduced, farmers have become extremely relient on the aid.16 As of June of this year the EU announced less direct funding for agricultural projects, but rather an encouragement for young farmers to become more entrepreneurial. As subsidies decrease, farmers will be forced into a free market, increasing difficulties for small (hobby) farms and medium-size farms as large-scale operations currently dominate profits. In addition, dairy farming will be forced to take a new direction in addition to concerns about manure use and the put-off of phosphorus gasses. While the environmental efficiency of production in the Netherlands has improved, greenhouse gas emissions and consumption of materials for production have increased.17 With increasing globalization and complex supply chains, emissions embodied in trade are becoming more important in the global impact of consumption.

price index 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200

Se p ‘ Ja 03 n ‘ M 04 ay Se ‘04 p ‘0 Ja 4 n M ‘09 ay ‘0 Se 9 p ‘ Ja 09 n ‘0 M 6 ay Se ‘06 p ‘0 Ja 8 n M ‘07 ay ‘0 Se 7 p ‘07 Ja n ‘ M 08 ay Se ‘08 p ‘0 Ja 8 n M ‘09 ay ‘0 Se 9 p ‘ Ja 09 n ‘ M 10 ay Se ‘10 p ‘1 No 0 v‘ Ja 10 n ‘ M 11 ar ‘ Ja 11 n ‘11 Ju l Se ‘11 p ‘1 No 1 v‘ Ja 11 n ‘ M 12 ar M ‘12 ay ‘12 Ju l Se ‘12 p ‘ No 12 v‘ 1 Ja 2 n M ‘13 ar ‘ M 13 ay ‘1 Ju 3 l ‘1 3

0

Figure 5: World Dairy Price Index from 2003 to 2013. Source: GDT.

14 CBS, “Number of farms and market gardens reduced further”, web magazine, 2012

15 FrieslandCampina, “Guaranteed milk price for 2013 expected to be approximately 36.50 euros”, news release, 2013

16 The CAP was created

as a common policy between the European Union, with the objectives to provide affordable food for EU citizens and a fair standard of living for farmers after the effects of the second World War. The policy was successful until the 1970s when the countries began to overproduce. By the 1990s CAP was taking 60% of the total budget and sparked complaints that the EU was harboring an unfair and protectionist economy. Now the CAP is forced to deal with an unbalanced budget and making reparations for environmental damages caused by large-scale farming. 17 M. van der Voort, H. Schoorlemmer C. de Visser, AgrEE Agriculture & Energy Efficiency, Stakeholder and Driver Analysis on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture Country Report: The Netherlands, 2013, p. 18

16 agriculture nature


5

0

5

0

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT As an urban area, the Deltametropolis has grown in a unique manner, in great part because of the planning policy issued by the national government over the last century. In reaction to the great increase in agricultural productivity, a new landscape model was introduced, wherein land was reparcelled in a more efficient way, leading to the reorganization of more than 100,000 ha of rural land and the construction of new networks of rural roads.18 As a result, agrarian villages were modernized and the sheep horse/pony farms that used to inhabit them were moved to the newly designated agriculture industry areas in the number (left axis) tree nurseries price index countryside. With the introduction of greenhouses shortly afterwards, more productivity could happen area (right axis) cut flowers 1800 vegatables under glas 1600 background. on less land, benefiting urban sprawl and pushing the originally prominent rural areas to the fruit It may be interpreted thatflower thebulbs rural areas contributed to their own demise by boosting the 1400 economy 1200 through overproduction which arable led to urban growth, as eventually urban areas grew at the loss of rural 1000 pigs areas. This growth was aided with the addition of infrastructure networks connecting the major cities in 800 meat calves the early 1970s. The placement in the future poultryof these roads determined the growth of new satellite cities 600 400 goat part of urban growth in the 1970s and 1980s. As the urban and was the catalyst for the great areas grew, 200 dairy pieces of agricultural land (often under private development) began to be taken over by large0 companies 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 or were sold to individual developers. In reaction to the major urban growth in this period, the “Green Heart” in the center of the four major cities came under protection. Even though this area was protected, the land that was under private ownership within could still be sold and built on. Because of this, the Green Heart has been chipped away, the process aided by the departure of farmers due to high priced rural land as a result of pressure from the highly priced urban areas nearby.19

18 Remco van Dijk,

Greenbelts Revisited, p. 41

Se p ‘ Ja 03 n ‘ M 04 ay Se ‘04 p ‘0 Ja 4 n M ‘09 ay ‘0 Se 9 p ‘ Ja 09 n ‘0 M 6 ay ‘ Se 06 p ‘0 Ja 8 n M ‘07 ay ‘0 Se 7 p ‘ Ja 07 n ‘ M 08 ay Se ‘08 p ‘0 Ja 8 n M ‘09 ay ‘0 Se 9 p ‘ Ja 09 n ‘ M 10 ay Se ‘10 p ‘

0

LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: FROM PROBLEM TO OPPORTUNITY

19 Schrijver and Naeff, p. 21

Government restrictions on urban development which once strengthened the fine line between

50

km2

40 30

agriculture

20

nature

10

forest built-up

0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50

1900 to 1960

1960 to 1980

1980 to 2006

Figure 9: Change in surface area in types of land use. Source: CBS

urban and rural areas will now lead to less defined borders. This shift can be seen as part of a larger global trend in which policy is “no longer controlled by a formal government, but is instead subject to negotiations between a wide range of public, semi-public and private actors.”20 In 2012, the Dutch government announced its withdrawal from planning in rural areas, giving jurisdiction to the provinces and municipalities. As a result, national funding for programs such as policy on the Green Heart will be abandoned, along with arrangements for the “Ecologische Hoofdstructuur” and “Recreation Around the City” policy.21 As a result, the maintenance of rural areas will become the financial responsibility of the provinces and other stakeholders with claims in these areas.

20 van Dijk, p. 12

21 Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, 2012

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

4

From Opportunity to Development Perspectives The role of the rural areas in the Deltametropolis has created a genealogy of ecological, socio-cultural and economic characteristics that together forms a complex history, present and future for the Netherlands. While the aforementioned themes present several concerns, certain circumstances will lead to new opportunities for the role of veenweidegebieden of the Deltametropolis. Ecologically, the maintenance of the water level has a negative effect on agricultural productivity. The costs associated with maintaining water levels will continue to increase and water board management will become more complex due to a growing amount of water in the area. More water could have a favorable effect on the nature of the ecosystem, but too much (i.e. a full waterlogging) would reduce the scenic and ecological value. In regard to climate change, the overall effect is considered to be low in the Netherlands.22 Farmers may be able to take advantage of new climate types as increases in temperature could lead to increases in production, but for the most part this will not have a huge effect on the grasslands of the veenweidegebieden. The farms in these areas could intensify and take advantage of the larger production, but this will prove insignificant when compared to the imminent problem of disappearing peat and rising water levels.

22 van der Voort, Schoorlemmer and de Visser, p. 16

Economically speaking, the CAP changes will have a significant effect on the rural areas. While the extinction of farmers and the takeover of urbanization is not the threat, it will mark the end of a topdown, protective economy. While this will be difficult for some farmers to adjust to and may result in their selling-out, it will provide opportunities for small-scale farms to take advantage of their size and tap into the local economy as a niche market. The growing population will play an important role in Dutch agricultural exports as production demands will rise. This will in turn have an effect on food prices which will lead to more revenue for agriculture businesses, namely in the large-scale range. In terms of planning and management, the changes in policy and thus funding will mean less resources to maintain existing nature forcing provincial and municipal governments to reorganize management in these areas. The areas with highest land prices, along the borders of the main cities, will probably be the first to undergo a land use change due to their proximity and accessibility to the cities. Historical monuments and objects of cultural value will come under threat, as cultural value will be raised against economic viability.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

Within the aforementioned forecasts there are four possible development perspectives.23 For areas that may be sustained as agriculture areas, these four development perspectives have been worked out, in which one looks at the global economy (a) and another scenario focuses on the regional economy (b). The third perspective focuses on a more consumer oriented landscape through recreation (c) and the last gives up all formal maintenance of the area (d).

23 The four development

plans are loosely based on the “Four Futures of Europe� model proposed by the Central Plan Bureau. De Mooij, Ruud, and Paul Tang. Four Futures of Europe.

Global farmer (a) Farms increase in size in order to meet market demands from Asia and Africa. Increased agricultural commodity prices will mean more revenues for the agriculture businesses. This leads to investments in energy-efficient storage systems or machinery and investments in land. The investments in additional land will keep the prices of the agricultural land at the current high level or even higher. An energy price increase will translate directly in higher cost prices. The higher energy prices will also trigger energy efficiency in sectors with low consumption, like crop farming. Urban areas will either expand or grow in quality as a result of the increased economy. Urban dwellers will invest in the rural market and more technology research will be put into agriculture development. Infrastructure will be improved to better handle the movement of large machines.

Regional provider (b) Small scaled farming operations are combined with various services for the purpose of serving the region. In exchange for subsidies from the EU, national and provincial levels which tackle the price of land, the farmers will produce for a local market, which caters to the urban areas around it. Quality will be increased and quantity will be kept low, keeping prices at a stable level that ensures a viable future for the area. Infrastructure will be better suited for slow traffic between the urban and rural areas.

Recreational haven (c) A third party purchases the area, which will primarily be used for recreational purposes for the surrounding urban areas. A few farmers (who have united in a large cooperation) will act as managers of the landscape and the various services offered there. The cultural and historical appearance of the landscape will be preserved and restored. Transfer points from car to bicycle will be built along the edges of the green space. The infrastructure within the boundary will be improved making room for recreational walking, cycling and horse-riding paths.

Pure nature (d) As a result of centuries of pumping, the peat has been exhausted and farmers abandon the system of drainage. Farming activities and diversification is abandoned and disappear from the area. The area returns to a marshy swamp, alleviating pressures from potential flooding and used as a overflow area for excess water. The landscape will develop into wild ecosystem with natural developments. Vegetation that belongs to peat soils will return to the landscape and new vegetation as a result of increased salinization will appear. Management of the water levels will cease freeing up funds to municipalities and the area will be designated as a wildnerness area, which may or may not be open to the public.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

The development perspectives offer a glimpse for the future use of the veenweidegebieden in the Deltametropolis, based on their existing qualities and the current trends in agricultural practices. Some farms will scale up, taking over the land from small, hobby farms. The large farms could continue to grow, modernizing and clustering together to further strengthen the Deltametropolis as a worldwide center for farming activities and becoming the new standard for a modern economy. Some farms will continue to sustain themselves in the niche market, meeting the needs of local consumers and nearby urban dwellers. Some farms will be converted into nature areas for recreation, giving the former farmer a new management role. Some will be given over to the urban areas, which will eventually need more space to expand. Whatever the outcome, this mosaic structure of cities and towns separated by a rich variety of landscapes will be unique in international comparison and will have immeasurable value to the Dutch environment, culture, economy and physical landscape.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

5

Zouteveensepolder in Maps For the purpose of this report one case study area, the Zouteveensepolder in Midden-Delfland, was chosen and analyzed based on the valuation qualities (natural / intrinsic, socio-cultural and economic) previously mentioned in chapter 3. The results are presented in this chapter as a series of maps, followed by a written analysis (chapter 6). After a thorough analysis was made, a development perspective was chosen for the case study in an effort to test its potential implementation (chapter 7).

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Rotterdam-Rijnmond and Haaglanden Regions

built-up area (includes all buidlings, greenhouses and industrial areas)

Scale 1:250.000

water roads railways case study Zouteveensepolder

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Zouteveensepolder, Midden-Delfland

built-up area (includes all buidlings, greenhouses and industrial areas)

Scale 1:20.000

water roads railways case study Zouteveensepolder

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Relief in the Area

1. The introduction of the A4 highway introduces a new relief in the landscape. 2. The lowest part of the polder sits almost directly in the middle. This area also features the highest water table. 3. Traces of the river bed arm can be seen in the relief. The placement of historical homes followed these higher elevations.

1

2 3

Map: Menne Kosian, Source: AHN

Scale 1:20.000

Meters above NAP (Normaal Amsterdams Peil) 0 cm

-100 cm -200 cm -300 cm -400 cm

24


LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Soil Type (Lithology) and Water Table Height

1. The northern part of the polder is also peat, but with a base of sand. 2. The soft soil of peat on clay has served as a quality type for growing grassland for grazing animals. 3. The water table is considerably high in this area, sitting just 25 cm below the surface of the soil.

H < 40 L 80-120

1

2 3

clay mixed with peat

Scale 1:20.000

clay on peat on sand light clay peat on clay peat on clay

25


LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Economic Qualities

1. The A4 highway connection will attract more vehicles, although the impact will be minimal considering there is no exit into the polder. 2. There is a high intensity of dairy farms, other agricultural businesses and industry along the southern edge of the polder. 3. The potential consumerism of people living in nearby neighborhoods of Delft Zuid and Schiedam is important to consider.

1

2

dairy farms

3 Scale 1:20.000

agriculture businesses industry other businesses in the area roads

26


LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Cultural and Historical Qualities

1. Historical duck decoy sits untouched in the middle of the polder. It is not currently open to the public. 2. The southern part of the polder features a ribbon of cultural value which has been inturrupted by the creation of a large greenhouse. 3. For its size, the village of Schipluiden has a large number of national monuments (rijksmonumenten), especially along the Gaag river.

3

1

2

national monuments (rijksmonumenten)

Scale 1:20.000

other historical locations high cultural value relative cultural value

27


LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY MAPS

Recreational Qualities 1. Bike route cuts through the polder but is quite dangerous for users as it is shared with cars, large trucks and farm vehicles. 2. The village of Schipluiden, which already attracts many, has a high concentration recreational facilities. 3. The polder is surrounded by three dedicated recreational areas, but unfortunately these are not well connected to each other.

P

2 P

3

1

P

accomodation

Scale 1:20.000

campsite restaurant

P

recreation facility parking high recreation activity bicycle paths

28


LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

6

Zouteveensepolder: The Middle of Midden-Delfland Situated between the urban regions of Den Haag, Delft and Rotterdam, Midden-Delfland has remarkably remained one of the most authentic veenweidegebieden in the whole of the Netherlands. Although the area has been protected since 1978 as a green buffer zone against the encroaching cities and the Westland, the area is under “pressure” from its developed surroundings. With only 5,000 ha of surface area, 84% of the area is under cultivation as farmland for grazing cattle.24 As the the main economic support, dairy farming in this small area is faced with increasing competition from larger companies. The area also struggles with land claims from the surrounding urban area and the glasshouses to the northwest. At the same time, the value of Midden Delfland as a recreational destination is increasing for inhabitants from the nearby cities.

24 Schrijver and Naeff, p. 19

(1) NATURAL OR INTRINSIC VALUATION OF THE LANDSCAPE Between the 10th and 13th centuries the inaccessible swamps of the Zouteveensepolder transformed into usable pasture areas. Trees and shrubs were cut down to make way for ditches, waterways and small roads. During this time, a few settlements were built on the upper creek ridges which offered protection from potential flooding. Even here the water was still a problem, and in the 12th century the buildings were raised on piles to be further away from the water’s harm. After the construction of the dikes and polders in the 13th century, the area became more suitable for permanent occupancy. In the 15th century water management was improved with the construction of embankments and windmills to pump water out.25 This process of dewatering caused a drop in ground level, which revealed a new relief in the landscape, which became the ideal place for farm construction, primarily due to the elevation and accessibility to the waterways which served as supply and delivery routes. Many farmers planted trees to break the wind and for sun protection. While mostly peat, the base is a mixture of clay and sand. The soft soil also served as a quality grassland area for raising livestock. Today the polder remains in relatively the same state. It is ecologically valuable and belongs to the Provincial Ecological Network, namely for serving as a habitat for a large meadow bird population. The polder is binded by two canals, and features a duck decoy which sits in the northern section and was part of the Ecologische Hoofdstructuur. In the southern part a small recreational area has several patches of forest.

25 “Cultuurhistorie van Midden-Delfland”, cultuur.middendelfland. net, web article, 2006

Midden-Delfland must consider water management as part of the robust structure of the southwestern Delta. As in most veenweidegebieden, the water table in the Zouteveensepolder is considerably high, sitting less than 50 cm below the surface level. This natural handicap results in a number of issues for the occupants including less productive grassland, higher maintenance costs and feed costs for the animals,

29


LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

Clockwise from top left, 1850, 1912, 1945 and 1977. Source: watwaswaar.nl

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

and higher waterboard taxes for the municipality as well as upsetting the ecosystem. The area is currently designated as a “problem area” by the European Union and receives compensation from the CAP. The amount does not cover entire loss. In 2010, the average dairy farmer in Midden-Delfland with 41 ha of land paid € 5628 for water charges.26 In the category of rural areas this was by far the highest amount. The area is also under a risk of salinization from salt intrusion by the Maas Delta to the south. By way of the natural estuaries, an ongoing process of salinization of the groundwater could become a greater threat as a result of more extreme periods of drought through non-salt water evaporation.27 As a result of increasing evaporation, the salt water will reach areas with higher water tables first, which is a concern in the case of the Zouteveensepolder.

26 Schrijver and Naeff, p. 19

27 van der Voort, Schoorlemmer and de Visser, p. 6

(2) SOCIO-CULTURAL VALUATION Historically, farmers have managed the area of Midden-Delfland and more specifically the Zouteveensepolder. In 2008, the average age of the head of a dairy farming company was 52, which had raised slightly over an eight year period and was just above the national average (see figure 9, p. 17). Due to its central location in the metropolitan region, a small population and low unemployment there is now a need to increase the number of jobs, however a significant amount of jobs has been lost. Most dairy farmers are members of the dairy cooperative FrieslandCampina. According to Govert van Oord, a project manager AT Groen Goud, an organization that stands for the preservation and strengthening of the valuable cultural landscape of Midden Delfland, “the farmers are used to producing for a world market but are now being urged to produce for a local market. This is difficult, especially with the influence of worldwide dairy companies which come in several times a week to collect the farmer’s milk and send a check at the end of the month. As long as they are employed by these types of companies, farmers will not see the need to become entrepreneurs.” In regards to land ownership, in 2008 68% of the land was under private ownership, 24% was leased and the remaining 8% fell under other forms of exploitation such as share-cropping.28 The nature of these leases in the future is unknown, but it may be assumed that an increasing part will consist of new management forms of a more liberal character. The number of farms has in recent years become smaller as a result of farmers beginning to combine their agricultural services with other activities such as the production and sale of milk, butter and cheese, onsite camping facilities, organizing excursions and other activities which provide additional income, like joining farming practices and education which began in 2010.29

28Schrijver and Naeff,

p. 26

29 middendelfland.net, website, 2006

From the perspective of the metropolitan region, the area of Midden-Delfland provides a huge recreational function. There is substantial room for more intensive forms of recreation. The farmer can manage these new types. The changing ideas about the combination of agricultural and recreational features provide opportunities for farmers in the area. The different developing green and blue services for the region offer an addition to the income of farmers. These methods will only prove profitable however, if the fees are competitive and provide long-term feasibility. (3) ECONOMIC VALUATION The municipality of Midden Delfland distinguishes between the following economic sectors: The agricultural heartland, the sustainable horticulture industrial clusters, and the villages. The Zouteveensepolder is predominantly livestock in the central part of the polder with respect for grassland birds. One glasshouse sits within the boundary of the Zouteveensepolder, but beyond that it is free of large-scale horticulture.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

The agricultural heartland is the domain of the livestock sector, agricultural related businesses and the leisure industry. In 2008 the municipality of Midden-Delfland had 171 active farms, of which 110 with grazing animals and/or pasture and 66 with dairy. The amount of cultivated land was more than 3650 ha, or 84% of the total area. In the same year, 66 farmers in the area used a total of 73% of the cultivated land, while in 2000 it was 75%. The remaining agricultural is used by about 50 others, most being small, grazing livestock farms and greenhouse growers. The government causes a large share of the economic disadvantages for the dairy industry. High water charges, property tax value, and the rental prices in the region complicate the situation. Water body tax is higher because farmers need to contribute to the urban water management systems. The number of dairy farms has not decreased as much as the national average, but farmers have 13% less income than the average Dutch dairy farm, due to less efficiency and premiums. For example, green/blue services such as maintaining the landscape open for birds and recreation, is not sufficiently rewarded. In addition, newly available land on the market is too expensive for the dairy farmers, resulting in a variety of land uses at the city edges.30

Characteristics

2000

30 Schrijver and Naeff,

p. 25

2008

MD

NL

MD

NL

Total companies (index 2000 = 100)

100

100

82

75

Average age of head of company

51.6

51.0

52.3

50.4

Total regularly employed persons / company

2.9

3.5

2.8

2.9

Total regularly employed persons / ha

0.09

0.1

0.07

0.06

Figure 11: Development of the number of regular workers employed on dairy farms and the age of the farmers in Central Delfland and in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008. Source: Alterra Wageningen, 2011.

The biggest issue currently plaguing farmers in Midden Delfland is the price of land, which is generally regarded as the main effect of urban pressure on the area. In 2008, the price for one hectare of land was on average € 30,989.31 The option value32 is high due to urban pressure. In 2010, less than 10 agricultural land transactions were made in Midden-Delfland. The high land prices have led to more short term leases, which are more expensive and unstable (difficult to invest in the farming business on the long term). Large quantities of land have been acquired as nature areas. In turn, they are sometimes leased to farmers, but the yield of grass production is much lower. While two farms in the area have tried to expand by buying more land and obtaining more cows, most of the farms are stuck in the middle sector and will be forced to either sell out, or take up new means of income. This situation is further troubled by the current debt the smaller farms find themselves in. Van Oord explains, “the farms will not discontinue today, but their long-term sustainability is not obvious and future developments will be a serious threat.” The proximity may also hold the dairy farmers greatest strength. While they are economically less viable than their rural counterparts, the farms of Midden-Delfland have an advantage in regard to their positioning relative to the urban environment.

31 Ibid. 32 The “option value” is

the value which sellers think they can get in the future

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

In the northwest corner of the Zouteveensepolder sits the southern edge of the village Schipluiden. Green elements and open grassy spaces integrate the village into the countryside. In addition, the green edge around the village acts as an ecological buffer between the built area and the pasture to the south. As a physical gateway to the agricultural heartland, this village can improve its economic viability by becoming a platform to sell goods from its agricultural backyard. The municipality has currently authorized the use of portions of main buildings within the village boundary to develop at-homerelated professions and small-scale commercial activities (see “economic qualities map”, p. 26). The same principle goes for the recreation area in the southern part of the Zouteveensepolder in regard to the area’s relationship with Schiedam and Rotterdam. PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Spatially Midden-Delfland has been defined by its cultural heritage. In 1977 the “Reconstructiewet van Midden-Delfland” called for the maintainance and preservation of the existing landscape by restricting further contstruction in its open areas as a response to the growing areas of Rotterdam and the glass houses nearby in Westland.33 In 2001, it became a Belvédère area34, furthering its cultural significance. During the restructuring of the parcels, the historic parcel pattern was maintained as well as the small country roads. The open spaces are accentuated by ribbons of farms and the diagonal ribbon of the river Gaag, and the villages Maasland, Schipluiden and Den Hoorn. Its outer boundary is formed by the metropolitan region of Rotterdam, the Hague, Delft, and Schiedam which only intensifies the openness of the grasslands. Together with the help of the A4 highway and the strong growth of Gouda, the area between Zoetermeer, Schipluiden, Schiedam and Rotterdam has seen an explosion of growth along the axis to Amsterdam in the last few decades. Although the infrastructure around the area has improved over the years, the infrastructure through Midden-Delfland and the Zouteveensepolder is not optimal for agricultural traffic or ordinary vehicles. The main road, the N468 along the Gaag canal, has a tonnage limit of 20 tons which presents serious accessibility problems and limitations for farms and their ability to export goods and for companies like FrieslandCampina. The eastern side of the Zouteveensepolder is lined with the construction of the A4 highway connecting The Hague to Rotterdam. Although this road network will cut directly through Midden Delfland, the area will not benefit from its completion, as there will be no exit off of the highway and into the area. The project will not cut through any currently used farmland, but the municipality will receive a compensation totalling to 16 million euro’s that should be used for landscape improvements.35 As the project will be finished in 2014, this year marks an important turning point for the inhabitants of the area. Midden Delfland now finds itself in is the most densely urbanized region in the Netherlands, which currently harbors 1.2 million people.36 The area and municipality of Midden Delfland falls in the province Zuid-Holland. The relationship between municipality and province is often a hurdle to the realization of spatial planning desires.37 As new forms of use arise, this may prove an even greater challenge to reach agreements. One of the major spatial policies from the province is the “Verordening Ruimte” which applies certain limitations on the expansion of agricultural businesses in the area. On the level of the municipality, a new developmentoriented strategy has been introduced which combines the protection of cultural heritage with future spatial developments: to improve the quality of the environment and preservation of the cultural heritage. According to their website, the municipality of Midden Delfland does not support spatial developments, but instead encourages a powerful protection zone for the area in the Randstad Plan 2040.

33 Gemeente Midden Delfland, Twee Keer Midden-Delfland”, mooi. middendelfland.net, web article, 2006 34 An area that culture

historically has an important value for the Netherlands and receives extra attention. Provinces and municipalities are asked to formulate active cultural and historical policies for these areas, aimed at keeping recognizable historical and spatial coherence.

35 Van Oord, personal

interview, 29-07-2013

36 CBS, Statline for Statistics, “Population Statistics by Region” data, 2013 37 Van Oord

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LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

The Zouteveensepolder, looking towards Delft in the top picture and Rotterdam in the bottom picture. Photos: Merten Nefs

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CASE STUDY ZOUTEVEENSEPOLDER

The Randstad Plan 2040 will play an important role in the future of these areas and is worth mentioning in more detail. Established in 2006, the plan’s focus is geared towards strengthening the urban areas of the Randstad to broaden the Netherland’s longstanding reputation as a distribution country.38 In turn, international people will be attracted to the amenities of the urban areas and the spatial qualities of the countryside. One important task of the plan in regards to the Zouteveense polder, is the intention of raising the water level at a number of locations inland from the Maas. Because raising the water level will make agriculture in the area less profitable and increase the risk of flooding, the plan seeks to make up for this loss by creating housing developments on the water. This will help generate funds to implement these measures, while the international community will be attracted to living by the water.

38 Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, 2012

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LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CONCLUSIONS

7

Conclusions Given the data in the previous chapter, Zouteveensepolder would best perform as a regional provider (b). As such, it should tap into the regional economy and sell itself as a quality space away from urban life. The interaction between the local economy and regional economy is a crucial part of this story. A new economic model in which farmers can add to the economy is necessary for a sustainable future of Midden-Delfland. The South Wing of the Randstad has a great economic potential of which the local economy should take advantage. In order to make those opportunities available for Midden-Delfland, several issues must be addressed. First, the cost of land prices should be tackled in order to make it easier for farmers to sustain their businesses. Government bodies need to improve regulations in order to avoid market failure. This process has started but is too slow.39 Second, it should not be imagined that MiddenDelfland could become a (a) global market - There is simply not enough space or productive capacity to keep up with the demands associated with this economic model. Instead, it can thrive as a niche market, serving the inhabitants of Delft, Rotterdam, and The Hague. The success of this new model will come from a better branding of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Midden Delfland image,â&#x20AC;? a local entity that exists to serve the surrounding urban region.40

39 Schrijver and Naeff

40 Van Oord

The agricultural landscape serves several purposes and its preservation should be a focus in the near future. While it is not a powerful production zone and the farmers currently operating also have second means of income, agricultural land is the cheapest form of green space from the perspective of the municipality. The current intensity of farms should be maintained and expanded upon. By making farming activities more productive, the local economy will benefit and the door for diverse activities will be widened. The farmers in Midden Delfland are in a strong position for the provision of a range of social services. While some of the farmers will want to keep their businesses as it is, others may be committed to a better representation of their products in the region or new means of income through diversification. The economy is dependent on the preservation of historical and cultural value in the area. The cultural markers are extremely dependent on the water management. Midden-Delfland can without a doubt be considered prime real estate. For recreation, the landscape is a visual entity and the cultural and historical importance linked to the agriculture in the area is a reason for people to visit. Any recreation amenities should be a second branch of the existing farms as a way into a new economic model for farms. The historical, cultural and physical value of the area is already enough for Midden-Delfland to be considered a valuable landscape.

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LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: CONCLUSIONS

There is also more room for organized events, although small and requiring sponsorship, opening up a new economic opportunity for farmers to take part in. Further, such events will also attract investors to the area, bringing with them funds and increased attention for the area. To keep these qualities alive, they should be invested in through the efforts of different stakeholders, including groups from the urban areas. Currently, the mayor of Rotterdam is very enthusiastic about the relationship between Rotterdam and Midden-Delfland, and the connection between the rural and urban areas is being strengthened through educational programs and through the exchange of local goods through farmer-consumer programs.41 This should be continued, but should also be kept small and local.

41 Van Oord

The resultant economy of such an area as the Zouteveensepolder is not that of market-oriented, commodity-based, short term economy of special interests groups but that of environmental, human, even evolutionary economy of long-term and inclusive community. Thus the economy becomes synonymous to ecology and community. Midden-Delfland is there to serve the city and can only survive in such a role as a landscape where citizens, farmers, city dwellers and nature lovers have the space to live, work and recreate in an economically sound, spacious and natural manner.

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDERS AGAIN: SOURCES

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LET’S TALK ABOUT THE POLDER AGAIN: SOURCES

Landschapontwikkelingsperspectief (LOP) Midden Delfland. Rep. Gemeente Midden-Delfland, 2012. Web. 8 Aug. 2013. “Midden-Delfland is Mensenwerk.” Belvedere.nu. 2006. Web. 14 Aug. 2013. Mooij, Ruud de, and Paul Tang. Four Futures of Europe. Rep. N.p.: Centraal Planbureau, n.d. Print. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research. “A Countryside for All Dutch People,” 2008. Overbeek, Greet, and Ida Terluin, eds. Rural Areas Under Urban Pressure: case studies of urban-rural relationships across Europe. Rep. no. 7.06.01. The Hague: LEI Wageningen UR, 2006. Print. “Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment.” Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Web. 12 Aug. 2013. Pierik, Cor. “Number of Farms and Market Garden Reduced Further.” CBS: Statline for Statistics Netherlands, 26. Sept. 2012. Web. Savini, Federico. “The Governability of National Spatial Planning: Light Instruments and Logics of Governmental Action in Strategic Urban Development.” Urban Studies 50.8 (2013): 1592-1607. Schuyt, Kees, and Ed Taverne. Dutch Culture in a European Perspective. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print. Schrijver, R.A.M. en H.S.D. Naeff, 2011. Concurrentiepositie melkveehouderij Midden-Delfland. Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-rapport 2156 . 34 blz.; 1 fig.; 7 tab.; 24 ref. Stakeholder and Driver Analysis on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture Country Report The Netherlands. Publication. AgrEE Agriculture & Energy Efficiency, 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. Steenbergen, Clemens M., Inge Bobbink, Bert Van Den. Heuvel, and Saskia De. Wit. The Polder Atlas of The Netherlands: Pantheon of the Low Countries. Bussum: THOTH, 2009. Print. Torre, Marta la de, ed. Assessing the values of cultural heritage: Research report. Getty Conservation Institute, 2002. Van Beek, Leonie, and Wietske Lutz. Feet in the Peat. Thesis. Wageningen UR, 2007. Print. Van Der Valk, Arnold. “Preservation and Development: The Cultural Landscape and Heritage Paradox in the Netherlands.” Landscape Research ahead-of-print (2013): 1-16. Van Dijk, Remco. Greenbelts Revisited: Rethinking and Reconfiguring the Spatial Relationship of City and Its Adjacent Countryside in North West European Metropolitan Regions: The Case of the Randstad’s Green Heart. Thesis. TU Delft, 2012. Print. “Veenweidegebieden.” Biodiversiteit.NL. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. Verhagen, A., J. Van Den Akker, C. Blok, W. Diemont, J. Joosten, M. Schouten, R. Schrijver, R. Den Uyl, P. Verweij, and J. Wosten. Peatlands and Carbon Flows. Rep. no. 500102027. N.p., Dec. 2009. Web. 12 Aug. 2013.

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Verschuuren, Bas. “An overview of cultural and spiritual values in ecosystem management and conservation perspectives.” Paper contributed to the International Conference on Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity. 2006. Zeeuw, J. W. De., and Vries Jan De. Peat and the Dutch Golden Age: The Historical Meaning of Energyattainability. Wageningen: Afdeling Agrarische Geschiedenis Landbouwhogeschool, 1978. Print.

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Let's Talk About the Polders Again (2013, Vereniging Deltametropool)