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Lisbeth M Brevik

VOICES

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

in Time 1

bokm책l


LISBETH M. BREVIK

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

VOICES in Time 1


LISBETH M. BREVIK

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

VOICES in Time 1


LISBETH M. BREVIK

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

VOICES in Time 1


© 2005 n.w. damm & søn as © 1996 Christer Bermheden, Matts Winblad, Peter Watcyn-Jones, Staffan Wahlgren, Bonnier Utbildning AB, Stockholm

isbn 978-82-04-09739-2 3. opplag 2008 Basert på

first time Materialet i denne publikasjonen er omfattet av åndsverklovens bestemmelser. Uten særskilt avtale med Cappelen Damm as er enhver eksemplarfremstilling og tilgjengeliggjøring bare tillatt i den utstrekning det er hjemlet i lov eller tillatt gjennom avtale med Kopinor, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. redaktør: Toril Lindberg fagkonsulent: Nora Brox

tekster: Se referanser under hver tekst. Forlaget har forsøkt å komme i kontakt med samtlige rettighetshavere. I de tilfeller vi ikke har klart å oppspore vedkommende, eller vi har oppgitt uriktig kilde, tar vi gjerne i mot rettelser. Thanks to Siren Sundby and Sondre Lerche for their cooperation and goodwill. språkkonsultasjon og fonetisk transkribering: Akasie kurs og veiledning, www.akasie.no

illustrasjoner: ikoner: Trond Topstad. bfg and Jacket cover by Quentin Blake, used by permission of The Random House Group Limited. Miss Trunchbull used by permission of A P Watt Ltd on behalf of Quentin Blake. Crash, jacket cover, illustration ©1996 by Eleanor Hoyt, photograph ©1996 by Stan Ries. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

foto: Scanpix Norge www.scanpix.no (se bildeliste bak) Photograph from the motion picture «Shrek» tm&© 2001 Dreamworks l.l.c., reprinted with permission by DreamWorks Animation

produksjon: formgivning og oppsett: Ligatur AS, Hanne Skulstad, www.ligatur.no formgivning omslag: Tine Winsvold, Damm & søn as trykk og innbinding: Narayana Press, Danmark 2008

www.damm.no


Welcome to Voices in Time! In this book you will find seven chapters. Each chapter has three parts: Platform, Appetizers and Tracks. NB! Dotted line beside the text means “Basic” (easy). “Challenging” & “Demanding” = read all. part 1: platform For everyone to read intro About the topic

text 1 First main text

text 2 Second main text

part 2: appetizers For everyone to choose from Six short appetizers – hints about the six following track texts. Read the appetizers to find out which of the tracks you would like to read.

part 3: tracks Choose between six tracks. Read the tracks you find most interesting: Fiction & Facts, Music & Sport, History & Timelines fiction

fact

music

sport

history

timeline

Discover stories from modern and classic literature.

Sink your teeth into fascinating facts from the Englishspeaking world.

Enjoy lyrics and texts about artists & bands.

Explore texts and poems about sports and athletes.

Find out what happened in British and American history.

Check out Timelines to see when events took place.


contents

voices in time

chapter 1 live language platform 8 intro text 1 Global English 10 text 2 Roald Dahl, The BFG 12 appetizers tracks fiction Roald Dahl, Matilda fiction Terry Deary, Wicked Words music Pop Lyrics sport Disqualified fiction Louis Sachar, Holes time English Timeline

14 16 18 20 22 24 26

chapter 2 cool characters platform 28 intro text 1 Ellen Weiss, SHREK 30 text 2 Hit the Road 32 appetizers tracks fiction Ellen Weiss, SHREK – continued fiction Alice music Madonna, Nobody’s Perfect sport Jerry Spinelli, Crash fiction The Watchman time Cool Timeline

34

36 38 40 42 44 46

chapter 3 fabulous fantasy platform 48 intro text 1 Fantasy Writing 50 text 2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit 52 appetizers tracks fiction J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit -continued facts Tolkien Fever music The Simpsons sport Joanne K Rowling, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix facts BBC News, Do you speak Elf ? time Elf Timeline

chapter 4 platform intro text 1 What is Time? text 2 Kjartan Poskitt,

54

56 58 60

62 64 66

time passes

The Essential Arithmetricks

appetizers tracks fiction Unnoticed fiction Laurell K.Hamilton, Star Trek music Suzanne Vega, Tom’s Diner sport Can We have our Ball back, Please? facts Time Travel time Romantic Timeline

68 70

72 74 76 78

80 82 84 86


voices in time

chapter 5 murder mysteries platform 88 intro text 1 Mystery Writing 90 text 2 Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

appetizers tracks fiction Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident… – continued fiction Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident… – Sherlock Holmes music Michael Jackson, Thriller sport O.J. Simpson, – guilty or innocent? fiction Herbert Harris, The Death of a Tramp time Murder Timeline

92 94

96

98

chapter 6 brilliant brits platform 108 intro text 1 Britain is more than England 110 text 2 The Lonely Child 112 appetizers tracks fiction Charles Dickens, David Copperfield facts Knowing Britain music The Beatles, Penny Lane sport Barry Hines, A Kestrel for a Knave history The Great Fire of London time British Timeline

114

116 118 120 122 124 126

100 102 104 106

chapter 7 amazing americans platform 128 intro text 1 West Side Story 130 text 2 Mark, Tom and Huck 132 appetizers tracks fiction Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn facts Knowing The USA music The Brandos, Gettysburg sport Super Bowl history The Stars are Born time American Timeline

134

136 138 140 142 144 146

vocabulary «Words, Words, Words»

148


live language

In British English you can say, «I haven’t any money.» But in American English you’d say, «I don’t have any money» or «I haven’t got any money.» People don’t think one way is right and one way is wrong – just that they’re different. once upon a time, English was the language of the British Isles.Today English is a global language – spoken by people all over the world. Did you know that English is called the «killer language»? When English spreads, many languages disappear because people all over the world adopt English as their own language. Today around 400 million people have English as their first language. A lot more people use it as a second language, or a foreign language. English is a contact language – which means people use English to be able to contact others, if they do not understand each other’s first language.


in this chapter you can read stories about people around the world who use English – for speaking and writing. Hopefully it will help you find out how you can use the English language – and what you want to improve. Read on to see how important the English language is to you – and to the world.

Some useful words about live language English lyrics > engelske sangtekster live language > levende,aktuelt språk global language > språk som brukes over hele kloden first language > første språk,morsmål second language > andrespråk foreign language > fremmedspråk contact language > kontaktspråk,felles språk to develop a language > å utvikle et språk


text 1

live language

Global English In many parts of the world, English is now regarded as a basic skill,like computer skills,which children learn at an early age so they can study through English later. National Geographic News

READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

The Americans did it. Roald Dahl did it. Joanne K Rowling did it. They created words in English that had never existed before. By doing so they developed the English language. Today people all over the globe use these new English words.

words have power Have you ever heard of ‘mugging’ or ‘muggles’ or ‘muggle-wump’? Well, Americans created the word ‘mugging’ when gangs in New York came up with a new crime. They needed a word to describe this new thing that happened to innocent people in the streets. This happened more than 250 years ago – and we still use the word! Words do have power. Later Roald Dahl created the word ‘muggle-wump’ to describe some monkeys in his book The Twits and Joanne K Rowling created the word ‘muggles’ to describe humans in her Harry Potter books. They all created words they needed and spread them across the globe to those who know English. english & the media New words like these are added to the English language all the time. Norwegian teenagers learn English through the media: listening to English lyrics and the radio, watching English-speaking movies, reading texts in English, playing computer games and using the Internet. About 70% of all Internet content is in English! Thanks to the media, we hear English daily – not only at school.


11

english & travelling Norwegian teenagers think it is important to be able to speak English abroad. Even if they are not travelling to an Englishspeaking country, English is used as a contact language. In fact English has become the most useful language when travelling. Knowing English makes it easier to talk to people – wherever you are in the world!

english & culture British and American pop culture is popular in Norway and we watch Englishspeaking movies more than we watch Norwegian movies. The media brings the world culture into our lives – in English. No wonder our language is influenced by English words! norwegian youth best Norwegian 10th graders are better in English than 10th graders in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Germany, France, Spain and the Netherlands. Norwegian teenagers are very good at understanding spoken English and reading English texts. They also write well in English, and even get a lot of the grammar right! So get your English up to speed, there are more than 1 billion English speakers out there waiting for you!

to develop  å utvikle to influence  å påvirke innocent  uskyldig wherever  uansett hvor


text 2

live language

roald dahl

The BFG Roald Dahl was born in 1916 in Wales.His parents were Norwegian.He is one of the most successful and well-known writers for children. His books include Matilda and The BFG. Roald Dahl died in 1990 at the age of seventy-four. Roald Dahl enjoyed inventing words.That is why his books are famous for their funny language,with new words that you won’t find in your dictionary.

READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

One night, Sophie is taken prisoner by a Giant who carries her away to Giant Country. Not all giants are friendly. Some of them guzzle and swallomp little chiddlers; others gobble up human beans. Luckily for Sophie, this giant is the Big Friendly Giant who lives on snozzcumbers. The BFG spots Sophie when he is out collecting dreams, which he does every night. He collects dreams and then he uses them to make new dreams for people to dream at night. Sophie and the BFG are in his cave, and the BFG is busy writing something.

dreams The BFG, with great care and patience, was printing something on a piece of paper with an enormous pencil. «What are you writing?» Sophie asked him. «Every dream is having its special label on the bottle,» the BFG said. «How else could I be finding the one I am wanting in a hurry?» The letters were printed big and bold, but were not very well formed. Here is what it said: i has ritten a book and it is so exciting nobody can put it down. as soon as you has red the first line you is so hooked on it you cannot stop until the last page. in all the cities peeple is walking in the streets bumping into each other because their faces is buried in my book and dentists is


13 Extract from the bfg Copyright©Roald Dahl Published by Jonathan Cape Ltd Reprinted by permission of David Higham Associates Ltd

reading it and trying to fill teeths at the same time but nobody minds because they is all reading it too in the dentist’s chair. drivers is reading it while driving and cars is crashing all over the country. brain surgeons is reading it while they is operating on brains and airline pilots is reading it and going to timbuctoo instead of london. football players is reading it on the field because they can’t put it down and so is olimpick runners while they is running. everybody has to see what is going to happen next in my book and when i wake up i is still tingling with excitement at being the greatest riter the world has ever known until my mummy comes in and says i was looking at your english exercise book last nite and really your spelling is atroshus so is your puntulashon.

to mind  å bry seg om atrocious  fryktelig tremendous  veldig patience  tålmodighet

the author The BFG expressed a wish to learn how to speak properly, and Sophie herself, who loved him as she would a father, volunteered to give him lessons every day. She even taught him how to spell and write sentences, and he turned out to be a splendid intelligent pupil. In his spare time, he read books. He became a tremendous reader. He read all of Charles Dickens (whom he no longer called Dahl’s Chickens), and all of Shakespeare and literally thousands of other books. He also started to write essays about his own past life. When Sophie read some of them, she said, «These are very good. I think perhaps one day you could become a real writer.» «Oh, I would love that!» cried the BFG. «Do you think I could?» Extract from the bfg, unabridged


appetizers

live language

matilda

fiction

The BFG really needs to work on his spelling and punctuation! But the BFG is not the only Roald Dahl character who finds it hard to spell. In Matilda Roald Dahl created a teacher who hates pupils who cannot spell correctly, and the teacher knows how to punish them…

page 16

wicked words

fiction

Have you ever suffered a spelling test or struggled with grammar? A class of fifteen-year-olds were so bad at English that they had to use whole lessons working on their use of language. Then they were visited by the inspector and learned that words can be quite, quite wicked…

page 18

music

pop lyrics Have you ever thought about the words in the lyrics when you listen to music? Many of Norway’s singers record albums in English – but only some of them are praised abroad. Critics say that 99.99% of all Norwegian artists make mistakes when they sing in English. Maybe it is not so easy to write lyrics in a foreign language?

page 20


15

disqualified In the summer Olympics 2004 the Norwegian sailor Siren Sundby was the favourite to win the sailing medal. Surprisingly she was disqualified from the third race. Was her lack of English words one of the reasons? Siren Sundby claims so.

page 22 sport

fiction

timeline

holes

timeline language

«I want to learn to read and write,» said Zero. He is a criminal, and he never says much. He is at Camp Green Lake, a boy’s prison camp, where the boys spend all day, every day, digging holes. There is no lake at Camp Green Lake. But there are an awful lot of holes. Read Holes and see what happens when Zero asks Stanley to teach him how to read and write.

It is fascinating what time can do to languages. Time has made the English language change over the centuries and spread across the world. But not everything changes with time. Read on for some fascinating facts about the English language through time and find out why English is an official language in several countries across the world…

page 24

page 26


fiction

live language

roald dahl

Matilda Matilda is at school. Once a week the headmistress takes over Matilda’s class. Her name is Miss Trunchbull and she does not like children. Every pupil at school is frightened of her. . She comes into the class to give the pupils a weekly test. She has already thrown one boy across the classroom because he did not know how to spell correctly. Now she turns to one of the other boys in Matilda’s class to check if he knows his English spelling.

to pinch > å klype to squeal > å pipe to hesitate > å nøle to murmur > å mumle to wrench > å vri, å rive av to rub you out > å viske deg ut

to get clever > å prøve å være smart

a forefinger > en pekefinger a thumb > en tommelfinger a firm grip > et godt tak a headmistress > en kvinnelig rektor

an experience > en erfaring aloft > høyt, til værs grimy > grisete, ekkelt indelible > uutslettelig in two large strides > med to lange skritt

the weekly test «What’s your name, boy? And stand up when you speak to me!» The boy stood up. «My name is Eric Ink, Miss Trunchbull,» he said. «Eric what?» the Trunchbull shouted. «Ink,» the boy said. «Don’t be an ass, boy! There’s no such name!!» «Look in the phone book,» Eric said. «You’ll see my father there under Ink.» «Very well, young man, but let me tell you something. You’re not indelible. I’ll very soon rub you out if you try getting clever with me. Spell what.» «I don’t understand,» Eric said. «What do you want me to spell?» «Spell what, you idiot! Spell the word ‘what’!» «W … O … T,» Eric said, answering too quickly. There was a nasty silence. «I’ll give you one more chance,» the Trunchbull said, not moving. «Ah yes, I know,» Eric said. «It’s got an H in it. W … H … O … T. It’s easy.» In two large strides the Trunchbull was behind Eric’s desk, and there she stood, a pillar of doom towering over the helpless boy. Eric glanced fearfully back over his shoulder at the monster. «I was right, wasn’t I?» he murmured nervously. «You were wrong!» the Trunchbull barked. «In fact you strike me as the sort of poisonous little pockmark that will always be wrong! You sit wrong! You look wrong! You speak wrong! You are wrong all round! I will give you one more chance to be right! Spell ‘what’!»


tracks

Eric hesitated. Then he said very slowly, «It’s not W … O … T, and it’s not W … H … O … T. Ah, I know. It must be W … H … O … T … T.» Standing behind Eric, the Trunchbull reached out and took hold of the boy’s two ears, one with each hand, pinching them between forefinger and thumb. «Ow!» Eric cried. «Ow!» You’re hurting me!» «I haven’t started yet,» the Trunchbull said briskly. And now, taking a firm grip on his two ears, she lifted him bodily out of his seat and held him aloft. Like Rupert before him, Eric squealed the house down. From the back of the class-room Miss Honey cried out, «Miss Trunchbull! Don’t! Please let him go! His ears might come off !» «They’ll never come off,» the Trunchbull shouted back. «I have discovered through long experience, Miss Honey, that the ears of small boys are stuck very firmly to their heads.» «Let him go, Miss Trunchbull, please,» begged Miss Honey. «You could damage him, you really could! You could wrench them right off !» «Ears never come off !» the Trunchbull shouted. «They stretch most marvellously, like these are doing now, but I can assure you they never come off !» Eric was squealing louder than ever and pedalling the air with his legs. Matilda had never before seen a boy, or anyone else for that matter, held aloft by his ears alone. Like Miss Honey, she felt sure both ears were going to come off at any moment with all the weight that was on them. The Trunchbull was shouting, «The word ‘what’ is spelled W … H … A … T. Now spell it, you little wart!» Eric didn’t hesitate. He had learned from watching Rupert a few minutes before that the quicker you answered the quicker you were released. «W … H … A … T», he squealed, «spells what!» Still holding him by the ears, the Trunchbull lowered him back into his chair behind his desk. Then she marched back to the front of the class, dusting off her hands one against the other like someone who has been handling something rather grimy. Extract from matilda Copyright©Roald Dahl Published by Penguin Books Ltd Reprinted by permission of David Higham Associates Ltd

17


fiction

live language

terry deary

Wicked Words Once upon a time there was a class of fifteen-year-old boys. They were not very good at English. In fact, they were not much good at anything – but they were worse at English.

a poem > et dikt a lesson > en lærdom a meaningful poem > et meningsfylt dikt

an inspector > en inspektør på en skole

the meaning of life > meningen med livet

spelling corrections > stavefeil

noses dribbling > rennende, dryppende neser

to grin > å glise to be terrified > å være vettskremt

to offer any advice > å gi noen råd

if I may > hvis jeg kan få lov where you are going wrong > hva du gjør feil

in a commanding voice > med høy og tydelig stemme

having a bad spell One day an inspector walked into the classroom. The teacher was terrified (inspectors have this effect on teachers). «What are they doing?» the inspector asked. «Um … er … oh … er … English!» the poor teacher babbled. «Ahhh!» the inspector sighed. «The beauties of our language. I used to be an English teacher myself, before I escaped from the classroom,» he grinned. The teacher swallowed hard. There’s nothing worse than an exteacher telling you where you are going wrong. «They’re not very good,» the teacher explained. «Let me look. I’ll see if I can offer any advice,» the inspector offered and began to walk around the classroom looking over the shoulders of the pupils. He stopped at Gary’s desk. He leaned forward. «What’s your name, son?» he asked. «Sniff! …Gary,» the boy said. (He was pleased because that was the first question he’d got right this week.) «May I read this to the rest of the class?» the inspector smiled. «Sniff! … You what?» Gary said and used his sleeve instead of a handkerchief. «This poem. I want to read it to the class, if that’s all right with you.» «Sniff! … But …» Gary began to explain. The inspector wasn’t listening. He picked up the book and turned to the class. «Listen everyone. Put your pens down, stop writing and listen.» The boys turned and looked at this strange man. Mouths hung open and the only sound was of noses dribbling.


tracks

«Gary here has written a poem. A quite beautiful poem, I think, about the meaning of life. It is a lesson to all of us. I want to read it to you, if I may.» The man walked to the front of the class. He held up the exercise book and read in a commanding voice. «Yesterday, yesterday, yesterday Happiness, happiness, happiness Today, today, today, Misery, misery, misery. Tomorrow, tomorrow, tomorrow… Death … death … death!» The man’s voice had sunk to a whisper by the end. He passed the book gently back to Gary. «A wonderful, meaningful poem, Gary.» «Sniff!» Gary sniffed. «It’s not a poem, sir … them’s me spelling corrections!»

Extract from horrible histories: wicked words text copyright © Terry Deary 1996. Published by Scholastic Children’s Books . All rights Reserved. Reproduced by permission of Scholastic Ltd.

19


music

live language

Pop Lyrics Music flows out of the headphones. The rhythm grabs hold of us. The lyrics fill our thoughts with words of love and hate, sad situations and special moments. Sometimes we listen to the lyrics even more than the sound and the rhythm. Lyrics make us think, and even sing along, with or without knowing the exact words.

english lyrics Often the lyrics we listen to are in English. English words seem to find the right expression, the right rhythm and the right sound. Norwegian words may sound too hard or too obvious. It may seem easier to make English words sound poetic.

to praise > å rose to flow > å strømme to review > å anmelde to pronounce > å uttale to focus on > å fokusere på to sound poetic > å høres poetisk ut

to get the meaning across > å få fram meningen

lyrics > sangtekster a sound > en klang weakness > svakhet fairly good > ganske bra too obvious > for tydelig no guarantee > ingen garanti meaningful words > betydningsfulle ord

millions of words The English language has more than 2 million words to choose from. For a Norwegian it may be easier to focus on the sound and the rhythm of the words – instead of the meaning. The result is not always correct English. nonsensical lyrics? One of the world’s greatest music magazines, rolling stone, reviews music. They have praised Norwegian artists for their voices and for their music. However, the magazine has questioned so-called «nonsensical» lyrics, which means that the lyrics make no sense in English. a better english teacher What can Norwegian artists do in order to write better English lyrics? The rolling stone magazine once suggested finding a better English teacher. The Norwegian newspaper dagsavisen might have taken rolling stone at their word. They asked an English teacher to look at English lyrics – not only one, but ten Norwegian artists’ lyrics were reviewed.


tracks

fairly good Ten songs were chosen – ten different lyrics. The teacher was not impressed. He found the same as the rolling stone – that even though the English lyrics sound good, the meaning is not always as good as the music. Norwegians speak English well; we know many words, we spell them correctly, but we do not quite grasp the meaning, or value, of the words. We tend to «play it safe», Dagsavisen reported. sondre lerche The song «wet ground» by Sondre Lerche was one of the reviewed lyrics. Guess what – the English teacher found «wet ground» to be quite good! Lerche has been compared by rolling stone to artists like David Bowie, the Beach Boys, Steely Dan and Prefab Sprout. wet ground Music & lyrics: Sondre Lerche

Wet ground and the snow is still not falling Circumstances are alarming, darling The future is just a word, that's how I recall it The past is much more present in our yawning But I heard you right Something was lost from the start Oh babe, what should we do, what should we say? Should we give it away? First two verses of the lyrics to wet ground

english – a foreign language Norwegian songwriters may need to work on their English lyrics. At the same time, some of their lyrics are not bad at all. It is only natural that writing in a foreign language is a challenge. It should be. It may also be the only way for their music to reach beyond Norway – a lot more people understand English lyrics than lyrics in Norwegian.

21


sport

live language

Disqualified In 1896 the first Olympic games in modern times was held in Athens, Greece. One hundred and eight years later in 2004 the Summer Olympics was again held in Athens. There are many different events in the Olympic games. One of them is the women’s single-handed dinghy: one woman sailing alone in a small boat in a race. In 2004, Norway’s favourite in this event was 21-year-old Siren Sundby. She won the first races. People started talking about the gold medal. Then she was disqualified. They said her English was not good enough. Was she about to lose the gold – because of English?

Olympic games > olympiske leker (OL)

events > (olympiske) grener single-handed dinghy > europajolle

to avoid > å unngå to claim > å hevde / å si to participate in > å delta i to make contact

the favourite The last 14 months before the Olympics, Siren Sundby had won every race she participated in. She had been the best sailor in her class and was the favourite to win the sailing medal in the Olympics. the race A total of 11 races make up the Women’s Europe (single-handed dinghy). Siren Sundby won the first two races. But in the third race she was knocked out of the lead. As the third race began, three boats made contact: Norway, Belgium and the Netherlands. They collided and had to break free from each other.

> å få kontakt

to rule against > å dømme imot to act illegally > å opptre ulovlig to be disqualified > å bli diskvalifisert

to be knocked out of the lead > å bli slått ut av ledelse

a hearing > en høring a technical term > et faguttrykk

an explanation > en forklaring despite > på tross av

the protest After the race, Belgium and the Netherlands protested. They said that Siren Sundby had acted illegally when breaking free after the collision. Siren Sundby did not agree. She claimed that she had done nothing wrong. She said her rivals were desperate because of her lead and had made up the story. The problem was that Siren Sundby was not believed. She explained her point of view, but it did not seem to matter. the hearing – in english There was a hearing. The hearing was in English, since it was a common language for the sailors. The sailors from Belgium and the


tracks

Netherlands gave their explanations. Siren Sundby gave hers. She had never been in such a hearing before and she had not prepared herself well enough for this kind of situation. Despite her explanation, the jury did not believe her. They ruled against her after the hearing. The Netherlands’s Carolijn Brouwer was ten years older than Siren Sundby. She had experience from hearings like this and was believed.

technical terms Afterwards Siren Sundby said that her English was not good enough. She claimed that her use of English was simply not good enough to have a discussion in English. The point is, she said, that special technical terms were used in the hearing – technical terms she did not know well enough in English. next time Siren Sundby claimed that her lack of English technical terms was the main reason why she was not believed. She was taken by surprise this time, but will not make the same mistake again. For the next Olympic Games she will be prepared – in English. The protest could really have cost her the gold medal… the final race Luckily, Siren Sundby was in second place despite the disqualification. She sailed extremely well in the last eight races. She only needed to avoid disqualification in the last race to get the silver medal. To win the gold she only needed to finish better than 21st. Siren Sundby proved why she was the favourite to win the sailing medal. After a very long event, she sailed in as number nine in the final race. That was good enough! Siren Sundby sailed in to Olympic gold in Athens in August 2004. She won the 11-race event.

23


fiction

live language

louis sachar

Holes We are at Camp Green Lake, a boy’s prison camp in the middle of a Texas desert. This is where Stanley spends the summer because of a crime he didn’t commit. When Zero asks Stanley to teach him to read and write, Stanley first says «Sorry», but then he changes his mind...

chapter 22 Do you know the alphabet?» Stanley asked.For a second, he thought letter > her: en bokstav he saw a flash of defiance in Zero’s eyes, but then it passed. (også: brev) «I think I know some of it,» Zero said. «A, B, C, D.» a flash of defiance «Keep going,» said Stanley. > et glimt av trass Zero’s eyes looked upward. «E …» a small ‘a’, a lowercase ‘a’ «F,» said Stanley. > liten a (liten bokstav) a capital ‘A’, «G,» said Zero. He blew some air out of the side of his mouth.«H…I…K, P.» an uppercase ‘A’ «H, I, J, K, L,» Stanley said. > stor A (stor bokstav) «That’s right,» said Zero. «I’ve heard it before. I just don’t have it a boy’s prison camp memorized exactly.» > et ungdomsfengsel for gutter «That’s all right,» said Stanley. «Here, I’ll say the whole thing, just to divide > å dividere, å dele to kind of refresh your memory, then you can try it.» to multiply He recited the alphabet for Zero, then Zero repeated it without a > å multiplisere, å gange single mistake. to add > å addere, Not bad for a kid who had never seen Sesame Street! å legge sammen, å plusse «Well, I’ve heard it before, somewhere,» Zero said, trying to act like to figure out > å regne ut, å finne ut it was nothing, but his big smile gave him away. The next step was harder. Stanley had to figure out how to teach to realize > å innse him to recognize each letter. He gave Zero a piece of paper. The paper to recite > å gjengi to be amazed wasn’t lined, which made it more difficult, but Zero’s A wasn’t bad, > å bli overrasket just a little big. Stanley told him he needed to write smaller, or else to memorize exactly they’d run out of paper real quick. Zero printed it smaller. > å lære utenat «Actually, there are two ways of writing each letter,» Stanley said, to recite the alphabet as he realized this was going to be even harder than he thought. «That’s > å gjengi alfabetet a capital A. But usually you’ll see a small a. You only have capitals at the to refresh your memory > å friske opp hukommelsen din beginning of a word, and only if it’s the start of a sentence, or if it’s a proper noun, like a name.» it passed > det gikk over Zero nodded as if he understands, but Stanley knew he had made Sesame Street > Sesam stasjon (barne-tv program) very little sense.


tracks

He printed a lowercase a, and Zero copied it. «So there are fifty-two,» said Zero. Stanley didn’t know what he was talking about. «Instead of twenty-six letters. There are really fifty-two.» Stanley looked at him, surprised. «I guess that’s right. How’d you figure that out?» he asked. Zero said nothing. «Did you add?» Zero said nothing. «Did you multiply?» «That’s just how many there are,» said Zero. Stanley raised and lowered one shoulder. He didn’t even know how Zero knew there were twenty-six in the first place. Did he count them as he recited them? He had Zero write a few more upper- and lowercase A’s, and then he moved on to a capital B. This was going to take a long time, he realized. «You can teach me ten letters a day,» suggested Zero. «Five capitals and five smalls. After five days I’ll know them all. Except on the last day I’ll have to do twelve. Six capitals and six smalls.» Again Stanley stared at him, amazed that he was able to figure all that out. Zero must have thought he was staring for a different reason, because he said, «I’ll dig a part of your hole every day. I can dig for about an hour, then you can teach me for an hour. And since I’m a faster digger anyway, our holes will get done about the same time. I won’t have to wait for you.» «Okay,» Stanley agreed. As Zero was printing his B’s, Stanley asked him how he figured out it would take five days. «Did you multiply? Did you divide?» «That’s just what it is,» Zero said. «It’s good math,» said Stanley. «I’m not stupid,» Zero said. «I know everybody thinks I am. I just don’t like answering their questions.»

Excerpt from holes by Louis Sachar Copyright©1998 by Louis Sachar. Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, LLC

25


timeline

live language

English Timeline Languages change – for many reasons. One reason is when invaders come along and bring their language with them…

romans First, the Romans took Britain in AD 43. They spoke Latin – and they left a few Latin words behind when they left Britain four hundred years later…these words were adopted by the British (and are still in use today). angles Then, the Angles (not the ones with wings) invaded Britain in 449. They made it Angle-land – England. Of course they brought their language with them – but their language is so old that we now call it Old English. native language > morsmål official language > offisielt språk

a poem > et dikt a play > et skuespill a reason > en grunn, en årsak a character > en karakter, en person

an invader > en som tar et land og styrer det

to develop > å utvikle to invade > å invadere to settle > å bosette seg to discover > å oppdage several > mange across the world > over hele verden

British colonies > britiske kolonier

vikings England must have been a nice country – for the country was invaded again… In 787 the Vikings came, and they were no different than the other invaders – they brought their own language, too. The Vikings came and the Vikings went, but their words live on in the English language. normans In 1066 the Normans brought the horrible man William the Conqueror – and their French language – and conquered England. I guess you understand now why there are French words in the English language. english But, make no mistake about it, by 1250 the English language had won – even if the invaders left some words behind… william shakespeare This is one of the ways the English language has changed. Another way is to make up new words – like the author William Shakespeare did. He lived from 1564 to 1616. He used 17,677 different words in his poems and plays and about 1,700 of them were new! He certainly changed English.


tracks

In the 1600s the British wanted to play the same game – and became the invaders. They took countries and made them british colonies. Of course they brought their language with them – and spread English across the world.

america In 1607 the first British settlers came to America. When they found new things, they created new words – for plants, animals, jobs, inventions, and even new crimes. They also adopted some American Indian words. Today their language is called American -English. india In 1763 the British took over India and made it a colony, but gave English to the Indians in India. English is still an official language in India, even though India became independent from England in 1947. australia The British invaded Australia in 1770. But they did not come emptyhanded, they brought with them English criminals – and their English language. Today most Australians speak Australian-English. south africa In 1795 South Africa was taken and even though the British don’t rule South Africa any longer, English is still an official language there. roald dahl Exactly three hundred years after William Shakespeare died, a new writer who made new words was born. His name was Roald Dahl. He lived from 1916 to 1990 and wrote texts with funny words in them. He invented a lot of words, especially names of things and characters. This is how the English language has changed and become the way it is today. People still move from one country to another and when they do, they bring their language with them. Sometimes that language is English.

27


cool characters

Dan isn’t my boyfriend. ok, ok, he’s fun. And I have a good time with him. And I can say all sorts of stuff to him. And though he’s a hopeless nerd he’s also brave. And quick-witted. And imaginative. And it doesn’t really matter one hundred per cent if he looks stupid. Anyway, I’m hardly some Pamela Anderson type pin-up. He’s not cool. But maybe the truly cool guy doesn’t care if he’s cool or not. From «girls in love» by Jacqueline Wilson (1991)

what does it mean to be cool? It is not always easy to decide. Are people cool because of their personality, because of what they do and say or because of their looks? The word «character» means any kind of person – both real and fictional. What do you think it takes to be a cool character?


in this chapter you will find stories about cool characters, but it is up to you to decide if being cool is positive or negative. It is not always easy to tell and your friends may not agree with you. Hopefully you can learn how to characterize some cool characters along the way.

Some useful words about characters

cool

cool > kul,kjølig un-cool > ukul,ikke kul a character > en karakter,en person looks > utseende behaviour > oppførsel personality > personlighet insensitive > ufølsom impolite > uhøflig wonderful > fantastisk cheerful > i godt humør handsome > kjekk beautiful > vakker reality > virkelighet fiction > fantasi,skjønnlitteratur


text 1

cool characters

ellen weiss

SHREK Shrek is a computer-animated film (2001). It parodies fairytale stories, classic Disney films and modern films. Shrek was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature (2002). Shrek has also been made into video games.

READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

SHREK is a story about a beautiful princess in a castle who waits for a prince to save her from a dragon. SHREK is also about an evil lord, a talking donkey and a green ogre.

you gotta have friends Shrek looked down at Donkey. Donkey looked up at him, not quite sure what to make of the ogre. Then the guards rounded the corner, screeching to a halt at the sight of Shrek. Donkey lost no time in darting behind the ogre. He’d already decided he’d much rather take his chances with the big green guy than with the guards. «You there,» said the captain, just a bit nervously. «Ogre.» «Yeah?» Shrek responded. «By the order of Lord Farquaad,» said the captain, looking more and more uncomfortable, «I am authorized to place you both under arrest and transport you to a designated resettlement facility.» Shrek looked down at him. «Oh, really? You and what army?» The captain looked behind him, only to find that his men had deserted him. A terrified look spread across his face. Shrek just smiled. The captain gasped and turned in retreat. As the captain ran off into the forest, Shrek shrugged and headed back towards his home, taking not the slightest notice of Donkey. But Donkey was no fool either. He smiled at his new hero and decided to follow.

screeching to a halt  bråstoppe unaware of  ikke oppmerksom på summoned up his nerve  tok mot til seg a designated resettlement facility  et nytt bosted


31

Shrek continued on his way, unaware of the fact that the little donkey was following at a distance behind him. Finally Donkey summoned up his nerve and spoke. «Can I say something to you?» he said. «Listen, you were really, really something back there! Incredible!» Shrek stopped and turned, a little annoyed. «Are you talking to me?» he said. But Donkey was now gone. «Good,» Shrek thought. He didn’t need an annoying talking donkey hanging around. Shrek turned to continue on his way. And there was Donkey, right in front of him, beaming. Donkey talked fast. «Yes! I was talkin’ to you. Can I just tell you, you were really great back there, man, those guards, they thought they were all that! Then you showed up and … bam! They were tripping over themselves, crying like babes in the woods. It really made me feel good to see that.»

«That’s great,» said Shrek with complete disinterest. «Really». Donkey was really warming up now. «Man, it’s good to be free,» he said, stretching a little. Shrek looked straight at him. «Why don’t you go celebrate your freedom with your own friends?» he said. It was not a suggestion. «But, uh … I don’t have any friends. And I am not going out there by myself. Hey, wait a minute. I got a great idea. I’ll stick with you. You’re a mean, green fighting machine. Together we’ll scare the spit out of anybody who crosses us!» Shrek was finally fed up. He stopped and heaved a deep sigh. Why did he have to keep doing the ogre thing? Then he turned on Donkey and roared, waving his arms, doing the ogre act that he generally did to scare off unwanted visitors. Excerpt from shrek TM & © 2001 Dream Works Reprinted by permission of DreamWorks L.L.C

To be continued in Track Fiction!


text 2

cool characters

Hit the Road! Am I nerdy? Am I cool? Am I awful? Do I rule? Am I great or do I stink? Mirror, mirror by the sink. From the poem Mirror, Mirror by the Sink By Linda Knaus and Kenn Nesbitt

It was biting cold when old George and his wife Martha left the post office and started to cross the street. As they stepped down from the sidewalk, a very big car suddenly screeched to a halt in front of them. The driver, a sloppy young man wearing a big, red jacket, looked at them from the open side window. He had stubble and was wearing sunglasses. Before he spoke, he threw a cigarette butt in the gutter.

driver Hey, you! Where’s Grinder’s, the big car spare parts store? george Well, I think … driver Don’t think. Just tell me. Do you know, or don’t you? george Well, no, I … martha I know where it is, George! One of my friends lives not far from there. Young man, are you familiar with our town? driver No, never been here before, thank God. What a dump! And I want a gas station, too. Only got a few drops left. READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

martha All right. But you’ll have to turn around and drive back up the road until you get to the park. driver Yeah? And then? martha Then you turn left into Bradley Street. Go straight on past the traffic lights.


33

george But, Martha, I don’t think there’s a … driver Shut up, Grandpa, and let her explain! I haven’t got all day. So where to after the traffic lights? martha Well, turn right, then two miles up Hoadswood Road there’s a gas station … driver Two miles! What kind of town is this? I’ll run out of gas! george Martha, are you really sure … driver Didn’t I tell you to shut up? Now, where do I go from the gas station? martha Well, Grinder’s is not very far from there. Just turn right at the round about and drive along Park Road until you reach the bridge. Turn left there and you’ll find Grinder’s on your right, several hundred yards down the road, next to the church.

driver So I turn round here, then left at the park, past the traffic lights, then right up … martha … Hoadswood Road … driver … to the round about. Then right, left at the bridge, and then … Damn this lousy town! With that he spat out of the window, made a quick U-turn and roared up the street. george Martha, honey. Is there really a big store on the other side of town? martha No, of course not, George. And there’s not a single gas station out there. Just desert. Grinder’s, by the way, is just round the corner, opposite the bank. You can almost see the sign from here. george Well, aren’t you something! It sure serves him right. I’d love to see his face when he runs out of gas in the middle of nowhere! Come on, honey. Let’s go and have a hamburger or two. ©1996 Bonnier's Time

a round about  en rundkjøring turn left  sving til venstre turn right  sving til høyre to be familiar with  å kjenne til


appetizers

cool characters

shreK

fiction

(Continued from Text 1) Has the mean, green fighting machine scared Donkey off ? Sometimes it seems cool to be unfriendly. But does it make you less cool if you’re nice to a person who wants to become your friend? Read more about Shrek and Donkey in You Gotta Have Friends. Are any of them «cool characters»? What do you think?

page 36

alice Sometimes it seems cool to wear the latest fashion. It may make you less cool if you have an uncommon style. It is not always easy to fiction wear different kinds of clothes, you can be left out by others. Read Alice and find out what Alice and the girls at her school think about fashion. Who do you think are the cool characters in this story?

page 38

music

madonna Madonna is a megastar. She has done it all. She is a singer, a songwriter, a composer, a producer, an author, a model, a mogul and a movie star. There is nothing, it seems, she hasn’t tried, at least once. She even has one thing in common with US president George W. Bush – they have both been cheerleaders in high school. She was cool in the 1980s, and she is still cool!

page 40


35

crash Crash Coogan is star of the football team. He has huge shoulders and a smallish brain. He thinks he’s cool and he is ready for the football season. Sometimes it seems cool to be good at sports. But does it make you less cool if you’re not into sports? Read about the mighty Crash Man in Crash. sport

page 42

fiction timeline

the watchman

cool timeline

Sometimes it seems cool to break the rules or to break the law. It is not always easy to say «no» to friends. It may make you less cool if you don’t want to go along with something, even if you know it is illegal. Read The Watchman about some youngsters planning something in the dark of night, and a watchman who wants to stop them…

It is fascinating what time can do to being «cool». Some people who were cool 50 years ago are still cool. Others have lost it completely. Time passes and what is «cool» might change, but it doesn't have to. Read on to see who you think are cool people in sports, film, music and television…

page 44

page 46


fiction

cool characters

ellen weiss

SHREK

– continued

Does being unfriendly have anything to do with being cool? Is it cool to turn away from a person who wants to become your friend? Do «cool» and «rude» go together? Does it make you un-cool if you are polite and nice?

gotta > slang for «got to have» to fool around > å tulle to gather steam > å «gire» seg opp

to get the job done > å få ordnet det

to be at a loss > å ikke vite hva man skal si

sincere > ærlig (om følelser) enthusiastic > entusiastisk, ivrig

somehow > på en eller annen måte

as best he could > så godt han kunne

as fast as possible > så raskt som mulig

cannot possibly mean > kan da ikke mene

speechless with horror > målløs av skrekk

you have got to have friends > du trenger venner if you don’t mind me saying so > hvis det er greit at jeg sier det

you gotta have friends But Donkey was different from the others. Somehow, Donkey seemed to have decided that Shrek was his hero. And of course, as his hero, he couldn’t possibly mean that scary stuff. He must be just fooling around. «Oh, wow!» Donkey said, still talking as fast as possible. «That was really scary. And, if you don’t mind me saying, if that doesn’t work, your breath certainly will get the job done. ‘Cause you definitely need some Tic-tacs or something, ‘cause your breath stinks! Man! You almost burned the hair off my nose. Just like the time –» Shrek grabbed Donkey’s muzzle and held it shut. But that didn’t stop Donkey. «– mime mi benb binbo be moods manm mi mied bo mgo,» he continued as best he could. Shrek was at a loss. This had never happened to him before. He let go and tried to walk away. But Donkey just kept talking, following along behind him. «– and then I ate some rotten berries,» he was yammering. «Man, I had some strong gases eking out of my butt that day…» Shrek could not take it for one more second. He spun around to face Donkey. «Why are you following me?» he demanded. «I’ll tell you why.» And with that, as Shrek looked on, speechless with horror, Donkey burst into song: «You gotta have friends –» Donkey was really gathering steam now, but Shrek cut him off. «Stop singing!» he yelled. Donkey closed his mouth in shock. «Well, it’s no wonder you don’t have any friends!» Shrek continued.


tracks

Donkey looked at Shrek for a moment, considering these words. For a second, it looked as if he was startled enough to actually shut up. But no. He was Donkey. «Wow!» he said enthusiastically. «Only a true friend could be that cruelly honest.» «Listen, little donkey,» said Shrek, looking down at the Donkey, whose head came up to about waist-level on the ogre. «Take a look at me. What am I?» Donkey craned his neck to look up at Shrek’s face. «Ahhh, really tall?» he guessed. «No! I’m an ogre! You know, as in «grab your torch and pitchforks!» Doesn’t that bother you?» «Nope,» replied Donkey. «Really?» said Shrek, a little surprised. «Really, really,» Donkey assured him, sounding incredibly sincere. Shrek was suddenly disarmed. He wasn’t used to anyone looking deeper than his ugly green skin. «Oh …?» «Man, I like you. What’s your name?» asked Donkey. «Ahh … Shrek,» said the ogre hesitantly. Then he turned and continued on his way. This, finally, almost shut Donkey up. «Shrek?» he said at last, trying to absorb this unfortunate name. But he was not to be daunted, not even by a name like Shrek. He shook it off. «You got that kind of ‘I don’t care what anybody thinks of me’ thing. I like that, I respect that, Shrek. You’re all right.» Excerpt from shrek TM & © 2001 Dream Works Reprinted by permission of DreamWorks L.L.C

the

37


fiction

cool characters

Alice Do looks and fashion have anything to do with being cool? ? Is it cool to choose a style different from everyone else? Do you think peer pressure makes it difficult to disagree with your friends. Do «cool» and «clothes» go together? How important do you think it is to be cool? Is it cool to dress and look like your friends? It was in the middle of November when Alice came to our school in Vancouver, Canada. She was nearly as tall as me and she had her long hair tied up in a pony tail. as tall as > like høy som old-fashioned > gammeldags

«out of place» > «ute» (gjelder mote)

from far away > langt borte fra

peer pressure > gruppepress an opinion > en mening a pony tail > en hestehale a style > en stil (her: klesstil) a pair of joggers > et par joggesko

a load of rubbish > «drittprat», baksnakking

a straight A-student > en elev med toppkarakterer

to envy > å misunne to dress > å kle på seg to go bright red > å rødme to stand out > å skille seg ut to put up with > å holde ut (med)

«

lass,» says Mr. Harris, our English teacher, «this is Alice. She’s from Halifax which is in Nova Scotia. So she’s come from far away. Let’s see …» Mr. Harris looks around. «Catherine,» he says looking at me, «will you look after her, please?» Mr. Harris shows Alice to an empty seat next to me. «Hi!» I say, smiling at her. She is wearing a skirt and a white blouse, just like an old lady or like English boarding school girls. She really stands out in a class where everyone else is wearing jeans, pullovers and joggers. I wonder what Linda’s thinking. Linda is always telling everybody what to say, what to think and how to dress. She is the sort of person who always wears the «right» clothes. When the bell rings, Linda is waiting for us outside. «Hi!» she says, turning to Alice. «I’m Linda. Funny clothes you’ve got,» she says and looks down at Alice’s black lace-up boots. «Does everyone dress like that in Nova Scotia?» «Pardon me?» says Alice, looking bewildered. «We don’t usually dress like that in our school. Just wanted you to know. Jim’s waiting. See you.» With that she rushes away, and all we see is the back of a pair of jeans and joggers.

C


tracks

Jim Allison is Linda’s boyfriend – the most popular guy in school. Dark, handsome, the best hockey player and a straight A-student. All the girls envy Linda because of Jim, though we all wonder how Jim puts up with her. He isn’t interested in clothes at all. He always wears worn-out T-shirts and baggy trousers. For weeks it goes on like this. Alice comes to school every day dressed in a way none of us ever dress – in old-fashioned skirts, dresses, cardigans, even her mother’s old mittens. And almost every day Linda lets her know how out of place she is. In a way Alice doesn’t seem to care, but deep inside I’m sure she is suffering. She never looks very happy. Then one day everything changes. Linda and Jim are sitting together in the canteen as usual. Suddenly Jim raises his voice. «Oh, that’s a load of rubbish, Linda! Look at yourself. Why do you always dress like that? You’re always wearing the same kind of clothes. It’s dull, it’s so …» We all see Linda turn bright red. She swallows a couple of times and nervously runs her fingers through her dyed hair. Jim doesn’t stop. «Look at that new girl. Alice, isn’t it? I mean, she’s got class,she’s got a personal way of dressing. I think you should try to be a bit more like her…»

©1996 Bonnier's Time

39


music

cool characters

Madonna Madonna was born in the USA, but lives in England. She has been famous around the world for more than 20 years.

to release > å utgi chorus > refreng female > kvinnelig simple-minded > enkel top ten hit > en av de ti mest suksessfulle sangene

a songwriter > en tekstforfatter

a chart > en bestselger-liste (musikk)

a critic > her: en som anmelder

musikk

a fan

> en person som liker

en skuespiller eller popstjerne veldig godt a film director > en person som lager filmer og forteller skuespillerne hva de skal gjøre

an award an album

> en pris

> et musikkalbum (cd) > et ikon: en berømt person som folk elsker på en nesten religiøs måte

an icon

artist Madonna is one of the most important female icons of the last 20 years. She is the most popular female singer-songwriter of all time, a film star and a successful businesswoman. But it isn't always easy for her. Her film, the next best thing, was not successful. Critics don't like her album, music. «It's simple-minded disco music,» they say. «Madonna's not exciting any more. She's boring.» Madonna has always had enemies, but she knows how to fight. She was the third of eight children in a large Italian family in Michigan, in the U.S. At the age of 19, she went to New York with $35 in her purse and became a dancer. After a few years, she decided to sing. She had a weak voice, but her music was exciting and young people loved it. Her first album, madonna, came out in 1983, and she had many top ten hits. Then she decided to be an actor. Many of her films – shanghai Express (1986), for example – were unsuccessful. Critics laughed. «She can't act,» they said. But Madonna became more and more popular. Men thought that she was sexy. Women thought that she was strong. «If Madonna can be strong in a man's world,» they thought, «we can be strong, too.» The 1990s were Madonna's best years. In 1997, she won a Best Actress award for her part in evita. Even her critics liked her 1998 album, ray of light. In 2000 she won two awards for her song beautiful stranger. And then there's her album, music. Do her fans agree with the critics? Is it just boring disco music for old people? In September 2000, Music went straight to the top of the charts! Young people still think that she's «cool». To people who don't remember the 1980s, Madonna is like a princess. Pictures of her are in all the popular magazines. Most young people don't care what the critics say about her. Madonna doesn't either.


tracks

Love her or hate her, we can all be sure of one thing: Madonna's a star, and she's here to stay. She will never be boring! Penguin Dossiers, slightly modified

nobody’s perfect from the album music Cool I am When I am with you Cool I’m not When I am lonely I feel so sad What I did wasn’t right I feel so bad And I must say to you Sorry, but Nobody’s perfect Nobody’s perfect What did you expect I’m doing my best First two verses and chorus of the lyrics nobody’s perfect Words & Music: Madonna Ciccone and Mirwais Ahmadzaï Copyright © Webo Girl Publishing/1000 Lights Music Ltd Printed by permission of Warner/Chapell Music Scandinavia AB/Notfabriken Music Scandinavia

author Madonna is not only an artist, she also writes books for adults and children. Writing is another of her many talents. Her books have been published in 110 countries of the world. She was among the first to be chosen for the U.K. Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, because of her importance for UK culture. That's not bad for an American!

41


sport

cool characters

jerry spinelli

CRASH Crash Coogan likes to play sports and always wants to be in the spotlight. He thinks looks are important and judges people by the way they look. He thinks he can only be good friends with people that like football and look like him. Is that cool or not?

to bawl > å brøle to refuse > å nekte to face > å møte to shrug > å trekke på skuldrene to growl > å knurre, å brumme to get a whiff > å kjenne en lukt to charge ahead > å gå forover i angrep

to win by forfeit > å vinne ved at de andre ikke spiller

to plow into each other > å pløye inn i hverandre

to get down into a fourpoint stance > å gå ned på alle fire (som å krabbe)

a lap > en runde a clam > en spiselig musling a foot of snow > en fot høy snø a cousin > en kusine eller en fetter

a touchdown > se forklaring i teksten Super Bowl, kap. 7.

a locker-room > en garderobe shoulder pads > skulderputer probably > antageligvis wide as a bus > bred som en buss

like cheese on pizza > som ost på pizza: klistret på

chapter 1 – my name My real name is John. John Coogan. But everybody calls me Crash, even my parents. It started way back when I got my first football helmet for Christmas. I don’t really remember this happening, but they say that when my Uncle Herm’s family came over to see our presents, as they were coming through the front door I got down into a four-point stance, growled, «Hut! Hut! Hut!» and charged ahead with my brand-new helmet. Seems I knocked my cousin Bridget clear back out the doorway and onto her butt into a foot of snow. They say she bawled bloody murder and refused to come into the house, so Uncle Herm finally had to drag his whole family away before they even had a chance to take their coats off. Like I said, personally I don’t remember the whole thing, but looking back at what I do remember about myself, I’d have to say the story is probably true. As far as I can tell, I’ve always been crashing into people, into things, you name it, with or without a helmet. chapter 15 I love the way I look in shoulder pads. I mean, I’m big to start with, and when I put those things on, it’s like I’m wide as a bus. Deluca caught me looking in the locker-room mirror. «Keep looking, man, you’re still ugly.» «I ain’t ugly, I’m scary. I’m scaring myself.» I shrugged. My shoulders moved like small mountains. «That’s what I’m saying. You’re so ugly, you’re scary. You’re gonna score a touchdown every time you get the ball because nobody is gonna want to touch you.»


tracks

«Least I don’t smell like you,» I said. «Other teams get a whiff of you, they’ll all faint and we’ll win by forfeit.» «You’re so ugly, when you were born the doctor smacked your face instead of your butt.» «Yeah?» «Yeah.» By now we were walking across the parking lot to the football field. We had our helmets on. I shoved him. He shoved me. I punched him. He punched me. «Yeah?» «Yeah.» We plowed into each other, colliding shoulder pads. We butted helmets like bighorn sheep. We grunted. We growled. We weren’t really mad at each other. It was all just part of football. Football, see, is a violent and emotional game. The more charged up you are, the better you play. It had been almost a year since we popped somebody. We kept smashing pads and butting helmets. We were ready to kill each other. And then along came Schultz. He walked right between Mike and me, pushing us apart with his hands and saying, «Excuse me, girls.» I was on him like cheese on pizza. We went to the ground. I threw some punches, but all I got were sore knuckles from bouncing off his helmet. It was like fighting a clam. Then the coaches pulled us apart. They were laughing. The line coach said, «I’d hate to be Hillside East, having to face you terrors.» Coach Lattner said, «Guess we better get started while somebody’s still alive.» He blew his whistle. «Football team! Four laps! Go!» Football season was officially started. Extract from crash by Jerry Spinelli, copyright ©1996 by Jerry Spinelli Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s books, a division of Random House,Inc.

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fiction

cool characters

The Watchman It was time to do something. The tenants had decided that the gang that spray-painted their walls with graffiti had to be stopped. They agreed to keep watch every weekend, one weekend each to start with, and Leonard volunteered for the first one.

a watchman > en vakt a tenant > en leietaker, en beboer

a youngster > en ungdom dim > svak by the time > når shaken > skjelven opposite > ovenfor to tag > å tagge to learn > å lære to teach > å lære bort to cover > å dekke to empty > å tømme to ruin > å ødelegge to spoil > å ødelegge to attack > å angripe to get hold of > å få tak i to keep watch > å holde vakt

to put an end to

t is almost 11:30 on Saturday night and Leonard is very tired. Nothing happened the night before and he wasted a good night’s sleep for nothing. Oh, how he hates these youngsters who cover the walls with their tags and spoil his weekend. Suddenly he hears people whispering. He sneaks out of the main entrance. In the dim light from the only streetlight, he can make out a group of four or five young kids. They are talking and giggling on the lawn. One of them walks over to the building opposite, shaking something in his hand. «Hey!» Leonard shouts and runs towards him. The kids on the lawn turn round and start running, but the one by the wall just stands there. Leonard grabs him and throws him to the ground. He gets hold of the spray can and, shaking with anger, sprays paint all over the boy’s face and clothes. The boy fights to protect his face but by the time the fight stops, Leonard has emptied the can. There is paint all over the boy’s clothes and face. He is crying and Leonard realizes he has had enough and leaves him there. He is a bit shaken himself but at least he has taught him a lesson and stopped him from tagging the wall.

I

> å få slutt på

to assault > å angripe, å overfalle

to teach a lesson > å lære noen en lekse

to volunteer > å melde seg frivillig

Two days later a policeman rings Leonard’s doorbell. «Leonard Sammons?» «Yes …» «I’d like you to come with me please, Sir.» «Why?»


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«The parents of a young boy say you assaulted their son and ruined his clothes.» «What? But he was going to spray-paint the walls …» «Could you show me where he spray-painted them, please?» «Well, not really … I stopped him before he had time to …» «So, he hadn’t actually done anything when you attacked him?» «Well no, but …» «I think you’d better come along with me now, Sir. ©1996 Bonnier's Time

graffiti Wikipedia writes that «The simplest form of graffiti is a simple signature known as a tag, and is referred to as tagging. Graffiti tagging existed in Philadelphia during the 1960s. It wasn't until it reached popularity in the New York City subway system that it took on an extravagant artistic role, expanding from tags to full-blown «pieces».» There seems to be some kind of competition among taggers. Their goal is to make the most creative, the most visible, or the most artistic tags. Since the taggers want others to see the «tags» or «names», they use walls that are not cleaned immediately. This means that their graffiti will last longer and will be seen by more people Some people think that graffiti is art and call the writers «graffiti artists». Others believe that graffiti is illegal vandalism and call the writers «vandals». Taggers with the most tags gain respect from other taggers, but they also run a greater risk of being caught.

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timeline

cool characters

Cool Timeline The nature of cool fascinates us. Some say it has to do with looks and the things we say and do. Others say it has to do with personality and who we are, and that it is a matter of taste and style. Is it possible then for everybody to be cool, or is it possible only for the rich and famous?

real queen Her Majesty queen elizabeth ii (born 1926) is well-known across the world. She has reigned in Britain since 1952. In 2002 the British voted her one of the coolest women over 50. Is she cool because she is the Queen, or does it have to do with style or personality? looks > utseende a celebrity > en kjendis a teen idol > en tenåringsidol a personality > en personlighet

a chart > en bestselger-liste (musikk)

to vote > å stemme to reign > å regjere to rebel > å gjøre opprør to fascinate > å fascinere to react against > å reagere imot/på

famous > berømt forever > for alltid self-esteem > selvtillit well-known > velkjent successful > suksessrik controversial > omstridt some kind of > en form for, en type

the nature of cool > egenskapen «kulhet»

king of rock Another well-known person from the 1950s and 1960s is the American rock star elvis presley (1935-1977). He started out as a teen idol and a rebel. Parents didn’t like his style and the way he moved his hips. He sang like a dream, the girls thought he was sexy and he was even cool enough for the boys to like him. Elvis is still known as the «King of Rock and Roll». Does his music personality still make him cool today? sir

elton john (b. 1947) is a very successful British musician. He has often been in the news because of his music, his colourful glasses, his efforts in working for AIDS charities and because he has stated that he is gay. Even though he is successful he says, «I’ve always had a body-image problem. No self-esteem. And that will never leave me». How easy is it to be cool without any self-esteem?

queen of pop madonna (b. 1958) is called the «Queen of Pop». Since the 1980s she seems to have been made for the camera: chameleon-like, sexy, and willing to shock. In 2002 the British voted her one of the coolest music personalities. Is she cooler today than she was twenty years ago?


tracks

king of pop In the 1980s, when MTV was new, it was not common to allow African-Americans to be on the screen. Even so, michael jackson (b. 1958) made it, thanks to his popularity. For the last 15 years he has continually been changing his face. Operations have made his face white and European-looking – but it's also falling apart. He is one of the most successful pop music singers of all time and is called the «King of Pop». Was it really impossible for him to be black and cool? attractive actress In television and film, christina ricci (b. 1980) is a wellknown personality. She is famous for playing the daughter in «The Addams Family» from 1991. By the time she was 20 years old, she had already been in 29 films. She usually plays strange and mysterious persons. «I’m not perfect-looking and I don’t say the right things, I’m a little different, nothing really special,» she says. Does her dark and unusual film personality make her cool? king of cool In 2002 the British voted the football player david beckham (b. 1975) the coolest celebrity. He is called the «King of Cool» by fans and has been football’s superstar since the 1990s. Is he still the coolest footballer, or has this changed with time? white rapper eminem (b. 1972) has been one of the most controversial and popular white rappers in the late 1990s and in 2004 he was on the charts a lot. His lyrics are criticized for their bad language, violence, and terrible comments about gay people and women. David Beckham cannot understand how «such a terrible person could be such a big star», and at the same time Elton John has chosen to sing with Eminem. Some people think that he is the most important singer since Elvis Presley. The Question remains – is Eminem cool or not?

47


fabulous

fantasy Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Fillet of a fenny snake, In the cauldron boil and bake; macbeth, by William Shakespeare

welcome to a world of wizards, hobbits, elves and magic! Here you will learn about the literary genre called fantasy, and you can see how fantasy fascinates people – children, teens and adults alike! You can see how fantasy enters the real world and how the real world influences the fantasy world in an endless circle. You can see how fantasy texts are created and meet some of the classics in the fantasy genre: The Hobbit and Harry Potter.


the texts in this chapter deal with important parts of the fantasy genre: How does a fantasy story open? What are fantasy heroes like – and fantasy creatures? What are they fighting for and who are they fighting? What powers do they have? Maybe you will get ideas to create your very own fantasy story!

Some useful words about fabulous fantasy to cast a spell > å trylle magic > magi,magisk witchcraft > trolldom bewitched > forhekset good and evil > det gode og det onde a wand > en tryllestav a potion > en trylledrikk a quest > et mål,en søken a unicorn > en enhjørning a challenge > en utfordring a cauldron > en stor heksegryte a creature > en skapning,et dyr a fantasy world > en fantasiverden a breakthrough > et gjennombrudd


text 1

fabulous fantasy

Fantasy Writing Some famous fantasy authors are C S Lewis (1898-1963) with his Narnia series; J R R Tolkien (1892-1973) with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings; and J K Rowling (b.1965) with her Harry Potter books. The authors are from Britain.

the lion, the witch and the wardrobe He forgot all about Lucy and went towards the light, which he thought was the open door of the wardrobe. But instead of finding himself stepping out into the spare room he found himself stepping out from the shadow of some thick dark fir trees into an open place in the middle of a wood.

People all over the world read fantasy fiction, watch fantasy films and TV-series.They play interactive fantasy games and visit fantasy sites on the Internet.

the breakthrough When Lucy and her brother step through the wardrobe, the wardrobe was really a breakthrough from the real world into the fantasy world of Narnia. In some fantasy stories like The Hobbit, there is no breakthrough, because everything happens in the fantasy world.

READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

C.S. Lewis

the fantasy world A fantasy story takes place in a real world or in a fantasy world. In The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe Lucy and her brother are in a real house, in the real world, before they step into the fantasy world – the woods of Narnia…

time In fantasy, time is not real time. The story may be in the past or in the future, or move between the present and the past, as in the Narnia books. In the real world Lucy is in the present, but in Narnia she is the past.

quite ordinary  ganske vanlig a challenge en utfordring to face  å møte to cast a spell over å fortrylle, forhekse


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the good hero A hero is brave and can be a super-hero, or a quite ordinary person like Lucy. The hero is often treated badly in the real world, but in the fantasy world the hero becomes different: brave and strong and good. one quest In fantasy stories the hero has to solve a problem. It may be to search for a witch and then to fight her, like Lucy and Edmund in Narnia. This search is the hero’s reason for entering the fantasy world. It is called the quest. many challenges On her way to find the witch, Lucy faces many challenges – problems she must solve before she can go on. In Harry Potter, it is the same; the evil Lord Voldemort challenges Harry Potter.

some magic The fantasy world is full of magic. Sometimes the characters can transform themselves, become invisible, fly, cast spells or make potions. the evil enemy The enemy is evil and usually wishes to destroy the hero. In Narnia it is the witch who is Lucy’s enemy. The enemy is greedy, hateful, selfish and strong, but always has at least one weakness. The hero must try to find out what it is… good and evil In fantasy stories there is always a battle between the good and the evil. The evil enemy wishes total power in the fantasy world. After many challenges, the hero solves her quest and the good wins.


text 2

fabulous fantasy

j.r.r. tolkien

The Hobbit J R R Tolkien (1892-1973) is a British author.He is known as the father of modern fantasy. Tolkien has written many books,and his best known stories are The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. These stories are based on mythology and are loved by people around the world. Maybe you have watched one of the film adaptations,or listened to the music from the film?

READ AT YOUR OWN LEVEL. CHOOSE BETWEEN: Basic Challenging & Demanding (the whole text)

What is a hobbit? Tolkien says that hobbits are (or were) a little people, about half our height, and smaller than the bearded dwarves. Hobbits have no beards. There is little or no magic about them, except the ordinary everyday sort which helps them to disappear quietly and quickly. Tolkien says that hobbits are often fat in the stomach; they dress in bright colours (mainly green and yellow); and have long clever brown fingers. He says that hobbits wear no shoes, because their feet grow natural leathery soles and thick warm brown hair like the stuff on their heads (which is curly). They have good-natured faces, and laugh deep laughs. Now you know enough to go on with.

an unexpected party In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat; it was a hobbit hole, and that means comfort. It had a perfectly round door like a porthole, painted green, with a shiny, yellow brass knob in the exact middle. The door opened on to a tube-shaped hall like a tunnel: a very comfortable tunnel without smoke, with panelled walls, and floors tiled and carpeted, provided with polished chairs, and lots and lots of pegs for hats and coats – the hobbit was fond of visitors. The tunnel wound on and on, going fairly but not straight into the side of the hill – The Hill, as all the people for many miles round called it – and many little round


53

doors opened out of it, first on one side and then on another. No going upstairs for the hobbit: bedrooms, bathrooms, cellars, pantries (lots of these), wardrobes (he had whole rooms devoted to clothes), kitchens, dining-rooms, all were on the same floor, and indeed on the same passage. The best rooms were all on the left-hand side (going in), for these were the only ones to have windows, deep-set round windows looking over his garden, and meadows beyond, sloping down to the river. This hobbit was a very well-to-do hobbit, and his name was Baggins. The Bagginses had lived in the neighbourhood of The Hill for time out of mind, and people considered them very respectable, not only because most of them were rich, but also because they never had any adventures or did anything unexpected: you could tell what a Baggins would say on any question without the bother of asking him. This is a story of how a Baggins had

an adventure, and found himself doing and saying things altogether unexpected. He may have lost the neighbours’ respect, but he gained – well, you will see whether he gained anything in the end. To be continued in Track Fiction! Excerpt from the hobbit, unabridged. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers LTD © J.R.R.Tolkien 1937

To be continued in Track Fiction!

a bearded dwarf  en skjeggete dverg nor yet  heller ikke well-to-do  velstående, rik provided with  utstyrt med


appetizers

cool characters

the hobbit (Continued from Text 2) Our hero, Bilbo Baggins sets out on a quest: to steal back gold from the dangerous dragon Smaug. On his way he gets lost deep at the roots of the mountain where he meets fiction Gollum. Read about one of Tolkien’s most famous fantasy characters – a strange, small and slimy creature...

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tolkien fever It is incredible what people know about Tolkien’s world – and how they bring his fantasy world into their own lives! People learn Tolkien’s facts fictitious, made-up language, they create their own fantasy clothes, they even have their ears operated on in order to have pointed elf ears. The Tolkien fever will not end…

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music

the simpsons When the fantasy world is created on screen, music is often part of it all. Cartoons are a special kind of fantasy fiction and in the animated comedy, The Simpsons, music is very important. Famous musicians sing and play in the episodes and Bart Simpson raps.

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55

harry potter In the fantasy world the hero encounters many challenges. One of Harry Potter’s challenges has to do with sports. He plays a Seeker in Quidditch, the wizard game that looks a lot like basketball – only, it’s in the air! See how one of Harry’s enemies tries to hurt Harry at a Quidditch match. Is Harry up to the challenge? sport

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facts timeline

do you speak elf?

elf timeline

The success of the Lord of the Rings films has made people want to speak Elvish. Just think about it – Elvish is a fantasy language in fantasy novels and fantasy films, but people in the real world want to speak it! At a college in Birmingham, England, the pupils can actually choose to learn this exotic language...

Are you curious about why elves are sometimes small, tiny creatures and sometimes tall and human-like? Or why the elves in the Harry Potter books are annoying and play tricks on humans, while the elves in The Lord of the Rings are calm and kind to humans? Well, it depends on what kind of elf the author used as a model…

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fiction

fabulous fantasy

j.r.r. tolkien

The Hobbit – continued J R R Tolkien (1892-1973) is a British author. He has a huge amount of fans across the world! Tolkien’s books are translated into many languages and made into audio books as well. The Lord of the Rings has been made into three popular films, and CDs with the film’s music are also popular. gollum is a strange, small and slimy creature. Meet him in The Hobbit! a riddle > en gåte a sword > et sverd a dwarf > en dverg a reason > en årsak a wizard > en trollmann a creature > en skapning a throat > en hals, en strupe a goblin > en nisse, en dverg to wonder > å lure på to throttle > å strupe to lurk > å ligge på lur to appear > å virke som polite > høflig anxious > ivrig unless > om ikke seldom > sjelden in front of > foran precious > dyrebar flummox > å forvirre curious > nysgjerrig at any rate > i hvert fall long ago > for lenge siden from a distance > på avstand

for/at the moment > for øyeblikket

chapter v – riddles in the dark Deep down here by the dark water lived old Gollum, a small slimy creature. I don’t know where he came from, nor who or what he was. He was Gollum – as dark as darkness, except for two big round pale eyes in his thin face. He had a little boat, and he rowed about quite quietly on the lake; for lake it was, wide and deep and deadly cold. He paddled it with large feet dangling over the side, but never a ripple did he make. Not he. He was looking out of his lamp-like eyes for blind fish, which he grabbed with his long fingers as quick as thinking. He liked meat too. Goblin he thought good, when he could get it; but he took care they never found him out. He just throttled them from behind, if they ever came down alone anywhere near the edge of the water, while he was prowling about. They very seldom did, for they had a feeling that something very unpleasant was lurking down there, down at the very roots of the mountain. They had come on the lake, when they were tunnelling down long ago, and they found they could go no further; so there their road ended in that direction, and there was no reason to go that way – unless the Great Goblin sent them. Sometimes he took a fancy for fish from the lake, and sometimes neither goblin nor fish came back. Actually Gollum lived on a slimy island of rock in the middle of the lake. He was watching Bilbo now from the distance with his pale eyes like telescopes. Bilbo could not see him, but he was wondering a lot about Bilbo, for he could see that he was no goblin at all.


tracks

Gollum got into his boat and shot off from the island, while Bilbo was sitting on the brink altogether flummoxed and at the end of his way and his wits. Suddenly up came Gollum and whispered and hissed: «Bless us and splash us, my preciuossss! I guess it’s a choice feast; at least a tasty morsel it’d make us gollum!» And when he said gollum he made a horrible swallowing noise in his throat. That is how he got his name, though he always called himself «my precious». The hobbit jumped nearly out of his skin when the hiss came in his ears, and he suddenly saw the pale eyes sticking out at him. «Who are you?» he said, thrusting his dagger in front of him. «What iss he, my preciouss?» whispered Gollum (who always spoke to himself through never having anyone else to speak to). This is what he had come to find out, for he was not really very hungry at the moment, only curious; otherwise he would have grabbed first and whispered afterwards. «I am Mr Bilbo Baggins. I have lost the dwarves and I have lost the wizard, and I don’t know where I am and I don’t want to know, if only I can get away.» «What’s he got in his handses?» said Gollum, looking at the sword, which he did not quite like. «A sword, a blade which came out of Gondolin!» «Sssss» said Gollum, and became quite polite. «Praps we sits here and chats with it a bitsy, my preciousss. It likes riddles, praps it does, doesn’t it?» he was anxious to appear friendly, at any rate for the moment, until he found out more about the sword and the hobbit, whether he was quite alone really, whether he was good to eat, and whether Gollum was really hungry.

Excerpt from the hobbit, unabridged. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers LTD © J.R.R.Tolkien 1937

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facts

fabulous fantasy

Tolkien Fever Tolkien’s universe is probably larger than you can imagine…

to inspire > å inspirere to influence > å påvirke to be obsessed with > å være besatt av

a queue > en kø a dress > en kjole a unity > en enhet a ribbon > et band a sword > et sverd a necklace > et halskjede a ceremony > en seremoni a folk tale > et folkeeventyr a style > en stil: klær, smykker a trilogy > en trilogi (tre deler)

dresses and jewellery Tolkien Fever has made the elf style ever so popular. The style inspires many young girls to make their own elf dresses – for example, for their confirmation. The girls create their dresses in wool, velvet or silk, with pearls and ribbons on them. The girls get the ideas for the dresses from the Lord of the Rings films and from pictures put on the Internet by other young girls. Many young girls also would like to have the elf Arwen’s necklace «Evening Star», the ring «Nenya» and elf swords. elfish The author J R R Tolkien created a language for the elves in the lord of the rings. Elvish is the mother tongue of the Middle Earth elves in the books. Tolkien Fever has made many children and young adults want to learn Elvish and a college in Birmingham in England thought «why not?». They offer their pupils the exotic language study «Sindarin». It is the oral version of Tolkien’s Elvish language.

a society > et samfunn, et fellesskap

an ancient language > et oldtidsspråk

wool > ull silk > silke velvet > fløyel among > blant pointed > spissede innocent > uskyldig jewellery > smykker Middle Earth > Midgard Norse mythology > norrøn mytologi

film Actress Liv Tyler plays the elf Arwen in The Lord of the Rings. To learn her role she actually had to learn the Elvish language! The tough, beautiful and brave elf Arwen has become an idol for young girls and she has influenced many of them to become interested in elves. In the films the elves are presented as tall, beautiful, innocent humans with pointed ears. norse mythology Tolkien wished to create a new mythology. His universe in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings seems to be closely connected to Norse mythology. He had read Norse literature and knew


tracks

Scandinavian folk tales. Maybe this is why it is easy for Scandinavians to enjoy Tolkien’s books and the films based on his universe?

people become elves Following the success of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, some people go as far as to have an operation to make their ears pointed and elf-like – others use pointed plastic ears. People love these fantasy creatures so much they want to look like them! In England it is even modern to wear elf wings. Not many people will say they believe in elves, but it is fascinating that so many want to be elves. They are open to the idea that elves may exist. sindarin & quenya Tolkien was an expert in ancient languages, and made up two Elvish languages for his fantasy-universe Middle Earth. Sindarin is based upon Welsh sounds. In Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings books Sindarin is the elves’ oral language. The elves mostly use Sindarin when they speak. Quenya is the second Elvish language and it is similar to Finnish. It is a more formal and the elves mostly use it in ceremonies. values Tolkien’s stories are concerned with values of what is right and what is wrong. Not only the fantasy world created by his books, but beyond in the real world, those who believe in his values find each other. Tolkien’s books help to create social values among those who dress up in Middle Earth clothes, sleep together in queues, tell stories, eat and live together – and create Tolkien societies. Tolkien’s stories create a special kind of unity. People find other people who think like them, understand them and accept them.

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music

fabulous fantasy

The Simpsons Everyone’s favourite cartoon bad boy Bart Simpson has recorded a rap with a real life bad guy – 50 Cent.

BBC Newsround

to release to appear

> å utgi > å vise seg, å

delta

a score > et resultat a dummy > en narresmokk a delinquency > et lovbrudd

a celebrity > en berømt person

a trouble-maker > en bråkmaker

a cartoon

famous faces In the episode, 50 Cent plays himself, and Bart gets to do a rap song. 50 Cent is not the only celebrity who has been in the simpsons! The show is so popular that over the years, many musicians have appeared on the simpsons. Famous faces have included Britney Spears, Cindy Lauper, three Beatles, Mick Jagger, Johnny Cash, Elton John, Lenny Kravitz, and bands like the Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Smashing Pumpkins, Sonic Youth, The B-52’s, The Who, Cypress Hill, Sum 41, U2 and R.E.M. bart raps Not only famous musicians have sung in the show. Bart himself had a No. 1 single with the rap do the bartman way back in 1991.

> en tegnefilm,

en tegneserie

a funny yet biting satire > en morsom,

men bitende satire

an animated story > en tegnefilm, en tegneserie

apiece > per person intentional > med vilje patience > tålmodighet entertainment > underholdning

on the air > på lufta (her: på TV)

in a recognizable sense > på en gjenkjennelig måte

do the bart man Written by Bryan Loren

Yo! Hey, what’s happenin’, dude? I’m the guy with a rep for bein’ rude. Terrorizin’ people wherever I go It’s not intentional, just keepin’ the flow. Fixin’ test scores to get the best scores Droppin’ banana peels all over the floor I’m the kid who made delinquency an art Last name: Simpson. First name: Bart. First two verses of do the bart man (1991).


tracks

rolling stone music magazine rolling stone has written several articles about the simpsons. When The Simpsons went on the air for the fourteenth season, rolling stone made three different covers for their magazine. The first cover looked like The Beatles’ album abbey road, with Homer, Marge, Bart and Lisa as The Beatles. The second cover showed Homer as Bruce Springsteen on his album born in the usa. On the third cover Bart looked like the baby on Nirvana’s album nevermind. The text on all three covers was the same: the simpsons make rock history. the simpsons’ albums Maybe The Simpsons have made rock history? At least they have released albums, with Homer, Marge, Bart and Lisa singing together with the musicians that have been guests on the show. The Simpsons have released the yellow album, sing the blues, sunday night fever, go simpsonic, songs in the key of springfield – and do the bartman. on the screen since 1989 the simpsons was the first animated series on prime-time television since the sixties – a funny yet biting satire. The Simpsons are a working class family. Bart is the genius trouble-maker, Homer is the father who makes himself look foolish, Marge is the mother with blue hair and endless patience, Lisa is the intelligent sister and little Maggie is the dummy-sucking baby. The Simpsons have become America’s favourite family. The Simpsons exist! These people are orange. Their eyes are very large. They get by with eight fingers apiece. Their hair is, well, hair, though not in any recognizable sense. They’re keen on pork chops. And their private lives are popular entertainment.

Rolling Stone Music Magazine

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sport

fabulous fantasy

joanne k rowling

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix JK Rowling (b.1965) is from the UK. She has written the popular Harry Potter novels. Harry Potter is one of the most famous wizards in the fantasy world and in the real world. People across the world know Harry Potter from the popular books and film adaptations. a hero > en helt a fear > en frykt a whistle > en fløyte an enemy > en fiende a challenge > en utfordring the supernatural > det overnaturlige

quidditch > rumpeldunk: en sport for trollmenn

a pitch > en bane a bludger > en klabb a seeker > en speider a goalhoop > en målstang a quaffle > en sluff, en ball a broomstick > en sopelime the golden snitch > gullsnoppen

Firebolt > merket på Harrys sopelime

Slytherin > det ene laget (motstanderne)

it does not matter > det gjør ikke noe

in a matter of seconds > på få sekunder

small as a walnut > liten som en valnøtt

on a human scale > på en menneskelig skala

In his spare time, Harry Potter plays Quidditch. It is a lot like basketball, only the players are on broomsticks and the game is played in the air! In Quidditch J K Rowling has created goalhoops and a ball called Quaffle to put through the hoops. The team gets ten points each time they score. There are two Bludgers that the other team uses to knock players off their brooms. It usually hurts a lot! There is one more ball in Quidditch, called the Golden Snitch. It is as small as a walnut and very hard to see. There is a seeker on each team and the seeker’s job is to catch the Snitch – catching the Snitch gives the team one hundred and fifty points! The game is not over until the Snitch is caught. Harry Potter is a Seeker! His challenge is to catch the Snitch so that his team wins, and to do that he must keep out of his enemies’ way…

chapter nineteen – the lion and the serpent But Harry had seen it at last: the tiny fluttering Golden Snitch was hovering feet from the ground at the Slytherin end of the pitch. He dived … In a matter of seconds, Malfoy was streaking out of the sky on Harry’s left, a green and silver blur lying flat on his broom … The Snitch skirted the foot of one of the goalhoops and scooted off towards the other side of the stands; its change of direction suited Malfoy, who was nearer; Harry pulled his Firebolt around, he and Malfoy were now neck and neck … Feet from the ground, Harry lifted his right hand from his broom, stretching towards the Snitch … to his right, Malfoy’s arm extended too, was reaching, groping …


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It was over in two breathless, desperate, windswept seconds – Harry’s fingers closed around the tiny, struggling ball – Malfoy’s fingernails scrabbled the back of Harry’s hand hopelessly – Harry pulled his broom upwards, holding the struggling ball in his hand and the Gryffindor spectators screamed their approval … They were saved, it did not matter that Ron had let in those goals, nobody would remember as long as Gryffindor had won – WHAM. A bludger hit Harry squarely in the small of the back and he flew forwards off his broom. Luckily he was only five or six feet above the ground, having dived so low to catch the Snitch, but he was winded all the same as he landed flat on his back on the frozen pitch. He heard Madam Hooch’s shrill whistle, an uproar in the stands compounded of catcalls, angry yells and jeering, a thud, then Angelina’s frantic voice. «Are you all right?» «‘Course I am,» said Harry grimly, taking her hand and allowing her to pull him to his feet. Madam Hooch was zooming towards one of the Slytherin players above him, though he could not see who it was from this angle. «It was that thug Crabbe,» said Angelina angrily, «he whacked the Bludger at you the moment he saw you’d got the snitch – but we won, Harry, we won!» Harry heard a snort from behind him and turned around, still holding the Snitch tightly in his hand: Draco Malfoy had landed close by. White-faced with fury, he was still managing to sneer. Excerpt from harry potter and the order of the phoenix, unabridged. Copyright©J.K.Rowling 2003 Printed by permission of Christopher Little Literary Agency

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facts

fabulous fantasy

Do you speak Elf? By Justin Parkinson, 4 March, 2004 , BBS News Online education staff

undeterred > fryktløs to adapt > å tilpasse to declare > å erklære to respond > å reagere to expose > å utsette for to gross > å gi en inntekt to contend with > å slåss med

to volunteer > å melde seg frivillig

a skill > en ferdighet a verb table

it’s a hard life being an elf As if murderous orcs and magic spells weren’t enough to contend with, there are two languages to learn – loosely based on Welsh and Finnish. Undeterred by the challenge, a group of schoolboys has volunteered for lessons in Sindarin, the ‘conversational’ form of Elvish, invented by Lord of the Rings author JRR Tolkien. Zainab Thorp, a special needs co-ordinator at Turves Green Boys’ Technology College in Birmingham, is offering after-hours classes, where pupils struggle through vocabulary and verb tables. She said: «The recent success of the Lord of the Rings films has increased the interest in learning Elvish. The children really enjoy it. It breaks the idea that education should simply be aimed at getting a job.»

> verbliste

a conversational form > en samtaleform

a ceremonial language > et høytidelig språk

a special needs co-ordinator > spesialpedagog

an amourous intention > en romantisk mening

Useful Sindarin words: edhel > alv bast > brød salch > gress bess > kvinne annabon > elefant toss > lavtvoksende tre

a little romance Tolkien, an Oxford academic who was expert in ancient languages, developed two forms of Elvish. Sindarin – based on the sounds of Welsh – is the more commonly used. Quenya – related to Finnish – is largely a ceremonial language. Tolkien, who died in 1973, only wrote down around 350 words in Sindarin, so Lord of the Rings experts have had to work together to increase the vocabulary for everyday use. Mrs Thorp, who studied ancient Egyptian at university, said: «Tolkien never left a word meaning ‘to love’. In one film, there was an early scene where the word ‘aniron’, usually meaning ‘I want’ – in the sense of wanting a cup of tea – was adapted to mean ‘I love’ between Aragorn and Arwen, two Elvish speakers.»


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«So this word now had romantic associations. David Salo, the expert working on the script, had to think of another word to mean ‘I want’, in case it seemed like one male elf asking another for something later on was mistakenly thought to have amorous intentions. So, he had to come up with another phrase roughly meaning ‘ It’s necessary for me to have your help’. We have to be very careful to use words properly, as Sindarin was invented by Tolkien and we should show it respect.» But other than declaring one’s undying love in an unusual fashion, what use does Elvish have?

railway sounds Mrs Thorp said: «A couple of the boys are very into role-playing games. Knowing Sindarin is useful when giving orders to their Elvish armies. The reason I’m offering the lessons is to give the boys, some of whom have special educational needs, something to boost their selfesteem. They have responded very well and are eager to learn more. It’s also very useful if they want to go on to university to study, as it involves looking at some of Tolkien’s old manuscripts. This develops some very complex skills.» The number of Sindarin speakers worldwide is unknown but thought to be growing rapidly, following the success of the Lord of the Rings film trilogy. The final part, The Return of the King, won 11 Oscars on Sunday and has grossed more than $1bn (£540m). Tolkien based the sounds of Sindarin on the Welsh words he was exposed to as a boy, living in a house overlooking the railway line from Wales to Birmingham. Mrs Thorp said: «Tolkien liked to create beautiful sounds. It’s very different from just studying a language like French: the boys are doing this for fun, like he did. That has to be a good thing.» From BBC News at bbcnews.com Printed by permission of BBC News

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timeline

fabulous fantasy

Elf Timeline Elves have fascinated people for centuries – and they still do. Elves used to be tiny creatures in fairy tales, but today we also read about elves in novels and watch them on TV and in the cinema.

a size > en størrelse a house-elf > en hus-alv a pillowcase > et putevar a telepath > en telepatisk person, en som kan lese tanker

poverty > fattigdom annoying > irriterende pointed ears > spisse ører child labour > barnearbeid fairy-like > alveaktig human-like > menneskelignende

goblin-like > nisse-/dverglignende

polluting factories > forurensede fabrikker

Middle Earth > Midgard Norse mythology > norrøn mytologi

English folklore > engelsk folklore, folketro

Elizabethan Era > Elisabeth-tiden

(1558-1603)

Victorian Era > Viktoria-tiden (1837-1901)

BASIC: Read the headlines + choose a paragraph.

The elves in Harry Potter’s fantasy world are small, annoying and goblin-like creatures who work in the house. The elves in The Lord of the Rings are tall, polite and human-like… How can elves be so different?

small annoying elves The elves came into English folklore when the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain in the 5th century. The elves were small creatures who did not grow old and could be invisible. They annoyed humans and played tricks on them. They were not evil, but could not exactly be trusted … tall nice elves Long before the year 1000 elves were part of mythology. In Norse mythology the elves were tall as humans and long-lived. They were beautiful with pointed ears. How different they are from the English elves! With strong, magical powers the elves guarded the humans and protected them from all evil. small funny elves In the Elizabethan Era, in the late 1500s, William shakespeare wrote about elves in his plays. They were beautiful as the Norse elves, but small as the English elves. In his play A Midsummer Night’s Dream his elves were almost as small as insects and very much like fairies. They had magical powers, were funny and lived in the forest.


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small nice elves In the 1800s charles dickens wrote about the hard times and dirty cities in the Victorian era. Hard times made people want to believe in small elves who rescued children in a magical world without child labour, factories that polluted the land and poverty… tall nice elves – again In the 1930s J R R Tolkien used the Norse elves in the hobbit. He created tall, human-like elves who are beautiful and innocent with pointed ears and magical powers. They are warriors on the side of good. tall nice vulcans In the 1960s the science fiction tv-series star trek was created. There are many alien creatures in Star Trek; one race is called Vulcan. They are tall like humans, kind and good-natured and have pointed ears. They are not called elves, but they look like Tolkien’s elves. small annoying elves When the first harry potter book was published in 1997, there were elves in the story – house-elves! They are very different from the Norse mythology type. Rowling’s elves once again are little, based on English folklore. They are small, goblin-like, annoying creatures who work in the house. elves in a circle Rowling’s small annoying elves are very different from Tolkien’s tall, nice elves and Shakespeare’s small funny elves. The idea of elves comes full circle – from small to tall to small to tall – and back to small again.

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Voices in Time 1