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g~j¨ : 200 UvKv

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Pvi gyL †Zjis, 1957, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

Rqbyj Av‡ew`b I Kvgi“j nvmvb :

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muvIZvj igYx Rjis, 1951, Rqby j Av‡ew`b

Rv`yN i Ges †e½j M¨vjvwi| Rv`yNi Av‡qvRb Kij G `yB wkíxi Qwe wb‡q GKwU we‡kl cÖ` k©bxi| †e½‡j D`&hvwcZ n‡jv Rqby‡ji kZZg Rb¥evwl©Kx Ges G Dcj‡¶ Av‡qvwRZ n‡jv ÔwkívPv‡h©i cÖmvwiZ wkív½bÕ| G-cÖ`k©bx‡Z Rqby‡ ji cvkvcvwk Zuv i e„nËi cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i QweI †`Lv‡bv n‡jv| Rqby‡ji †ekwKQy Qwe wQj `yj©f , †h¸‡jv Avwg Av‡M †`wLwb| Rv`yN‡ii wKQy QweI| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji Kv‡Q Avgv‡`i gv‡S gv‡SB wd‡i †h‡Z nq| ïay †h Avgv‡`i wkíKjvi ïi“i Drmvn-D`¨g A_ev bv›`wbK †gRvRwU †evSvi Rb¨ Zv bq, Avgv‡`i µgea©gvb nv‡i RwUj n‡Z _vKv ev¯—eZvi cÖwZK‚‡j GKwU KíwPÎ ev BgvwRbvwi Avwe®‹v i A_ev kbv³ A_ev cybwb©g©v Y Kivi Rb¨| GB KíwPÎwU Avgv‡`i m„w ókxjZv Ges wkí‡gavi GKwU †hvMdj e‡U, wKš‘ Zvi PvB‡ZI ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Avgv‡`i mvgvwRK-ivR‰bwZK Ges KvwjK wPš—vi GKwU kw³kvjx cÖKvk wn‡m‡e Gi D‡j­L‡hvM¨ f~wgKvwU| GKvˇi hLb mviv‡`‡k cvwK¯—vwb ee©iZv I b„ksmZv PjwQj, Avgiv wePwjZ bv n‡q Ô†mvbvi evsjviÕ mgqnxb KíwP‡Îi m¤¢vebv‡K a‡i a‡i AMÖmi nw”Qjvg, hy× KiwQjvg| ÔRq evsjvÕ †¯­v MvbwU wQj †mB KíwP‡Îi GKwU aŸwbMZ cÖKvk| evsjv‡`‡k mvgwiK, QÙ-mvgwiK Ges cÖwZwµqvkxj †Mvôx hLb ¶gZvq G‡jv Zviv gyw³hy‡×i cÖwZ Zv‡`i we‡Ø‡li Kvi‡Y ÔcvwK¯—v b wR›`vev`Õ †_‡K wR›`vev` kãwU avi K‡i Rq evsjvi KíwPÎwU‡K wbe©vm‡b cvwV‡q w`‡Z †P‡qwQj| wKš‘ GB cÖw Zwµqvkx‡jiv G welqwU eyS‡Z AcviM wQj †h, †Kv‡bv KíwPÎ ev BgvwRbvwi mgqKv‡ji MwÊ AwZµg K‡i gvby‡li m„wó-Kíbvq GKwU wPi¯’vqx RvqMv K‡i †bq| mvZ †KvwU gvbyl †h-KíwPÎ m„Rb K‡i, Zv‡K GK jvL ev GK †KvwU gvbyl wbe©v m‡b cvVv‡Z cv‡i bv| MZ eQi 5 †deª “qvwi XvKvi kvnev‡Mi Zi“Yiv hLb Rq evsjv aŸwb w`‡q GKwU cÖZ¨q‡K †NvlYv KiwQj, Zv‡Z cÖgvY n‡qwQj GB KíwPÎwU wbe©v wmZ nqwb, A_ev `jxq gvwjKvbvq nvwi‡q hvqwb| KíwPÎ ev BgvwRbvwii A‡bK kw³| Gm Gg myjZvb †hme Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb, †m¸wj‡Z KíwPÎwU A‡bK †¶‡ÎB Avgv‡`i Av_©mvgvwRK ev¯—eZv †_‡K wfbœ| Zuv i ¯^v¯’¨ I jveY¨fiv gvbe-gvbexi m‡½ evsjv‡`‡ki `vwi`ª¨cxwoZ fMœ¯^v ‡¯’¨i gvbe-gvbexi dvivKUv cÖej| wKš‘ GB KíwPÎ Avgv‡`i GKw`‡K GK KwíZ AZxZ, Ab¨w`‡K AR©b-m¤¢e fwel¨‡Zi w`‡K wb‡q hvq| myjZv‡bi KíwPÎ RvwZ wn‡m‡e Avgv‡`i Amvdj¨¸wji cwie‡Z© cwieZ©‡bi KvwiMi wn‡m‡e Avgv‡`i m¤¢v ebv‡KB Zz‡j a‡iwQj| myjZv‡bi K…lK‡K Avgv‡`i gv‡V †c‡Z Av‡iv eûw`b jvM‡e, nq‡Zv cuvP A_ev mvZ `kK| wKš‘ †mw`‡K Avgiv †Zv GK cv GK cv K‡i G‡Mvw”Q| Dˇii g½v‡K †Zv GB K…lKB AZx‡Zi wel‡q cwiYZ K‡i‡Qb| nq‡Zv Av‡iv mvdj¨ Avm‡e AvMvgx‡Z| wKš‘ wR›`vev‡`i Abymvixiv GK eQi a‡i mwnsmZv Pvwj‡q K…l‡Ki †mB AR©b‡K †¶‡ZB ïwK‡q †`Iqvi Drm‡e †b‡g‡Q| ZviciI myjZv‡bi KíwP‡Î hw` Avgiv wek¦v m Kwi, K…lK Avevi bZzb D`¨‡g gv‡V bvg‡eb, Kv‡¯— nv‡Z Zz‡j †b‡eb Ges GKUz GKUz K‡i Zvi †cwk‡Z kw³ evov‡eb| G-KvRwU K…lK wb‡RB Ki‡eb, †hgb Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Qb Zvi c~e©cyi“‡liv, hyM hyM a‡i|


Mi“i cvj K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1975, Kvgi“j nvmvb

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mgqwU‡K cvkweKZvi GKwU cÖ Kvk wn‡m‡e Ges gbyl¨‡Z¡ i Acgvb wn‡m‡eB ïay Zu viv †`Lvbwb, eis †mm‡ei †cQ‡b wbh©v wZZ gvby‡li †`k‡cÖg, msMÖ vgx gvby‡li exiZ¡ Ñ Gm‡ei GKwU wPÎI Zz ‡j a‡i‡Qb| A¨vbvgiwdK Qwei g‡Zv †hb IciZ‡ji wb‡P DuwK w`‡jB wbæZ‡ji KíwPÎwU ZLb †f‡m I‡V| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji Qwe Avgvi wcÖq Zv‡`i kw³kvjx, Aby‡ cÖiYv`vqx KíwP‡Îi Rb¨| GB KíwP‡Îi gvSLv‡b †h †`k ev cwimi, Zv cÖ_ gZ mvgwóK, AZtci e¨w³MZ| GB †`‡ki †K›`ª MÖv g Ñ †mB MÖv g hv GKmgq GLbKvi Zzjbvq wQj A_©bxwZ, ¯^v ¯’¨bxwZi A‡bK m~PK Abyhvqx, AbybœZ; kni †_‡K `~‡ i, †hvMv‡hvMwew”Qbœ | wKš‘ †mB MÖv g wQj gvby‡li K‡g©v‡`¨v‡Mi †K‡›`ª| MÖv ‡g gvby‡l gvby‡l m¤úK© wQj| wkívq‡bi d‡j gvwjK-kÖwg‡Ki g‡a¨ †h `~iZ¡ m„wó n‡jv, AcwiP‡qi †`qvj DVj, Zv K…wlmf¨Zvq wQj bv| MÖv ‡g †RvZ`vi-gnvR‡bi m‡½I gvby‡li gy‡Lvgyw L K_v n‡Zv, cwiPq wQj, fvewewbgq n‡Zv| ejv hvq, gvby‡ li m„w ókxj, D™¢vebx wPš—v I cÖw Zfv, Kg©KzkjZv Ges mvgwóK m¤úK© cwiPvjbvi


`yB Kb¨v †cv÷vi Kvjvi, 1977, Kvgi“j nvmvb

g‡Zv welq¸wji ùziY n‡Zv, myL -`ytL, cÖv wß-eÂbvi NUbv¸wj, mvgvwRK K‚UbxwZi bvUK¸wj µgvMZ NU‡Z _vKZ| GRb¨ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi MÖvg‡K RvZxq Dbœq‡bi g~j †K›`ª wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb, kni‡K bq| kniwfwËK, †K›`ªx q DbœqbwPš— v I RvZxqZvev‡`i aviYv‡K wZwb cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡iwQ‡jb; †P‡qwQ‡jb †hb MÖv g †_‡KB fviZe‡l©i cybR©vMiY ïi“ nq| wKš‘ fvi‡Zi ivRbxwZwe`iv †f‡ewQ‡jb wfbœ K_v| Zuv iv †`‡LwQ‡jb ¶gZvi Ae¯’v b n‡”Q †K‡›`ª, ivRavbx‡Z, cÖv ‡`wkK cÖavb kni¸wj‡Z| ivRbxwZi Kuv Pvgvj †mB †fvUviiv MÖv ‡g _vK‡jI Kuv Pvgvj cÖwµqvRvZ nq †h h‡š¿, Zv wbqwš¿Z nq kni †_‡K| iex›`ªbv_ GB cÖwµqvUv‡K D‡ë w`‡q, †Mvov †_‡KB ïi“ Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb Zuv i wek¦w e`¨vjqwUI ¯’vcb K‡iwQ‡jb cÖK…wZi gvSLv‡b, AevwiZ MÖvgxYZvq| wQbœc‡Î †h-KíwPÎ wZwb Gu‡K‡Qb, cÙv †evU †_‡K b`xi `yB cv‡ii Pjgvb MÖ vgxYRxe‡bi `„k¨¸wji gg©g~‡j †cuŠQv‡Z †cuŠQv‡Z, Zv DrmvwiZ evsjv‡`‡ki ü`q n‡Z| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji MÖv‡g kvwš— Av‡Q, ¯^w¯— Av‡Q, cwic~Y© Rxeb Av‡Q, wKš‘ Ø›Ø-msNvZI Av‡Q, AcÖvwß-eÂbvI Av‡Q| MÖv‡gi K…lK Acyó, Zvi mvbwK‡Z memgq Lv`¨ †Rv‡U bv| Zv‡`i K…l‡Kiv cÖv š—evmx, wbæeMx©q| Zv‡`i bvixiv _v‡K IB Av_©mvgvwRK wbæeMx©qZvi wb‡P Av‡iK cvwievwiK-mvgvwRK wbæeMx©qZvi APjvqZ‡b| Zv‡`i w`b hvq N‡ii Kv‡R, mš—vb cÖwZcvj‡b, ¯^vgx I k¦ïiKz‡ji †mevh‡Zœ| Zv‡`i cwiåg‡Yi f~‡MvjwU wbZvš—B msKzw PZ| wKš‘ Zv‡`i cÖv Ykw³i µgvMZ cix¶v w`‡Z w`‡Z, Zv‡K wbt‡kl Ki‡Z Ki‡Z Zviv Zv‡`i Kíkw³‡K KL‡bv wemR©b †`q bv| Zviv Aem‡ii mvgvb¨ mgqUv‡KB m„R bkxj wKQy gyn~‡ Z© iƒcvš—w iZ K‡i| Zviv cÖmvab K‡i Ges cÖmva‡bi gyn~‡ Z© Zviv wfbœ gvby‡l cwiYZ nq| K‡qKRb bvix hLb Aem‡i Mí-¸R‡e iZ nq, Zv‡`i cÖvZ¨wnKZv‡K Qvwc‡q wKQy gyn~Z© Zv‡`i GK wfbœ‡jv‡K wb‡q hvq, †mLv‡b Zviv Avi cyi“l-`„w ói wb‡P mxgve× _v‡K bv, †hLv‡b Zv‡`i †eva Abyf~w Z¸wj wba©v wiZ nq Zv‡`i wbR¯^ k‡Z©| MÖvgxY mgv‡Ri cÖvZ¨wnKZvi welqwU AZ¨š— Aš—i ½fv‡e dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb G `yB wkíx| Zuviv MÖv ‡gi Rxeb, RbRxeb‡K Nwbôfv‡e cÖZ¨¶ K‡i‡Qb, cÖK…wZi †fZ‡ii RxebwU ch©‡e¶Y K‡i‡Qb, FZzP‡µi cvjve`j‡K Ges cÖK…w Zi †gRvR‡K AbymiY K‡i‡Qb Ges gvbyl I cÖK…wZi ci¯úi-wbweóZv‡K †`‡L‡Qb| gvbyl hLb cÖK…wZi †fZ‡i Ae¯’vb †bq Ges cÖK…wZI hLb gvby‡li Aš—tcy‡i GKUv RvqMv K‡i †bq, ZLb †h GKwU fvimvg¨ m„w ó nq, Zv nq GKwU Kvw•¶Z fvimvg¨| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji KíwPÎ/BgvwRbvwi‡Z GB fvimvg¨ GKwU ¯^Ztwm× welq| fvimvg¨wU bó n‡q‡Q hLb kn‡ii ivRbxwZ, e¯‘c „w_ex Avi A_©bxwZi nvZ hLb MÖv ‡gi †fZ‡i †cuŠ‡Q †Mj| Rqbyj-Kvgi“j MÖvgwbf©i †Kv‡bv BD‡Uvwcqv Auv‡Kbwb, Zuv‡`i KíwPÎI wbLv` †Kv‡bv BD‡Uvwcqv wQj bv| Gi KviY BD‡Uvwcqvi A‡bK Dcv`vb GgbwK †mvbvi evsjvi KíwP‡ÎI Abyc w¯’Z| ZviciI, Zuv‡`i KíwP‡Î kvwš— Ges myw ¯’iZv, gvby‡l gvby‡ l mym¤úK© I fv‡jvevmv, †Mvjvfiv avb I cyKzi fiv gv‡Qi Qwe wQj Ges me‡P‡q †ewk wQj m¤úbœ M„n I e¨w³MZ cwimi Ges Zvi evB‡i m¤úbœ mgvR Ges AevwiZ


we‡`ªvnx Rjis, 1951, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

mvgvwRK-ˆbmwM© K cwimi| Zuv ‡`i KíwP‡Î ZvB c~Y©Zv, mgv‡Ri myw¯’i Zv Ges e¨w³i bvbvb cwiwPwZi GKwU mgš^q †Pv‡L c‡o| Z‡e BD‡Uvwcqv bv Auv K‡jI G `yB wkíx wWm‡Uvwcqvi Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb| Rqby‡ji `ywf©‡ ¶i wPÎgvjv †_‡K wb‡q gbcyi vi g„Z gvbyl‡`i Qwe‡Z GB wWm‡Uvwcqv †Pv‡L c‡o| GKvËi wb‡q Kvgi“j †h wKQy Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb, †kqvj †gvwUdwU e¨envi K‡i Av‡iv wKQy Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb, †m¸wj‡ZI wWm‡Uvwcqvi Dcw¯’wZ j¶Yxq| Gme wWm‡Uvwcqv Auv K‡Z mgq Zuv ‡`i eva¨ Ki‡Q; Zuviv Gu‡K‡Qb †µva †_‡K, cÖwZev` wn‡m‡e| wKš‘ †µv‡ai m‡½ ggZvi GK AevK mgxKiYI Zuv iv

NwU‡q‡Qb| `ywf©‡ ¶i wPθwj Rqbyj Gu‡K‡Qb GK †Pv‡L Av¸b, Ab¨ †Pv‡L AkÖ“ wb‡q| Rxe‡bi m‡½ GKvZ¥ bv n‡j wk‡íi Aš—R©Mr wbðq Db¥xwjZ nq bv| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji Qwe‡Z Rxe‡bi m‡½ Zuv ‡`i GKvZ¥ n‡q hvIqvUv wb‡q Avwg fvwe| ïay cÖK…w Z bq, ïay gvbyl bq Ñ M„n¯’vwji hš¿¸wj, cïcvwL GmeI †mB GKvZ¥Zvi gyn~‡Z© ev•gq nq| Rqby‡ ji we‡`ªvnx luv owU ïay GKwU M„ncvwjZ Rš‘ n‡q _v‡Kwb, †_‡K‡Q cÖw Z‡iv‡ai GK AvBKb wn‡m‡e| Avgvi GK eÜz Kvgi“‡ji weL¨vZ †mB bvBIi hvIqvi Qwe †`‡L e‡jwQj, †h Mi“i Mvwo‡Z †g‡qwU


`yB mvcy‡o Kvwj I †gvg, 1972, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

bvBIi P‡j‡Q, †mB Mi“`yw UI †hb nvm‡Q| †m mvivRxeb MÖv ‡g †_‡K‡Q, Mi“‡K †m Kuv `‡Z †`‡L‡Q| GKwU evQyi ‡K gv-Mi“ †_‡K mwi‡q wb‡j gv-wU Kuv‡`| cïivI Kuv ‡`, Avb›` cÖKvk K‡i, Zv‡`iI †cÖg -fv‡jvevmv Kvg-†hŠbZvi cÖKvk N‡U| Gme Avgv‡`i MÖv gxY cÖv Z¨wnKZvi Ask| Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji cÖvZ¨wnKZv aiv c‡o GKvwaK gvÎvq Ñ †mLv‡b KvR Av‡Q, AeKvk Av‡Q, w`ev¯^cœ Av‡Q, cïcvwLi Avbv‡Mvbv Av‡Q Ñ Zv‡`i m‡½ Ges cÖK…wZi m‡½ gvby‡li Av`vb-cÖ`vb Av‡Q, cÖK…wZ-cïcvwLiI Rxeb Av‡Q, gvby‡li m½-wbtm½Zv Av‡Q| cÖvZ¨wnKZv‡K welq K‡i‡Qb Av‡iv A‡bK wkíx| wKš‘ Avgv‡K hv AevK K‡i, Rqbyj-Kvgi“‡ji cÖv Z¨wnKZvq †cŠbtcywbKZv †bB| GKB Qwe hw` Zuv iv wZbevi †`Lvb, †`Lv hv‡e wZbevi wZbwU wfbœ gvÎvq Zv‡`i Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| hw` Ni‡K †`Lvb, N‡ii †fZ‡ii A_ev N‡ii evB‡ii Rxeb‡K cÖavb-AcÖavb K‡i nq‡Zv †`¨vZbvi †ni‡di K‡ib| Rqby‡ ji GKwU Qwe Av‡Q, cÖmvabiZv igYxi| igYxi gyn~Z©wU wbR¯^, GKvš—, wKš‘ Zvi †Pv‡Li `„wó `~iwe¯—v ix| †Kv_vq †PvL †g‡j‡Q bvixwU? wb‡Ri Rxe‡b? wfbœ †Kv‡bv Rxe‡b A_ev w`M‡š—? †Kv‡bv AcÖ vwßi ev cÖvwßi A‡j? ¯^‡cœ? Zvi wbR¯^ cwimiwU‡K Zvi `„w ó GKUv wfbœ gvÎvq wb‡q hvq| A_ev Kvgi“‡ji †mB weL¨vZ Qwe, ÔDuwKÕ| GKwU †g‡q N‡ii †fZi †_‡K DuwK gvi‡Q, †`L‡Q evB‡ii c„w _ex‡K| Kx †`L‡Q †m? Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi, evB‡i hv NU‡Q, Zv mvgbvmvgwb †`L‡Z hvIqvi g‡Zv cÖ¯‘wZ Zvi †bB; A_ev †m `„‡k¨ Zvi Dcw¯’wZ Kvw•¶Z bq| wKš‘ hZ¶Y Avgiv Rvb‡Z bv cvwi Ñ Ges †Kv‡bvw`bB Zv Avgv‡`i Rvbv n‡e bv Ñ Kx †mB `„k¨ hv †g‡qwU †`L‡Q, ZZ¶Y Avgiv Zv wb‡q ïay KíbvB Ki‡Z cvwi| AevK KvÊ, Avgv‡`i cyi “lkvwmZ mgv‡R Duw K †g‡i †`LZ hw` †Kv‡bv cyi “l, Avgiv cÖ_‡gB a‡i wbZvg, †m †Kv‡bv bvix‡K †`L‡Q, nq‡Zv øvbiZv †Kv‡bv bvix‡K| wKš‘ DuwK w`‡”Q †h‡nZz GKwU †g‡q, cyi“lwPš—v i wbg© vY¸wj Avgv‡`i Avi Kv‡R jv‡M bv| GK bvixi cÖvZ¨wnKZvi PP©vq Kvgi“j Kx mn‡R e¨vL¨v-Abygv‡bi welq¸wj Awbw`©ó K‡i †dj‡jb, QwewUi †fZ‡i in‡m¨i GKUv gvÎv Xyw K‡q w`‡jb| Rqbyj-Kvgi“j ïay cÖvZ¨wnKZvi QweB Auv‡Kbwb, †mB cÖv Z¨wnKZv‡K KL‡bv-mL‡bv inm¨gq K‡i‡Qb, Zv‡Z AcwiP‡qi GKwU gvÎv w`‡q‡Qb, cyi “lfv‡l¨i evB‡i wb‡q †M‡Qb| GB cÖv Z¨wnKZvwU Aš—i ½, Kvw•¶Z; Gi †fZ‡i Ø›Ø _vK‡jI Zv aŸs‡mi w`‡K wb‡q hvq bv, `ytL-eÂbv _vK‡jI Zv-B GKgvÎ kZ© n‡q `uvovq bv| me‡P‡q eo K_v, GB cÖvZ¨wnKZvq cyi “l-bvixi Ae¯’v b †Kv‡bv Ae¯’vbµg †g‡b Av‡m bv| Rqby j-Kvgi“j RbRxe‡bi DËvcUz Kz aviY Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| Rqby‡ji Qwe‡Z GB DËv‡ci welqwU cÖ_ ‡gB e‡j †bIqv hvq| Zuvi Qwe‡Z g~ javivi evOvwj Av‡Q, muvIZvj Av‡Q, cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi b„‡Mvôxi gvbylRb Av‡Q; Av‡Q wdwjw¯—b A_ev wgki A_ev †gw·‡Kvi gvbylRbI| GB gvbyl¸wj cÖwZw`‡bi Kv‡R wjß Ñ A_ev Kv‡Ri duv‡K Aem‡i, A_ev cÖZx¶vq Ñ A_ev cÖK…w Z mgwc©Z, A_ev msMÖv giZ| gvbylR‡bi Rxe‡bi bvbv cÖKvk Auv K‡Z Zuv‡K mvnvh¨ K‡iwQj Zuv i ev¯—eZv| Rqby‡ji cÖavb ˆkjxwPš—v q wQj ev¯—eZv A_ev


wZb gyL Rjis, 1982, Kvgi“j nvmvb

e¯‘ Ges gvbyl, cwicvk¦© Ges gvby‡li I cÖK…wZi bvbv †gRv‡Ri cÖw ZwbwaZ¡k xj iƒcvqY| GB iƒcvq‡Y e¯‘ BZ¨vw`i gvwÎKZvi wZwb †ni‡di NUvbwb| R¨vwgwZ‡K ewnt¯’ web¨v‡mB Dc¯’v cb K‡i‡Qb| e¯‘ BZ¨vw`i Avš—t m¤ú‡K©I †Kv‡bv Kvi“Kv‡Ri AvkÖq †bbwb| Zuvi Qwe‡Z GKRb gvbyl GKRb gvby‡li, GKwU †bŠKv GKwU †bŠKvi Ges GKwU KvK GKwU Kv‡Ki Av`j wb‡qB Dcw¯’Z nq| wPÎc‡U m¤§yL -†cQ‡bi we¯—v i I Zv‡`i Abyc vZ A¶zYœ _v‡K, AvKvk-b`x-f~wg _v‡K Zv‡`i cwiwPZ w¯’wZ-Aw¯’wZ wb‡q| ev¯—eev`x Qwe‡Z AbyKí, AbyK…w Z Ges cÖw Ziƒc dzwU‡q †Zvjvi hZ cÖ‡qvRb-cÖ‡Yv`bv A_ev KiYxq _v‡K, Zvi meB †`Lv hvq Rqby‡ji Qwe‡Z, wKš‘ gv‡S gv‡S wZwb ev¯—e‡K wKQyU v cvk KvwU‡q hvb, ev¯—‡ei Mfx‡i †Kv‡bv Z‡ji mÜvb K‡ib, ev¯—‡ei wfbœ †Kv‡bv gvÎv †`b A_ev ev¯—‡ei Abyl½¸wj‡K cybwb©g©vY K‡ib| Zu vi bvix‡`i Rb¨ gv‡Sg‡a¨ wZwb gqgbwms‡ni cyZz‡ji Av`j msMÖn K‡ib,

we‡kl K‡i Dj­¤^ Mjv Ges AvqZ †Pv‡Li Ñ KviY wZwb Zv‡`i wbR¯^ gyn~Z© I cwim‡ii wfbœ GKwU e¨vL¨v w`‡Z Pvb| wZwb Zuvi muv IZvj hyeK ev bvix‡K Dj­¤^ GKwU †`nej­i x †`b, `vX©¨ †`b, gvwUi m‡½ m¤ú„w³i GKwU Bw½Z †`b, †h‡nZz G‡`i e¯‘R M‡Zi ¯úk©nxb cÖK…wZi mš—v b wn‡m‡e wZwb †`Lv‡Z Pvb| wZwb cÖZx‡Ki e¨envi K‡ib, hv‡Z ev¯—‡ei †fZ‡ii †Kv‡bv RwUjZv, A¯úóZv, KwVbZv-µzi Zv‡K wZwb Avjv`v K‡i †`Lv‡Z cv‡ib, A_ev GKUv AvZk Kv‡Pi ga¨ w`‡q e„nr K‡i Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cÖZx‡Ki e¨envi A‡bK ev¯—eev`x wkíxi KvR‡K eû¯—‡i A_©en K‡i‡Q, Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi †¶‡ÎI ZvB n‡q‡Q| Rqby‡ji ev¯—eZvq cÖZxKawg©Zv Av‡Q, e¨Äbv-†`¨vZbv Av‡Q Ges cÖavbZ Av‡Q AvL¨v‡bi MwZkxjZv| Zuvi Qwe¸wj RbRxe‡bi cÖv Z¨wnKZvi, msMÖv‡gi, Kg©gqZvi, `ytLK‡ói, Avb›`-D`&hvc‡bi GK GKwU AvL¨vb| Zuv i AvL¨v‡bi †cQ‡b


wZbwU m~Î Kvh©Ki : wZwb g~jZ cÖvZ¨wnKZv‡K Pjgvb GKwU RxebcÖ ev‡n ¯’vcb K‡i GK GKwU †d«‡g Zv‡K †`Lvb| †mRb¨ GKKfv‡e †m¸wj †hgb wewkó, mw¤§wjZfv‡eI †Zgwb GKwU e„nr wP‡Îi cÖ‡¶cY; Zuvi AvL¨v‡b cÖK…w Z _vK‡jI Gi cÖavb Kzkxje gvbyl Ñ †L‡U LvIqv gvbyl, cÖvwš—K gvbyl, Rxeb‡hv×v Ges iY‡hv×v; Ges Zuvi AvL¨vb Avgv‡`i †gŠwLK AvL¨vb¸wji g‡ZvB, Db¥y³| Zv‡`i †Kv‡bv hwZwPý †bB| GKwU AvL¨vb ZvB cwie¨vß n‡q wfbœ GKwU AvL¨vb‡K aviY Ki‡Z cv‡i| Rqby‡ji Qwe¸wj‡Z ZvwiL †`Iqv Av‡Q Ñ Zuv i gš^š —‡ii Qwe¸wj wØZxq gnvhy‡×i mg‡qi, Zuvi gbcyi vi Qwe¸wj mˇii cÖjq¼ix mvgyw`ªK NywY©S‡oi cieZx© BZ¨vw`| wKš‘ Zuvi AvL¨v‡bi †Kv‡bv ZvwiLwPý †bB| wZwb GKwU we‡kl mg‡qi K_v ej‡Z wM‡q †cQ‡b-mvg‡b A‡bK`~i P‡j hvb| `ywf© ‡¶i Qwe¸wj‡Z g„ZcÖv q I wecbœ gvbyl¸wj BwZnv‡m wPiKvjB D‡cw¶Z, gvby‡li ¶gZv I A_©-m¤úwËi †jv‡fi wkKvi| hviv GB `ywf©‡¶i cÖ‡KŠkjx; hviv `ywf©¶ ‡K cyuwR K‡i wm›`yK f‡i †d‡j‡Q UvKvq, †mB gnvR‡biv GKw`‡bi bq, wPiw`‡bi| Rqbyj G‡`i Qwe hLb Auv ‡Kb Ñ KvM‡R wecbœ‡`i Ges KvM‡Ri A`„k¨Z‡j we‡eKnxb‡`i Ñ Zuvi †Pv‡L eZ© gvbwU cÖavb n‡q _v‡K bv, eis wZwb Qwei `„‡k¨i wecix‡Z wfbœ GKwU Qwe †`‡Lb, †h-Qwe‡Z wecbœiv m¤úbœ, `ywf©‡¶i RvqMvq _v‡K mg„„w× Ges we‡eKnxb‡`i RvqMvq `uv wo‡q hvb we‡eKevb gvby‡ liv| GB QwewUB Rqby‡ji BgvwRbvwi| Kvgi“‡ji Qwe‡ZI †h-BgvwRbvwiwU Avgiv cvB, †h-KíwP‡Îi D™¢v m, Zv‡ZI GKwU weKí ev¯—eZv ¸i“Z¡c ~Y© n‡q `uvovq| Kvgi“‡ji Qwe‡Z is AZ¨š— m‡ZR, mej; bKkv Ges MxwZgq web¨vmI †Pv‡L covi g‡Zv, †hgb †Pv‡L covi welq MÖv gxY mijZv| Zuv i bvixiv inm¨gqx, Zv‡`i wN‡i Kíbv I †ivgv Wvbv †g‡j| bMœe¶v igYxiv cÖv Pxb A‡bK KíKvwnwb‡K g‡b Kwi‡q †`q, hv‡`i wb‡q ARš—v i †`qvjwPÎ Auv Kv n‡q‡Q, cv_‡i gvwU‡Z fv¯‹h© ˆZwi n‡q‡Q| GB igYxiv †cÖw gKv, `wqZv, Rbbx Ges gv| cyi“lZvwš¿K mgv‡Ri cÖPj‡K, cyi “l`„w ó‡K Aiw¶Z K‡i Kvgi“‡ji bvixiv †h Ae¯’v b †NvlYv K‡ib, Zv evOvwji BwZnvm-AvwkÖZ †mKz¨jvi wPš—v, kixi-wPš—v Ges mvgvwRK MwZkxjZvi wPš—v | Rqbyj I Kvgi“‡ji Qwei GKwU eo AvKl©Y Zuv‡`i kixi-fvebv| cÖv wš—K gvbylR‡bi A_©-m¤ú`-m¤úwË †bB, A‡b‡Ki †Kv‡bv wVKvbv †bB, wKš‘ Zv‡`i kixi Av‡Q| GB kixi Zv‡`i Aw¯—‡Z¡i wfwË| ïay †h KvwqK cwikÖg Zv‡`i euvwP‡q iv‡L, Zv bq, †`n‡K hLbB Zviv e¨envi K‡i, ZLbB RM‡Zi m‡½ Zv‡`i GKwU †hvMm~Î ¯’vwcZ nq (†h RMr Zv‡`i MYbvi g‡a¨ Av‡b bv)| †`n Zv‡`i cÖwZev‡`i fvlv, †`n Zv‡`i Aw¯—Z¡ i¶vi A¯¿| †`n w`‡q GwjU mgvR‡K Zviv Rvwb‡q †`q, Zviv Av‡Q| bvix‡`n Ñ †kÖwY wbwe©‡k‡l Ñ †h inm¨gqZv‡K Zz‡j a‡i, cÖvwš—K bvix Zv‡Z cyi “lZvwš¿K g~j¨wePv‡i wcwQ‡q _v‡K bv| Avi bvix hLb gv, ZLb †h cÖZx‡K Zvi Ae¯’v b _v‡K, Zv‡Z Zv‡K Ae‡njv Kiv Kv‡iv Rb¨ mnR nq bv| Rqbyj I Kvgi“j †ek K‡qKwU `„wó‡KvY †_‡K †`‡ni e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| Rqby‡ji Qwe‡Z cwikÖgx gvbyl, cÖv wš—K gvbyl †hgb Av‡Q, ¶zavZ©, wecbœ gvbylI †Zgwb Av‡Q| †hfv‡eB wZwb Zv‡`i †`n‡K Dc¯’vcbv K‡ib, Zuv i Qwe‡Z Rxe‡bi DËvc,

`yB †evb †Mvqvk, 1953, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b


¯úk©-MÜ Ges bvbvb ˆecixZ¨‡K ev•gq K‡i †Zv‡jb| Rqby‡ji bvix‡`n Kvgi“‡ji bvix‡`‡ni Zzjbvq Kg inm¨gq| Zuvi bvixiv A‡bK †ewk cwiwPZ; Zv‡`i MwÊI mxgve×| Kvgi“‡ji bvixiv cÖv Z¨wnKZv‡K Qvwo‡q GK wg‡_i RM‡Z P‡j hvq, cyi vY-wKse`wš—i bvix‡`i g‡Zv| Kvgi“‡ji Qwe‡ZI KvMR-K¨vbfvmRy‡o †`‡ni Dcw¯’w Z cÖej Ñ myjZv‡bi g‡Zv AZUv cÖej bv n‡jI KvQvKvwQ| Rqbyj-Kvgi“j wØZxq †h cwi‡cÖ w¶‡Z †`‡ni e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, Zv BD‡ivcxq †i‡bmuv ‡mi wkíx‡`i g‡Zv †`n‡K GKwU Abywek¦ wn‡m‡e iƒcvwqZ Kivi Rb¨| gvbyl mKj m„wói †K›`ª, A_ev, gvbyl‡K †K›`ª K‡iB wek¦RM‡Zi Ae¯’vb, GB wek¦v ‡m w¯’Z wQ‡jb GB `yB wkíxI| d‡j, gbyl¨‡Kw›`ªK Zuv‡`i we‡k¦ cÖv wš—K gvbylI GKw`b †K‡›`ª Zv‡`i RvqMv K‡i †b‡e Ñ G cÖZ¨qwU `yB wkíxiB wQj| Zuviv gvby‡li †`n Gu‡ K‡Qb A‡bK h‡Zœ, A‡bK fv‡jvevmvq| Zuv‡`i Kv‡Q EYRb-f`ªR‡bi †Kv‡bv ZviZg¨ wQj bv| eis EYR‡bi cÖwZB wQj Zuv ‡`i c¶cvwZZ¡| Rqbyj I Kvgi“j gbyl¨‡`‡n Av‡iKwU wel‡qi mÜvb K‡iwQ‡jb Ges Zv wQj mgxg-Amxg, Rxeb-g„Zz¨ Ges `„k¨gvb `„‡k¨i Aš—iv‡ji ˆØZZv| Rqbyj GKw`‡K g„Zz¨‡K Dc¯’v cb K‡i‡Qb †µva, nZvkv Ges cÖwZev` †_‡K; Ab¨w`‡K Rxeb‡K D`&hvcb K‡i‡Qb we¯§q I Avb›` wb‡q| Kvgi“‡j GB we¯§q‡evawU Av‡iv †ewk cÖej; Avb‡›`i cÖKvk¸wjI| gvbyl mvgvb¨ n‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ kix‡ii mvgvb¨ f~‡ Mv‡j gvbyl Amvgvb¨ Ñ GB wQj Zuv‡`i Dcjwä| GB Amvgvb¨Zv‡K Zuv iv D`&hvcb K‡i‡Qb, G‡Z A‡bK Awfwb‡ek wewb‡qvM K‡i‡Qb| Kvgi“‡ji bvixiv Zv‡`i inm¨gqZvq KZ mn‡RB Amxg‡K ¯úk© K‡i| Zv‡`i inm¨gqZvi welqwUB †Zv `„‡k¨i Aš—i v‡ji iƒc-i‡mi RM‡Z Zv‡`i AwawôZ K‡i| gvbe‡`‡ni cÖw Z Rqbyj I Kvgi“‡ji Av‡iv wQj GK mgvRZvwË¡K I b„ZvwË¡K AvMÖn| MÖv ‡gi mgvR‡K Zuviv `yRb Nwbôfv‡e c‡owQ‡jb : cyi “lZvwš¿K mgv‡Ri bvbv cÖKvk, AvPvi-AvPiY I wek¦v m-Kzms¯‹v‡ii wel‡q Zuv iv ÁvZ wQ‡jb : GKB m‡½ ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx Ges cÖv wš—K gvbylR‡bi RxebI Zuv iv Mfxifv‡e ch©‡e¶Y K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuv iv `yRbB BwZnv‡mi g‡bv‡hvMx QvÎ wQ‡jb| BwZnv‡mi bvbv euv K‡div Zuv ‡`i g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y KiZ| Zuv iv wek¦Ry‡o Dcwb‡ekx gb¯—Ë¡ Ges DËi-Dcwb‡ekx msMÖv‡gi m‡½I cwiwPZ wQ‡jb| evsjv‡`‡ki fvlv Av‡›`vjb †_‡K wb‡q gyw³hy× ch©š— mgqKv‡j evOvwji ¯^v RvZ¨wPš—v I gyw ³msMÖvg‡K Zuv iv cÖejfv‡e mg_©b K‡i‡Qb Ges bvbvfv‡e Gme msMÖv ‡g AskMÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| Rqbyj wdwjw¯— wb gyw ³‡hv×v‡`i m‡½ mngwg©Z v cÖ Kvk Ki‡Z c¨v‡j÷vBb wM‡q‡Qb| Zuv i Kvwj-Zzw j‡Z wZwb †mme gyw³‡hv×vi exiZ¡ I AvZ¥`vb‡K D`&hvcb K‡i‡Qb| gbcyiv wb‡q Rqbyj †h wekvj ¯ŒjwPÎ Gu‡KwQ‡jb, Zv cÖwZwU evOvwj‡K gyw³msMÖv ‡g cÖZ¨qx K‡iwQj| Avi Rqbyj hLb cvwK¯—v wb †Rbv‡ij Bqvwnqvi Qwe Gu‡K Gme Rv‡bvqvi‡K i“‡L †`Iqvi WvK †`b, gyw³hy‡ ×i mvivUv mgq Zv wQj cÖwZ‡iv‡ai GKwU gš¿| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b Aek¨ DËi-Dcwb‡ekx msMÖv‡gi GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© ch©v q †mB 1948 mv‡jB ev¯—evqb Kiv ïi“ K‡ib| Ges G ch©vqwU wQj mvs¯‹…wZK cÖwZ‡iv‡ai| cvwK¯—vb ivóª ïi“

bwMœKv Rjis, 1979, Kvgi“j nvmvb


¸YUvbv †Mvqvk, 1955, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

†_‡KB wQj GKwU APjvqZb| cvwK¯—v wb kvmK‡`i G‡`kxq †`vm‡iiv Ñ cÖavbZ gymwjg jxM Nivbvi f~¯^v gx I Z_vKw_Z GwjU †kÖw Y I cieZx©Kv‡j ag©w fwËK bvbv `j Ñ Avgv‡`i evsjv fvlvfvlx cwiPq‡K A¯^xKvi K‡i AvmwQj| cvwK¯—v wb kvmKiv wQj evOvwj ms¯‹…w Zi we‡ivax| Zviv fv¯‹h©‡K weagx© AvL¨v w`‡q‡Q| wewfbœ mg‡q bRi“j Bmjvg‡K ÔBmjvgxÕ †cvkvK civ‡Z †P‡q‡Q| iex›`ªmsMxZ wbwl× Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Q| †mB cÖwZK‚j cwi‡e‡k K‡qK mnKgx©i mn‡hvwMZvq Rqbyj hLb Zuv i wPÎKjvi ¯‹zjwU †Lv‡jb, NUbvwU Avek¨Kfv‡eB Ges †gŠwjKfv‡eB wQj wec­ex| fve‡Z AevK jv‡M, ¯^vaxbZvi cÖvq Pvi `kK ciI XvKv wegvbe›`‡ii mvg‡b GKwU evDj fv¯‹h© emv‡Z wM‡q †gŠjev`x‡`i cÖwZ‡iv‡ai gy‡L wcQcv n‡qwQj Ôgyw³hy‡×i c‡¶i miKviÕ| A_P †mB 1948 mv‡j gvÎ K‡qKR‡bi mn‡hvwMZvq Rqbyj G‡`‡k wkíKjv wk¶vi cÖ_g Ges cÖavb †K›`ªw Ui †MvovcËb K‡ib| Rqbyj I Kvgi“‡ji Qwe wb‡q `ywU cÖ`k© bx †`L‡Z wM‡q Avgvi ev‡i ev‡i g‡b n‡q‡Q, Zuv‡`i nvZ a‡iB Kxfv‡e ïi“

n‡jv wkíKjvq Avgv‡`i behvÎvwU| Rqby j hLb Zuv i ¯‹zjwU ïi“ K‡ib, Zvi A‡bK Av‡M Kz wo kZ‡Ki G‡Kev‡i †Mvovi w`‡K Lyjbvq GKwU AvU© ¯‹zj wQj e‡U, wKš‘ Zvi cwiwPwZ wQj mxgve×, Zvi AwfNvZI †Zgb e¨vcK wQj bv| ZvQvov, IB ¯‹zj †_‡K cvm Kiv †Kv‡bv wkíx †h wbiew”Qbœ wkíPP©v K‡i‡Qb, ZvI bq| ejv hvq, Rqby‡ ji nvZ a‡iB G‡`‡k Avay wbK wkíPP© vi ïi“| A_P gvÎ `k-ev‡iv eQ‡i, wZwb I Zuv i mn‡hvMxiv cvwK¯— v‡bi wkíKjvi RM‡Z mvg‡bi Avmb¸wj `Lj K‡i wb‡jb| Rqbyj Aek¨ me©fviZxq GKwU cwiwPwZ BwZg‡a¨B Av`vq K‡i wb‡qwQ‡jb| mwdDÏxbKvgi“‡ji g‡Zv wkíxivI cwiwPZ nw”Q‡jb cwðge½ Qvwo‡q fvi‡Zi Ab¨ÎI| XvKvq e‡m wkíPP©v K‡i fvi‡Z cwiwPZ n I q v i iv¯—v Uv Aek¨ eÜ n‡q wM‡qwQj Zu v‡`i; wKš‘ cvwK¯—v ‡bi wkíKjvq Zu v‡`i AMÖ-Ae¯’v b Zuv ‡`i GKUv my‡ hvM K‡i w`‡qwQj evB‡i cwiwPwZ cvIqvi| Rqbyj -mwdDÏxb-myjZvb mK‡jB jÛ‡b cÖ` k©bx K‡i‡Qb| evsjv‡`‡ki wkíPP©v


Av‡›`vj‡bi ïi“ †_‡KB GB ewntms‡hvM Ges cwiwPwZ GKwU Kvh©Ki f~wgKv †i‡L‡Q| GKRb wkíx GKB m‡½ wkí¸i“ Ges GKwU bZzb wkí Av‡›`vj‡biI cÖavb cy ‡ivwnZ Ñ GgbwU Rqbyj Qvov Avi Kv‡iv †¶‡Î fvevUv gykwKj| cwð‡gi bvbv wkí Av‡›`vj‡b, cy‡ei bvbv †`‡ki AvaywbK wkíPP©v Av‡›`vj‡b bvbv cÖwZôvb I e¨w³i mshyw³ †Pv‡L c‡o| Rqby‡ji †cQ‡b †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb GgbwK miKv‡ii mg_©b wQj bv| Zuvi mg_©b ej‡Z wQj K‡qKRb wbôvevb mnKgx©i K‡g©v‡`¨vM| GKRb wkí¸i“ wn‡m‡e Zuv‡K A‡bK wKQy we‡ePbv Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| wZwb ¯^v”Q›`¨ †eva Ki‡Zb ev¯—eev`x ixwZ‡Z| wKš‘ GKmgq †h wZwb weg~Z© Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb, Zv m¤¢eZ bZzb GKwU ixwZ evwR‡q †`Lvi Rb¨ : G-avivi cÖwZ Zuv i mnKgx© I QvÎQvÎx‡`i Drmvn I g‡bvfvewU †evSvi Rb¨| wZwb weg~Z©ixwZ‡Z wKQyUv Avoó wQ‡jb e‡j Avgvi g‡b n‡q‡Q Ges GB ixwZ‡K wZwb `~‡iB †i‡L‡Qb †ewkifvM mgq| wKš‘ †h-KwU Qwe wZwb GB ixwZ‡Z Gu‡K‡Qb, g‡b n‡q‡Q, GKRb wkí¸i“i AvMÖn wb‡qB wZwb Zv K‡i‡Qb; †hb †`L‡Z †P‡q‡Qb, GB avivi welqAvkq‡K, Gi KjKâv¸wj‡K| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b I Kvgi“j nvmvb ïay wkíxB wQ‡jb bv, Zuviv `yR b wQ‡jb evOvwj RvwZi wPiš—b cwiwPwZi iƒcKvi| bvbv gbxlx bvbvfv‡e GwU K‡i‡Qb Ñ AvjvIj-jvjb †_‡K wb‡q iex›`ªbv_-bRi“j-Rxebvb›`-kvgmyi ivngvb-ˆmq` nK; G `yB wkíx K‡i‡Qb is-Kvwj-Zzwj‡Z| Ges GwU Ki‡Z wM‡q Zuviv GKw`‡K kiY wb‡q‡Qb G RvwZi b„ZË¡-mgvRZË¡-BwZnv‡m, Ab¨w`‡K `„w ó w`‡q‡Qb Zvi msMÖv g I ¯^v axbZv wPš—v q, Avevi GKB m‡½ Nwbôfv‡e dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb Zvi cÖ wZw`‡bi Rxeb‡K, Zvi cÖv Z¨wnKZvi bvbv PP©v‡K| Qwe¸wj †`L‡Z †`L‡Z Avgvi g‡b n‡q‡Q, GKwU RvwZi GZ¸wj cÖKvk‡K GKm‡½ aviY Ki‡Z hvIqvi †cQ‡b Zuv‡`i GKwU AvKv•¶v wQj Ñ me©Kv‡ji Rb¨ Gi bvbvb m¤¢v ebv-¯^cœ-mw`”Qvi GKwU Kíiƒc ev BgvwRbvwi ˆZwi Kiv| Qwe¸wj Avwg †`‡LwQ Ges †mB Kíiƒ‡ci mÜvb †c‡qwQ Ñ cy‡ivUv bv n‡jI hZUv Avgv‡K DØy× Ki‡Z cv‡i, mvg‡b ZvKv‡bvi cÖ ‡Yv`bv w`‡Z cv‡i, eZ©g vb ev¯—‡ei GKwU weKí Dcnvi w`‡Z cv‡i, ZZUv| G `yB wkíxi †iLvwPÎ memgq Avgv‡K gy» K‡i| GZ mej-cÖ ej †iLv, †iLvi GZUv mnR MwZgqZv Kxfv‡e D‡V G‡jv Zuv ‡`i KvM‡R-K¨vbfv‡m, Zv fve‡Z wM‡q g‡b n‡jv, Avgv‡`i wbm‡M©i †h-†Kv‡bv w`M‡š— †PvL †dj‡jB †Zv †iLvi we¯—v i Ñ cvwLi †PvL w`‡q GKwU b`x‡K †`L‡jB †Zv Kvgi“‡ji bvix‡`‡ni †WŠj †Pv‡L c‡o| Zuv iv wbmM©‡K wbweófv‡e c‡o‡Qb e‡j wbmM© †_‡KB †iLv wb‡q‡Qb, is wb‡q‡Qb; wbm‡M©i ¯^”QZv wb‡q‡Qb, R‡ji mnR cÖevn wb‡q‡Qb| Rqby j-Kvgi“‡ji welqe¯‘, ˆkjx Ges cQ‡›`i g‡a¨ wfbœZv wQj Ñ Ges †mwUB ¯^v fvweK| wKš‘ GK RvqMvq Zuv‡`i wgj wQj Ñ Zuv iv Zuv ‡`i Qwei RMrUv‡K Nwbôfv‡e †jvKRxe‡bi m‡½ wgwj‡q‡Qb| †jvKRxe‡bi ev¯—e Zuv‡`i Drmvn w`‡q‡Q GKwU Kíiƒc m„wó‡Z| †mwU Ki‡Z Zuv iv `yRbB `vi“Y mdj n‡q‡Qb| Ges †mRb¨B evsjv‡`‡ki wkíKjv gvÎ Qq-mv‡o Qq `k‡K GZUv DrKl© AR©b Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q| 

cÖmvab †Zjis, 1953, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b


hZ Avgvi eqm evo‡Q †ev i nv b D wÏ b Lv b Rv nv ½x i

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Z Avgvi eqm evo‡Q, hZ †`kvš—‡i hvIqv evo‡Q, ZZB evo‡Q †Pv‡Li AwfÁZv| †Pv‡Li w`K †_‡K ZvKv‡bv, wek¦gq ZvKv‡bv| ZvKv‡jB †eu ‡P _vKvi AwfÁZv wfo K‡i Av‡m| Gme AwfÁZvB GKRb wkíxi m‡½ Ab¨ GKRb wkíxi ZdvZ ˆZwi K‡i D™¢veb I Avwe®‹v‡ii w`K †_‡K| †mRb¨ wkí KL‡bv wbivc` bq, †PvL Qvov| wkíx‡`i †Pv‡L R‡ov nq me ai‡bi AwfÁZv : ˆbmwM©K AwfÁZv †_‡K cÖvwYRM‡Zi AwfÁZv †_‡K Dw™¢` RM‡Zi AwfÁZv †_‡K we‡k¦i wewfbœ †¯ú‡mi AwfÁZv| GB AwfÁZvi wfwË wbwg©Z mËv| GB mËvq Qov‡bv bZzb Z¡, GKB m‡½ cÖvZ¨wnKZvi WKz‡g‡›Ukb| mv`vgvUv e¨w³KZv Zuviv e¨envi K‡ib; cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki ˆ`bw›`b e¨w³KZvi †K›`ª Zuv‡`i AwfÁZv, GB AwfÁZv Abyc y•Lfv‡e Zuv‡`i Kv‡R aiv †`q| Zuviv wb‡R‡`i D™¢veb K‡ib : wb‡R‡`i AwfÁZv| GB D™¢vebB mve‡R± wn‡m‡e Zuv‡`i mËvi MVb| Abb¨ e¨w³K mËvi D™¢veb n‡”Q Zuv‡`i KvR, †`Lv I eY©b vi welq| mv`vgvUv mËvi D™¢veb Ab¨‡`i, cvewj‡Ki †`Lvi Ae‡R± wn‡m‡e Zuviv cix¶v K‡ib, †m-cix¶vq mijZv Zuviv e¨vL¨v I e¨envi K‡ib; wKš‘ mijZv †kl ch©š— mijZv bq, mijZv n‡”Q cÖZ viK AwfÁZv| GB AwfÁZv wb‡R‡`i †Pv‡L Ges Ab¨‡`i †Pv‡L D™¢veb K‡i †`k, mgvR, ivóª| cy•Lvbyc y•LZvi wek` we¯—„wZ Zuviv cvewj‡Ki †Pv‡L Zz‡j a‡ib Ges GLv‡bB cvewj‡Ki wePvi| Gfv‡e Zuviv wb‡R‡`i wjev‡ik‡bi gva¨g K‡i †Zv‡jb| GB hvÎv ˆ`bw›`b‡K aivi †Póv, †mRb¨ Zuv‡`i Kv‡R D™¢vwmZ ivRbxwZ| Avgv‡`i mgvRe¨e¯’vq wbh©vZb Av‡Q, †K¬` Av‡Q, †K¬k Av‡Q| †mRb¨ Zuviv †f‡e‡Qb, wk‡íi

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GKUv AwbðqZv Avgv‡K Av‡óc„‡ô Rwo‡q †i‡L‡Q : gyZ©Rv ekxi mgKvjxb wkíKjvq nv‡Z‡Mvbv †h KRb wkíx Zuv‡`i ¯^vZš¿¨‡eva I ¯^KxqZvq wewkóZv AR©b K‡i †`k-we‡`‡k evsjv‡`‡ki mybvg‡K `k w`M‡š— Qwo‡q w`‡q‡Qb gyZ©Rv ekxi Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| wkí-mgv‡jvPKiv Zuvi KvR‡K, Zuvi wk‡íi fzeb‡K Ab¨ `kR‡bi †P‡q wfbœgvÎvi e‡j D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb| Zuviv ej‡Qb, GB wkíx weivwk eQi eq‡m G‡mI A‡bK †ewk m„wókxj| gyZ©Rv ekx‡ii me‡P‡q eo ˆewkó¨ wZwb KL‡bv †Kv‡bv GKwU e„‡Ë Ave× n‡q hvbwb| Zuvi wkí wbg©v‡Y wZwb wbiš—i fvOvMovi †Ljv †L‡j‡Qb, hv mgKvjxb wkíKjvi †KD K‡ibwb| GKB Qvc wZwb Zuvi KweZv, Mí, Dcb¨v‡mi †¶‡ÎI cÖ‡qvM K‡i‡Qb| m¤cÖwZ wkí I wkíxi m‡½ `xN© AvjvcPvwiZvq wZwb Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zuvi Rxe‡bi bvbv K_v| mv¶vrKvi wb‡q‡Qb gvney e †iRv

wkí I wkíx : GK Rxe‡b †Zv KZ wKQyB PvIqvi wQj Ñ A‡bK‡K G-iKg Av‡¶c Ki‡Z †kvbv hvq| †Zv Avcbvi Rxe‡bI wK †m-iKg PvIqvi wKQy wQj? gyZ©Rv ekxi : Avgvi Avw_©K m”QjZvi w`‡K †Kv‡bvw`bB †jvf wQj bv| Avwg GKRb mvaviY gvby‡li g‡Zv f`ªfv‡e Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ, †hLv‡b A‡_©i †RŠjym _vK‡e bv| ZvB A_©msµvš— e¨vcv‡i Avgvi †Kv‡bv Av‡¶c †bB| †Kbbv Avwg mi¯^Zx‡KB †P‡qwQjvg, j²xi Øvi¯’ nBwb| d‡j eqmI Avgv‡K A_©wPš—v ev msmvi Pvjv‡bvi `ywðš—vq Rwo‡q †i‡L‡Q| †Kbbv Avwg †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi m‡½ RwoZ bB, †hLvb †_‡K wKQy A‡_©i †RvMvb Av‡m| Avwg Kgvwk©qvj KvR A_©vr eB‡qi cÖ”Q` wKsev AjsKiYI Kwi bv; hw`I A‡bK weËevb †jvK g‡b K‡ib, Avwg L¨vwZgvb, ZvB Avgv‡K w`‡q Zuv‡`i cwiev‡ii cÖwZK…wZ AuvK‡Z e‡jb| wKš‘ Avwg †mUvI Kwi bv| Avwg PÆMÖv g wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Aem‡ii ci †h †cbkb cvIqvi K_v Zv Avgvi GB gwYcyixcvovi d¬¨vU †Kbvi Rb¨ cy‡ivUvB wewµ K‡i w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| UzKUvK wKQy Qwe wewµ Qvov Avi †Kv_vI A‡_©i c_ †bB| ZvB GK ai‡bi AwbðqZv Avgv‡K memgqB Av‡óc„‡ô Rwo‡q †i‡L‡Q| Avwg Rxe‡b A‡bK wKQy Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ| †hgb Mí, KweZv I Dcb¨vm wjL‡Z †P‡qwQ| †P‡qwQ M‡elYv Ki‡Z, A_©v r

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fviZe‡l©i wkíKjvi mvgvwRK BwZnv‡m wLªóc~e© 3000 †_‡K 1200 Aã ch©š— wjL‡Z †P‡qwQ| Gme †jLvi Rb¨ Avwg wn›`y I †eŠ× ag©M Öš’, RvZK I Kvwnwb Ges cyivY QvovI cÖP zi eB c‡owQ Ges †bvUI wb‡qwQ| The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization MÖ‡š’i iPwqZv cwÊZ G Gm Aj‡UKv‡ii Rb¥kZevwl©Kx ¯§i‡Y 1998 mv‡j cvUbv wek¦we`¨vjq I fvi‡Zi ¯^vaxbZvi myeY© Rqš—x Dcj‡¶ cÖKvwkZe¨ MÖ‡ š’i Rb¨ Anthropological Survey of India Avgvi Kv‡Q †jLvi Avgš¿Y Rvwb‡qwQj Ges cÖe‡Üi UvB‡Uj cvVv‡Z e‡j| Avwg h_vµ‡g ÔSensuality in the Buddhist MonasteryÕ I ÔThrough Artisan Vision : Upper Strata Society in Bengal’ Zv‡`i cvVvB| wKš‘ gvbwmK Z…w ß †_‡K Abœw Pš—v cÖavb n‡q I‡V| d‡j, Avgvi Avi †jLv n‡q I‡Vwb| Zv Qvov K. Life of the Europeans in the Teracotta Art of Bengal, L. Artists From Ancient and Medieval Bengal, M. Erotic Art of Bengal QvovI N. ˆew`K mswnZvq iƒcK I cÖZxK, O. cweÎ †KviAv‡b iƒcK I cÖZxK, P. †KviAv‡b RvbœvZ, Rvnvbœvg I wKqvgZ cÖm½ Ñ G¸‡jv wb‡q †jLvi cwiKíbv wQj| Dc‡iv³ welq¸‡jv †jLvi Rb¨ wewea MÖš ’ I M‡elYvg~jK cÖeÜ Avgv‡K `xN©mgq a‡i co‡Z n‡q‡Q| d‡j Qwe AuvKvi †¶‡Î g‡bv‡hvM w`‡Z cvwiwb| ZvB Avgvi GKgvÎ Av‡qi c_ AwbðqZvi AÜKv‡i nvwi‡q hvq| ZLb Avgvi Kv‡Q cÖavb j¶¨ n‡q I‡V †c‡U fvZ, ¯¿x-Kb¨v-cy‡Îi gy‡L nvwm| ZvB 1998-†Z wek¦w e`¨vjq †_‡K Aem‡ii ci Avevi eva¨ n‡q Qwe Au vKvi RM‡Z wd‡i Avwm| Avwg evsjvi gw›`‡ii †Uiv‡KvUvi KvR †`Lvi Rb¨ 1993 mv‡j gvVch© v‡q cwðge‡½ AvUwU †Rjvi 125wU MÖvg Ges 1996 mv‡j 9wU †Rjvi 150wU MÖv g ch©‡e¶Y K‡iwQ| wKš‘ c‡i †m¸‡jv wb‡qI Avwg wjwLwb| Avgv‡K A‡b‡KB e‡jb Gme wjL‡Z| wKš‘ Avwg †Zv cwÊZ nIqvi Rb¨ Gme ch©‡e¶Y Kwiwb| Avwg K‡iwQ wb‡R‡K mg„× Kivi Rb¨| †hfv‡e cvj hy‡ Mi wPÎKjvi Ici Avwg we‡j‡Z cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡iwQ| cvj hy‡ Mi wPÎKjvi Ici mimx Kzg vi mi¯^ Zxi †h MÖš’ Dcnvi w`‡q‡Qb, Avwg Zvi †_‡KI †ewk wPÎ †`‡LwQ| †Kbbv †h-mgq wZwb G-MÖš’ iPbv K‡iwQ‡jb ZLb †mB wPθ‡jv Avwe®‹…Z nqwb| Avgvi me‡P‡q fv‡jv jvM‡Q GRb¨ †h, Avwg GKRb Z…òvZzi cw_K, †h R‡ji A‡š^lvq weivb cÖvš—‡i †QvUvQyw U K‡i Ae‡k‡l R‡ji KjKj aŸwb ïb‡Z †c‡qwQ wKš‘ †`wLwb| KRbB ev GB kã ïb‡Z cvq? GUvB Avgvi me‡P‡q eo Z…wß| GRb¨ Avgvi Rxe‡b †Kv‡bv Av‡¶c †bB| Avwg g„Zz¨i mgq fvee, evsjvi wkíKjvi HwZ‡n¨i †fZi w`‡q Avwg AeMvnb K‡iwQ Ges µ‡g µ‡g c~Y© gvbe n‡q DVwQ| wkí I wkíx : evev fvlvwe` I cwÊZ W. gyn¤§` knx`yj­v n&i m‡½ Avcbvi †Kgb m¤úK© wQj? Zv‡K wK fq-Uq †c‡Zb? gyZ©Rv ekxi : wZwb ivkfvix gvbyl wQ‡jb| Avgvi Ávb nIqvi ci hv †`‡LwQ Zv wQj wKQyUv `~i‡Z¡i| GKgvÎ mKv‡j I mܨvq bvgvR cov Qvov Zuvi m‡½ †`Lv n‡Zv bv| wZwb †m bvgv‡Ri BgvgwZ Ki‡Zb Ges †m bvgv‡R mš—vb‡`i Dcw¯’Z _vKvUv wQj eva¨Zvg~jK| Avgvi gv‡K †K›`ª K‡iB wQj Avgv‡`i Rxeb| Z‡e †Q‡j‡ejvq †`‡LwQ, wek¦w e`¨vjq †_‡K gv‡mi cÖ_g w`b †eZb †c‡q wZwb †Uwe‡j mg¯— UvKv wewQ‡q

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Avqbvi mvg‡b Zi“Yx RyU K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1959


kª×vÄwj (bKkv) wmivwgK UvBjm, 1996

b‡Uvwiqvm Ai †dgvm Ñ Avcwb Avcbvi evevi GB K_v¸‡jv‡K Avcbvi Rxe‡bi Uvwb©s c‡q›U e‡j‡Qb| †Kb? gyZ©Rv ekxi : ZLbKvi w`‡b gv‡b wefv‡MvËi gd¯^j kn‡i wZb ai‡bi †jvK AZ¨š— m¤§vwbZ wQ‡jb Ñ 1. wWGg (wWw÷ª± g¨vwR‡÷ªU), 2. wmwfj mvR©b I 3. K‡j‡Ri Aa¨¶| Avgvi wcZv 1943 †k‡l XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Aem‡ii ci e¸ovq Avwhhyj nK K‡j‡Ri Aa¨¶ wn‡m‡e †hvM`vb K‡ib| e¸ov ZLb †QvU GKwU wQgQvg kni| KjKvZvi m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM wQj Zv‡`i †ewk| d‡j wk¶v I ms¯‹…w Zi w`K †_‡K Zviv wQj A‡bK DbœZ| e¸ovq hLb hvB Avwg XvKvi beKzg vi Bbw÷wUDU †_‡K Aóg †kÖwY cov †kl K‡iwQ| †QPwj­k mv‡j beg †kÖwY‡Z fwZ© n‡qwQjvg Avwg| wcZv L¨vwZgvb, d‡j ¯‹z‡j QvÎ-wk¶K‡`i g‡a¨ Avgvi GKwU ¯^Zš¿ RvqMv ˆZwi n‡qwQj| wcZvi cwiP‡q wQj AvZ¥Mwigv, d‡j †m QvÎB †nvK wKsev wk¶KB †nvK Avwg KvD‡K †Zvqv°v KiZvg bv| d‡j wb‡Ri B”Qvg‡Zv Pjv‡div KiZvg, GKUv †Wv›U †Kqvi fve wQj| hLb `kg †kÖwY‡Z cwo ZLb eÜz‡`i m‡½ GKUv evwR n‡qwQj †h gyKzj †dŠ‡Ri †g‡qiv †h jvBb K‡i hv‡”Q Zvi †fZi w`‡q Avwg mvB‡Kj Pvwj‡q P‡j †h‡Z cvie wK bv| ZLb Avgvi GKUv i¨v‡j mvB‡Kj wQj| Avwg †mB †g‡q‡`i jvB‡bi †fZi w`‡q mvB‡Kj Pvwj‡q w`‡qwQjvg| GKwU †g‡q mvB‡K‡ji AvNv‡Z

c‡o †Mj| c‡i †m D‡V Avgv‡K fxlYfv‡e MvjvMvj K‡i ejj, GUv wK †Zvgvi evevi iv¯—v ? Dˇi Avwg ejjvg, bv, Z‡e cÖ‡qvRb n‡j Zv K‡i †be| ¯‹z‡ji Kv‡QB wQj GKRb mve†iwR÷ªv‡ii evwo| wZwb NUbvwU †`‡LwQ‡jb| wZwb Avgv‡K †W‡K ej‡jb, †LvKv, Zzwg AvR‡K hv Ki‡j Ab¨ †KD Ki‡j Zv‡K gviai Kiv n‡Zv| wKš‘ Zzwg W. gyn¤§` knx`yj­vn& mv‡n‡ei cyÎ e‡j †KD wKQy ejj bv| Z‡e g‡b †i‡Lv, †Zvgvi wcZv wPiw`b †eu‡P _vK‡eb bv| ZLb †Zvgv‡K †KD †invB †`‡e bv| †MŠZg ey× gnvwb®Œg‡Y hvIqvi Av‡M †h wZbwU NUbv Zuv‡K Av‡jvwoZ K‡iwQj wVK †Zgwb GB NUbvUv Avgvi †fZi GK ai‡bi Av‡jvob m„wó K‡i| ZLbB Avwg Dcjwä Kijvg Ñ wb‡R‡K †Luv Rvi A‡š^lY Kijvg| GKwU eo Mv‡Qi wb‡P †hgb †QvU MvQ Rb¥v‡Z cv‡i bv, †Zgwb Avgvi g‡b n‡jv, wm›`vev‡`i Nv‡o †P‡c _vKv †mB e„ׇK (wcZv) Avwg hw` Avgvi Ici †_‡K bv bvwg‡q †dj‡Z cvwi Avgvi gyw³ †bB| GKB mg‡q Av‡iKwU NUbv N‡UwQj| ¯‹z‡ji cÖavb wk¶‡Ki Kv‡Q Avgvi GB `yiš—cbvi bvwjk †Mj| Avgvi bvbviKg `yiš—cbvi K_v ¯‹z‡ji cÖavb wk¶K evey b‡i›`ª †gvnb †PŠayixi Kv‡b hvq| wZwb Avgv‡K †W‡K cvVvb| cÖavb wk¶‡Ki N‡i †Pqv‡i e‡mwQ‡jb mnKvix cÖavb wk¶K I Avgv‡`i A‡¼i gv÷vi evey b‡i›`ª †gvnb †Xvj| A‡¼i gv÷vi


Avgv‡K Lye †øn Ki‡Zb| Avwg cÖavb wk¶‡Ki mvg‡bi †Uwe‡j `ynv‡Z fi w`‡q `uvovjvg| †nWgv÷vi iv‡M w¶ß n‡q †M‡jb Ges ej‡jb, wVK n‡q `uvovI| Avwg wVK eyS‡Z cviwQjvg bv Avgvi Ab¨vqUv Kx| ZLb wKš‘ eyS‡Z cvwiwb †nWgv÷v‡ii †Uwe‡j `ynvZ †i‡L `uv ov‡bvUv †eqv`we| b‡i›`ª †gvnb †Xvj Avgv‡K ej‡jb, ekxi, †Uwej †_‡K nvZ `y‡Uv bvgvI| ZLbB Avwg eyS‡Z cvijvg Avgvi Ab¨vqUv Kx! ivMZ ¯^‡i †nWgv÷vi ej‡jb, Avwg †Zvgvi m¤ú‡K© †Zvgvi wcZvi Kv‡Q bvwjk Kie| Avwg ZLb Avgvi Ans‡eva †_‡K DËi w`jvg, Avcwb †nWgv÷vi Avgvi wcZv Aa¨¶, Zuvi mvg‡b hvevi †hvM¨Zv Avcbvi †bB| wZwb wew¯§Z n‡q Avgvi w`‡K ZvwK‡q _vK‡jb, Avgvi evevi Kv‡b Gme bvwjk AvmZ| wZwb Avgv‡K ej‡jb, †Zvgvi K¬v‡mi Bs‡iwR MÖvgvi eB‡q Zzwg c‡o‡Qv bv, wcÖwÝcvj (Principal)-wcÖbwmcj (Principle), Gwg‡b›U (Eminent)Bwg‡b›U (imminent), b‡Uvwiqvm (Notorious) A¨vÛ †dgvm (Famous)| Zvici wZwb Bs‡iwR‡Z ej‡jb, BD Avi gvB mvb, AvB`vi b‡Uvwiqvm Ai †dgvm, †Wv›U we wgwWIKvi|

gyL g¨v‡mvbvB‡U †Zjis I j¨vKvi, 1962

ZLbB Avgvi Lye B‡”Q n‡jv, Avwg L¨vwZgvb ne| evevi Kv‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i †ek K‡qKwU wPwV wQj Avi wQj `x‡bk P›`ª †mb, mybxwZKzgvi P‡Ævcva¨vq, Kvq‡Kvev` cÖg‡y Li wPwV| Avwg AevK n‡q fveZvg, Guiv Avgvi evev‡K †P‡bb! Avwg Avgvi evevi g‡Zv ne| †mB evmbv †_‡KB Avwg L¨vwZgvb e¨w³‡`i Kv‡Q wPwV wjLZvg, Zuv ‡`i A‡UvMÖv d PvBZvg| Zuv iv Avgvi wPwVi cÖZz¨Ë‡i A‡UvMÖv d cvVv‡Zb| †hgb ZLbKvi †ebvim wn›`y wek¦we`¨vj‡qi DcvPvh© Ges cieZx©Kv‡j fvi‡Zi ivóªcwZ me©cj­x ivavK…òY, Kvk¥x‡ii †kL Ave`yj­vn, cÖ_g evOvwj f‚c h©UK whwb mvB‡K‡j ågY K‡i‡Qb, †mB ivgbv_ wek¦vm, PÆMÖv g A¯¿vMvi jyɇbi †bZv Aw¤^Kv PµeZx©, Abš— wms Ges ¯‹z‡ji cvV¨eB‡q huv‡`i KweZv c‡owQ †mB Kwe †kLi Kvwj`vm ivq I Kzgy`iÄb gwj­K| GgbwK evevi †Uwe‡j ivLv †iwgsUb c¨v‡Wi KvM‡R cix¶vi LvZv KvUvi jvj-bxj †cbwmj w`‡q is KiZvg| RInijvj †bni“ ZLb fvi‡Zi cÖavbgš¿x | Zuv i GKwU cÖw ZK…wZ Gu‡K w`wj­‡Z cvwV‡qwQjvg Ges †mB m‡½ Zuv i A‡UvMÖv dmn GKwU Qwe cvVv‡Z Aby‡iva Rvwb‡qwQjvg| wZwb bvg mB Kiv Qwe‡Z †m‡Þ¤^ i Õ48 wj‡L Avgv‡K cvwV‡qwQ‡jbI|


igYx K¨vbfv‡m A¨vwµwjK, 2006

wkí I wkíx : Rxe‡b wkíx n‡eb Ñ G iKg a¨vb-aviYv ev wek¦v m KLb †_‡K Avcbvi †fZi †cÖvw_Z n‡Z ïi“ Kij? gv‡b ej‡Z Pvw”Q Gi †cQ‡b wK †Kv‡bv NUbv, †Kv‡bv ¯§„wZ Ñ gyZ©Rv ekxi : †Q‡j‡ejv †_‡KB Avwg Avgvi evevi jvB‡eªwi‡Z NyiNyi KiZvg| Avjgvwii †gvUv †gvUv eB bvgvZvg| †m¸‡jv wQj fviZel©, gvwmK emygwZ, wewPÎv, gWvb©

wiwfD I GbmvB‡K¬v wcwWqv weªUvwbKv| Qwe¸‡jv †`L‡Z fv‡jv jvMZ Avgvi| wKš‘ Rxe‡b KL‡bv wkíx ne, GUv Avwg KL‡bvB Kíbv Kwiwb| K¬vm †m‡fb-GB‡U eB‡qi cvZvq †hme AjsKiY _vKZ †m¸‡jv wcZvi bxj-meyR wKsev cix¶vi LvZv KvUvi Rb¨ jvjbxj †cbwmj w`‡q is KiZvg| Avgvi fv‡jv jvMZ| Qwe AuvKvi cÖw Z AvKl©Y n‡jv e¸ov‡Z hLb cwo| ZLb KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i


QvÎmsMVb QvÎ †dWv‡ik‡bi m`m¨ nB, †mB myev‡` gvK©mG‡½jm-†jwbb-÷¨vwj‡bi bvg ïbZvg Ges Avgvi B”Qv n‡Zv beve wmivRD‡ÏŠjv, gnvZ¥v MvÜx, †bZvwR myfvl †evm wKsev wm‡bgvRM‡Zi Avgvi wcÖq Awf‡bZv A‡kvK Kzgvi I LjbvqK BqvKz‡ei cÖw ZK…wZ, GgbwK Avwg †gvnv¤§` Avjx wRbœvniI †cv‡Uª©U Gu‡KwQjvg| Avwg iv¯—v q mvBb‡evW© †cB›Uviiv †hfv‡e †QvU †QvU MÖv d K‡i eo K‡i Avwg `uvwo‡q `uv wo‡q Zv †`LZvg Ges evwo‡Z Abykxjb KiZvg| Avwg gvK©m-G‡½jm-†jwbb-÷¨vwj‡bi 24 evB 36 mvB‡Ri cÖwZK…wZ Gu‡KwQjvg Ges Zv e¸ovi KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i Awd‡m euvwa‡q UvOv‡bv n‡qwQj| 1947 mv‡j †`kfv‡Mi wKQyw`b ci 1 †m‡Þ¤^i fvi‡Zi cÖL¨vZ KwgDwb÷ †bZv I ZvwË¡K fevbx †mb (whwb gvK©mev`x cwÎKvi m¤úv`K wQ‡jb Ges iex›`ª¸ß QÙbv‡g wjL‡Zb) e¸ovq G‡jb| wZwb Avgvi AuvKv Qwe †`‡L Avgv‡K †`L‡Z PvB‡jb| Avgvi †m-mgq A‡UvMÖvd Rgvevi kL wQj| fevbx †mb Avgvi A‡UvMÖvd LvZvq wjL‡jb, ÔAvwU©‡÷i KvR n‡jv †kvwlZ RbM‡Yi fve I `yt L`y`©kv‡K wP‡Îi †fZi w`‡q Ggbfv‡e dzwU‡q †Zvjv, hv‡Z mgv‡R †m AvU© beRxeb m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvwiL (1.9.47)|Õ 1949 mv‡j cÖ‡ewkKv cix¶v †`Iqvi ci Avgiv mevB XvKvq wd‡i Avwm Ges KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i wb‡`©‡k Avwg AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U fwZ© nB| GKUv welq Avgvi g‡b GL‡bv RvMÖZ †mUv n‡jv, eB‡q coZvg, gvbyl giYkxj| wKš‘ GKwU NUbvq Avgvi AvZ¥v wPrKvi K‡i e‡j DVj, Avwg g„Zz¨ PvB bv| gvbyl Awebk¦i Ñ gvbyl giYkxj bq| NUbvwU GB, Avwg hLb e¸ovi K‡iv‡bkb Bbw÷wUD‡U K¬v m †U‡b cwo, ¯‹z‡ji D‡ëv w`‡KB wQj Avgvi GK mncvVxi evmv| GKw`b mKvj 10Uvi w`‡K Avwg Zvi m‡½ MvjMí Ki‡Z wM‡qwQjvg; wKš‘ Avwg Zvi evmvq Xy‡KB †`Ljvg Lvwj Mv‡q Nv‡o MvgQv wb‡q †m †ewi‡q hv‡”Q| Zv‡K Avwg ejjvg, †Kv_vq hvw”Qm? †m ejj, Avwg Ki‡Zvqvq Pvb Ki‡Z hvw”Q| AvaNÈvi g‡a¨B wd‡i Avme| ZzB Gw`K-Iw`K Ny‡i wKQy¶Y ci Avq| Avwg hLb c‡i Zvi evmvq †Mjvg Ges †`Ljvg evwoi evB‡ii DVv‡b A‡bK gvby‡li wfo| †mLv‡b wM‡q †`Ljvg, †m gvwU‡Z ï‡q| Rvbjvg, †m cvwb‡Z Wy‡e gviv †M‡Q| Avgvi ZLb fxlY fq K‡iwQj| c„w_ex GZ my› `i! A_P GB c„w_ex †_‡K Avgv‡KI P‡j †h‡Z n‡e, ZLbB Avgvi cÖv ‡Y fxlYfv‡e B”Qv n‡jv Avwg †eu‡P _vKe| Avwg †eu‡P _vK‡Z PvB| g„Zz¨i ciI euv P‡Z PvB| †mfv‡eB Avgvi wkíx nIqvi AvKv•¶v| wkí I wkíx : Avcwb †h eq‡m (82) G‡m‡Qb Zv‡Z K‡i Abvqv‡mB Avcwb ej‡Z cv‡ib, GK Rxe‡b A‡bK wKQyB †Zv †`Ljvg Ñ †Zv Kx Kx †`L‡jb? gyZ©Rv ekxi : weªwUk Avg‡j Avgvi †`k civaxb wQj wKš‘ iv¯—vq Pjv‡divq Avwg KL‡bv AvZw¼Z nBwb| Zvici †`kfvM n‡jv| bZzb ivóª n‡jv| ZL‡bv †mB AvZ¼ wQj bv| 1971 mv‡j †`k Afz¨`‡qi ci †h ¯^cœ †`‡LwQjvg AvR‡K Zv f‚jywÉZ| 1971 mv‡j hLb gyw³hy× n‡”Q, iv¯—v q †e‡iv‡j g‡b GKUv fq wQj Ñ KLb Kx Rvwb Kx N‡U hvq| †m-mgq Avgiv mevB GKwU `geÜ Ae¯’vq w`b KvwU‡qwQ| mKv‡ji m~‡h©v`q †`‡L

mܨvq m~h© v¯— †`Le wK bv RvbZvg bv| GB cÖ_ g †m-mgq cÖK…wZ‡Z †`Ljvg AvKv‡k my›`i †g‡Ni Avbv‡Mvbv, Mv‡Qi cvZvq m~‡h©i jy‡KvPzwi| Rxeb †h GZ my›`i Gi Av‡M KL‡bv Dcjwä Kwiwb| GLb IB mgq iv¯—v q †e‡iv‡Z fq jv‡M| memgq mš¿¯— I AvZ¼MÖ¯— Ñ Gfv‡eB w`b¸‡jv †K‡U hv‡”Q| wKš‘ Avgvi wek¦v m, AwP‡iB gvbyl Avevi my›`ifv‡e Pjv‡div Ki‡e| nvwmgy‡L nuvU‡e| wkí I wkíx : Avcwb †Zv cÂv‡ki `k‡K cov‡kvbvi Rb¨ †ek wKQy eQi BZvwj‡Z wQ‡jb| ZLbKvi w`‡bi BZvwji Rxebe¨e¯’v , wkíx-mvwnwZ¨K, wkí-mvwnZ¨ wK Avcbv‡K wKsev Avcbvi Kv‡R cÖfve †d‡jwQj? gyZ©Rv ekxi : Avwg wcZvi A_©v q‡b 1956 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡m BZvwji †d¬v‡i‡Ý wM‡qwQjvg| wcZv Aek¨ †P‡qwQ‡jb Avwg c¨vwi‡m hvB| †Kbbv wZwb c¨vwi‡m cov‡kvbv K‡i‡Qb| †mLv‡b weL¨vZ jy¨fi wgDwRqvg wZwb †`‡L‡Qb| wkíx‡`i RxebhvÎv †`‡L‡Qb| wKš‘ †d¬v‡i‡Ý hvevi †cQ‡b Avgvi Ab¨ KviY wQj| BZvwji e¨vcv‡i Avwg Lye Abo wQjvg| Avgvi eÜz Avwgbyj Bmjvg 1953 mv‡ji gvSvgvwS †_‡K BZvwj miKv‡ii e„wË wb‡q †d¬v‡i‡Ýi Academia de belle arti-†Z cov‡kvbv KiwQj Ges Avgv‡K †mB cÖw Zôv‡b mvgwqKfv‡e fwZ©i KvMRcÎI cvwV‡qwQj| ZvB eÜzi mvwbœ‡a¨ hvevi Zxeª AvKv•¶v †_‡KB c¨vwi‡mi e`‡j †d¬v ‡i‡Ý hvB| †mLvbKvi Rxebe¨e¯’v †hUzKz †`‡LwQ Zv‡Z g‡b n‡q‡Q, Zviv `wi`ª Z‡e AvZ¥wek¦vmx| BZvwji mvwnZ¨ Avgvi Ici †Zgb cÖfve †d‡jwb| †Kbbv BZvwji fvlvq †jLv †m mvwnZ¨ covi g‡Zv we`¨v Avgvi wQj bv| Z‡e cieZx©Kv‡j Bs‡iwR Ab~w`Z Avj‡e‡Z©v †gvivwfqvi mg¯— eB Avwg c‡owQ| Avgvi msMÖ‡n Av‡Q wKš‘ Zuv i †jLv Øviv Avwg KL‡bv cÖfvweZ nBwb| Z‡e †h‡nZz BZvwj‡Z wQjvg Zvi d‡j Zuv i †jLvq GK ai‡bi b÷vjwRqv wQj| Z‡e wkíKjvq Avgv‡K we‡klfv‡e AbycÖv wYZ K‡i AvaywbK wkíx Gentellini, Morrandi, Campigli, Z‡e gvB‡Kj G‡Ä‡jv, ivdv‡qj, wUwkqvb cÖgLy †i‡bmuv -wkíxi KvR Avgv‡K †Zgbfv‡e AbycÖvwYZ K‡iwb| GKK_vq ejv P‡j, Zuv‡`i KvR Avwg †`Lvi Rb¨ †`‡LwQ, wKš‘ †kLvi Rb¨ †`wLwb| Z‡e †i‡bmuv-c~e© †hme wkíx †hgb †Rv‡Ëv, wmgvey, d«v G‡Äwj‡Kv, `y‡”Pv Avgv‡K memgq AvKl©Y K‡i‡Qb| Avwg Zuv ‡`i KvR Ny‡iwd‡i †`wL, †hfv‡e Avwg evBRvB›UvBb wkíx‡`i KvR †`wL I GKv‡ji wcKv‡mvi KvR †`wL| Gu‡`i Kv‡Ri mxwgZ is, d‡g©i mijxKiY Avgvi Kv‡R cÖfve †i‡L‡Q| wkí I wkíx : A‡b‡Ki †jLvq cvIqv hvq, BZvwji †g‡qiv Avgv‡`i GB A‡ji †g‡q‡`i g‡ZvB mvgvwRK Rxe‡b wek¦vmx| m‡e©vcwi Av‡eMx| RbkÖ“ wZ Av‡Q, BZvwjqvb †g‡qiv Lye `ª“ Z †cÖ‡gI c‡o hvq Ñ †Zv Avcwb wK BZvwjqvb †Kv‡bv †g‡qi †cÖ‡g c‡owQ‡jb? gyZ©Rv ekxi : BZvwjqvb †g‡qiv Lye `ª“Z †cÖ‡g c‡o wK bv Avgvi Rvbv †bB, Z‡e BZvwjqvb GKwU †g‡qi m‡½ Avgvi ü`‡qi Av`vb-cÖ`vb N‡UwQj| †m wQj GKv‡Wwgi me‡P‡q my›`ix Ges Ôwgm& GKv‡WwgÕI n‡qwQj| Avgiv `yRb we‡q Kie †f‡ewQjvg, †mRb¨ †g‡qwU evsjvI wk‡LwQj| Avgiv hLb evsjvq K_v ejZvg, Ab¨iv AevK n‡q Avgv‡`i †`LZ| †Kbbv †m wQj ¯^Y©‡Kkx, bxj †PvL, Mv‡qi is dm©v| Avgvi Mv‡qi is


†`qvj-48 K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1967


†m-iKg dm©v bq Ñ Pzj Kv‡jv| ZvB †d¬v‡i‡Ýi A‡b‡KB Avgv‡`i †`‡L iwmKZv K‡i ejZ, Kv‡d jvZ‡Z gv‡b Kwd Avi `ya| Av‡iv cwi®‹vi K‡i ej‡j Kv‡d gv‡b Avwg, Avwg gv‡b Kv‡jv, Avi jvZ‡Z (BZvwjqvb fvlvq jvZ‡Z gv‡b `ya) gv‡b I| Zv‡K †KD Zvi †`k †Kv_vq wR‡Ám Ki‡j †m mgq bó bv K‡i SUcU DËi w`Z, evsjv‡`k| evOvwj m¤ú‡K© ZLb BZvwjqvb‡`i †Zgb †Kv‡bv Ávb wQj bv| ïay RvbZ evsjvi ev‡Ni K_v| BZvwjqvb A‡b‡K Avgv‡K A‡bK mgq wR‡Ám KiZ G ev‡Ni K_v| Avwg ZLb iwmKZv K‡i I‡`i Reve w`Zvg, †Zvgiv †hgb N‡i weovj cv‡jv, AvgivI †Zgwb N‡i evN cvwj| Zviv nq‡Zv Zv‡K evOvwj g‡b KiZ GRb¨ †h, BZvwji Dˇii gvbyliv wQj †ewkifvM ¯^Y©‡Kkx Avi `w¶‡Y wQj Kv‡jv e‡Y©i Pzj| GB †g‡qwUi A‡bK Qwe GL‡bv Avgvi Kv‡Q mh‡Zœ i‡q‡Q| GgbwK Avwg hLb Õ62 mv‡j we‡q Kwi, evmiiv‡Z Avgvi m`¨ weevwnZv ¯¿x ‡K Zvi Qwe †`wL‡q e‡jwQjvg Ñ G Avgvi AZxZ, Zzw g eZ©gvb| Avgvi ¯¿x †m iv‡Z wKQy e‡jwb| Z‡e eû eQi ci e‡jwQj, evmiiv‡Z †KD e¨w³MZ Gme Qwe †`Lvq! wkí I wkíx : G †K Gg ekxiDj­v n †_‡K Avcwb KLb, Kxfv‡e n‡q †M‡jb gyZ©Rv ekxi? NUbvwU Kx ej‡eb? gyZ©Rv ekxi : EbcÂvk mv‡j cÖ‡ewkKv cix¶v †k‡l Avevi XvKvq wd‡i Avwm Ges Avgiv hLb gvûZUzjx‡Z fvov evmvq DwV, Avgvi evev ZLb Avwhhyj nK K‡jR †Q‡o 1948 mv‡j cybivq XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q mycvi wbDgvwi Aa¨vcK wn‡m‡e †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| Avgiv ZLb XvKvq G‡m fvov evwo‡Z DVjvg| ZLb Avgv‡`i 79 †eMgevRv‡ii evmvq GK fvov‡U _v‡K| fvov‡U P‡j hvevi ci Avgiv gvûZUzjxi evmv †Q‡o †eMgevRv‡ii evmvq DwV| Avgvi evevi jvB‡eªwi NiUv wQj iv¯—vi Ic‡iB| hw`I †fZ‡i Av‡iKwU eo N‡i Zuvi eBcÎ, covi †Uwej wQj, Zv m‡Ë¡I wZwb GB N‡i em‡Zb| GLv‡b cov‡kvbv Ki‡Zb gv‡Sg‡a¨ Ges †jvKRb G‡j GLv‡bB mv¶vr Ki‡Zb| †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Avwg ZLb evevi mvg‡b `uv wo‡qwQjvg| Ggb mgq wcqb G‡jv| †ek wKQy wPwV †`Lvi ci wZwb GKwU wPwV †`‡L ej‡jb, G bv‡g GLv‡b †KD _v‡K bv| Avwg wcq‡bi nvZ †_‡K wPwVUv wbjvg| †`Ljvg wPwVUv Avgvi| e¸ov †_‡K †jLv †Kv‡bv GK mncvVxi| Avwg evev‡K ejjvg, wPwVUv Avgvi| evev we¯§qvwff‚Z n‡q ej‡jb, gyZ©Rv ekxi Zzwg? Avwg ejjvg, nu¨v| Avwg Avcbvi bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡Z PvB bv| Avgvi cy‡iv bvg †hfv‡e Avgvi mg¯— wk¶v mb`cÎmvwU©wd‡KU i‡q‡Q, Zv‡Z †jLv Aveyj Lv‡qi gyZ©Rv ekxi“j­vn| 1952 mvj Aewa Avwg gyZR © v evbv‡b g-Gi wb‡P `xN© E-Kvi w`Zvg| Avgvi wcZv Avgvi nvZ †_‡K wPwVUv wb‡jb Ges wZwb ej‡jb g~‡L©i `xN© E-Kvi nq| Zzwg †Zv g~L © bI| Zzwg wjL‡e gÕ‡Z n«m¨ D-Kvi w`‡q| Gfv‡e Avwg gyZ©Rv ekx‡i iƒcvš—wiZ n‡q †Mjvg| wkí I wkíx : Avcbvi GKwU wkíKg© †WW wjRvW© (Dead lizard) †`‡L Avcbvi wcZv †ek gy» n‡qwQ‡jb| Zvici A‡b¨i mvg‡b Avcbvi cÖksmv Ki‡Z wM‡q wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb, ÔAvaywbK wP‡Îi g‡ZvB Avgvi †Q‡j `y‡e©v a¨Õ Ñ Avcwb Zuvi GB g~j¨vqb‡K Kxfv‡e †`L‡eb| gyZ©Rv ekxi : cÖL¨vZ D`©y Kwe d‡qR Avn‡g` d‡qR

Avgv‡K 1959 mv‡ji †k‡l jv‡nv‡i wb‡q wM‡qwQ‡jb †mLv‡b cÖ` k©bx Kivi Rb¨| Zuvi m‡½ Avgvi cwiPq n‡qwQj 1948 mv‡j jÛ‡b| Avwg `yeQi jv‡nv‡i wQjvg| 1961-i †k‡l XvKvq wd‡i Avwm| ZLb evsjv GKv‡Wwg‡Z mgKvjxb wkíx‡`i GKwU cÖ` k©bx‡Z Dead Lizard wk‡ivbv‡g GKwU Qwe wQj| QwewU Avwg Gu‡KwQjvg mgv‡Ri Ae¶‡qi iƒcK wn‡m‡e| G-cÖ`k©bx Avgvi wcZv †`‡LwQ‡jb| GgbwK BZvwj †_‡K wd‡i Avmvi ci 1959 mv‡ji †g gv‡m Avwg hLb KivwP‡Z GKK cÖ` k©bx Kwi †m mgq KivwP‡Z (Avgvi wcZv ZLb Ae¯’v b KiwQ‡jb) wZwb †mB D‡Øvabx Abyôv‡b †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| GKwU Av‡gwiKvb ms¯’v GcÖ` k©bxi Av‡qvRK, ZvB †mLv‡b †Kvgj cvbxqi m‡½ KK‡Uj cwi‡ekb Kiv nw”Qj| Avwg wKQyUv kw¼Z n‡qwQjvg, Avgvi wcZv GB g` cwi‡ekb Kxfv‡e MÖnY Ki‡eb, wKš‘ †`Ljvg Ge¨vcv‡i wZwb m¤ú~Y©fv‡e ¯^vfvweK wQ‡jb| cwÎKvq Avgvi Qwei cÖ` k©bxi LeivLei wZwb co‡Zb Ges Avgv‡K wPwV wj‡L Zv Rvbv‡Zb| GKevi 1957 mv‡j Av‡gwiKvq IqvwksUb wWwm‡Z Z`vbxš—b c~e© cvwK¯—v‡bi K‡qKRb wkíxi †hŠ_ wPÎ-cÖ`k©bx n‡qwQj| †mB msev` cvwK¯—v b AeRvifvi cwÎKvq †ewi‡qwQj| Avgvi bvg †mLv‡b fzjekZ Ôg~Z©Rv ikx`Õ Qvcv n‡qwQj| wZwb cwÎKvi m¤úv`‡Ki Kv‡Q GKwU wPwV wj‡L Avgvi ï× bvg Ges Avgvi c~Y© bvg Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb, hv cwÎKvq gyw`ªZ n‡qwQj| evsjv GKv‡Wwg‡Z GB cÖ`k©bx Dcj‡¶ GKwU Av‡jvPbv mfv nq Ñ ÔAvaywbK gvbyl I AvaywbK wPÎKjvÕ| e³v wQ‡jb G †K †eªvnx| wZwb Avgvi wcZv‡K wR‡Ám K‡iwQ‡jb, knx`yj­vn& mv‡ne, Avcbvi cyÎ †Zv GKRb AvaywbK wkíx| Rev‡e Avgvi wcZv e‡jwQ‡jb, AvaywbK wP‡Îi g‡ZvB Avgvi cyÎ Avgvi Kv‡Q `y‡e©va¨| †mB iv‡Z wZwb Avgvi N‡i Xy‡K cÖkœ Ki‡jb, Zzwg Ggb wK¤¢~ZwKgvKvi Qwe Auv‡Kv †Kb? Avwg c¨vwi‡m wQjvg, Avwg †`‡LwQ wkíKg© KZ my› `i nq! GLv‡b D‡j­L¨ †h, 1928 mv‡j wZwb c¨vwi‡mi †mveb© wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Aa¨qb †k‡l hLb †`‡k wdi‡eb ZLb c¨vwi‡m Aew¯’Z fviZxq Qv·`i A¨v‡mvwm‡qkb Zuv‡K jy¨fi wgDwRqv‡gi cÖL¨vZ wkíx‡`i wPÎmsewjZ `yB LÊ †gvUv A¨vjevg Dcnvi †`b| GB `ywU MÖš’ wZwb AvRxeb Zuv i †QvU GKwU †gnMwb Kv‡Vi Avjgvwi‡Z g~j¨evb eB¸‡jvi m‡½ †i‡LwQ‡jb Ges Zuv i †mB AvjgvwiwU memgq Zvjve× _vKZ| hLb Avwg XvKvq AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U fwZ©i †R` Kijvg ZLb wZwb cÖ_ ‡g AvcwË Ki‡jb| ZLb wZwb AvcwË K‡i e‡jwQ‡jb, Avwg c¨vwi‡m wQjvg| wkíx‡`i Rxeb `ytLK‡ó fiv| Avwg PvB bv Zzwg Avgvi mš—vb †m-iKg A_©K‡ó, Abvnv‡i _v‡Kv| Zvici Avgvi GK¸u‡qwgi Kv‡Q wZwb Zuv i Zvjve× Avjgvwi Ly‡j jy¨fi wgDwRqv‡gi †mB `yB LÊ eB Avgvi nv‡Z w`‡Z wØav‡eva Ki‡jb bv| eB‡q wQj †ek wKQy wee¯¿ bvixi wPÎ| †mB iv‡Z Avgvi wcZv †WW wjRvW© A_©vr GB g„Z wUKwUwKi Qwei m¤ú‡K© ej‡jb, Avwg Rvwb bv GB Qwe‡Z Kx Av‡Q, Z‡e QweUv Avgv‡K Lye Av‡jvwoZ K‡i‡Q| Avwg Rev‡e wcZv‡K ejjvg, Avwg Avcwb mevB Akixix, †cÖZvZ¥v| wZwb Avgvi gy‡Li w`‡K ZvwK‡q ej‡jb, Zv nq‡Zv n‡e| wkí I wkíx : Avcbvi AvZ¥‰RewbK Dcb¨vm AvjUªv ‡gwib Kxfv‡e wjL‡jb, gv‡b Aby‡cÖiYv †c‡jb †Kv‡Ì‡K? gyZ©R v ekxi : 1954 mv‡j XvKv AvU© Bbw÷wUDU †_‡K


cvLv-67 K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 2005


Pvi“Kjv wb‡q cuvP eQ‡ii †Kvm© †kl Kivi ci †iRvë †ei n‡Z †ek K‡qK gvm evwK| ZLb Avgvi eo fvB gyn¤§` mwdDj­v n †÷Umg¨vb cwÎKvq weÁvcb †`‡L ej‡jb, Zzwg KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Avï‡Zvl wgDwRqv‡g wUPvm© †Uªw bs mvwU©w d‡KU †Kv‡m© (Art Appreciation) fwZ© nI| Zuvi K_vg‡Zv wcZv Avgv‡K Ryb gv‡m KjKvZv cvVvb| †m mgq Avwg Avgvi GK AvZ¥xqi evmvq DwV| wKš‘ Avwg Zuv ‡K GKwU kZ© w`‡qwQjvg †h, Avwg Avcbvi GLv‡b _vKe wKš‘ Lve bv| Zuvi evmv wQj cvK© mvK©v‡m †mvnivIqv`x© A¨vwfwbD‡Z| cÖ_g K‡qKw`b Avwg Uªvg wW‡cvi mvg‡b GKwU m¯—v †i÷z‡i‡›U †LZvg wKš‘ ivR‰bwZK wPš—vavivi eÜz I eo fvB †mvgbv_ †nvi Avgv‡K K‡iqv †iv‡Wi KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i KwgD‡b LvIqvi e¨e¯’v K‡i †`q| †mLv‡b Kg‡iW gyR vddi Avn‡g` _vK‡Zb| Avgvi cwiPq †R‡b wZwb Avgv‡K Zzwg K‡i ej‡jb| †mvgbv_`v wew¯§Z n‡jb| †Kbbv KvKvevey (gyRvddi Avn‡g`) †Q‡j-ey‡ov mevB‡K Avcwb K‡i m‡¤^vab Ki‡Zb| Avgvi e¨vcv‡i Zuv i GB cwieZ©b †`‡L †mvgbv_ †nv‡ii wRÁvmvi Dˇi wZwb ej‡jb, Ii evev Avgvi eÜz| †mLv‡b gvmLv‡bK `y‡ejv K‡i LvIqvi ci c‡_ Avgvi GK eÜz Kvgvj Avn‡g‡`i m‡½ †`Lv| †m hLb ïbj Avwg cvwU© KwgD‡b LvIqv-`vIqv Kwi ZLb ejj, GB ey‡ov‡`i g‡a¨ e‡m ZzB Kx Kiwe| Avwg GKwU evOvwj wLªóvb cwievi‡K wPwb, †mLv‡b †Zvi LvIqvi e¨e¯’v K‡i †`e| Zvici GKUz †n‡m ejj, ILv‡b `y‡Uv hyeZx †g‡q Av‡Q| ZzB AvwU©÷ gvbyl Ñ B݇cÖÖkbI cvwe| †mB cwiev‡ii Ici wfwË K‡iB Avgvi AvjUªv‡gwib Dcb¨vm, †hLv‡b cÖwZwU NUbv I msjvc, hv Avwg cÖwZw`b iv‡Z N‡i wd‡i Uz‡K ivLZvg| GB Dcb¨v‡m †m¸‡jv ûeû Avwg wj‡LwQ| wkí I wkíx : KweZvi eB Gm‡iYy, †Zvgv‡KB ïay, G‡mv wd‡i Abymq~ v, Avi M‡íi eB Kv‡Pi cvwLi Mvb †ewi‡q‡Q Avcbvi| Zvici `xN© weiwZ w`‡q‡Qb| GB weiwZi KviY Kx? gyZ©Rv ekxi : Avwg e¸ovq K¬vm †U‡b covi mgq †QvUMí †jLvi †Póv K‡iwQjvg| ¯‹z‡ji Qv·`i bvU‡Ki Rb¨ GKwU bvUKI wj‡LwQjvg| wKš‘ KweZv KL‡bv wjwLwb| 1950 mv‡j hLb XvKv †R‡j evg ivRbxwZi Rb¨ wePvivaxb ew›` wQjvg ZLb myKvš— fÆvPv‡h©i cÖfv‡e wKQy KweZv wj‡LwQjvg| Zvici Avi KweZv wjwLwb| 1952 mv‡ji GKz‡ k †deª“ qvwii NUbvi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z Ôcvi‡e bv e‡jÕ GKwU KweZv wj‡LwQjvg, hv KjKvZvq myfvl gy‡Lvcva¨vq-m¤úvw`Z cwiPq cwÎKvq 1952 mv‡jB Qvcv nq| Avgvi eÜz kvgmyi ivngvb‡K Avwg ejjvg, Avgvi gv‡S gv‡S GKwU †QvU ¶wY‡Ki D‡ËRbv wKsev ¯§„w Z KweZvq wjL‡Z B‡”Q K‡i| Avgvi K_v ï‡b kvgmyi ivngvb ej‡jb, Qwe Auv ‡Kb QweB Auv‡Kb| K_vwU Avgv‡K AvNvZ K‡iwQj| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy‡×i mgq XvKvq hLb N‡i N‡i Zj­vwk Pj‡Q, ZLb Avgvi ¯¿x, AvU I †`o eQ‡ii `yB Kb¨vmn b‡f¤^‡ii cÖ_g mßv‡n XvKv †_‡K c¨vwi‡m P‡j hvB| †mLv‡b e‡m 15-20wU KweZv wjwL| 1973 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m XvKvq wd‡i Avmvi ci kvgmyi ivngv‡bi m‡½ nVvr GK Abyô v‡b †`Lv| Avwg Zuv ‡K Avgvi KweZv †jLvi K_v Rvbvjvg| wZwb Avgvi KweZv¸‡jv

wb‡q Zuv i cyi ‡bv XvKvi Av‡kK †j‡bi evmvq †h‡Z ej‡jb| wZwb Avgvi KweZv c‡o wKQy KweZvq wUK wPý w`‡jb I ej‡jb, G¸‡jv Kwc K‡i Zuv ‡K w`‡Z| Avwg wR‡Ám Kijvg, †Kb? wZwb ej‡jb, XvKvq MYmvwnZ¨ e‡j GKwU gvwmK cwÎKv Av‡Q †mLv‡b †`‡eb| Avwg AevK n‡q Zuv ‡K ejjvg, Zviv Qvc‡e? kvgmyi ivngvb †n‡m ej‡jb, Avwg wbR nv‡Z w`w”Q, Zviv †Kb Qvc‡e bv? Zvici Zuv i Avjgvwi †_‡K bx‡i›`ªbv_ PµeZx©i KweZvi K¬vm MÖš’wU Avgvi nv‡Z w`‡q ej‡jb, GB eBwU co–b| Avcbvi Kv‡R jvM‡e| Avgvi cÖ_g KweZvi eB Gm‡iYy‡Z d«v‡Ý e‡m †jLv KweZv QvovI ivRkvnx‡Z hLb 1974 mv‡j knx` wgbv‡ii †cQ‡bi †`qv‡j BU †K‡U †gvRvBK wPÎ iPbv KiwQ ZLb ivRkvnx‡Z †ek wKQy KweZv wj‡LwQjvg| Avi evwK KweZv¸‡jv wj‡LwQjvg PÆMÖv g wek¦we`¨vj‡q Aa¨vcbvi mgq| Avgvi cÖ_g KweZvi eB †ei nq 1976 mv‡j XvKv †_‡K Ges eB‡qi †cQ‡bi gjv‡U kvgmyi ivngvb ¯^bv‡g wj‡LwQ‡jb| Z‡e 1969 mv‡j Avgvi cÖ_ g M‡íi eB Kv‡Pi cvwLi Mvb †ei nq, ZLb cÖ”Q‡`i †cQ‡b kvgmyi ivngvb wj‡LwQ‡jb wKš‘ bvg †`bwb| †Zvgv‡KB ïay Ges G‡mv wd‡i Abym~qv - GKB †cÖ¶ vc‡U KweZv¸‡jv iPbv ejv †h‡Z cv‡i, G `ywU MÖš’B m¤ú~iK| †Zvgv‡KB ïay Kve¨MÖš’wUi GKwU cÖavb ˆewkó¨ n‡jv, Gi †Kv‡bv c„ôv wPý †bB| Avgvi Rvbv g‡Z, Wv‡qwii AvKv‡i Gi Av‡M Gai‡bi †Kv‡bv KweZvi eB †ei nqwb| KweZv¸‡jvi †Kv‡bv wk‡ivbvgI wQj bv| Wv‡qwi‡Z †hgb evsjv, Aviwe I Bs‡iwR mb-ZvwiL _v‡K †Zgwb Ic‡i †mfv‡e gyw`ªZ n‡qwQj| ejv P‡j, †Zvgv‡KB ïay Avgvi e¨w³MZ Wv‡qwi, M‡`¨ bv wj‡L c‡`¨ †jLv GBUzKBz Zdvr| ejv hvq, AvjUªv‡gwi‡bi g‡ZvB AvZ¥‰RweK| 1981 mv‡j Avwg hLb PÆMÖv g †gwWK¨vj K‡j‡R Amy¯’ Ae¯’vq wQjvg ZLb 15-20wU KweZv wjwL nvmcvZvj I Amy¯’Zv‡K †K›`ª K‡i| Zvic‡i wewfbœ mgq gv‡Sg‡a¨ KweZv wj‡LwQ, †m¸‡jv QvcvI n‡q‡Q| KjKvZvi PZzi ‡½, XvKvi mvßvwnK wewPÎv I B`vbxsKv‡ji Kvwj I Kj‡g Ñ G¸‡jv AMÖwš’Z| Avgvi B‡”Q mv`vq GwjwR wk‡ivbv‡g GKwU MÖš’ Kivi| †hLv‡b nvmcvZv‡ji g‡M© AuvKv kj¨ wPwKrm‡Ki DrKxY© ke‡`‡ni WªB s _vK‡e| Z‡e 2010-G Avgvi cÖKvwkZ MÖš’ I AcÖKvwkZ KweZv¸‡jv wb‡q ¯^-Ab~w`Z evsjv †_‡K Bs‡iwR‡Z GKwU Kve¨MÖš’ †ewi‡q‡Q, hvi bvg Fresh blood, Faint line (UvUKv i‡³i ¶xY †iLv) GB Bs‡iwR ZR©gv m¤úv`bv K‡i‡Qb Kvqmyj nK I nvmbvZ Ave`yj nvB, huv‡`i Kv‡Q Avwg FYx| GQvov Avgvi Av‡iv `yw U D‡j­L‡hvM¨ eB Av‡Q| GKwU n‡jv BwZnvmwfwËK gy`ªv I wkjvwjwci Av‡jv‡K evsjvi nvekx myjZvb I ZrKvjxb mgvR Ges wbe©v wPZ †QvUMí I KweZv, ¯§„wZK_v, b`x I bvixi wPÎbvU¨, wKQy mv¶vrKvi I cÖvPxb gy`ªv welqK wKQy cÖeÜ wb‡q MÖš ’ gyZ©Rv ekxi g~Z© I weg~Z|© GB bvgKi‡Yi †cQ‡bi KviY n‡jv, Avwg wPÎKi GUvB mevB Rv‡b, GUvB g~Z© wKš‘ Av‡iv A‡bK wKQy K‡iwQ hv A‡b‡KB Rv‡b bv Ñ †mUvB weg~Z©| GQvov gyZR © v ekx‡ii gyZ© kãwUi m‡½ GKwU AbycÖvm ivLviI †Póv K‡iwQ| 


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iZxq wPÎKjvi kw³kvjx wkíx †hv‡Mb †PŠayi xi m‡½ Avgvi cÖ_g cwiPq 1987 mv‡ji AvM‡÷i GK mܨvq, kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b| Zvici Avevi †`Lv n‡q‡Q kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b, 1988 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m| cÖ_gevi Avgvi cwiPqcÎ wb‡q wM‡qwQjvg fvi‡Zi Av‡iK eo wkíx M‡Yk cvB‡bi KvQ †_‡K| g‡b c‡o, M‡Yk`vi wPwV Avi XvKv †_‡K wM‡qwQ Ñ `yB ‡q wg‡j cÖ_g cwiP‡qB Avš—wiKZvi ¯ú‡k© gy» n‡qwQjvg| Zuvi Rb¥f‚wg evsjv‡`‡k, †MvcvjM‡Äi †KvUvjxcvovq| g‡b c‡o, kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi Kjvfe‡b wM‡q †`Lv K‡i cwiPq w`jvg| †hv‡Mb`v ej‡jb, Ômܨvq evmvq Av‡mb, Mí Kie|Õ †mw`bB AZ¨š— mnwRqv Aš—i½Zvq Mfxi ivZ ch©š— `yB †`k wb‡q Mí, Zuvi wkíxRxe‡bi AZxZ Avi eZ©gvb wb‡q A‡bK K_v Avi MvbI †kvbv nq| Zuvi evmv‡ZB ivZ KvUvB| g‡b c‡o, †mB cÖ_g wZwb Bd&d vZ Avivi Mvb ï‡b Av‡eMwenŸj n‡q c‡owQ‡jb| Avwg Bd&dv‡Zi iex›`Öm sMx‡Zi K¨v‡mU wb‡q wM‡qwQjvg Zuvi Rb¨| GKai‡bi gMœ-K‡_vcK_‡bi ga¨ w`‡q Avgvi †kvbv n‡q wM‡qwQj †hv‡Mb †PŠayixi cÖvq mgMÖ RxebK_vi mvivsk| Z‡e Zuvi eY© vX¨ RxebKvwnwbi g‡a¨ Zu vi ˆkk‡ei K_v, †KvUvjxcvovi Wnicvov MÖv‡gi K_v hLb ejwQ‡jb, ZLb wZwb mwZ¨B wd‡i hvw”Q‡jb †mB `~ i-AZx‡Z, Zuvi †kK‡oi KvQvKvwQ| ïi“‡ZB GLv‡b †mUzK z ewY©Z n‡jv| Zuvi K_vq : Ô1939 mv‡j Avgvi Rb¥| evsjv‡`‡k †MvcvjM‡Äi †KvUvjxcvovi Wnicvov MÖv‡g| bq eQi eqm ch©š— †mLv‡bB wQjvg| cov‡kvbv ïi“ IB MÖv‡gi cvVkvjv‡ZB| 1948 mv‡j KjKvZvq P‡j Avwm| Avgvi evev cÖg_bv_ †PŠay ix wQ‡jb Av‡iv wKQyw`b| †PŠayix es‡ki Rwg`vwi wQj| AvovB nvRvi

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bvix I cvwL, 1996


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†jLK‡K †`Iqv A‡UvMÖvd, 1987

Wªw qs, 1992


Wªwqs, 1989

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Av‡iK wkíx, huv‡K kÖ×v Kwi| †K wR mye ªþY¨‡bi KvR cQ›` Kwi| Avi M‡Yk cvB‡bi KvR †ek fv‡jv jv‡M|Õ wZwb e‡jb, ÔAvwg gvbegyw³‡Z wek¦vm Kwi| hviv gvby‡li gyw³i K_v e‡j, Zv‡`i c_ wfbœ| AvwgI PvB `y`©k v, `yM©wZ, Ab¨vq †_‡K gvby‡li gyw³ †nvK| Z‡e Avgvi gva¨g Avi Zv‡`i c_ wfbœ| †mLv‡b nq‡Zv Avgv‡`i g‡a¨ wKQyUv wfbœZv i‡q‡Q| Avwg Avgvi ¯^vaxbZv‡K A¶zY œ ivL‡Z PvB| ÔRxe‡bi Rb¨ wkíÕ GB g‡š¿ Avwg wek¦vm Kwi| wkí‡K ev` w`‡q Rxeb n‡Z cv‡i bv|Õ kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b †hv‡Mb †PŠayixi m‡½ †mB my›`i mgq KvUv‡bvi ci 1992 mv‡ji Ry‡ bi gvSvgvwS wZwb XvKvq Av‡mb| †mevi XvKvq AbywôZ fvi‡Zi cÖ _g mvwii wekRb wkíxi Qwe cÖ`k©b xi Kwgkbvi wn‡m‡e †hv‡Mb †PŠayix evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wgxi AwZw_ n‡q G‡mwQ‡jb| XvKvq Ae¯’vbKv‡j †hv‡Mb †PŠayix wkíKjv GKv‡Wgx KZ…© c ‡¶i m‡½ cÖ `k©b xmsµvš— Av‡jvPbv QvovI XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Pvi“Kjv wk¶vqZb, RvZxq Rv`yNi, gwZwS‡j wewm‡Ki wWRvBb †m›Uvi, †mvbviMuvi †jvKwkí Rv`yNimn bvbv RvqMvq †M‡Qb| Gme cÖwZôv‡b wkíx‡`i m‡½ wg‡k‡Qb, gZwewbgq K‡i‡Qb| GB Avby ôvwbKZvi g‡a¨I XvKvi cÖwZwbwa¯’vbxq wkíx, MvqK I Kwe‡`i m‡½ AvÇv †`Iqvi wKQy mgq †ei K‡i wb‡qwQ‡jb †hv‡Mb †PŠayix| XvKvq huv‡`i m‡½ wZwb cwiwPZ nIqvi my‡ hvM †c‡qwQ‡jb, mevB‡K Zuvi Lye Kv‡Qi †jvK g‡b n‡q‡Q| wZwb g‡b K‡ib, †mUv fvlvi Rb¨, hv‡Z ci¯úi‡K eyS‡Z cviv hvq mn‡RB| Avm‡j c„w_exi me©ÎB wkíKjv, mvwnZ¨, Mvb w`‡q Avgiv KvQvKvwQ Avwm| GUvB me‡P‡q eo e¨vcvi| gvby‡li g½jI †mLv‡b| XvKvi AwfÁZv cÖm‡½ wZwb G K_v¸‡jv e‡jwQ‡jb Avgv‡K| †mevi XvKvq Ae¯’vbKv‡j Avgv‡`i Iqvixi evmvq G‡mwQ‡jb GK `ycy‡ i| XvKvi wkíx‡`i g‡a¨ mwdDÏxb Avn‡g`, †gvnv¤§` wKewiqv, KvBqyg †PŠayix Avi wbZzb KzÛzI wQ‡jb| †mw`b Avgv‡`i `vi“Y mgq †K‡UwQj M‡íi Avb›` Avi LvIqv`vIqvi ga¨ w`‡q| wkíx †hv‡Mb †PŠayixi m‡½ Av‡iv †`Lv n‡q‡Q kvwš—wb‡KZb, KjKvZv I XvKvq| cÖwZeviB †mB GKB Avš—wiKZv Avi fv‡jvevmvi †Quvqv †c‡qwQ| evsjv‡`‡ki wkí Av‡›`vjb m¤ú‡K© †hv‡Mb †PŠayi xi ¯úó AwfgZ Ñ Drmvnx wkíx Av‡Qb cÖPzi| ¯^vaxbZvi ci bZzb cwi‡e‡k KvR Ki‡Qb mevB| ejv hvq, wkíKjv Av‡›`vj‡b GB A‡j fvi‡Zi ciB evsjv‡`‡ki ¯’vb| GLvbKvi mvs¯‹…wZK Rxe‡b cÖv‡Yi cik cvIqv hvq| XvKvi †hme RvqMvq wZwb wM‡q‡Qb, †m m¤ú‡K© e‡jwQ‡jb, ÔRqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi ¯^c œ †mvbviMuvi cÖ`k©b x AZ¨š— AvKl©Y xq †nvK| wWRvBb †m›Uv‡i Lye fv‡jv KvR n‡”Q Ñ KjKvZvi †P‡q fv‡jv| AvU© K‡j‡Ri cwi‡ek Lye fv‡jv †j‡M‡Q| A‡bKUv kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi cwi‡e‡ki g‡Zv g‡b n‡jv| RvZxq Rv`y Ni fv‡jv ˆZwi n‡q‡Q Ñ cwi”Qbœ , my›`i e¨e¯’vcbv| cÖPzi `k©K Av‡m|Õ XvKvq Zuvi m‡½ K_vq K_vq evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡×i cÖm ½ P‡j Av‡m| Av‡MB Zu vi Kv‡Q ï‡bwQjvg, Avgv‡`i †mB giYcY msMÖvgx w`b¸‡jvi ¯§i‡Y wZwb Qwe Gu‡ KwQ‡jb|

cÖwZK…wZ, 1987

evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ nƒ`‡qi mg¯— fv‡jvevmv w`‡q ˆZwi n‡qwQj †m Qwe| Zuvi B‡”Q wQj, XvKvi †Kv‡bv RvZxq cÖwZôvb‡K G Qwe wZwb Dcnvi †`‡eb| †m mgq wZwb KweZvI wj‡L‡Qb †ek wKQy| Gfv‡e KjKvZv I XvKvq †hv‡Mb †PŠayixi m‡½ mv¶vr Avi Mí¸R‡ei ga¨ w`‡q Avgiv A‡bK KvQvKvwQ P‡j Avwm| †Kv_vq GKUv g‡bi wgj Lyu‡ R cvB| †mUv n‡jv gvbeKj¨v‡Yi fvebv| B`vbxs †hv‡Mb †PŠayixi m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡g G‡m‡Q mwZ¨| wKš‘ GLb cÖwZwbqZ Zuvi K_v g‡b Kwi, Zuvi K_v fvwe| KviY, Zuvi wPÎKjv Avwg fv‡jvevwm| 


evsjv‡`‡ki wPÎKjvq cÖK…wZ

Rqbyj Av‡ew`b †_‡K Rvwn` BKevj b R i“ j B m jv g

G

K mg‡q Ggb GKwU aviYv †ek cÖej wQj †h wPÎKjv n‡”Q cÖK…wZ ev wbm‡M©i bKj (ÔAvU© BR Bwg‡Ukb Ae †bPviÕ)| mg‡qi weeZ©‡b bKj K_vwUi e¨vL¨v n‡q‡Q bvbvfv‡e| G‡Kev‡i ûeû bKj ev ev¯—eev`x iƒc vqY †_‡K ïi“ K‡i Awfe¨w³ cÖKvk Z_v civev¯—e wKsev weg~Z© iƒc K Avw½‡KI wbmM©wPÎ wbg©v‡Yi `„óvš— i‡q‡Q| weªwUk wkíZvwË¡K †WwfW †e‡ji g‡Z, ÔGKwU wbmM©wPÎ †Kv‡bv GKwU ¯’v‡bi cÖwZwPÎ gvÎ bq, eis Zv wkíxi e¨w³‡Z¡iI cÖwZ”Qwe Ges wkíx †h hy‡Mi gvbyl Zvi Aw¼Z wPÎ †mB hy‡MiI cÖwZ”Qwe|Õ GKv`k kZvãxi Pxbv wkíx KzÕI wmÕi Kv‡Q wbmM©wPÎ Av‡iv †ewk wbM~p A_©en| wZwb wj‡L‡Qb, ÔGKRb wkíxi DwPZ wbm‡M©i m‡½ wb‡R‡K GKvZ¥ K‡i †djvi †Póv Kiv Ges hZ¶Y ch©š— cÖK…wZi g~j Zvrch© cwi®‹vifv‡e †evSv bv hvq ZZ¶Y ch©š— cÖK…wZ‡K wbix¶Y Kiv|Õ A_©vr wbmM©‡K Avcb AwfÁZvq aviY bv K‡i wkíxi wbmM©wPÎ AuvKv DwPZ bq| A‡bKUv G-ai‡bi AwfÁZvwfwËK ev ÔG·‡cwi‡qbwkqvjÕ wkí m„Rb `k©‡b wek¦vmx wQ‡jb wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`bI| b`x wbmM© AuvKvi Av‡M wZwb `xN© mgq b`xe‡¶ †bŠKv åg‡Yi D‡`¨vM wb‡Zb| GgbI NUbvi K_v Zuvi Qv·`i gy‡L †kvbv hvq †h, wZwb Qwe AuvKvi D‡Ï‡k¨ mvivw`b †bŠKvq K‡i b`x‡Z †eov‡jb wKš‘ †kl ch©š— †mw`b nq‡Zv Zuvi QweB AuvKv n‡jv bv, b`xi AwfÁZv cwic~Y© nqwb, Zuvi Ggb g‡b nIqvi Kvi‡Y| welq we‡ePbvq HwZn¨MZfv‡eB gvbyl I cÖK…wZ wkíx‡`i Kv‡Q cÖvavb¨ †c‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki AvaywbK wPÎKjvi †¶‡ÎI GiKg mvaviY gš—e¨ KivB hvq| welq wn‡m‡e KL‡bv gvbyl wKsev cÖK…wZ Avjv`v mËvq Dcw¯’Z, Avevi A‡bK mgq `y‡Uv welq GKvKvi n‡q‡Q| ZvQvov Dc¯’vcbvi Avw½K ev X‡O ˆewPΨ †Zv _v‡KB| G‡Kev‡i mivmwi cÖwZwbwaZ¡kxj wPÎixwZ ev ev¯—eev`x ixwZ †_‡K ïi“ K‡i iƒc ev`x I cÖKvkev`x ˆkjx wKsev Avav-weg~Z© I c~Y© weg~Z© ˆkjx wKsev DËi-AvaywbK BZ¨vw` bvbv

k¤¢yMÄ, 1933, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

wbmM©, 1950, Gm Gg myjZvb


Kvj‰ekvLx Rjis, 1950, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

ˆkjx‡ZB welq Dc¯’vwcZ n‡Z cv‡i| wPÎixwZ ci¤úiv HwZnvwmKfv‡e †hgb weewZ©Z n‡q‡Q, Avevi †`Lv †M‡Q, cyi‡bv ixwZ ev ˆkjx cieZx©Kv‡j mgv`„Z n‡q‡Q, nq‡Zv Zv‡Z wKQy bZzbZ¡ G‡bB| gva¨g e¨envi Ges Dc¯’vcbvi Kjv‡KŠkjI cwiewZ©Z n‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| welq wn‡m‡e cÖK…wZ ev wbmM© cyi‡bv n‡jI AZ¨š— AvaywbK I mgKvjxb wkíx‡`i g‡a¨I Gi Ae¨vnZ c¶cvZ Avgv‡`i `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i| evsjv‡`‡ki wkíx‡`i g‡a¨ cÖK…wZwbf©i wkíx wn‡m‡e G‡`‡ki AvaywbK wPÎKjvi cÖwZôvZv e¨w³Z¡ wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi bvgB me©v‡MÖ ¯§iYxq| Rqbyj g~jZ cÖK…wZ I gvby‡li wkíx| gvby‡li Qwe AuvK‡Z wM‡q †hgb wZwb e¨w³we‡k‡li cÖwZK…wZ AuvKvq wbi“rmvnx, eis evOvwj e¨w³mËv, gvby‡li Rxeb I msMÖvg AuvKvq AvZ¥wb‡ew`Z wQ‡jb, cÖvK…wZK `„k¨ A¼‡bI wZwb evsjv‡`‡ki cÖKw… Zi †gŠwjK w`K Zz‡j ai‡ZB AwaK Drmvnx wQ‡jb| GB †gŠwjKZ¡ LyR u ‡Z wM‡q wZwb nq‡Zv wKQy wKQy ev¯—eev`x cÖwZwbwaZ¡g~jK wbmM©wPÎ Gu‡K‡Qb, wKš‘ Zuvi g~j j¶¨ wQj cÖK…wZi †gRvR‡K ai‡Z †Póv Kiv| Zuvi wk¶vbwewkKv‡j wZwb cwðg evsjvi `ygKv A‡j muvIZvj cj­x Gu‡K‡Qb Rjis I †Zji‡O, gqgbwmsn, we‡klZ eªþcyÎ b‡`i cÖwZ‡ek Gu‡K‡Qb Kvwj, Kjg Avi Rji‡O| GBme wP‡Î BD‡ivcxq wkíx‡`i g‡Zv ev¯—eev`x Avw½KB gyL¨| wKš‘ Zuvi Ô†Lqvcv‡iÕ (1951), Ôb`x cvivcviÕ (wPÎ 14) A_ev ÔKvj‰ekvLxÕ (1951) GBme wP‡Î cÖK…wZi cÖwZK…wZ A¼‡bi †P‡q cÖKw… Zi Aš—wb©wnZ iƒcUv‡KB aiv n‡q‡Q †ewk Ges AZ¨š— mv_©Kfv‡e cÖvP¨ wkíxi h_v_© gvbwmKZv wb‡q| Zuvi ÔKvj‰ekvLxÕ (1951) QwewU GK AmvaviY wPÎ| AZ¨š— b~¨ bZg nvjKv is I Am¤¢e kw³kvjx Zzwji Uv‡b

b`x Rjis, 1963, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b

wbmM© Rjis, 1947, Kvgi“j nvmvb

†bŠKv †Zjis, 1956, iwk` †PŠayix


Kvj‰ekvLxi AvKw¯§KZv dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb, `yRb gvbyl Kxfv‡e S‡oi gy‡L AvZ¥i¶v K‡i GwM‡q hvIqvi †Póv Pvjv‡”Qb Zv †`wL‡q‡Qb| wPÎc‡U gvby‡li Dcw¯’wZ S‡oi ZxeªZv †evSv‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q| cy‡iv K‡¤úvwRkbwUB Amvgvb¨| Rqbyj AmsL¨ cÖK…wZwelqK Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb, Zv‡Z b`x `„k¨ cÖvavb¨ †c‡q‡Q, b`x‡Z Aek¨B †bŠKvi Dcw¯’wZ wQj, ¸YUvbvi `„k¨I b`xwfwËK| cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi cvnvwo cÖK…wZ Rqby‡ji Zzwj‡Z we‡klfv‡e AvKl©Yxq n‡q D‡V‡Q| Z‡e ïay cÖK…wZi kvš— †gRvRB Zuvi Zzwj‡Z aiv †`q bvB| cvkvcvwk cÖKw… Zi i“`ªgw~ Z© Rqbyj‡K cÖPÊfv‡e Av‡jvwoZ K‡i‡Q| 1970 m‡bi DcK‚j xq mvB‡K¬vb I mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡vm cÖvq cuvP j¶ evOvwji cÖvY msnvi K‡i‡Q| wkívPvh© Zvr¶wYKfv‡e Qy‡U wM‡qwQ‡jb `yM©Z GjvKvq| wd‡i G‡m GKvMÖ wbweóZvq m„wó Ki‡jb GK Awe¯§iYxq `xN©wPÎv‡jL¨ Ôgbcyiv Õ70Õ| wZwik dzU ˆ`‡N©¨ i mv`vKv‡jv wPÎwU So I R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi aŸsmjxjvi Ki“Y `„k ¨ Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| Rqby‡ji 1943-Gi `ywf©¶ wPÎgvjvi m‡½ Avw½KMZ wgj Av‡Q gbcyiv Õ70-Gi| GB iKg gvbweK wech©‡qi ü`qwe`viK wPÎ cÖ_gwU gvbem„ó , c‡iiwU cÖK…wZm„ó| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b ïay cÖKw… Z‡K wPwÎZ K‡ibwb, cÖK…wZ †_‡K wZwb Zuvi b›`bZ‡Ë¡i †gŠwjKZ¡I MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| evsjvi b`x †_‡K wk‡L‡Qb m‡eM, m‡ZR, iwOb †iLvi e¨envi Ges evsjvi cvwb, AvKvk Avi e„wó †_‡K wb‡q‡Qb ¯^”Q, mRxe is| Rqbyj mgZ‡ji b`x wbmM© †hgb Gu‡K‡Qb, †Zgwb Gu‡K‡Qb cvnvwo GjvKvi wbmM©`k„ ¨| evsjv‡`‡ki Aci GK gnvb wkíx Kvgi“j nvmvbI g~jZ cÖK…wZ I gvby‡li wkíx| evsjv‡`‡ki b`x, dm‡ji gvV Ges †gNgq AvKvk BZ¨vw` wbmM©`„k¨ Zuvi wPÎKjvq h_v_© †gRv‡R cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| Kvgi“‡ji wbmM©`k„ ¨ Rji‡O AuvKv, Rji‡Oi

¯^”Q PwiÎB GBme wP‡Îi Rb¨ Dchy³ Ges Zuvi Qwei Avw½K G‡`‡ki wbm‡M©i g‡ZvB RwUjZvnxb| wZwb Õ70 m‡bi N~wY©So wb‡q Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb| mgev¯—eev`x Avw½‡K wZwb wbmM©wPÎ Gu‡K‡Qb, hw`I GKB mg‡q gvbewelqK I mvgvwRK ev¯—ewbf©i Qwe‡Z wZwb dg© wb‡q A‡bK cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡i‡Qb, dg© †f‡O‡Qb| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖe xY wkíx‡`i g‡a¨ whwb g~jZB GKRb cÖK…wZwbf©i wkíx, wZwb mwdDÏxb Avn‡g`| cÖ_g c‡e© wZwb cÖvK…wZK `„‡k¨i GKRb wek¦¯— wkíx wQ‡jb| cwðg evsjvi muvIZvj ciMbvi e‡bi `„k ¨ A_ev MÖv‡gi `„k¨, MÖvgevsjvi avb gvovB‡qi `„k¨ BZ¨vw` Zuvi nv‡Z ¯’vwqZ¡ jvf K‡i‡Q| cieZx©Kv‡j mwdDÏxb wbmM©‡K e¨envi K‡i‡Qb bv›`wbK DrKl© mva‡bi Rb¨| evsjv‡`‡ki b`x, gvQ aivi Rvj, b`x‡Z †bŠ‡Kv, cÖK…wZi MvQ, Mv‡Qi cvZv, GBmeB wZwb e¨envi K‡i‡Qb wPÎKjvi †iLv, is, f~wgi AvK…wZ Ges dg© mnRxKi‡Yi Kv‡R| m¤¢eZ GK_v AwZiÄb n‡e bv †h, evsjv‡`‡ki wbmM© †_‡K wPÎKjvi bv›`wbK ˆewkó¨ MÖnY Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Qb mwdDÏxb Avn‡g`B me‡P‡q †ewk| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b evsjv‡`‡ki wbmM©‡K `~icÖvP¨ †`kxq K¬vwmK¨vj ixwZ‡Z mv_©KZvgwÊZ K‡i‡Qb Avi mwdDÏxb †m-KvRwU K‡i‡Qb AvaywbK cvðvZ¨ mgweg~Z© R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z| mwdDÏxb Avng` Õ55-i eb¨vi ev¯—eZv Lye PgrKvifv‡e wkwíZ K‡i‡Qb Zuvi wewfbœ MÖvwdi wcÖ›U gva¨‡g| Zuvi Qwe‡Z eb¨vi †Kv‡bv i“`ªiƒc bq, eis Zvi GKwU we¯—xY© cwim‡ii kvš— mgvwnZ ˆewkó¨B dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Rqbyj I mwdDÏxb Df‡qi wbmM©wbf©i KvRB G‡`‡ki wbmM©wPÎ Z_v wPÎKjvi bv›`wbK DrK‡l©i Rb¨ ¯§iYxq| Av‡bvqvi“j nK Lye †ewk Gu‡ K‡Qb Ggb ejv bv †M‡jI,

eb¨v A¨vKz qvwU›U, 1959, mwdDÏxb Avn‡g` emš— †Zjis, 1989, †gvnv¤§` wKewiqv


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el©v-2 †Zjis, 1984, nvwg`yi ivngvb

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cÖKvk NUv‡Z ïi“ Kij| ÔwKDweRgÕ wkív‡›`vjbwU GKUv we‡kl gZev`, hv Zvi wbR¯^ wek¦v m I hyw ³ w`‡q Qwe AuvKvi c¶cvZx wQj| G Av‡›`vjb‡K Avgiv GKUv ÔB‡›U‡jKPzqvj gyf‡g›UÕI ej‡Z cvwi| hvi KviY n‡”Q G Av‡›`vjb wb‡q cÖPzi †jLv I cÖKvkbv †ei n‡q‡Q| GZ †jLv‡jwLi Aek¨ Av‡iKwU cÖavb KviY n‡”Q, G avivq wcKv‡mvi g‡Zv GKRb gnvb wkíx KvR K‡i‡Qb| wcKv‡mv Zuv i RxeÏkvq †hme KvR K‡ib Zvi GK eo AskB wKDweRgixwZ‡Z K‡iwQ‡jb| wcKv‡mv G Av‡›`vj‡bi m‡½ we‡klfv‡e hy³ _vKvi d‡jB nq‡Zv G Av‡›`vjb wb‡q cÖPzi Av‡jvPbv n‡q‡Q| wKDweRg wkí-Av‡›`vjb †_‡K cieZx©Kv‡j A‡bK wkíxiB ¯^v axb GKUv wfwË M‡o D‡V‡Q| GB aviv‡Z wkíxi e¨w³MZ Av‡eM I Abyf~wZi cÖKvk wKQyU v Kg N‡U‡Q| welqe¯‘i h_vh_ iƒcUv cÖKvk bv K‡iB Qwe AuvKv n‡Zv| Iuiv wek¦v m Ki‡Zb Avw`g wfwËi Ici welq‡K `uvo Kiv‡Z cvi‡j †mUv‡ZB Qwei Avmj iƒcUv dz‡U DV‡e| †mUvB n‡e wel‡qi Avmj iƒc| ZvB Zuviv mKj e¯‘‡K LwÊZfv‡e †`‡L‡Qb| Zuv iv ej‡Zb Ñ Everything is Ôstill lifeÕ. wKDweRg wk‡íi GKwU cÖavb w`K n‡jv Qwe‡Z wewfbœ `„ wó‡Kv‡Yi e¨envi| Zuv iv Qwe‡Z GKB m‡½ GKvwaK `„w ó‡Kv‡Yi e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| A‡bKUv Pjw”P‡Îi mycviB‡¤úv‡Ri g‡Zv| Pjw”P‡Î ev Av‡jvKwP‡Î GKwU Qwei Ici Av‡iKwU Qwe †dj‡j †h ai‡bi GKwU cÖ‡¶wcZ iƒ‡ci m„wó nq A‡bKUv †m-iKg GKwU iƒc Zuv ‡`i Qwe‡Z †`Iqvi †Póv _vKZ| Z‡e Zuviv Qwe‡Z `„ wó‡Kv‡Yi cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z wM‡q cÖ‡qv‡Mi mxgve×Zv‡K Qvwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡ibwb| †hgb GKwU e¯‘i nvRv‡iv `„w ó‡KvY Av‡Q| wKš‘ Qwe‡Z †Zv Avi nvRv‡iv `„w ó‡KvY †`Iqv hvq bv| ZvB Zuv iv ˆeÁvwbK MVb Ges wkíxi ¯^v axb B”Qvi Ici cÖwZwôZ KZ¸‡jv we‡kl R¨vwgwZK `„w ó‡Kv‡Yi e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| wKDweRg wk‡í wkíxiv cÖ‡ Z¨K e¯‘i Aš—w b©wnZ †h KvVv‡gvMZ KvwVb¨ Av‡Q Zv Avbvi †Póv Ki‡jb| GUv wKDweK wk‡íi GKwU cÖavbZg w`K| Zuv iv cÖ‡Z¨K e¯‘‡K Zuv ‡`i R¨vwgwZK KvVv‡gv‡Z fvO‡Z †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Avi R¨vwgwZK KvVv‡gv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z wM‡q Zuv iv Zuv ‡`i Qwe‡Z mv_©Kfv‡e weÁv‡bi cÖ‡ek NwU‡q‡Qb| Zuviv welqe¯‘‡K we‡k­lYvZ¥Kfv‡e †f‡O †f‡O Qwe‡Z Dc¯’v cb Ki‡Zb| Zuv ‡`i GB fvOPzi weÁvbm¤§Zfv‡e MvwYwZK| Gfv‡e fvO‡Z fvO‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q Zuv‡`i Qwe †_‡K is cÖv q jyß n‡q †M‡Q| G wkíx‡`i Kv‡R †`Lv hvq, †hgb wcKv‡mv ev eªv K, Guiv welqe¯‘ Ggbfv‡e DÌvcb Ki‡Zb †h Zuv ‡`i hyw ³UvB cÖavb n‡q †`Lv †`Iqv ïi“ Kij| Gu‡`i `yR‡bi cÖ_g w`‡Ki KvR¸‡jv‡Z †`Lv hvq Zuv iv cÖv q GKB welqe¯‘ wb‡q GKBfv‡e †f‡O‡Qb Ges i‡Oi PvKwPK¨‡K cy‡ivcywiB eR©b K‡i‡Qb| wKDweR‡gi wkíxiv Qwe‡Z KvwVb¨ Avbvi †¶‡Î nq‡Zv †mRv‡bi KvQ †_‡K Aby‡cÖiYv jvf K‡iwQ‡jb| †mRv‡bi GKwU eo ai‡bi cÖfve Gme wkíxi Ici wQj| we‡kl K‡i †mRv‡bi †k‡li w`‡Ki wKQy KvR Øviv Guiv AbycÖv wYZ n‡qwQ‡jb| †mRvb hw`I B‡¤cÖkwbRg avivi †kl w`KKvi GKRb wkíx, Z_vwc Zuv i Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ B‡¤cÖ kwbR‡gi

wZb msMxZwkíx cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1921


wecixZ ˆewkó¨I wKQy †`Lv hvq| we‡kl K‡i Zuv i Qwei KvVv‡gv‡Z wZwb GK ai‡bi KvwVb¨ fve Avbvi †Póv Ki‡Zb, hv ev¯—eZvi cwicš’ x| wZwb A‡bK Qwe‡ZB e¯‘i cÖv _wgK ev g~j AvK…w ZUv Avbvi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| Qwe Auv Kvi mgq †mRvb welqe¯‘i R¨vwgwZK AvKv‡ii Ici †Rvi w`‡Zb| Zuv i hyw ³ wQj cÖ‡Z¨K e¯‘‡K Zvi mwVK KvVv‡gv‡Z Auv K‡Z n‡e, evûj¨ eR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| Zuv i G ai‡bi GKwU cÖavb Qwe n‡jv The Apples| wZwb cÖ‡Z¨KwU d‡ji evB‡ii w`‡K GKwU †iLv A¼b K‡i QwewU‡Z KvwVb¨ Avbvi †Póv K‡ib Ges h_vm¤¢e QwewUi KvwVb¨ e„w× K‡ib| wKDweRg wkíxiv †mRv‡bi AvaywbKZvi G j¶YwU MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| ZvB †Zv wKDwe÷ wkíxiv cÖ‡Z¨K e¯‘‡K Zuv‡`i R¨vwgwZK KvVv‡gv‡Z fvO‡Z mg_© n‡qwQ‡jb| wKDweRg wkí Av‡›`vj‡bi Av‡iKwU w`K n‡jv Zuv iv †KD †KD wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h©i cÖwZ AvK…ó nb| we‡kl K‡i wcKv‡mv GB avivi fv¯‹‡h©i cÖw Z we‡klfv‡e AvK…ó n‡qwQ‡jb| wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h© i cÖwZ AvK…ó nIqvi GKwU cÖavb KviY n‡jv wb‡MÖv fv¯‹h© †Zgb `„w ób›`b bq Ges GUv ev¯—em¤§ZI bq| wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h© wkíxiv Zuv‡`i B”Qvg‡Zv AvKv‡ii weK…wZ NwU‡q‡Qb| Zuv‡`i fv¯‹‡h©i Av‡iKwU w`K n‡jv Zuv‡`i ¯^vaxb Dcv`v‡bi e¨envi| wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h© wkíxiv wk‡íi wewfbœ Dcv`vb wb‡q †hb †Ljv K‡i‡Qb| Zuv iv gy‡ Lv‡ki AvKvi wb‡q wewPÎfv‡e †L‡j‡Qb| Gi Av‡iv GKwU cÖavb w`K n‡jv Gi cÖ‡ Z¨KwU AvKvi †KŠwYK AvK…wZi| †KŠwYK AvK…wZ cÖK…wZMZfv‡e †MvjvKvi AvK…w Zi †P‡q AwaK kw³kvjx Ges G‡Z KvwVb¨ A‡bK †ewk _v‡K| fv¯‹‡h©i Gme ˆewkó¨ MÖnY K‡i Zuviv wPÎKjvq KwVb fveUv G‡b‡Qb| wcKv‡mvi Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon QwewU‡Z Gme ˆewkó¨ †ek †Pv‡L c‡o| Zuvi Qwei kvixwiK AvKvi¸‡jv‡Z IB †KŠwYK AvKv‡ii cÖf veUv †`Lv hvq| wcKv‡mv †h wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h©i Øviv fv‡jvB Abyc ÖvwYZ n‡qwQ‡jb Zv G QwewU †`‡LB †evSv hv‡e| wKDwe÷ wkíxiv Zuv‡`i Qwe‡Z Av‡eM‡K Lye †ewk Avm‡Z †`bwb| Zuviv Qwei †¯úm, Ø›Ø, cwicvk¦©, mgq cÖf„wZ‡K eR©b Ki‡jb| Qwe‡Z Zu viv wkíxi e¨w³Z¡‡ K cÖKvwkZ n‡Z †`bwb| Gfv‡e Zuv iv wk‡íi †h GKwU KgbxqZv Av‡Q Ges Zv †h gvbyl‡K weeªZ Ki‡Z cv‡i †mUv ev` w`‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| ZvB Zuviv Zuv ‡`i AuvKv Qwe‡Z bvixi KgbxqZv‡K cÖvq we‡jvc K‡i w`‡q‡Qb| wcKv‡mvi Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon bvgK Qwei Wvb cv‡ki bvix‡`nwU †_‡K KgbxqZv‡K wcKv‡mv cÖvq †K‡oB wb‡q‡Qb| wKDweRg wkíxivB cÖ_ g huv iv Zuv ‡`i †Pv‡L †`Lvi `„w óUv‡K A¯^xKvi Ki‡jb| fvOv Avqbvi cÖw ZdwjZ e¯‘i †Pnviv †hgb †`Lv hvq Qwe‡ZI Zuviv †miKg GKwU iƒc †`Iqvi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| wKDweRg ïaygvÎ GKUv wkív‡›`vjb bq, GwU Avayw bK wk‡íi GKUv weivU m¤¢v ebviI Drm wn‡m‡e cieZx©Kv‡j cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q| Zuv‡`i K‡qKwU Ae`vb Øviv Avayw bK Z_v wKDweRg-cieZx© wkí Av‡›`vjb¸‡jv A‡bKUvB Abyc ÖvwYZ n‡qwQj| †hgb †KvjvR wPÎ wKDweRg avivi GKUv weivU Ae`vb| Gi Av‡M Gi cÖPjb †Zgb GKUv wQj bv| Zuviv †KvjvR AuvK‡Z wM‡q gva¨‡gi ¯^v axbZvUv wb‡jb| Avi Gi Aby‡cÖi YvUv Zuviv †c‡qwQ‡jb wb‡MÖv fv¯‹h© †_‡K| Avgiv Rvwb

jvwf cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1903


bvmcvwZ nv‡Z gwnjv cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1909

Avmxb bwMœKv cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1909

†h wb‡MÖv fv¯‹h© Ges wb‡MÖv gy‡Lv‡k wkíxiv wewfbœ ai‡bi Dcv`vb e¨envi Ki‡Zb| gva¨‡gi G ¯^v axbZv Zu viv †Kvjv‡RI e¨envi Ki‡jb| GUv AvaywbK wk‡íi GKUv weivU m¤¢vebvi Øvi Ly‡j w`‡jv| wKDweR‡g Avgiv ˆZwi wRwb‡mi e¨envi †`L‡Z cvB| we‡kl K‡i Zuv ‡`i fv¯‹‡h© G cÖeYZvwU we‡klfv‡e j¶ Kiv hvq| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq †h wcKv‡mv evBmvB‡K‡ji GKUv nvZj I GKUv Avmb w`‡qB GKUv fv¯‹h© m„w ó K‡ib| fv¯‹h©w Ui bvg †`b wZwb Bull’s Head| wk‡íi G w`KwU Øviv Zuviv Dada wkíx‡`iI cÖfvweZ K‡iwQ‡jb| wKDweRg wkíxiv RoRxeb‡K AZ¨š— ¸i“Z¡ w`‡Zb| Gu‡`i Av‡MiKvi wkíxiv RoRxeb‡K ZZUv ¸i“Z¡ w`‡Z PvB‡Zb bv| Zuviv G‡K GKwU Abykxjb wn‡m‡eB ¸i“Z¡ w`‡Zb gvÎ, wKš‘ wKDwe÷ wkíxiv G‡K GKwU c~Y©v ½ wPÎKjv wn‡m‡e PP©v K‡i‡Qb| wKDwe÷ wkíx‡`i GKwU w`K n‡jv †h Gui v welqe¯‘‡K B‡”Qg‡Zv A‡bK weK…Z K‡i‡Qb, welqe¯‘i Am¤¢e fvOPzi K‡i‡Qb, wKš‘ †Kv‡bv mg‡qB Zuv iv welqe¯‘ †_‡K m‡i hvbwb| Zuv‡`i fvOv Avqbvq cÖwZdwjZ cÖwZwe‡¤^i g‡Zv Qwe¸‡jv‡Z welqe¯‘‡ K wKš‘ wVKB Dcjwä Kiv †hZ| wKDweRg wkíaviv‡Z Avgiv `ywU cÖeYZv j¶ Kwi| GKwU n‡jv Analytical Cubism Avi Ab¨wU n‡jv Synthetic

bvixi g¯—K cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1909

Cubism| Analytical Cubism-Gi mgqKvj g~jZ 1890 †_‡K 1912 Ges Synthetic Cubism-Gi mgqKvjUv 1912 †_‡K 1916 mvj ch©š—| Analytical Cubism-G wkíx‡`i

KvVv‡gvi Ici †Rvi w`‡Z †`L‡Z cvB| GB gva¨‡g e¯‘‡K cÖPÊ fvOPzi Kiv n‡Zv Ges i‡Oi cÖv avb¨ µgvš^‡q K‡g Avm‡Z _vKj| Av‡iK ai‡bi wkíxiv i‡Oi cÖv avb¨‡K cybivq wdwi‡q Avbvi R‡b¨ Synthetic Cubism-Gi cÖPjb Ki‡jb| G‡Z fvOPz‡ii cwigvY Kwg‡q Avbv n‡jv| Z‡e Analytical Cubism Ges Synthetic Cubism †Kv‡bv aviv‡ZB wkíxiv Gme cÖeYZv †Rvi K‡i Zuv ‡`i Qwe‡Z Avb‡Z †Póv K‡ibwb| GUv Zuv ‡`i Qwe‡Z ¯^Ztù‚Z©fv‡e G‡m‡Q| wcKv‡mv I eªv ‡Ki wKDweR‡gi cÖ_g KvR¸‡jv Analytical (we‡k­lYvZ¥K)| c‡i wcKv‡mv wKQy Synthetic (ms‡k­lYvZ¥K) KvRI K‡ib| wKDweR‡gi wkíxiv GKwU wPÎZ‡j †MvUv welqe¯‘‡K Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Zb| Zuv ‡`i Qwe‡Z cwi‡cÖw¶‡Zi MfxiZvUv †Zgb cvIqv hvq bv| me e¯‘‡K GKB `„k¨Z‡j mgvb `~i‡Z¡ Aew¯’Z e‡j cÖZxqgvb n‡Zv| wKDweRg wkíixwZ‡Z Avgiv A‡bK wkíx‡KB cve| Zuv ‡`i g‡a¨ K‡qKRb D‡j­L ‡hvM¨ wkíx‡K wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z PvB, huv iv Zuv‡`i m„óK‡g©i Øviv G Av‡›`vjb‡K mg„× K‡i‡Qb| Avgiv cÖavbZ wPÎwkíx Ges fv¯‹i‡`i wb‡qB Av‡jvPbv Kie| wPÎwk‡íi D‡j­L ‡hvM¨ K‡qKRb wkíx n‡jb


cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, RR© eªvK, Ru¨v wMÖm, dvb©v›` †jMvi, ievU© wW‡jvwb, GjevU© †mwj‡Rm cÖgyL | Avi huviv fv¯‹‡h©i gva¨‡g KvR K‡i‡Qb Zuv ‡`i g‡a¨ D‡j­L‡hvM¨ n‡jb wjcwPR, AvwK©‡cb‡Kv, WyKvg wfjb cÖgyL wkíx| †h‡nZz wcKv‡mv GKRb mwZ¨Kv‡ii eogv‡ci wkíx, huvi Ae`vb wKDweRg wkí‡K gwngvwš^Z K‡iwQj, d‡j wcKv‡mvi wKDweRg Ges G Av‡›`vj‡b Zuvi cÖfve wb‡q Avgiv GKUz wek` Av‡jvPbv Kie| wKDweRg I wcKv‡mv wcKv‡mv wbtm‡›`‡n me©Kv‡ji GKRb †miv m„Rbkxj wkíx| wKDweRg Z_v Avayw bK wkíK‡g©i cÖavb cÖeZ©K I cw_K…r wcKv‡mv wkíx wn‡m‡e †hb G hy‡Mi GK we¯§q| †hgb wQj m„Rb¶gZv †ZgbB wQj gva¨‡gi e¨env‡i Zuvi `¶Zv| GKB m‡½ wewfbœ gva¨‡g KvR Kivi mvg_©¨ Zuvi g‡Zv Ab¨ Kv‡iv †Zgb wQj bv| †¯ú‡bi ev‡m©‡jvbvq Rb¥MÖnY Ki‡jI wcKv‡mv wbR Rb¥¯’v ‡b _vK‡Z cv‡ibwb| †`k †_‡K wbe©vwmZ Ae¯’v q wZwb d«v ‡Ý Ae¯’v b K‡ib| d« v‡Ý wZwb divwm KwgDwb÷ cvwU©‡Z †hvM`vb K‡ib| Zuv i wcZv †Rv‡m i“BR e­v m‡Kv Pvi“Kjvi Aa¨vcK wQ‡jb| gv‡qi bvg wQj gvwiqv wcKv‡mv †jv‡cR| Zuv ‡`i N‡i AmvaviY cÖw Zfv I m„Rb¶gZvi AwaKvix

¸‡qiwbKv cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1937

†Q‡jwUi Rb¥ nq 1881 mv‡ji 25 A‡±vei| wcKv‡mv‡K Avgiv cve‡jv wcKv‡mv bv‡gB Rvwb| Z‡e Zuvi Avmj Ges cy‡iv bvg n‡jv cve‡jv w`‡q‡Mv †Rv‡m d«v‡Ým‡Kv `¨ cvIjv Ryqvb wb‡cvgy‡m‡bv gvwiqv `¨ jm †i‡gwWIm wmwcÖqv‡bv †` jv mvwš—w mgv wUªw b`v` i“BR IqvB wcKv‡mv (Pablo Diego Jose Francisco De Paula Juan Nepomuceno Maria De Los Remedios Cipriano De La Santisima Trinidad Ruiz Y Picasso)| †¯ú‡b Aí eqm †_‡KB wkíxi wkíwPš—v i weKvk

N‡U| gvÎ †PvÏ eQi eq‡m wZwb cvwÊZ¨c~Y© me Wªwqs AuvK‡Z cvi‡Zb| evev Zuv i †Q‡ji Qwe Auv Kvi ¶gZv †`‡L Awff‚Z nb| Zuv i `„p wek¦v m R‡b¥wQj †h, eo n‡q GB wkï GKw`b weL¨vZ wPÎwkíx n‡e| ZLb †_‡K gvw`ª` I ev‡m©‡jvbvq wkíxi wk¶vbwewk P‡j GKbvMv‡o 1900 mvj ch©š—| wcKv‡mvi Aí eq‡mi AuvKv Wªwqs¸‡jv †`‡L mgv‡jvPKiv Zuv ‡K ivdv‡q‡ji mgK¶ ej‡Zb| wcKv‡mv ej‡Zb, ÔAvgvi Qwe Avgvi †P‡q A‡bK †ewk kw³kvjx| Avgv‡K w`‡q †m Zvi Pvwn`vgvwdK KvR Kwi‡q †bq|Õ Iui bexb eq‡mi Ô†mev I weÁvbÕ †`‡LB Iui wkí‰bcyY¨ Av›`vR K‡i †bIqv hvq, †hUv‡Z Amvgvb¨ `¶Zv I GKvMÖZvi Qvc wQj my¯úó| G Qwe †`‡L g‡b nq †hb †¯ú‡bi †Kv‡bv cÖvPxb wkíxi AuvKv †Kv‡bv Qwe| A_P wkíx GUv K‡i‡Qb Iui gvÎ †lv‡jv eQi eq‡m| wcKv‡mv cÖwZwU av‡c GwM‡q †M‡Qb wk‡íiB cÖ‡qvR‡b, wk‡íiB AvnŸv‡b| Avi


wZb b„Z¨wkíx cve‡jv wcKv‡mv, 1925

†jmUv‡K evwo RR© eªvK, 1908

wcKv‡mvi eqm I cwicK¡Zvi Zzjbvq Zv n‡q D‡V‡Q A‡bKLvwbB AMÖMvgx| wb‡Ri wkícwi‡ek Ges hvi †fZi w`‡q wZwb eo n‡q‡Qb, †mmeB wcKv‡mvi Dcjwä I ch©‡e¶‡Yi welq wQj, hv Zuv i Aš— i‡K K‡iwQj cÖM vp wkí‡eva, wkwíZ `„w ófw½ Ges wkíg~j¨‡ev‡a ¯^qsm¤ú~Y©| GmeB GKRb m„ Rbkxj wkíx wn‡m‡e wcKv‡mvi m„w ó-in‡m¨i mvie¯‘ I wfwË| wcKv‡mvi wkíKg© wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z †M‡j †`Lv hvq welqe¯‘ wbe©vP‡b wkíxi †Kv‡bv evQwePvi wQj bv| AZ¨š— bMY¨ welq‡KI wZwb mv_©K wk‡í iƒc w`‡q‡Qb| g‡b nq wZwb †hb †Ljv”Q‡j wkíPP©v K‡i‡Qb| Gfv‡e wewfbœ ai‡bi wRwbm‡K wZwb wk‡í wb‡q Av‡mb| †hgb Zuv i GKwU Qwe‡Z †`Lv hvq, GKwU †g‡q GKUv †gviM wb‡q e‡m Av‡Q| wZwb nv‡Zi Kv‡Q hv wKQy †c‡q‡Qb Zv‡KB wbwe©Pv‡i wk‡í iƒc w`‡q‡Qb| wcKv‡mvi GKUv we‡kl w`K n‡jv wZwb wKDweR‡g wkí m„wó Ki‡Z †Kv‡bv mg‡qB G‡Kev‡i weg~Z©Zvq hvbwb| hw`I bvbviKg fvOPz‡ii gva¨‡g wcKv‡mv wPÎ iPbv Ki‡Zb Z_vwc Zvi g‡a¨ welqe¯‘Uv‡K cwi®‹vifv‡e Dcjwä Kiv †hZ| †hgb The Three Musicians Qwe‡Z wZwb cÖwZg~wZ©¸‡jv‡K B”Qvg‡Zv weK…Z I fvOPzi K‡i‡Qb| Z_vwc Gi g‡a¨I QweUvi welqe¯‘U v‡K eyS‡Z †Kv‡bv Kó nq bv| wcKv‡mvi wkíPP©v q `yw U Aa¨vq we‡klfv‡e j¶ Kiv hvq|

w÷j jvBd Ryqvb wMÖm, 1911

Zvi GKwU n‡jv Ôbxj ce©Õ ev ÔBlue PeriodÕ, Ab¨wU Ô†Mvjvwc ce©Õ ev Ô Pink PeriodÕ| bxj c‡e© i mgqKvj wQj 1901 †_‡K 1904 mvj Ges †Mvjvwc c‡e©i mgqKvj wQj 1904 †_‡K 1908 mvj ch©š —| bxj c‡e©i Qwei cÖw Zg~ wZ©¸‡jv‡Z ev‡m©©‡jvbvi cÖwZg~w Z©i Ki“Y im I `ytL‡K †hb †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| cÖwZg~wZ©©¸‡jv‡K `xN© AvKvi cÖ`vb I K…kKi‡Yi gva¨‡g weK…Z Kiv n‡qwQj| G‡Z Avgiv Zv‡`i Rxe‡bi `ytLK‡ói cÖwZ wkíxi mnvbyf~wZi cwiPqUvI cvB| `yt Lx Amnvq gvby‡li cÖwZ mnvbyf ~wZkxj fvee¨Äbvi Mfxi cÖKvk i‡q‡Q Iui bxj c‡e©i Qwe¸‡jv‡Z| Qwe¸‡jv‡Z g~jZ g‡bv‡µv‡gvwUK bxj i‡Oi e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q| c¨vwi kn‡i wcKv‡mv Gme AbvnviwK¬ó †`n¸‡jv cÖZ¨¶ K‡ib Ges †m Ae¯’v i m‡½ wb‡Ri `yie¯’v ‡K nq‡Zv Abvqv‡m †gjv‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| ZvB G¸‡jv Zuvi G c‡e©i Kv‡Ri †cÖi Yv I wfwË| Iui bxj c‡e©i GKwU Qwe n‡jv La Vie, GLv‡b wZwb cvi¯úwiK GKUv ؛؇K †`wL‡q‡Qb| mg¯— QwewUB bxj i‡O Kiv| †`n¸‡jvi Awfe¨w³i g‡a¨ welYœZvi GKUv Qvc †`Lv hvq| G c‡e©i Av‡iKwU Qwe n‡jv Woman Ironing. GLv‡b wZwb bvixi gvbwmK †e`bv‡K cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| bvixwUi g‡a¨ †h GKUv welYœZv Ges GK‡N‡qwg KvR Ki‡Q, Zv PwiÎwUi Suz‡K covi fw½‡Z †ek †evSv hvq| wcKv‡mvi Avi GKwU wkíce© n‡jv Ô†Mvjvwc ce©Õ ev ÔPink Period Õ| G c‡e©i ïi“ †_‡KB wcKv‡mvi Qwe‡Z ÔmvK©v m I


fuv oÕ welqe¯‘ wn‡m‡e †`Lv w`‡Z ïi“ Kij| Av‡MKvi wPθ‡jvi bxj i‡Oi ¯’‡j †Mvjvwc is †`Lv w`‡jv| GLv‡b †`n¸‡jv‡K †Kvgj ev gayi Ges A‡bK †ewk Avb›`RbK cwi‡e‡k ¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv| mvK©v‡mi RMrUv wkíxi ˆkwíK Kv‡Ri RM‡Z cÖ‡ek Kij| G mgq wZwb mvK©v m‡K welqe¯‘ wn‡m‡e †e‡Q wb‡q avivevwnK A‡bK¸‡jv Wªwqs I Gb‡MÖwfs K‡ib| wcKv‡mvi †Mvjvwc c‡e©i GKUv wPÎ n‡jv At the Lapin Agile| GLv‡b i‡Oi D¾¡jZv †`Lv hvq wKš‘ GB D¾¡j i‡Oi Avov‡j GKUv †e`bv‡KI †hb Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB| G c‡e©i Av‡iKwU Qwe n‡jv ÔA¨v‡µv‡eU& d¨vwgwjÕ| GLv‡b wZwb hvhvei Rxe‡bi †e`bv‡K dzw U‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| Av‡iKwU Qwe Gertrude Stein, GwU wkíxi GKRb evÜexi cÖw ZK…w Z| wkíxi †Mvjvwc c‡e©i †kl ejv P‡j ÔGwfq‡bi gwnjvivÕ kxl©K Qwei gva¨‡g| Gic‡i wKDweR‡gi AvMgb Ges eªv‡Ki m‡½ mv¶vr| 1901 †_‡K 1908, GB mvZ eQi †gvUvgywU wcKv‡mvi wKDwe÷ ce© Ges eªv‡Ki m‡½ Iui Nwbô ms‡hvM| wcKv‡mvi G

mvsMxwZK iƒc RR© eªvK, 1913

c‡e©i Qwe¸‡jv †ek weg~Z©| wcKv‡mvi wKDweK wk‡íi †cQ‡b Zuvi c~e©eZx© wKQy wkíxi Aby‡ cÖiYv Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB| wcKv‡mvi wKDweK wk‡íi †cQ‡b cÖavb Aby‡cÖi Yv g~jZ Ryyw M‡qwQ‡jb †mRvb Ges Iui wkíKg©| †mRv‡bi wk‡íi KvwVb¨fve wcKv‡mv‡K cÖ_g AvK…ó K‡i| †mRv‡bi †kl w`KKvi wKQy KvR ØvivI wZwb Abyc ÖvwYZ nb| GLv‡b D‡j­L¨ †h †mRvb hw`I Post-Impressionist wkíx, Z_vwc wZwb Gi wei“‡×I KvR K‡ib| GLv‡b D`vniY¯^i ƒc Zuvi GKUv RoRxeb The Apples-Gi bvg D‡j­ L Kiv hvq| cÖ‡Z¨K e¯‘i evB‡ii w`‡K GKUv `„p †iLv Øviv Gi g‡a¨Kvi KvwV‡b¨i fveUv‡K wZwb cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| Gw`KUv wcKv‡mv‡K we‡klfv‡e AvK…ó K‡i| AvB‡fixq fv¯‹‡h©i cÖfveI wQj wcKv‡mvi Ici GK my` ~icÖmvix cÖfve| Iui cÖ_ g wKDweK wk‡íi m~PbvKvix Qwe Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon Qwe‡Z GB fv¯‹‡h©i cÖfveUv †`Lv hvq| G Qwe‡Z Avignon MÖv‡gi K‡qKRb bMœ bvix‡K

msMxZwkíxiv RR© eªvK, 1917-18

Aa©`Êvqgvb g~wZ© RvK&m wjcwkU&R, 1915


g¨v‡Ûvwjb nv‡Z †g‡q K¨vwgj K‡iv, 1860-65

`vevi QK Ryqvb wMÖm, 1917

cwZZviƒ‡c †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| igYx¸‡jv wewfbœ fw½‡Z `uv ov‡bv| wkíx Gme igYx‡K c‡Y¨i g‡Zv Dc¯’v cb K‡i‡Qb| G‡`i mvg‡bi As‡k wKQy djg~j mvRv‡bv i‡q‡Q| wZwb nq‡Zv †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †h Gme igYx wVK djg~j¸‡jvi g‡ZvB Dc‡fvM¨v! bvix‡`n¸‡jv †_‡K wZwb me ai‡bi KgbxqZv mwi‡q w`‡q‡Qb| G QwewU Avayw bK wkíKjvi w`K w`‡q AZ¨š— ˆec­weK| GLv‡b Wvb cv‡ki `y wU wdMv‡i Avwd« Kvb wb‡MÖv fv¯‹‡h©i cÖw Zdjb NU‡Z †`wL, Avi evg cv‡ki¸‡jv‡Z wcKv‡mv NUvb AvB‡fixq fv¯‹‡h©i cÖwZdjb| wZwb c¨vwi‡mi Ethnographical Rv`yN‡i wb‡MÖv fv¯‹h© †`‡LwQ‡jb, hvi cÖf veI G Qwe‡Z wKQyUv Dc¯’v wcZ n‡q‡Q| hvi d‡j †`Lv hvq Wvb cv‡ki `ywU wdMvi wKQyU v Kzr wmZ I weK… Z Ges G‡`i fw½gvI Ak­xj| ZvQvov wdMv‡ii AvKvi¸‡jv †KŠwYK AvK…wZi| Gi g‡a¨ †mRv‡bi cÖfveUv †ek cvIqv hvq| we‡kl K‡i K‡¤úvwRk‡bi w`K †_‡K| Qwe AuvKvi wcKv‡mvi cÖP wjZ wbq‡gi †ek wKQy e¨wZµg G Qwe‡Z †`Lv hvq| QwewUi g‡a¨ †KŠwYK †iLvi msNvZ I ci¯ú‡ii †Q` †`Lv hvq| G‡Z †Kv‡bv wPÎZj †bB Ges †`n¸‡jv †cQ‡bi †Wªc vwii m‡½ †j‡M Av‡Q| meKwU †`n GKB wPÎZ‡j Ae¯’v b Ki‡Q| GUv wKDweRg wk‡íi GKUv cÖavb w`K| GLv‡bI cwicvk¦ © ev GKwUi m‡½ Av‡iKwUi,

gv‡b cðvrc‡Ui m‡½ †`n¸‡jvi `~iZ¡ cvIqv hvq bv| GUvI wKDweR‡gi Av‡iKUv w`K| wcKv‡mv Analytical Ges Synthetic Dfq c×wZ‡ZB eû Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb| cÖ vK…w ZK `„k¨ †_‡K ïi“ K‡i RoRxeb ch©š — A‡bK QweB| wZwb g‡b Ki‡Zb Gme c×wZ‡Z e¯‘‡K fv‡jvfv‡e †Pbv hvq| G‡`i †gŠwjK AvKv‡ii aviYvUv cvIqv hvq| Gme c×wZ‡Z AuvKv wcKv‡mvi K‡qKwU Qwe †hgbWoman with Pears, The Reservoir, Seated Nude cÖf …wZ D‡j­L‡hvM¨| wZwb Avevi cÖw Zg~w Z©m¤úbœ Qwe‡Z †`n¸‡jv B”Qvg‡Zv weK…Z I K‡i‡Qb| †hgbwU Iu i The Three Dancers-G †`Lv hvq| wcKv‡mv wKDweRg Avw½‡K cÖP zi †KvjvR K‡ib| Iu i Av‡M †Kvjv‡Ri †Zgb GKUv cÖPjb wQj bv| wZwb †Kvjv‡Ri m~P bv K‡ib ejv hvq| cieZx©Kv‡j eªv K I wMÖm G‡K cwic~ Y©Zv `vb K‡ib| Gme †KvjvR †ewkifvM wQj RoRxeb| wewfbœ ai‡bi g¨vMvwRb Ges Rvb©vj‡K †K‡U Gme †KvjvR Kiv n‡qwQj| Iui Øviv †KvjvR Avwe®‹v ‡ii d‡j wk‡íi GKUv ¸i“Z¡c~ Y© w`K D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q †Mj, hv cieZx©Kv‡j Dada wkí‡K e¨vcKfv‡e Aby cÖv wYZ K‡iwQj| wcKv‡mvi me †KvjvRB wKDweK ixwZ‡Z Kiv| wcKv‡mv Iu i Qwe‡Z welqe¯‘‡K B‡”Qg‡Zv weK…ZKi‡Yi


gva¨‡g bKkv‡iLvi GKUv mgš^q K‡ib| G bKkv¸‡jv‡Z D¾¡j I mgZj is jvMv‡bv n‡Zv| Iui The Three Dancers QwewUI G c×wZ‡ZB Auv Kv| wcKv‡mv ïay wPÎKjv‡ZB Iui wkíPP©v mxgve× iv‡Lbwb| wZwb wKDweK c×wZ‡Z A‡bK fv¯‹h©I K‡ib| wZwb wKDweK aviYv wb‡qB Gme fv¯‹h© ˆZwi K‡ib| G mgqKvi Iui GKwU D‡j­L ‡hvM¨ fv¯‹h© n‡jv Head of a Woman| GUv Dwb †eªv Ä w`‡q ˆZwi K‡ib| wcKv‡mvi GKwU KvjRqx Qwe n‡jv Ô†Mv‡qwb©KvÕ| G QwewU hw`I wKDweR‡gi cieZx© mg‡q AuvKv n‡qwQj, Z_vwc wcKv‡mv G Qwei g‡a¨ wKDweR‡gi wPš—v avivi wKQy cÖ ‡ek NUvb| G QwewU Auv Kv n‡qwQj 1937 mv‡j| bvrwm wegvb KZ…©K weaŸ¯— †Mv‡qwb©Kv kn‡ii Ki“Y cwiYwZi Ici G QwewU Auv Kvi R‡b¨ wcKv‡mv‡K AvnŸvb Rvbv‡bv nq| wcKv‡mv G Avgš¿‡Y ivwR nb| wcKv‡mv †Mv‡qwb©Kv‡Z hvbwb wKš‘ Gi gg©vwš—K aŸs‡mi Lei Zuv ‡K ixwZg‡Zv AvNvZ K‡i| G QwewU Auv K‡Z cÂvk eQ‡ii wkíx wcKv‡mv cÖvq cvM‡ji g‡Zv KvR K‡i hvb| QweUv AuvK‡Z wcKv‡mv GKUvi ci GKUv cÖv _wgK †¯‹P K‡ib| †¯ú‡bi M„nhyׇK DcRxe¨ K‡i Auv Kv G Qwe‡Z hy‡×i fqvenZv I bviKxq exfrm iƒc, gvbemš—vb, we‡klZ gvZv I bvix RvwZi Kvbœv i nvnvKvi, hy‡×i †Nvov, luv o, f~jyw ÉZ ˆmwbK, †Kv‡bvwKQyB ev` hvqwb| †MvUv wcKv‡mvi Aw¯—Z¡B †hb

DcmvM‡ii mvg‡b Ryqvb wMÖm, 1921

G Qwe‡Z Rwo‡q Av‡Q| weg~Z© Avw½‡Ki n‡jI Wªwqs I cÖ‡qvM‰kjxi m~²vwZm~² Zv Ô†Mv‡qwb©KvÕ QwewU‡K GK we‡kl K¬v wmK MfxiZv G‡b w`‡q‡Q| Gi a~mi is A‡bKUv `wjwj d‡Uvi GKUv iƒc Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| Ô†Mv‡qwb©KvÕ QweUv wcKv‡mvi mgMÖ wkíxRxe‡bi mvdj¨‡K †hb cyÄ xf~Z K‡i‡Q Ges wKDweRg Z_v weg~Z© I Avayw bK wkíKjvi hveZxq gvayh© I ˆkwíK DrKl©‡ K GKxf~ Z K‡i GK cÖM vp I my Zxeª Rxeb‡ev‡ai RvR¡j¨gvb cÖ gvY wn‡m‡e G wkí gvbemf¨Zv‡K gwngvwš^Z K‡i‡Q| wcKv‡mvi wKDweK wkí Zuv i wekvj wkí-fvÊv‡ii GKUv Ask gvÎ| wZwb Gi evB‡iI M‡o Zz ‡j‡Qb GK weivU wcKv‡mv-RMr| wPÎKjv QvovI wcKv‡mv K‡ib cÖPz i Wªw qs| Wªwqs‡q wZwb `„p Contour †iLv e¨envi K‡ib| GQvov cÖPy i QvcwPÎ K‡ib wcKv‡mv| eB‡qi wPÎMZ e¨vL¨vI Auv ‡Kb AmsL¨| gÂm¾v I wmivwg‡Ki KvRI K‡ib mgvbZv‡j| wk‡íi Ggb †Kv‡bv gva¨g †bB hv‡Z wcKv‡mv gy³fv‡e wePiY K‡ibwb| Iui wecyj wkím¤¢v i Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q Awek¦v m¨ e‡j g‡b nq| Avi Iui Kiv me Kv‡RB Avgiv Iu i AmvaviY Awfe¨w³ I `¶Zvi cwiPq cvB| wcKv‡mv‡K Qvov wKDweR‡gi Av‡jvPbv A_©nxb| wcKv‡mv AvR Avi †bB, wKš‘ Iu i m„RbKg©¸‡jv nvRvi wcKv‡mv n‡q Iui Aw¯—Z¡ cÖ gvY K‡i P‡j‡Q| Iui wecyj Hk¦h©gwÊZ K‡g© i dmj¸‡jvB †hb AvR ÔwcKv‡mvÕ bvg aviY K‡i Av‡Q|

wMUvi I ¯^iwjwc Ryqvb wMÖm, 1926


bMi dvb©vÛ †jMvi, 1919

cieZx©Kv‡j huv iv wKDweR‡g wPÎv¼b K‡ib Zuv ‡`i g‡a¨ mwe‡kl ¸i“Z¡c~Y© n‡”Qb RR© eªv K (Georges Braque)| RR© eªvK eªv K cÖ _‡g Fauve-†`i g‡Zv KvR Ki‡Zb| cieZx© mg‡q wcKv‡mvi m‡½ hy³ nIqvi ci wKDweR‡gi Dbœw Z mva‡b eªZx nb| wKDweR‡g eªv ‡Ki Ae`vb †Kv‡bv As‡kB Kg bq| eªv K wQ‡jb wKDweRg Z‡Ë¡i D™¢v eK| wcKv‡mv Zuv i Rxe‡bi †Kej GKUv mgq wKDweK ixwZ‡Z KvR K‡ib wKš‘ eªv K Rxe‡bi †kl w`b ch©š — GKB ixwZ‡Z KvR K‡i †M‡Qb| eªv ‡Ki Ab¨Zg Ae`vb n‡jv †ccvi wb‡q wPÎ, hv‡K divwm fvlvq ejv n‡Zv Ô†ccvi †KvjvRÕ| wZwb G‡K wk‡íi Ab¨Zg GKUv gva¨g wn‡m‡e cÖK vk Ki‡jb| Iui †Kvjv‡Ri cwiPq cvB Iui RoRxeb¸‡jv‡Z| Z‡e ïay †KvjvR bq, †Zj gva¨‡gI wZwb RoRxeb Auv ‡Kb| G¸‡jv meB wKDwe÷ ixwZ‡Z Auv Kv| wKDwe÷ ixwZ‡ZB eªv K RoRxeb Ges wbmM©` „k¨‡K ¸i“Z¡ mnKv‡i Gu‡K‡Qb| eªv ‡Ki RoRxe‡bi †KvjvR¸‡jvi g‡a¨ n‡jv Bottle Glass and Pipe, The Clarinet cÖf… wZ| eª v‡Ki Kv‡R †Zji‡O RoRxeb I wgDwRK¨vj dg©‡mi bvg D‡j­L Kiv hvq| The Port Ges Houses at L’ Estaque bvgK Qwe¸‡jv

Pv‡qi mgq Ruv †grwR½vi, 1911

Iui wKDweK ixwZ‡Z Au vKv wbmM©` „‡k¨i cwiPq enb Ki‡Q| eªv K Synthetic wKDwe÷ ai‡bi wewfbœ cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡ib| welqe¯‘‡ K A‡bKUvB mijxKiY K‡ib eªv K| Iu i †kl w`KKvi Qwe‡Z GK ai‡bi ¯^ Ztù‚Z©Zvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| eªv ‡Ki Analytical ai‡bi KvR wcKv‡mvi Kv‡Ri A‡bKUv KvQvKvwQ| Iu‡ `i RoRxeb, cÖ vK… wZK `„k ¨ Ges cÖ w ZK… w Z¸‡jv‡Z Zvi cwiPq Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB| D`vniY¯^iƒc eª v‡Ki Houses at L’ Estaque Ges wcKv‡mvi Kiv Factory at Horta Qwe `yw U‡Z Gu‡`i `yR b‡K Avjv`v KivB Lye KóKi| eªv ‡Ki Kv‡Ri welqe¯‘ wn‡m‡e N‡ii Af¨š—i xY `„ k¨ A‡bK †`Lv hvq| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wZwb GKwU AvjsKvwiK ˆewkó¨ †`Iqvi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| A‡bK ai‡bi bKkv, †hgb euv Kv‡bv bKkvwU Iui wPÎK‡g© †ek cÖv avb¨ cvq| Qwe‡Z i‡Oi e¨envi AZ¨š— Kwg‡q Gu‡K‡Qb wZwb| The Musicians bv‡gi QwewU‡Z G ai‡bi ˆewk󨸇jv †`Lv hvq| The Musicians ZLbKvi mg‡q GKUv RbwcÖq Qwe wQj, KviY QweUv A‡bKUvB mij cÖK… wZi| G Qwei g‡a¨ wkíx A‡bK ai‡bi eyb‡bi e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| Qwe‡Z is‡K †ek cwiYZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq| GUv m¤¢e n‡qwQj wKDweR‡gi cÖ wZ Iu i Abyi ³ _vKvi Kvi‡Y| eªv K wKDweR‡gi GKUv cwikxwjZ iƒc †`Iqvi †Póv K‡ib| RwUjZv AwZµg K‡i Qwe‡Z wZwb


GK ai‡bi mijZv †`Iqvi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb|

dvb©v Û †jMvi Fernand Leger GKRb wfbœ ai‡bi wkíx| wZwb Cubic wkíx

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MvVwbK c‡_ cwiewZ©Z n‡jb| Ges Homage to Louis David Qwe‡Z cwiewZ©Z n‡jb aª“ c`x Frontality-i w`‡K| Leger †m iKgB K‡qKRb wkíxi GKRb, whwb KL‡bv wKDweRg‡K Z¨vM K‡ibwb| Zuv i cÖ‡Z¨K djcÖm~ Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ wZwb Zv my¯ úófv‡e cÖ`k©b Ki‡Z mg_© n‡qwQ‡jb Ges Gi m¤¢vebvgqZv‡K AweiZ weï× Ges cwiewZ©Z Awfe¨w³‡Z eY© bv Ki‡Z mg_© wQ‡jb| ievU© wW‡jv‡b wKDweR‡gi Coloristic AvK… wZUv w`‡jb Robert Delaunay| wZwb kv¯¿v byMZ wKDweRg †_‡K wfbœ c‡_i weKv‡ki cÖeZ©K| Delaunay R‡b¥i w`K w`‡q GKRb Parisian wkíx| cÖ_‡g wZwb Bateau Lavoir bv‡g GKUv `‡ji m‡½ †hvM †`b, hviv cÖPwjZ Fauve Ges Cezanne-Gi gv‡S GKUv †mZzeÜ iPbvi †Póv K‡iwQj| Apollainaire e‡jwQ‡jb †h wKDweR‡gi aviYv‡K ¯^ZtcÖe„Ëfv‡e Delaunay-B cÖKvk Ki‡jb Ges wbwðZfv‡e GUv A‡bKUvB fvev‡e‡Mi Ici cÖw ZwôZ wQj| wZwb ej‡jb, AvKvi Ges wel‡qi g‡a¨ isB cÖavb Ges Impressionist-†`i cix¶v-wbix¶vi IciB g~jZ Zv cÖwZwôZ wQj| wZwb G‡¶‡Î Seurat-Gi wbix¶v‡K Av‡iv DbœZ Ki‡Z †Póv Ki‡jb| wKš‘ wZwbI wcKv‡mv Ges eªv ‡Ki g‡Zv Avw½K welqK mgm¨vewj wb‡q wKQyUv Ab¨gb¯‹ wQ‡jb| Z‡e GKB Qwei †fZi wdMvi Ges wewfbœ AvK…wZmg~n‡K ms‡hvRb Kivi R‡b¨ Dwb K‡Vvi †Póv K‡ib| wZwb wb‡RB G ai‡bi Qwe‡K Simultaneism bvg w`‡jb Ges cieZx©Kv‡j Gme Qwei gva¨‡g Gi GKUv mywbw`©ó PwiÎI wba©v iY Ki‡jb| wZwb ej‡Zb, Horizontal ev Vertical ej‡Z wKQy †bB| Av‡jv mewKQy‡K weK…Z K‡i Ges mewKQy‡ K fv‡O| Gw`K w`‡q wZwb Futurist-†`i Ly e KvQvKvwQ Av‡mb| Delaunay-i †gŠwjKZ¡ Ges Zuvi ¸i“Z¡ Avayw bK wk‡íi BwZnv‡m GUvB †h wZwb wk‡íi Motif-Gi m‡½ µgvš^‡q GK n‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| Delaunay-i Qwe‡K ÔLÊweLÊ isabyÕ ejv n‡Zv Ges GKmgq wZwb m¤ú~Y© e¯‘w bi‡c¶ K‡i K‡¤úvwRkb Gu‡K‡Qb| Iui Qwei K‡¤úvwRkb cÖ K…w Zi †gvwUd †_‡K Rb¥jvf K‡iwQj| wKš‘ is mvRv‡bv n‡qwQj R¨vwgwZK ixwZ‡Z| Kandinsky wgDwb‡L G mgq †h cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡ib ZvI wQj m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c e¯‘w eewR©Z wkí Ges cÖw Zg~w Z©nxb| wgDwb‡Li GKUv cÖ` k©bx‡Z Delaunay-i KvR Aš—fy©³ Kiv n‡jv| G mgq Kandinsky I Delaunay fve wewbg‡qi gva¨‡g G‡K A‡b¨i Lye Kv‡Q Av‡mb Ges Zuv iv GKm‡½ wKQyUv AMÖmi n‡jb| Delaunay-i cÖfve Rvg©v wb‡Z d«v ‡Ýi PvB‡Z A‡bK †ewk wQj| Iui Qwe wQj A‡bKUvB Kvwe¨K| wKDweR‡gi Av‡iv `yR b wkíx Av‡Qb| Gui v n‡jb wPÎwkíx Albert Glizes I Jean Metzinger| Guiv Zuv ‡`i ZvwË¡ K †jLv‡Z wKDweR‡gi PP©v K‡ib| Zuv‡`i `yR‡biB wKDweR‡gi wPÎwelqK A‡bK †jLv i‡q‡Q| we‡klZ Gleizes bZzb wk‡íi `y¨ wZ‡K cÖmvi‡Y wQ‡jb we‡kl D‡`¨vMx| wZwb wKDweR‡gi weKv‡ki m‡½ Mfxifv‡e hy³ n‡q c‡ob| Iui GKUv ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Qwe n‡jv Harvest Thrashing| G Qwe‡Z jvj I njy‡`i e¨vcK cÖKv‡ki gv‡S ekxf~Z a~mi meyR I ev`vwg i‡Oi g‡a¨B mg¯— c¨v‡jU Ae¯’v b Kij| GUv Iui KvR‡K

g¨v‡Ûvwjb nv‡Z gwnjv Ryqvb wMÖm, 1916


GKUv †ivgvw›UK Ifvi‡Uvb (Romantic overtone) G‡b w`‡jv| Iui Brooklyn Bridges-Gi g‡a¨ welqMZ †h †mŠ›`h© Zv Iu‡K kw³kvjx wKQy KvR Kivi Aby‡cÖiYv RywM‡qwQj| Gi d‡j wZwb weg~Z© KvR Ki‡ZI AbycÖv wYZ nb| Iui cieZx© KvR¸‡jv wZwb µgk MxwZagx© weg~Z© AvKv‡i AuvK‡jb, hv eµ‰iwLK AvKv‡ii Ici cÖwZwôZ wQj| Jean Metzinger-Gi Avw` wKDwe÷ wPÎKjvmg~‡ n †mRv‡bi cÖfve `~wb©i x¶¨ bq| Iui Bathers bvgK QwewU hZœmnKv‡i m¤úvw`Z PZz‡®‹v Y bKkvi cÖwZ Iui AvMÖn‡K cÖKvk Kij| GLv‡b i‡Oi †ivgvw›UK D¾¡jZv ˆiwLK MV‡bi aª“ c`x R¨vwgwZi wecix‡Z KvR K‡iwQj| Jean Metzinger wKDwe÷ avivi m‡½ fv‡jvfv‡eB hy³ n‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb A‡c¶vK…Z eo iwOb Synthetic Cubist †¶‡Îi w`‡KB †ewk PvwjZ n‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb ¯’v cZ¨`„‡ k¨i Av‡jvKwPÎmsµvš— aviYvwU‡K AvjsKvwiK cðvrc` wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡ib| Lye Kg wKDwe÷ wkíx‡`i ØvivB Aek¨ G ZË¡ cieZx©Kv‡j M„ nxZ n‡jv| wKDweK fv¯‹h© fv¯‹‡h© I wKDweR‡gi h‡_ó weKvk N‡U| wKDwe÷ ixwZ‡Z A‡bK fv¯‹i KvR K‡i‡Qb Ges Zuv iv Zuv‡`i ˆkwíK Kv‡Ri A‡bK D¾¡j `„óvš— †i‡L †M‡Qb| D‡j­L ‡hvM¨ fv¯‹i‡`i g‡a¨ wQ‡jb Duchamp Villon, Alexander Archipenko, Lipchitz cÖgyL | A‡bK wkíx Avevi fv¯‹h© wb‡q cix¶v-wbix¶vI K‡ib, †hgb Avgiv Juan Chris-†K †`L‡Z cvB| wZwb iwOb c­v÷v‡i Harlequin K‡ib| Gi P¶z wQj evB‡ii w`‡K †ei Kiv, bvK wQj K`vK…wZ, å“, gyL Ges _yZwb Mfxi K‡i KvUv| m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c gbyl¨Z¡nxb‡K wKQyUv Av‡gwiKvb Ges gnvmvMixq DcRvwZi ee©i gy‡Lv‡k cwiYZ Kiv n‡jv| `¨ wm‡UW Ig¨vb (The Seated Woman) Iui Av‡iKwU D‡j­L ‡hvM¨ wkíKg©| GLv‡b wkíx wÎgvwÎK GKUv we‡kl fve‡K †c‡Z ALwÊZ eµ AvKvi Ges mgZj¸‡jvi m‡½ GKUv MZvbyMwZK †i‡bmuvi euv Kv‡bv fw½wU‡K GKwÎZ Ki‡jb| GLv‡b hw`I wkíx MZvbyM wZK fv¯‹h©myjf †¶Î‡K Bw½Z K‡i‡Qb Z_vwc cÖK…Zc‡¶ wZwb weg~‡Z©i w`‡KB PvwjZ n‡q‡Qb| Iui me©‡kl KvR¸‡jv Horse Ges Head of The Horse cÖvq wKDweK fv¯‹h© n‡q DVj| WyKv¤ú wf‡juv ejv P‡j GB wkíx n‡jb cÖ_g wKDwe÷ fv¯‹h©wkíx| wZwb wKDweK bxwZgvjv wb‡q KvR K‡ib| wf‡juv GKRb m¤¢v ebvgq wkíx wQ‡jb| AKvjg„Zz¨ Iui m¤¢vebv‡K aŸsm K‡i w`‡jv| Gu‡`i cwieviwUB wQj GKwU wkíx cwievi| wf‡juv iv wQ‡jb Qq fvB‡evb| QqR‡bi g‡a¨ PviRbB wQ‡jb wkíx| Villon cÖ_g †gwWwmb wb‡q †jLvcov K‡ib| c‡i fv¯‹‡h©i cÖw Z cÖej AvKl©YekZ Zv Z¨vM K‡ib| wZwb Salon de la National-G cÖ` k©bx K‡ib| wZwb cÖ_ g Rodin KZ…©K AbycÖv wYZ nb| Iui eskai‡`i g‡Zv GKgvÎ wZwbB wKDwe÷‡`i K¶c‡_ cwiågY K‡ib| wkíx cÖMwZkxj c‡_ Iui GKvš— wbR¯^ e¯‘wbi‡c¶Zvi `„wó wb‡q AMÖmi n‡qwQ‡jb| Zuvi G cwiPq Avgiv Iui B m„wó `yw U cÖw ZK…w Z‡Z †`L‡Z cvB| G¸‡jv n‡jv Maggy Ges Professor Gosset| Maggy-†Z gy‡Li Av`j cwiYZ n‡qwQj Avm‡j GKwU gy‡Lv‡k|

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m‡½ A‡bK mgq we‡iva NU‡jI b›`jvj KL‡bv evav †`bwb ivwgK¼i‡K Ñ hv ivgwK¼i wbR gy‡ LB ¯^x Kvi K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ cvwicvk¦ © Kxfv‡e MÖnY K‡iwQj GB ÔcvMjcvivÕ gvby lwU‡K? is-Zz wj, †Qwb-nvZzw o ev wm‡g›U-†gvov‡gi cvkvcvwk kvwš— wb‡KZ‡bi gvwU‡Z Zuvi e¨w³MZ Rxe‡bi R¨vwgwZ Kxfv‡e Au vKv n‡q P‡jwQj, Zv Rvbv †bB Avgv‡`i| evB‡i †_‡K Avgiv KZUzKzB ev Zuv ‡K Rvwb! wb¯— ä wbR©b `y cy‡i AvkÖ‡gi ivOv iv¯—v q Pj‡Z Pj‡Z g‡b nq Ñ GB Kuv Kz‡ o gvwU‡Z, kv‡ji e‡b cvZvi gg© ‡i, AvgªKz‡Äi Av‡jvQvqvq eyw S Au vKv Av‡Q Zuvi `M`‡M Rxeb-†Rnv‡`i cÖ Mvp RjQwe| †cQb wd‡i ZvwK‡q g‡b nq, wb‡Ri cÖw Zôv‡b KL‡bv wK we‡ivwaZvi gy‡LvgywL `uv ov‡Z nqwb GB gvby lwU‡K? cÖv q GKB mg‡qi †cÖ¶ vc‡U KvR K‡i P‡j‡Qb Aci `yB cÖej cÖ wZfvai wkíx| GKRb ¸i“ b›`jvj I Ab¨Rb mnwk¶K we‡bv`wenvix| b›`jv‡ji gvbm-AwfgyL me©` vB wQj fviZxq RvZxqZvev‡`i w`‡K| we‡bv`wenvixi we`» gb `~ icÖv‡P¨i wkíaviv †_‡K AbycÖv Ybv wb‡q Zv‡K wb‡Ri g‡Zv AvËxKiY K‡i‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K ivgwK¼‡ii `„wó cÖv ‡P¨i mxgvbv †cwi‡q cÖZ¨¶fv‡e cwð‡gi Avay wbK wkí-Av‡›`vj‡bi w`‡K| Ô¸i“Õi g‡Zv c~e©-cwð‡gi †`vjvPj Zuv i gb‡K KL‡bv weåvš— K‡i w`‡Z cv‡iwb| Zu vi Kv‡Q Zzw ji m~² wbcyY Uv‡bi cv‡k cÖ avb n‡q D‡V‡Q wkíxi Aš—‡ii Zxeª Awfe¨w³| ïay ZvB bq, cÖ_ve× DcKi‡Yi Afv‡e †_‡g hvqwb Zuv i `yg©i wPÎxmËv, nv‡Zi Kv‡Q cvIqv G‡jv‡g‡jv i‡Oi †KŠ‡Uv AK… cYfv‡e Dcyo K‡i w`‡q‡Qb K¨vbfv‡mi Mv‡q| wk‡íi ¯’v wqZ¡ wb‡q gvqvex wcQyUvb †Kv‡bvw`bB Zuv i wQj bv| †Lqvj Ki‡j †`Lv hv‡e, c¨v‡j‡Ui Afv‡e is ˆZwi Ki‡Z wbwØ©avq †U‡b wb‡q‡Qb †d‡j †`Iqv gvwUi miv, c‡o _vKv bvi‡Kv‡ji gvjvB, cwiZ¨³ fvOv wU‡bi XvKbv Ñ Gme Av‡iv KZ Kx! GgbwK K¨vbfv‡mi Abycw¯’w Z‡Z P‡Ui Ici Qwe Auv K‡ZI Zuv i wKQyg vÎ Abxnv wQj bv| we¯§‡q nZevK nB hLb †`wL, ˆkwíK DcKi‡Yi we‡kl Kvq`v-†KŠkj ev †kŠwLb †UKwbK wZwb `yc v‡q gvwo‡q wM‡q‡Qb Zuv i m„wói gyn~Z©gvjvq| Gw`K †_‡K ivgwK¼‡ii GB m„ wói ZvwM`, Bbvi-AvR© A‡bKUv AvkÖg wcZv iex›`ªbv‡_i m‡½ wg‡j hvq| h_vh_ DcKi‡Yi Rb¨ A‡c¶v Kivi ˆah© Zuv iI †Kv‡bvw`b wQj bv| †Quov KvMR, †d‡j †`Iqv evwZj Lvg, Le‡ii KvM‡Ri UzK‡iv BZ¨vw` I‡q÷‡ccvi ev‡¯‹‡Ui bvbv wRwbm Aejxjvq R‡ov n‡q‡Q Kwei wPÎcU wn‡m‡e| Zuvi Zzw j Suv wc‡q c‡o‡Q Kv‡Vi Avjgvwii Mv‡q| i‡Oi Afv‡e Mv‡Qi cvZv, dz ‡ji cvcwo N‡l w`‡Z we›`yg vÎ wØav wQj bv ÔQwe-AuvwK‡qÕ iwe VvKz‡ii| Avevi ivgwK¼‡ii K_vq wd‡i Avwm| cÖ_ gw`‡K fv¯‹‡h©i Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq g¨v‡Uwiqj †Zgb cvIqv †hZ bv, wek¦ fviZxi Avw_© K msK‡U ¯‹víPvi wefvM `xN©w`b fv‡jv K‡i M‡o DV‡Z cv‡iwb Ñ G K_v Avgiv Rvwb| Avevi b›`jv‡ji cÖ avb †Su vK wQj wPÎKjvi w`‡K| ZvB †Mvovi w`‡K ivgwK¼i hLb eo AvKv‡ii fv¯‹h© Mo‡Z †P‡q‡Qb, ZLb A‡bK †¶‡Î Zv wbg©v‡Yi mgq h_vh_ †jvnvi KvVv‡gvI ˆZwi Kiv hvqwb †Kej cqmvi Afv‡e| wKš‘ ZeyI †_‡g _v‡Kwb wkíxi nvZ, wb`vi“Y mxgve×Zvi g‡a¨I `ye©v i KvR K‡i P‡j‡Qb

ivgwK¼i| d‡j †Lvjv AvKv‡ki Zjvq iw¶Z Zuvi GKvwaK KvR AvR‡K wKQyUv wecbœ n‡q c‡o‡Q; hw`I Gi `vq wkíxi Ici eZ©v q bv| GB Amvgvb¨ wkíKvR i¶v Ki‡Z AvgivB `vqe×| G‡nb wkíxi mvg‡b Avgv‡`i gv_v AvcwbB bZ n‡q Av‡m| QvÎRxe‡b Zu vi Ag„Z-mvwbœ‡ a¨i `y ‡qK UzK‡iv †mvbvi ¯§„wZ GLv‡b wb‡e`b Kwi| †mev‡i b›`b †gjvi mgq| _vK‡Z bv-†c‡i we‡K‡ji †ek Av‡MB †cuŠ‡Q wM‡qwQ Kjvfe‡bi PZ¡‡i| †cBw›Us, MÖv wd· Avi µvd‡Ui ÷j †cwi‡q ¯‹v íPv‡ii w`‡K Avm‡ZB ebcyj‡Ki Mv‡Qi Zjvq bR‡i coj GKUv wbPz †Uwe‡j mvRv‡bv Av‡Q GK mvwi fv¯‹h© : gy‡L gvQ wb‡q weovj| KvjxNv‡Ui c‡U †hgb †`Lv hvq wVK †ZgbUv bq, Avevi GKUz wgjI i‡q‡Q| KvjxNv‡Ui c‡U web¨v‡mi cy‡iv e¨vcviUv GKUv If¨vj †m‡ci g‡a¨ aiv Av‡Q| †mLv‡b cUzqvi Zzwji Uv‡b eµ‡iLvi cÖv avb¨| Avi GLv‡b weov‡ji dg© Uv f‚w g †_‡K D‡V‡Q KZKUv mgwØevû wÎfz‡Ri g‡Zv, Avi gy‡Li gvQUv aiv Av‡Q f‚w gi m‡½ mgvš—i vjfv‡e| KvR¸‡jv Avgv‡K Kx GK A`„ k¨ kw³‡Z Kv‡Q †U‡b Avb‡j| Kuv Pv gvwU w`‡q Mov, eywS m`¨ ˆZwi n‡q‡Q †mB KvR¸‡jv| †Uwe‡ji Ici Le‡ii KvMR †c‡Z †m¸‡jv mvi w`‡q ivLv Av‡Q Avi wb‡P †gvUv †gvUv A¶‡i †jLv ÔivgwK¼i-K…Z/cÖw ZwUi `vg cuv P UvKvÕ| GK mvwi fv¯‹h© n‡jI Zvi †Kv‡bvUvB Quv ‡P Mov bq, cÖ ‡Z¨KwU Avjv`vfv‡e ˆZwi| †mw`b wK¼i`v‡K Aek¨ †`L‡Z cvBwb, wKš‘ Zuv i KvR Avgv‡K †m RvqMv †Q‡o bo‡Z w`‡j bv| A_P AvR e‡m fvwe, IB AZ¸‡jv Kv‡Ri †_‡K GKLvbvI †mw`b wK‡b ivLevi g‡Zv eyw × Avgvi gv_vq wKQy‡ZB †Kb G‡jv bv! Agb GKRb wKse`wš— mªóvi G‡Kev‡i Kv‡Q hvevi my‡hvM G‡m †Mj nVvr| †evjcy‡ii weï cvj, Avgv‡`i weï`v Ñ †m ZLb kvwš—w b‡KZ‡b Avgv‡`i †miv d‡UvMÖv dvi| Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q Zvi RvqMv iNy ivB ev mybxj Rvbvi †P‡q A‡bK DuPz‡ Z| GKw`b `ycy‡ i †nv‡÷‡j G‡m ej‡j, ÔPj, GKR‡bi evwo wb‡q hve|Õ Gi †P‡q †m fv‡jv K‡i fvO‡j bv K_vUv, mvB‡K‡j Pwo‡q wb‡q †Mj Aebcj­x i w`‡K| wKQy` ~i wM‡q GKUv Qov‡bv-wQ‡Uv‡bv gvwUi evwoi mvg‡b G‡m ej‡j, ÔGLv‡b wK¼i`v _v‡K, †fZ‡i Pj|Õ `yw`‡K `y‡ Uv L‡ii Pvj †`Iqv gvwUi †QvU evwo, A‡bKw`b QvIqv nqwb †m N‡ii Pvj| Avi Zvi AvMvQv fiv D‡Vv‡b c‡o Av‡Q wKQy cv_‡ii UzK‡iv, Amgvß K‡qKUv KvR| †evaKwi gvwUi `vIqv‡ZB e‡m wQ‡jb wkíx, weï`v WvK w`‡ZB GwM‡q G‡jb| Avwg G‡Kev‡i _Zg‡Zv †L‡q wXc K‡i cÖYvg Kijvg| weï`v ej‡j, ÔK…òbMi †_‡K G‡m‡Q, m‡e dv÷©-Bqvi|Õ wK¼i`v nvm‡Z nvm‡Z ej‡jb, Ôevt evt †ek, †KóbM‡ii cyZzj Avi P›`bbM‡ii Kjv †Zv weL¨vZ, wK e‡jv|Õ GK_vi Kx Reve †`e eyS‡Z cviwQ bv| wK¼i`vB Nywi‡q w`‡jb cÖm½, GwM‡q G‡m `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡jb GK Amgvß Kv‡Ri w`‡K| AvOyj w`‡q †`wL‡q ej‡jb, ÔIB †`‡Lv, Avwg GKUv f‚Z evwb‡qwQ|Õ †mw`‡K ZvwK‡q †`wL, wK¼i`vi †mUv n‡jv †mB weL¨vZ KvR Ôw¯úWÕ-Gi GKUv fvm©vb, †ek eo AvKv‡ii KvR| `xN© `yB cv †d‡j †KD †hb S‡oi MwZ‡Z GwM‡q P‡j‡Q| ZL‡bv †kl nqwb KvR Ñ wm‡g‡›Ui Av¯—i Y dzu‡o †ewi‡q G‡m‡Q †jvnvi wkK|


†mw`b Avi †ewk K_v n‡jv bv, Z‡e weï`v †ek K‡qKUv d‡Uv Zzjj| Zvi g‡a¨ GKUv Qwe‡Z wK¼i`v Avgvi nvZ k³ K‡i a‡i Av‡Qb, Avi mvg‡bi w`‡K ZvwK‡q Kx GKUv †hb †evSv‡”Qb Avgv‡K| R¡jš— Av¸‡bi cv‡k `uv wo‡q _vKv Avgvi †m Amnvq QweLvbv Av‡Rv Avjgvwii we‡kl Zv‡K ev`vwg Lv‡gi g‡a¨ mh‡Zœ iw¶Z Av‡Q| c‡ii evi Zuv i Kv‡Q †Mjvg GKvB| †mw`b †Mjvg Kjvfe‡bi K¬v ‡mi †k‡l| †`wL, Zu vi N‡ii jv‡Mvqv gvwUi `vIqvq, cÖv q gvSvgvwS ˆZwi n‡q‡Q GKUv Avj‡Mv‡Q cvwU©k vb| Avi †mUv Kiv n‡q‡Q Zuv iB wPwÎZ K¨vbfvm w`‡q| Zvi GKw`‡K BZ¯—Z ivbœvi Av‡qvRb, Avi Ab¨w`‡K K‡qKUv fvOv †gvov Qov‡bv| †h¸‡jv Kv‡R jv‡M Zuv i GB AevwiZ Øvi AwZw_‡`i ¯^vMZ m¤¢vl‡Y| Av‡kcv‡kB c‡o Av‡Q K‡qKUv gvwUi miv Avi bvi‡K‡ji ïK‡bv gvjv Ñ hv e¨eüZ nq fzeb‡Rvov GB wkíxi i‡Oi c¨v‡jU wn‡m‡e| G¸‡jvi †Kv‡bvUv Nb bxj ev †Kv‡bvUvq D¾¡j njy ` is gvLv‡bv| †mw`‡bI wK¼i`vi gyW †ek fv‡jv| Kx Gu‡KwQ Rvb‡Z PvB‡jb, Avgvi †¯‹P LvZvLvbv D‡ëcv‡ë †`L‡jb| Ges Avgv‡K ¯—w¤¢ Z K‡i Avgvi LvZvq `y -GKUv Au vPo †K‡U †`wL‡q w`‡jb Kxfv‡e †Kv‡bv Ae‡R‡±i †fZ‡ii g~j KvVv‡gv‡K ai‡Z nq| Avgvi g‡Zv mvaviY Qv‡Îi LvZvq coj ¯^ qs wek¦Kg©v i nv‡Zi Auv Po, Avwg †Zv †mw`b nvIqvq fvm‡Z fvm‡Z †nv‡÷‡j wd‡i Gjvg| Gici A‡bKevi Zuv i Kv‡Q wM‡qwQ, cÖ‡Z¨KeviB †h mv`i Af¨_©bv Ry ‡U‡Q Zv bq| †ewk cwigv‡Y KvR Kiv nqwb e‡j agKI †L‡qwQ| Zv m‡Ë¡I wcQcv nBwb, `~i †_‡K ev KvQ †_‡K Iu‡ K j¶ Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ| †mev‡i b›`b †gjvi †k‡l b›`jv‡ji Rb¥w`‡b †Mvqvjcvovq Kjvfe‡bi wcKwbK| cy i‡bv I bZzb mK‡j wg‡j †m G‡Kev‡i RgRgvU e¨vcvi| GK cv‡k Mv‡Qi Zjvq ivbœv i Av‡qvRb n‡q‡Q| GK cv‡k b›`jv‡ji `y B †mvbvi †g‡q †MŠixw` Avi hgybvw` e‡m e‡m k‡ii KvwV, ïK‡bv Nvm GBme w`‡q Mqbv evbv‡”Qb, †g‡qiv mevB nuv K‡i ZvwK‡q †`L‡Q| Avi Iw`‡K wK¼i`v Avcbg‡b i‡q‡Qb GKUz `~‡i| wZwb m‡½ G‡b‡Qb GK‡MvQv mv`v KvW© Avi Zvi Ic‡i †cbwm‡j AbM©j †¯‹P K‡i P‡j‡Qb| †Kv_vI ev Kv‡W© i GK †Kv‡Y wj‡L ivL‡Qb Ô†MvqvjcvovÕ| Avgiv `y‡qKRb †cQb w`‡K `uv wo‡q Zuv‡K wei³ bv-K‡i Zuv i †iLvi Uvb j¶ KiwQ| `~ ‡i Mv‡Qi Qvqvq kZiwÄ †c‡Z †Mvj K‡i bvPMv‡bi Avmi R‡g D‡V‡Q| †KŠwkK`v I Ab¨ wk¶‡Kiv i‡q‡Qb †mLv‡b| GKwU QvÎ K_vKwji Abymi‡Y bvP KiwQj| wK¼i`v wKQy¶ Y †`‡L ej‡jb, ÔI wVK K_vKwj n‡”Q bv, bvP‡Z bvP‡Z Rv¤ú K‡i GLvb †_‡K ILv‡b P‡j †h‡Z n‡eÕ e‡j nvZ w`‡q `~i Z¡ †`wL‡q ej‡jb, Ô†m bvP‡Zv e‡U †Kjy bvqviÕ| Ggb mgq AvMiZjv †_‡K Avmv GK QvÎx ûogyo K‡i G‡m wK¼i`vi mvg‡b †g‡j ai‡j Zvi wm³ Amgvß GKLvbv Rji‡Oi Qwe| g¨v‡mvbvBU †ev‡W© wK¬c w`‡q muvUv †m Qwei Mv‡q †Kv_vI †Kv_vI is c‡o‡Q, Z‡e KvM‡Ri †ewkifvM AskB duv Kv, mv`v Ae¯’v q c‡o Av‡Q| wK¼i`v GKUz wei³ n‡jb, wKš‘ †g‡qwU `gevi cvÎx bq| †m cÖv q †Rvi K‡i †mB gyn~‡ Z© Zvi Qwe wb‡q wK¼i`vi gZvgZ Av`vq Ki‡Z Pvq| wK¼i`v Zv‡K ej‡jb Av‡M QweUv †kl K‡i Zvic‡i wb‡q

iex›`ªbv_ 1

Avm‡Z| wKš‘ †g‡qwU Zv ïb‡Z ivwR bq| AMZ¨v Zvi †mB Amgvß Qwei w`‡K AvOyj w`‡q ivgwK¼i wR‡Ám Ki‡jb, ÔGLv‡b KxÕ, †g‡qwU ej‡j ÔAvKvkÕ| c‡ii cÖkœ ÔGUv KxÕ, DËi ÔgvwUÕ| ÔAvi GB RvqMvq KxÕ! †g‡qwU cybivq DËi w`‡j ÔRjÕ| GBevi wK¼i`v †ek ag‡Ki my‡i e‡j DV‡jb, Ôbv, bv| gy ‡L ej‡j n‡e bv| †Zvgvi Qwe ej‡e Avwg AvKvk, Avwg Rj, Avwg gvwU| hvI hvI wb‡q hvI, Qwe †kl K‡iv|Õ Gev‡i †g‡qwU Zuv i mvg‡b †_‡K m‡i †Mj| Avi gyn~‡Z© Avgvi †Pv‡Li mvg‡b †_‡K †hb m‡i †Mj GKUv c`©v , eyS‡Z cvijvg, Qwe‡K Zvi wb‡Ri fvlvq K_v ej‡Z n‡e Ñ gy‡Li


we‡bvw`bx 2

fvlvq bq| Avgvi Kv‡Q dz‡ U DVj wfmyqvj Av‡U©i wbR¯^ Zvrch©| Qwei g‡a¨B †Zv wbwnZ Av‡Q wPÎxi fve, fvlv Avi Awfe¨w³, Z‡e Zv‡K †evSv‡Z †KbB ev Avjv`v K‡i k‡ãi †RvMvb w`‡Z n‡e wkíx‡K? c‡i g‡b g‡b †f‡ewQ, †mw`b GK jngvq, IB GKUv †QvÆ K_vi Au vP‡o Qwei mwZ¨Kv‡ii A_©Uz Kz PwK‡Z Avgv‡`i g‡b wZwb †Mu‡_ w`‡qwQ‡jb| GL‡bv Zuv i †mw`‡bi †mB Mjvi ¯^ i, Zuv i ejvi fw½ Pj”Qwei g‡Zv Avgvi ¯§„w Z‡Z Auv Kv n‡q Av‡Q| µ‡g Aebcj­x i IB gvwUi evwo †_‡K wK¼i`v‡K cÖv q †Rvi K‡iB wb‡q Avmv n‡jv kvwš—wb‡KZb Avi kÖxwb‡KZ‡bi gvSvgvwS Aew¯’Z wek¦f viZxi †KvqvU© v‡i| Pvicv‡k i‡q‡Q Ab¨ wk¶K‡`i †KvqvU©v i, Zvi gvSLv‡b _vK‡j Zuv‡K †`Lvï‡bviI myw e‡a n‡e GgbUvB mK‡j fve‡jb| Avi me‡P‡q eo K_v, cÖv q cv‡kB i‡q‡Qb fv¯‹i ke©i x

we‡bvw`bx 3

ivq‡PŠayi x| wZb-Pvi‡U Kvgivi GB †Lvjv‡gjv cvKv evwo‡Z Zu vi ¯^ v¯’¨I fv‡jv _vK‡e Ñ GB‡UB g‡b Ki‡jb mK‡j| Avgvi g‡b Av‡Q wK¼i`vi †m †KvqvU©v ‡ii b¤^ i wQj Kzw o| evB‡ii eviv›`vi mvg‡b †QvU bxj i‡Oi †ev‡W© mv`v i‡O †jLv wQj †mB msL¨v| I evwo‡Z wM‡qwQ A‡bKevi, K_v n‡q‡Q Zu vi mw½bx ivavivYxi m‡½I| GKw`b Kjvfe‡b wM‡q Lei †cjvg, wK¼i`v wek¦fviZxi wcqm©b nvmcvZv‡j fwZ© n‡q‡Qb R¡i wb‡q| we‡K‡j wM‡q †`wL, cÖvq duv Kv N‡ii GK cv‡k Rvbjvi av‡ii GKLvbv †Rbv‡ij †e‡W Lvwj Mv‡q w¯’i n‡q e‡m Av‡Qb wZwb, Kv‡Q DwØMœ gy‡L ivavivYx| wK¼i`v w¯’i , gy ‡L †Kv‡bv K_v †bB| †`‡L g‡b n‡jv, wjwfs †j‡RÛ ivgwK¼i †hb ¯^qs GK a¨vbM¤¢x i wbðj fv¯‹h©| †K Rv‡b wkíxi g‡bi Mfx‡i ZLb †Kvb fvOv-Mov, †Kvb wbg©v Y Avi m„w ói †Ljv P‡j‡Q|


we‡bvw`bx 4

we‡bvw`bx 1

ï‡bwQ, wkíxi Rxe‡b Ggb GK ce© Av‡m Ñ hLb g‡bi c‡U AvcwbB ˆZwi nq iƒ‡ci wewPÎ AvKvi| Zv‡K Avi KvMR-K¨vbfv‡m, †eª vÄ ev cv_‡i wbg©v Y Ki‡Z nq bv, Aš— ‡ii wPÎkvjv‡ZB †m m¤ú~ Y© n‡q I‡V| Avevi Zv m‡i wM‡q nvwRi nq wfbœZi ÔAvKv‡ii gnvhvÎvÕ| wK¼i`vi wPËc‡U wK Z‡e †mB †Ljv ïi“ n‡q‡Q, Kx Rvwb! †mB Aem‡i Avwg Pzw cPz wc Avgvi †¯‹P LvZvUv e¨vM †_‡K evi K‡i, GKUz `~i †_‡K Zuv i †cv‡Uª©U Kivi †Póv Kijvg| nmwcUv‡ji N‡ii †fZ‡i Av‡jvUv †ek Kg, Zuv i gy‡ Li †iLv¸‡jv ey S‡Z Amy we‡a n‡”Q| †Kv‡bv iK‡g Auv Kv †kl K‡i Avwg LvZv eÜ K‡iwQ Ñ Agwb AK¯§vr †hb eRªc vZ n‡jv Avgvi wkq‡i| wK¼i`v nvZ evwo‡q M¤¢x i K‡É e‡j DV‡jb, Ô†Kgb n‡jv †`wLÕ| ZLb Avgvi †fZ‡i eyw S ivgvq‡Yi †mB mxZvi cvZvj cÖ ‡e‡ki ce© ïi“ n‡q‡Q| g‡b n‡”Q GK †`Š‡o cvwj‡q hvB|

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wba©viY Ki‡Zb| wKš‘ †h hvB Ki“K bv †Kb, wbe©vK hy‡M ïwUs‡qi ciI m„Rbkxj I wgZe¨wqZvi m‡½ avivevwnKZvi mvaviY kZ© †g‡b †bIqv m¤¢e n‡Zv| ZLbKvi m¤úv`bv c×wZ wQj LyeB bgbxq, hvi Rb¨ GK kU †_‡K Ab¨ k‡U hvIqv mnR wQj| A‡b‡K g‡b K‡ib, AvB‡Rb÷vBb Zuvi wbe©vK Qwe‡Z KvwUs i“‡gB (m¤úv`bvi mgqB) A‡bK k‡Ui cvkvcvwk Ae¯’vb wba©viY K‡i‡Qb| cÖ_gw`‡K mevK Pjw”P‡Î KvwUs i“‡g e‡m kU¸wj cybwe©b ¨¯— Kiv ev B‡”Qg‡Zv mvwR‡q †bIqvi my‡hvM A‡bKUvB mxwgZ n‡q hvq| Gi GKwU KviY kã‡K Qwei m‡½ mvgÄm¨gq ev mgKvjxb Kivi d‡j kãB B‡g‡Ri Ae¯’vb wba©viY K‡i| Avi GKwU KviY mvDÛ ïwUs‡qi LiP GZB †ewk †h, `xN© dz‡UR †bIqvi ci Zv ev` †`Iqv Avw_©Kfv‡e †ek ¶wZKi| msjvc A‡bK †¶‡Î Kvwnwb m¤^‡Ü Ggb me Z_¨ †`q, hv GKwU †cÖw¶‡ZB h_vh_, Ab¨ ¯’v‡b bq| Gi d‡j †h B‡g‡Ri m‡½ GwU m¤úwK©Z †mwU kU †bIqvi mg‡qB GKwU wm‡b ev †cÖw¶‡Z Ae¯’vb wb‡q †d‡j| GBme Kvi‡Y kãmn wm‡Kv‡q‡Ýi kU †bIqvi d‡j Zv‡`i (kU) µg Av‡M †_‡KB cwiKwíZ n‡Z nq| Gi d‡j m¤úv`bvi `vwqZ¡ A‡bKUvB wPÎbvU¨Kv‡ii Ici ewZ©‡q‡Q| KgwcDUvi, B‡jKUªwbKm Ges wWwRUvj c×wZ e¨env‡ii d‡j GLb Aek¨ cwiw¯’wZ m¤ú~Y© e`‡j wM‡q‡Q| K¨v‡giv ¯’vcb wbe©vPb cy‡WvfwKb

†iB‡hi aviYv| Aek¨ wZwb G-I e‡j‡Qb †h, GBme c×wZ fwel¨‡ZI e¨eüZ n‡e, Av‡Mi g‡Zv AZ †ewk Avi mvaviYfv‡e bv n‡jI| cÖK…Zc‡¶ ZvB n‡q‡QI| mevK Pjw”P‡Îi ci m¤úv`bvq †h cwieZ©b me‡P‡q D‡j­L‡hvM¨ Zv n‡jv Kvwnwb eY©bvq avivevwnKZv i¶vi Rb¨ m¤úv`bvi KvR| kã I msjvc †hvM nIqvi ci mewKQyB wfmy¨qvwj †`Lvevi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| Kv‡ij †iB‡hi Abymi‡Y m¤úv`bvi †¶‡Î wbe©vK I mevK Pjw”P‡Îi K‡qKwU †gŠwjK cv_©K¨ wb‡P Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv| k‡Ui µg (AW©vi Ad kUm) wbe©vK hy‡M cwiPvjK I m¤úv`K (GKB e¨w³) ¯^vaxbfv‡e KvR K‡i wm×vš— wb‡Zb k‡Ui µg Kx n‡e| me‡P‡q m‡š—vlRbK wfmy¨qv‡j avivevwnKZv _vK‡e, Ggb D‡Ï‡k¨i wfwˇZB k‡Ui µg wba©vwiZ n‡Zv| wMÖwd_ Ges AvB‡Rb÷vBb `yR‡bB w¯Œ‡Þi evB‡i A‡bK kU wb‡Zb Ges ÔKvwUsÕ‡qi c‡e© (m¤úv`bvq) G‡m †mme mvRv‡Zb I GKwU AvKvi w`‡Zb (`„k¨ ev wm‡Kv‡qÝ)| GBfv‡e Zuviv wm‡bgv ˆZwii g~j DcKiY (kU ev dz‡UR) e¨env‡i †ek ¯^vaxb wQ‡jb| Rvg©vb wPÎcwiPvjKiv (†hgb, Kvj© †gqvi) Aek¨ wPÎbv‡U¨i IciB wbf©i K‡i kU wb‡Zb I Zv‡`i µg

wMÖwd_ cÖ_g cÖ‡qvM Kivi ci †_‡K wewfbœfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ †evSv‡bvi Rb¨ js, wgwWqvg Ges †K¬vR k‡Ui m~Î AcwiewZ©ZB †_‡K wM‡q‡Q| wPÎbvU¨Kvi mevK Pjw”P‡Î K¨v‡givi †h Ae¯’vb me‡P‡q Dc‡hvMx, Zvi Bw½Z †`b| wZwb bv w`‡jI cwiPvjK eyS‡Z cv‡ib wm‡bgvi †h avivevwnKZv mvRv‡bv n‡q‡Q, Zvi †Kvb As‡k †Kvb K¨v‡giv †mUAvc cÖvmw½K| hw` †Kv‡bv `„k¨ wewfbœ K¨v‡giv †mUAvc †_‡K †bIqvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o, Zvn‡j cy‡iv `„k¨UvB wewfbœ †mUAv‡ci cÖwZwU †_‡K k‡U †bIqv nq Ges c‡i m¤úv`bvi mgq GKwÎZ Kiv nq| GUv Lye Av`k© ev m‡š—vlRbK c×wZ bq| hw` m¤úv`K Avi cwiPvjK c„_K nb, Zvn‡j hZB wek`fv‡e kU †bIqv †nvK bv †Kb, Kxfv‡e GBme GwWU Kiv n‡e cwiPvjK †m m¤^‡Ü wbwðš— n‡Z cv‡ib bv| ZLb †mB wm‡bi B‡d‡± wbw`©óZvi Afve N‡U, hv cwiKwíZ ïwUs‡q nq bv| Dc¯’vcbv : gm„YZv hw`I GKwU kU †_‡K Ab¨ k‡U DËiY, ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b g‡bv‡hvM †`Iqvi †¶‡Î †h AwfÁZv Zvi m‡½ Zzjbxq, Gi A_© GB bq †h, ÔkUÕ †_‡K ÔKvUÕ Kiv n‡j Zv †Ui cvIqv hv‡e bv| wbe©vK Qwe‡Z nVvr K‡i ÔKv‡UiÕ gva¨‡g †h cwieZ©b Avbv nq, `k©K †m m¤^‡Ü †ek m‡PZb _vKZ| wMÖwd‡_i Qwe‡Z K¨v‡giv A¨v‡½‡ji Nb Nb cwieZ©b `k©K mn‡RB eyS‡Z cviZ Ges Gi d‡j B‡g‡Ri avivevwnKZvq †h Q›`cZb NUZ Zvi m‡½ Lvc LvB‡q wb‡Z Zv‡`i †ek †eM †c‡Z n‡Zv| AvB‡Rb÷vBb `ywU k‡Ui g‡a¨ Ôgm„Y DËi‡YiÕ cwie‡Z© ÔmsNl©gq m¤úK©Õ‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q‡Qb, Zvi D‡j­L Av‡MB Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gu‡`i `yR‡bi Zzjbvq wesk kZvãxi wek kZ‡Ki Rvg©vb Pjw”PÎ wbg©vZviv gm„Yfv‡e cÖevwnZ avivevwnKZv m„wói Rb¨ Lye bgbxqfv‡e K¨v‡giv e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| mevK Pjw”P‡Îi hy‡M ev¯—eZvi cÖwZwbwa‡Z¡i Ici †Rvi


G Kb©vi Bb ûBU wW Wve­y wMÖwd_, 1909

†`Iqvi Kvi‡Y B‡g‡Ri gm„Y cÖengvbZv (avivevwnKZv) AR©‡bi mgm¨v †ek RwUj AvKvi aviY K‡i| nVvr K‡i †Rv‡ii m‡½ `„k¨gvbfv‡e ÔKvUÕ Kiv n‡j †mB Avw½‡Ki cÖwZ `„wó AvKl©Y Kiv nq| Gi d‡j `k©‡Ki Kv‡Q wbiew”Qbœfv‡e A¨vKkb †`Lvi †h ÔgvqvÕ _v‡K Zv wewNœZ nq| GB Kvi‡Y gm„Yfv‡e GwM‡q hvIqvi avivevwnKZv wbwðZ KivB GLb m¤úv`bvi g~j j¶¨ I cÖavb we‡ePbv| Ic‡i Dwj­wLZ m¤úv`bvi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z PviwU cÖwµqv ev c×wZi eY©bv K‡i Kv‡ij †iBh e‡j‡Qb †h, G‡`i wfwˇZ m¤úv`bvi g~j welq¸wj m¤úv`‡Ki KvQ †_‡K wPÎbvU¨Kvi I cwiPvj‡Ki Kv‡Q P‡j wM‡q‡Q, Zvi Bw½Z cvIqv hvq| Aciw`‡K mevK Pjw”P‡Îi weKv‡ki Rb¨ †hme bZzb mgm¨v †`Lv w`‡q‡Q, †mm‡ei `vwqZ¡ †h m¤úv`‡Ki Ici e‡Z©‡Q, wZwb †m K_vI e‡j‡Qb| eZ©gv‡b Aek¨ Ggb m~² wefvRb m¤¢e bq, we‡kl K‡i cwiPvj‡Ki cÖavb f‚wgKv I g~j `vwq‡Z¡i we‡ePbvq| m¤úv`bvi ¸i“Z¡ m¤úv`bvi ¸i“Z¡ †h A‡bK, †m wel‡q m‡›`n †bB| wm‡bgv ˆZwii Ab¨vb¨ As‡k fzj n‡j Zvi ms‡kvab n‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ GKevi m¤úvw`Z n‡q Qwe cÖ`wk©Z n‡q †M‡j †mwU ms‡kvab †ek KwVb n‡q c‡o| †mB Rb¨ m¤úv`bvi `vwqZ¡ wb‡q memgqB Uvbv-†nuPov n‡q‡Q| KL‡bv m¤úv`K c„_Kfv‡e KvR K‡i‡Qb, KL‡bv

cwiPvj‡Ki m‡½ †hŠ_fv‡e| KL‡bv cwiPvjKB m¤úv`K n‡q‡Qb| Avevi cÖwWDmvi‡KI m¤úv`bvi f‚wgKvq †`Lv wM‡q‡Q| wPÎbvU¨Kvi m¤úv`bvi gva¨‡g Kx B‡d± m„wó Kiv hv‡e, †mUv g‡b K‡i m¤ú~Y© `vwqZ¡ wb‡RI wb‡Z cv‡ib| A_©vr wPÎbv‡U¨B e‡j w`‡Z cv‡ib P‚ovš— ch©v‡q wm‡bgvwUi iƒc Kx n‡e| hw` wPÎbvU¨Kvi Avi cwiPvjK wm‡bgvi Kvwnwb eY©b vi avivevwnKZv m¤^‡Ü wbwðZ bv nb, Zvn‡j m¤úv`‡Ki IciB `vwqZ¡ eZ©vq| m¤úv`bvi `vwq‡Z¡ †K _vK‡eb, GwU †kl ch©š— wbf©i Ki‡e QwewU Kxfv‡e A_©vwqZ n‡”Q, †K cwiPvjbv Ki‡Q, †K m¤úv`bvi `vwq‡Z¡ i‡q‡Q G‡`i e¨w³Z¡ I ¸i“‡Z¡i Ici| Z‡e m¤úv`bvB †h‡nZz KuvPvgvj‡K P‚o vš— iƒc †`Iqvi ch©vq, †mBRb¨ cwiPvjK Kg‡ewk GB c‡e© hy³ bv †_‡K cv‡ib bv| G‡¶‡Î Aek¨ ÷zwWIi HwZn¨I f‚wgKv iv‡L| Bsj¨v‡Û cwiPvjKB gyL¨ f‚wgKv cvjb K‡ib| wZwb wPÎbvU¨ †jLvq mn‡hvwMZv K‡ib Ges m¤úv`bvq Z`viK K‡ib| wm‡bgvi Kvwnwb eY©bvi avivevwnKZvi `vwqZ¡ Zuvi Ges m¤úv`‡Ki Ici _v‡K| nwjD‡W ÷zwWIwfwËK wm‡bgv wbg©v‡Y Gi D‡ëvUv n‡q‡Q| †mLv‡b wPÎbvU¨Kvi w¯ŒÞ wj‡L‡Qb wek`fv‡e Ges A‡bK mgq ÷zwWI ev cÖwWDmv‡ii digv‡qk Abyhvqx| wjwLZ wPÎbv‡U¨i wfwˇZ cwiPvj‡Ki Rb¨ mxwgZ f‚wgKvB ivLv n‡q‡Q| nwjD‡W wm‡bgv wbg©v‡Y cÖwWDmvi‡`i‡K Bsj¨v‡Ûi Zzjbvq Av‡iv mwµq Ask wb‡Z †`Lv wM‡q‡Q Ges AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB wZwb m¤úv`bvi Z`viwK K‡i‡Qb| Gi g‡a¨ e¨wZµgI wQj| Rb nv÷b wb‡RB


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`¨ †Mvmcvj A¨vKiwWs Uz g¨vw_D (1964) Pjw”P‡Îi GKwU `„k ¨

Avnvgwi wKQy bq| wkï BwWcvm‡K †c‡q Zi“Y cwjevm hLb Zvi cÖvmv‡` wd‡i Av‡m Zvi evnb wQj GKwU `ye©j ‡`nx L”Pi, Zvi m‡½ †Kv‡bv ˆmb¨mvgš— wQj bv| ivRv-ivwb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i †Kvwiš— I †_e‡mi mvaviY gvbyl ‡`i †cvkvK, mvRm¾v, evm¯’vb, AvPiY BZ¨vw` wQj LyeB mvaviY I wek¦vm‡hvM¨| mvaviY gvbyl ‡`i `vwi`ª¨‡K jywK‡q †Kv‡bv mg„× wMÖ‡mi wg_ ˆZwi K‡ibwb wZwb| Awfbq wb‡q cv‡mvwjwbi †h Awfbe `k©b wQj Zvi Qvc Av‡Q G Pjw”P‡ÎI| cv‡mvwjwbi g‡Z, K¨v‡giv e¨w³‡K Qvwc‡q Zvi g‡bvRMr‡K †`L‡Z cvq| †ckv`vi Awf‡bZviv PwiÎ dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z †h Awfb‡qi †Póv K‡ib Zv bvwK cÖvqB Pwi‡Îi Aš—‡j©vK‡K Avov‡j †d‡j †`q| cv‡mvwjwbi mgvavb ZvB Ggb PwiÎ Lyu‡R †ei Kiv, hvi ¯^f ve-PwiÎ AvcbvAvcwb w¯Œ‡Þi Pwi‡Îi m‡½ wg‡j hvq| GKevi gbg‡Zv Awf‡bZv †c‡q †M‡j cv‡mvwjwb Zuv‡`i Lye †ewk wb‡`©k bv w`‡Zb bv| cv‡mvwjwbi wb‡Ri fvlvq : ‘I did not even tell them precisely what characters they were playing. Because I never chose an actor as an interpreter. I chose an actor for what he is. That is, I never asked anyone to transform himself into anything other than what he is.’


Bw`‡cv †i Qwei †ewkifvM Awf‡bZvB A‡ckv`vi| Gu‡`i K‡qKRb cv‡mvwjwbi Ab¨ Qwe‡ZI Awfbq K‡i‡Qb| g~j Pwi‡Îi evB‡i wMÖmevmx bvix, cyi“l, wkïi mvaviYZ¡ Ges mgq mgq K¨v‡givi w`‡K ZvwK‡q Zv‡`i Awfe¨w³ cÖvgvY¨wP‡Îi Av‡e`b ˆZwi K‡i| h_vm¤¢e Kg msjvc e¨envi K‡i `„k ¨ ˆZwii gvbwmKZv Pjw”PÎwUi Av‡iKwU D‡j­L‡hvM¨ w`K| Kvwnwb‡K ev¯—evbyM ivLvi Rb¨ hZUzKz msjvc bv ivL‡jB bq cv‡mvwjwb ïay ZZUzKz msjvcB †i‡L‡Qb| Zuvi g~j cÖeYZv †`Lv hvq Awf‡bZv‡`i Awfe¨w³, IqvBW j¨vÛ‡¯‹c, Avi msMxZ w`‡q Ôwm‡bgvwUKÕ †gv‡g›U ˆZwi Kivi w`‡K, A_©vr kw³kvjx `„k ¨ gš—vR w`‡q `k©‡Ki g‡b Kvw•¶Z Abyfw~ Zi Rb¥ w`‡Z| msjvccÖa vb wm‡Kv‡qݸ‡jvi ci cÖvq mgcwigvY msjvcnxb wm‡Kv‡qÝ Pjw”PÎwU‡Z GK cÖKvi ˆbtkã¨RvZ mvi‡j¨i Rb¥ †`q| M‡íi NUbvµg Dc¯’vcbvq cv‡mvwjwb m‡dv‡K¬‡mi d¬¨vke¨vK †UKwbK †f‡O †d‡j AZxZ †_‡K avivevwnKfv‡e NUbv¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡ib| Zuvi wm‡Kv‡qÝ wbe©vPb I Dc¯’vcbvq K‡Vvi cwiwgwZ‡ev‡ai cÖgvY cvIqv hvq| wkï BwWcvm‡K evwo wb‡q ¯¿xi nv‡Z Zz‡j †`Iqvi c‡ii wm‡Kv‡q‡ÝB Avgiv hyeK BwWcvm‡K †`wL| Avevi Gic‡ii `yB wm‡Kv‡q‡Ýi g‡a¨B hyeK BwWcvm Zvi `yt ¯^‡cœi e¨vL¨v Rvb‡Z evwo †_‡K †ewi‡q c‡o| †Kvwiš— ivRcÖvmv‡` BwWcv‡mi Mí ej‡Z PviwUi †ewk wm‡Kv‡qÝ †bbwb cv‡mvwjwb| ivwb †RvKv÷vi m‡½ Zvi cÖ_g wgj‡bi ciB Avgiv †_em bM‡i giYe¨vwai Ki“Y `„k¨ †`wL| Zvici ivRv BwWcvm cÖRv‡`i m‡½ K_v ej‡Q| we‡q Ges ivRv n‡q IVvi gv‡S †h †ek wKQy mgq cvi n‡q‡Q Zv †evSv‡Z †Kv‡bv evowZ mgq e¨q Kiv nqwb| g~j bvU‡Ki evB‡i †_‡K †hvM nIqv `„‡k¨i msL¨vI Lye Kg| †h¸‡jv †hvM n‡q‡Q Zv g~jZ gÂbvUK †_‡K Pjw”P‡Î gva¨gMZ cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ hZUv bv n‡jB bq ZZUzKBz | K¨v‡givi Kv‡RI Avgiv mvaviY _vKvi m‡PZb ÷vBj †`wL| †µb, Wwj BZ¨vw` cÖPwjZ ÔfvwiÕ kU †hgb †bB, †Zgwb †bB Av‡jv w`‡q evowZ PgK m„wói †Póv| †ewkifvM kUB n¨vÛ‡nì| KL‡bv KL‡bv nq‡Zv Zv n¨vÛ‡nì Ae¯’vqB Pwi·`i w`‡K Uª¨vK K‡i GwM‡q hvq| Gi d‡j ˆZwi nIqv Kuvcv kU QwewU‡K Av‡iv cÖvgvY¨wPÎ UvB‡ci Av‡e`b ˆZwi‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| `ywU iv‡Zi wm‡Kv‡qÝ ev‡` cy‡iv QwewU w`‡bi †ejvi Mí, †ewkifvM `„k¨B AvDU‡Wvi| Av‡Q m~hv© ‡jvK, ay-ay j¨vÛ‡¯‹c Avi cÖvPxb wMÖ‡mi ¯’vcZ¨‰kjxi m„R bkxj e¨envi| m¤úv`bvq Avgiv †`wL BwWcvm I †RvKv÷vi cÖwZUv wgjb `„‡k¨i ciB g„Z gvby‡li weK…Z †`‡ni `„k¨| m‡½ gi“f~wgi g‡Zv i“ j¨vÛ‡¯‹c , kKz‡bi cvj, KL‡bv e¨vKMÖvD‡Û Ki“Y myi| gš—vR¸‡jv cÖgvY K‡i cv‡mvwjwbi `„wófw½ G‡¶‡Î m‡dv‡K¬m †_‡K Lye GKUv m‡i Av‡mwb| cv‡mvwjwb G‡K fqsKi wn‡m‡eB †`wL‡q‡Qb| Avevi †`kZ¨vMx BwWcv‡mi fwel¨r Mš—e ¨ fv‡M¨i nv‡Z †Q‡o †`Iqv, jvBqv‡mi m‡½ hy× Gov‡bvi †Póv, †_e‡mi cÖR v‡`i cÖwZ ivRv wn‡m‡e Zvi `vqe×Zv I wbôv, ivwb †RvKv÷vi cÖwZ Zvi fv‡jvevmv BZ¨vw` `„k¨I kw³kvjxfv‡e dzwU‡q †Zvjv nq| Lye Aí ev‡R‡U GKwU HwZnvwmK cUf~wgi wm‡bgv wn‡m‡e Bw`‡cv †i mK‡ji `„wó Kv‡o| Bw`‡cv †i Zvi wPÎbvU¨, Awfbq, †mU, K¨v‡giv, m¤úv`bv BZ¨vw` me‡¶‡ÎB m‡PZbfv‡e

Bw`‡cv †i Pjw”P‡Îi †cv÷vi

mvaviY| wKš‘ cy‡iv Qwe‡Z wg‡k _vKv cv‡mvwjwbi Kvwe¨K ms‡e`bkxjZv G‡K GKwU Abb¨ m„wó‡Z cwiYZ K‡i‡Q| Qq cv‡mvwjwbi wbg©vZv wn‡m‡e cÖ_g `ywU KvR AvKv‡Zv‡b (1961) Ges gvgv †ivgv (1962) BZvwji mgKvjxb mgv‡Ri cÖvš—mxgvq emevmKvix †kvwlZ gvby‡li †e`bvZzi Rxe‡bi Mí| cwZZve„wË, `vjvwj, AcivaRMr BZ¨vw` bvbvb AmvgvwRK †ckvq RwoZ Ôwbæ‡kÖwYÕi gvby‡liv Avm‡j mgKvjxb mgvRe¨e¯’vi Kv‡Q KZUv Amnvq Zvi wPÎ Avgiv GLv‡b †`wL| wKš‘ Z…Zxq Qwe `¨ †Mvmcvj A¨vKiwWs Uz g¨vw_D‡Z (1964) Avgiv wfbœ cv‡mvwjwb‡K †`wL| †ivgvb K¨v_wjK Pv‡P©i mnvqZvq Ges †cvc ·qv`k Rb cj‡K DrmM© K‡i wbwg©Z GB Pjw”P‡Î whïwLª‡ói Mí‡K cÖvgvY¨wP‡Îi g‡Zv ev¯—evbyM I mij K‡i c`©vq wb‡q Av‡mb cv‡mvwjwb| Bw`‡cv †i‡Z Avgiv cv‡mvwjwbi †h gyb&wkqvbv †`wL Zvi cÖ_g cÖgvY GB Qwe‡ZB †`Lv hvq| QwewUi Rb¨ wKQy Avš—R©vwZK cyi¯‹viI cvb wZwb| BwW‡cv †i wbg©v‡Yi c‡ii eQiB wZwb wbg©vY K‡ib wZI‡igv


gvgv †ivgv (1962) Pjw”P‡Îi GKwU `„k¨

(1968)| wZI‡igvi Mí †ek A™¢Zy Ges i¶Ykxj mgv‡Ri Rb¨ †ek AvcwËKi| D”PweË cwiev‡ii GKwU evwo‡Z †eov‡Z Avmv GK AwZw_ G‡K G‡K †hŠbm¤ú‡K© Rwo‡q c‡ob evwoi cÖwZwU m`‡m¨i m‡½; gv, evev, †Q‡j, †g‡q Ges M„ncwiPvwiKv| mevi Rxe‡bB wZwb cÖk vwš— e‡q Av‡bb| Avevi nVvr K‡i GB AwZw_ P‡j †M‡j mewKQy G‡jv‡g‡jv n‡q hvq| kvwš—i Rb¨ wb‡R‡`i cvj‡U †d‡j Zviv| mgv‡Ri ey‡R©vqv †kÖwYi gvbwmK wech©q wb‡q QwewU wbwg©Z| †PŠlwƇZ evB‡ej Aej¤^‡b whïi Rxeb ebvg AvUlwƇZ †hŠbZv, mgKvwgZvi A™¢yZ e³e¨c~ Y© wZI‡igv| gv‡S mvZlwƇZ Bw`‡cv †i| †Kv‡bv GKK wbw³‡Z wK †djv hvq cv‡mvwjwb‡K? cv‡mvwjwb‡K wb‡q †h-†Kv‡bv mijxK…Z DËi ZvB †ek wec¾bK| Zuvi cieZx© Pjw”Pθ‡jv Av‡iv Mfxifv‡e GB e³e¨‡K Zz‡j a‡i| †KD †KD GB wfbœa wg©Zvi gv‡SB GKRb ev¯—e m‡PZb ivRbxwZwe‡`i m‡½ GKRb ¯^cœPvix Kwei Aš—‡j©v‡Ki cv_©K¨ Lyu‡R cvb| wZwb bvw¯—K Ñ GK mvsevw`‡Ki Ggb `vwei Dˇi cv‡mvwjwb e‡jwQ‡jb, "If you know that I am an unbeliever, then you know me better than I do myself. I may be an unbeliever, but I am an unbeliever

who has a nostalgia for a belief."

gvby‡li Rb¥, g„Zz¨, m„wóinm¨ BZ¨vw` `vk©wbK wRÁvmvi †Kv‡bv m`yËi gvK©mev‡` cvbwb cv‡mvwjwb| wKš‘ GB ÔAb¨Õ wRÁvmv¸‡jvI Zuv‡K cxov †`q| cv‡mvwjwbi ÔK¨v_wjK gvK©wm÷Õ DcvwaUv GB gvbwmK ˆecixZ¨ †_‡KB Av‡m| mvZ Ôgvby‡li Rxe‡bi mvdj¨-e¨_©Zv BZ¨vw` me cwiYwZi Rb¨ †m wb‡RB `vqxÕ Ñ G ai‡bi AvBwWIjwR‡K Ñ cyuwRev‡` wek¦vmx Ges Gi we‡ivax Ñ `y`‡ji e³e¨ wn‡m‡eB †`Lv hvq| cyuwRev` G ai‡bi wPš—vi we¯—vi Pvq, hv‡Z †kvwlZ gvbyl mgvRe¨e¯’vi w`‡K AvOyj bv Zz‡j wb‡R‡`i wb‡qB wPwš—Z _v‡K| Ab¨w`‡K cyuwRev`we‡ivaxiv G‡K e¨envi K‡ib mvaviY gvbyl‡K RvwM‡q Zzj‡Z; Zviv †hb cÖPwjZ mgvRe¨e¯’vi Kv‡Q nvi bv †g‡b jovB Pvwj‡q hvq| cv‡mvwjwbi Bw`‡cv †i‡KI ZvB †kl we‡ePbvq `yf v‡e †`Lv hvq| n‡Z cv‡i mgKvjxb mgvR wb‡q GwU cv‡mvwjwbi nZvkvi cÖZ xKx Awfe¨w³, Avevi n‡Z cv‡i nZvkv bq, GwU gvbyl ‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi GKwU ˆkwíK cÖq vm| 


mgvR I Pjw”PÎ

AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii mgKvjxb cÖvmw½KZv gv n gy `y j †nv ‡m b

Av

jgMxi Kwei gviv wM‡qwQ‡jb 1989 mv‡ji 20 Rvbyqvwi| †m eQiB, wW‡m¤^i gv‡m, FwZ¡K Pjw”PÎ msm‡`i msKjb gš—v‡Ri wØZxq msL¨vq GKwU †µvocÎ cÖKvwkZ n‡qwQj Zuv ‡K ¯§iY K‡i| Zuvi Rxeb I Kg© wb‡q †ek K‡qKwU †jLvi †fZi Avwg GKwU †jLv wj‡LwQjvg ÔAvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Qwe‡Z mgvR †PZbvÕ wk‡ivbv‡g| cuwPk eQi ci Pjw”PÎKvi †gvi‡k`yj Bmjvg †dvb K‡i Aby‡iva Ki‡jb AvjgMxi Kwei‡K wb‡q GKwU †jLv ˆZwi Kivi R‡b¨1| ej‡jb, AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Pjw”PÎ-fvebv I Zuvi mvgvwRK cÖvmw½KZv †hb ¸i“Z¡ cvq †jLvwU‡Z| Pg‡K D‡VwQjvg! GwU Kx KvKZvjxq e¨vcvi †h, †mB ZLb, hLb Zuv i AvKw¯§K AcNvZ g„Zz¨i Aev¯—eZv, †kvK Avgv‡`i Av”Qbœ K‡i †i‡L‡Q, hLb mKj wKQyi Ici †i‡M _vKv Zi“Y eqm Avgv‡`i, Avi †m iv‡M wkígqZvi evZvm w`‡Zb AvjgMxi Kwei, ZLb Zuvi Pjw”PÎ wb‡q wjL‡Z wM‡q mgvR‡PZbvB me‡P‡q cÖv mw½K g‡b n‡qwQj, Avi GZKvj c‡i, GB †cÖŠp‡Z¡ DcbxZ †gvi‡k` fvB I Avgiv, Avgv‡`i cÖRb¥, huv iv BwZg‡a¨ Pjw”P‡Îi Kv‡Q h‡_ó Rã n‡qwQ A_ev Pjw”P·KB K‡iwQ LvwbKUv Rã, Zuv iv, AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Pjw”PÎ I Pjw”PÎ-fvebv‡K mvgvwRK cÖv mw½KZvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K †`L‡Z AvMÖnx nB? c‡i †f‡e †`‡LwQ, KvKZvjxq bq Av‡`Š e¨vcviwU| AvjgMxi Kwei‡K huviv †`‡L‡Qb Zuv‡`i c‡¶ Zuv ‡K GKRb fxlYiKg mgvRcivqY gvbyl Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bvRb wn‡m‡e †f‡e IVv gykwKj| †h Rxeb wZwb hvcb K‡i‡Qb, †h wk¶v wZwb AvqË K‡i‡Qb, †h wkí wZwb wbg©vY K‡i‡Qb, †h msMVb wZwb M‡o‡Qb †m-me wKQy‡Z mewKQz Qvwc‡q eo n‡q D‡V‡Q mgvR, ivóª, gvbyl| 1969-G cÖKvwkZ Zuvi MÖš’ `¨ wm‡bgv Bb cvwK¯—vb Ges 1979-G cÖKvwkZ wdj¥ Bb evsjv‡`k GB A‡ji Ges c‡i evsjv‡`‡ki Pjw”P·K cvV Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Q mvgvwRK `„w ó‡KvY †_‡K| wkí wn‡m‡e Pjw”P‡Îi weKv‡ki BwZnvm, weªw Uk Jcwb‡ewkK Avg‡j fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k Pjw”P‡Îi Ae¯’v, evOvwj-gymjgv‡bi cðvrc` Ae¯’v Ñ GBme Aa¨vq Pjw”P‡Îi BwZnvm‡K cvV Kivi GKwU mvgvwRK KvVv‡gv

AvjgMxi Kwei


m~hK © b¨v Qwe‡Z eyjeyj Avn‡g` I Rqkªx Kwei

wbg©vY K‡i †`q| Gici hLb wZwb cÂvk, lvU I mˇii `k‡Ki wbwg©Z Pjw”Pθ‡jv‡K we‡k­lY K‡i‡Qb, BÛvw÷ª A‡_© wkí wn‡m‡e G‡K we‡ePbv K‡i‡Qb, D`©y I evsjv Qwei cÖm½ †U‡b‡Qb, †mÝi cÖ_v wb‡q K_v e‡j‡Qb, gyw³hy‡×i mgq Rwni ivqnv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ Pjw”PÎKgx©‡`i Pjw”PÎ-fvebvi K_v e‡j‡Qb, Pjw”PÎ-mgv‡jvP‡Ki †hvM¨Zvi gvcKvwV wbg©v Y K‡i‡Qb ZLb mgvR n‡q D‡V‡Q me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡cY~ © welq| AvjgMxi Kwei Pjw”PÎ-mgv‡jvP‡Ki GK b¤^i †hvM¨Zv wn‡m‡e kbv³ K‡i‡Qb Social consciousness-†K| wj‡L‡Qb, ÔThe aim of every art is to contribute directly or indirectly to social development and also to act as a catalyst in the process of social evolution. A critic must be fully aware of the needs of his society at a given moment and of the kind of inspiration that is required to fulfill his responsibilities toward his fellow beings. In other words, socio-political consciousness is an indispensible quality in a critic.Õ Zvn‡j GUvB ¯^vfvweK †h,

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AwfÁZv AR©‡bi R‡b¨| Pjw”PÎmsm`Kgx©‡`i wb‡Ri nv‡Z wdj¥ cÖ‡R±i Pvjv‡Z wkwL‡q‡Qb| Rxe‡bi †kl e³…Zvq e‡j‡Qb, ÔGLb kn‡i †Zv e‡UB, cÖwZ MÖv‡g MÖv ‡g wM‡q Qwe †`Lv‡Z n‡e| m¤¢e n‡j MÖv‡g MÖv‡g wdj¥ †mvmvBwU ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e|... gy³ ˆ`‡N©¨i Qwe wbg©vY Ki‡Z n‡e| Gi A_© n‡jv Qwe KZUzKz mg‡qi n‡e Zv wba©viY Ki‡e wbg©vZv| cÖwZwU wk‡íB wµ‡qUv‡ii ¯^vaxbZv Av‡Q| wd‡j¥ †Kb _vK‡e bv?Õ Pjw”P·K mK‡ji gva¨g K‡i †Zvjvi ¯^cœ AvjgMxi †`‡LwQ‡jb Ges Zuv i Kv‡ji ev¯—eZvi †fZ‡i †m j‡¶¨ KvR K‡iwQ‡jb AvRxeb| wdj¥ Bb evsjv‡`k MÖ‡š’ AvjgMxi Kwei gyw³hy×Kv‡j Rwni ivqnv‡bi †bZ… ‡Z¡ GK`j Pjw”PÎKv‡ii RvZxq Pjw”PÎ cwiKíbvi ˆZwii K_v wj‡L‡Qb| GB cwiKíbvq AvjgMxi Kwei †h hy³ wQ‡jb Zv Avgiv Abygvb Ki‡Z cvwi| KviY gyw³hy×Kv‡j AvjgMxi Kwei wQ‡jb Rwni ivqnv‡bi Nwbô mnPi| Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÷c †R‡bvmvBW Qwe‡Z wZwb aviveY©bvi KvR K‡i‡Qb| wb‡R wbg©vY K‡i‡Qb `¨ wjev‡ikb dvBUvm©| †h cwiKíbvi K_v e‡j‡Qb AvjgMxi Kwei Zv‡Z gyw³hy×-DËi evsjv‡`‡k Pjw”PÎwkí‡K m¤ú~Y© RvZxqKi‡Yi cÖ¯—ve Kiv n‡qwQj| Pjw”PÎwbg©v‡Yi wm×vš— †K›`ªxqfv‡e MÖnY Kiv, AwfÁ Ges bZzb †gavex wbg©v Zv‡`i w`‡q Qwe wbg©v Y Kiv‡bv Ges Zv‡`i miKvwi †eZ‡bi AvIZvq ivLv, Pjw”PÎ weZiY I cÖ`k©be¨e¯’v‡K m¤ú~Y© RvZxqKiY Kiv GmeB wQj GB i¨vwWK¨vj cwiKíbvi Ask| AvR‡Ki GB gy³evRvi A_©bxwZi Kv‡j Ggb ivóªvqË Pjw”PÎwk‡íi K_v ïb‡j A‡b‡KB AuvZ‡K DV‡eb| wKš‘ Gi D‡ëv w`KwUi w`‡KI Avgiv bRi w`‡Z cvwi| wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ci Jcwb‡ewkK kvmbgy³ n‡q †hme bZzb RvwZ-ivóªmg~‡ni D™¢e n‡q‡Q †mme iv‡óª ZLbB wkímdj Pjw”PÎ wbwg©Z n‡q‡Q hLb cÖZ¨¶ miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZv cvIqv †M‡Q| Pjw”P·K Gme †`‡k hLb RvwZmËv wbg©v ‡Yi Kv‡Ri Ask wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q ZLbB ÔRvZxq Pjw”PÎÕ e‡j GK ai‡bi Pjw”PÎ wbwg©Z n‡q‡Q| Gme Qwe evwYwR¨K Qwei Avewk¨K welq-fvebv‡K AwZµg K‡i mgvR I wk‡íi `vwe‡K †gUv‡Z AwaKZi g‡bv‡hvMx n‡q‡Q| RvwZmËvi wfRy¨qvj AvBKb¸wj wbwg©Z n‡q‡Q| cÖwZ‡ekx †`k fvi‡Zi GbGdwWwm Ges c‡i GdGdwmi cÖ‡hvwRZ Pjw”Pθwj Gi †kªô D`vniY| †h cÖ¯—vebvi K_v cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb AvjgMxi Kwei Zv Aš—Z K‡qK eQ‡ii R‡b¨ AvswkK ev¯—evwqZ n‡jI evsjv‡`‡k RvZxq Pjw”P‡Îi GKwU ewjô aviv nq‡Zv `uvwo‡q †h‡Z cviZ| wKš‘ G †Zv †Kej GKwU cÖvKwíK we‡ePbvB, ev¯—‡e Ggb wKQyB N‡Uwb| wKš‘ GB wK mZ¨ bq †h, Av‡Rv huv iv wmwiqvm Pjw”P‡Îi K_v fv‡eb Zuv‡`i wPš—vq miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZv GKwU eo RvqMv Ry‡o _v‡K| †Kej wbg©vY mnvqZv‡ZB bq, weZi‡Y Ges cÖ`k©‡bI GB mn‡hvwMZv cÖ‡qvRb Ñ gvb‡eb mK‡jB| Avwg fve‡Z PvB AvjgMxi Kwei G‡`‡ki Rb¥j‡MœB Ggb GK Pjw”PÎ cwiKíbvq mswk­ó n‡qwQ‡jb, hv Av‡Rv cÖvmw½K| AvjgMxi Kwei GKRb e¨w³wkíx wQ‡jb| wZwb †Kv‡bv wkíx‡Mvôxi Aš—f©y³ wQ‡jb bv, Zuv i Kv‡j GiKg †Kv‡bv msMVbI m¤¢eZ Pjw”PÎKvi‡`i wQj bv| Rvbv g‡Z, wZwb mivmwi †Kv‡bv ivR‰bwZK `‡ji m`m¨ wQ‡jb bv| wKš‘ Zuvi Pjw”P‡Î, Zuvi †jLvq ivRbxwZ-m‡PZbZvi Qvc cÖej| AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii ivR‰bwZK kΓ/wgÎ †Pbv KwVb bq| lv‡Ui `k‡K wZwb †MÖßvi

iƒcvjx ˆmK‡Z Qwe‡Z Rqkªx Kwei I Av‡bvqvi †nv‡mb

n‡qwQ‡jb Ges cÖvq Qq gvm †Rj †L‡UwQ‡jb| Gi m¤¢ve¨ KviY n‡”Q, jÛ‡b AvBqye Lvb‡K Kv‡jv cZvKv †`Lv‡bv| gyw³hy‡×i mgq †`k Zuvi g‡Zv GKRb gvby‡li Kv‡Q hv Avkv Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv KovqMÊvq wgwU‡q‡Qb wZwb| ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K‡›`ªi Bs‡iwR wefv‡Mi `vwqZ¡ wb‡q‡Qb, K¨v‡giv nv‡Z Qy‡U †M‡Qb iYv½‡b| wbg©vY K‡i‡Qb gyw³hy‡×i cÖv gvY¨wPÎ| gyw³hy‡×i ci hLb Pjw”PÎ-mvsevw`K †_‡K Pjw”PÎwbg©v Zv n‡q †M‡jb AvjgMxi Kwei ZLb ivR‰bwZK wek¦vm Zuvi wk‡íi Aš—i‡K wbg©vY K‡i‡Q| Avi †h †jLvi KvR KLbB _v‡gwb, †h K_b P‡j‡Q Avg„Z¨z Zv‡Z AvjgMxi Kwei hZLvwb Pjw”P‡Îi gvbyl ZZLvwbB GK ivR‰bwZK gvbyl| GB Rxeb`k©b ev wkí`k©b wK wKQy †kLvq Avgv‡`i? Avgiv `ª“Z nZvk nB, wmwbK¨vj n‡q cwo, mr msMV‡bi Afv‡e wb‡R‡`i fxlY cÖwZK‚‡ji hvÎx fvwe| wb‡R‡`i cÖKvk‡K †Kvb cv‡Î ivLv hv‡e, †K aviY Ki‡e Avgvi ivR‰bwZK wkí‡K Zv †f‡e D®§vI cÖKvk Kwi| AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii DRvb evIqv, Adzi vb cÖv Ykw³ Ges wb‡Ri wek¦v‡m cÖej Av¯’v Avgv‡`i G wel‡q bZzb K‡i fve‡Z AbycÖvwYZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| AvjgMxi Kwei cÖwZôvbwe‡ivwaZvi cÖZxK n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb| lv‡Ui `k‡Ki gvSvgvwS Bsj¨vÛ †_‡K wd‡i wZwb wj‡LwQ‡jb, ÔAvwg †Rvi Mjvq eje Avgvi wcZv-gvZv, Avgvi wk¶K, Avgvi ¸i“R‡biv Avgv‡K fyj wRwbm wkL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡iwQ‡jb, ev‡R eB co‡Z Drmvn w`‡qwQ‡jb Ges fyj c‡_ cwiPvwjZ Ki‡Z D‡`¨vMx n‡qwQ‡jb|Õ we‡`ªvnx AvjgMxi Kwei wKš‘ mgvR‡K Z¨vM


K‡ibwb, weeigyLx n‡q c‡obwb| eis wZwb hv wek¦vm K‡ib Zv‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z e¨vcK Kg©h‡Á †g‡Z D‡VwQ‡jb| lv‡Ui `k‡K Zuv i Pjw”PÎ-mgv‡jvPbv †hgb wQj bZzb ai‡bi, †Zgwb wQj cÖejiKg AvµgYvZ¥K| D`vniY †`Iqv †h‡Z cv‡i, ÔSentiments of all kinds used to reign supreme in the Bengali Cinema’s ‘realism’ from pre-independence days. A lot of tears, exaggerated and sentimentalised depiction of the plight of the lower middle-class that appeared more like a complaint than a social protest; simple, adolscent romance between handsome boys and beautiful girls, etc. were the typical ingradients that Dacca film-makers of the early period easily inherited and assimilted.Õ G‡nb AvjgMxi

Kwe‡ii kΓi Afve wQj bv| 1988 mv‡j hLb evsjv‡`k kU© wdj¥ †dviv‡gi D‡`¨v‡M cÖ_g Avš—R©vwZK ¯^í‰`N©¨ Pjw”PÎ Drme Av‡qvwRZ nq ZLb wZwb GB Drme KwgwUi †Pqvig¨vb n‡Z cÖ_‡g ivwR nbwb| Zuv i hyw³ wQj wdj¥ BÛvw÷ª‡Z Zuvi kΓi Afve †bB| wZwb _vK‡j Av‡qvRbwU mdj n‡e bv| c‡i Aek¨ wZwb †Pqvig¨vb n‡qwQ‡jb| AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii cÖwZôvbwe‡ivwaZv wQj wbiš—i hy‡×i e¨vcvi| mˇii `k‡K ax‡i e‡n †gNbv, m~h©Kb¨v, mxgvbv †cwi‡q, iƒcvjx ˆmK‡Zi g‡Zv Pjw”PÎ wbg©vY Ges cÖ`k©b †h Kx `yi ƒn Kg© wQj Zv ejvi A‡c¶v iv‡L bv| Avi AvjgMxi Kwei 35 wgwg wd‡j¥B Qwe K‡i‡Qb, GdwWwmi mKj myweav Ges Amyweavi †fZi w`‡q †M‡Qb Ges Zuvi Qwe XvKvmn mviv‡`‡ki †cÖ¶vM„n¸wj‡ZB cÖ`wk©Z n‡q‡Q| Zuv‡K ej‡Z ï‡bwQ, ÔAvwg kΓ jvB‡bi Gcv‡i Ges Icv‡i `yB w`‡KB KvR Kwi!Õ wkím¤§Z Ges mr Pjw”PÎ Av‡Rv c„w_exi Av‡iv eû ¯’v‡bi g‡Zv Avgv‡`i †`‡k cÖwZôvbwe‡ivax GK Kg©hÁB| AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Kg©‡KŠkj Ges cÖvYkw³ Zvn‡j n‡Z cv‡i GiKg D‡`¨v‡Mi Aby‡cÖiYv| AvR‡Ki ¯^v axb Pjw”PÎwbg©v‡Y cÖv gvY¨wPÎ A‡bK eo GKUv RvqMv K‡i wb‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i wWwRUvj hš¿cvwZ †h nvjKv Pjw”PÎwbg©v Y Aven ˆZwi K‡i w`‡q‡Q Zvi my‡hvM wb‡q A‡bK bZzb wbg©vZv Pjw”P‡Îi GB w`KwUi cÖwZ AvMÖnx n‡q D‡V‡Qb| AvjgMxi Kwei wQ‡jb cÖv gvY¨wP‡Îi GK GKwbô cÖe³v| mˇii `k‡Ki †klfvM †_‡K Pjw”PÎmsm`mg~‡ni Kg©kvjvq, †mwgbv‡i cÖvgvY¨wP‡Îi m¤¢vebv Ges D‡ËRbvKi w`K wb‡q ej‡Z ï‡bwQ| GLb †`LwQ wZwb wj‡LwQ‡jb, ÔSince the day I had become conscious of the cinema as an art medium with ability to move beyond the limits of mere sensuous delight I had become particularly conscious of the art of documentary... Despite all the great creations in the realm of feature film production, the essence of true cinema perhaps continues to remain hidden within the documentary cinema.Õ Gme

D”PviY AvR‡Ki cÖvgvY¨wPÎwbg©vZv‡`i †cÖiYvi KviY n‡Z cv‡i wbðqB| Avevi GB AvjgMxi KweiB Gi ciciB e‡j‡Qb †h, Pjw”PÎ †hfv‡e GwM‡q P‡j‡Q Zv‡Z wbKU fwel¨‡ZB cÖvgvY¨wPÎ Ges KvwnwbwP‡Îi Awbw`©ófv‡e ˆZwi wefvRb †f‡O co‡e| G n‡”Q Pjw”P‡Î wbix¶v-†cÖwgK AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii D”PviY! GmeB AvR‡Ki GB wfRy¨qvj c¨vivWvBg wkd‡Ui Kv‡j Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q `vi“Y D‡ËRbvKi Ges cÖv mw½K g‡b n‡Z cv‡i| bvU¨Rb Avjx hv‡K‡ii GKwU ¯§„wZPviYvi K_v e‡jwQjvg

GB †jLvi ïi“i w`‡K| ¯§„wZPviYvwUi †k‡li w`‡K Avjx hv‡Ki AvjgMxi Kwei‡K Pjw”PÎ Av‡›`vj‡bi ÔcÖvBg gyfviÕ e‡j AvL¨vwqZ K‡i‡Qb| Avjx hv‡Ki AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii †bZ…‡Z¡ bZzb cÖR‡b¥i Pjw”PÎ PP©vi bvbv D‡`¨v‡Mi K_v ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb Avm‡j| evsjv‡`‡k Avwki `k‡K †h weKí avivi Pjw”PÎ Av‡›`vj‡bi m~ÎcvZ nq AvjgMxi Kwei †mB K‡g©v ‡`¨v‡Mi cÖavbZg Aby‡cÖiYv| Avi G †cÖiYv †Zv †Kej ZvwË¡K bq| kvixwiK †`ŠoSuvc, AvgjvZvwš¿K RwUjZvi wei“‡× hy‡× bvgv, Znwej msMÖn Ñ mewKQz‡ZB AvjgMxi Kwei hy³ n‡qwQ‡jb wbweofv‡e| G mg‡q msm`-Av‡›`vj‡bi Kvh©µ‡gI Zuv‡K A‡bK †ewk K‡i cvIqv wM‡qwQj| Avi G mewKQzi Av‡M †mB Õ81 mv‡jB wdj¥ AvK©vB‡fi wdj¥ A¨vwcÖwm‡qkb †Kvm© Pvjy Kivq wZwb wQ‡jb cÖavb D‡`¨v³v| Gfv‡eB AvjgMxi Kwei mr Pjw”PÎ-Av‡›`vj‡bi cÖvBg gyfvi| mr Pjw”P‡Îi Av‡›`vjb mvgwMÖK Pjw”PÎ PP©viB Ask Ges AvR, wmwK kZvãx ciI mgvbfv‡e ¸i“Z¡c~Y|© Avm‡j AvjgMxi Kwei‡K bZzb cÖR‡b¥i fv‡jv K‡i Rvbv cÖ‡qvRb| K_vwU e‡jB `ª“Z RvbvB, AvjgMxi Kwei gnvgvbe wQ‡jb bv| Zuv i ΓwUi †Kv‡bv Afve wQj bv| Zuvi Pjw”P‡Î, Zuv i †jLvqI mxgve×Zv cÖPzi| wKš‘ AvjgMxi Kwei Pjw”PÎwk¶vq wkw¶Z gvbyl wQ‡jb, Zuvi wPš—vq AvaywbKZv wQj, hyw³ wQj| wZwb b¨vh¨ mgv‡Ri K_v fve‡Zb, ej‡Zb| wZwb Pjw”PÎ wbg©vY Ki‡Zb, KviY Pjw”P·K b¨vh¨ mgvR wbg©v‡Yi AbyNUK GK wkígva¨g e‡j Rvb‡Zb| AvjgMxi Kwei wb‡Ri Rvbv‡K A‡b¨i g‡a¨ Qwo‡q w`‡Z PvB‡Zb, Zuvi K‡g© †Kv‡bv K¬v wš— wQj bv| wZwb Pjw”PÎwelqK bvbv A¨vW‡fÂvi wb‡q D‡ËwRZ _vK‡Zb Ges †mB D‡ËRbv mevi g‡a¨ mÂvwiZ Ki‡Z PvB‡Zb| AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Qwe †`‡L, Zuv i †jLv cvV K‡i, Zuvi m¤ú‡K© wbf©i‡hvM¨ m~Î †_‡K ï‡b AvR‡Ki Ges AvMvgx w`‡bi Pjw”P·cÖwgKiv fv‡jv Qwe evbv‡Z, †`L‡Z Ges fv‡jv Qwei R‡b¨ jo‡Z †cÖiYv cv‡eb Ñ GB `„p wek¦vm Ávcb KiwQ| AvR †_‡K wZwik eQ‡iiI Av‡M wZwb wj‡L‡Qb, ÔIt is too late to put the blame on our colonial past or cultural subjugation by the majority community of this sub-continent. Because we know now that given the right conditions and dedications from adherents of the art even the most exploited nation could achieve true cinema with marked national character.Õ

Avgv‡`i GB wbwg©wZ Av‡Rv m¤úbœ nqwb, wKš‘ wbtm‡›`‡n AvR G j‡¶¨ Kgx©i Afve †bB| Avkv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii Pjw”PÎ I mgvRwPš—v Zv‡`i mdj n‡Z c_wb‡`©k †`‡e|  Z_¨m~Î 1. `¨ wm‡bgv Bb cvwK¯—vb : AvjgMxi Kwei, cÖKvkK : mÜvbx cÖKvkbx, 1969 2. wdj¥ Bb evsjv‡`k : AvjgMxi Kwei, cÖKvkK : evsjv GKv‡Wwg, 1979 3. gš—vR, wØZxq msL¨v : cÖKvkK FwZ¡K Pjw”PÎ msm`, 1989 4. Pjw”PÎvPvh© AvjgMxi Kwei : m¤úv`bv : gywbiv †gvi‡k` gybœx, cÖKvkK : †mvbvis mvwnZ¨ ms¯‹…wZcÎ, 2006 GB wbeÜwU cÖv _wgKfv‡e AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii cuw PkZg g„Zz¨evwl©Kx Dcj‡¶ Av‡qvwRZ Abyôvbgvjvq cwVZ nq|


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ivMx gvQ GwPs I A¨vKzqvwU›U, 1964, mwdDÏxb Avn‡g`

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wb Qwe AuvwK‡q bb| wKš‘ Qwe fv‡jvev‡mb| wPÎmgv‡jvPK evwi`eiY †Nvl| Qwe †`Lvi †KŠZ‚nj wb‡q e‡jb GiKg K‡i, ÔGKwU †iLv †Kgb K‡i Qwe n‡q I‡V Ñ GwU †`L‡Z Avgvi cÖe j †KŠZ‚nj|Õ wkímsMÖvnK `yR ©q ingvb Rq nq‡Zv Qwe msMÖn K‡ib Ab¨iKg K‡i| wZwb m‡Z‡iv eQi Av‡M avbgwÊi GKwU M¨vjvwii P¨vwiwU †kv †_‡K wKQy wkíKg© msMÖn K‡ib| †mB †_‡K Zuvi msMÖ‡ ni ïi“| evsjv‡`‡ki Qq `k‡Ki wkíPP©vi BwZnv‡m wkímsMÖvn‡Ki c`PviYv Lye †ewk mg‡qi bq| Lye Kg `v‡g Avgv‡`i L¨vwZgvb wkíxiv GKmgq Zuv‡`i m„wóKg© wewK‡q w`‡q‡Qb| e¨w³MZ m¤ú‡K©i m~Î †_‡KI wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`b I cUzq v wkíx Kvgi“j nvmvb, Gm Gg myjZvb Zuv‡`i m„wóKg© A‡bK‡K Dcnvi w`‡q‡Qb| wkí msMÖ‡ ni cÖ K…Z

B”Qv‡K ¸i“Z¡ w`‡q A‡_©i wewbg‡q wkíKg© cÖ`vb ïi“ nq Pvi `kK Av‡M †_‡K| 1962 mv‡j XvKvq wkímgv‡jvPK mv‡`K Lvb I dwi`v nvmv‡bi D‡`¨v‡M ÔAvU© Gb‡mgejÕ M¨vjvwi cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g wkíKg© wecYb †K›`ª cÖwZwôZ nq, †hwU 1975 mv‡j eÜ n‡q hvq| Gi g‡a¨ Rbi“wPi cwieZ©b n‡Z ïi“ K‡i Avgv‡`i `k©‡Ki b›`bZvwË¡K †PZbvq wkíiƒc D`q nq| XvKv AvU© Bbw÷wUDU I evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wwg evsjv‡`‡k wkíKjvi evRvi m„wó‡Z eo f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 1976 mvj †_‡K ïi“ nIqv Gkxq wØevwl©K Pvi“Kjv cÖ`k©b x †_‡K evsjv‡`k A‡ji wkíx‡`i wkíK‡g©i ¸i“Z¡ wek¦e¨vcx cÖK vk cvq| µ‡g Gkxq A‡ji wkíx‡`i gv‡S evsjv‡`wk wkíx‡`i Qwei evRvi ˆZwi n‡Z ïi“ K‡i| e¨w³MZ D‡`¨v‡M M¨vjvwi cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g wkímsMÖvn‡Ki cwiwa evo‡Z _v‡K| Gi g‡a¨


`vwji cÖw Z kª×v K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1984, Avwgbyj Bmjvg


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wb jv ‡g i L e i wµw÷Õm †mwjbv›U wkíx : wb‡Kvjvm wW †÷j (1914-1955) †Zjis, 54 X 72.5 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 1,000,0001,500,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 2 †KvwU 8 jvL 82 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, wKsm w÷ªU, jÛb Kv‡jv Pzj wkíx : †Wvwgwb‡Kv wR‡bvwj (19331970) A¨vwµwjK I evwj, 170 X 150 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 1,200,0001,800,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 7 †KvwU 26 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, wKsm w÷ªU, jÛb †cBbPvi wkíx : wc‡qwi †mvjv‡Rm (1919) †Zjis, 195 X 155 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 2,000,0003,000,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 3 †KvwU 6 jvL 66 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“ qvwi 2014, wKsm w÷ªU, jÛb

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wk‡ivbvgnxb wkíx : RvI D-wK (19202013) Rjis, 57 X 77 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 50,00070,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 1 jvL 76 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, jÛb †KR wMÖW wkíx : †MinvW© wiPvi (1932-) wMwK¬ wcÖ›U, gvD‡›UW Ab A¨vjywgwbqvg, 75 X 75 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 20,000-30,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 1 jvL 10 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, jÛb

wk‡ivbvgnxb (†ivg)

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A¨v›U 14

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wkíx : wm IqvB †Uv¤^wj (19282011) nvDm †cB›U, †cbwmj A¨vÛ Iqv· †µqb, 50.2 X 60.3 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 1,200,0001,600,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 2 †KvwU 6 jvL 58 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, wKsm w÷ªU, jÛb wkíx : B‡fm †K¬Bb (1928-1962) wcM‡g›U A¨vÛ wmb‡_wUK †iwRb 65 X 49.7 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 500,000-700,000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 1 †KvwU 7 jvL 6 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 13 †deª“qvwi 2014, wKsm w÷ªU, jÛb


Shilpa O Shilpi Vol - 3 Issue - 2 February - 2014