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gq~i I †ZvZv cvwL Kvgiæj nvmvb, 1976

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bvix I e„¶ Rjis, 1987, msMÖn : gwZDi ingvb

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3 : Kvgiæj nvmvb wk‡ivbv‡gi eBwUi 53 b¤^i c„ôvq VuvB cvIqv GB KvRwU‡K 1967 mv‡ji D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| GB ÎæwUi m~Pbv †Kv_vq Zv Avwe®‹vi Kiv KwVb, Z‡e wbišÍ‡ii lô msL¨vq (2005) †kvfb †mvg GB Qwei Avw½K wePv‡i GwU‡K cÖ_g w`‡Ki ˆkjx wn‡m‡eB wPwýZ K‡ib, GgbwK mywbw`©ófv‡e †ZZvwjøk †_‡K mvZPwjø‡ki g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv mg‡qi AuvKv e‡j `vwe K‡ib| wØZxq welqwU hw` nq †bnvZ wk‡íi µgweKv‡ki aviv eY©bvq mvaviY e¨Z¨q, cÖ_g welqwU wb‡q Avgv‡`i fveevi AeKvk cÖ‡qvRb| wk‡íi µgcÖmvigvY evRv‡i evsjv‡`‡ki cÖ_g cÖR‡b¥i wkíx‡`i Kv‡Ri nw`m mvgvb¨| miKvwi wKsev †emiKvwi †Kv‡bv ch©v‡qB G‡`i gvbm¤§Z †kv‡Kwms ev Dc¯’vcbv m¤¢eci nqwb| †h we‡kl wmwi‡Ri ga¨ w`‡q wkíKjv GKv‡Wwg wewkó wkíx‡`i AR©‡bi GKUv mvgwMÖK iƒc Zz‡j ai‡Z †P‡q‡Q, Zvi g‡a¨ m¤¢eZ Kvgiæ‡ji eBwUB me‡P‡q wewÿß Pwi‡Îi| GwU bvbv †¯‹P, Rjis, †Zjis I QvcQwe‡Z mvRv‡bv| Gi wewÿßZv ÷vB‡ji AR©b aZ©‡e¨ bv


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wk‡ivbvgnxb (ivbœvN‡i bvix) 1954


mgc©‡Yi Rb¨ c¨v‡÷j 1981, msMÖn : evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wwg

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wQ‡jb| Gme wPšÍvwe`-mvwnwZ¨K wZwb ÔgnvRb e¨w³Õ e‡j m‡¤^vab K‡i‡Qb Zuvi 1984 mv‡j †jLv GK ¯§„wZK_vgvjvq| cvwK¯Ívb m„wói Awbevh©Zvi c‡ÿ huvi GK`v evnvm wQj, †mB Kvgiæj ivóªfvlv cÖ‡kœ ïiæ †_‡KB wQ‡jb †mv”Pvi| Ab¨v‡qi cÖwZ AmwnòzZv GB wkíxi g‡bvKvVv‡gvi GKwU my¯úó w`K| HwZnvwmKZvi †h cvV wZwb `ywf©ÿcxwoZ KjKvZvi ev¯ÍeZv †_‡K wk‡L‡Qb, Abygvb Kiv P‡j, Zv Zuvi mvivRxe‡bi †LvivK n‡q‡Q| HwZ‡n¨i Ôkvk¦ZÕ ev ¯’wei aviYv ZvB Kvgiæ‡ji Aviva¨ nqwb| hv HwZnvwmK Zv †_‡K HwZn¨‡K Avjv`v K‡i wP‡b‡Qb wVK, wKš‘ AvPiYxq wel‡qi evB‡ii †Kv‡bv wKQy HwZn¨ e‡j †g‡b †bbwb| Kvgiæj ci¤úivq wek¦vmx wbR¯^ mvs¯‹w… ZK aviv wPwýZKvix wkíx| d‡j, AZxZgyLx bb| be¨ †e½j ¯‹jz nq‡Zv G Kvi‡YB Kvgiæ‡ji Kv‡R mvgvb¨ cÖfve †d‡j‡Q| cUwP‡Îi m‡½ cwiwPZ n‡q, wcKv‡mvi AwfbeZ¡ jÿ K‡i, wPÎ iPbvq AvKw¯§KZvi ¯’vb wZwb ax‡i ax‡i Abyaveb K‡ib| A_ev, ejv hvq AvKw¯§KZvi dj jÿ K‡iB wZwb `yB AvcvZ wecixZ aviv †_‡K Ñ A_©vr cU I Nbev`x Qwe †_‡K Ñ AbycvÖ wYZ n‡q wP‡Î dg© ev iƒ‡ci myivnv Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Qb| MÖvgxY c‡Ui AvKw¯§KZv Avi c¨vwimevmx wkíx wcKv‡mvi Kv‡Ri AvKw¯§KZvi mv_©K cÖ‡qvM Zuvi bvbv wP‡Îi ivR‰bwZK I ¯’vwbK gvÎv AR©‡b mnvqK n‡q‡Q| †Zji‡O Kiv wPÎ bvBIi I 1983-i ïiæi w`‡K AuvKv ivR‰bwZK wPÎK‡í wcKv‡mvi wkÿvUv me‡P‡q ¯úó| Ab¨iv hLb wmb‡_wUK wKDweRg †_‡K R¨vwgwZK wefvRb wk‡L AvaywbK nIqvi cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb, Kvgiæj wcKv‡mvi GKB gyL bvbv cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z †`Lvi jwRK MÖnY K‡i‡Qb, A_©vr K‡¤úvwRkb ˆZwii wbwg‡Ë wZwb †Kv‡bv wKQy Avg`vwb K‡ibwb, eis gvbe Aeq‡ei AvKw¯§K dz‡U IVv wfbœZv wbg©vY, †Kv‡bv gyn‡~ Z©i A_©‡evaK e¨vL¨v ev G·‡cÖkb ev AvKvivqb Zuvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj| GB Dc‡iv³ eqv‡bi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z ejv P‡j, wkíx †Kv‡bv cÖK‡íi mywbw`©ó †eovRv‡j †hgb Ave× _v‡Kbwb, †Zgb wZwb GK‡jKwUK ev me©MvÖ mx †Kv‡bv m„wókxjZvqI wek¦vmx wQ‡jb bv| †`kfv‡Mi ci ÔIcv‡iÕ Avm‡Z Zuvi Qq gvmg‡Zv mgq †j‡M‡Q| 1947-G wkíx m‡egvÎ KjKvZv AvU© ¯‹jz †_‡K cvk K‡i †ewi‡q‡Qb| 1948-Gi gvP© gv‡m ¯’vqx emev‡mi D‡Ï‡k¨ XvKv P‡j Av‡mb| GB c‡e© wZwb †h bvbvgyLx ZrciZv Ae¨vnZ iv‡Lb Zvi cÖgvY †g‡j 1958 mv‡j Kiv wj‡_vMÖvd ÔmœvbÕ wk‡ivbv‡gi KvRwU‡Z| †eø‡W †Pu‡Q wj‡_vMÖv‡d †hfv‡e WªBs I dg© dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb, †Uvb e¨envi bv K‡i Kv‡jv Qv‡c AuvPo †K‡U bvix Aeqe M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb, Zv GB gva¨‡gi cÖPwjZ wbq‡gi e¨wZµg| mv`v-Kv‡jvi evO&g& qZv I ¯úóZv Avi †iLvi kw³ Ñ GB `yB‡qi ga¨ w`‡q Kvgiæ‡ji AvZ¥cK Ö vk N‡U| hw`I lv‡Ui `kK, GgbwK cieZx©Kv‡jI Zuvi nv‡Z Iqvk †UKwb‡Ki iwOb kw³kvjx KvR jÿ Kiv hvq, Zey Kvgiæj †h †iLvi wkíx, gvbe-cÖvYx Aeq‡ei wkíx, †mUv Abyaveb Ki‡Z

wkíxi †i‡L hvIqv AmsL¨ †iLvwPÎB h‡_ó| †g‡q mygbv nvmvb Ges evsjv‡`k RvZxq Rv`yN‡ii msMÖ‡n ivLv kZ kZ WªBs Zuvi wkíxmËvi †Lv` cwiPq Zz‡j a‡i| mvs¯‹w… ZK GB e¨w³‡Z¡i †iLv I wPÎK‡íi ivR‰bwZK †h PwiÎ, Zvi e¨vL¨vq wbR¯^ cÖ‡qv‡Mi we‡kl wKQy w`‡K `„wó †`Iqv hvq| †iLv Kx K‡i RwUjZvcÖeY n‡q I‡V Ñ A_©vr hvwgbx ivq ev Ab¨‡`i g‡Zv †mvRvmvÞv †Kv‡bv Aeqe wbg©vY bv K‡i nvBweªW, evO&g& q wKsev eyw× I Av‡e‡Mi mgš^‡q cÖZxKgyLx wPÎKí M‡o †Zv‡j| GKK g~wZ© †_‡K ïiæ K‡i eûmsL¨K g~wZ©i mgš^‡q M‡o IVv †iLvwP‡Î Kvgiæ‡ji RwUjZvi weKvk jÿYxq| 1970 `k‡Ki mgvRev¯ÍeZvi AvKvivqb QvovI †Kej bvix, nvwZ wKsev cvwLi wP‡ÎI Kvgiæj A‡bK mn‡R RwUjZvi ev eûgvwÎKZvi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Qb, hv Zuvi wPÎKí‡K †jvKR wP‡Îi mvaviY Abyev` nIqv †_‡K D×vi K‡i‡Q| GgbwK MÖvgxY auvP AvqË K‡i kû‡i cwikxjb AR©‡bi †h KjKvZv I XvKv‡Kw›`ªK bvbv cÖqvm, Zvi wecix‡Z ÔeZ©gvbÕ mgq I Ôci¤úivÕi aviYvi mgš^‡q ÔAvMvgxÕi wPÎfvlv wbg©v‡Y mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q| wZwb wQ‡jb mve©ÿwYK wkíx| †h-†Kv‡bv cÖKvi KvM‡R, †h-†Kv‡bv ai‡bi Kj‡g wZwb †iLvwPÎ Gu‡K w`‡Zb Zuvi ïfvKv•ÿx‡`i| ev¯Íe-Aev¯Íe, køxj-Akøxj, cwjø-bMi wKsev jÿ¨-Ajÿ¨ Ñ Gme Qvwo‡q Zuvi aviYv g~jZ †iLv I wPÎKí Movi g‡a¨ AvewZ©Z| ivRbxwZi Ave‡Z© gvby‡li ev¯Íe `kv ZvB Zuvi Kv‡R me‡P‡q aviv‡jv| 1978-G AuvKv D”PweË igYx, PkgvIqvjv cwÐZ-cÖeY †kqvj I Acivci Kzkxje Kvgiæ‡ji nv‡Z GK RUcvKv‡bv kixix Dcw¯’wZ| Ic‡i †cuPv I wb‡P f¨vU wm·wU bvB‡bi AwZcwiwPZ †evZj GK‡Î GK cÖKvi wmçwbi Rb¥ †`q, hv mgv‡Ri be¨ ey‡R©vqvi Avwef©ve wZh©K `„wó‡Z Zz‡j a‡i| Kvgiæ‡ji GgZ ivR‰bwZK-mvgvwRK WªBs nq‡Zv ¸wUK‡qK| wKš‘ msL¨v wePv‡i G‡`i g~j¨vqb bv K‡i, WªBs‡qi kw³i wePv‡i, wPÎK‡íi mv_©K cÖKv‡ki cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z G‡`i BwZnv‡m VuvB w`‡Z n‡e| †h wkíx eûcÖR, Ges whwb XvKvq G‡m eB‡qi cÖ”Q`, ˆ`wbK cwÎKvq WªBs GgbwK miKvwi cvV¨eB‡qi gjv‡Ui bKkv K‡i bvg Kzwo‡q‡Qb, Zuvi ivR‰bwZK Qwe wel‡q wkwÿZ †kÖwYi g‡bv‡hvM Kg nIqv ¯^vfvweK| Kvgiæ‡ji †iLvwPÎ Zzwji Q›`wbf©i| Q‡›`i mv_©K cÖ‡qvM jÿ Kiv hvq bvix Aeqe AuvKvq Ñ hv me©Rbwew`Z| B‡g‡Ri †h R½gZvi K_v †evinvbDwÏb Lvb Rvnv½xi †j‡Lb Zuvi wkíxi †PvL wk‡ivbv‡gi eB‡q, Kvgiæ‡ji bv›`wbKZv welqK cÖe‡Ü †mB R½gZv wZwb †hgb mgv‡Ri AmvgÄm¨Zv Zz‡j ai‡Z e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, †Zgb bvix A¼‡bi mnRZvi g‡a¨I cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| nq‡Zv A‡bK †ÿ‡ÎB hv ÔˆbmwM©KÕ Zv bvix‡Z ch©ewmZ| GLv‡bI AwfÁZvi wPÎvqb †Kv‡bv gyL¨ f‚wgKv iv‡Lwb| mvc, †kqvj, †cuPv wKsev K”Q‡ci cybtcybt e¨env‡ii ga¨ w`‡q †h mvgvwRK wePz¨wZ I AmvgÄm¨Zv wkíx Zz‡j a‡ib, Zvi cvkvcvwk †h welqwU eo n‡q †`Lv †`q Zv n‡jv ÔDBU‡bmÕ


`yB gyL Rjis, 1981

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wm UvBji : `¨ wcKPvi Bb †Kv‡ðb 1999)| Kvgiæ‡ji iƒcvšÍ‡ii welqkw³ Avcb †_‡K Ac‡ii `„wó‡Z †cuŠQv‡bvi cÖqvm wn‡m‡e †hgb †`Lv m¤¢e, †Zgb A‡Üi g‡Zv be `„wócÖvß ÔAciÕ n‡q IVv e¨w³ hv wfkbvwi n‡q D‡V bZzb cvIqv mÿgZvi aviYv w`‡q e¨vL¨v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ms¯‹w… Zgbv Kvgiæ‡ji †h ey‡R©vqvwe‡ivax mËv, †mB ivR‰bwZKZv G Kvi‡YB †mvRvmvÞv †kÖwYPz¨wZi dg©jy v Abymv‡i M‡o I‡Vwb| eis wkíxi wfkbvwi kw³i cÖKvk e‡j a‡i †bIqv hvq| iƒc ZvB mn‡R †hgb iƒcK_vq Mgb K‡i‡Q, †hgb MÖvgxY cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Zi wP‡Î, wKsev mvc, †kqvj, †cuPvi Dcw¯’wZmn †h mgvRwPÎ, †mme RwUj wPÎK‡íi ga¨ w`‡qI cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K 1983-†Z AuvKv †ek K‡qKwU K¨vbfv‡m †iLvi LiZv e¨envi K‡i †h AgvbweKZvi Mv_v ev AvL¨vb eY©bv K‡i‡Qb, Zv gvbeZvi civRqwelqK, MøvwbwelqK civfvl¨ ev AwZeY©bv nIqv m‡Ë¡I wenŸjZvi e`‡j, k~b¨Zvi e`‡j `k©Kg‡b cÖ‡kœi Rb¥ †`q, Jrmy‡K¨i Rb¥ †`q| G¸‡jv Kvgiæ‡ji cÖk‡œ evaK Qwe Ñ hv †evinvbDwÏb Lvb Rvnv½x‡ii fvlvq : Ôbv›`wbKZvi cÖ_vbyMZZvi weiæ‡×Õ wk‡íi m¤¢vebv ˆZwii KviLvbv we‡kl| Kvgiæ‡ji wk‡í ivR‰bwZKZvi ce© wefvRb K‡i wP‡Îi jÿYmg~‡ni weeZ©‡b †PvL ivLv Riæwi| PviwU av‡c GB wkíx


wZbKb¨v-2 †Zjis, 1983 msMÖn : evsjv‡`k RvZxq Rv`yNi


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wgki Ñ mgªvU Av‡Lbv‡Zv‡bi †cÖvdvBj fv¯‹h©

wgki Ñ ivRv I ivwbi cvwievwiK cwi‡e‡ki `„k¨


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†g‡mvc‡Uwgqv Ñ hy×R‡qi ¯§„wZ‡mŠa, cv_‡i DrKxY©

†g‡mvc‡Uwgqvi mgªvU nv¤^yivwe I m~h©‡`eZvi DrKxY© fv¯‹h©


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GLv‡b wg‡k‡Q ¯§„wZwbf©i m„RbkxjZv| wgk‡ii wPÎwkíxiv †`qvjwP‡Î GKB c×wZi e¨envi K‡iwb GKgvÎ d«›UvwjwUi m~Î Qvov| GB m~Î †Kej gvbe‡`‡ni †ÿ‡ÎB cÖ‡hvR¨| wP‡Î Ab¨vb¨ †h welq Ñ MvQcvjv, dzj, gvQ, cÖvYx Ges ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi wewfbœ Kg©KvÐ Ñ GBm‡ei cÖwZdj‡b K‡¤úvwRkb mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q| d«›UvwjwUi †P‡qI †ewk ¸iæZ¡cY~ © n‡q‡Q K‡¤úvwRk‡bi e¨envi| G‡ÿ‡Î wgkixq wkíx‡`i ˆbcyY¨ we¯§qKi| ga¨iv‡R¨i Lybgy ‡nv‡Uc bv‡g GK D”Pc`¯’ ivRKg©Pvixi mgvwai †`qvjwP‡Î (wLª.c~. 1900 Aã) Zv‡K †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q ¯¿x, cyÎ, iwÿZv, cÖnix Ges cwiPvjKmn †R‡j‡`i wb‡q †bŠKvq gvQ I cvwL aivi `„‡k¨| QwewU Ic‡i wb‡P wZb As‡k wef³| gvSLv‡b `iRvi `yB cv‡k¦© I Ic‡i nvB‡ivwMøwd‡K Zvi Rxeb m¤^‡Ü we‡kl K‡i wZwb w`‡b KLb Kx Lv‡eb †mB eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| g„Z‡`‡ni Rb¨ AuvKv e‡jB Zvi Lv`¨vf¨vm m¤^‡Ü GB eY©bv| Qwe‡Z ivRKg©Pvix Ges Zvi ¯¿xi gyL AuvK‡Z wM‡q d«›UvwjwUi e¨envi Kiv n‡jI cÖnix I †R‡j‡`i †ÿ‡Î Kiv nq wb, †Kbbv wbgœ‡kÖwYi gvbyl‡`i cÖwZK…wZ †cÖvdvB‡j †`Lv‡bvB wbqg wQj| d«›UvwjwU wQj dvivI, ivwb, ivRcwiev‡ii m`m¨ Ges AwfRvZ †kÖwYi wPÎ AuvKvi Rb¨ wbw`©ó| †kÖwY‡f‡` wdMv‡ii wPÎKjvi (fv¯‹‡h©I) c×wZ‡Z ZviZg¨ K‡iwQj wgki mf¨Zv| wKš‘ D‡Ïk¨ wfbœ n‡jI GB c×wZ cieZx© wPwýZ n‡q‡Q Awfbe wkí‰bcyY¨ wn‡m‡e| †`qvjwPÎwU‡Z Av‡iv hv jÿYxq Zv n‡jv, †R‡j‡`i gv_vi Ic‡i cvwbi D”PZv, †hb Zviv wbgw¾Z Ae¯’vq gvQ ai‡Q| Avm‡j gvqv m„wó K‡i wkíx †R‡j‡`i gvQ wkKv‡ii `„k¨ Gu‡K‡Q| GKBfv‡e Lybgy ‡nv‡U‡ci ey‡Ki mgvb D”PZvq †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q ek©vwe× `ywU gvQ| cvwbi D”PZv GLv‡b Av‡iv Ic‡i D‡V gvQ `ywU‡K cvwbi †fZi †`wL‡q‡Q| wkíx ev¯Íe Ae¯’v †`Lv‡Z wM‡q m„Rbkxjfv‡e cvwb BZ¨vw`i Ae¯’v‡b cwieZ©b G‡b‡Q, hv cÖK…Zc‡ÿ ev¯Í‡ei wecixZ| †`qvjwP‡Îi gvSLv‡b †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q mgvwai cÖavb `‡ivRv, Zvi `yB cv‡k Dcweó `yB cÖnix| Rjvk‡q wkKv‡ii m‡½ mgvwai Af¨šÍ‡ii GB `„k¨ ms‡hvRb Aev¯Íe n‡jI Ges GKB `„wó‡KvY †_‡K †`Lv bv †M‡jI GKwU mvgwMÖK `„‡k¨i Dc¯’vcbv n‡q‡Q, hv‡K MgweªL e‡j‡Qb Ôc~Y©ZvÕ| ivRKg©Pvixi gvQ wkKv‡ii `„k¨ †`Lv‡Z wM‡q wewfbœ `„wó‡KvY †_‡K †`Lv `„k¨vewji GK †gvRvBK m„wó Kiv n‡q‡Q| MgweªL hw`I e‡j‡Qb, †mŠ›`h© m„wó bq, c~YZ © v wbwðZKiY wQj wkíxi D‡Ïk¨, cÖKZ … c‡ÿ †mŠ›`h©I m„wó n‡q‡Q GB Qwe‡Z| ev¯ÍeZv‡K †f‡OPz‡i m„RbkxjZvi mvnv‡h¨ cÖwZdwjZ Kiv n‡q‡Q ev¯Íe‡K †`qvjwP‡Î Ggbfv‡e †h ivRKg©Pvixi Rxe‡b AwfÁZv cvwicvk¦m© n `k©‡Ki mvg‡b Dcw¯’Z| ev¯ÍeB QwewUi welq I D‡Ïk¨, hw`I Dc¯’vc‡b ev¯ÍeZv‡K g¨vwbcy‡jU Kiv n‡q‡Q| MgweªL e‡j‡Qb, G ai‡bi Qwe †`‡L Zvi Aev¯ÍeZv wb‡q Avgiv fvwe bv, AevK nB Qwe‡Z wW‡UBj‡mi e¨envi †`‡L Ges cÖvmw½KZvi wfwˇZ wewfbœ `„‡k¨i mgwš^Z Dc¯’vcbvq|


wgki Ñ cvwL wkKv‡ii Rb¨ wcivwg‡Wi Af¨šÍ‡i


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ivR‰bwZK kw³i weKvk N‡U| bMixi Pvwiw`K Db¥y³ _vKvq evB‡i †_‡K kÎæ‡`i Avµg‡Y my‡gixq iv‡R¨i DÌvb I cZb N‡U‡Q K‡qKevi| my‡gixq‡`i RxebhvÎvq a‡g©i Ae¯’vb wQj ¸iæZ¡cY~ |© GB ag© wQj eû †`e‡`exwbf©i| Lbb K‡i A‡bK †`e‡`exi wewfbœ D”PZvi g~wZ© cvIqv wM‡q‡Q, hv †_‡K Zv‡`i Av‡cwÿK ÿgZvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| g~wZ©¸wj cyZ‡z ji g‡Zv g‡b n‡jI †ek ev¯ÍevbyM, gvby‡li cÖwZK…wZi Abyiƒc| †`e‡`ex e‡j g~wZ©‡Z †Kv‡bv evû‡j¨i ms‡hvRb Kiv nqwb| cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki fw½‡ZB i‡q‡Q webxZfve| ÿgZvi cÖZvc bq, ÿgv Ges fv‡jvevmvi Avk¦vm i‡q‡Q †mB fw½‡Z| †`e‡`ex‡K GBfv‡e gvbweK ¸‡Y ¸Yvwš^Z Kiv n‡q‡Q| wKse`wšÍi ivRv wMjMv‡gk‡K †K›`ª K‡i cÖvPxb my‡g‡i iwPZ n‡qwQj weL¨vZ wMjMv‡gk gnvKve¨| GUv cyivKvwnwbwbf©i n‡jI cÖvPxb ivRv‡`i m‡½ †`e‡`exi m¤úK© ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| GQvov i‡q‡Q ivóª I mgvR m¤^‡Ü A‡bK Z_¨| wMjMv‡g‡ki wiwjd fv¯‹‡h© Zv‡K cï nv‡Z `Ðvqgvb †`Lv hvq| wiwj‡d n‡jI fv¯‹‡h©i g~wZ©wU †cÖvdvB‡j bq, mvgbvmvgwb ZvwK‡q _vKvi fw½‡Z| GLv‡b d«›UvwjwUi e¨envi †bB| wMjMv‡g‡ki `uvov‡bvi fw½‡Z AvoóZv †bB, Avi PvÂj¨I cÖKvk cvqwb| AvZ¥wek¦v‡mi m‡½ `uvwo‡q wZwb †hb ˆa‡h©i m‡½ wKQyi cÖZxÿv Ki‡Qb| nvDRvi †g‡mvc‡Uwgqvi wkí m¤ú‡K© e‡j‡Qb, bMi‡Kw›`ªK mf¨Zvq MwZkxj Ges cwieZ©bgyLx A_©bxwZi cwi‡e‡k Awbqwš¿Z ev¯ÍevbyM Pwjòz bvMwiK A_©bxwZi cÖwZf‚ wn‡m‡e ev¯Íeev`x wkí Avi K…wl ms¯‹w… Zi m‡½ mvgÄm¨gq †h K‡Vvi R¨vwgwZK wkí ˆkjx m¤ú‡K© mvaviY aviYv †mwU †g‡mvc‡Uwgqvi e¨vwej‡bi wk‡íi †ÿ‡Î †`Lv hvq bv| wZwb g‡b K‡i‡Qb †h kvm‡Ki ˆ¯^ivPvi Ges agx©q Rxe‡bi Rb¨ e¨vwej‡b bvMwiK ms¯‹w… Zi ¯^vaxb ¯^Ztù‚Z© weKvk e¨vnZ n‡qwQj, hvi Rb¨ †mLvbKvi wkí wbIwjw_K ms¯‹w… Zi g‡ZvB K‡Vvi k„•Ljve× wQj| e¨vwej‡b †Kej ivR`iev‡i Avi gw›`‡i wkíPP©v cÖPwjZ wQj, d‡j e¨w³ev`x I ev¯ÍevbyM wkíPP©v wbiærmvwnZ n‡q‡Q| GKB Kvi‡Y MÖvgv‡j †jvKwk‡íi weKvk nqwb| e¨vwej‡bi wkí wQj GZ D‡cwÿZ †h, †Kv‡bv wkíK‡g©i †cQ‡b wkíxi bvg Rvbv hvq bv| nv¤^iy vwei AvBb wb‡`©kK cÖ¯iÍ L‡Ð ¯’cwZ Ges fv¯‹‡ii bv‡gi cv‡k gywP Ges Kvgv‡ii bvg wQj GKB †kÖwY‡Z| wZwb Av‡iv e‡j‡Qb, †g‡mvc‡Uwgqvi Av‡mwiqvb ¯’vcZ¨-fv¯‹‡h© Aev¯Íe d«›UvwjwU m~‡Îi e¨envi †`Lv hvq, hvi `„óvšÍ Øviiÿxi g~wZ©‡Z Ges Wvbvhy³ wmsn I luv‡oi fv¯‹‡h©| wgk‡ii wkíK‡g© Ggb ÷vBjvB‡Rkb wQj bv| A‡bK c‡i Aóg I mßg wLªóc~e© A‡ã Av‡mwiqvb fv¯‹‡h© wKQyUv ev¯ÍeZv †`Lv hvq| AmyievYxcv‡ji hy× I wkKv‡ii wiwjd fv¯‹‡h© Rš‘i g~wZ© †`Lv hvq RxešÍ I ev¯Íeiƒ‡c wKš‘ gvby‡li wdMvi ÷vBjvBRW Ges Avoó, `yB nvRvi eQi Av‡M †hgb wQj| nvDRvi g‡b K‡ib, ˆØZ ˆkjxi GB mnve¯’vb c¨vwjIwjw_K hyM †_‡K P‡j G‡m‡Q, hLb cï‡K RxešÍ Ges gvbyl‡K ÷vBjvBRW †`Lv‡bv nq †`qvjwP‡Î, †Kbbv ZLb cï wQj wkíxi Kv‡Q

wgki Ñ hye‡Ki gy‡Li fv¯‹h©


†mvqvixNvU, XvKv, Rjis, 1950 Ave`yi iv¾vK

mZx_© wkíx PZzóq iv¾vK, iwk`, KvBqyg I ekxi bRiæj Bmjvg

Xv

Kvi miKvwi AvU© Bbw÷wUDU ev PviæKjv Bbw÷wUD‡U G‡`‡ki ïiæ‡ZB huviv co‡Z G‡mwQ‡jb Zuviv †bnvZB cÖv‡Yi ZvwM‡` GgbwU K‡iwQ‡jb| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b Ñ G bvgwUI m¤¢eZ Zuv‡`i KvD‡K KvD‡K AvKl©Y K‡i‡Q| Pwjø‡ki `k‡Ki ïiæ †_‡KB ZrKvjxb evsjvi gymjgvb‡`i Kv‡Q †ek cwiwPZ I wcÖq bvg wQj Rqbyj Av‡ew`b| †hgb wQj AveŸvmDÏxb, RmxgD`&`xb, W. gyn¤§` Kz`ivZ-G-Ly`v, W. gyn¤§` knx`yjøvn&i bvg| bRiæj †Zv Av‡M †_‡KB Zuv‡`i AnsKvi|

G‡`‡ki wKQy Ziæ‡Yi PviæKjvq wQj †hgb Zv‡`i Avcb AvMÖn, †Zgwb G‡ÿ‡Îi cw_K…r Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi †KŠkjx D‡`¨v‡Mi K_vI g‡b Ki‡Z nq| wZwb Ges Zuvi KjKvZvi wkíx eÜz I mn‡hvMxiv hLb XvKvq PviæKjv we`¨vqZb †Lvjvi cwiKíbv KiwQ‡jb, ZLb GKB m‡½ D‡`¨vMx wQ‡jb AvMÖnx †gavex QvÎ †RvMv‡o| cÖm½Z Bbw÷wUD‡Ui cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi QvÎ, cieZx© mg‡q evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg †miv wkíx XvKvi †Q‡j Avwgbyj Bmjv‡gi K_v g‡b Kiv hvq| wZwb Zvi ¯^‡cœi wkí-wkÿvcÖwZôvb KjKvZv AvU© K‡j‡R fwZ© n‡Z


wM‡qwQ‡jb, fwZ© cixÿvq DËxY©I n‡qwQ‡jb; wKš‘ fwZ©i Av‡MB †m K‡j‡Ri wkÿK Rqbyj Av‡ew`b Zuv‡K XvKvq cÖ¯ÍvweZ AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U fwZ© n‡Z AbycÖvwYZ Ki‡jb| AvwgbyjI m¤§Z n‡jb, KjKvZvi AvU© ¯‹z‡j covi cwiKíbvq mgvwß †U‡b XvKvq P‡j Av‡mb XvKvi Bbw÷wUD‡U fwZ© nIqvi Rb¨| wKš‘ K¬vm ïiæi †`wi n‡Z †`‡L XvKv K‡j‡R fwZ© nb, wKQy mgq ci XvKvi miKvwi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U K¬vm ïiæ n‡j †mLv‡b fwZ© nb| wZwbB AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡Ui cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi GKRb QvÎ| ïiæ †_‡KB †miv QvÎ| g¨vwUªK cvk K‡iwQ‡jb cÖ_g wefv‡M| Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wkÿv Kvh©µg ïiæ nq 1948 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^‡ii ci| Rqbyj Av‡ew`bB me e¨e¯’v †m‡i †i‡LwQ‡jb, wm×všÍ wQj Gi cÖ_g Aa¨ÿI wZwbB n‡eb| Aek¨ wKQyw`‡bi Rb¨ wZwb †K›`ªxq miKv‡ii Aax‡b GKwU fv‡jv c‡` KZ©e¨cvj‡bi Rb¨ KivwP P‡j hvb, fvicÖvß Aa¨ÿ c‡` `vwqZ¡ cvb Zuvi eÜz mn‡hvMx Av‡bvqviæj nK| Rqbyj Av‡ew`b AvU gvm ci 1949 mv‡ji GwcÖj gv‡m XvKvq wd‡i G‡m AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U wbqwgZ Aa¨ÿ c‡` †hvM`vb K‡ib| Avwgbyj Bmjvg Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi ZvwM‡`B XvKvi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U PviæKjv cvV ïiæ K‡ib| Zuvi m‡½ †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb nvwg`yi ivngvb, byiæj Bmjvg, Bg`v` †nv‡mb Ges Ab¨iv, †gvU 15-16 Rb (Avwgbyj Bmjvg, evsjv‡`‡ki wkí-Av‡›`vj‡bi cÂvk eQi, evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wwg, XvKv, 2003, c„. 36)| Gu‡`i‡K wb‡qB AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡Ui A¨vKv‡WwgK Kvh©µg ïiæ| Bg`v` †nv‡mb wKQyw`b ci cov †Q‡o P‡j hvb| c‡ii eQi Avevi fwZ© nb wØZxq e¨v‡Pi m‡½| Ab¨w`‡K eQi wZ‡bK ci KjKvZv †_‡K G‡m Avwgbyj Bmjvg‡`i m‡½ hy³ nb (1951 mv‡j) weRb †PŠayix| Gw`‡K cuvP eQ‡ii cvVµ‡gi eQi `y‡qK †kl K‡iB nvwg`yi ivngvb AvU© co‡Z BD‡ivc P‡j hvb| cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi Qv·`i (QvÎx wQ‡jb bv †KD) g‡a¨ Avwgbyj Bmjvg I weRb †PŠayix P‚ovšÍ c‡e© cÖ_g †kÖwY †c‡q cuvP eQ‡ii mvwU©wd‡KU †Kvm© m¤úbœ K‡ib| cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi 15-16 Rb Qv‡Îi g‡a¨ AšÍZ `yRb, Avwgbyj Bmjvg I nvwg`yi ivngvb cieZx© mg‡q †`k‡miv wkíx n‡q‡Qb, AvšÍRv© wZK L¨vwZ †c‡q‡Qb| weRb †PŠayix Aek¨ cvk Kivi ci fviZ P‡j wM‡qwQ‡jb Ges L¨vwZgvb wkíx n‡q‡Qb| Avwgbyj Bmjvg cvk Kivi ciciB e„wË wb‡q BZvwj P‡j hvb, 1956 mv‡j †`‡k wd‡i XvKvi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U †jKPvivi wn‡m‡e wkÿKZvq †hvM †`b, 1978 mv‡j Aa¨‡ÿi `vwqZ¡fvi MÖnY K‡ib Ges 1983 mv‡j †¯^”Qvq Aem‡i hvIqv ch©šÍ wbijmfv‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| Zuv‡K G‡`‡ki AvaywbK avivi wkíPP©vi Ab¨Zg cw_K…r MY¨ Kiv nq| A_©vr Rqbyj Av‡ew`b h_v_© Rûwi wQ‡jb| Avwgbyj Bmjvg‡K KjKvZv AvU© K‡jR †_‡K XvKvq cÖ¯vÍ weZ AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U cvBIwbqvi QvÎ Kivi f‚wgKv cvjb K‡iwQ‡jb wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`b|

i³v³ GKz‡k, wj‡bvKvU, 1952 gyZ©Rv ekxi

eywoM½vi †nv‡Uj, cøvBD‡W †Zjis, 1953 gyZ©Rv ekxi


1955, Rqbyj Av‡ew`b (Wvbw`K †_‡K cÂg, `uvov‡bv) I Ab¨‡`i m‡½ iv¾vK (euvw`K †_‡K wØZxq, `uvov‡bv), KvBqyg †PŠayix (G‡Kev‡i †cQ‡bi mvwi‡Z euv †_‡K wØZxq, iwk` me©Wv‡b, ekxi wØZxq mvwi‡Z Wvb †_‡K wØZxq)

iwk` †PŠayix (1932-86)

1951, wkÿK Kvgiæj nvmvb (me©euv‡q) I mncvVx eÜz‡`i m‡½ iv¾vK (gvSLv‡b), ekxi Zuvi Wv‡b, iwk` †cQ‡b gv‡S


ïiæ‡Z XvKvi miKvwi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡Ui RvqMv n‡qwQj cyivb XvKvi Rbmb †iv‡W Aew¯’Z ZrKvjxb b¨vkbvj †gwWK¨vj ¯‹zj fe‡bi GKZjvi †cQb w`‡Ki `ywU Kvgiv I eviv›`vq| GLv‡bB †kÖwYKÿ, GLv‡bB mvZ-AvURb wkÿK I Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvixi emvi RvqMv| m¤¢eZ †m Kvi‡YB cÖ_g w`‡Ki Qv·`i AvDU‡Wv‡i KvR Ki‡Z †ewk Drmvn †`Iqv n‡Zv| AwZ ¯^ícwimi `yB Kvgivi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡UB †K‡U‡Q XvKvi PviæKjv we`¨vcx‡Vi cÖ_g Pvi eQi| 1952 mv‡ji gvSvgvwS Bbw÷wUDU Rbmb †ivW †_‡K bZzb XvKvi †m¸bevwMPvq evMvbmn gvSvwi AvKv‡ii GKwU †`vZjv evwo‡Z ¯’vbvšÍwiZ nq| cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi Avwgbyj I mZx_©iv GLvb †_‡KB 1953 mv‡j Zuv‡`i cuvP eQ‡ii PviæKjv cvVµg †kl K‡ib| Zuv‡`i g‡Zv GKBfv‡e GKB cwim‡i Pviæwkí wkÿv MÖnY K‡i cieZx© Av‡iv wZbwU e¨vP| Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wØZxq e¨v‡Pi QvÎiv Zuv‡`i K¬vm ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb 1949 mv‡j Rbmb †iv‡Wi evwo‡Z Ges †kl K‡i‡Qb †m¸bevwMPv †_‡K 1954 mv‡j| wØZxq e¨v‡Pi Qv·`i g‡a¨ PviRb‡K wb‡q Avgvi eZ©gvb Av‡jvPbv| cÖviw¤¢K f‚wgKvwU wQj Bbw÷wUD‡Ui cÖv_wgK cwi‡ek †evSvi †Póv| Avgvi †mŠfvM¨ n‡qwQj, AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡Ui Rbmb †iv‡Wi †mB AwZ ¯^ícwimi `yB K‡ÿi cÖwZôvbwU †Pv‡L †`Lvi, 1951 mv‡j cÖ_g †`wL| Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wØZxq e¨v‡Pi QvÎ Ave`yi iv¾vK Avgvi †QvU PvPv, GKvwaKevi Zuvi m‡½ Bbw÷wUDU †`L‡Z wM‡qwQjvg| Avwg ZLb

gyZ©Rv ekxi (R. 1932)

eÜz wkíx iwk` †PŠayixi m‡½, †m¸bevwMPvq Zuv‡`i ÷zwWIi eviv›`vq, 1958

KvBqyg †PŠayix (R. 1934-2014)


(euv †_‡K) †`e`vm PµeZx©, KvBqyg †PŠayix, KvRx Ave`yj ev‡mZ, Ave`yi iv¾vK, gyZ©Rv ekxi, †gvnv¤§` wKewiqv I wbZzb KzÛz

AvU© K‡j‡Ri mncvVx (euvw`K †_‡K `uvov‡bv) Ñ Avjx †iRv, Rybveyj Bmjvg, Ave`yi iv¾vK, AvLZviæ¾vgvb, KvBqyg †PŠayix, gyZ©Rv ekxi, (Dcweó) iwk` †PŠayix, Avjx ûgvqyb


evj‡Ki gv_v, WªvBc‡q›U, 1957 Ave`yi iv¾vK

gnvRb, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1956 KvBqyg †PŠayix

†bŠKv, †Zjis, 1956 iwk` †PŠayix

cÖwZK…wZ-1, †Zjis, 1958 iwk` †PŠayix


¯^cœPvwiZvi Mv_v, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1959 gyZ©Rv ekxi

cyivb XvKvi bevecyi nvB ¯‹z‡ji lô †kÖwYi QvÎ, eqm 12| my‡hvM †c‡jB QywUi w`‡b PvPvi m‡½ Zuvi AvDU‡Wvi †¯‹‡Pi mgq m½x nZvg| XvKvi PviæKjvi wØZxq e¨v‡Pi QvÎmsL¨vI m¤¢eZ cÖ_g e¨v‡Pi g‡ZvB 14-15 Rb n‡e| GB e¨v‡Pi AšÍZ QqR‡bi bvg cieZx© mg‡q wkíx wn‡m‡e cwiwPwZ †c‡qwQj, Guiv n‡jb Ave`yi iv¾vK, iwk` †PŠayix, KvBqyg †PŠayix, gyZ©Rv ekxi, Bg`v` †nv‡mb I Rybveyj Bmjvg| Gu‡`i g‡a¨ GKgvÎ gyZ©Rv ekxi RxweZ (eqm cÖvq 86) Ges wbqZ m„Rbkxj| cÖ_g cuvPRbB GKz‡k c`KcÖvß wkíx, KvBqyg †PŠayix Zuvi g„Zz¨i wKQyw`b Av‡M ¯^vaxbZv c`KI †c‡qwQ‡jb| Bg`v` †nv‡mb PviæKjvi †P‡q Kviæwk‡í mgq †ewk w`‡q‡Qb, Rybveyj Bmjvg evwUK wk‡í cvi`kx© n‡q‡Qb, GKch©v‡q PviæKjv K‡j‡Ri (c‡i XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Bbw÷wUDU I Av‡iv c‡i Abyl`) Aa¨‡ÿi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qb| eZ©gvb iPbvq Avgvi g~j Av‡jvP¨ PviæKjv wØZxq e¨v‡Pi PviRb AmvaviY cÖwZfvevb QvÎ iv¾vK, iwk`, KvBqyg I ekxi| Avwg memgq †f‡e AevK n‡qwQ, cvwK¯Ívb Avg‡j †Kgb K‡i GiKg PviRb Ziæ‡Yi GKÎ mgv‡ek n‡qwQj| cieZx© mg‡q Zuviv cÖ‡Z¨‡K PviæKjvi wewfbœ w`‡K †kÖôZ¡ cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv wel‡q cw_K…‡Zi f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Qb| Avwgbyj Bmjvg, nvwg`yi ivngvb I b‡fiv Avn‡g‡`i (Aek¨ XvKvi QvÎx wQ‡jb bv) g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡ki AvaywbK avivi wkíKjvi

†mZzI Miæ, †g‡mvbvB‡U †Zjis, 1960 KvBqyg †PŠayix

ZiæYx I cvwL, K¨vbfv‡m j¨vKvi, †Zjis I Kv‡Vi ¸uov, 1961 gyZ©Rv ekxi

Drme-3, †Mvqvk, 1968 iwk` †PŠayix


cÖwZev`, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1972 KvBqyg †PŠayix

gyw³‡hv×v, mv`v wm‡g›U I KswµU, 1972 Ave`yi iv¾vK

†`qvj-28, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1967 gyZ©Rv ekxi

wbg©vY-2, KvV, 1975 Ave`yi iv¾vK


ˆkke ¯§„wZ-2, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1976 KvBqyg †PŠayix evsjv‡`k-71, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1972 KvBqyg †PŠayix

AÿqeU, BU, wm‡g›U I cv_i, 1974 gyZ©Rv ekxi


ivavK…ò-2, †Zjis, 1978 iwk` †PŠayix

wfwË M‡owQ‡jb GB Pvi wkíx| Zuv‡`i cÖvq mgeqmx †gvnv¤§` wKewiqvI Ab¨Zg cw_K…r, Z‡e wZwb wQ‡jb KjKvZv AvU© ¯‹z‡ji QvÎ| cÖ_g I wØZxq e¨v‡Pi g‡Zv Rbmb †iv‡Wi AwZ ¯^ícwimi ¯’vcbv †_‡K ïiæ nIqv Z…Zxq I PZz_© e¨v‡Pi Qv·`i K…wZ‡Z¡i K_vI ejv hvq, Z‡e eZ©gvb wbe‡Üi Av‡jvP¨ ïay wØZxq e¨v‡Pi Pvi mZx_© wkíx| D‡jøLµ‡g Zuv‡`i eqm ev Rb¥mb I g¨vwUªKz‡jkb cv‡ki mvj we‡ePbv K‡iwQ| Gu‡`i Awdwkqvj Rb¥mvj cÖ_g wZbR‡bi 1932 mv‡ji wewfbœ ZvwiL I PZz_©R‡bi (KvBqy‡gi) Rb¥mvj 1934| Gu‡`i g‡a¨ g¨vwUªKz‡jkb (eZ©gvb gva¨wgK) cixÿv cv‡ki mvj iv¾v‡Ki 1947, evwK wZbR‡bi 1949| GKgvÎ iv¾vK B›UviwgwW‡qU (AvBGmwm) cvk K‡i (1949) PviæKjv co‡Z G‡mwQ‡jb| Zuvi cÖK…Z Rb¥ 1932-Gi m¤¢eZ `yB-wZb eQi Av‡M| miKvwi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡Ui GKB e¨v‡Pi GB Pvi mZx‡_©i cÖvq mKj ch©v‡q Ges P‚ovšÍ c‡e©, cixÿvq †miv dj AR©b K‡iwQ‡jb Ave`yi iv¾vK, cÖ_g †kÖwY‡Z cÖ_g n‡qwQ‡jb| wkíx wn‡m‡e cÖ‡Z¨‡KB wbR wbR GjvKvq DrKl© †`wL‡q‡Qb| cvwK¯Ívb Avg‡j RvZxq ch©v‡qi wPÎKjv cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq KvBqyg †kÖôZ¡ AR©b K‡iwQ‡jb| ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡k ivóªxq ¯^xK…wZ‡ZI kx‡l©| Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ Zzjbv m¤¢e bq| Pvi mZx_© cÖ‡Z¨‡KB wbR A½‡b AcÖwZØ›`¦x| wkíx wn‡m‡e Cl©Yxq cÖwZfvai| PviRbB `xN©Kvj wkÿKZv K‡i‡Qb, †m Ae¯’v‡b Zviv †bZ…Z¡`vbKvix I AZ¨šÍ kÖ‡×q| e¨w³MZfv‡e †KD wQ‡jb wbf…ZPvix AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK, †KD

knx` wk‡ivbvg, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1977 gyZ©Rv ekxi

aŸsm-1, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, Gbv‡gj I evwj, 1985 gyZ©Rv ekxi

Avgvi MÖvg-1, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1978 KvBqyg †PŠayix


Drme-4, U¨v‡cw÷ª, 1981 iwk` †PŠayix

ivavK…ò-3, U¨v‡cw÷ª, 1982 iwk` †PŠayix

`ycy‡ii b`x, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1987 KvBqyg †PŠayix

K¨vwjMÖvwd-2, U¨v‡cw÷ª, 1983 iwk` †PŠayix

mvgvwRK-mvs¯‹…wZK Av‡›`vj‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ Zrci| Avgvi †mŠfvM¨ ˆK‡kvi †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Avwg Gu‡`i‡K wKQyUv KvQ †_‡K †`Lvi my‡hvM †c‡qwQ| iv¾vK †Zv wQ‡jb cwiev‡ii GKRb, gyZ©Rv ekxi Avevi wQ‡jb bevecyi ¯‹z‡j Avgv‡`i WªBs wUPvi| iv¾vK, iwk`, KvBqyg I ekxi 1949 mv‡j hLb PviæKjv wkÿvq fwZ© n‡jb, Zuv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki †fZ‡iB wkíx-cÖwZfv myß wQj| Zuv‡`i Rxebx ev AvZ¥‰RewbK iPbv †_‡K Rvbv hvq †KD ¯^cÖ‡Yvw`Z n‡q PviæKjv wkÿvq G‡m‡Qb, †KD ev Ab¨ Kv‡iv cÖ‡Yv`bv ev ZvwM‡` G‡m‡Qb (ekx‡ii †ejvq †hgb Zuvi KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i ZvwM‡`)| iv¾vK dwi`cyi iv‡R›`ª K‡jR †_‡K wØZxq wefv‡M AvBGmwm cvk K‡i D”Pwkÿvi Rb¨ XvKvq Av‡mb| B”Qv Ki‡j cÖ‡KŠkjwe`¨vq my‡hvM †c‡Z cvi‡Zb, g¨vwUªK cvk n‡jB PviæKjvq fwZ© nIqv †hZ, †mLv‡b wZwb AvBGmwm cvk K‡i fwZ© n‡q‡Qb| MÖvgxY ga¨weË wkwÿZ cwiev‡ii †Q‡j, cÖ‡KŠkj ev cÖhyw³we`¨vq bv wM‡q PviæKjv †e‡Q wb‡q‡Qb GKvšÍ e¨w³MZ fv‡jvjvMv †_‡K| eo fvB ¯^í


AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ-5, †Zjis, 1997 Ave`yi iv¾vK

wbg©vY-3, B¯úvZ, 1980 Ave`yi iv¾vK

Av‡qi miKvwi PvKz‡i| Zvi †QvU fvov evwo‡ZB iv¾v‡Ki _vKv-LvIqv| †ek A_©K‡ói g‡a¨B XvKvq Zuvi QvÎRxeb †K‡U‡Q, wbR¯^ Avq ej‡Z nq‡Zv gv‡Sg‡a¨ mvgvb¨ wKQy n‡Z cviZ| Zuvi evev wQ‡jb XvKvi mv‡f© ¯‹z‡ji cvk Kiv mv‡f©qvi| wKš‘ †ckv wn‡m‡e Zv †bbwb, eis MÖv‡g wb‡Ri RwgRgv †`‡L‡Qb, M„n¯’vwj K‡i‡Qb| iv¾vK Qq fvB-†ev‡bi g‡a¨ mevi †QvU, mvsmvwiK ev cvwievwiK `vq`vwqZ¡ †Zgb wQj bv| iv¾vK ïiæ †_‡KB Bbw÷wUD‡U Zuvi K¬v‡mi †miv QvÎ, Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi Lye wcÖq| PviæKjvq mœvZK n‡q Av‡gwiKvq dzjeªvBU e„wË wb‡q AvBIqv †÷U BDwbfvwm©wU‡Z covi my‡hvM cvb I K…wZ‡Z¡i m‡½ GgGdG wWwMÖ AR©b K‡ib| QvcwP‡Î we‡klÁZv jvf K‡ib| †cBw›Us I fv¯‹‡h©I D”Pwkÿv jvf K‡ib| e¯‘Z iv¾vK G‡`‡ki wkíx‡`i g‡a¨ cÖ_g PviæKjvi gv÷vm© wWwMÖ AR©bKvix| 1957 mv‡j †`‡k wd‡i mivmwi AvU© Bbw÷wUD‡U †hvM`vb K‡ib Ges 2005 mv‡j g„Zz¨Kvj ch©šÍ wkÿKZvq hy³ wQ‡jb| PviæKjv gnvwe`¨vjq‡K XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi GKwU

Bbw÷wUD‡U iƒcvšÍi Kivi g~j `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡iwQ‡jb iv¾vK (1983-85)| iv¾vK †cBw›Us, WªBs, wcÖ›U‡gwKs ev QvcwP‡Î cvi`wk©Zv †`wL‡q‡Qb, cvkvcvwk fv¯‹h© wk‡íi cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿv cÖmv‡i cw_K…‡Zi f‚wgKv †i‡L‡Qb| b‡fiv Avn‡g‡`i f‚wgKv wQj G‡`‡k AvaywbK fv¯‹h© cwiPq Kiv‡bv‡Z, Ab¨w`‡K iv¾vK fv¯‹h© wkÿvi wfwË w`‡q †M‡Qb| mvgvwRKfv‡eI gva¨gwU‡K MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv w`‡q †M‡Qb| wZwb wb‡RI m„Rbkxj fv¯‹h© m„wó K‡i‡Qb, Z‡e wZwb we‡klfv‡e ¯§iYxq n‡q Av‡Qb MvRxcy‡ii †PŠiv¯Ívq ¯’vwcZ Zuvi ÔRvMÖZ †PŠi½xÕ kxl©K wekvjKvq gyw³‡hv×v fv¯‹h©wUi (1972) Rb¨| wPÎKjv gva¨‡g wZwb Zuvi Qq `k‡Ki `xN© c_cwiµgvq ev¯ÍevbyM, Avav weg~Z© Avw½K †_‡K m¤ú~Y© weg~Z© Avw½‡K iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Qb| evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mgq mZx_© iwk` cÖgy‡Li m‡½ ivZ †R‡M †cv÷vi AuvKv, 21 †deªæqvwi Zvwi‡L †Mvjv¸wji ci i³v³ Aveyj eiKZ‡K enbKvix gyZ©Rv ekxi‡K c‡i wiKkvq K‡i cyivb XvKvq Zuvi evwo †cuŠ‡Q †`Iqv, Gai‡bi NUbvq hy³ _vKv Qvov, cieZx©


cvLv-22, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1998 gyZ©Rv ekxi

mg‡q wZwb cÖZ¨ÿfv‡e ivR‰bwZK Av‡›`vjb ev msMÖv‡gi m‡½ †Zgb m¤ú„³ nbwb, wKš‘ AvMv‡MvovB AvaywbK, cÖMwZkxj I Amv¤úÖ`vwqK gvbwmKZvmg„× wQ‡jb| Zuvi wkíK‡g© †Kv‡bviKg agx©q ev mv¤úÖ`vwqK †PZbvi cÖKvk Av‡mwb| GgbwK cÖZxKxfv‡eI bq| gyw³hy× I gyw³‡hv×v Zuvi m„RbK‡g©i †cÖiYv I welq n‡q‡Q| iwk` †PŠayix ivRevoxi AwfRvZ (Z‡e ÿwqòz) Rwg`vievwoi †Q‡j, A‡bK fvB-†ev‡bi g‡a¨ †R¨ô GKRb| PviæKjvi QvÎ wn‡m‡e iv¾vK I iwk` Lye Nwbô eÜz wQ‡jb, QvÎve¯’vq cyivb XvKvq GKB GjvKvq emevm K‡i‡Qb| mœvZK n‡q e„wË wb‡q iv¾vK †M‡jb Av‡gwiKv (1955-57), Avi iwk` †¯ú‡b (1956-57)| c‡i Avevi d«v‡Ý (1960-64)| d«v‡Ý wZwb U¨v‡cw÷ª‡Z we‡kl

`ÿZv AR©b K‡ib| BD‡ivc †_‡K wd‡i cÖ_g XvKvq PviæKjv Bbw÷wUDU I c‡i PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vj‡q wkÿKZv K‡ib| †mLv‡b mœvZ‡KvËi ch©v‡q PviæKjv wefvM ïiæ K‡ib Ges GKRb cw_K…‡Zi f‚wgKv cvjb K‡ib| cvkvcvwk U¨v‡cw÷ª PP©vq wbR¯^ ÷zwWI ev Kg©kvjv cÖwZôv K‡ib| U¨v‡cw÷ª wk‡í wZwb m¤ú~Y© bZzb c_ †`Lv‡jb| ejv hvq, mviv `wÿY Gkxq Dcgnv‡`‡kB U¨v‡cw÷ª‡K AvaywbK m„Rbwk‡íi ch©v‡q DbœxZ Kivi kxl© D`vniY iwk` †PŠayixi KvR| wZwb AKvjcÖqvZ n‡qwQ‡jb, wKš‘ Zuvi m„wóm¤¢vi AwZ mg„×| evsjvi †jvKRxeb I †jvKwk‡íi bvbv †gvwUd ev cÖZxK wZwb Zuvi †cBw›Us I U¨v‡cw÷ª‡Z iƒcvšÍwiZfv‡e ms‡hvRb K‡i‡Qb| iwk` KweZvI wjL‡Zb| `y-`yevi BD‡iv‡c wkí


Wz‡i kvwo cwiwnZv bvix, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 1992 gyZ©Rv ekxi

†cBw›Us jvj I bxj, †Zjis, 1999 Ave`yi iv¾vK

wkÿv MÖnY, BD‡ivcxq gwnjv‡K we‡q K‡iwQ‡jb, cÖMwZkxj wPšÍv‡PZbvi gvbyl iwk` †PŠayix, Rxe‡bi †kl ch©v‡q wKQyUv Ava¨vwZ¥KZvi w`‡K Szu‡KwQ‡jb, Bmjvg agx©q gg©evYxi cÖZxKx e¨envi hy³ K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi AmsL¨ †cBw›Us I U¨v‡cw÷ª‡Z Bmjvwg Aviwe K¨vwjMÖvwdi e¨envi evsjv‡`‡ki AvaywbK wk‡í wfbœ gvÎv ms‡hvRb K‡i‡Q| Gai‡bi wkíK‡g©i we‡kl †µZv ev c„ô‡cvlK wQj wKbv Rvwb bv, Z‡e †m¸‡jv wkíx‡K m¤¢eZ Z…ß KiZ| A‡bKUv GKB ai‡bi weeZ©b †`Lv †M‡Q gyZ©Rv ekx‡ii wPÎKjvq| ZiæY eq‡m cÖejfv‡e cÖMwZkxj, mvg¨ev`x, Amv¤úÖ`vwqK Ges (m¤¢eZ) ag©-D`vmxb ekxiI Zuvi mZx_© eÜz iwk` †PŠayixi g‡Zv Bmjvg agx©q wPišÍb evYx (h_v K‡jgv ˆZqev) AZ¨šÍ ˆkwíKfv‡e e¨envi K‡i‡Qb Zuvi wPÎK‡g©| ÔZv‡Z mgm¨v Kx, gvK© kvMvj ev Abyiƒc AvaywbK wkíxiv wK agx©q cÖZxK e¨envi K‡ibwb?Õ Ñ GiKg cÖkœ †Zv‡jb gyZ©Rv ekxi| Avm‡jB †Kv‡bv mgm¨v †bB, wkíKg© wn‡m‡e †kÖôZ¡ †c‡jB †Zv

e½eÜzevsjv‡`k, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 2001 KvBqyg †PŠayix


n‡jv| ejv evûj¨, we‡kølKiv LyuR‡Z PvB‡eb, †Kb Zuviv Ggb Qwe Auv‡Kb? †fZ‡ii ZvwM‡` wbðqB? †`Lv hvq iwk`-ekx‡ii DËim~wi †gavex ZiæY wkíxiv G ai‡bi Kv‡R Lye †ewk AvK…ó nb bv| ekxi 1956-58 `yB eQi BZvwji †d¬v‡i‡Ý D”PZi wkÿv MÖnY K‡ib| †mLv‡b wZwb †cBw›Us, †d«‡¯‹v wel‡q cvV MÖnY K‡ib| GKmgq ekxi Zuvi mZx_© Pvi eÜzi Zzjbvq A‡bKUvB †ev‡nwgqvb †gRv‡Ri gvbyl wQ‡jb| lv‡Ui `k‡Ki wKQy mgq wZwb cvwK¯Ív‡b Ae¯’vb K‡ib, Qwe AuvKv, cÖ`k©bx Kiv BZ¨vw`‡Z e¨¯Í _v‡Kb| †cBw›Us‡q ekxi Zuvi mZx_©‡`i Zzjbvq †ewk wbixÿvcÖeY wQ‡jb, GKch©v‡q LyeB weg~Z© Avw½‡Ki Qwe Auv‡Kb| wewfbœ c‡e© †iLv I iscÖavb AeqewfwËK K‡¤úvwRkb K‡i‡Qb| bvix Zuvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb welq| ekxi evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡Ki †`qv‡j †d«‡¯‹v K‡i‡Qb, ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ¯§„wZ‡mŠ‡a Svgv BU I cv_i e¨envi K‡i Amvgvb¨ GK wkíKg© m¤úv`b K‡ib| iwk` †PŠayix wewfbœ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© fe‡b U¨v‡cw÷ª mvRvevi my‡hvM †c‡q‡Qb| iv¾vK evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡Ki Rb¨ †`qvjwPÎ K‡i‡Qb, †mbvevwnbxi c„ô‡cvlKZvq MvRxcy‡ii †PŠiv¯Ívq gyw³‡hv×v fv¯‹h© M‡o‡Qb| iv¾vK, iwk`, ekxi‡`i PZz_© mZx_© cÖwZfv KvBqyg †PŠayix| iv¾v‡Ki g‡Zv KvBqygI Zuvi Kv‡R (g~jZ

K‡jgv ˆZqev-11, K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis, 2002 gyZ©Rv ekxi

igYx, Zzwj I Kvwj, 2001 KvBqyg †PŠayix


jvj I bxj, Rjis, 2003 KvBqyg †PŠayix

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†Q‡o †hb jvwd‡q DV‡Q †Nvovi g‡Zv| †PvL †hb R¡‡j DV‡Q Zuvi| †g‡Si GK Ask A¯úó †auvqvq| †mB †auvqv †_‡K †hb †R‡M DV‡Q hvi Awfe¨w³ gvby‡li g‡Zv| fvix ùxZ wZb‡U ¯Íb wb‡q †m GwM‡q Avm‡Q †Pqv‡ii w`‡K| gvbyl Avi bv-gvby‡li mxgvbv gy‡Q hv‡”Q| †Pqvi, Dcweó bvix Avi nv‡qbvi `xN© Qvqv wg‡jwg‡k GK n‡q hv‡”Q| Qwei g‡a¨ GKwU gv-nv‡qbv Avi mv`v †`vjbv †Nvovi gvSLv‡b e‡m| gv-nv‡qbv GKB m‡½ De©iv kw³ I ivwÎi inm¨gq Ab¨ RM‡Zi cÖwZwbwa| GKRb wbtm½ wkï K¨vwisUb bvm©vwii GK †Kv‡Y `uvwo‡q _vKv †`vjbv †Nvovi m‡½ GK KvíwbK m¤úK© M‡o †Zv‡jb| `xN©w`b †NvovwU wQj Zuvi m½x| nv‡qbv I †Nvov evievi wewfbœ Abyl‡½ wewfbœ Kv‡R e¨envi K‡i‡Qb wZwb| Zuvi †jLv Mí ÔThe DebutanteÕ hv 1940-G †eªZiu Anthology of Black Humour-G Qvcv n‡qwQj, †mLv‡b GKwU nv‡qbvi K_v Av‡Q †h wPwoqvLvbvq †eov‡Z Avmv GKwU †g‡qi eÜz n‡q hvq| †g‡qwU Zv‡K Rvbvq, mgv‡R Zvi cÖ_g AvZ¥cÖKv‡ki m¤§v‡b Zvi gv †h ejbv‡Pi Av‡qvRb K‡i‡Qb †mLv‡b †m wKQy‡ZB †hvM w`‡Z Pvq bv| Zvi n‡q nv‡qbv gy‡Lvk c‡i †mB bv‡Pi Avm‡i hvq| Zvi Av‡M †g‡qwUi cwiPvwiKv‡K †g‡i †L‡q †d‡j Zvi gyL Pzwi K‡i wb‡Ri gy‡L ewm‡q †g‡qwUi ejbv‡Pi MvDb c‡i wbw`©ó Avm‡b wM‡q e‡m| Zvi kix‡ii cÖvK…wZK MÜ hLb mPwKZ K‡i w`‡”Q mevB‡K, †g‡qwU ZLb IciZjvq GKv e‡m Mvwjfvm© Uªv‡fjm-G gMœ| †m Rv‡b bv Mv‡qi A™¢Z z M‡Üi Rb¨ K‡qKRb nv‡qbv‡K Acgvb Kivq, nv‡qbv wbRg~wZ© a‡i gy‡Lv‡ki gv_vwU mevi mvg‡b wPwe‡q †L‡q Rvbvjv w`‡q †ewi‡q †M‡Q| 1947 mv‡j †jLv K¨vwisU‡bi bvUK †cwb‡jv‡c †Ljbv Kv‡Vi †Nvov ÔUvU©v‡iÕi †cÖ‡g Db¥v` n‡q GKwU †g‡q Zvi evevi cÖfZ z ¡ AMÖvn¨ K‡i ÿxYeyw× gvbyl Ñ hviv Rv`yi ÿgZv †ev‡S bv, ivw·K fq cvq Ñ Zv‡`i c„w_ex †Q‡o mv`v GKUv †g‡q †Nvov n‡q UvU©v‡ii m‡½ Ab¨ GK c„w_ex‡Z P‡j hvq, †hLv‡b Aeva Kíbv Avi Rv`yi ÿgZv‡K m¤§vb K‡i mevB| Qwe AuvKvi m‡½ bvUK I Mí †jLv mgv‡b Pvwj‡q †M‡Qb K¨vwisUb| GKB e¨w³MZ †Uv‡Ug Zuvi Qwe I †jLvc‡Î mnR cv‡q G‡m‡Q| 1937 mv‡j Zuvi cÖ_g Mí ÔThe House of FearÕ-GI wQj GK eÜz †Nvovi K_v, †h ZiæYx bvwqKvi Ae‡PZbvi wbqš¿K| Zvi m½x n‡qB ZiæYxwU inm¨gq I fqsKi bvbviKg agx©q D`&hvcb I ms¯‹v‡ii ci gvby‡li iƒcvšÍi NU‡Z †`‡L †Pv‡Li mvg‡b| evW© mywcwiqi jcjc bv‡gi †mB eÜz †NvovwU Ae‡k‡l fqgy³ K‡i ZiæYx‡K| myiwiqvwj÷‡`i Ici d«‡q‡Wi Mfxi cÖfve wQj| wKš‘ K¨vwisU‡bi †Zgb gv_ve¨_v wQj bv d«‡qW wb‡q| Zuvi wewfbœ Qwe Ges †jLvq †h †Nvovi ÿz‡ii kã Ny‡i Ny‡i Av‡m †mB †Nvov d«‡q‡Wi cyiæl-kw³i cÖZxK bq| eis cÖvPxb †KjwUK iƒcK_v Zvi Dr‡m| †Q‡j‡ejvq AvBwik gv‡qi Kv‡Q GBme Kvwnwb ï‡bB Zuvi †e‡o IVv| AvBwik DcRvwZ‡`i †Pv‡L mv`v †Nvov GKwU cweÎ cÖvYx, †h evZv‡mi †P‡qI `ªæZ Avi

Do‡Z cv‡i nvIqvq| gwim bv‡Pi †Ljbv †Nvov †KjwUK ag©wek¦v‡m †Nvov-cy‡Rvi m‡½ m¤úK©h³ y | g„Z¨z I cybR©‡b¥i cÖZxK †m| mv`v †Nvovq P‡o †KjwUK †`ex I‡qj‡k Saga of Rhiannow-G Av‡mb, Zuvi Avmv Rxebgi‡Yi mxgvbvi evB‡i Ab¨ †Kv‡bv c„w_ex †_‡K| wKš‘ K¨vwisU‡bi Kv‡Q mv`v †Nvov GBme ZË¡ I wek¦v‡mi evB‡i Ab¨wKQy| K¨vwisU‡bi mv`v †Nvov Zuvi c_wb‡`©kK GKRb cyiæl myiwiqvwj÷ wkíx g¨v· Gb©÷ Ñ whwb Zuvi eÜz, Zuvi †cÖiYv, Zuvi †cÖwgK| 1939 mv‡j Gb©‡÷i †h cÖwZK…wZ K¨vwisUb Gu‡KwQ‡jb †mLv‡b jvj agx©q †cvkvK Avi njy`-Kv‡jv †WvivKvUv †gvRv civ A‡jŠwKK †Pnvivq GK cwiZ¨³ ei‡di †`‡k GKv nuvU‡Qb Gb©÷| Zuvi †cQ‡b mv`v GKUv ei‡di †Nvov †hb eid †_‡K AK¯§vr cÖvYešÍ n‡q †R‡M DV‡Q| †mB A‡jŠwKK cyiæ‡li nv‡Z jÉb| wKš‘ Av‡jvi cwie‡Z© †mB jɇbi Kv‡Pi †fZ‡i Avi GKwU †QvÆ mv`v †Nvov| 1937 mv‡j K¨vwisU‡bi cÖ_g †`Lv nq Zuvi Ômv`v †NvovÕ g¨v· Gb©‡÷i m‡½| 1939 mv‡j Gb©÷‡K Rvg©vb †mbv Kb‡mb‡Uªkb K¨v‡¤ú a‡i wb‡q hvIqv ch©šÍ Mfxi fv‡jvevmv Avi m„Rbkxj Kv‡R Lye A_©gq mgq †K‡UwQj Zuv‡`i| 1944 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ Down Below MÖ‡š’ Zuvi GB fqsKi hš¿Yv I Uªgvi w`b¸‡jvi K_v e‡j‡Qb Ñ ‘I wept for twenty four hours and indulged in voluntany vomittings induced by drinking orange blossom water.’ Gici wZb mßvn a‡i

Pj‡Z _vKj Zuvi Abvnvi I `ytmn kvixwiK kÖg I hš¿Yv| GmewKQyi g‡a¨ wZwb Ly‡u R †c‡qwQ‡jb GK ai‡bi AvZ¥ïw×KiY| wZwb PvBwQ‡jb Av‡iv Zxeª †K¬k, hvi gva¨‡g Rxeb ï× n‡e| Gov‡Z Pvbwb hš¿Yv‡K| †f‡O c‡obwb hLb Kb‡mb‡Uªkb K¨v‡¤ú ‘They tore my clothes off brutally and strapped me naked to the bed accompanied by intense pain and vivid hallucinations.’

2 Zuvi wØgyLx mËvi D‡b¥vPb Avi wb‡Ri †fZi †_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m wb‡R‡K †`Lvi Rb¨ Avqbv‡K GKwU PgrKvi A¯¿ ev Dcvq wn‡m‡e †`‡LwQ‡jb bvix myiwiqvwj÷iv| evB‡ii ev¯Íe Avi AšÍt¯’ ev¯Í‡ei g‡a¨ †h `~iZ¡ I GgbwK msNl©I _v‡K, Zv‡K †`Lvi I †`Lv‡bvi Rb¨ Zuviv cÖwZdjb LyR u ‡jb Avqbvq, w¯’i R‡j, AvKv‡k, evZv‡m| mewKQyB Avqbv n‡q DVj Zuv‡`i Kv‡Q| evB‡ii K…wÎg, gvsmfzK I `gb D`¨Z c„w_exi †_‡K Zvi AbyfZ ‚ GKvšÍ c„w_ex‡K my`i~ Avi ms¯ú‡k©i evB‡i ivLvi wek¦¯Í Ges Ae¨_© Dcvq wn‡m‡e AvZ¥cwÖ ZK…wZ‡K AvkÖq K‡iwQ‡jb bvix myiwiqvwj÷ wkíxiv| †eªZiu ZvwË¡K Av`k©vwqZ cÖvmv‡`i AšÍtmvik~b¨ Ni¸‡jv Zuviv †`‡LwQ‡jb wb‡R‡`i AšÍ`w„© ó w`‡q| cyiæl wkíxiv Zuv‡`i †PZb I Ae‡PZ‡bi wecixZ †giæi ms‡kølY K‡iwQ‡jb Ae`wgZ evmbvi gyw³ NwU‡q, evB‡ii e¯‘c‡y Äi g‡a¨ bZzb iK‡gi Av‡jvi †Luv‡R|


wbtk‡ã wb‡R‡`i Ae¯’vb mwVK ey‡S wb‡q bvixiv ZLb wd‡i †M‡jb Zuv‡`i GKvšÍ wbR¯^ c„w_exi `iRv Ly‡j w`‡Z| myiwiqvwjRg‡K Zuviv K‡i wb‡jb Zuv‡`i Dovb ïiæi f‚wg| GB AvZ¥Awfhv‡b Zuviv †eªZiu Av`k©ev` Avi Zuvi weL¨vZ g¨vwb‡d‡÷v †_‡K nvZ ay‡q †dj‡jb| wjIbi wdwb (1918-96) ÔThe End of the WorldÕ Qwe‡Z †h bvixi gyL AuvK‡jb Zv‡Z ÔAvZ¥cÖwZK…wZÕi ¯^xK…Z †NvlYv bv _vK‡jI †mB gyL wQj wbfzj © fv‡e ZuviB| QwewU AuvKv n‡qwQj 1948 mv‡j| †mvbvwj Pz‡ji GKRb bMœ bvix QwewUi †K‡›`ª| kvšÍ gyL Ñ wZwb ZvwK‡q Av‡Qb w¯’i †Pv‡L| cyó myMwVZ eyK ch©šÍ D‡V G‡m‡Q Avw`g Rjvf‚wg| g‡i hvIqv cï-cvwLi gy‡Li nvo †f‡m Av‡Q g„Z¨z i g‡Zv w¯’i R‡j| R‡j †mB nvo n‡q hvIqv gyL¸‡jvi Qvqv| †cQ‡b †g‡U jvj AvKvk Avi Rj| Kv‡jv Rj kvšÍfv‡e D‡V Avm‡Q| R‡ji wb‡P †g‡qwUi cÖwZdwjZ QvqvgyL †hb cvkweK, AÜKvigvLv wnsmª| R‡ji Ic‡i kvšÍ wbf©q gyLwU †hb kvšÍfv‡e gvbyl Avi c„w_exi Aemvb‡K wbixÿY I we‡kølY Ki‡Q wb‡Ri g‡a¨| R‡ji Avqbvq Ic‡i †f‡m _vKv gyLwU R‡ji gyL‡K wb‡RiB Ab¨ GK gyL wn‡m‡e †`Lv‡Z ms‡KvP Ki‡Q bv| w¯’i `„wó‡Z †Pv‡L †PvL †i‡L †hb †m Rvwb‡q w`‡”Q Avov‡j _vKv mZ¨¸‡jv‡K| QwewU‡Z wdwbi g„Z¨z wel‡q AbyfZ ‚ mZ¨ aiv Av‡Q| †Z‡iv-†PvÏ eQi eq‡m Rxeb I g„Z¨z wel‡q †kl avc ch©šÍ †R‡b †bIqvi GK Zxeª AvKzwZ wb‡Ri g‡a¨ †Ui †c‡qwQ‡jb wdwb| w·q‡¯Í Ñ †hLv‡b wdwb _vK‡Zb †mLvbKvi wbR©b g‡M© GKv AvZ¥¯’ Ny‡i †eov‡Zb mgq †c‡jB| mg‡qi m‡½ GB AvKl©Y Av”Qbœ K‡i †`q Zuvi RvMwZK me Abyfw‚ Z| g‡M©i †cQ‡bi GKUv eo njN‡i mvavi‡Yi hvIqvi AbygwZ wQj bv| g‡M©i cÖnixi m‡½ Mí Ki‡Zb wZwb| cÖnix GKw`b †mB N‡ii K_v e‡jb wdwb‡K Avi hLb Lywk †mLv‡b hvIqvi AbygwZI †`b| Gici wdwb Zuvi †ewkifvM mgq †mB AmsL¨ g„Z‡`‡ni ¯Í‡‚ ci g‡a¨ GKv Ny‡i †eov‡Zb| †hb Mfxi a¨v‡b Wz‡e _vK‡Zb †mB mgqUzK|z ARmª bMœ g„Z‡`n, Av‡qvwWb wUsPv‡i †hb is Kiv Qwei g‡Zv| cv‡q b¤^i †jLv U¨vM Szj‡Q mevi| `~‡i iv¯Ívq my›`i †cvkv‡Ki SKS‡K gvbylRb Avi Kei¯’v‡b my›`ifv‡e dz‡j mvRv‡bv g„Z‡`nevnx kK‡Ui m‡½ GB †Lvjv, Mjv-cPv g„Z‡`n¸‡jvi Zzjbv Ki‡Zb| ev¯Íe I K…wÎgZv‡K Gfv‡eB cÖ_g wPb‡jb wZwb wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i| Zuvi g‡b n‡jv mg‡qi m‡½ iƒc †kl nq, i³gvsm gvwU‡Z wg‡k hvq| wKš‘ nvo †_‡K hvq nvRvi nvRvi eQi| K¼v‡ji MVb mylgvi g‡a¨B wZwb Ly‡u R †d‡ib kvk¦Z Aciƒ‡ci| i³gvs‡mi kix‡ii cv‡k nv‡oi Qwe AuvK‡Zb wdwb evB‡ii c„w_ex Avi †fZ‡ii c„w_exi| bk¦i I aªæ‡ei ˆecixZ¨ wn‡m‡e| myiwiqvwj÷‡`i m‡½ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi A‡bK Av‡MB wdwb Zuvi wbR¯^ `„wófw½‡Z Rxeb I g„Z¨z , aŸsm I cybiæ¾xeb‡K ey‡SwQ‡jb| Zuvi †QvU‡ejvi GB †KŠZ‚nj cieZx© mg‡q g¨vm‡bi g‡Zv Av‡iv A‡bK wkíxi fvebv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡iwQj| GK mg_©b, GK AbyKj ‚ cwi‡ek wdwb †c‡qwQ‡jb

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myiwiqvwjR‡g| wKš‘ myiwiqvwjR‡gi aiveuvav jÿ¨ Zuvi mÜvb wQj bv| wdwbi g‡ZvB †ewkifvM bvix wkíx myiwiqvwjR‡gi evnK g‡b K‡ibwb wb‡R‡`i| e¨w³MZ AšÍev© ¯ÍeZvB wQj Zuv‡`i Awš^ó| w`MåvwšÍi Auvav‡i GKwU R¡jšÍ eÜz †gvgevwZ Ñ myiwiqvwjRg Zuv‡`i Kv‡Q wQj GB| ¯‹j z †_‡K Zuv‡K ewn®‹vi n‡Z n‡q‡Q gv‡Sg‡a¨B Zuvi A`g¨ g‡bvfv‡ei Rb¨| wKš‘ ey‡qbm AvB‡i‡m Rb¥v‡bv ¯ú¨vwbk, BZvjxq, Av‡R©wšÍbxq wgkÖ i³ I wgkÖ HwZ‡n¨ cyó wdwb wgjv‡b Zuvi KvKvi wekvj jvB‡eªwii c~Y© mبenvi K‡iwQ‡jb| †bvfvwjm, d«‡qW Ges Rg©b †ivgvw›UK‡`i †jLvcÎ wb‡q e¨vcK cov‡kvbv _vKvi Rb¨ Zuvi †gavi Kv‡Q bZzb w`MšÍ Zz‡j aivi g‡Zv Avi wKQy wQj bv myiwiqvwjR‡gi| Gi g‡a¨B w·q‡¯Í cÖwZK…wZ AuvKvi KwgkbI cv‡”Qb wbqwgZ| BD‡iv‡ci cÖvq me M¨vjvwiI Ny‡i †`Lv †kl| MÖæc 900 Italians-Gi A‡bK m`m¨B Zuvi Nwbô eÜz, hviv Zuvi Qwei m‡½ Zuvi m‡¤§vnK iƒc I D”Qj RxebhvÎvq mgvbfv‡e gy»| ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB †eªZiu SKS‡K AvKl©K Dcw¯’wZ I cÖfvweZ Kivi Rv`yKix ÿgZv †Zgb ¯úk© Kij bv wdwb‡K| †eªZiu GKvwacZ¨ Ab¨vb¨ bvix wkíxiv B”Qv-Awb”Qvq †g‡b wb‡Z eva¨ n‡jI wdwb wQ‡jb k³ avZz‡Z Mov| wZwb †eªZiu e¨w³ewR©Z mg‡eZ PP©vi Z‡Ë¡i †Zvqv°vI Ki‡jb bv| j¤^v †Pnviv, AvKl©K gyL, Nb Kv‡jv Pz‡ji cÖevn, †eov‡ji g‡Zv weùvwiZ †PvL Zuv‡K `~iZ¡ I m¤£g w`‡q‡Q me RvqMvq| Zvw”Qj¨, AeÁv AvKl©Y wbwØ©avq mivmwi Rvwb‡q w`‡Zb mevB‡K| g¨v· Gb©÷ AvK…ó n‡jb cÖ_‡g| cj Gjyqvi Zuvi 1938 mv‡j †e‡iv‡bv KweZvi eB Donner a voir-G GKwU KweZv DrmM© Ki‡jb Zuv‡K| Zuvi Dcw¯’wZi †Rviv‡jv av°vq †eªZu I Zuvi ¯¿x j¤^vi m‡½ ixwZg‡Zv ZK© nq wdwbi| Kv‡iv †bZ…Z¡ †g‡b †hŠ_ m„wói g‡a¨ wZwb Zuvi e¨w³¯^vZš¿¨ wemR©b w`‡Z cÖ¯Z ‘ wQ‡jb bv| †hŠbZv wb‡q Zuvi Amxg †KŠZ‚njI Z_vKw_Z bxwZevwMk †eªZu Aby‡gv`b Ki‡jb bv| 1936 mv‡j cvwii GK cÖ`k©bx‡Z wdwbi Qwe †`‡L GKRb wkíx AvMÖnx n‡q †`Lv Ki‡Z PvB‡jb| GKUv wbw`©ó Kv‡d‡Z wdwb †`Lv Ki‡Z m¤§Z n‡jb| jvj i‡Oi hvR‡Ki †cvkv‡K †`Lv Ki‡Z †M‡jb wdwb| cÖkœ Kiv n‡j wdwb Rvbvb †h KvwW©bv‡ji GB †cvkv‡K wg_¨vi GK Amvgvb¨Zv Av‡Q| GB †cvkvK wdwb c‡ib bvix kix‡ii †Kv‡bv aviYv Zuv‡`i _vKvi K_v bq Ges mvg‡bi wkíxI †hb Zuv‡K bvix e‡j bv fv‡eb| GB KwVb we`ªæc Av‡iv †Kv‡bv wkíx †c‡q _vK‡eb| by¨ Bq‡K©i Qwei e¨emvqx Rywj‡qb †jwf 1937 mv‡j by¨ Bq‡K© wdwbi Avmbœ cÖ_g wPÎ cÖ`k©bx wb‡q Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ GK iv‡Z wVKvbv Ly‡u R wdwbi A¨vcvU©‡g‡›U †M‡jb| GKUv cwiZ¨³ aŸsm¯Í‡‚ ci g‡Zv AÜKvi evwo| Avi †Kv_vI †KD _v‡K bv m¤¢eZ| wZbZjvq D‡V `iRvq †UvKv w`‡Z wdwb G‡m `iRvi mvg‡b `uvov‡jb| Kv‡Vi GKUv KzPKz‡P Kv‡jv gvbyl hrmvgvb¨ Av‡jv wb‡q GKUz `~‡i `uvwo‡q| ixwZg‡Zv A¯^w¯Í wb‡q GKSjK wZwb †`L‡jb `iRvq bvix‡K| bxj

wms‡ni †Kk‡ii g‡Zv bxj Pz‡ji ivk gyL Av”Qbœ K‡i †i‡L‡Q| Zuvi †PvL wQj gvivZ¥K AvKl©K| mviv kixi †hb LvcQvovfv‡e †RvovZvwj jvMv‡bv| †jwfi †jLv †mB eY©bv wQj GiKg Ñ ‘Head of a lioness, mind of a man, bust of a woman, torso of a child, grace of an angel and discourse of the devil...’

e¨vcviUv †jwfi Kv‡Q av°v wn‡m‡e G‡jI wdwbi D‡Ïk¨ †Zgb wQj bv| Avm‡j GUvB wQj Zuvi c„w_ex| i³gvsm AwZµvšÍ GK cÖvPxb Ávb wn‡m‡e wZwb †`Lv‡Zb kixi‡K| GKRb Rv`y-imvqbwe` †hfv‡e Zvi MÜK, R¡jšÍ Zij I `g AvUKv‡bv †auvqvi Avov‡j wb‡R‡K jywK‡q iv‡L, is I Qwei g‡a¨ †mfv‡eB wb‡Ri Rxeb †X‡K †i‡LwQ‡jb wdwb| ÔAbo Avi ¯Íä e‡jB Avwg Qwe GZ fv‡jvevwmÕ Ñ ej‡Zb GiKg| bvU‡Ki `„k¨m¾vi g‡Zv †h c„w_ex‡K evB‡i †_‡K †`Lv hvq Avi †fZ‡i bi‡Ki AÜKvi Avw`g wek„•Ljvi gvSLv‡b bvix †hb Zvi mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb I mvaviY cÖew„ Ëi RvšÍeZvi gvSiv¯Ívq `uvwo‡q| 1939 mv‡j AuvKv ‘Ceremony’ Qwe‡Z `k©K †hb GKwU NUbvi gvSLv‡b nvwRi n‡q‡Qb mnmv| Avi †h-†Kv‡bv Qwei g‡ZvB GB QwewUI `„wói mvg‡b GKwU Dc¯’vcbv †ewk wKQy bq| wKš‘ Zvi evB‡iI Ab¨ wKQy †hb ej‡Q QwewU| `„‡k¨i †K‡›`ª GKwU bvixi Abve„Z wcV| cv_‡ii GKUv †ew`i Ici Wvjcvjvm‡gZ cÖvYešÍ Mv‡Qi gy‡LvgywL e‡m †m agx©q †Kv‡bv AvPv‡i e¨¯Í| †ew`i gvSLv‡b GKUv M‡Z© A¯úó wKQy GKUv i‡q‡Q †hb| mvg‡bi w`‡K gyL K‡i GKRb bvix `uvwo‡q e‡m _vKv †g‡qwUi e¨¯ÍZv DrmyK †Pv‡L †`L‡Q| e‡m _vKv †g‡qwUi bMœ AiwÿZ ey‡Ki wecix‡Z `uvwo‡q _vKv †g‡qwUi k³ eÿvei‡Yi myiÿv †hb bvixi evB‡ii Pvc I †fZ‡ii AwbivcËvi wbtkã fvl¨| fw½¸‡jv axi I A_©gq| is kvšÍ, msnZ| wdwbi wbg©vYKzkjZv QwewU‡Z `yiwfMg¨Zv G‡b †`q| AvL¨vbwbf©iZv I Mvp cÖZx‡Ki evB‡i †mªd wb‡Ri †Rv‡i QwewU `uvwo‡q _v‡K| wdwb KL‡bv Ggb Qwe Auv‡Kbwb †hLv‡b bvix‡`i g‡b nq AvZ¥kw³nxb, cyiæl‡`i Aaxb Ges webxZ| G wel‡q Zuvi Ae¯’vb I A½xKvi wQj ¯úó| †eªZu Ges Zuvi †Muvov civev¯Íeev‡` Zuvi wek¦vm wQj bv| †NvwlZfv‡e wZwb bvgI †jLvbwb Zuv‡`i `‡j| wKš‘ civev¯Íeev‡`i K‡qKwU ¯Í¤¢ aviYv Ñ †hgb AvcvZweiæ× e¯‘‡`i Ry‡o †`Iqv, Ae‡PZb‡K Zz‡j aiv Ges cÖvPx‡bi cybiæ×vi Ñ wdwb †g‡b Pj‡Zb| 1947 mv‡j AuvKv ÔChthonian Divinity watching over the sleep of a young manÕ Qwe‡Z GKwU bvix wùs‡·i mRvM, A‡cÿviZ †PvL †hb ivwÎ, Rj I c„w_exi cÖwZwbwa n‡q DV‡Q GKwU bMœ NygšÍ cyiæ‡li w`‡K ZvwK‡q| cÖKw… Z A‡cÿv Ki‡Q cyiæ‡li †R‡M IVvi| bMœ cyiælwU †hb aªæc`x ixwZ‡Z AuvKv kvwqZ bMœ bvixi g‡Zv mylgvgq| wKš‘ cyiælwUi kix‡ii A¨vwmW-gøvb is Avi ivwÎi Aïf Avfv wech©‡qi `gPvcv evZ©v enb Ki‡Q| wùs· Ñ GB wgkÖ cÖvYx wdwbi Qwe‡Z evievi G‡m‡Q


wPšÍvgMœ gy‡L| GKwU wbR¯^ wbf…Z Drm Av‡Q Gi| ˆkk‡e w·q‡¯Íi cv‡K© A‡bK iKg RxeRš‘ wQj cv_‡ii| Zvi A™¢Z z †Pnvivi Rb¨ wùs‡·i g~wZ© AvK…ó KiZ Zuv‡K| wùs‡·i wc‡V P‡o †Lj‡Z †Lj‡Z wb‡R‡KI wùs· Kíbv Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡ib| Ges †mB aviYvwU Zuvi Ae‡PZ‡b aiv _v‡K cieZx© mg‡qI| mf¨Zv gvby‡li AšÍMZ © RvšÍe ¸Y¸‡jv †K‡o wb‡q‡Q| Zvi †`Lv I †kvbvi ÿgZv wejyßcÖvq| me kw³ AšÍwn©Z| Avw`gZv †_‡K m‡i G‡m wb‡Ri Aw¯ÍZ‡¡ KB wecbœ K‡i Zzj‡Q †m| GK we¯§i‡Yi, Ny‡g †m Wz‡e Av‡Q, †h Nyg fvOvi m¤¢vebv ÿxY| cÖvYx‡`i mnRvZ Rv`ykw³ Ges Bqys Kw_Z A¨vwbgvm‡K A¯^xKvi K‡i †m fz‡j hv‡”Q Zvi Av‡Mi cïRxeb Avi GB mg‡qi mgvR-Rxeb‡K| QwewU m¤ú‡K© wdwb GK RvqMvq e‡j‡Qb Ñ ‘the man in my painting sleeps because he refuses the animas role of the social and constructed, and has pejected the responsibility of working in society toward those ends.’

RvšÍe Aw¯ÍZ¡ I mf¨Zv Ñ GB `yB †giæi g‡a¨ †Nviv‡div K‡i wdwbi wùs·| GB `yB c„w_exRy‡o Zvi wePiY| g„Z¨z , cPbkxjZv I cybRx©eb Ñ cÖKw… Zi GB wbôzi KiæYv I mu¨vZ‡mu‡Z M‡Üi (wdwbi eÜz Ruv R¨v‡b †hgb e‡jwQ‡jb ‘cruel kindness’ Avi ‘swanpy odors’) ˆecixZ¨ a‡i iv‡L wdwbi wùs·| 3 GKRb wb®úÖf wPšÍv”Qbœ bvix bZzb †Kv‡bv gy‡Li †Luv‡R A‡bK ev‡· Vvmv GKUv RvqMvq G‡m‡Qb| Zuvi Avkv, cÖ‡Z¨K ev‡· bZzb gyL _vK‡e| GKwU †Lvjv ev· mvg‡b| wZwbB Ly‡j‡Qb †mUv Ges †`L‡Qb Zuvi wb‡RiB gyL †mB ev‡· ivLv| k~b¨ `„wó‡Z †mB bvix ZvwK‡q Av‡Qb| Ab¨ ev· Avi Lyj‡Z PvB‡Qb bv| †Kbbv wZwb ey‡S‡Qb Ab¨me ev‡·I GKB wRwbm †`L‡eb| cwieZ©b †Kv_vI †bB| bZz‡bi mÜvb GLv‡b cÐkÖg| cÖvPxb Áv‡bi g‡a¨B LyR u ‡Z n‡e bZzb‡K| ev·¸‡jv GKB iKg| wKš‘ bv Lyj‡j GB wecyj inm¨‡K aiv hv‡e bv| `yiKg fvebvi ms‡KZ †_‡K Ly‡u R wb‡Z n‡e iv¯Ív| wkíx GB Qwei bvg w`‡q‡Qb ‘Encounter’| Av‡iKwU Qwe ÔToweÕ-G cwiZ¨³ fvOv‡Pviv UvIqv‡ii Qv‡` Pvi‡U eo cvLvIqvjv GKwU DBÛwg‡ji k~‡b¨ fvmgvb cv ivLvi †QvÆ GKUv wcuwoi Ici †Kv‡bvµ‡g Uvj mvg‡j GKwU †g‡q A‡bK `~‡ii wKQy GKUv DrmyK †KŠZ‚n‡j †`L‡Q| UvIqv‡ii `ycvk w`‡q `y‡Uv iv¯Ív Gu‡K‡eu‡K P‡j †M‡Q w`MšÍ‡iLvq| †mB iv¯ÍvB wmuwo‡Z m¤úÖmvwiZ n‡q UvIqv‡ii P‚ovq D‡V G‡m‡Q| A‡bK `~‡i iv¯Ívq wZb PvKvi GKUv nvjKv †d«‡g GKB iKg Jrmy‡K¨ nvZ Zz‡j UvIqv‡ii w`‡K Avm‡Q Av‡iKwU bvix| Gu‡`i g‡a¨ †KD GKRb fv‡iv| Ab¨Rb K¨vwisUb| †i‡gw`Im fv‡iv mivmwi †Kv‡bv AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ

Auv‡Kbwb| fv‡ivi evev wQ‡jb nvB‡WªvwjK BwÄwbqvi, huvi m‡½ ˆkk‡e wZwb †¯úb Ges Avwd«Kvq we¯ÍZ … Ny‡i †eov‡Zb mgq †c‡jB| MwYZ Ges bvbviK‡gi Mvwo Zuv‡K AvK…ó KiZ| K¨vwisUb I fv‡ivi eÜzZ¡ n‡qwQj d«v‡Ý| wKš‘ ivR‰bwZK Kvi‡Y d«vÝ †Q‡o †gw·‡Kvq AvkÖq †bb `yR‡bB Avi GK ai‡bi mRxe, cvi¯úwiK wbf©iZv, fv‡jvevmv I Ava¨vwZ¥K AbymÜv‡b Wz‡e hvb ci¯ú‡ii g‡a¨| K¨vwisUb ZLb Qwei RMr †_‡K wKQyUv `~‡i wb‡Ri †jLvq gMœ| fv‡iv _g‡K †M‡Qb MÖvmv”Qv`‡bi ms¯’v‡bi †Póvq| wKš‘ fv‡ivi m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM wbweo nIqvi ci Zuviv GK †hŠ_ `ytmva¨ AwfhvÎv ïiæ Ki‡jb Zuv‡`i m„wó‡K m¤ú~Y© bZzb Avi Mfxi GK `vk©wbK Dcjwäi evnb K‡i wb‡Z| Zuviv wb‡R‡`i ¯^c,œ Rxe‡bi meUzKz Mí, Rv`y I A‡jŠwK‡K Zxeª Uvb Ñ me wewbgq Ki‡Zb wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨| Qwe Zuv‡`i Kv‡Q n‡q DVj GK w`e¨Zvgq `„wó, Zuv‡`i wb‡R‡`i Mfxi Af¨šÍ‡i R¡jšÍ gkvj n‡q †b‡g wb‡RiB c_ Ly‡u R †bIqv| †mB c_ cvw_©e, AZxw›`ªq Avi Ava¨vwZ¥K| †hLv‡b wec¾bK Szwu K wb‡q `ywb©ixÿ¨ AvwZ¥K cwiÎv‡Yi †LuvR Ki‡Z nq k~‡b¨ fvm‡Z fvm‡Z| RR© Bfv‡bvwfP ¸w`©B‡qd (1877-1949) wQ‡jb GKRb iæk ag©cPÖ viK| fv‡iv Zuvi Av`‡k© AvK…ó nb| cÖvP¨`k©b †eŠ×Zš¿ I mywdev‡`I AvKl©Y wQj Zuvi| fv‡ivi Qwe‡Z Gm‡ei Zxeª cÖwZ”Qvqv Av‡Q| †nvwj †MÖj Ges mg¯Í †MÖj mvwnZ¨I GK †Mvcb inm¨gq Ava¨vwZ¥K AbymÜv‡bi K_v e‡j! †mB AbymÜv‡bi cÖwZaŸwbB †hb 1960 mv‡j AuvKv fv‡ivi Qwe ÔBorn AgainÕ-G| cÖvPxb fMœ¯‡‚Í ci g‡Zv GKUv N‡i †`qvj `iRv Avmev‡ei Ici Qwo‡q hv‡”Q wkKo| Qv` †f‡O †M‡Q| †`Lv hv‡”Q iv‡Zi AÜKvi AvKvk Avi AvaLvbv Puv`| NiwU †hb Kv‡Vi ˆZwi †Kv‡bv ARvbv ¸ßKÿ| `xN©w`b Gi mÜvb K‡iwb †KD| GKw`‡Ki cjKv cvwU©kb †f‡O GKRb †LvjvPzj Avi c~Y© e‡ÿi bvix nVvr †hb †mB N‡ii g‡a¨ G‡m c‡o‡Q, Ggb AZwK©Z wewNœZ `„wó Zvi †Pv‡L| †g‡qwUi †cvkvKI †hb GB NiwUi cvwU©k‡bi g‡Zv Ly‡j co‡Q Zvi kixi †_‡K| GB NiwU‡Z †hgb inm¨gq c`©vi g‡Zv †`qvj †f‡O cÖKvk Ki‡Q †g‡qwU Ñ GKB m‡½ †m wb‡RI †hb Zvi AÁvbZvi †cvkvK wQu‡o wb‡R‡K cÖKvk K‡i w`‡”Q GB inm¨gq NiwUi Kv‡Q| bvbviK‡gi wmuwo †b‡g †M‡Q bvbv w`‡K| ZviB GK †Kv‡Y GKUv wkK‡oi MÖv‡m ew›` †Uwe‡j ivLv agx©q cvbcvÎ ÔPvwjmÕ| Zvi †fZ‡i ivLv Zi‡j (hv wLª‡ói i³) Qvqv c‡o‡Q A‡bK `~‡ii AvKv‡ki Puv‡`i| †g‡qwU mwe¯§‡q †`L‡Q †mB cÖwZdjb| Zvi wØavMÖ¯Í WvbnvZ †hb Zvi ARv‡šÍB Qy‡u Z PvB‡Q †mB cvÎwU| A¨vj‡Kwg ev Acimvqb AvK…ó KiZ fv‡iv‡K| 1958 mv‡j AuvKv ‘The Creation of the Birds’ Qwe‡Z Ávbx †cuPvi gy‡Lvk c‡i wkíx †QvÆ †Uwe‡j e‡m KvR Ki‡Qb| euvnv‡Z g¨vMwbdvBs Møvm aiv| Rvbvjv w`‡q iv‡Zi AvKv‡ki my`i~ GKwU Zviv †_‡K Av‡jv co‡Q †mB Møv‡m| Kv‡Pi †fZi w`‡q G‡m †mB Av‡jv e`‡j hv‡”Q iwOb GKUv cvwL‡Z| Wvb nv‡Z


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aiv Zzwj| ZzwjwU miæ Zv‡i wkíxi ürwc‡Ði RvqMvq ivLv †QvÆ GKwU †envjvi m‡½ Ry‡o †_‡K †fZi w`‡q my‡ii ¯ú›`b cvwLwU‡K †cuŠ‡Q w`‡”Q| cvwLwUi †j‡Ri Ask Zzwj w`‡q AuvK‡Qb wkíx| cvwLwU Gi g‡a¨B Do‡Z †Póv Ki‡Q †hb| Ab¨ GKwU cvwL †Uwe‡ji Kv‡Q Do‡Q| †cuPvi gy‡Lvk civ GB wkíx fv‡iv wb‡RB| †hgb ÔBorn AgainÕ Qwei bvixwUi AbymÜvb fv‡ivi wb‡Ri| fv‡iv wek¦vm Ki‡Zb, bvixiv Áv‡bi cÖZxK Ges Acimvqb I A‡jŠwK‡Ki Abyfw‚ Zm¤úbœ| mywd `k©b, cÖvP¨ Aa¨vZ¥ev`, †eŠ×Zvwš¿KZvi cÖfv‡e Zuvi AšÍMZ © Rxeb e`‡j wM‡qwQj cy‡ivcywi| ¸w`©B‡qd my‡ii g‡a¨ gnvb RMr Abyfe Ki‡Zb| fv‡ivi Qwe‡ZI wkíxi Zzwj‡Z S¼vi Zzj‡Q †envjvi m‡½ †eu‡a ivLv Zvi| d‡ji evRv‡i Nyi‡Z Nyi‡Z GKw`b wZwb †`‡LwQ‡jb wW‡gi AvK…wZi d‡j fiv †Kv‡bv PvivMvQ| wK‡b wb‡q Av‡mb †mB MvQ| Rvbvjvi Ici Puv‡`i Av‡jvq Zv‡K †i‡L Pvicv‡k wZwb wewQ‡q ivL‡jb Zuvi eªvk Avi i‡Oi wUDe| †`L‡Z †`L‡Z GK †Nv‡ii RM‡Z P‡j †M‡jb wZwb Ges Abyfe Ki‡jb Puv‡`i Av‡jv, bÿÎ, GB dzj, GB isZzwj GK AkÖæZ HKZv‡b †e‡R DV‡Q Avi m„wói Av‡Mi kvwšÍ‡Z wd‡i hv‡”Q c„w_ex| 4 cÖwZaŸwb †hfv‡e aŸwb‡K †Luv‡R †mfv‡eB wd«`v Ly‡u RwQ‡jb kixi‡K| Zuvi ¯^wPθ‡jvi ci‡Z ci‡Z Sibvi R‡ji wb‡P A‡åi Qywii g‡Zv SKSK K‡i I‡V Zuvi wb‡Ri kixi Ñ wQbœwfbœ, i³v³ hš¿Yv`xY© i³gvs‡mi ¯Íä w¯’i wng‡mªvZ Ñ Zuvi †dwUk, Zuvi c„w_ex| wb‡Ri kixi †h †dwUk ev cweÎ cÖZxK n‡q I‡V Zuvi Kv‡Q Ñ msMZ KviY Av‡Q Zvi| Am¤¢e ARvMwZK wekvj GK Rxebe¨vcx hš¿Yvi Drm Zuvi i³gvsm| 1913 mv‡j, wd«`v Kvn&‡jv, wcZv Rg©b Avi gv fviZxq †gw·Kvb, Qq eQi eqm ZLb, †cvwjI‡Z miæ n‡q †Mj Wvb cv, †eu‡K †Mj cv‡qi cvZv| LyZ u UzKz XvKv w`‡Z †Q‡j‡`i g‡Zv UªvDRvi civ ïiæ Ki‡jb, Avi GKUz eo n‡q cv-XvKv †gw·Kvb †cvkvK| hLb †gw·‡Kv wmwU‡Z Rg©b K‡j‡Ri QvÎx, wd«`v n‡q DV‡jb GK `y`v© šÍ Ugeq| we‡`ªvnx Ges A`g¨ †Q‡j‡`i `‡ji †bÎx| Aa¨vcK‡`i wb‡q iMo Kiv n‡q DVj K‡j‡Ri cÖavb KvR| weL¨vZ †gw·Kvb gy¨ivwj÷ w`‡q‡Mv wi‡fiv, huv‡K fwel¨‡Z we‡q Ki‡eb wd«`v, Zuvi m‡½ GLv‡bB †`Lv n‡qwQj wd«`vi| 1925 mv‡ji 17 †m‡Þ¤^i Ck¦i wbe©vwPZ Ki‡jb wd«`v‡K wPÎwkíx (g~jZ AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZi) wn‡m‡e| e„wói w`‡b †gw·‡Kv wmwU †_‡K †Kv‡ivKvb hvIqvi c‡_ Ñ m‡½ †Q‡j eÜz Av‡jRv‡›`ªv †Mv‡gR Ñ `ªæZMvgx evm wbqš¿Y nvwi‡q av°v †L‡jv wecixZ w`K †_‡K Qy‡U Avmv B‡jKwUªK Uªwji m‡½| wPrKvi Kvbœv i³‡mªvZ| GKUv †gvUv †jvnvi cvZ wd«`vi wki`uvov P‚Y© K‡i, Zj‡cU Rbb A½ wQbœwfbœ K‡i

†ewi‡q G‡m‡Q i³ †K¬` gvsm gvLvgvwL n‡q| c‡i †`Lv †Mj GQvovI wd«`vi Kuva, cuvR‡ii `y‡Uv nvo †f‡O‡Q| GMv‡iv UzK‡iv n‡q †M‡Q Wvb cv‡qi nvo, cv‡qi cvZv †f‡O `yg‡o †M‡Q| Ck¦‡ii wbe©vPb cÖv_wgKfv‡e †kl n‡jv| µzk Kv‡Vi g‡ZvB GK hš¿Yvgq k³ †d«‡g wZb gvm AvU‡K _vK‡jb wd«`v| AmvaviY g‡bi †Rv‡i †eu‡P DV‡jb, nuvUvPjvi kw³I Aí Aí wd‡i G‡jv| cÖvq A‡jŠwKK †hb Zuvi GB f¯§ †_‡K †di cvwLi kixi wb‡q D‡o Avmv| wKš‘ Zxeª me©vZ¥K, `yg‡o-gyP‡o cvMj K‡i †`Iqv hš¿Yv, K¬vwšÍ, `yej © Zv mvivRxeb Avi gyw³ w`‡jv bv Zuv‡K| c‡ii EbwÎk eQ‡i ewÎkevi Acv‡ikb mn¨ Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q Zuv‡K hvi †ewkifvMB †giæ`‡Ð, †cjwf‡m Avi Wvb cv‡q| cÖwZwU Acv‡ikb e¨_©| mvZPwjøk eQ‡ii Rxe‡bi cÖvq GK-Z…Zxqvsk mgq Zuv‡K nvmcvZvj †_‡K nvmcvZv‡j i³‡mªvZ Swi‡q hš¿Yvq Av”Qbœ †eûuk n‡q KvUv‡Z n‡q‡Q| hš¿Yv‡K fzj‡Z Wz‡e †_‡K‡Qb †gw·Kvb g` UvwKjv, bvbv ai‡bi gv`K Avi wmMv‡i‡U| †Kv‡bv eÜz †bB, m½x †bB| gv‡K evievi AuvZzoN‡i †h‡Z n‡q‡Q| †QvU‡ejv bv‡m©i nv‡Z †e‡o IVv| gv‡qi cÖwZ †Kv‡bv Abyfw‚ Z †bB| evev e¨¯Í Zuvi Kv‡Ri c„w_ex‡Z| GK A™¢Z z KvR Kij †g‡qwU| wb‡Ri Aw¯ÍZ‡¡ K wØLwÐZ K‡i m„Rb Kij KvíwbK GKwU eÜz| wb‡Ri hš¿Yv, nZvkv, Aeiæ× ¯^cœ I evmbvi RMr Ly‡j w`‡jv Zuvi Kv‡Q| †Q‡j‡ejvi †mœnnxbZv‡K fzj‡Z cv‡iwb †g‡qwU| †mB eÂbv ivM eY©bv K‡i‡Q ‘My Nurse and’ Qwe‡Z, †hLv‡b wb‡R‡K †m †`wL‡q‡Q ‘With the face of a grown woman and the body of a little girl, in the arms of my nurse, milk dripping from her breast.’ †Kvg‡ii EaŸ©vsk

Abve„Z bvm©wUi gy‡Li RvqMvq wcÖ-Kjvw¤^qvb wUIwUnvqvKvb gy‡Lvk Ñ †hLv‡b wg‡k hvq g¨v‡Wvbv I wkïi evB‡ejxq Abyl‡½i m‡½ Avw`g gvZ…Kv iƒc| †hŠbZv, gvZ…Z¡ I g„Z¨z GKvKvi n‡q hvq GLv‡b| 5

nvmcvZv‡ji weQvbvq mv`v Pv`i †f‡m hv‡”Q i‡³| weQvbvq ï‡q GK hš¿Yvq gyP‡o IVv bMœ bvix| ùxZ †c‡U nvZ ivLv| nv‡Z aiv cuvPwU i³evnx wkivi †kl cÖv‡šÍ Qwo‡q-wQwU‡q euvav GKwU m‡`¨vRvZ wkï, GKwU kvgyK, gvby‡li †Kvg‡ii nvo, GKwU Zvjv, GKwU wQbœ dzj| A‡bK `~‡i kn‡ii AvKvk‡iLv| Ô†nbwi †dvW© nvmcvZvjÕ bv‡gi GB QwewU wd«`v Kvn&‡jvi AuvKv| QwewUi bMœ bvix wZwb wb‡R| Zuvi wbiæcvq Mf©cv‡Zi gynZ ~ w© U aiv Av‡Q GLv‡b| †mB hš¿Yv I nvnvKv‡i `xY© gyn‡~ Z© wZwb †`L‡Qb ÿgv cÖv_©bvi ai‡b nvZ †Rvo K‡i _vKv GKwU wkï‡K Ñ Rb¥ n‡jv bv hvi| ZvjvwU †hb Zuvi c~Y© bvix‡Z¡i RM‡Z cÖ‡e‡ki Øvi iæ× K‡i Av‡Q| `yNU© bvq †f‡O UzK‡iv UzK‡iv n‡q hvIqv †h †Kvg‡ii Rb¨ Zuvi Mf©aviY evievi e¨_© n‡q hvq Ñ QwewU‡Z G‡m‡Q †mB †cjwfm| G‡m‡Q kvgyK Avi wQbœ dzj Zuvi Rbb-e¨_© ¯¿x A‡½i cÖZx‡K| ‘My painting


carries within the message of pain... painting completed by life. I lost three children. Painting substituted for all this.’ w`bwjwc‡Z wj‡LwQ‡jb wd«`v| gvZ…Z¡ I wk‡íi m¤¢ve¨

msNvZ wb‡q hLb wZwb wØavq, ZLbKvi GKwU wj‡_vMÖv‡d †`Lv hvq Zuvi `ycv‡k GKwU åƒY I GKwU c¨v‡jU| wm×všÍnxb `uvwo‡q Av‡Qb wZwb gvSLv‡b| kix‡ii f½yiZv, mxgve×Zv I hš¿Yv wZwb gvb‡Z cv‡ibwb| m„wói m‡½ Rwo‡q _vKv Zxeª e¨_v‡K Db¥v‡`i g‡Zv cÖKvk Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| GB hš¿Yvq †Zv †Kv‡bv Avovj _v‡K bv| 1932 mv‡j hLb Zuvi mšÍv‡bi m¤¢vebv †kl n‡q †Mj wd«`v AuvK‡jb Ggb Qwe hv Zuvi Qwei Av‡M Avi AuvKv nqwb KL‡bv| QwewUi bvg ‘My birth’| GK`g gy‡LvgywL †K¬vRAvc †bIqv GKwU ùxZ ¯¿x-A½ †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Q i³mœvZ wkï-wd«`vi gv_v| wb®úÖvY| Rb¥`vÎxi gyL mv`v Kvc‡o XvKv| weQvbvi GKUz Ic‡i g¨v‡Wvbvi Qywiwe× hš¿Yvgq gyL| ¯Íä g„Z `ywU cÖvY| wKš‘ †MvUv QwewU wd«`vi wPrKv‡i Kvbœvq LvbLvb n‡q hv‡”Q †hb| GKUv K_v G cÖm‡½ e‡j ivLv `iKvi| wd«`vi †PZbv Rwo‡q wQj wLªó mšÍ I knx`‡`i Qwe, hvi †gw·Kvb bvg wiU¨ve‡jv| wKš‘ wd«`vi GB Qwe¸‡jv wiU¨ve‡jv †_‡K †hvRb-`~i‡Z¡ `uvwo‡q| GB wd«`vi kix‡i De©iZv Av‡Q, gvZ…‡Z¡i Z…òv Av‡Q, i³cvZ Av‡Q, wKš‘ Rb¥`v‡bi ÿgZv †bB| †gw·Kvb †jvKMv_vq Ô†jv‡ivbvÕ Aïf bvixi AvwK©UvBc, AvMÖvmx †hŠbZv wb‡q gvZ…Z¡ I †cÖ‡gi weiæ‡× †h wnsmª `uvwo‡q| †cÖwg‡Ki cÖZ¨vL¨v‡bi hš¿Yvq †h wkïnZ¨v K‡i P‡j| wd«`vi Qwe‡Z bvbvfv‡e wd‡i G‡m‡Q GB Ô†jv‡ivbvÕ| mvivRxeb wd«`v Gu‡K †M‡Qb Zuvi wbR¯^ GB c„w_ex| ev¯ÍeZv‡K wZwb Av‡iv evwo‡q †`wL‡q‡Qb| kix‡ii Ac~YZ © v, e¨_©Zv Avi hš¿Yv Zuvi Rxe‡bi †K‡›`ª wQj| Zuvi Qwei †K‡›`ªI wZwb †i‡L‡Qb Zuvi †mB kixi| De©i kixi Avi Zxeª †hŠbZvi g‡a¨ †Kv_vI g„Z¨z i g‡Zv GK Abyfw‚ Z Av‡Q Ñ wek¦vm Ki‡Zb wd«`v| Zuvi ‘Dream’ Qwe‡Z NygšÍ wd«`v, Pv`‡i I jZvcvZvq kixi Rov‡bv, Ny‡gi DòZv I Av‡gR Zuvi gy‡L| Lv‡Ui QwÎi Ic‡i Av‡iKwU weQvbvq mviv kixi we‡ùviK w`‡q Rwo‡q, GKwU K¼vj kvwqZ hvi ey‡Ki Kv‡Q j¨v‡fÛv‡ii ¸”Q| †h-†Kv‡bv bvix wPÎwkíxi †P‡q cyiæl wkíxi †`Lvi †PvL Avjv`v| cÖRbb, cyiæ‡li AuvKv Qwe‡Z Av‡m kix‡ii cÖZx‡K| wKš‘ bvixi cÖRbb fvlv Ly‡u R cvq MvQcvjv, e„wó, c„w_exi FZzPµ, AvKv‡ki is Ges GgbwK g„Z¨z i g‡a¨I| Kg© I i‡Oi msMwZ I myig~Qb© v, Rxeb Gi †fZi w`‡qB Pj‡Z _v‡K Ñ wek¦vm Ki‡Zb wd«`v| Ávb, aŸsm, cÖZxK, mZKx©KiY, gvwi, ÿZ, cweÎ I †bvsiv, Av‡ÿc I Kjyl †_‡KB AwMœ`» cvwLi g‡Zv D‡V G‡m‡Qb wd«`v| wb‡Ri kixi †_‡KB Rxeb‡K †R‡b‡Qb| Zuv‡K civev¯Íeev`xi ZKgv jvMv‡bv n‡j wZwb Zxeª cÖwZev` K‡iwQ‡jb| ‘They thought I was a surrealist, but I wasn’t. I never painted dreams. I painted my reality.’

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Zvi Av‡M GKUz `„wócvZ Kie wkí-BwZnv‡mi †cÖÿvc‡Ui w`‡K| cwi‡Zvl †mb 1940-Gi `k‡K cÖwZôvcÖvß GKRb wkíx| ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ-Gi Ab¨Zg cÖwZôvZv m`m¨ wQ‡jb wZwb| fviZ Z_v evsjv‡`‡ki wPÎKjvq AvaywbKZv †_‡K AvaywbKZvev` A_©vr ÔgWvb©Õ †_‡K ÔgWvwb©R‡gÕ weeZ©‡bi †ÿ‡Î K¨vjKvUv MÖæ‡ci f‚wgKv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| fvi‡Zi wPÎKjvq AvaywbKZvi ïiæ 1850-Gi `k‡K weªwUk cÖewZ©Z ¯^vfvweKZvev`x wkíaviv †_‡K| ivRv iwe eg©v, Abœ`vcÖmv` evMwP, evgvc` e‡›`¨vcva¨vq cÖgLy wkíx wQ‡jb †mB


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AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ wgkÖ gva¨g, 1996 cwi‡Zvl †mb

muvZviæ KvM‡Ri Ici Pvi‡Kvj, 1986 cwi‡Zvl †mb


b¨vkbvj KvjPvivj d«›UÕ| 1948-G GB ms¯‹viB bZzb bvg nq ÔcÖ‡MÖwmf AvwU©÷m A¨v‡mvwm‡qkbÕ| GB †h mviv fvi‡Z msNe× wkí Av‡›`vjb Ñ Gi D‡Ïk¨ wQj wk‡íi wfZi w`‡q mvgvwRK ev¯ÍeZv‡K Zz‡j aiv| Zv Ki‡Z wM‡q wkíxiv cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZv I AvaywbKZvev`x Avw½K‡K AvZ¥¯’ Ki‡Z PvB‡jb| Zvi m‡½ †gjv‡ZI PvB‡jb †`kxq †jŠwKK HwZn¨‡K| cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi Qwe‡ZI GB mgš^qcÖwµqv ¸iæZ¡ †c‡q‡Q| GLv‡b Avi GKwU msk‡qi ev msK‡Ui Drm m¤ú‡K© AewnZ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| †mwU wkí-BwZnvm msµvšÍ| fvi‡Zi wewfbœ wkí-ivRbxwZi †K›`ª †_‡K †h wkíBwZnvm iwPZ n‡q‡Q, Zv‡Z AvaywbKZvev‡`i cÖ_g I cÖavb cÖe³v wn‡m‡e Ôe‡¤^ cÖ‡MÖwmf MÖæcÕ‡KB wPwýZ Kiv n‡q _v‡K| ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ m¤ú~Y© D‡cwÿZ †_‡K hvq| †KDB g‡b iv‡Lb bv ev ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z Pvb bv †h ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ ˆZwi n‡qwQj Ôe‡¤^ cÖ‡MÖwmf MÖæcÕ-Gi A‡bK Av‡M| Ges ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ-Gi †cÖiYv‡ZB M‡o D‡VwQj Ôe‡¤^ cÖ‡MÖwmf MÖæcÕ| †mw`K †_‡K AvaywbKZvev‡`i †ÿ‡ÎI ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ-Gi wkíxivB cw_K…r| wKš‘ Zuviv †Zgb c„ô‡cvlKZv I cÖPv‡ii Av‡jv cvbwb| wKš‘ AvR hw` Avgiv Zuv‡`i wkíK…wZ wePvi Kwi, Zvn‡j †`Lv hv‡e †h Zuv‡`i `vq‡eva, b›`b‡PZbv, iƒ‡ci cÖMvpZv †Kv‡bv As‡kB Kg bq| bxi` gRyg`vi, †Mvcvj †Nvl, mybxj gvae †mb, cÖ‡`vl `vk¸ß, i_xb ˆgÎ, †Mvea©b Avk †h wkíK…wZ †i‡L †M‡Qb, Zvi AwfNvZ †gv‡UB D‡cÿYxq bq| cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi QweI GB `„wó‡KvY †_‡KB wePvh©| cvðv‡Z¨i AvaywbKZvev`x iƒc‡PZbv‡K wZwb AvZ¥¯’ K‡i‡Qb| fviZxq HwZn¨‡KI mg¨K Abyaveb K‡i‡Qb| GB `yB DËivwaKvi‡K mgwš^Z K‡i wZwb M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb †h iƒ‡ci RMr, Zv cÖwZwbqZ cÖengvb ev¯ÍeZvi weiæ‡× cÖ w Zev`x iƒcKí ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| GLv‡bB Zuvi Avay w bKZvev`x †PZbv †`k-Kv‡ji cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© n‡q I‡V| Zuvi Qwe memgqB Rxeb‡K wbweofv‡e Qyu‡q †_‡K‡Q| cÖZ¨ÿ cÖengvb RxebB wQj Zuvi m„wói Drm| bvbv Drm †_‡K wZwb MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ Zuvi wbR¯^ e¨w³‡Z¡i Av‡jvq Zv Ggbfv‡e iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Q †h AvüZ Drm¸wj †_‡K Zv G‡Kev‡iB Avjv`v n‡q †M‡Q| KL‡bv KL‡bv wZwb Avevi wb‡Ri Rxeb I cvwicvwk¦©K‡KB wk‡íi welq K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb| wb‡R‡K wb‡q †KŠZzK K‡i‡Qb| †mB †KŠZz‡Ki ga¨ w`‡q mvgwMÖK wek¦`„wó‡KI D‡b¥vwPZ K‡i‡Qb| Avgiv Rvwb, GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wkíxB ïay bb, cwi‡Zvl †mb wQ‡jb GKRb AZ¨šÍ we`» †jLKI| AvZ¥¯§„wZwfwËK AvL¨vbg~jK I wkíKjvwelqK Ñ Dfq ai‡bi †jLv‡ZB GK wbR¯^ cÖKvkfw½ ˆZwi K‡iwQ‡jb wZwb| Qwe I †jLv Ñ GB `ywU w`K wb‡qB Db¥xwjZ n‡q‡Q Zuvi wkíxmËv|

`yB cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi Rb¥ 1918 mv‡j eZ©gvb evsjv‡`k, ZrKvjxb c~ee© ‡½i XvKv †Rjvq| hw`I GB Z‡_¨ mvgvb¨ fzj Av‡Q| Zuvi mg¯Í RxebcwćZ Zuvi Rb¥el© wn‡m‡e 1918-B D‡jøL Kiv nq| wKš‘ eZ©gvb †jL‡Ki m‡½ GK e¨w³MZ mvÿvrKv‡i wkíx e‡jwQ‡jb, cÖKZ … c‡ÿ Zuvi Rb¥ 1919 mv‡j| wZwb hLb B‡›`v‡i wkÿKZv Ki‡Qb, ZLb Zuvi my‡hvM nq GKRb weªwUk ivRcyiæ‡li mnvqZvq cvm‡cvU© Kwi‡q †bIqvi| ¯§„wZ †_‡K Rb¥ZvwiL ej‡Z wM‡q wZwb fzj K‡i 1918 e‡jb| †mUvB ZLb Zuvi cvm‡cv‡U© bw_fz³ n‡q hvq| c‡i Avi GB ZvwiL cwieZ©b Kiv hvqwb| Zuvi ˆkke-ˆK‡kvi †K‡U‡Q c~ee© ‡½| XvKv kn‡i Zuvi evwo wQj ÔwR›`vevnvi †jbÕ bv‡g GK iv¯Ívq| †mLvbKvi bvbv ˆewP‡Î¨i K_v Avgiv †R‡bwQ wR›`vevnvi bv‡g Zuvi ¯§„wZPviYvg~jK MÖš’ †_‡K| GQvov Zuv‡`i Avi GKwU evwo wQj XvKv kni †_‡K wKQy `~‡i Ô†ejZjxÕ bv‡g GK MÖv‡g| `yMv© c~Rvi mgq Zuviv †mLv‡b †h‡Zb| Ab¨vb¨ QywU‡ZI KL‡bv KvUv‡Zb †mLv‡b| wR›`vevnvi eB‡qi ÔAvwgÕ bv‡gi iPbvq GB MÖv‡gi GKw`‡bi ¯§„wZi K_v e‡j‡Qb wZwb| Zuvi eqm ZLb eQi ev‡iv n‡e| Ô†ejZjxÕ‡Z †M‡Qb| wWwO †bŠKvq K‡i GLvbKvi Lvj-we‡ji g‡a¨ Ny‡i Ny‡i †eov‡”Qb| mnmv ILvbKvi cÖKw… Zi mg¯Í iƒcgvayh© Zuvi †PZbv‡K Awff‚Z, we¯§qvweó Kij| Zuvi wb‡Ri K_vq Ñ ÔG-wbZ¨‡jvK mwZ¨B Kx imgq! Kx gayi! Kx gy³ Rxeb!Õ mviv `yciy †bŠKvq Nyi‡Z Nyi‡Z GKmgq MjyB‡q gv_v w`‡q ï‡q‡Qb| Ic‡i ZvwK‡q †`L‡Qb meyR cÖKw… Zi Amvgvb¨ iƒc| Avi GKw`‡K gvwU‡Z Mv‡Qi Ic‡i Rxe‡bi wecyj mgv‡ivn| †Ku‡Pv, K¨vov, k¨vgv‡cvKv, ïu‡qv‡cvKv, ¸Bmv‡ci ev”Pv, Av‡iv KZ Kx! Avevi wb‡Pi w`‡K R‡ji wfZ‡i ZvwK‡q †`L‡Qb kZ kZ RxevYy, RjPi †cvKv, †gŠijv, U¨vsiv, cywu U, wPswo BZ¨vw` gvQ I wewPÎ me cÖvYxi mgv‡ivn| m„wói GB ÔRwUj b·vÕ Zuv‡K Awff‚Z K‡iwQj ZLb, †mB ˆK‡kv‡i| A‡bK c‡i cwiYZ eq‡m wZwb GKwU cÖeÜ wj‡LwQ‡jb fviZxq fv¯‹h© wel‡q| Bs‡iwR‡Z †jLv †mB cÖe‡Üi wk‡ivbvg wQj ÔwWbvwgRg Bb BwÛqvb ¯‹víPviÕ| †mB †jLv AšÍf³ ©z n‡q‡Q 1984-†Z jwjZKjv A¨vKv‡Wwg cÖKvwkZ Kzgvi¯^vgx kZevwl©Kx ¯§viKMÖ‡š’| GB †jLvwUI wZwb ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb †ejZjx MÖv‡gi †mB ˆK‡kvi ¯§„wZ w`‡q| AYyexÿY h‡š¿i Zjvq GK †duvUv R‡ji wfZi ÿz`vª wZÿz`ª AšÍnxb Rxe‡bi Dcw¯’wZ †`‡L we¯§qvweó n‡qwQ‡jb cÖL¨vZ Aw÷ªqvb weÁvbx B‡qvnvb †g‡Ûj| weÁvbxi †mB we¯§‡qi m‡½ Zuvi wb‡Ri Abyfw‚ Z‡K GKvZ¥ Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb wkíx| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cÖKw… Z, Rxeb I wk‡íi g‡a¨ GK HK¨m~Î Abyfe K‡iwQ‡jb wZwb| GB m‡e©k¦iev`x Ava¨vwZ¥KZv †hgb wQj Zuvi ˆK‡kvi-†PZbvi GKwU w`K, †Zgwb Gi GK wecixZ cÖvšÍI wQj, hv AZ¨šÍ ev¯Íe| wR›`vevnv‡i Zuv‡`i wQj weivU GK


KjvevMv‡b euv`i KvM‡Ri Ici †Mvqvk, 1939

†hŠ_ cwievi| Zuvi wcZv cÖmbœKgz vi †mb wQ‡jb GKRb bvgKiv KweivR| gvbyl wn‡m‡e wZwb wQ‡jb AZ¨šÍ WvKmvB‡U I ivkfvix| Zuvi `yB c‡ÿi ¯¿xi wgwjZ mšÍv‡bi msL¨v Kzwo| cwi‡Zvl Zuvi mß`kZg mšÍvb| Zuvi KwbôZg mšÍv‡bi R‡b¥i mgq cÖmbœKzgv‡ii eqm wQj cuPvËi eQi| GB KzwowU mšÍv‡bi ¯¿x cyÎ Kb¨v QvovI Ab¨vb¨ AvZ¥xq¯^Rb wb‡q GB weivU GKvbœeZx© cwiev‡i †K‡U‡Q Zuvi ˆkke| cwiev‡ii m‡½ Zuvi †m A‡_© †Kv‡bv GKvZ¥Zv M‡o I‡Vwb| eis GK wew”QbœZv Zuvi ˆkke‡K fvivµvšÍ K‡i‡Q| GB gb¯ÍvwË¡K k~b¨Zv wech©¯Í K‡i‡Q Zuvi ˆkke‡K| cvkvcvwk GKUv †mŠ›`‡h©i †evaI M‡o D‡V‡Q Zuvi wfZi ˆkke †_‡KB| GB mnRvZ †eva †_‡KB wZwb gy» I wew¯§Z n‡Z cvi‡Zb `wR© nvwdR wgTvi †cvkvK ˆZwii ˆkwíK ˆbcy‡Y¨ ev cvqiv Iov‡bvi Amvgvb¨ gybwkqvbvq, wmb‡R›Uvi wR‡Zb †MuvmvBi A¼‡bi `ÿZvq, †Ww›U÷

AvLZvi wgTvi KvíwbK Mí evbv‡bvi cÖwZfvq| XvKv †Rjvq Zuv‡`i MÖv‡gi †mB weivU AR©ybMvQ Zuvi Kíbv‡K bvbvfv‡e DÏxwcZ KiZ| GB †h gb¯ÍvwË¡K ˆecixZ¨, hvi bvg †`Iqv †h‡Z cv‡i †ejZjx-wR›`vevnvi ˆecixZ¨, †mUvB Zuvi ev¯ÍeZv‡eva‡K wbqš¿Y K‡i‡Q| ev¯ÍeZv‡eva‡K †mŠ›`h©‡ev‡a RvwiZ K‡i‡Q| †mB mgš^q †_‡K M‡o D‡V‡Q Zuvi wkí| Zuvi wk‡íi Avi GKwU †h ˆewkó¨, kixigqZv ev †mbmyqvwjwU, †mUvI nq‡Zv ˆkk‡ei †mB ev¯ÍeZv †_‡KB G‡m‡Q| †hŠ_ cwiev‡ii †mB wkïwU‡K ZL‡bv †KD cyiæl e‡j MY¨ KiZ bv| d‡j AvZ¥xq-cwiR‡bi g‡a¨ hyeZx bvixi Abve„Z kixi A‡bK mgqB D‡b¥vwPZ n‡Zv Zuvi mvg‡b| †miKg Pvÿzl AwfÁZvi eY©bv Avgiv A‡bK cvB Zuvi †jLvq| GB Bw›`ªqgqZv ïay bvixi kix‡ii iƒcvq‡Y bq, Zuvi mgMÖ cÖKv‡kiB Awe‡”Q`¨ ˆewkó¨ n‡q D‡V‡Q| Zuvi mgMÖ ev¯ÍeZvi †evaB kixi-m¤ú„³| Ges MvVwbK|


cieZx© Rxe‡b, Zuvi cwiYZ c‡e©, iƒ‡ci wbg©v‡Y wZwb †h cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZvi †cv÷-wKDwe÷ ev DËi-NbKev`x Avw½‡Ki cÖwZ AvK…ó n‡q‡Qb, Gi GKUv KviY n‡Z cv‡i Zuvi gb¯Í‡Ë¡i AšÍM©Z †mB kvixwiKZv ev MvVwbKZvi cÖwZ mnRvZ AvKl©Y| wKDweR‡gi R¨vwgwZ w`‡q wZwb †mB MvVwbKZv‡KB cÖMvp Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ wKDweRg m‡Ë¡I, cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZvi Avw½‡K gMœZv m‡Ë¡I, Avgv‡`i g‡b ivL‡Z nq, Zuvi gb‡bi Ges †mRb¨B Zuvi m„R‡bi wkKo Mfxifv‡e †cÖvw_Z wQj Zuvi ¯^f‚wg‡Z| mvivRxeb wZwb A‡bK RvqMvq Ny‡i‡Qb| ˆkke †_‡K cwiYZ eqm ch©šÍ Zuvi cwiµgvi µgUv A‡bKUv GiKg| XvKvi wR›`vevnvi, †ejZjx; †mLvb †_‡K gv`ªvR; Zvici KjKvZv, B‡›`vi, c¨vwim, KjKvZv, iuvwPi †bZvinvU, Gici ¯’vqxfv‡e KjKvZv| Gi c‡iI wZwb d«vÝ, †mvwf‡qZ ivwkqv I Av‡gwiKvq †M‡Qb| hLbB †hLv‡b †M‡Qb, †mLvb †_‡K msM„nxZ n‡q‡Q wKQy| mwÂZ n‡q‡Q Zuvi †PZbvq| cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Zuvi wk‡í| Zuvi Kv‡R GB wkK‡oi Uvb, GB b÷vjwRqv‡K wZwb Abyfe K‡i‡Qb memgq| GK mvÿvrKv‡i e‡jwQ‡jb : ÔRb¥f‚wgi cÖwZ Mfxi bvwoi Uvb bv _vK‡j †Zv IiKg †jLv hvq bv| †KvbI m„Rbkxj KvRB Kiv hvq bv|... XvKvi cÖwZ GB AšÍ‡ii Uvb Avgvi GLbI KvR K‡i| GB †h cÖv‡Yi Uvb, AvwËKZv Ñ †mUv Avgvi m„RbkxjZvi †ÿ‡Î bvbvfv‡e cÖfve †d‡j‡Q|Õ (emyaviv, 15 AvM÷ 2002, †`evwkm P‡›`i †bIqv mvÿvrKvi| c„. 74)

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GiKg GKUv Awb‡`©k¨ DËivwaKviB nq‡Zv Zuvi g‡a¨ µ‡g µ‡g cwic~YZ © v †c‡q‡Q| ¯‹‡z j co‡Z co‡ZB wKQy wKQy AuvKvi †Póv Ki‡Zb| ZLb †_‡KB GB msKí `„p n‡qwQj g‡b †h wkíx nIqvB Zuvi Rxe‡bi GKgvÎ jÿ¨| wZb †`excÖmv` ivq‡PŠayix (1899-1975) bvg ï‡bwQ‡jb ¯‹‡z ji

†kl av‡c †cuŠ‡Q| wewfbœ cÎcwÎKvq †`‡L‡Qb Zuvi Qwe| †`excÖmv` ZLb gv`ªvR Mfb©‡g›U AvU© ¯‹‡z ji Aa¨ÿ| wkíx wn‡m‡e Zuv‡KB Av`k© e‡j g‡b nw”Qj Zuvi| fvewQ‡jb, Qwe AuvKv hw` wkL‡Z nq, wkL‡eb Zuvi Kv‡QB| ¯‹‡z ji cvV †kl n‡j gv`ªvR hvIqvi Rb¨B gb w¯’i Ki‡jb| evwo‡Z Zuvi `v`viv ZLb AwffveK| evev gviv †M‡Qb A‡bK Av‡MB| wkíx nIqv ZLb GK bMY¨ e„wË e‡j MY¨ n‡Zv| ZvB cwiev‡ii mK‡jiB wQj cÖej AvcwË| GKgvÎ bxie m¤§wZ wQj Zuvi gv-i| †mBUzKz fimv Avi cÖej AvZ¥wek¦vm wb‡q 1936 mv‡j gvÎ 17 eQi eq‡m XvKv †_‡K GKv cvwo w`‡jb gv`ªv‡R| Gi Av‡M †`excÖmv`‡K wPwV wj‡L, Qwe cvwV‡q m¤§wZ Av`vq K‡i‡Qb Zuvi| gv`ªvR AvU© ¯‹‡z j wM‡q fwZ© n‡jb Z…Zxq e‡l©| AuvKvi `ÿZvi Rb¨ `yeQi GwM‡q fwZ© K‡i †bIqv n‡jv Zuv‡K| 1940 mv‡j cwi‡Zvl †mb gv`ªvR AvU© ¯‹z‡ji cvVµg †kl K‡i hLb KjKvZvq wd‡i G‡jb, ZLb †`‡ki mvgvwRK ev¯ÍeZv Zuv‡K Mfxifv‡e bvov w`‡jv| GZw`b wZwb †h Qwe AuvKwQ‡jb Zv‡Z be¨-fviZxq Nivbvi cÖfve wQj A‡bKUvB| †`excÖmv` I gv`ªvR AvU© ¯‹z‡ji wkÿK‡`i cwiPvjbvq Qwei bvbv Avw½K wb‡q Abykxjb K‡i‡Qb| ¯^vfvweKZvi ixwZ‡ZI Zuvi `ÿZv M‡o D‡V‡Q h‡_ó| Zey 1940-Gi KjKvZvq wd‡i Zuvi g‡b n‡jv, GB wfwËi Ici Zuv‡K M‡o Zzj‡Z n‡e wb‡Ri cÖKv‡ki c_, Zuvi wbR¯^ Avw½K| ev¯ÍeZvi cÖwZ Zuvi GKUv AvKl©Y eiveiB wQj| ZLbKvi Av‡jvwoZ I ÿwqòz ev¯ÍeZv‡K cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ AvaywbKZvi bZzb fvlv M‡o Zzj‡Z n‡e, GB †evaI RvMj ZLb| ZLb hy‡×i cÖ‡qvR‡b BD‡ivc †_‡K cÖPiz ˆmwbK Avm‡Q G‡`‡k| Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvR‡b Avm‡Q cÖPiz we‡`wk eB| we‡`wk Qwei eB ZLb A‡bK mnRjf¨ n‡q‡Q KjKvZvq| B‡¤úÖkwbRg, †cv÷-B‡¤úÖkwbRg †_‡K wKDweRg ch©šÍ wewfbœ wkíavivi wkíx‡`i Qwe †`Lvi my‡hvM n‡jv Zuvi GBme eB‡qi gva¨‡g| Zuvi g‡b n‡jv, AvaywbKZvi wech©¯Í ev¯ÍeZvi `„k¨iƒc M‡o Zzj‡Z GB wPÎfvlv‡K bvbvfv‡e e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GKB m‡½ Zuvi m‡PZbZv RvMj †`kxq †jŠwKK m¤ú‡K©I| 1930-Gi `k‡K fvi‡Zi wPÎKjvq †jŠwK‡Ki D¾xeb AvaywbKZv‡Z bZzb AwfgyL G‡bwQj| G wel‡q hvwgbx ivq wQ‡jb cw_K…r| 1937-38 mvj bvMv` Aebx›`ªbv_ I b›`jvj emyi Qwe‡ZI †jŠwKK‡K AvZ¥¯’ Kivi cÖeYZv †`Lv hvq| Aebx›`ªbv_ 1938 mv‡j Gu‡KwQ‡jb ÔK…òg½jÕ I ÔKweK¼Y PÐxÕ wPÎgvjv| Zv‡Z wQj †jŠwKK Avw½‡Ki myPviæ e¨envi| b›`jvj 1937-G Gu‡KwQ‡jb Ônwicyiv †cv÷viÕ wPÎgvjv, nwicyivq Ks‡MÖm Awa‡ek‡bi Rb¨ gÐc m¾vi Qwe| G wel‡q mybqbx †`exi Ae`vbI ¯§iY‡hvM¨| MvwÜwR 1920-Gi `kK †_‡K ivR‰bwZK Av‡›`vjb‡K †hfv‡e MÖv‡gi w`‡K, wbgœeMx©q gvby‡li w`‡K cÖmvwiZ K‡iwQ‡jb, ZviB d‡j †R‡MwQj †jŠwKK m¤ú‡K© GB


m‡PZbZv| Pwjø‡ki ZiæY wkíxiv hvwgbx iv‡qi †jŠwKK Avw½‡Ki D¾xeb Øviv Mfxifv‡e DÏxwcZ n‡qwQ‡jb| cwi‡Zvl †mb 1940-Gi `k‡Ki †Mvovq ¯^‡`k I we‡k¦i ev¯ÍeZv Øviv Av‡jvwoZ n‡”Qb| GB ev¯ÍeZv‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z wM‡q `ywU Drm‡K †gjv‡Z †Póv Ki‡Qb| GKwU fviZxq †jŠwKK| wØZxqwU BD‡ivcxq AvaywbKZvi Avw½K| GB mgm¨vmsKzj mg‡q GKK cÖ‡Póv †h h‡_ó bq, GB †evaI RvM‡Q Zuvi g‡b| Zuvi mgeq¯‹ I mggb¯‹ wkíx‡`i m‡½ wg‡j M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ| `ywf©‡ÿi eQi 1943-G cÖwZwôZ GB `‡ji wkíx‡`i mw¤§wjZ D‡`¨vM fviZxq wkíKjvi AvaywbKZvq bZzb AwfNvZ G‡bwQj| Pwjø‡ki GB mvgwMÖK cwiw¯’wZ cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi ev¯Íe‡PZbv I b›`b‡PZb‡K cÖejfv‡e Av‡jvwoZ K‡iwQj| 1940-G gv`ªvR †_‡K KjKvZvq wd‡i wKQyw`b _vKvi ci IB eQiB cwi‡Zvl †mb P‡j hvb B‡›`v‡i, ILvbKvi †Wwj K‡j‡R wkí-wkÿKZvi PvKwi wb‡q| 1949 ch©šÍ PvKwi K‡ib ILv‡b| KjKvZvi m‡½ ZLb †hvMv‡hvM †i‡L‡Qb ILvb †_‡KB| ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ-Gi cÖ`k©bx‡Z AskMÖnY Ki‡Qb wbqwgZ| wfZ‡i wfZ‡i ZLb Abyfe Ki‡Qb cwðggyLx Uvb| AvaywbK cvðvZ¨ wkíKjvi cÖwZ Zuvi ZLb cÖej AvMÖn| †mB AvaywbKZvi cÖvY‡K›`ª d«v‡Ýi c¨vwim kni| †mLv‡b hvIqvi ¯^cœ Zuvi Pwjø‡ki `k‡Ki †Mvov †_‡KB| †mB ¯^cœ mdj n‡Z mgq jvMj cÖvq GK `kK| we‡`‡k hvIqvi g‡Zv Avw_©K mvg_©¨ ZLb Zuvi wQj bv| Zey B”Qv _vK‡j Dcvq nq Ñ GB wek¦v‡m wbf©i K‡i †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Dcvq n‡q‡Q Ae‡k‡l| GKwU wUwKU I K‡qK‡kv UvKv m¤^j K‡i 1949 mv‡j wZwb cvwo w`‡jb BD‡iv‡ci c‡_| †Wbgv‡K© fviZxq `~Zvev‡mi AvbyK‡‚ j¨ †mLv‡b GKwU cÖ`k©bxi e¨e¯’v n‡qwQj Zuvi| †mB cÖ`k©bx †_‡K wKQy UvKv msMÖn nIqvq mnRZi n‡qwQj Zuvi BD‡ivc hvÎv| c¨vwim wQj Zuvi jÿ¨| Ae‡k‡l c¨vwim †cuŠQ‡jb 1950-Gi kx‡Zi cÖvi‡¤¢| c¨vwi‡m Zuv‡K hy³ _vK‡Z n‡qwQj K‡qKwU wkí-wkÿvcÖwZôv‡b| Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Auv‡›`ª †jvn‡Zi ¯‹j z , A¨vKv‡Wwg MÖ¨vÛ cvwg‡qi, G‡Kvj wW †evRvZ© Ges G‡Kvj wW jyf‡i| †k‡lv³ cÖwZôv‡b wZwb c‡o‡Qb wkí-BwZnvm| wKš‘ ILv‡b Zuvi cÖKZ … wkÿv N‡U‡Q †`Lvi ga¨ w`‡q| AweiZ †`‡L‡Qb wewfbœ wgDwRqvg I AvU© M¨vjvwi| mviv we‡k¦i Abvw`Kv‡ji wkí-BwZnv‡mi m‡½ Pvÿzl cwiPq n‡q‡Q †mLv‡b| Qq bÿ‡Îi `xw߇Z fv¯^i ZLb c¨vwi‡mi wk‡íi AvengÐj| Zuviv n‡jb wcKv‡mv, eªvK, gvwZm, kvMvj, iæ‡qv I eªvu Kzwm| GQvov c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡ki cÖvq cÂvk nvRvi wkíx ZLb KvR Ki‡Qb ILv‡b| mwµq i‡q‡Q K‡qK‡kv AvU© M¨vjvwi| wecyj GB wk‡íi Kg©Kv‡Ð c¨vwi‡mi GB gnvwgjb‡gjvq G‡m Kx wk‡LwQ‡jb cwi‡Zvl †mb? Qwe‡Z welq I Avw½‡Ki m¤úK© m¤^‡Ü GZw`b hv †R‡bwQ‡jb wZwb, GLv‡b G‡m †`L‡jb, cvðv‡Z¨i AvaywbKZvev`x (gWvwb©Rg) Abyl½ †mB m¤úK©Uv‡K

cy‡Îi g„Z¨z ‡Z ive‡Yi †kvK wgkÖ gva¨g, 2001

hyeK †Q‡jwU gyiwM KvU‡Q KvM‡Ri Ici A¨vwµwjK, 1983


G‡Kev‡i Dj‡U w`‡q‡Q| Qwe †_‡K AvL¨v‡bi cwigÐj G‡Kev‡iB weewR©Z n‡q †M‡Q| Mí ejv bq, Avw½K ev wkíxi ÷vBjUvB Qwei `„k¨Zvi g~j Dcv`vb| GKwU AwZ mvaviY e¯‘B n‡Z cv‡i wk‡íi welq| Zvi Dc¯’vcbvi wfZi w`‡qB cwiùzU n‡Z cv‡i wkíxi mgMÖ wek¦`w„ ó, hvi †kÖô `„óvšÍ f¨vb M‡Ni Ô†PqviÕ ev GKwU cwiZ¨³ eyURy‡Zv| Zuvi wb‡Ri †jLvq : ‘One of the important lessons I learnt during my stay in paris was the reversal of the old subject-picture relationship. The picture now as a picture took the lead by a total elemination of story-telling. The artist’s aim, I felt, must be to subdue all things to his style beginning with the simplest, least promising objects as exemplified in Van Gogh’s painting of an empty chair or a pair of discarded boots. (Paritosh sen in Retrospect. Mapin Publishing, Ahmedabad, P-60)

GB Dcjwä ïay ZuviB bq| fviZe‡l© 1940-Gi `k‡K cÖwZôvcÖvß wkíx‡`i AvaywbKZvev`x cÖKv‡ki GUvB wQj GKwU mvaviY ˆewkó¨| cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi cÖ_g ch©v‡qi c¨vwim cÖev‡m `ywU ¸iæZ¡cY~ © NUbv N‡U‡Q| G‡K wZwb Zuvi Rxe‡bi †kÖôZg AwfÁZv e‡j eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| cÖ_gwU fv¯‹i eªvu Kzwmi m‡½ mvÿvrKvi| wØZxqwU wcKv‡mvi gy‡LvgywL n‡q Zuvi m‡½ A‡bKUv AšÍi½ mgq KvUv‡bv| 1953-i 1 †g wcKv‡mvi m‡½ Zuvi cÖ_g mvgbvmvgwb †`Lv n‡qwQj c¨vwi‡mi ÔSalon de MaiÕ cÖ`k©bx‡Z| wZwbB GwM‡q wM‡q Avjvc K‡ib wcKv‡mvi m‡½| wb‡R‡K GKRb fviZxq wkíx e‡j cwiPq †`b| ÷zwWI‡Z wM‡q wcKv‡mv‡K Qwe †`Lv‡bvi AbygwZ Pvb| GKw`b ev` w`‡q c‡ii w`b mKvj `kUvq wcKv‡mv Zuv‡K mgq †`b| Pjw”PÎKvi evwiY mvnv ZLb c¨vwi‡m| evwiY‡K m‡½ wb‡q cwi‡Zvl wba©vwiZ mg‡q hvb wcKv‡mv mvwbœ‡a¨| wcKv‡mv Zuvi Qwe †`‡L cÖksmv K‡iwQ‡jb| e‡jwQ‡jb wVK c‡_B P‡j‡Qb wZwb| Gici wcKv‡mv Zuvi wb‡Ri Qwe †`L‡Z AvnŸvb K‡ib cwi‡Zvl‡K| GB NUbv Zuv‡K Awff‚Z K‡iwQj| wcKv‡mv e‡jwQ‡jb, c¨vwi‡mi †Kv‡bv M¨vjvwi‡Z wZwb cwi‡Zv‡li Qwei cÖ`k©bxi Rb¨ Aby‡gv`b K‡i †`‡eb| †mLv‡b cÖ`k©bx Ki‡Z cv‡ib GB ZiæY wkíx| wcKv‡mvi GB gn‡Ë¡ gy» n‡qwQ‡jb wZwb| Zuvi Kv‡Q wcKv‡mv n‡q I‡Vb c„w_exi wZb †kÖô gbxlx ev wkíxi Ab¨Zg| evwK `yRb n‡jb : Pvwj© P¨vcwjb I iex›`ªbv_| cÖ¯vÍ weZ †mB cÖ`k©bx Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb cwi‡Zvl †mb| †`‡k wd‡i Avmvi cÖ¯w‘ Z ZLb Zuvi †kl n‡q †M‡Q| wcKv‡mvi †`Iqv †mB my‡hvM MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb e‡j c‡i wZwb Aby‡kvPbv K‡i‡Qb| wcKv‡mv m¤úwK©Z IB †jLvi †kl As‡k wZwb e‡j‡Qb : ‘I consider myself singularly fortunate to have

come face to face with real greatness. The experience has enrichad my life. In the extended university of life, bits and pieces of experience add up to build up a philosophy of life. Along with this most valueable experience I have an equally staggernig remorse; why did I refuse Picasso’s offer of holding an exhibition in paris? The opportuinty is gone for ever.’ (Paritosh sen in Retrospect, Mapin Publishing, Ahmedabad. 2001. Page-101)

1949-G Bsj¨vÛ, Zvici 1950 †_‡K 1953 ch©šÍ c¨vwi‡m KvwU‡q wZwb †`‡k wd‡i G‡jb| Pvi 1940-Gi `k‡Ki AwfÁZv I c¨vwi‡mi AwfÁZv Ñ GB `yB‡q wg‡j ˆZwi n‡jv Zuvi cieZx© Rxe‡bi m„R‡bi wfwËf‚wg| Pwjøk I cÂv‡ki `kKRy‡o wZwb †KejB ÔiƒcÕ‡K †f‡O †f‡O wb‡Ri Qwe‡Z †cuŠQ‡Z †Póv K‡i‡Qb| 1940-Gi Av‡M ch©šÍ cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi Qwei cÖavb cÖeYZv wQj be¨-fviZxq iƒcixwZ‡K ey‡S †bIqvi †Póv| AvU© ¯‹‡z j wZb eQi AwZµg Kivi ci QvÎ Ae¯’v‡ZB Zuvi GKwU Qwe cÖevmx cwÎKvq Qvcv n‡qwQj| ZLb cÖevmx‡Z GKUv Qwe †e‡iv‡bv †h-†Kv‡bv wkíxi c‡ÿB wQj LyeB m¤§v‡bi welq| Zuvi cÖ_g GKK cÖ`k©bx nq 1941 mv‡j Avj‡gvivi D`qk¼i †m›Uv‡i| wØZxq GKK 1942-G jv‡nv‡ii wjUv‡iwm wj‡M| Z…Zxq GKK B‡›`v‡ii UvDb n‡j 1943 mv‡j| 1944 mv‡j bZzb w`wjøi IqvBGgwmG n‡j n‡qwQj PZz_© GKK| cÂg GKK n‡qwQj KjKvZvq, †gŠjvbv AvRv` K‡j‡R 1945 mv‡j| KjKvZvq GwUB Zuvi cÖ_g GKK| GQvov wZwb wbqwgZ AskMÖnY KiwQ‡jb ÔK¨vjKvUv MÖæcÕ-Gi m‡¤§jK cÖ`k©bx‡Z| Qwe‡K memgqB mvgvwRK Aeÿ‡qi weiæ‡× cÖwZev`x kw³ wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z PvB‡Zb cwi‡Zvl †mb| Ô`¨ wdMvi Bb BwÛqvb AvU©Õ bv‡g jwjZKjv K‡›U‡¤úvivwi cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ GK cÖe‡Ü (GwcÖj, 1974) wZwb wj‡LwQ‡jb : ‘In the present situation, I feel it necessary for us to create an art which is powerful as a social force.’

1943-G KjKvZvq hLb `ywf©ÿ Pj‡Q, cwi‡Zvl ZLb B‡›`v‡i i‡q‡Qb| Zvi g‡a¨B KjKvZvq hLb G‡m‡Qb, †`‡L‡Qb †mB wech©‡qi cÖKU iƒc| Qwe‡Z ai‡ZI †Póv K‡i‡Qb †mB exfrmZv‡K| †miKg `y-GKwU Qwei eY©bv cvB jwjZKjv A¨vKv‡Wwg cÖKvwkZ kvwšÍ †PŠayixi †jLv f‚wgKvq| wZwb wjL‡Qb : ‘Paritosh was fairly close to the left movement and his paintings on the Bengal famine showed the foreign soldier as a skull with cigar, dying,


evOvwj weevn`„k¨ KvM‡Ri Ici Rjis, 1940


children oozing out of skeletal mothers, a masquerade of death composed in strong swirling lines, expressing the anger and the anguish of the painter. This concern for his followers was to become a major element in Paritosh sen’s art.’

mvaviY, wecbœ gvby‡li Rb¨ Zuvi GB †h concern, GB †h fvebv, GUvB 1940-Gi ci †_‡K Zuvi Qwei cÖavb ˆewkó¨ n‡q DV‡Z _v‡K| GUv Ki‡Z †M‡j Qwei Avw½K‡K, †mB cÖKv‡ki Dchy³ K‡i M‡o wb‡Z n‡e| GB KvRwUB wZwb K‡i‡Qb 1940-Gi `kKRy‡o Ges c¨vwim cÖev‡mi mgq| GB cÖwµqvq wZwb †KejB †`kxq iƒcixwZi m‡½ cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZvi †cv÷-B‡¤úÖkwb÷ I wKDwe÷ iƒcixwZ‡K †gjv‡Z †Póv K‡i‡Qb| †Kgb K‡i GB mgš^q NU‡Q Zvi `„óvšÍ wn‡m‡e GKwU Qwei D‡jøL Kiv hvq| QwewU 1942-Gi ÔwU cvwU© Bb Av g¨v‡½v †MÖvfÕ| †Mvqvk gva¨‡g AuvKv| GLv‡b wKDweRg †bB| Avevi m¤ú~Yf © v‡e be¨-fviZxq wPÎixwZi cwigÐjI †bB| †cv÷-B‡¤úÖkwbR‡gi wKQyUv Avfvm kbv³ Kiv †h‡ZI cv‡i| eûgyLx cwi‡cÖwÿZ ev gvwëcj cvm©‡cKwU‡fi †h e¨envi GLv‡b i‡q‡Q, Zv‡Z fviZxq AbywP‡Îi cwigÐj aiv c‡o‡Q my›`ifv‡e| be¨-fviZxq g~j¨‡ev‡ai m‡½ cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZvi g~j¨‡eva‡K †gjv‡bvi cÖqvm i‡q‡Q GLv‡b| IB GKB eQ‡ii ÔMvj©m Ab Av wmmvBWÕ QwewU‡Z mgy‡`ªi wbm‡M© `yB bvixi Dc¯’vcbvq Ô†mbmyqvm‡bmÕ ev kixigqZv ¯úófv‡e cwiùzU n‡q‡Q| 1944-Gi Ô_vW© K¬vm K¤úvU©‡g›UÕ kxl©K †Mvqv‡k AuvKv QwewU‡Z †UªbhvÎxi ev¯ÍeZv‡K iƒcvwqZ K‡i‡Qb| 1940-Gi `k‡KB Zuvi AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ AuvKvi ïiæ| `ywU AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ we‡klfv‡e `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i| 1948-G KvM‡Ri Ici c¨v‡÷‡j AuvKv Ô†mjd †cv‡U©Uª DB_ cvBcÕ| ¯^vfvweKZv-AvwkÖZ iƒcv‡iv‡ci g‡a¨ eY©c‡Ö qv‡M Awfe¨w³ev`x Aven G‡m‡Q| wØZxqwU 1949 mv‡ji KvM‡Ri Ici Kvwj-Kj‡g AuvKv| wk‡ivbvg †mjd †cv‡Uª©U| Zxÿè †iLv I QvqvZ‡ci web¨v‡m AuvKv| Av‡jvQvqvi jy‡KvPzwii wfZi w`‡q GLv‡bI GKUv Awfe¨w³ev`x cwigÐj ˆZwi n‡q‡Q| Gici †_‡K mvivRxebB wZwb Gu‡K †M‡Qb ARmª AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ| KL‡bv †KŠZz‡K, KL‡bv KiæYvq| AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ m¤^‡Ü GK mvÿvrKv‡i wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb : ÔAvgvi †ÿ‡Î ej‡Z cvwi †h e³e¨ cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ Avwg wb‡R‡K g‡Wj wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡iwQ| GKRb mgvRm‡PZb wkíx wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K bvbv mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb, NUbv, engvb Rxe‡bi †cÖwÿ‡Z g‡Wj wn‡m‡e `uvo Kwi‡q Gu‡KwQ| wb‡Ri B‡”Q-Awb‡”Q, †ÿvf-ivM `ytL-myL cÖKvk K‡iwQ| e¨½, we`ªæc, mvgvwRK †KŠZzK Avgvi Qwei Kg†ewk g~j myi| AvZ¥cÖwZK…wZ‡ZI Zv G‡m‡Q|Õ (emyaviv, 25 AvM÷ 2002| c„. 72)

Zuvi 1950-Gi `k‡Ki Qwe‡Z †jŠwKK mvij¨gq iƒcweb¨v‡mi m‡½ Zxÿè †KŠwYK R¨vwgwZKZv wgj‡Z _v‡K| †`kxq iƒcixwZi m‡½ wKDweRg‡K †gjv‡bvi ïiæ GLvb †_‡KB| 1951-i K¨vbfv‡mi Ici †Zji‡O AuvKv Ôeq BwUs IqvUvi‡gjbÕ QwewU Gw`K †_‡K D‡jøL‡hvM¨| Zxeª Kv‡jv †cÖÿvc‡U jvj i‡Oi cÖvav‡b¨ `xN©vqZ GKwU evj‡Ki z ‡iv jvj Avj¤^ (Vertical) Dc¯’vcbv| Zvi `ynv‡Z aiv `yUK Zigy‡Ri dvwj| evjKwUi `vwi‡`ª¨i KiæYv iƒcvwqZ n‡q‡Q GLv‡b †`kxq †jŠwK‡Ki wfwËi Ici wKDweRg I G·‡cÖkwbRg‡K AvZ¥¯’ Kivi cÖqv‡mi ga¨ w`‡q| cÖvq GKB Avw½‡Ki Qwe IB GKB eQ‡i Kiv ÔMvj© DB_ Av wkd Ae Kb©Õ| †Zji‡O AuvKv 1956-i Ô`¨ evW© †mjviÕ ev Ô`¨ mviw½ †cøqviÕI A‡bKUv GKB Avw½‡Ki Qwe| 1956-i A‡bK Qwei g‡a¨ Ô`¨ evDj wm½viÕ QwewU Zuvi GB mg‡qi iƒcfvebvi ˆewkó¨ eyS‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| Zv‡ii ev`¨hš¿ nv‡Z GKRb evDj `uvwo‡q Av‡Q| Zvi `ycv‡k bvix I wkï| jÿYxq, mgMÖ cwigЇj †jŠwKK mvij¨ i‡q‡Q| Zvi g‡a¨B cÖwZwU Aeqe R¨vwgwZKfv‡e we‡køwlZ n‡q‡Q| †jŠwK‡Ki m‡½ wKDweR‡gi Avw½K‡K Gfv‡e wgwj‡q Qwe‡Z wPišÍb RxebcÖev‡ni wfZi mv¤úÖwZ‡Ki msNvZ‡K cÖwZ¯’vwcZ Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Qb| 1940 I 50-Gi `k‡K e¨w³MZ I mvgvwRK bvbv msNv‡Zi ga¨ w`‡q †h‡Z †h‡Z Gfv‡eB cwi‡Zvl †mb Zuvi wbR¯^ iƒcixwZ M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb| Zuvi fvebvq †h wkí n‡e ‘powerful as a social force’ ZviB wfwË ¯’vwcZ n‡jv GB `yB `kKRy‡o| cieZx©Kv‡j GiB bvbv iƒcvšÍi Avgiv †`Le| cuvP `xN© cuvP eQi c¨vwim cÖev‡mi ci 1954 mv‡j KjKvZvq wd‡i G‡m GLvbKvi ev¯Íe cwiw¯’wZ Zuvi g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y Kij| we‡`‡k cÖvPzh,© ˆefe, ms¯‹w… Zgb¯‹Zv †`‡L‡Qb| GLvbKvi Ae¯’v Zvi wecixZ| mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb-msMÖvg LyeB msKUgq| Zey `vwi‡`ª¨i g‡a¨, msNv‡Zi g‡a¨I mvaviY gvby‡li Rxebxkw³ Zuv‡K gy» K‡i‡Q| AwZ mvaviY gvby‡li wfZi AmvaviY gvbeZvi `„óvšÍI AbycvÖ wYZ K‡i‡Q Zuv‡K| Rxe‡bi GB ˆecixZ¨‡K wZwb eyS‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| 1955 mv‡j wZwb GKUv PvKwi wb‡q P‡j †M‡jb iuvwPi †bZvinv‡U| ILvbKvi GKUv ¯‹‡z j wkíwkÿK wbhy³ n‡qwQ‡jb| `vwi‡`ª¨i fqsKi iƒc †`‡LwQ‡jb ILv‡b| wKš‘ ILv‡b †ewkw`b _vK‡Z cv‡ibwb wZwb| KwVb GK Amy‡L AvµvšÍ n‡q 1956 mv‡j KjKvZvq wd‡i G‡jb| GB mgq Zuv‡K AvK…ó K‡i ˆRb I ivR¯’vbx AbywP‡Îi Qwe| AbywPÎ QvovI †Kv¤úvwb ¯‹‡z ji Qwei cÖwZI AvK…ó nb| G¸‡jv wbweófv‡e Aa¨qb K‡ib| fviZxqZvi Gme mvivrmvi wgwj‡q wb‡Z †Póv K‡ib Zuvi wb‡Ri Qwe‡Z| 1956-†Z


m‡iv`ev`K KvM‡Ri Ici A¨vwµwjK, 2005

AuvKv Ô`¨ eveyÕ QwewU Gi `„óvšÍ| †bZvinvU †_‡K wd‡i G‡m IB eQiB (1956) wZwb PvKwi †c‡jb hv`ecy‡ii ÔBbw÷Uz¨U Ae wcÖw›Us †UK‡bvjwRÕ‡Z wWRvBb I †jAvD‡Ui Aa¨vcK wn‡m‡e| Gici †_‡KB Zuvi Rxe‡b w¯’wZ G‡jv| 1979-†Z Aemi †bIqvi Av‡M ch©šÍ ILv‡bB PvKwi K‡ib| KjKvZv n‡q I‡V Zuvi ¯’vqx evm¯’vb| 1956 †_‡K 1966 ch©šÍ wZwb wQ‡jb †jK Mv‡W©bm A‡j| 1966 †_‡K 1998 ch©šÍ †`kwcÖq cv‡K©i Kv‡Q kir e¨vbvwR© †iv‡W| 1998-†Z P‡j Av‡mb Avwjcyi cvK© †iv‡Wi Ô†mvbvjx A¨vcvU©‡g‡›UÕ Zuvi wb‡Ri d¬¨v‡U| hv`ecy‡i PvKwi cvIqvi c‡ii eQi A_©vr 1957 mv‡j wZwb we‡q K‡ib RqkÖx‡K| hv`ecy‡i wkÿKZv Zuv‡K ïay A_©‰bwZK wbðqZvB †`qwb, gvbweK w`K †_‡KI A‡bK mg„× K‡i‡Q| ZiæY Qv·`i m‡½ †gjv‡gkvi ga¨ w`‡q GKvZ¥Zv Abyfe K‡i‡Qb Zuv‡`i m‡½|

1956-57 mv‡j KjKvZvi c_NvU, AwjMwj‡Z Ny‡i Ny‡i mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb‡K wZwb †`‡L‡Qb bvbvfv‡e| ew¯Í‡Z Ny‡i †eov‡Zb| `ytL I `vwi‡`ª¨i g‡a¨ gvby‡li A`g¨ Rxebxkw³ Zuv‡K gy» KiZ| †mmeB n‡q DVZ Zuvi Qwei welq| mvgvwRK ev¯ÍeZvi GK bZzb aib wZwb ˆZwi K‡ib †`kxq †jŠwKK, AbywPÎ, Gm‡ei m‡½ †cv÷-B‡¤úÖkwbRg I wKDweR‡gi mvivrmvi wgwj‡q-wgwk‡q| GiKg 40wU Qwe wb‡q cÖ`k©bx K‡iwQ‡jb cvK© w÷ª‡Ui Aaybv wejyß ÔAvwU©w÷ª nvD‡mÕ| GB cÖ`k©bx KjKvZvq Lye mvov †d‡jwQj| wKš‘ wewµ n‡qwQj gvÎ wZb-PviLvbv Qwe| Gme Qwe‡Z welq wn‡m‡e G‡mwQj mvaviY gvbyl, åóvPvix e¨emvqx, ivR‰bwZK †bZv BZ¨vw`| GQvov msMxZ GKUv ¸iæZ¡cY~ © welq wn‡m‡e G‡mwQj A‡bK Qwe‡Z| msMx‡Z Zuvi wPiw`bB Mfxi AvKl©Y wQj| ivM-ivwMYx wb‡q A‡bK QweI Gu‡K‡Qb cieZx©Kv‡j| †KŠZzK memgqB Zuvi Qwei GK ¸iæZ¡cY~ © ˆewkó¨| GB mgq


†_‡KB Qwe‡Z Zv †ewk K‡i cwiùzU n‡Z _v‡K| 1960-Gi `k‡K †cuŠ‡Q Zuvi iƒ‡ci GB mvij¨gq msnwZ µgk fvO‡Z jvMj| 1950-Gi `k‡K bZzb ¯^vaxb nIqv †`‡k cwiKíbv I Dbœq‡bi †h ¯^cœ wQj, lv‡Ui `k‡K †cuŠ‡Q Zv fvO‡Z jvMj| `ywU cÂevwl©K cwiKíbv we‡kl †Kv‡bv mydj djv‡Z cv‡iwb| we¯ÍZ … †`‡k `vwi‡`ª¨i †Kv‡bv Dckg nqwb| e¨vcKfv‡e †e‡o‡Q ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK `ybx©wZ| Gi d‡j mgv‡R †`Lv w`‡q‡Q Am‡šÍvl| ivR‰bwZK Av‡›`vjb †e‡o‡Q| cÖMvp n‡q‡Q QvÎ-Av‡›`vjb| wf‡qZbvg mvaviY gvby‡li †PvL Ly‡j w`‡q‡Q| cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi g‡Zv ev¯Íegb¯‹, mgvRm‡PZb wkíx †h Gme NUbvcÖev‡n Av‡jvwoZ n‡eb GUvB ¯^vfvweK| GiB cÖwZwµqvq Zuvi Qwei †mB mij †mŠ›`h© †f‡O †h‡Z jvMj| 1962 mv‡j wZwb wØZxqevi c¨vwim hvb| ILvb †_‡K jÛ‡b wM‡qI †_‡K‡Qb wKQyw`b| Gev‡i wZwb wM‡qwQ‡jb Zuvi ¯¿xi we‡kl Aby‡iv‡a, ïay †eov‡bvi Rb¨B| nv‡Z UvKv †ewk wQj bv| `yR‡bi Rvnv‡Ri fvov Qvov Avi gvÎ Qq cvDÛ m‡½ wQj| ïay IUzKz m¤^j K‡i Avi wb‡Ri AuvKv GK evwÛj Qwe wb‡q Zuviv we‡`‡k cvwo w`‡qwQ‡jb| GB c‡e©i ågY-e„ËvšÍ wZwb we¯Í…Zfv‡e wj‡L‡Qb `~‡ii gvbyl, Kv‡Qi †jvK bv‡g GK Av‡j‡L¨| GB †jLvwU Zuvi Avey wm¤^vj, wcKv‡mv I Ab¨vb¨ Zx_© bv‡g eB‡Z AšÍfz©³ Av‡Q| jÛ‡b ÔM¨vjvwi IqvjÕ bv‡g GKwU M¨vjvwi‡Z cÖ`k©bx Kivi my‡hvM NUj fviZxq wPÎKi ˆZqe †gnZvi m‡½ †hŠ_fv‡e| cwi‡Zvl †mb †`Lv‡jb fviZxq msMx‡Zi ivM-ivwMYx wb‡q AuvKv wKQy Qwe| AvaywbK ˆkjx‡Z, wgkÖ i‡O AuvKv †ek eo AvKv‡ii Qwe wQj †m¸wj| cÖ`k©bxwU LyeB mvov RvwM‡qwQj| wZbwU Qwe AcÖZ¨vwkZfv‡e wewµ n‡qwQj Zuvi| c¨vwi‡m _vKvKv‡j divwm miKv‡ii KvQ †_‡K GKwU M‡elYv cÖK‡íi Rb¨ Avgš¿Y †c‡jb| iex›`ªbv‡_i n¯Ívÿi †_‡K evsjvq we‡kl GKwU nid wWRvB‡bi cwiKíbv K‡ib| A‡bK `~i GwM‡qI cÖKíwU †kl ch©šÍ ev¯ÍevwqZ nqwb| KjKvZvi †Kv‡bv UvBc dvDwÛª GB UvBc XvjvB Ki‡Z m¤§Z nqwb| †Kbbv G‡Z hv e¨q n‡e †mB Zzjbvq Pvwn`v ˆZwi n‡e wKbv, G wel‡q Zv‡`i mskq wQj| 1960-Gi `k‡Ki †kl c‡e© Zuvi Qwei GKwU ˆewkó¨ ev¯Í‡ei k~b¨Zv msnZ n‡Z n‡Z KL‡bv myi n‡q D‡V‡Q| wbwLj bvw¯ÍI µgk GK Aw¯ÍZvq DËxY© n‡Z cv‡i, Gi `„óvšÍ 1969-Gi Ôe‡o ¸jvg Avwj LvbÕ K¨vbfvmwU| Aeq‡ei mvgvb¨ Avfv‡m wkíx GLv‡b weg~Z© msMxZ‡K g~Z© K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb| Zuvi lv‡Ui `k‡Ki GB cÖvq-weg~Zv© wqZ Awfe¨w³ev`x avivi wKQy wKQy Av‡jvwKZ mdjZv m‡Ë¡I GKmgq Zuv‡K eyS‡Z n‡jv, GB weg~Z©vqb Zuvi c_ bq| Zuv‡K A‡bK †ewk mswkøó _vK‡Z n‡e Rxe‡bi m‡½| Aeq‡ei mvij¨ I mylgvi ga¨ w`‡qB dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z n‡e Rxe‡bi Av‡jvob| cieZx© c`‡ÿ‡c wZwb †mw`‡KB AMÖmi n‡jb|

1969 mv‡ji †klw`‡K cwi‡Zvl †mb Avevi BD‡ivc †M‡jb| Gevi wZwb `y‡Uv MÖv›U †c‡jb| GKwU divwm miKv‡ii| wØZxqwU Rb wW. iK‡djvi _vW© dvÛ †_‡K| `yeQ‡ii GB BD‡ivc I Av‡gwiKv åg‡Y wZwb bZzb K‡i Abyaveb Ki‡jb KvB‡bwUK AvU©, cc AvU© Ges Av‡gwiKvb G·‡cÖkwbRg| gv‡m©j `y¨mvi (Marcel Duchamp) wewfbœ cixÿv-wbixÿvi m‡½I cwiwPZ n‡jb| GB hvÎv‡ZB Zuvi my‡hvM n‡qwQj wgki I †gw·‡Kv åg‡Yi| wgk‡ii Avey wm¤^vj gw›`i †`Lv Zuvi Rxe‡bi GKwU ¯§iYxq AwfÁZv| GB AwfÁZvi K_v wZwb mwe¯Ív‡i wj‡L‡Qb ÔAvey wm¤^vj hvÎvÕ bv‡gi iPbvq| 1971-G hLb KjKvZvq wd‡i G‡jb ZLb bKkvjevwo Av‡›`vj‡b KjKvZv Z_v cwðge½ DËvj| me©ÎB AvZ¼ I wnsmvi evZveiY| Qwe AuvKvB m¤¢e n‡jv bv eQiLv‡bK| Zvici ax‡i ax‡i GB †µva I nZvkvB cÖwZaŸwbZ n‡Z jvMj K¨vbfv‡m| Rxe‡bi GB †h AwfgyLnxbZv, †Kv_vq P‡jwQ bv †R‡bB GB †h Zxeª †e‡M Qy‡U Pjv, Gm‡ei weiæ‡× cÖwZev`x cÖwZgvKí D‡V G‡jv wPÎc‡U| GK mvB‡Kj Av‡ivnx I `yNU© bv wb‡q AuvK‡jb GK wPÎgvjv| 1973-Gi Ô`¨ Uv‡bjÕ bv‡g GKwU Qwe‡Z †`Lv hv‡”Q GK myo‡½i AÜKv‡ii wfZi cÖ‡ek Ki‡Q GK †gvUimvB‡Kj Av‡ivnx| GB mg¯Í Qwe wb‡q 1973-G cÖ`k©bx n‡qwQj KjKvZvi weojv A¨vKv‡Wwg‡Z| GB cÖ`k©bx‡Z wZwb GKwU Bb÷‡jkb K‡iwQ‡jb| †ccvi‡gwk‡Z ˆZwi K‡iwQ‡jb jvBd-mvBR GK mvB‡Kj Av‡ivnxi fv¯‹h|© Pjgvb †mB fv¯‹‡h©i †cQ‡b wQj UªvwdK wmMb¨vj| iv¯Ívi hvbevn‡bi AvIqvRI wQj| GwUB wQj Avgv‡`i †`‡k Bb÷‡jkb Av‡U©i m~Pbv| cieZx©Kv‡j hv A‡bK cÖmvwiZ n‡q‡Q| 1980-i `k‡K cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi Qwe GKw`‡K †hgb ev¯ÍeZv‡K bvbvfv‡e we‡køwlZ K‡i †Zgwb Ava¨vwZ¥KZvi w`‡KI †h‡Z _v‡K| Av‡gwiKvq †`Lv ÔBmv‡ejÕ bv‡g GK wb‡MÖv ZiæYx‡K wb‡q A‡bK Qwe Gu‡KwQ‡jb| 1984-i †m‡Þ¤^‡i KjKvZvi weojv A¨vKv‡Wwg‡Z AbywôZ n‡qwQj Zuvi GKK cÖ`k©bx| ¸Riv‡Ui Rxeb wb‡q AuvKv A‡bK¸wj Qwe wQj †mLv‡b| 1983, 84 I 87-†Z Avn‡g`vev‡`i b¨vkbvj Bbw÷Uz¨U Ae wWRvB‡b AvwU©÷ Bb †iwm‡WÝ wn‡m‡e wQ‡jb wZwb| ¸Riv‡Ui †mB AwfÁZv iƒc †c‡qwQj Gme Qwe‡Z| Avwki `k‡Ki gvSvgvwS †cuŠ‡Q cwi‡Zvl †m‡bi Qwe‡Z Rxe‡bi mg¯Í msNvZ‡K AvZ¥¯’ K‡iB GK mylgvi Av‡jv DrmvwiZ n‡Z _v‡K| Gi Ab¨Zg `„óvšÍ ÔkÖxivgK…ò K_vg„ZÕ Aej¤^‡b AuvKv Qwe| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb, ÔK_vg„‡Z jywK‡q Av‡Q wPÎK‡íi GKwU †mvbvi LwbÕ| GB wPÎKí¸‡jv‡KB wZwb G‡Ki ci GK iƒcvwqZ K‡iwQ‡jb GB wPÎgvjvq| Qwe¸wji iƒcv‡iv‡c I cÖwZgvq‡b wQj GK ai‡bi mijZv| Zv wVK †jŠwKK mijZv bq| †Kv¤úvwb ¯‹‡z ji Qwe Zuv‡K DØy× K‡iwQj GB wPÎgvjv iPbvq, GK_v wZwb Rvwb‡q‡Qb|


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mvayiv K¨vbfv‡mi Ici A¨vwµwjK, 2004

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Kv‡jv †cvkv‡K Bmv‡ej K¨vbfv‡m A¨vwµwjK, 1982


evDj MvqK cøvBD‡Wi Ici †Zjis, 1956

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†_‡K Avmv †g‡q, A_©vr †mUv Zuvi Rb¥¯’vb| Avevi GUvI †`Lv hv‡”Q, Zvi RxeÏkvq MZ kZ‡K c„w_exi ey‡K gvbeRvwZi g‡a¨ `y-`y‡Uv wek¦hy× msNwUZ n‡q‡Q| 1914 mv‡j hLb cÖ_g wek¦hy× ïiæ n‡jv ZLb †ncIqv_© gvÎ GMv‡iv eQ‡ii wkï| †m eQi wbwg©Z nq wek¦L¨vZ Pvwj© P¨vcwj‡bi Pjw”Pθ‡jv| ZviI wZb eQi ci 1917 mv‡j msNwUZ nq iæk wecøe, G mgq †ncIqv‡_©i eqm gvÎ †PŠÏ| 1903 mv‡j Zuvi R‡b¥i eQi, DBjevi ivBU Ges Aiwfj ivBU åvZ…Øq c„w_ex‡Z cÖ_g kw³PvwjZ BwÄb w`‡q AvKv‡k wegvb Iov‡jb| †gvUvgywU a‡i †bIqv hvq †ncIqv‡_©i PviæwkíwelqK Aa¨qbKvj ïiæ 1920 mv‡j, m‡Z‡iv eQi eqm †_‡K| ˆkke, ˆK‡kvi, wkíwkÿvmn bvbvgvwÎK cÖ¯‘wZ‡Z Zuvi Rxe‡bi cÖvq wÎk eQi AwZevwnZ nq| Zuvi evnvËi eQ‡ii Avqy®‹v‡j m„Rbkxj wkíxRxeb a‡i †bIqv hvq cÖvq weqvwjøk eQi| Zuvi Rxe‡b wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i †ekwKQy AwfNvZ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq| we‡klZ wØZxq wek¦hy× PjvKv‡j Zuvi †ekwKQy g~j¨evb fv¯‹h© webó nq, wKsev wPiZ‡i nvwi‡q hvq| cÖPÐ NUbveûj wesk kZvãx‡Z wØZxq wek¦hy× ïiæ nq 1939 mv‡j| 1920 †_‡K 1926 mvj ch©šÍ †ncIqv‡_©i wkíwkÿvi cÖvwZôvwbK mgqKvj Kv‡U Bsj¨vÛ Ges BZvwji †ivg I †d¬v‡i‡Ý| 1920 mv‡j Zuvi wkíwkÿvi m~Pbv nq Bsj¨v‡Ûi wjWm ¯‹zj Ae Av‡U©| †mLvb †_‡K cvwÐZ¨fvZv (¯‹jviwkc) †c‡q wZwb 1921 †_‡K 1924 mvj ch©šÍ wkíwkÿv †bb Bj¨vs‡Ûi i‡qj K‡jR Ae Av‡U©| Gici I‡q÷ ivBwWs ¯‹jviwkc bv‡gi cvwÐZ¨fvZv †c‡q †mLvb †_‡K wkí Aa¨q‡b hvb BZvwj| BZvwji †d¬v‡iÝ Ges †ivg `yB RvqMv‡ZB P‡j Zuvi Aa¨qb| †d¬v‡i‡Ý Ae¯’vbKv‡j mncvVx fv¯‹i Rb w¯‹wcs‡K we‡q K‡ib| 1927 mv‡j BZvwj †_‡K Bsj¨v‡Û wd‡i GB wkíxhyMj †m›U Rbm DW bvgK ¯’v‡b ¯’vwcZ Zuv‡`i fv¯‹h© ev wkím„Rbkvjvq (÷zwWI) Av‡qvRb K‡ib †hŠ_ cÖ`k©bx| GLv‡bB G mgq wf‡±vwiqv A¨vÛ AvjevU© wgDwRqv‡gi fv¯‹h© wefv‡Mi Aa¨ÿ wiPvW© †eW‡dvW© Zuv‡`i cwiPq Kwi‡q †`b wkímsMÖvnK RR© B‡qv‡gvi‡dv‡cvjv‡mi m‡½| wiPvW© wb‡RI wQ‡jb GKRb fv¯‹i| GKB mgq †ncIqv‡_©i ZÿYK…Z PviwU fv¯‹h© wewµ nq| G¸‡jvi Ab¨Zg GKwUi bvg Ô†WvfmÕ, GB fv¯‹h©wUmn me g¨vb‡P÷vi wmwU AvU© M¨vjvwi‡Z msiÿY Kiv nq| c‡ii eQi GB wkíx`¤úwZ †hŠ_ cÖ`k©bx K‡ib weD· AvU©m M¨vjvwi‡Z| Zuviv wb‡Riv D‡V Av‡mb n¨v¤úw÷W GjvKvi cvK©wnj mo‡Ki Av‡iKwU fv¯‹h© wbg©vYkvjvq| m¤¢eZ 1930 mvj ch©šÍ GB wkíx`¤úwZi `v¤úZ¨Rxeb †U‡K| 1931 mv‡j †ncIqv_© wgwjZ nb wPÎKi †eb wbKjm‡bi m‡½| wbKjmb G mgq †ncIqv‡_©i wØZxq ¯^vgx wn‡m‡e Zuvi Rxe‡b Av‡mb| GKB eQi †ncIqv_© †hvM †`b Ô†m‡fb A¨vÛ dvBf †mvmvBwUÕ bv‡gi GKwU

wkíxms‡N| GB wkíxmsNwU‡Z RwoZ wkíxiv, wPÎKi †eb wbKjmb Ges fv¯‹i †nbwi gy‡ii cÖfv‡e µ‡gvÏxßfv‡e ÔwkímvivskZvÕq (A¨ve÷ªvKkb) DcbxZ nw”Q‡jb| cvK©wnj mo‡Ki n¨v¤úw÷‡W fv¯‹h© ev wkím„Rbkvjvq †ncIqv‡_©i m‡½ 1930 mv‡j wkíx †eb wbKjmb Ges fv¯‹i †nbwi gyi Nwbôfv‡e KvR K‡ib| GB wZbRb wkíxB wQ‡jb mgmvgwqK| Zuviv GKB m‡½ cov‡kvbv K‡iwQ‡jb Bsj¨v‡Ûi i‡qj K‡jR Ae Av‡U©| GB mgqUvq A_©vr 1930 mv‡j †ncIqv_© Gu‡`i `yRb‡K wb‡q GKwU ¯^vaxb wkíavivi (Gb‡K¬Bf) m~Pbv K‡ib, hv µ‡gB mevi Kv‡Q Bsj¨v‡Û wkímvivsk Av‡›`vj‡bi (A¨ve÷ªv± gyf‡g›U) g~j †K›`ª wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ †c‡Z ïiæ K‡i| GB wkímvivskZv ixwZi Kvi‡Y GB wZbRbB AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e L¨vwZgvb n‡q I‡Vb| Zuviv wZbRb GKm‡½ ¯^Zš¿avivi wkíx we‡ewPZ n‡Z _v‡Kb Zuv‡`i mgmvgwqK Ab¨vb¨ weªwUk wkíxmn mevi Kv‡Q| GUv‡K nq‡Zv ejv hvq wZb wkíxi h~_e× wbtm½Zv| wKš‘ Zuviv †kl Aewa wKQy‡ZB m‡i Av‡mbwb Zuv‡`i wk‡íi A¨ve÷ªvKkb ev wkímvivskZvi ixwZ-wek¦vm †_‡K| 1932 mvj| †ncIqv_© Ges †eb wbKjmb `yR‡bB d«v‡Ý †M‡jb| †mLv‡b Zuviv wgwjZ n‡jb eª¨vK, eªv¼zBwR, wcKv‡mv, gw›`ªqvbmn B‡qv‡ivcxq kxl©¯’vbxq wkíx‡`i m‡½| huv‡`i wk‡íi divwm cwifvlvq WvKv n‡q _v‡K ÔAvfuv Mv`©Õ| A_©vr m„Rb-†mŠK‡h© mgmvgwqK Ges cÖPwjZ wkíavivi Abymvix‡`i †P‡q hviv †gŠwjK I AMÖmi, ZuvivB n‡jb Avfuv Mv`©| G eQiB †ncIqv_© †hŠ_ cÖ`k©bx Ki‡jb †eb wbKjm‡bi m‡½| Uz_m M¨vjvwi‡Z Av‡qvwRZ cÖ`k©bxwU Mfxifv‡e AvK…ó Kij weL¨vZ wkímgv‡jvPK nve©vU© wiW Ges Avi GBP DB‡jbw¯‹‡K| AMÖmi wkíx‡`i wb‡q wkíx cj b¨vk MwVZ wkíxmsN ÔBDwbU IqvbÕ-G `yRbB †hvM w`‡jb 1933 mv‡j| 1934 mv‡ji cÖvq ïiæ †_‡K fv¯‹i †ncIqv_© wbg©vYev`x wk‡íi ixwZ‡K (Kb÷ªvw±wf÷ wcÖwÝcvjm) Nwbôfv‡e AbymiY K‡i A‰RweK-R¨vwgwZK AvK…wZi mvivsk fv¯‹h© (bb-AM©vwbK wRI‡gwUªK¨vj A¨ve÷ªv± Kvwf©sm) Mo‡jb| G ixwZi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ fv¯‹h©¸‡jv n‡jv : ÔwWmK&m Bb B‡kjbÕ (`¨ wgDwRqvg Ae gWvb© AvU©, wbDBqK©, 1935), ÔUz †mM‡g›Um A¨vÛ †ùqviÕ, GB fv¯‹h©wU 1936 mv‡j †iBW A¨vÛ †j‡df‡i M¨vjvwi‡Z wb‡Kv‡jwË †MÖ Av‡qvwRZ ÔA¨ve÷ªv± A¨vÛ KswµUÕ (mvivskwkí I wbh©vmwkí ev A¨ve÷ªv± Av‡U©i mgv_©K kã ev cwifvlv wn‡m‡e cvðv‡Z¨i wkív‡jvPbvq KL‡bv KL‡bv ÔKswµU AvU©Õ GB wkí AwfavwU e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| evsjvq hv‡K `xN©Kvj AvwfavwbK mg_©b QvovB fzjfv‡e Ôweg~Z© wkíÕ ejv n‡q‡Q Ges GL‡bv n‡”Q| G e¨vcv‡i gvwmK kãNi ågYmsL¨v 2017-†Z cÖKvwkZ wkíx Avwgbyj Bmjv‡gi Ici †jLv Avgvi cÖeÜwU‡Z we¯ÍvwiZ Av‡jvPbv Av‡Q| AvaywbK wkí mv`„k¨vZ¥K bvwK Amv`„k¨vZ¥K, ev¯Íeev`x bvwK fvecÖmZ ~ ev Awa‰PZb¨cÖmZ ~ , bvwK Awfbe


wùqvi DB_ Bbvi dig, 1963, 1965


is, †iLv, Zj, `vM-†Qvc-†duvUv AvK…wZi Øviv iwPZ GUvB gyL¨| cvðv‡Z¨ wek kZKRy‡o ZvB Avw½‡KiB bvbv cwieZ©b, Avwef©ve I hyMmwÜÿY Avgiv †`wL| wPÎ-fv¯‹‡h© ÔiPbvÕ kãwUi Bs‡iwR wkícwifvlv n‡”Q ÔK‡¤úvwRkbÕ| GB K‡¤úvwRk‡bi AvIZvq wPÎ-fv¯‹‡h© ZvB †Pbv-A‡Pbv e¯‘ ev Aeqe _vK‡QB bvbv Awfe¨w³‡Z| cÖkœ n‡”Q †m¸‡jv mymvgÄm¨c~Y© ev myiwPZ wKbv, `„k¨gvb wk‡íi dig ev AvKvi-AvK…wZ¸‡jv †PbvRM‡Zi bvwK A‡Pbv Awfbe fveRM‡Zi wk‡ivbv‡gi cÖ`k©bx‡Z cÖ`wk©Z nq; Ôwcqvm©W †nwg‡ùqviÕ 1 (I‡qKwdì wmwU AvU© M¨vjvwi, 1937), Ôwm½j digÕ (W¨vM n¨vgvimK‡Rvì wgDwRqvg, e¨vKvKiv, myB‡Wb, 1937-38)| Gev‡i †ncIqv‡_©i fv¯‹h©K…wZi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wel‡qi AeZviYv Kiv hvK| †mwU n‡jv 1931 mv‡j Bsj¨v‡Ûi gvwU‡Z †ncIqv‡_©i Mov Ôwcqvm©W digÕB n‡”Q †mB fv¯‹h©, hv‡Z fv¯‹‡h©i BwZnv‡m cÖ_g Ô†nvjÕ ev MZ© fv¯‹‡h©i kix‡i m„wó Kiv nq| GwU n‡”Q wÎgvwÎK GKwU Aeq‡ei †fZi GK ev GKvwaK Q›`vwqZ †iLvq mxgvwqZ cwi‡j‡Li †fZi w`‡q mse„‡Ë wKsev G‡duvo-I‡duvo GKwU ev GKvwaK eøvsK †¯úm ev k~b¨-cwimi m„wó Kiv| GB KvRwU wZwb K‡ib Bsj¨v‡Ûi gvwU‡Z| fv¯‹h©wU wØZxq wek¦hy× PjvKv‡j aŸsmcÖvß nq| GB fv¯‹‡h© Kiv †ncIqv‡_©i GB Ô†nvjÕ, hv‡K A‡b‡K k~b¨cwimiI e‡jb, †mUv‡K MÖnY-AbymiY Ki‡jb mgmvgwqK fv¯‹i †nbwi gyi| fv¯‹‡h© GB bZzb cÖ‡qvM †KŠkj‡K †ncIqv_© Ges gyi Zuv‡`i ¯^-¯^ fv¯‹‡h©i bZzb bZzb fv¯‹h©vwqZ AvK…wZ Avwe®‹v‡ii Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡ w`‡jb| Zuv‡`i Awfwb‡ek †_‡K †ei n‡Z ïiæ Kij be-D™¢vweZ Ô†nvjÕ ev mymvgÄm¨c~Y© ÔMZ©Õ mg„× fv¯‹h©gq AvK…wZ (¯‹vjcPvivj dig)| wek kZ‡Ki w·ki `k‡K †ncIqv_© Ges gyi `yRbB †Kv‡bv fv¯‹h© wbg©v‡Yi †ÿ‡Î g‡Wwjs‡qi A_©vr Kv`vgvwU, MwjZ avZz w`‡q fv¯‹h© wbg©v‡Yi ixwZ AbymiY bv K‡i mivmwi ZÿY-†Lv`vB ixwZ‡Z fv¯‹h© Mo‡Z ïiæ K‡ib| GB `k‡K WvB‡i± Kvwf©s ev mivmwi ZÿY-†Lv`vB‡q m„wRZ †ncIqv‡_©i D‡jøL‡hvM¨msL¨K fv¯‹h© wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i †Qve‡j aŸsm n‡q‡Q A_ev nvwi‡q †M‡Q| wØZxq wek¦hy× ïiæ n‡j †ncIqv_© Ges wbKjmb jÛb †_‡K P‡j Av‡mb Bsj¨v‡Ûi Kb©Iqv‡ji †m›U Bf‡m| †mLv‡b Zuviv wkíxwbevmx †K›`ª wn‡m‡e GKwU wkíxcjøx M‡o †Zv‡jb| 1940 mvj †_‡K †ncIqv‡_©i fv¯‹‡h© †nvj ev †Lvw`Z MZ© ïay G‡duvo-I‡duvo n‡”Q bv, eis GKwU ¯’vby AvqZwbK fv¯‹‡h©i M‡Z©i †fZi w`‡q Ab¨cv‡ki `„k¨gvbZv‡K `„wó‡MvPi Kiv‡”Q| GB ixwZwU Zuvi nv‡Z µ‡gB Av‡iv RwUj I m~² †mŠ›`‡h©i gva¨‡g Mfxi †evamÂvix n‡q DV‡Z _v‡K| hLb Zuvi fv¯‹‡h©i kix‡ii GBme †nvj ev MZ© Zzjbvg~jK eo n‡Z ïiæ K‡i, wVK ZLb †_‡KB Zuvi fv¯‹‡h© gm„YeµZv Ges k‡•Li

ˆØZ iƒc

†gwiwWqvb, †÷U nvDm, 1958


†fZ‡ii cwim‡ii g‡Zv N~Y©veZ©¸‡jv cÖvavb¨ †c‡Z ïiæ K‡i| GB ixwZwUB Zuvi fv¯‹‡h©i †fZiMZ AvK…wZ‡K Av‡iv mcÖKvwkZ K‡i †Zv‡j| KL‡bv fv¯‹h©‡K †ncIqv_© GKwU eo wQ`ª Kiv †cje MZ©msewjZ bZzb fw½‡Z M‡o‡Qb; KL‡bv ev †Kv‡bv fv¯‹‡h© GKvwaK MZ© ev †nvj m„wó K‡i Zv‡Z GKvwaK †Kw›`ªKZv m„wó K‡i‡Qb; GB welqwUi `„óvšÍ n‡”Q Zuvi fv¯‹h© ÔevB‡mw›UªK dig Õ (†UBU M¨vjvwi, 1949)| †ncIqv_© 1938 mv‡j Zuvi fv¯‹‡h©i †nvj ev M‡Z©i gy‡L AvovAvwofv‡e mgvšÍivj mg`~iZ¡ †iLvq Zš¿x¸”Q

†Wvem, 1927

(w÷ªsm) ev avZe Zv‡ii e¨envi ïiæ K‡ib| Z‡e †mUv fv¯‹i M¨v‡evi g‡Zv K‡i bq| M¨v‡ev (1890-1977) Bsj¨v‡Û Ae¯’vb K‡ib 1930 mv‡j| Ôbe M¨v‡evÕ GKB ai‡bi Zš¿x¸”Q ev myweb¨¯Í Zvi fv¯‹‡h© e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, †Lvjv ¯’vb ev I‡cb †¯úm Ges UªvÝcv‡i›U ¯‹vjcPvi ev fv¯‹‡h© ¯^”QZv †evSv‡bvi Rb¨| Ab¨w`‡K †ncIqv_© fv¯‹‡h©i †nvj ev M‡Z©i gy‡L myweb¨¯Í Zvi ev Zš¿x¸”Q e¨envi K‡i‡Qb fv¯‹‡h©i Nb-we¯Í…Z AvqZ‡bi g‡a¨ fvimvg¨ m„wó, KL‡bv ev di‡gi bvbvgvwÎK Zz½ cv_©K¨‡K †evSv‡Z, KL‡bv ev fv¯‹‡h©i AvqZ‡bi bvbv ai‡bi


KbUªv÷ ev msNvZ‡K †evSv‡bvi Rb¨| wPÎKjvq, cvkvcvwk Av‡jv I Qvqvi cÖej Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y †h `„k¨gvb bvUKxqZvi m„wó nq Zv‡KI Avgiv wk‡íi cwifvlvq ewj msNvZ ev KbUªv÷| GB mgqUvq †ncIqv_© fv¯‹‡h© is e¨env‡ii †ÿ‡ÎI GKwbô n‡q I‡Vb| Zuvi is e¨env‡ii D‡Ïk¨Uvi †cQ‡b fv¯‹h© wbg©vY-Dcv`v‡bi cÖvK…wZK ¯^vfvweK iƒc‡K jyKv‡bvi †Kv‡bv AwfcÖvq wQj bv| Avevi `y‡e©va¨Zv m„wói Rb¨I wZwb i‡Oi cÖ‡jc †`bwb fv¯‹‡h©i Aeq‡e| Zuvi fv¯‹‡h©i ewni‡½i AvKl©YKvix †h Awfe¨w³, †mwU‡K †Rviv‡jv Kivi Rb¨B wZwb fv¯‹‡h© is cÖ‡jcb K‡i‡Qb| 1937 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ Avw`ªqvb †÷v‡K‡mi MÖš’ Kvjvi A¨vÛ di‡gi is cÖ‡jc‡bi wb‡`©kbv‡K G‡ÿ‡Î wZwb AbymiY K‡i‡Qb| IB mgq †ncIqv‡_©i Gme beD™¢vweZ ixwZ‡Z Mov fv¯‹‡h©i K‡qKwU `„óvšÍ n‡”Q : ÔUz wdMvimÕ, (wg‡b‡mvUv BDwbfvwm©wU, wg‡b‡cvwjm, 194748), Ô†cjv‡MvmÕ, (†UBU M¨vjvwi, 1946)| wb‡R‡K Ges fv¯‹h©‡K wb‡q †ncIqv_© wKQy D‡jøL‡hvM¨ K_vevZ©v e‡j‡Qb| Zvi GKwU n‡”Q : Ô†Kv‡bvwKQyi †fZ‡i euvKv‡bv AeZ‡ji is Avgv‡K Ggbfv‡e †fZ‡i Uv‡b, hv wKbv †Kv‡bv wKQy‡K cvwbi Mfx‡i †Wvev‡bvi g‡Zv, Qvqvi g‡a¨ †U‡b †bIqvi g‡Zv wKsev AÜKvi ¸nvq cÖweó Kiv‡bvi g‡Zv| GB wbgw¾Z nIqvi welqwU ZÿY Kiv †Kv‡bv AeZ‡ji †fZ‡i Uvbvi ÿgZvi †P‡qI MfxiZi| (G Gg n¨vg¨v kvi)| cÖK…wZ‡K Mfxi Av‡e‡M kbv³ Kivi cÖPÐ GKwU ÿgZv †ncIqv_© ¯^fveMZfv‡eB †c‡qwQ‡jb| Zuvi GB mnRvZ ÿgZv †_‡K wZwb †h iƒc-im AvniY K‡i‡Qb Zvi cÖwZdjb Zuvi m„wRZ fv¯‹‡h© †`Lv hvq| G welqwUi Kvi‡Y eû wkímgv‡jvPK ej‡Z †c‡i‡Qb †h, †ncIqv‡_©i fv¯‹h© n‡”Q Bsj¨v‡Ûi †ivgvw›UK wbmM©wP‡Îi HwZ‡n¨iB avivevwnKZv| †Lvjv AvKv‡ki wb‡P Db¥y³ fv¯‹h©-¯’vcbv Movi †ÿ‡Î †ncIqv‡_©i cÖej ÿgZv, cÖvK…wZK bywocv_i wKsev eo cv_‡i ZÿY Kiv Zvi fv¯‹h© BZ¨vw` Movi †ÿ‡Î Zuvi †cÖiYvi welqwU KZUv `~i †_‡K G‡m‡Q, Zv mn‡R ejv hv‡e bv| †cÖiYv ej‡Z Av‡iv Mfxi †Kv‡bv Drm wKsev mvaviY †Kv‡bv welq Zuv‡K Av‡jvwoZ K‡i _vK‡ZB cv‡i| wKš‘ `„k¨gvb mZ¨Uv n‡jv GB †h, Mfxi Abyf‚wZi mÂvi NUv‡Z cv‡i Ggb wÎgvwÎK fv¯‹h©gq AvKvi m„R‡bi ÿgZv Zuvi wQj| Avi Zvi wecix‡Z cÖK…wZ‡K Av‡eMgw_Zfv‡e, cÖK…wZi me©e¨vcx mvivsk‡mŠ›`‡h©i ga¨ w`‡q Kvw•ÿZ‡K Avwe®‹vi Kivi ÿgZv Zuvi wbðqB wQj| fv¯‹‡h©, cÖK…wZi †mŠ›`‡h©i mvgwMÖK Ae‡jvKb †ncIqv‡_©i ˆewkó¨| Zuvi GB ˆewkó¨‡K Zzjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q wkív‡jvPKiv m‡e©k¦iev` ev c¨vb‡_wqR‡gi Dcgvi AvkÖq wb‡q‡Qb| GUv LyeB Rvbv K_v, †ncIqv_© cÖK…wZi mewKQy‡K Qyu‡q †`L‡Zb| GKRb wkíxi Rb¨ `k©‡bw›`ª‡qi `~iZ¡ †MvQv‡Z †Kv‡bv wKQy‡K ¯úk© Kiv †h

KZ Riæwi, †ncIqv_© Zv †`wL‡q †M‡Qb| G †ÿ‡Î wkíx‡K fzj eySevi †Kv‡bv KviY †bB| wkí wel‡q ÔBDwbU IqvbÕ wkíxms‡Ni gyLc‡Î 1934 mv‡j gyw`ªZ †ncIqv‡_©i K_v¸‡jv Zuvi wkíxmËv I fv¯‹h©‡K †evSvi †ÿ‡Î A‡bKUv mnvqZv nq‡Zv Ki‡e| wZwb wj‡L‡Qb : ‘In the contemplation of nature we are perpetually renewed, our sense of mystery and our imagination is kept alive, and rightly understood, it gives us power to project in to a plastic medium some universal or abstract vision of beauty.’ Zuvi fv‡l¨ †h †mw›U‡g›U ev wkívbyf‚wZ cÖKvk

†c‡q‡Q, Zv Zuvi mvivRxe‡bi Kv‡Ri µg-AMÖMwZ I µg-weKwkZ DrK‡l©i cwiPvqK| Zuvi mgMÖ‡K eyS‡Z GB KqwU K_vB h‡_ó| 1950 mv‡j †fwbm wØevwl©K cÖ`k©bx‡Z weªwUk miKv‡ii cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e †hvM w`‡Z weªwUk KvDw݇ji Avgš¿‡Y †ncIqv_© †mLv‡b hvb| 1951 mv‡j †eb wbKjm‡bi m‡½ Zuvi `v¤úZ¨Rxe‡bi BwZ N‡U| 1954 mv‡j wZwb wMÖ‡m hvb| Rxe‡bi GKwU UvjgvUvj Aa¨v‡q Zuvi wMÖ‡m Ae¯’vb jÿ Kiv hvq| KL‡bv KL‡bv wKQy Kv‡Ri bvgKi‡Y wMÖK HwZn¨ AbymiY K‡i‡Qb wZwb| †hgb : ÔKwiš’mÕ (†UBU M¨vjvwi, 1944-45), ÔKvf©W dig (†Wjwd)Õ (Avj÷vi wgDwRqvg, †ejdv÷, 1955)| Zuvi KvR G mgq KL‡bv KL‡bv gby‡g›Uvj ev ¯§viKvwZK…wZK gvÎv AR©b K‡i| G¸‡jv wZwb nq †Lvjv AvKv‡ki wb‡P wbm‡M© ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ A_ev †Kv‡bv ¯’vcwZ¨K msjMœZvq emv‡bvi Rb¨ cwiKíbv K‡ib| cÂv‡ki `k‡K Kiv Zuvi Gme KvR Ges G¸‡jvi Ae¯’v‡bi g‡a¨ wQj : ÔwdMvi (wiKzB‡qg)Õ (Av‡eiwWb AvU© M¨vjvwi, 1957), ÔwdMvi (Avi‡Kqvb)Õ (wiRKmgvm, µjvi-gy¨jvi, A‡Uªi‡jv, †b`vij¨vÛm; ÷vwj©s BDwbfvwm©wU; IqvwksUb BDwbfvwm©wU; †m›U K¨v‡_wib K‡jR, A·‡dvW©); Ô†gwiwWqvbÕ †÷U nvDm, jÛb (1958-59); Ôwm dig (†cv_©wgqi)Õ (†UBU M¨vjvwi); B‡qj BDwbfvwm©wU wgDwRqvg, weªwUk KvDwÝj; †MwgbwUgvm, `¨ †nM (1958); Ôwm½j digÕ, W¨vM n¨vgvimK‡Rvì †g‡gvwiqvj, wbDBqK© (1962-63)| †k‡li GB PviwU KvRB †ncIqv_© †eªvÄ gva¨‡g K‡ib, hw`I 1930 mvj †_‡K wZwb fv¯‹h© wbg©v‡Y mivmwi ZÿY ev WvB‡i± Kvwf©s ixwZi c‡ÿ ewjôfv‡e K_v e‡j †M‡Qb| ejv hvq, weMZ kZ‡Ki cÂv‡ki `k‡Ki †klv‡a© wZwb †eªvÄ gva¨‡gi w`‡KB Szu‡K‡Qb| Z‡e wZwb g~j fv¯‹‡h©i cøv÷vi Kvw÷s‡qi Ici nv‡Z bvbviKg mvi‡dm ˆZwi K‡i Zvici †mwU †eªvÄ Kvw÷s‡qi gva¨‡g †eªªvÄ-fv¯‹‡h© iƒcvšÍi K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi wKQy †eªvÄ fv¯‹‡h©i g‡a¨, Zuvi cv_‡i I Kv‡V mivmwi Zÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g Kiv Ô†nvjÕ ev MZ© ˆZwii welqwU G‡m †M‡Q| GiKg `ywU fv¯‹h© n‡”Q : ÔG‡jwR-3Õ (wiRKmgvm, µjvi-gy¨jvi, 1966); Ôw¯úªsÕ (AvU©m KvDwÝj, 1966)|


GwjwR-3


Av‡iv wKQy fv¯‹h© R¨vwgwZK AvK…wZ‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q M‡ob wZwb, we‡klZ †m¸‡jv Kiv nq I‡cb †¯úm ev †LvjvPZ¡‡i ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨| †hgb : Ô¯‹qvi digm DB_ mv‡K©jmÕ (Bmiv‡qj wgDwRqvg, †RiæRv‡jg, 1963); wiU‡fì c¨v‡fwjqb wdMvi (wiRKmgvm, µjvi-gy¨jvi, 1961); Ô†dvi ¯‹qviÕ (IqvK †_ªv) (PvwP©j K‡jR, †KgweªR, 1966)| lv‡Ui `k‡K wZwb gv‡e©j I cv_‡i R¨vwgwZK Pwi‡Îi wKQy fv¯‹h© M‡o‡Qb hv‡Z †eb wbKjm‡bi wiwjd ev Aegy³-fv¯‹h© I Kb÷ªvw±wf÷ ev wbg©vYev`x wkíixwZi cÖwZ Zuvi ¯§„wZKvZiZv g~Z© n‡q D‡V‡Q| †hgb : Ôgv‡e©j DB_ KvjviÕ (wµU) (eqg¨vbm-f¨vb weDwbb‡Rb wgDwRqvg, iUvi‡Wg, 1964)| Zuvi Rxe‡b Avmv A‡bK m¤§v‡bi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡”Q 1960 mv‡j Bsj¨v‡Ûi BDwbfvwm©wU Ae evwg©snvg I 1961 mv‡j Zuvi Rxe‡bi cÖ_g we`¨vcxV wjWm †_‡K Zuv‡K m¤§vbRbK ÔW±‡iUÕ wWwMÖ cÖ`vb| n

Uz digm, 1993

Z_¨m~Î I mnvqK MÖš’vewj :

1. weªwUk AvU©/wmÝ bvBbwUb nv‡ÛªW, d«v‡Ým ¯ú¨vjwWs, †_gm A¨vÛ nvWmb wjwg‡UW, 1986, jÛb 2. `¨ g¨vKwgjvb GbmvB‡K¬v‡cwWqv Ae AvU© (wifvBRW GwWkb), GwWUim : evb©vW© Gj wgqvim A¨vÛ †UªDBb †Kvcj‡÷vb, 1979, jÛb 3. `¨ A·‡dvW© K‡¤úwbqb Uz†Uv‡qbwU‡q_ †mÂzwi AvU©, GwWUi : n¨viì Am&eb©, A·‡dvW© BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm, wbDBqK©, BDGmG, 1981 4. `¨ A·‡dvW© K‡¤úwbqb Uz AvU©, GwWUi : n¨viì Am&eb©, A·‡dvW© BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm, 1971, †MÖU weª‡Ub 5. `¨ c‡KU A·‡dvW© wWKkbvwi, RyjvB 1924 6. PviæKjv cwifvlv, eyjeb Imgvb, evsjv GKv‡Wwg XvKv, cÖ_g ms¯‹iY ˆR¨ô 1413/†g 2006 7. wkí‡eva I wkí‰PZb¨, ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb, evsjv‡`k wkíKjv GKv‡Wwg, Z…Zxq ms¯‹iY, Ryb 2004, Avlvp 1411, XvKv


¯^cœRvj wb‡q MvRx gvnZve nvmvb

G

KUv eª¨vÛ f¨vjy wMqvmDÏxb †mwj‡gi Av‡M †_‡KB wQj Ñ †mUv wbtm‡›`‡n Zuvi cÖ_g Qwe gbcyivi Af‚Zc~e© mvdj¨| evsjv‡`‡ki Pjw”P‡Îi KvjcÖev‡n †e‡`i †g‡q †RvQbvi ci Avi †Kv‡bv Qwe GZUv RbwcÖq I e¨emvmdj nqwb| Kx wQj gbcyivq? MÖvgxY Pµv‡šÍi wkKvi n‡q †mvbvB‡qi ØxcvšÍi Ñ MÖvgxY cUf‚wgKvq wb‡Uvj †cÖ‡gi Mí, hvi cwiYwZ wQj wMÖK Uª¨v‡RwWi wbqwZ| hv‡`i †kKo GL‡bv MÖv‡g †MÖvw_Z, Zvivmn me †kÖwYi `k©‡Ki Kv‡Q QwewU wQj Dc‡fvM¨| Mvb¸‡jv †Lqvj K‡i †`L‡j †`Lv hv‡e Zv wPivqZ ˆeòe c`vewji Abyiƒc, fviZxq bvU¨kv‡¯¿ DwjøwLZ me i‡mi (†cÖgim, weinim BZ¨vw`) Avavi|

wMqvmDÏxb †mwj‡gi ¯^Zš¿ Mí ejvi mwµqZvq, Zvi m‡½ wm‡bgv‡UvMÖvdvi Lmiæi wfmy¨qvj †÷vwi‡Uwjs, Ry‡q‡ji m¤úv`bvi gybwkqvbvq gbcyiv GKwU mvaviY MÖvg¨ Mí n‡Z AmvaviY Pjw”P‡Î DËxY© nq| evwYwR¨K KvVv‡gvi g‡a¨ †_‡KI wZwb evRvi Dc‡hvMx cwikxwjZ Qwe evwb‡q‡Qb| hw`I †Kvb ai‡bi welqe¯‘ evRv‡i MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡e †m cÖkœ †_‡KB hv‡”Q (†m cÖm‡½ c‡i AvmwQ)| gbcyivi g‡Zv mycviwnU Qwei ci Ab¨ †KD nq‡Zv c‡ii Qwe evbvevi Rb¨ GK eQiI A‡cÿv Ki‡Z PvB‡Zb bv| wKš‘ wMqvmDÏxb †mwjg Zuvi wØZxq wm‡bgv wb‡q `k©‡Ki Kv‡Q wd‡i Avm‡Z bq eQi mgq wb‡q‡Qb| GB bq eQ‡i †mwjg wb‡R‡K F× K‡i‡Qb| wMqvmDÏxb


†mwj‡gi Awf‡lK n‡qwQj †Uwjwfkb bvU‡Ki wPÎbvU¨Kvi wn‡m‡e, wPÎbvU¨ iPbvq nvZ cvwK‡q wZwb cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡ib| GKvwaK bZzb I P¨v‡jwÄs wel‡q wkím¤§Z bvUK I †Uwjwdj¥ evwb‡q wZwb wb‡R‡K ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb| bvbviKg welqe¯‘ wb‡q cixÿv-wbixÿv K‡i‡Qb| †mB AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K wZwb gbcyiv Kivi Av‡M †mv”Pvi cÖPviYv K‡iwQ‡jb Ñ Qwei Mvb¸‡jv RbwcÖqZv †c‡qwQj, gyw³ cvIqvi Av‡MB Qwei wgwWqv Kvfv‡iR wQj e¨vcK| wKš‘ ¯^cœRv‡ji cÖPviYv wQj gøvb| Qwei cÖ‡hvRbv ms¯’v Ô†e½j wµ‡qwU‡fÕi gva¨‡g K‡qKwU †emiKvwi wek¦we`¨vj‡q Qwei bvwqKv, bvqK I KjvKzkjx wb‡q †h cÖPvi Awfhvb wQj ZvI †Zgb mvov RvMv‡Z cv‡iwb| †Kbbv wek¦we`¨vjqco–qv QvÎQvÎxi g‡a¨ †mwj‡gi RbwcÖqZv †gv¯Ídv miqvi dviæKx ev AwgZvf †iRvi †P‡q Kg| GB we‡ePbv aZ©‡e¨i g‡a¨ Avbv DwPZ wQj †h, †mwj‡gi Qwei welqe¯‘ †cÖgwelqK n‡jI Zvi mvgvwRK ev¯ÍeZv G‡`i (wek¦we`¨vjqcoyqv †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i) AvK…ó K‡i bv| AbšÍ Rwj‡ji QweI Zviv

†hfv‡e nvwmVvÆvi I †gavnxb †evKvwgi Rb¨ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i Ñ †mwj‡gi Qwe‡Z Zv †bB| ¯^cœRvj Qwei bvwqKv WvbvKvUv cwii AvKw¯§K cwieZ©b (Transformation), myAwfbq‡K DcRxe¨ K‡i cÖPviYv Pvjv‡bv †hZ †`kRy‡o| cÖPviYvq Qwei Mvb wb‡q †Kv‡bviKg Db¥v`bv m„wó †_‡K weiZ _vKvi KviYI †evaMg¨ bq| Qwei †Uªjvi †`‡L Abyfe Kiv wM‡qwQj Ab¨ mgvRev¯ÍeZvi GwU GKwU †cÖ‡gi Qwe| gbcyiv wmKz¨‡qj ev wcKz¨‡qj bq| gbcyiv‡K gv_vq †i‡L hviv ¯^cœRvj †`L‡Z †P‡qwQj Zviv Av‡M †_‡KB mw›`nvb wQj| hw`I wMqvmDÏxb †mwjg Av‡MB e‡j‡Qb, ¯^cœRvj Zuvi cwiYZ mg‡qi Qwe| Mí wbg©v‡Yi aib †Kv‡bvfv‡eB gbcyivi bq| cwiPvj‡Ki G e³e¨I ZZUv cÖPvi cvqwb| Qwei cÖ_g K‡qK wgwb‡Ui g‡a¨ cwiYZ cwiPvj‡Ki nv‡Zi KvR †Ui cvIqv †Mj; Zvici ax‡i ax‡i Puv`cyi, KjKvZv I AvMiZjvi LÐ LÐ Mí mywPwšÍZfv‡e mg‡qi m‡½ mvgÄm¨c~Y© n‡q I‡V| MZ 7 GwcÖj ¯^cœRvj gyw³ †cj gvÎ wekwU wm‡bgv


n‡j| GKB w`‡b Ab¨ GKwU Qwe gyw³ †c‡q‡Q mËiwU n‡j| Gi KviY wK †Kej bZzb cÖ‡hvRbv ms¯’vi Qwe e‡j? AvU© nvDm Qwei ZKgv †mwjg jvMvbwb KL‡bv †h, evwYwR¨K Qwei KY©aviiv huviv nj¸‡jvi Lei`vwi K‡ib Zuviv GB Qwe‡K `~‡i ivL‡eb| Gme nj gvwjK †Zv cwi‡ekK ms¯’vi c‡KU fvix K‡i‡Qb gbcyiv cÖ`k©b K‡i| Guiv †Zv ¯^cœRvj cÖ`k©‡bi e¨vcv‡i Av‡iv GKUz D`viZv †`Lv‡Z cvi‡Zb| hvB †nvK, 7 GwcÖj gyw³i `yB mßvn ci cÖ_g `dvq GB wek nj †_‡K QwewU bvwg‡q †djv n‡jv; hw`I PÆMÖvgmn K‡qKwU †Rjvq QwewU gyw³ cv‡”Q| weÁvc‡bi PgK, gb †fvjv‡bv PUK, g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©‡Yi Kvq`v (_vK‡jI Zv wQj cwiwgZ) Ñ Gme wMwgK bv _vKvi Kvi‡YB wK ¯^cœRvj †h cwigvY `k©K †`L‡e Avkv Kiv wM‡qwQj, Zv Avi n‡jv bv? Z‡e wK gd¯^j kn‡ii Amg e‡Y©i (g~jZ wn›`y-gymjgvb) hyeK-hyeZxi wgwó †cÖg, cwiev‡ii KZ©v‡`i j¨vÛ‡dv‡b AvwocvZv Ñ Gme ¯§„wZKvZiZvq Av”QbœZv Avi †bB?

evsjv‡`‡ki Qwei `k©K‡`i MocoZv wnmv‡e Giv nq‡Zv wecbœcÖvq ms‡e`bkxj cÖvYx| GB ms‡e`bkxjZvi evRvi †bB| KviY Zv‡`i Zzjbvq Ab¨ ai‡bi `k©K hviv Ab¨ †`‡ki A¨vKkb Qwei Av`‡j cywjwk mš¿vm, wµwgbvj Ms‡qi kw³i jovB, mœvqyhy× ev †R‡ji AšÍi-evwn‡ii c¨vPvj †`L‡Z fv‡jvev‡m Zv‡`i msL¨v e¨vcK| AvB‡Ug ms bv _vKvq, DmKvwb bv †`Iqvq hw` `k©K n‡j bv hvq Z‡e †m e¨_©Zv Avgv‡`i mvgwMÖK Ñ wbg©vZvi bq wbðqB| GUv MYiæwPi Aeÿq| AcÖvmw½K †Kv‡bv cÖm‡½i PP©v †bB, mnR Mí ejvi ÷vB‡jB ¯^cœRv‡ji Kvwnwb GwM‡q‡Q, NUbvi RU cvwK‡q‡Q Ges RU Ly‡j wM‡q‡Q| ïåvi evev wniY mvnvi wb‡LuvR nIqv, Avqbvj MvRxi PµvšÍ, wniY mvnvi g„Zz¨i inm¨ D`&NvUb, ev¯‘wfUv Qvov nIqv Ges cybivq ev¯‘wfUvq wd‡i Avmv| Acy-ïåvi wew”QbœZvq Avcwb B‡gvkbvj n‡eb| wKš‘ B‡gvkbdzj n‡eb bv| AwaKvsk evsjv‡`wk Qwe‡Z †`Lv hvq †cÖg †`Lv‡Z wM‡q mgvR, msmvi, †ckv, †kÖwY, Ae¯’vb Ñ mewKQy †MŠY


n‡q c‡o; mgvR I ev¯ÍeZvweewR©Z †cÖg †Kv‡bviKg Av‡e`bB m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wKš‘ ¯^cœRvj cy‡ivcywi e¨wZµg| ¯^cœRvj †Kv‡bv RwUj gb¯ÍvwË¡K mvgvwRK ivR‰bwZK AvL¨v‡bi eyw×e„wËK ch©v‡jvPbv bq| beŸB‡qi `k‡Ki cÖ_g w`‡K wZb Bwjk gvQ AvoZ`vi e¨emvqxi g‡a¨ ÿgZvi Ø›Ø Ges Avqbvj MvRxi µgvš^‡q msL¨vjNy wn›`y AvoZ`v‡ii ¯’vei-A¯’vei m¤úwË `L‡ji PµvšÍ‡K wN‡i AvewZ©Z nq GB Qwei Kvwnwb| †gNbv I WvKvwZqv b`xi †XD jv‡M ˆkk‡e Nwbô m¤úª`vq fz‡j eo nIqv `yB hyeK-hyeZxi cÖv‡Y Ñ Zv‡`i Aeva †cÖ‡gi AvL¨v‡b| ¯^cœRvj Qwei eo kw³ Awfbq| cÖwZUv PwiÎ Zvi †miv Awfbq †`Iqvi †Póv K‡i‡Q| GLv‡b bevMZ Bqvk †ivnvb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i evwYwR¨K Qwei wmjQvài gviv bvwqKv cixgwY wKsev RvZxq wf‡jb wgkv mI`vMi‡K m¤ú~Y© wfbœ f‚wgKvq †`Lv †Mj| cixgwY wb‡Ri m‡e©v”P w`‡q‡Qb ïåv nIqvi Rb¨| ¯^cœRv‡j †m ÔWvbvKvUv cwiÕ

wQj bv, wQj mv`vgvUv gd¯^j kn‡ii wgwó †g‡q, fv‡jvevmvi gvby‡li Rb¨ †h RvZcvZ-a‡g©i †f` fzj‡Z Pvq| KL‡bv cÖwZev`x n‡q I‡V, mgvR-msmv‡ii weiæ‡× we‡`ªvn Ki‡Z Pvq wKsev Avevi ev¯ÍeZvi Kv‡Q nvi gvb‡Z eva¨ nq| mewKQyB †m dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Q AZ¨šÍ `ÿ Awf‡bÎxi g‡Zv| †Kv‡bv ÷viW‡gi fvebv bv †i‡L †K›`ªxq Pwi‡Î bevMZ Bqvk †ivnv‡bi Awf‡lK GB Qwe‡Z| wKš‘ †Kv‡bviKg ÎæwU aiv hvqwb Zvi WvqvjM I G·‡cÖk‡b, evowZ AvwZkh¨ †Pv‡L c‡owb, RoZv wQj bv Awfb‡q| Acyi evevi Pwi‡Î knx`yj Avjg mv”Pz| Avwki `k‡K e¨vcvix e¨emvqxiv †h-iKg e¨vM e¨envi Ki‡Zb, †m-iKg e¨vM e¨envi, wbw`©ó g¨vbvwiRg, `vwqZ¡kxj wKš‘ KÆi bq Ñ GiKg wcZvi Pwi‡Î PgrKvi Awfbq K‡i‡Qb| LjPwi‡Î dRjyi ingvb evey KZ…©K ïåv‡`i m¤úwË Rei`Lj, ïåvi evev‡K nZ¨v, ïåv‡`i cwievi‡K †`k Z¨v‡M eva¨ Kiv, m¤úªwZ G‡`‡k agx©q †gŠjev‡`i


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†m‡M©B AvB‡Rb÷vBb : 1910 mv‡j †m›U wcUvm©ev‡M© †Zvjv


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Rvbvj ev¯ÍeZvi wbwi‡L †mŠ›`h© iPbviI GKwU c×wZ Av‡Q| AZGe, c×wZ wbqš¿‡Y wb‡qvwRZ n‡jv cÖwZôvb| ivóª ev mgvR Ñ †gvUv `v‡M †h-†Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb wkíxi †Pv‡L Ô†Kvqv‡Îv‡m‡šÍvÕi gvqvÄb Gu‡K w`j, A_©vr Rvbvjv w`‡q c„w_ex †`Lvi †d«wgs Ges †m Abyhvqx Abyf‚wZi ev¯Íe Abyev`| ïiæ n‡jv bv›`wbK ev¯ÍeZv I gb¯ÍvwË¡K ev¯ÍeZvi we‡iva| GB we‡iv‡ai me‡P‡q Nbxf‚Z iƒcvšÍi n‡jv Ñ e¨w³MZ Pjw”PÎ| ZvB wPšÍvwe` Iqvëvi †eÄvwgb (1892-1940) hLb Ae¨_©fv‡e †`Lv‡jb Pjw”P‡Î gva¨gMZ Kvi‡YB mvgvwRK-gb¯ÍvwË¡K Aw¯’ms¯’vb Kvh©Z f½yi Avi †mRb¨B ˆ¯’wZK †cŠËwjKZvi e`‡j Pjw”PÎ cÖeZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡i MwZkxj AšÍN©vZbvi; ZLb g~jZ wZwb Pjw”P‡Îi †kÖwYweb¨v‡m Av‡jv †dj‡jb| 1968 mv‡ji †g gv‡m divwm hye-QvÎ we‡`ªv‡n w` AvIqvi Ad `¨ dv‡b©‡mR (cwiPvjK : †dibv‡›`v †mvjvbvm I A³vwfI †nwZ‡bv) wm‡bgvwU hLb g~j cÖfve‡Ki f‚wgKvq AeZxY© nq, ZLb Iqvëvi †eÄvwg‡bi †djv Av‡jv mvevjK n‡q I‡V Ges wek¦e¨vcx wkí-mZ¨ m½‡g wb‡ew`Z ZiæY wbg©vZviv Gi Pÿz`vb ce© mgvß K‡ib| Ôe¨w³MZ Pjw”PÎÕ bvgMÖnY K‡i Zvi DËivwaKvim~‡Î cÖvß c`we wemR©b w`‡q, †Kbbv cigZË¡‡K fvOvi hveZxq cUf‚wg Kvh©Z ZviB iPbv| ZvB GKRb mvjfv`i `vwj (1904-1989) ev GKRb jyBm eyby‡qj (1900-1983) ev GKRb gvqv‡Kvfw¯‹ (1893-1930) ev GKRb FwZ¡K NUK (1925-1976) ev GKRb Rwni ivqnvb (1935-1972) hLb bvkKZvi eûcÖvw_©Z †`e`~Z wn‡m‡e Pjw”P·K Kvgbv Ki‡Zb Ñ ZLb g~jZ Zuviv e¨w³MZ Pjw”P‡ÎiB AvL¨vbfvM mgvß K‡ib| †NvlYvcÎ iwPZ nq ÔKvB‡q `y wm‡bgvÕi cÂcvÐe Ñ †Mv`vi, Îæ‡dv, k¨veªj, †ivgvi I wi‡f‡Zi Pjw”P·K A‰ØZ iƒ‡c †`Lv †Pv‡L Ges wkí I mgv‡jvPbvi BwZnvmwb‡`©wkZ Afz¨Ìv‡b Ask wb‡q Gi Bk‡Znvi cvV I cwigvR©b K‡i P‡j‡Qb †Mv`vi| wm‡bgvi cÖYqK‚Rb evRv‡ii †Kvjvnjgy³ bq Ñ GB mZ¨ AvR hLb Avgv‡`i `ªóe¨, ZLb cÖwZôvb KZ…©K wba©vwiZ e¨e¯’vc‡Î mnwRqv wmw×i c‡_ Qwe Kwi‡q‡`i Qwe Avm‡j gvI †m Zz‡Oi fvlvq ÔDcwiZ‡ji NUbvi KzPKvIqvRÕ wn‡m‡e cwinvmZzj¨| cÖhyw³ GLv‡b wRqbKvwV e‡jB hy×Uv AbÎ; ivRKzgvixi NygšÍ kix‡i Zvi †Kv‡bv Av‡›`vjb †bB| cÖhyw³i GB bemgxÿv e¨w³MZ wm‡bgvi mgevwqK cÖqvm Ñ G‡Z m‡›`n ivLv P‡j bv|

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Av‡Q cÖwZ-cÖhyw³i mvnmx web¨vm| G hy× AvR‡Ki bq| gvB‡µvmd‡Ui cyZzj Rvbvjv ev Ava-LvIqv Av‡c‡ji w¯’wZ¯’vcK AnsKv‡ii gy‡LvgywL kvje„‡ÿi g‡Zv wmbv Uvb K‡i `uvwo‡q Av‡Q I‡cb †mvm© wjbv‡·i ¯^vaxbZv| A‡_©i R‡j Wz‡e _vKv LÐ LÐ GbmvB‡K¬vwcwWqv weªUvwbKv DBwKwcwWqvi gy³ ejvKvi Kv‡Q GLb g„ZcÖvq| 35 wgwjwgUv‡ii Nb AiY¨ †_‡K 16 wgwjwgUv‡ii bxjvKvk †`Lvi cÖqvm †Zv AvR‡Ki bq| evsjv Pjw”P‡Îi BwZnv‡mB wKš‘ 16 wgwjwgUv‡ii GKwU wecøe Avgiv †`‡LwQ| 35 wgwjwgUv‡i wm‡bgv wbqwš¿Z nq wÎf‚‡Zi AÜKv‡i Ñ cÖ‡hvRK-cwi‡ekK Avi nj-gvwjK| GB Aïf kw³ m~h© `xNj evwo (cwiPvjK : †kL wbqvgZ Avjx I gwmnDwÏb kv‡Ki, 1979) Pjw”PÎwU AvU‡K †i‡LwQj `xN© mgq| GKwU mgxKiY `uvo Kiv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, `nb (cwiPvjK : †kL wbqvgZ Avjx, 1985), †g‡Ni A‡bK is (cwiPvjK : nviæbi ikx`, 1976) ev AvjgMxi Kwe‡ii (1938-1989) Qwe¸‡jv `xN© GKwU mgq ch©šÍ `k©K‡`i Kv‡Q †cuŠQvqwb| Ab¨w`‡K AvMvgx (cwiPvjK : †gvi‡k`yj Bmjvg, 1984), ûwjqv (cwiPvjK : Zvbfxi †gvKv‡¤§j, 1985) BZ¨vw` ¯^í‰`N©¨ Pjw”Pθ‡jvi GKvwaK wcÖ›U †MvUv evsjv‡`k P‡l †ewo‡q‡Q| Gi g~j KviYB wQj wbg©vZv‡`i 35 wgwjwgUvi †_‡K 16 wgwjwgUv‡ii wecøe| mycvi-8-Gi m¤¢vebvI AwMœejvKvi g‡Zv Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| †envZ cÖhyw³i weiæ‡× GB †h cÖwZ-cÖhyw³i weKvk Ñ Gi †cÖÿY iwPZ n‡q‡Q g~jZ ¯^vaxbZvq| Kx A‡jŠwKK mgvcZb! cÖwZ-cÖhyw³i weKvk g~jZ h~_e× Ges Zv AvR n‡q D‡V‡Q e¨w³MZ wm‡bgvi D¾¡j D×vi| GB g‡g©B e‡j ivLv fv‡jv †h, e¨w³MZ wm‡bgv gv‡b †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó GKR‡bi wm‡bgv bq; eis mywbw`©ó GKwU `k©‡bi wm‡bgv, hvi wbg©vY †_‡K cÖ`k©bx Aewa †mB `k©b I Av`‡k©i m¤§vb AÿzYœ _v‡K| wPÎMÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î cÖhyw³ GKw`‡K †hgb cøvw÷‡Ki †Mvjvc n‡q‡Q ey‡R©vqvi Wªwqsiæ‡g, †Zgwb GK‡ejvi Lvevi n‡q‡Q cÖwjZvwi‡q‡Zi wkí-fvebvq| myZivs †gvevBj K¨v‡giv †_‡K Rb¥ wb‡Z cv‡i GKwU Kvw•ÿZ Z_¨wPÎ ev wdKkb wm‡bgv Ges Zv‡Z †Ljv Ki‡ZB cv‡i wbR¯^ wPšÍvi †iŠ`ª| wWwRUvj wm‡½j-†jÝ wi‡d¬± (wWGmGjAvi) ev wgii‡jm K¨v‡giv¸‡jv cÖhyw³i bZzb mšÍv‡bi g‡Zv PcjZvq fwi‡q Zzj‡Q Pjw”P‡Îi msmvi| c×wZMZ wPšÍvi evB‡i `uvwo‡q `„k¨vqb m¤úbœ Kiv n‡”Q Ges ejv fv‡jv, hv‡`i Nv‡o wbtk¦vm †d‡j cÖ‡hvR‡Ki UvKv, ZvivI e¨envi Ki‡Qb GB cš’v¸‡jv| kã-†KŠkj wbqš¿‡Yi cÖhyw³ GLb A‡bK¸‡jv ¯Íi AwZµg K‡i‡Q| e¨w³MZ †Kej bq Ñ A‡bK evwYwR¨K Qwe‡ZI GLb cÖvK…wZK kã‡KB g~j k‡ãi m‡½ wgwk‡q †`Iqv n‡”Q| FwZ¡K NUK hLb e‡jb, wm‡bgv n‡jv KvU Uz KvU Ñ ZLb Avgiv eywS, Pjw”PÎ wbwg©Z nq Avm‡j m¤úv`bvi

21 wW‡m¤^i, 1925 mv‡j †mvwf‡q‡Z gyw³cÖvß e¨v‡Ujwkc c‡UgwK‡bi †cv÷vi


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B wbe‡Ü Avwg Av‡jvPbv Kie iZb w_qv‡gi AvwkevwM G‡kB1 bvUKwU m¤ú‡K©| GB bvUKwU AvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvi †cÖÿvc‡U †nbwiK Be‡m‡bi †nv‡qb DB †WW A¨vI‡q‡Kb bvUKwUi GKwU UªvÝwµ‡qkb| Avwg eje, iZb w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwU mymse× AvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvi GKwU PgrKvi D`vniY wn‡m‡e Avwef‚©Z n‡q‡Q| bvUKwU‡Z AZ¨šÍ wbLyuZfv‡e e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q †ekwKQy †`kxq HwZn¨MZ mvs¯‹…wZK Dcv`vb| d‡j ˆZwi n‡q‡Q GKwU kw³kvjx bvU¨kw³, Avi G Kvi‡YB †evaMg¨Zvi wePv‡i bvUKwU †h ïay †`kxq `k©K‡`i m‡½B †hvMv‡hvM m„wó K‡i‡Q ZvB bq, GwU wfb‡`wk `k©K‡`i m‡½I †hvMv‡hvM iÿv K‡i‡Q|

Avwg GLv‡b iZb w_qv‡gi GKwU mswÿß cwiwPwZ Dc¯’vcb KiwQ| Avgvi g‡b nq GwU Zuvi AvwkevwM G‡kB bvUKwU eyS‡Z Avgv‡`i mnvqZv Ki‡eÑ iZb w_qvg fvi‡Zi gwYcyi iv‡R¨i GKwU cÖavb RvwZ‡Mvôxi Askfz³| gwYcyi iv‡R¨ memgqB †`Lv hvq kw³kvjx mvgwiK Dcw¯’wZ I Zv‡`i `gb-cxob| GQvov mxgvšÍ msNvZ †Zv i‡q‡QB Ges wewfbœ mk¯¿ we‡`ªvnx `jI †mLv‡b †`Lv hvq| G m¤ú‡K© kgxK e‡›`¨vcva¨vq †hgbwU e‡j‡Qb, Ômg¯Í cÖwZev` I cÖwZ‡iva †mLv‡b we‡`ªvn e‡jB a‡i †bqv nqÕ2, Avi MYZvwš¿K cÖwZôvb¸‡jvI †mLv‡b Lye `ye©j| Dciš‘, `vwi`ª¨ †mLv‡b cÖKU AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q Ges `yb©xwZi †ÿ‡ÎI GKB K_v ejv hvq| bvix‡`i


cwiw¯’wZ †mLv‡b h‡_óB Lvivc Ges Zv‡`i AvPvi-AvPiY K‡Vvifv‡e wbqš¿Y K‡i mvgvwRK ixwZbxwZ| AvÄyg KvZ¨vj gwYcy‡ii bvix‡`i cwiw¯’wZ‡K eY©bv K‡i‡Qb wÎgvwÎKZvi cÖwZiƒc wn‡m‡e : Ôbvix GKvav‡i gv, †evb Ges ivóªh‡š¿i wbh©vwZZ cÖwZwbwa|Õ3 iZb w_qvg Zuvi bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv‡Z gvby‡li hš¿Yv‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb gwYcywi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K Ges Zuvi g‡Zv K‡i :

bvUKwU †e‡Q †bIqvi KviY wn‡m‡e wZwb e‡jb, GwU GKwU bb-wi‡qwjw÷K bvUK, ZvB GwU‡K Zuvi wbR¯^ bvU¨ Awfe¨w³‡Z iƒcvšÍi KivUv A‡bK mnR n‡e| ïay ZvB bq, bvUKwUi g~j e³e¨ n‡jv gyw³, †hwU fxlYfv‡e gwYcy‡ii Ae¯’vi m‡½ wg‡j hvq| Avi GB welqwU‡Z iZb w_qv‡gi m‡½ GwiKv wdkvi-wjk‡Zi GKwU wgj Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq :

...GB cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jvi g~j welq n‡”Q mg¯Í e¨e¯’vi weiæ‡× GK ai‡bi AvµgY m„wó Kiv| ...gwYcyi Avm‡j KjKvZv, w`wjø ev gy¤^vB‡qi g‡Zv bv| †fZ‡i †fZ‡i GwUi i³ÿiY n‡”Q| evB‡i Avcwb †`L‡eb mewKQyB wVKVvK Pj‡Q, mevB Awd‡m hv‡”Q, wKš‘ †fZ‡i Avm‡j i³ÿiY n‡”Q| Avi w_‡qUvi n‡”Q Ggb GKwU gva¨g †hLv‡b GB mg¯Í e¨vcvi, AšÍ‡ii fvebv-wPšÍv, Rxe‡bi ci‡Z ci‡Z Rwo‡q _vKv wbM~p mZ¨wU cÖKvk Kiv DwPZ Ges ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB cÖKvk Kiv hvq| Avgvi Kv‡Q g‡b nq Avgiv G Kvi‡YB w_‡qUvi Kwi, AšÍZ w_‡qUv‡i G¸‡jvB Zz‡j awi|4

AvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvi welqwU wKš‘ GKwU wfb‡`wk bvUK‡K †mB †`‡ki ms¯‹…wZ‡K wfwË K‡i g¯’ Kiv bq, eis †mwU nIqv DwPZ wbR †`‡ki ms¯‹…wZ‡K wfwË K‡iB|5

Be‡m‡bi g‡ZvB iZb w_qv‡gi bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jvI we`¨gvb mgm¨v¸‡jvi e¨vcv‡iB Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i, †hgb Ñ e¨w³gvbyl I mvgvwRK-agx©q k„•Ljvi g‡a¨ Uvbvc‡ob Ges gvbecÖK…wZi †fZ‡i fv‡jv I g‡›`i mnve¯’vb‡K| Zuvi †ewkifvM bvU‡Ki †cÖÿvcU n‡jv hy× I msMÖv‡gi aŸsmvZ¥K ÿgZv| K‡qK eQi a‡iB Zuvi wb‡`©wkZ bvUK¸‡jv‡Z µgea©gvbfv‡e Avkvev‡`i e¨vcviwU †`Lv hv‡”Q, Avi GB Avkvev` AvewZ©Z n‡”Q Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g GKwU bZzb mgv‡Ri m„wó, cybwg©jb I kvwšÍ cÖwZôv‡K †K›`ª K‡i| wbh©vZb, mš¿vm I hy‡×i weiæ‡× iZb w_qvg n‡”Qb GK ewjô KÉ| AvaywbK w_‡qUvi wkÿvq wkwÿZ nIqv m‡Ë¡I Be‡m‡bi GKwU bvUK wb‡`©kbv †`Iqvi wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Av‡M iZb w_qvg Zuvi mviv Kg©Rxe‡b GKwUI cvðvZ¨ bvUK g¯’ K‡ibwb| G Kvi‡YB Avwg Rvb‡Z Lye AvMÖnx wQjvg wZwb †Kb Be‡m‡bi GKwU bvUK wb‡`©kbv w`‡Z Pv‡”Qb, ZvI Avevi Zuvi me©‡kl bvUK †nv‡qb DB †WW A¨vI‡q‡K‡bi? iZb w_qv‡gi m‡½ G e¨vcv‡i Avwg hLb Av‡jvPbv Kijvg, ZLb wZwb ej‡jb, †h-†Kv‡bv bvU‡Ki †ÿ‡ÎB wZwb cÖ_‡gB wPšÍv K‡ib bvUKwU mgmvgwqK Rbmgv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖvmw½K wKbv| KviY wZwb cÖv_wgKfv‡e Zuvi ¯’vbxq `k©K‡`i Rb¨B bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv wbg©vY K‡ib| c‡i wZwb Av‡iv ej‡jb, AwaKvsk AvaywbK cwðgv bvUKB gwYcy‡ii mgmvgwqK Ae¯’vi m‡½ Lvc Lvq bv, we‡kl K‡i gwYcy‡ii mvgvwRK-ivR‰bwZK Ae¯’v cvðv‡Z¨i †h-†Kv‡bv †`‡ki Zzjbvq G‡Kev‡iB wfbœ| Z‡e wPivqZ bvUK¸‡jv †h‡nZz me©Kv‡ji Rb¨B me©Rbxb, †mRb¨ GB bvUK¸‡jv gwYcy‡ii Ae¯’vi m‡½ mvgÄm¨ †i‡L iƒcvšÍi Kiv hvq| †nv‡qb DB †WW A¨vI‡q‡Kb

iZb w_qv‡gi bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ RbwcÖqZv †c‡q‡Q| KviY †m¸‡jv g¯’ n‡q‡Q AZ¨šÍ kw³kvjx welq‡K †K›`ª K‡i| GQvov cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ `„wób›`b Ges wkíx‡`i AwfbqI AZ¨šÍ †ZRw¯^Zvc~Y©| wZwb Zuvi bvU‡Ki cvÐzwjwc ˆZwi K‡ib gnvKve¨, †cŠivwYK Kvwnwb I †jvKKvwnwb †_‡K ev G¸‡jvi gva¨‡g DØy× n‡q| Zvici GwUi m‡½ wZwb wgwkÖZ K‡ib eY©bvZ¥K AwfbqixwZ, †mBm‡½ gwYcy‡ii HwZn¨evnx msMxZ, b„Z¨, gvk©vj AvU© Ges Ab¨vb¨ AvaywbK, mgmvgwqK bvU¨ Dcv`vb I hvwš¿K Kjv‡KŠkj| me wgwj‡q iZb w_qv‡gi bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv‡K ejv hvq g‡bv-kvixwiK| Avi GB e¨vcviwU‡KB wZwb Aej¤^b K‡i‡Qb Be‡m‡bi bvU‡K cÖ‡ek Kivi mg‡q| Avgvi `„wó‡Z iZb w_qv‡gi AvwkevwM G‡kB bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvwU n‡jv w_‡qUv‡ii g‡a¨ mvs¯‹…wZK wg_w¯Œqvi RwUj KvVv‡gv|6 Gi A_© n‡jv, bZzb ˆkwíK Awfe¨w³¸‡jv m„wó n‡q‡Q GKwU ms¯‹…wZi welqe¯‘ (fvebv, wjwLZ cvV) cy‡iv KvVv‡gvmn (bvU¨ Awfe¨w³) Ab¨ GKwU ms¯‹…wZi Dcv`vb I †KŠkj¸‡jvi m‡½ wgwkÖZ Kivi gva¨‡g| RwUj mvs¯‹…wZK wg_w¯Œqvi me‡P‡q mvaviY I mdj Dcvq¸‡jv‡K fvM Kiv hvq PviwU cÖavb †kÖwY‡Z : 1. GKwU cwðgv bvUK (AvaywbK ev wPivqZ) wKsev gnvKve¨ wgwkÖZ n‡Z cv‡i GKwU A-cwðgv †`‡ki GKwU wbw`©ó HwZn¨MZ bvU¨KvVv‡gvi m‡½| 2. GKwU cwðgv bvUK wgwkÖZ n‡Z cv‡i GK ev GKvwaK A-cwðgv HwZn¨MZ bvU¨KvVv‡gvi m‡½ ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv HwZn¨MZ wkíKvVv‡gv, †hgb Ñ msMxZ, ¯^Ztù‚Z© A½ mÂvjb, b„Z¨ BZ¨vw`| 3. GKwU cwðgv bvUK wgwkÖZ n‡Z cv‡i GKwU A-cwðgv wkíKjvi Dcv`vb I †KŠk‡ji m‡½ Ges †mBm‡½ AvaywbK cwðgv wkíKjvi Dcv`vb I †KŠk‡ji m‡½I| 4. GKwU A-cwðgv HwZn¨evnx bvUK ev gnvKv‡e¨ e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i cwðgv mgmvgwqK bvU¨‡KŠkj I ˆkjx Ges wewfbœ Dcv`vb I Kjv‡KŠkj|


AvwkevwM G‡kB bvU‡K AvBwib cÖ‡hvRbv : †Kvivm †icvU©wi w_‡qUvi

me ai‡bi RwUj mvs¯‹…wZK wg_w¯Œqv cÖK…wZMZfv‡eB AZ¨šÍ wbixÿvg~jK nq| GwU GKUz SzuwKc~Y©I e‡U, KviY welqe¯‘ I bvU¨KvVv‡gv wgwkÖZ Ki‡Z nq GKwU A_©c~Y© Dcv‡q| GwUi A_© n‡jv, †h-†Kv‡bv welqe¯‘B †h-†Kv‡bv bvU¨KvVv‡gv, Dcv`vb ev Kjv‡KŠk‡ji m‡½ wgwkÖZ Kiv hvq bv| †Zj I cvwb †gkv‡Z †M‡j †hgbwU nq Avi wK| A_©c~Y© bZzb Awfe¨w³ †hwU `k©K‡`i Kv‡Q †evaMg¨ n‡e †mwU ˆZwi Ki‡Z †M‡j bvUK I bvU¨KvVv‡gv evQvB Kivi e¨vcviwU‡Z AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e| SzuwKwU n‡jv GKwU bZzb ˆkwíK Awfe¨w³ m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e, †hLv‡b `yB ms¯‹…wZi g~j Ask¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨wU `~i n‡q hv‡e| c¨vwUªm cvwfm ÔAvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK w_‡qUviÕ cwifvlvwU e¨envi K‡i‡Qb Ges hyw³mnKv‡i †`wL‡q‡Qb †h GB fvebvwU, ... mvs¯‹…wZK Dcv`vbmg~‡ni AmgmË¡Zv Ges msjvc, msMxZ, A½fw½ I b„‡Z¨i g‡a¨ †h cv_©K¨¸‡jv Av‡Q †m¸‡jv eRvq ivLvi Am¤¢e cÖwµqvi Ici wfwË K‡i MwVZ|7

mvgvwRK wg_w¯Œqvi †ÿ‡Î wfbœ wfbœ ms¯‹…wZi wfbœ wfbœ ixwZ i‡q‡Q, d‡j w_‡qUv‡ii cÖKvkfw½wUI wfbœ n‡q hvq Zvj, jq, kvixwiK Awfe¨w³, A½fw½i A_©, K‡Éi e¨envi, i‡Oi mvs‡KwZK A_© BZ¨vw`i wfbœZvi Kvi‡Y| û‡Mv †fvwjø †hgbwU e‡j‡Qb : wfb‡`wk wKQy PgrKvi b„Z¨ Lyu‡R cvIqvi A_© wKš‘ GwUB bq †h G¸‡jv Lye mn‡RB wb‡R‡`i ms¯‹…wZ‡Z Avg`vwb Kiv hvq; G¸‡jv‡K wb‡R‡`i ms¯‹…wZi Av‡jv‡K cybM©Vb Ki‡Z n‡e, Avi GRb¨ cÖ‡qvRb GKwU Aby‡cÖiYv, GKwU ¯^cœKíbv A_ev Av‡iv mwVKfv‡e ejv hvq †ekwKQy c×wZMZ ZË¡|8

GB GKB e¨vcvi cÖ‡hvR¨ GKwU wjwLZ bvU‡Ki Ab¨ ms¯‹…wZ‡Z ¯’vbvšÍ‡ii †ÿ‡ÎI, †hgbwU †`Lv hvq iZb w_qvg wb‡`©wkZ Be‡m‡bi †nv‡qb DB †WW A¨vI‡q‡Kb bvUKwUi †ÿ‡Î| GLv‡b wjwLZ msjvc ûeû Lye KgB e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q, eis †`k ev A‡ji Av‡jv‡K GwU‡K cwieZ©b I cybM©Vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKwU AvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK


bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvi P‚ovšÍ cixÿvwU n‡jv `k©Kiv bvUKwU Kxfv‡e MÖnY Ki‡Qb iZb w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwU †`Lvi c‡i, fvi‡Zi cÖwm× Pjw”PÎ cwiPvjK k¨vg †e‡bMvj e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvwg we‡k¦i †hLv‡bB wM‡qwQ Be‡m‡bi AmsL¨ bvUK †`‡LwQ| Gevi w`wjø Be‡mb Drm‡eI GKwU bvUK †`Ljvg, †mwU iZb w_qv‡gi| Avgvi g‡Z, iZb w_qv‡gi GB bvUKwUB Avgvi †`Lv me‡P‡q †miv|Õ9 mvs¯‹…wZK wg_w¯Œqvi RwUj KvVv‡gv Ñ bZzb ˆkwíK Awfe¨w³ m„wó nq wgwkÖZ Kivi gva¨‡g welqe¯‘ (fvebv, †U·U) GKwU ms¯‹…wZ †_‡K| KvVv‡gv (bvU¨ Awfe¨w³) wKsev Dcv`vb Ges Kjv‡KŠkj Ab¨ ms¯‹…wZi GK ev GKvwaK ˆkwíK KvVv‡gv †_‡K, †hwU wgwkÖZ Kiv nq cÖ_g ms¯‹…wZi Dcv`vb, Kjv‡KŠkj ev cÖwZ”Qwei gva¨‡g| hv Ki‡Z n‡e : `k©K‡`i Kv‡Q bvUKwU †evaMg¨ Kivi Rb¨ Ic‡ii welq¸‡jv †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e| Avwg †hwU †`‡LwQ, wfb‡`wk `k©KivI iZb w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwUi cÖksmv K‡i‡Qb| GB cÖ‡hvRbvwU †`‡L fviZxq Ges wfb‡`wk `k©K‡`i cÖksmv‡K Avgiv Kxfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kie, †hwU cÖ`wk©Z n‡q‡Q Ggb GKwU fvlvq †h fvlvwU gwYcy‡ii evB‡i Lye Kg gvbylB †ev‡S Ges ïay K‡qKwU Bs‡iwR mveUvB‡Uj Qvov? †Kvb e¨vcviwU iZb w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwU‡K GZ kw³kvjx K‡i‡Q? AvwkevwM G‡kB K_vwUi A_© n‡jv Ôg„Zz¨i MvbÕ| g~j bvU‡K ¯§„wZ n‡”Q GKwU evnb, Avi GB evn‡b mIqvi n‡q gb¯ÍvwË¡K I D™¢vebx g„Zz¨wU cÖKvk n‡q c‡o, Ges wU‡K _vKv ¯§„wZB ZLb mKj my‡Li AšÍivq n‡q `uvovq| bvUKwU cÖ_gevi covi c‡i iZb w_qvg Kv‡e¨i g‡Zv K‡i wKQy K_v e‡jwQ‡jb : Ômgq e‡q hvq, wKš‘ i‡q hvq ¯§„wZ, IUv wbtk‡ã hš¿Yv †`q, †eu‡P _vKvi w`b¸‡jv‡Z|Õ10 iZb w_qvg‡K hLb wR‡Ám Kiv n‡qwQj bvUKwU Avm‡j Kx wb‡q, wZwb ZLb e‡jwQ‡jb : Ô...GwU Rxeb, g„Zz¨ Ges gvby‡li Rxe‡bi mxgvnxb AvKv•ÿv wb‡q|Õ11 GB K_v¸‡jv Avgv‡K g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡”Q Rxeb m¤ú‡K© †eŠ× `k©bwU‡K, Rxeb n‡jv ÿzavZ©| Avwg w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvq GB ÿzavi iƒcwU‡K †`‡LwQ gyw³ Ges myLcÖvwßi AvKv•ÿvi g‡a¨| cy‡iv cÖ‡hvRbvq gyw³i ÿzavwU cÖKUfv‡e D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q Ges GwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q msjv‡ci g‡a¨, †mBm‡½ bvU¨`„k¨ I iƒc‡Ki g‡a¨I| e¨w³gvby‡li gyw³i ÿzavi Ic‡i †Rvi †`Iqvi e¨vcviwU †evSv hvq bvUKwUi †`kxqKi‡Yi Ic‡i, we‡klfv‡e

Ggb GKwU mgv‡R †mwU g¯’ n‡”Q †hLv‡b ivR‰bwZK I mvgvwRKfv‡eB i‡q‡Q gyw³i cÖPÐ Afve| w_qvg e¨vcviwU‡K Gfv‡e e¨vL¨v Ki‡Qb : gvqv Zvi ¯^vaxbZv AR©b K‡i‡Q iæ‡e‡Ki KvQ †_‡K Ges †m Ab¨ Av‡iKR‡bi m‡½ emevm Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡i‡Q| GwUI Avm‡j GK ai‡bi gyw³| Av‡iKwU gyw³ n‡jv AvZ¥vi| AvZ¥vwUI GLb gy³|12

iZb w_qv‡gi AvwkevwM G‡kB (g„Zz̈i Mvb)-Gi welqe¯‘ ¯§„wZ ¯§„wZi wU‡K _vKv g„Zz¨ I cybR©‡b¥i Pµ gyw³ l wm×všÍ †bIqvi ¯^vaxbZv l AvZ¥vi ¯^vaxbZv bvUKwUi G‡Kev‡i ïiæ‡Z `k©K wKQy gÂmvgMÖx †`L‡Z cvq, †h¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ ewjôfv‡e eywS‡q †`q †h bvUKwUi g~j welq n‡jv gyw³ Ges gvbe-gvbexi m¤úK©B n‡jv Gi †K›`ªwe›`y| bvUKwU ïiæ nq GKwU ev¯ÍevbyM cwi‡e‡k iæ‡e‡Ki ÷zwWI‡Z, †mLv‡b †m gwYcy‡ii GKwU HwZn¨evnx †cÖggq Mvb ïb‡Q, AvcvZ`„wó‡Z †m Avm‡j ¯§„wZ‡e`bvZzi Ae¯’vq Av‡Q| g‡Âi Aci cv‡k GKwU cvwU‡Z e‡m Av‡Q gvqv Ges †m cyZzj evbv‡”Q| †h cyZzj¸‡jv †m evbv‡”Q †m¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU cyiæl Ges GKwU bvix, cyZzj¸‡jvi Mv‡q †m cwi‡q w`‡q‡Q we‡qi †cvkvK| Zvi cv‡k wZbwU cyZzj m¤ú~Y© ˆZwi Kiv Ae¯’vq Av‡Q, cyZzj¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU cyiæl Ges `y‡Uv bvix| Avwg eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ, †h cyZzj`y‡Uv ˆZwi Kiv n‡”Q †m¸‡jv w`‡q †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q bvix-cyiæ‡li fwel¨r m¤úK©wU‡K Ges evwK †h wZbwU cyZzj Av‡Q †m¸‡jv Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Q iæ‡eK, gvqv Ges AvBwi‡bi ga¨Kvi wÎfzR m¤úK©wU‡K| Z‡e GKwU AvKl©Yxq e¨vcvi n‡jv, g‡Âi †cQ‡bi As‡k K‡qKwU weKjv½ gvby‡li cÖwZg~wZ©i m‡½ GKwU eo cvwLi cÖwZg~wZ© Av‡Q| Avwg eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ, cvwLwU Avm‡j Z…Zxq A‡¼ gvqvi †`Iqv GKwU msjv‡ci cÖwZ”Qwe, ÔGKwU †cvl gvbv‡bv wkKvwi cvwL Avgvi w`‡K bRi ivL‡QÕ, GwU gvqvi gvbwmK Ae¯’v‡KB wb‡`©k K‡i| w_qvg wb‡RB e‡j‡Qb, GB cÖ‡hvRbvwU ˆZwi Kivi mg‡q wZwb Av Wjm nvDm †_‡K †cÖiYv jvf K‡i‡Qb : gvqvi †fZ‡i †bvivi GKwU m¤¢vebv †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq, Z‡e GwU †h ïay Zvi G‡Ki ci GK P‚ovšÍ wm×všÍ †bIqvi Kvi‡Y Zv wKš‘ bq, eis †m Lye ¯^Ztù‚Z©fv‡eB wm×všÍ¸‡jv wb‡Z cvi‡Q| Avmj e¨vcviwU n‡jv Mvb, †bvivi Mvb, †m †h P‡j hv‡”Q †bvivi GB †NvlYvwUi †P‡qI GwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y©|13


iƒcvšÍwiZ bvUKwU‡Z †h cÖavb cwieZ©b¸‡jv Avbv n‡q‡Q MVb

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A¼ †_‡K BDwb‡U fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| evwoi evB‡ii `„‡k¨i †P‡q †fZ‡ii `„k¨‡KB cÖvavb¨ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| AMÖMwZ : ÷zwWI-Rjc_-Ava¨vwZ¥K ¯’vb| cÖ_g A¼ ev` †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| msjvc †ewkifvM †ÿ‡Î cÖwZ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q `„k¨ ˆZwii gva¨‡g| ïay PviwU PwiÎ : iæ‡eK, gvqv, AvBwib, DjdnvBg| bvg¸‡jv cwiewZ©Z n‡q‡Q gwYcywi fvlvq, †h¸‡jvi A_© Ñ fv¯‹i, my›`ix igYx, cÖwZ”Qwe, AvMš‘K| iæ‡e‡Ki e¨w³Z¡ Ges mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb cwiewZ©Z n‡q‡Q| GKB e¨vcvi N‡U‡Q DjdnvB‡gi eb¨Zvi †ÿ‡ÎI| mywbw`©ó wKQy †bB| e`‡j †`Iqv n‡q‡Q g„Zz¨ †_‡K †eu‡P IVvi gva¨‡g (g„Zz¨i c‡i cybR©b¥)|

†`kxq welq¸‡jvi Av‡jv‡K bvUKwU iƒcvšÍi Ki‡Z wM‡q w_qvg Av‡iv wKQy cwieZ©b G‡b‡Qb : cÖ_gZ, cvidig¨vÝ †U·‡Ui MVbwU g~j bvU‡Ki Zzjbvq wfbœ| Avgiv Rvwb, g~j bvU‡K Av‡Q wZbwU A¼, †h¸‡jv µgvš^‡q mgZj †_‡K D‡”P Ges mvM‡ii Zxi †_‡K N‡ii †fZ‡i P‡j †M‡Q : cÖ_g A¼wU †nv‡U‡ji evB‡i mgy‡`ªi KvQvKvwQ GKwU Sibv‡Z NU‡Q, wØZxq A¼wU NU‡Q GKwU gvjf‚wg‡Z Ges Z…Zxq A¼wU cvnv‡oi Ic‡i| bvU‡Ki GB MVbwU †f‡O †djv n‡q‡Q †ek K‡qKwU Dcv‡q : A¼ cÖwZ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q BDwbU w`‡q, †hgbwU †`Lv hvq fvi‡Zi DcvL¨vbwfwËK HwZn¨evnx w_‡qUv‡i| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwU ïiæ nq g~j bvU‡Ki wØZxq A¼ †_‡K Ges GB A‡¼i MíwUB cÖ‡hvRbvwUi g~j M‡í cwiYZ nq| me †k‡l, bvU‡Ki ¯’vbwU wfbœ, KviY w_qvg Zuvi cÖ‡hvRbvi †ewkifvM AskB †i‡L‡Qb N‡ii g‡a¨, we‡kl K‡i iæ‡e‡Ki ÷zwWI‡Z| G m¤ú‡K© wZwb e‡j‡Qb : Avwg †`Lv‡bvi †Póv K‡iwQ, GwU n‡”Q KvR Kivi GKwU RvqMv, evwo bv| KviY KvR Kivi GKwU RvqMv Qvov †Kv‡bv fv¯‹iB KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| GwU LyeB mvaviY e¨vcvi Ñ GKwU KvR Kivi RvqMv‡ZB mewKQy NU‡Z

cv‡i, GLv‡bB ¯§„wZiv wd‡i Av‡m| Avi ¯§„wZ wdwi‡q Avbvi e¨vcviwU Avgvi Kv‡Q ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wQj Ñ we‡klfv‡e iæ‡e‡Ki ¯§„wZ|14

hv‡nvK, KvVv‡gvMZfv‡e bvUKwUi GZ wKQy cwieZ©‡bi c‡iI NUbvi ¯’vb Abyhvqx w_qvg wZb avc AMÖMwZi aviYvwU e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, we‡kl K‡i ¯’vbwU hLb ÷zwWI †_‡K cwiewZ©Z n‡q GKwU Rjc‡_i Ava¨vwZ¥K ¯’v‡b cwiYZ nq| GLv‡b GwU D‡jøL Kiv Riæwi, fviZxq a¨vb-aviYv Abymv‡i Ava¨vwZ¥K ¯’vbwU Amxg Ges ev¯ÍeZvi E‡aŸ© Ae¯’vb K‡i, A_©vr me‡P‡q EaŸ© ¯’v‡b| Gfv‡e w_qvg Zuvi bvU‡K ¯§„wZi Aw¯ÍZ¡‡K hy³ K‡i‡Qb wn›`y I †eŠ× gZev` Abymv‡i g„Zz¨ I cybR©b¥ PµwUi m‡½| GKB m‡½ GB cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z †`Lv hvq ev¯Íe RMr †_‡K civev¯Íe RM‡Zi w`‡K GKwU hvÎv| wØZxqZ, GKwU bvU‡Ki iƒcvšÍi ev UªvÝwµ‡qk‡bi †ÿ‡Î Pwiθ‡jv‡KI cwieZ©b Ki‡Z nq| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z ïay iæ‡eK, gvqv, AvBwib I DjdnvBg Pwiθ‡jvB Av‡Q, evwK AcÖavb Pwiθ‡jv‡K †d‡j †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| GB cÖ‡hvRbvq †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q iæ‡eK I AvBwib Ges iæ‡eK I gvqvi m¤úK©wU‡K| DjdnvBg‡K AcÖavb Pwi‡Î bvwg‡q Avbv n‡q‡Q Ges Zvi Pwi‡Îi mg¯Í ˆewkó¨ †d‡j †`Iqv n‡q‡Q, ïay Zvi gyw³i AvKv•ÿv Qvov| w_qvg e‡j‡Qb, ¯’vbxq welqe¯‘i m‡½ †gjv‡bvi Rb¨ GB cwieZ©b¸‡jv Awbevh© wQj| wKš‘ GKB m‡½ wZwb Pvw”Q‡jb Be‡m‡bi bvUKwUi g~j welqe¯‘I †hb wU‡K _v‡K : Avwg g~j welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© h‡_ó mZK© wQjvg| Be‡mb GK ai‡bi †gŠwjK cwiw¯’wZ m„wó Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb, †hwU Avwg wj‡LwQ wVK †miKgB| cy‡iv GK c„ôv msjvc bv wj‡L, Avwg †Póv K‡iwQ Be‡m‡bi gvÎ GKwU evK¨ e¨envi K‡iB †mwU †evSv‡Z| Avcwb hw` GwU Dcjwä Ki‡Z bv cv‡ib, Zvn‡j bvUKwU eyS‡Z cvi‡eb bv|15

Avgiv mevB Rvwb, Be‡mb GB bvU‡Ki Pwiθ‡jvi bvg Lye mZK©Zvi m‡½ wbe©vPb K‡iwQ‡jb, hv‡Z †m¸‡jvi GKwU A_© _v‡K| d‡j GB GKB Kvi‡Y, AvšÍtmvs¯‹…wZK bvU¨ cÖ‡hvRbvi †ÿ‡Î Pwiθ‡jvi ¯’vbxq bvg wbe©vPb h‡_ó Kómva¨ e¨vcvi n‡q `uvovq| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z †h PviwU PwiÎ Av‡Q Zv‡`i bvg e`‡j †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| w_qvg e‡j‡Qb, wZwb bvg¸‡jv wbe©vPb K‡i‡Qb Pwiθ‡jv m¤ú‡K© †hwU Abyfe Ki‡Qb wVK †mB Abymv‡i, Avi ¯’vbxq `k©Kiv hv‡Z bvg¸‡jv mnRfv‡e MÖnY K‡i †mwUi w`‡KI Zuvi bRi wQj| Avgvi Kv‡Q g‡b n‡q‡Q GB cwieZ©b¸‡jvi Kvi‡Y Pwiθ‡jv me©Rbxb n‡q‡Q| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z, Aa¨vcK iæ‡eK‡K Zvi D”P mvgvwRK †kÖwY, eyw×Rxexmyjf Ae¯’vb Ges AvaywbKZv †_‡K GKUz mwi‡q Avbv n‡q‡Q| KviY, gwYcy‡ii Ave‡n


AvwkevwM G‡kB bvU‡K Dc¯’vwcZ AvBwib PwiÎ

cÖ‡hvRbv : †Kvivm †icvU©wi w_‡qUvi

g~j bvU‡Ki GB PwiÎwUi g‡Zv †Kv‡bv cÖwZiƒc †bB| GLv‡b iæ‡eK n‡q c‡o‡Qb ÔkvKZvg jvKcvÕ, Gi A_© whwb KíbvcÖeY ev whwb fv¯‹h© ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡ib, A_©vr, Ôfv¯‹iÕ| Zv‡K wPwÎZ Kiv n‡q‡Q GKwU weaŸ¯Í, eb¨ PwiÎ wn‡m‡e Ges Zvi hš¿YvwU mvg‡b †U‡b Avbv n‡q‡Q| d‡j Gfv‡eB iæ‡e‡Ki PwiÎwU‡K Ggb GKwU Pwi‡Î e`‡j †djv n‡q‡Q, hvi g‡a¨ DjdnvB‡gi eb¨ZvI Av‡Q| G e¨vcv‡i Avgvi `y‡Uv e¨vL¨v Av‡Q : GKwU n‡jv, fviZxq cyiv‡Y PwiÎ iƒcvšÍ‡ii †h welqwU Av‡Q †mwU †_‡K w_qvg Aby‡cÖiYv wb‡q‡Qb, KviY †mLv‡b †`e-†`exiv m„wókxj I aŸsmvZ¥K GB Dfq iƒ‡cB Avwef‚©Z nb| Avwg eje G e¨vcviwU g~j bvU‡KI Av‡Q| †mLv‡b †`Lv hvq, cv_‡i cÖvY cÖwZôvi e¨vcv‡i iæ‡e‡Ki cÖvYvšÍKi cÖ‡Póv m¤ú‡K© DjdnvBg wKQy K_v ej‡Q| Zvi K_v¸‡jvi A_©B n‡jv, iæ‡eK wb‡RB †Zv Rxeb †_‡K g„Zz¨i iƒcvšÍ‡i Ave„Z n‡q Av‡Q| Avgvi Av‡iKwU e¨vL¨v n‡jv, fviZxq Ave‡n gvqv Ges DjdnvB‡gi m¤úK©wUi g‡a¨ gyw³i †h e¨vcviwU‡K w_qvg †Rvi w`‡Z †P‡q‡Qb, †mwUi Rb¨B DjdnvB‡gi

Pwi‡Î GKwU BwZevPK I mnvbyf‚wZkxj ˆewkó¨ †hvM Kivi cÖ‡qvRb n‡q‡Q| g~j bvU‡K ÔMWmvqvi DjdnvBgÕ GKwU wgkÖ PwiÎ Ñ ÔMWmvqviÕ A_© n‡jv, Ôhvi GKwU eomo Rwg Av‡QÕ Ges ÔDjdnvBgÕ A_© n‡jv Ô†hLv‡b ey‡bv cï jvjb cvjb Kiv nqÕ, A_©vr †mvRv K_vq Ôfjøy‡Ki evwoÕ| hv‡nvK, Bs‡iwR Abyev‡` PwiÎwU‡K ïay ÔDjdnvBgÕ ejv nq Ges Zvi wkKvwimËvwU‡KB ¸iæZ¡ †`Iqv nq| Avi GB e¨vcviwUB mgm¨v n‡q †`Lv †`q hLb g~j bvUKwU‡K Ab¨ †Kv‡bv ms¯‹…wZ‡Z iƒcvšÍi Kiv nq, †hgbwU w_qvg †nv‡qb DB †WW A¨vI‡q‡K‡bi Bs‡iwR Abyev` †_‡K cÖ¯’vb wb‡Z wM‡q e‡j‡Qb : Avgv‡`i gwYcy‡i †ckv`vi wkKvwii e¨vcviwU Avm‡j †bB| Z‡e GKRb AvMš‘K wn‡m‡e †m Avm‡ZB cv‡i| wKQy DcRvZxq wRwbmcÎ e¨envi K‡i Zv‡K Lye mn‡RB wkKv‡ii m‡½ m¤úK©hy³ Kiv m¤¢e|16

ÔgvqvÕ bvgwU nq‡Zv wfbœ †Kv‡bv Drm Ges fvlv †_‡K


†bIqv n‡q‡Q| Z‡e Avgvi aviYv, Be‡mb nq‡Zv Ô†gBÕ kãwU †_‡K GwU wb‡q‡Qb, †hwUi biI‡qRxq A_© n‡jv Ô†gÕ gvm| GB gvmwU emšÍ FZz‡K aviY K‡i| GB FZzwU n‡jv cÖK…wZi evwl©K P‡µi Ggb GKwU mgq, hLb bZzb Rxe‡bi m„wó nq| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbvwU‡Z ÔgvqvÕ bvgwU cwieZ©b K‡i ivLv n‡q‡Q Ôkv‡LbweÕ, A_©vr, Ômy›`ix igYxÕ| w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z AvBwib bvgwU cwieZ©b K‡i ivLv n‡q‡Q ÔkvKZvgÕ, †hwUi A_© n‡jv ÔcÖwZ”QweÕ, Avi Zv‡K cy‡iv cÖ‡hvRbvwU‡ZB evievi †`Lv hvq| Gi KviYwU n‡jv †m kvKZvg jvKcvi (iæ‡eK) ¯§„wZ‡Z wd‡i wd‡i Av‡m| PZz_©Z, Be‡m‡bi g~j bvU‡K msjvc, ¯’vb I bvU¨wµqvi gva¨‡g cwi®‹vifv‡e eywS‡q †`Iqv n‡q‡Q cy‡iv NUbvwU NU‡Q MÖx®§Kv‡j| wKš‘ w_qvg †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó Kvj AbymiY K‡ibwb| cÂgZ, w_qvg Zuvi cÖ‡hvRbvwU‡Z mgvwß e`‡j w`‡q‡Qb| Be‡m‡bi g~j bvU‡K iæ‡eK I AvBwib Zzlv‡ii wb‡P Pvcv c‡o, GwU AšÍt¯’ g„Zz¨i GKwU iƒcK| d‡j GwU GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkœ †h, Kxfv‡e GB iƒcKwU ¯’vbxq ms¯‹…wZ Ges GKwU ¯^vfvweK cwi‡e‡k A_©c~Y©fv‡e cÖwZ¯’vcb Kiv m¤¢e? GB cÖ‡hvRbvwU †`‡L Avgvi g‡b n‡q‡Q, w_qvg G `„k¨wU cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡ibwb, †hwU g~j bvU‡Ki g‡Zv GKB A_© enb Ki‡e| Be‡mb Zuvi bvUKwU mgvß K‡i‡Qb g„Zz¨i gva¨‡g, w_qvg Zuvi cÖ‡hvRbvwU mgvß K‡i‡Qb Rxe‡bi gva¨‡g, A_©vr, g„Zz¨i c‡i cybR©b¥| Zzlv‡i Pvcv c‡o iæ‡eK I AvBwi‡bi g„Zz¨i cÖwZ¯’vcb m¤ú‡K© w_qvg †hwU e‡j‡Qb : Ôg„Zz¨i aviYvwUB GLv‡b eo K_v, g„Zz¨ Kxfv‡e NU‡Q †mwU †Kv‡bv e¨vcvi bq|Õ Zuvi cÖ‡hvRbvwUi †kl BDwb‡U wZwb g„Zz¨ I cybR©‡b¥i PµwU‡K hy³ K‡i‡Qb iæ‡eK I AvBwib‡K GKwU †gUvwdwRK¨vj ¯’v‡b cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bvi gva¨‡g, Av‡iv cwi®‹vifv‡e hw` ewj Ñ GKwU Ava¨vwZ¥K RM‡Z cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bvi gva¨‡g| GwU Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi GB `„k¨wU‡Z mv`v i‡Oi e¨envi †`‡L| fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k mv`v is n‡jv g„Zz¨i cÖZxK, Z‡e GwU ï×ZviI cÖZxK, A_©vr, cybR©b¥| G e¨vcviwU eyS‡Z cviv hvq †ek K‡qKwU bvix cÖwZg~wZ©i gva¨‡g| Zv‡`i †`‡L cÖ_‡gB g‡b n‡qwQj Zviv †evanq fv¯‹h©, Zviv g„Z| wKš‘ c‡i iæ‡eK hLb e‡j, ÔILv‡b Avgiv Avgv‡`i we‡qi Drme KieÕ Ges AvBwib DËi †`q, Ôm~‡h©i bRi wKš‘ Avgiv Gov‡Z cvie bvÕ, ZLb cÖwZg~wZ©¸‡jv g„Z †_‡K RxweZ n‡q I‡V Ges Zviv bvP‡Z _v‡K I MvB‡Z _v‡K Ñ ÔAvwg gy³! Avwg gy³! Avwg gy³! Avwg GLb Avi ew›` bB| Avwg gy³! Avwg cvwLi g‡Zv D‡o †eove! Avwg GLb gy³!Õ my¯úófv‡e, cÖwZg~wZ©¸‡jvi aviYvwU †bIqv n‡q‡Q gwYcy‡ii HwZn¨evnx Ôivm b„Z¨Õ †_‡K, wKš‘ w_qvg GB bvPwU †f‡O‡Qb Ges ïay e¨w³¯^vaxbZv I GwUi m‡½ g„Zz¨

I cybR©‡b¥i †hvMv‡hvM NUv‡bvi Rb¨ †h mg¯Í Dcv`vb cÖ‡qvRb †m¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| GQvov wZwb ivm b„‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg ˆewkó¨ e„ËvKv‡i b„Z¨ Kivi e¨vcviwU †i‡L‡Qb wVKB wKš‘ Ab¨ Av‡iv K‡qKwU cÖavb ˆewkó¨ ev` w`‡q‡Qb, we‡kl K‡i `jMZ b„‡Z¨i e¨vcviwU| wZwb G m¤ú‡K© e‡j‡Qb : ...cÖ‡Z¨‡KB Zvi g‡Zv K‡iB bvP‡Q| HwZn¨evnx ivm b„Z¨ n‡”Q GKwU `jMZ b„Z¨| cÖwZwU b„Z¨wkíxiB _v‡K GKB fw½, GKB web¨vm, GKB welq Zviv cÖKvk K‡i| wKš‘ GLv‡b Avgiv KvR KiwQ cÖ‡Z¨K gvby‡li e¨w³¯^vaxbZv wb‡q Ges cÖ‡Z¨‡KB bvP‡Q wfbœZvmnKv‡i Ges wfbœ A½fw½ wb‡q|...Avgiv Rvwb g„Zz¨ gv‡bB n‡”Q P‚ovšÍ GKwU e¨vcvi, Ges Avgiv mevB cybiæÌvb Ges cybR©b¥ GB e¨vcviwUi m‡½ cwiwPZ|17

cÖ‡hvRbvwU cÖ‡mwbqv‡gi Rb¨ evbv‡bv n‡jI GwUi cÖKw… Z Avm‡j †`kxq HwZn¨MZ bv‡U¨i g‡ZvB| w_qvg e‡j‡Qb : Avwg Avgvi cÖ‡hvRbv¸‡jv‡Z memgqB GKwU c×wZ AbymiY Kwi, Avi †mwU n‡jv ÔAuvKv Ges gy‡Q †djvÕ| GKwU bvU‡Ki cÖ‡Z¨KwU BDwb‡UB Avwg wKQy GKUv AuvKvi †Póv Kwi cÖcm w`‡q, Kw÷Dg w`‡q Ges is w`‡q, Zvici †mwU gy‡Q †dwj| Gic‡i Avwg Avev‡iv GKwU BDwbU awi Ges GKB KvR Kwi|...cÖ‡Z¨KwU BDwbUB bvU‡K wKQy bv wKQy †hvM K‡i Ges bvU‡Ki g~j welqe¯‘i m‡½ †m¸‡jvi GKwU ms‡hvM N‡U hvq| d‡j ˆZwi nIqv Qwe¸‡jv GKwUi Ic‡i GKwU ¯’vwcZ nq Ges AZ¨šÍ cyiæ n‡q I‡V|18

w_qv‡gi ÔAuvKv Ges gy‡Q †djvÕ ixwZ l cÖwZwU BDwb‡U ÔAuvKv Ges gy‡Q †djvÕ : cÖcm, Kw÷Dg I is w`‡q AuvKv Ges c‡i gy‡Q †djv| l cÖwZwU BDwbUB bvU‡K wKQy bv wKQy †hvM K‡i Ges ˆZwi nIqv QwewU cyiæ n‡q I‡V| l fviZxq HwZn¨MZ w_‡qUv‡ii DcvL¨vb¸‡jvi m‡½ cÖavb cv_©K¨ : HwZn¨MZ w_‡qUv‡ii eûgyLx cÖc‡mi m‡½ hy³ n‡q‡Q cÖwZwU BDwb‡Ui mywbw`©ó cÖcm| Avgvi `„wó‡Z, GB ixwZwU Avm‡j MÖnY Kiv n‡q‡Q fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡ki HwZn¨MZ bvU¨KvVv‡gv †_‡K| GKwU HwZn¨MZ bvUK MwVZ nq DcvL¨v‡bi mgš^‡q, Avi cÖwZwU DcvL¨vbB cy‡iv cvidig¨v‡Ýi m¤ú~Y© MwÐi g‡a¨ Ae¯’vb K‡iB Avgv‡`i G‡KKwU m¤ú~Y© Mí Dcnvi †`q| hv‡nvK, w_qv‡gi c×wZwU HwZn¨MZ bvU¨KvVv‡gv †_‡K `y‡Uv Dcv‡q wfbœ : cÖ_gZ, ¯^mxgve× AvL¨vb¸‡jv cÖwZ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q w_qv‡gi ÔBDwbUÕ-Gi gva¨‡g, †hwU GKwU Mí m¤ú~Yf © v‡e


ej‡Z cv‡i bv| Mí †kl Kivi Rb¨ GK ev GKvwaK BDwb‡Ui cÖ‡qvRb nq| GwUi GKwU PgrKvi D`vniY n‡jv, iæ‡eK I AvBwi‡bi GKwU K‡_vcK_b wZwb GKwU BDwbU (Aw¼Z wPÎ) †_‡K †U‡b wb‡q Av‡iKwU BDwb‡U †d‡j‡Qb| iæ‡eK I AvBwib †h BDwb‡U K_v ej‡Q †mwU NU‡Q GKwU †bŠKvi †fZ‡i| Zv‡`i K_v¸‡jv wVK Ggb : iæ‡eK : Avgv‡`i Rxeb! In! RxebUv Avgiv bó K‡i †d‡jwQ| AvBwib : Avgiv hv nvwi‡q †dwj, Zv Avgiv ZLbB Lyu‡R cvB, hLb... iæ‡eK : hLb? AvBwib : hLb Avgiv g„Zz¨ †_‡K †eu‡P DwV| Avgiv ZLb eyS‡Z cvwi Avgiv Avm‡j KL‡bv †eu‡P wQjvg bv| GB msjvcwU Pj‡Z Pj‡ZB c‡ii BDwbU G‡m hvq, †hwU GKwU Ava¨vwZ¥K ¯’vb Ges AvBwib Zvi msjv‡ci evwK AskwU e‡j : ÔAvwg nVvr K‡iB eyS‡Z cvijvg Zzwg Avm‡j g‡i †MQ| eû eQi a‡iB Zzwg g„Z|Õ19 wØZxqZ, w_qv‡gi isZzwji UvbwU HwZn¨MZ bvU‡Ki Zzjbvq A‡bK †ewk cyiæ I kw³kvjx, KviY bvU¨`„k¨¸‡jv A‡bK †ewk ¯úó Ges Lye `ªæZB e`‡j hvq| †`kxq HwZn¨MZ bvU‡K †`Lv hvq bvU¨`„k¨¸‡jv GK RvqMv‡ZB NU‡Q Ges K‡qKwU eûgyLx cÖc‡mi mvnv‡h¨B †mwU wPÎvwqZ n‡”Q Avi cÖcm¸‡jv mviv cvidig¨v‡Ý g‡ÂB †_‡K hv‡”Q| w_qvgI K‡qKwU Kvco Ges Ab¨vb¨ cÖcm e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, Z‡e †m¸‡jv g‡Â cÖ‡ek K‡i‡Q mywbw`©ó BDwb‡Ui mgq¸‡jv‡Z| Avi Gfv‡eB wZwb †`kxq HwZn¨MZ fvebv‡K †f‡O †d‡j‡Qb Ges AvaywbK w_‡qUv‡ii Kjv‡KŠkj e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| GB AvaywbK Kjv‡KŠkj e¨envi Kivi e¨vcviwU PviwU `„‡k¨ Lye fv‡jvfv‡e †evSv †M‡Q, †hwU cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡i‡Q ev KL‡bv KL‡bv kw³ RywM‡q‡Q Ñ g~j bvU‡Ki msjvc¸‡jv‡K : 1. AvBwib‡K wN‡i iæ‡e‡Ki ¯§„wZ¸‡jvi `„k¨vqb Kiv n‡q‡Q K‡qKwU ey`ey‡`i gva¨‡g, Avi GwU N‡U hLb AvBwib cÖ_g g‡Â cÖ‡ek K‡i Ges ey`ey`¸‡jvI g‡Âi GK cvk †_‡K Av‡iK cv‡k P‡j hvq| AvBwib cÖ‡ek K‡i †XD‡qi g‡Zv bo‡Z _vKv GKwU Kvc‡oi †fZi †_‡K| 2. iæ‡eK AvBwi‡bi fv¯‹hw© U‡K bZzb K‡i M‡o‡Q, GB e¨vcviwU g~j bvU‡Ki †h `„k¨wU‡Z iæ‡eK AvBwib‡K ej‡Q, †mB `„k¨wU w_qv‡gi cÖ‡hvRbv‡Z †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q GKwU kw³kvjx K‡¤úvwRk‡bi gva¨‡g, †mLv‡b cÖwZ”Qwei g‡Zv AvBwib‡K ivLv

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Produced by Chorus Theatre, Imphal, Manipur, India in 2008. As a part of the project Delhi Ibsen Festival ’08, the organizer — Dramatic Art & Design Academy — commissioned three distinguished Indian theatre directors, Ratan Thiyam among them, to make productions of Ibsen’s plays. Thiyam himself selected When We Dead Awaken. Samik Bandyopadhya : The New Karnas of Manipur, p. 73. Anjum Katyal, p. 12. Ratan Thiyam : The audience is inside me, p. 64. Fischer-Lichte, J. Riley and M. Gissenwehrer (eds), (1990) The Dramatic Touch of Difference, quoted from Patrice Pavis The Intercultural Performance Reader, p. 11. In contrast to what I call simple forms of cultural encountering which can be created entirely within the context of modern theatre, see Kamaluddin Nilu (2007). Patrice Pavis : The Intercultural Performance Reader, p. 2. Quoted from Patrice Pavis : Theatre at the crossroads of culture, p. 17. Quoted from When We dead Awaken : Another Masterpiece of Ratan Thiyamby Meghachandra Kongbam. Ratan Thiyam in Dramatic Art & Design Academy (2009), p. 28. Ibid, p. 23. Ibid,ªp. 32. Soumyabrata Choudhury (2009), p. 132. Ratan Thiyam in Dramatic Art & Design Academy (2009), p. 28. Ibid, p. 27. Ibid, p. 27. Ibid, p. 32-33. Ibid, p. 29. From Thiyam’s performance text, unpublished. Marvin Carlson (1996), p. 82.

Bandyopadhyay, Samik (1997) : The New Karnas of Manipur, in Seagull Theatre Quarterly, Issue 14/15 Theatre in Manipur Today. 2. Carlson, Marvin (1996) : Brook and Mnouchkine — Passages to India? in Patrice Pavis (ed.) The Intercultural Performance Reader. 3. Choudhury, Soumyabrata (2009) : When We Dead Awaken : The Temperature of the Symbol, in Dramatic Art & Design Academy : Proceedings Ibsen Conference 2008 — The Contemporary Relevance of Ibsen & Inroads into Theatre Dramaturgy in India. 4. Dramatic Art & Design Academy (2009) : Proceedings Ibsen Conference 2008 — The Contemporary Relevance of Ibsen & Inroads into Theatre Dramaturgy in India. New Delhi. 5. Katyal, Anjum (1997) : Editorial, in Seagull Theatre Quarterly, Issue 14/15, Theatre in Manipur Today. 6. Kongbam, Meghachandra (2008) : When We dead Awaken : Another Masterpiece of Ratan Thiyam, in Manipur Comments, http://manipurcomments.com 7. Nilu, Kamluddin (2007) : Cultural diversity within professional theatre : Possibilities and challenges, in : www2.scenekunst.no/artikkel_3995.nml 8. Pavis, Patrice (1992) : Theatre at the crossroads of culture. London and New York : Routledge. 9. Pavis, Patrice, ed. (1996) : The Intercultural Performance Reader. London and New York : Routledge. 10. Thiyam, Ratan (1997) : The audience is inside me, in Seagull Theatre Quarterly, Issue 14/15 Theatre in Manipur Today.


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D‡V‡Q Zuvi Qwei Avw½K| GLv‡bB Zuvi Qwei m‡½ gy¤^vB‡qi mgmvgwqK I Ab¨vb¨ wkíxi cv_©K¨| Zuvi wk‡íi welq wn‡m‡e wZwb †e‡Q wb‡qwQ‡jb we¯ÍxY© MÖvgxY fviZ‡K| Gici G‡m‡Q ivgvqY, gnvfviZ BZ¨vw` †cŠivwYK welq| fvi‡Zi BwZnvm, `k©b, ag©MÖš’ I cyivY m¤ú‡K© Zuvi Mfxi Ávb wQj| †mm‡ei cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q Zuvi Qwe‡Z| ¯^vaxbZvmsMÖvg G‡m‡Q| G‡m‡Q mvs¯‹…wZK DrK‡l©i bvbv w`K, mZ¨wRr ivq, c‡_i cuvPvjx BZ¨vw`| gv`vi †Z‡imv‡K wb‡q wPÎgvjv K‡i‡Qb| †Nvov A‡bK mgq n‡q D‡V‡Q Zuvi wcÖq welq| QvZvi AvZ¥K_v wb‡q Qwe K‡i‡Qb, hvi †fZi w`‡q a‡i‡Qb MÖvgxY fvi‡Zi mswer‡K| GQvov G‡m‡Q ARmª welq Ñ †cv÷vi, U¨v‡cw÷ª BZ¨vw`| Pwjø‡ki `k‡K fviZxq AvaywbKZvev‡`i †h g~j ˆewkó¨ Ñ cvðvZ¨ AvaywbKZvev`x Avw½K‡K AvËxK…Z K‡i fviZxq mswe‡Zi Mfxi cÖÁvi m‡½ Zv‡K mgwš^Z K‡i Zz‡j AvZ¥cwiP‡qi GK ¯^Zš¿ wbwiL wbg©vY Kiv, hv‡Z AvšÍR©vwZKZvi †fZi cÖwZdwjZ nq cÖengvb ci¤úivi Awbevh© cÖwZwe¤^ Ñ û‡mb †mUv AZ¨šÍ mdjZvi m‡½ K‡i †M‡Qb| fvi‡Zi Rxeb I ms¯‹…wZ‡K, Gi AZxZ I eZ©gvb‡K wZwb Av‡jvwKZ wefvq Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb Zuvi wewfbœ wPÎgvjvi ga¨ w`‡q| AZ¨šÍ cwiwgZ evP‡b mswÿßZvi ga¨ w`‡q mvs‡KwZK wPÎfvlv wZwb ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb Zuvi wel‡qi cÖ‡qvRb Abymv‡i| GB mswÿßZv I mvs‡KwZKZvi ga¨ w`‡qB M‡o I‡V Zuvi cÖKv‡ki ¯^vZš¿¨| `y-GKwU Qwe‡Z weg~‡Z©i mvgvb¨ Avfvm _vK‡jI û‡m‡bi Qwe cÖvq me mgqB Aeqex| weg~Z©Zvi w`‡K wZwb cÖvq KL‡bvB †h‡Z Pvbwb| e‡j‡Qb, fvi‡Z †h kZvwaK †KvwU gvby‡li Rxeb, Gi meUvB cÖLi ev¯Íe| GLv‡b weg~Z© wKQy †bB| GB û‡mb‡K wb‡qB AwgZvf K‡ii Av‡jvP¨ eB| eBwUi Av‡jvPbvi Ask g~jZ AvUwU Aa¨v‡q wef³| †m¸‡jv n‡jv : 1. fviZxq Ava¨vwZ¥KZvq bMœZv I †hŠbZvi `k©b, 2. û‡mb I Zuvi wPÎKjvi Ici AvµgY, 3. AÁZvcÖm~Z GK fzj Awf‡hvM, 4. gKeyj wd`v û‡mb : HwZ‡n¨i DËimvaK, 5. cÖZxK I û‡m‡bi wPÎKjv, 6. û‡m‡bi mi¯^Zx, 7. û‡m‡bi mi¯^Zx Ñ Av‡iv `y-PviwU K_v, 8. MRMvwgbx Ñ wPišÍb bvix‡Z¡i cÖwZ û‡mbxq G·‡cÖkwb÷ kÖ×vN©¨| Gici i‡q‡Q Zuvi M`¨-fvlv I KweZvi `„óvšÍ, Rxeb I MÖš’cwÄ| cÖavbZ †h-QwewU wb‡q GZ weZK©, †h-†gŠjev`x wnsmvZ¥K Avµg‡Yi †R‡i û‡mb‡K †`k Qvo‡Z eva¨ Kiv n‡jv, mˇii `k‡K AuvKv †mB bwMœKv mi¯^Zx wb‡q †h cÖÁv`xß Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb †jLK, Zv †_‡K †evSv hvq mi¯^Zxi cyivYKí, BwZnvm, g~wZ©ZË¡ m¤ú‡K© Kx Mfxi Ávb ivL‡Zb û‡mb| Ges †mB cÖÁv‡K KZ mswÿßZvi ga¨ w`‡q cÖKvk Kivi ÿgZv Zuvi wQj| †evSv hvq, GB †h evM&‡`ex mi¯^Zx, wecyjv I cÖK…wZiB whwb Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask, cÖK…wZi g‡ZvB wZwb gy³ I AveiYnxb| †mB †mŠ›`h©‡K e¯¿ve„Z Ki‡j Gi D`vËZv e¨vnZ nq| W.


KvbvB jvj fÆvPv‡h©i mi¯^Zx, Av ÷vwW Ab nvi Kb‡mÞ A¨vÛ AvBK‡bvMÖvwd (1983) I Gg.AvB. Lv‡bi mi¯^Zx Bb m¨vÝwµU wjUv‡iPvi MÖš’`ywUi mvnvh¨ wb‡q †jLK G-QwewUi cwic~Y© we‡kølY K‡i‡Qb| †`wL‡q‡Qb †Kgb K‡i ÔFM&‡e‡`i hy‡Mi (mi¯^Zx) b`xwU cieZx©Kv‡j cyiv‡Y ms¯‹…Z ÔevM&‡`exÕ‡Z (evK+†`ex) iƒcvšÍwiZ nq|Õ GB mi¯^Zx b`xi m‡½ †`ex mi¯^Zx‡K GKvZ¥ Ki‡Z wkíx gvÎ wZbwU Av‡›`vwjZ †iLvq b`xi cÖwZgvKí cwiùzU K‡i‡Qb| Avi †mB Rj †f` K‡i GKwU gv‡Qi mšÍi‡Yi Dc¯’vcbvi ga¨ w`‡q †mB b`x‡K Av‡iv cÖvYešÍ K‡i‡Qb| †Kb GB Qwe‡Z gq~i n‡q‡Q mi¯^Zxi evnb, Zvi e¨vL¨vq †jLK †`wL‡q‡Qb, ÔGUv ejv †h‡Z cv‡i AwMœi wZbwU wkLv mi¯^Zxi (evK¨) wZbwU iƒc‡K e¨³ K‡i| †evanq AwMœi m‡½ Zuvi gb¯ÍvwË¡K I `vk©wbK m¤úK© cÖZxK wn‡m‡e cÖwZôv Kivi Rb¨B wZwb evnb wn‡m‡e gq~‡ii Ici Awaôvb K‡ib|Õ GB †h b`x mi¯^Zxi †`ex mi¯^Zx‡Z DËiY, †mLv‡b cÖvK…wZK Kvi‡YB †`exi gy³eÿv nIqvi cÖ‡qvRb wQj| †jLK e‡j‡Qb Ñ ÔGB FwlMY mi¯^Zx b`xi cweÎ Rjivwk‡K gvZvi ¯Íb`y‡»i m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| wkïi Kv‡Q gv‡qi ¯Íb`y» †hgb cÖvY`vwqbx, †Zgwb mi¯^Zx b`xi cweÎ Rjivwk Zvi `yB ZxieZx© Rbc‡`i Rxeb`vwqbx| ZvB GB ¯Íb`y»¯^iƒc Rxeb`vwqbx Rjcvb Kivi Rb¨ wkïi g‡ZvB gv‡qi Kv‡Q ¯Íb Db¥y³ Kivi Rb¨ Av‡e`b K‡i‡Qb| GB FM&‡e` †køv‡Ki Aby‡cÖiYvB hy‡M hy‡M fv¯‹i‡`i †`ex‡K Db¥y³ cx‡bvbœZ eÿv K‡i †Lvw`Z Ki‡Z DØy× K‡i‡Q|Õ (c„ 75) fvi‡Zi wkíx I wkívbyivMx gvbyl GKmgq gvbe-gvbexi kixix †mŠ›`h© m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv ms¯‹vi †cvlY Ki‡Zb bv| wbiveiYB †hgb cÖK…wZi ¯^vfvweK †mŠ›`h© †Zgwb gvby‡liI| GB `„p cÖZxwZi Rb¨B fviZxq wk‡í bMœZv GZ Av`k©vwqZ n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ cieZx©Kv‡j agx©q Kzms¯‹v‡ii `vc‡U GB D`viZv I D`vËZv †_‡K `~‡i m‡i †M‡Q gvby‡li wkí‡PZbv I iæwP‡eva| ZviB cÖKvk Avgiv †`wL û‡m‡bi mi¯^Zx wb‡q GB weZ‡K©| GUzKzB ïay bq; Gi m‡½ hy³ n‡q‡Q agx©q †gŠjev`, hvi †Kv‡bv ï× I ¯^”Q `„wó †bB, hv memgqB aŸsmvZ¥K| wkíx wn‡m‡e û‡m‡bi Ae¯’vb †h‡nZz eûe¨vß I AvšÍR©vwZK, ZvB Zuv‡K AvµgY Ki‡j wn›`y †gŠjev`I mvivwe‡k¦i `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡e, GB D‡Ï‡k¨B AZ¨šÍ cwiKwíZfv‡e GB AvµgY Kiv n‡q‡Q|

†h-Awf‡hvM A‡bK mgqB Kiv nq †h, û‡mb KL‡bv Bmjv‡gi agx©q welq wb‡q Qwe Auv‡Kbwb, ZviI DËi w`‡q‡Qb †jLK GB eB‡qi Z…Zxq Aa¨v‡q| 1965 mv‡j û‡mb Gu‡KwQ‡jb `ywU Qwe Ñ Ôgyjøv I gwiqgÕ Ges ÔgyjøvÕ wk‡ivbv‡g| GB `ywU Qwe‡ZI û‡mb ÔBmjvg a‡g© Avjøvn m¤úwK©Z g~j ZË¡ nvwRiÕ K‡i‡Qb| Qwe `ywU lv‡Ui `k‡K AuvKv| ZLb Avgv‡`i †`‡k agx©q †gŠjev` GZ Zxeª AvKvi aviY K‡iwb| GB Qwe wb‡q ZvB †m-mg‡q †Kv‡bv Awf‡hvM I‡Vwb| wKš‘ beŸB‡qi `k‡K agx©q I mvs¯‹…wZK evZveiY A‡bKUvB cvj‡U †M‡Q| û‡m‡bi wkíxRxe‡b GKwU NUbv wb‡q wKQy weZK© Av‡Q| †mRb¨ wZwb mgv‡jvwPZI n‡q‡Qb| 1975-G wZwb Qwe Gu‡KwQ‡jb Bw›`iv MvÜxi Riæwi Ae¯’vi mg_©‡b| †mB Qwei m‡½ †jLv wQj GiKg KweZv : ÔOne huge burning flower being carried on a monstrous tank. Peace is eternal but history sometimes has to ride on an armoured vehicle to assert peace.’ nq‡Zv †bniæ

cwiev‡ii m‡½ Zuvi eÜzZ¡ I NwbôZvB Zuv‡K DØy× K‡iwQj Riæwi Ae¯’vi mg_©‡b| wKš‘ GUv wQj Zuvi wkíxRxe‡b GKUv eo iK‡gi fzj| Zey ARmª m„wócÖev‡n gv‡Sg‡a¨B Zuv‡K Avgiv R¡‡j DV‡Z †`‡LwQ| KjKvZvi ÔwmgvÕ M¨vjvwi‡Z 2002 mv‡j mš¿v‡mi weiæ‡× †h-cÖ`k©bx K‡iwQ‡jb, Zv‡Z wZwb †`wL‡q‡Qb, KZ Mfxifv‡e wZwb Rxebgb¯‹, GKB m‡½ AvaywbKZvi †klZg cwiw¯’wZ m¤ú‡K© cixÿv-wbixÿvq KZ m‡ZR| Pjw”PÎKvi wn‡m‡eI û‡mb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb †i‡L‡Qb| GB eB‡q †jLK û‡m‡bi MRMvwgbx wdj¥wU m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍxY© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| cÖK…Z Pjw”P‡Îi fvlvi D™¢veb m¤ú‡K© e‡j‡Qb| wKš‘ û‡m‡bi †kÖô Pjw”PÎ wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡Z cv‡i 1967-†Z wbwg©Z _ªy `¨ AvBR Ae G †cB›Uvi, †hwU evwj©b wdj¥ †dw÷fv‡j Ô†Mv‡ìb weqviÕ †c‡qwQj| GB wdj¥wU Avgv‡`i eywS‡q †`q wP‡Îi fvlv I Pjw”P‡Îi fvlv KZ GKvZ¥ n‡Z cv‡i| GB wdj¥wUi D‡jøL Av‡Q G-eB‡Z, wKš‘ we¯Í…Z Av‡jvPbv †bB| _vK‡j fv‡jv n‡Zv| †QvU cwim‡i n‡jI AwgZvf K‡ii G-eBwU wkíx û‡mb m¤ú‡K© A‡bK Riæwi Z_¨ D`&NvUb K‡i‡Q, me ms¯‹…wZm‡PZb gvby‡liB hv Rvbv `iKvi| GR‡b¨ eBwUi cÖPvi cÖ‡qvRb| Ñ g„Yvj †Nvl


wb jv ‡g i L e i wµw÷Õm

†mv`weÕm

wg‡iv‡iW kvK© jvBbm wgLv‡qj †gqvim K¨vbfv‡m †Zjis I A¨vwµwjK 124 †m.wg. x 94 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 1000-1500 Wjvi wbjvg n‡q‡Q 3 nvRvi Wjv‡i wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 25 RyjvB †_‡K 2 AvM÷ 2018, jÛb

cvwms †_ªv bvUvwj eªv‡kqvi †Mvqvk I Kvwj 23.6 †m.wg. x 30.04 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 100-200 Wjvi wbjvg n‡q‡Q 375 Wjv‡i wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 25 RyjvB †_‡K 2 AvM÷ 2018, jÛb

wk‡ivbvgnxb K¨vUvwjb µ‡bwjm †cbwmj I A¨vwµwjK †cB›U 61 †m.wg. x 46 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 200-400 Wjvi wbjvg n‡q‡Q 250 Wjv‡i wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 25 RyjvB †_‡K 2 AvM÷ 2018, jÛb mywk bvBU †Uwi KvI A¨vwµwjK I Rjis 110 †m.wg. x 130 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 800-1000 Wjvi wbjvg n‡q‡Q 1 nvRvi Wjv‡i wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 25 RyjvB †_‡K 2 AvM÷ 2018, jÛb †nvjv A¨vgvRb BwRb Iqvs Rjis, 30.5 †m.wg. x 23.6 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 100200 Wjvi wbjvg n‡q‡Q 125 Wjv‡i wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 25 RyjvB †_‡K 2 AvM÷ 2018, jÛb

wk‡ivbvgnxb wkíx : BD‡Mb †kv‡b‡eK (1936) BwÛqv Bb&K, 24 †m.wg. x 20.2 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 5000-7000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 8 nvRvi 125 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 31 RyjvB 2018, jÛb k¨v‡Wv Rvgcvi wkíx : wiPvW© nvgejUb (19522017) A¨vwµwjK, 110 †m.wg. x 100 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 1200018000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 60 nvRvi cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 31 RyjvB 2018, jÛb gvwm©‡jm wkíx : gvi‡jb Wzgvm (1953) Kvwj I KvMR, 29 †m.wg. x 20.5 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 8000-12000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 11 nvRvi 250 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 31 RyjvB 2018, jÛb

wk‡ivbvgnxb wkíx : K¨vij ivgv (1918-2015) Rjis, 28.5 †m.wg. x 28.5 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 3500-4500 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 4 nvRvi 375 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 31 RyjvB 2018, jÛb wk‡ivbvgnxb wkíx : cve‡jv AvPzMvwi (1954) gv‡e©j, 65 †m.wg. x 18 †m.wg. AvbygvwbK `vg : 2000030000 cvDÛ wbjvg n‡q‡Q 27 nvRvi 500 cvD‡Û wbjv‡gi ZvwiL : 31 RyjvB 2018, jÛb

Shilpa O Shilpi . Vol - 7 . Issue - 2 . October 2018  
Shilpa O Shilpi . Vol - 7 . Issue - 2 . October 2018  
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