Issue 20 January/February 2020
THE INNOVATION ISSUE
IN THIS ISSUE:
DAYLIGHT MODELLING REFURBISHMENT SMART GLAZING PLUS • NEWS • PROJECTS • AND MORE
Energy saving with rooflights? We wrote the book/s. Artificial lighting accounts for almost 20% of global energy consumption, so effective
NARM Technical Document NTD01.2
NARM Technical Document NTD04
An introduction to natural daylight design through rooflighting
A dynamic thermal modelling study of a typical metal clad building to evaluate overheating in the UK Report 090110BRE Prepared by Oxford Brookes Universtity Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development, Oxford 10th January 2009 Authors: Chris Kendrick & Shaun Wang
daylighting is a priority in sustainable construction. Independent research commissioned by NARM, proves conclusively that rooflights save
Issued in partnership with
energy in many applications – and we’ve published a range of informative technical documents for specifiers, covering different aspects of energy saving with
NARM Technical Document NTD10
NARM Technical Document NTD06.2
Designing with Rooflights Supporting Part L Building Regulation guidance in England; Approved Documents L1A, L1B, L2A and L2B (2013 editions)
Analysis of Improving Daylighting and Lighting Controls on a Number of Existing Non-Domestic Buildings
An independent report by Elmhurst Energy
Understanding rooflight U-values Welcome to this ‘Quickguide’: part 3 of a series published by NARM, to provide busy roofing contractors and installers with quick access to the information they need to maintain professional and compliant working practices. Requirements of The Building Regulations For all non-domestic applications, the worst acceptable standard for the thermal performance (U-value) of rooflights in new build work is stated as 2.2 W/m2k. For refurbishment or domestic applications, this figure is reduced to 1.8 W/m2k.
rooflights. They’re all freely
U-values for flat or ‘in-plane’ rooflights As the U-value is calculated by dividing the heat loss through the rooflight by its area, this is straightforward for flat, ‘in-plane’ type rooflights. Therefore, manufacturers’ quoted figures can generally be used to form the basis of building calculations without further consideration.
downloadable from our website.
U-values for ‘out-of plane’ rooflights Many rooflights are out-of-plane designs that sit proud of the plane of the roof (typically mounted on upstands or kerbs). The range includes modular dome or pyramid rooflights, continuous barrel vaults, and glazing bar systems. Furthermore, rooflights may be mounted onto upstands designed and supplied by others, which can effectively be considered as part of the roof, or some rooflights (particularly individual dome and pyramid modular rooflights) can be supplied as an assembly with a pre-manufactured kerb matched to the rooflight itself. Building Regulations state that the worst acceptable U-values for rooflights are based on the developed area of the rooflight (not the area of the roof aperture, which is the true U-value). This is termed the Ud-value, and can be calculated for either a rooflight alone, or for a rooflightand-kerb assembly.
Be enlightened at:
Rooflighting Best Practice Quickguide 03
Issued in conjunction with the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers
Ud-values: the correct values for checking against limiting values in The Building Regulations The Ud-value is calculated from the developed area of the
rooflight. Where a rooflight-and-kerb assembly is being supplied, the rooflight supplier should be able to quote this value both for the rooflight only, AND for the entire assembly. To ensure Building Regulations compliance, both of these values must achieve the worst acceptable standard of 2.2 W/m2k. It is not acceptable to use an assembly of a rooflight with poorer thermal performance (such as double skin rooflights) on a kerb simply because the Ud-value for the rooflight-and-kerb assembly is better than the limiting values in the Building Regulations, unless the Ud-value for the rooflight alone also meets the limiting values. Full details are provided in NARM Technical Document NTD 2 ‘Assessment of thermal performance of out-ofplane rooflights’ which can be downloaded from the NARM website. Typical ‘out-of plane’ rooflight Entire surface area of rooflight & kerb assembly Surface area of rooflight
Minimum daylight area Roof opening area
Minimum acceptable thermal performance standards to ensure Building Regulations compliance: Rooflight only:
Rooflight & kerb assembly:
2.2 W/m2k 2.2 W/m2k
Further information Further information can be obtained from NARM, (National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers) at www.narm.org.uk
RIBA accredited CPD materials Available
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14 Innovation: Aperture-Based Daylight Modelling
EDITOR Paul Bennett email@example.com Tel: 01295 711666 Mobile: 07900 895110
Daylight modelling pioneer John Mardaljevic talks about his latest work and its potential to provide a more reliable basis for sunlight/ daylight planning than currently used methods.
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NARM Daylight Diary Updates from the UK’s influential trade association for rooflight manufacturers
Daylighting Icons Fulton Center, New York City
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Remaking history: Rob Hamblen of Whitesales looks at the challenges of restoring glazing systems in historic buildings.
Bespoke daylighting solution for Waste Recycling Centre: Filon Products developed a rooflight system to meet non-fragility requirements for this facility in Kent.
Gearing up industrial refurbishment: new Zenon rooflights by Hambleside Danelaw bring increased thermal efficiency at a Harley-Davidson dealer premises.
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More about DAYLIGHTING Magazine Back issues & media information
27 Innovation: Making smart-tinting glazing even smarter Shadow Mapping with Photographic Obstruction Maps for Better Daylighting, by Andrew McNeil, Facade Performance Specialist, Kinestral Technologies, Inc.
CIRCULATION Daylighting is available by email, free of charge to subscribers, by logging on at www.daylightingmag.co.uk Free access is also available via our website and social media. Average impressions per issue are approximately 5,500, however this varies according to social media activity. Our readership is predominantly UK architects, specifiers, contractors, consultants and roofing professionals. Full details are available on our website. www.daylightingmag.co.uk While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of content, the publisher does not accept liability for errors. The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. This publication contains editorial photographs which may have been supplied and paid for by suppliers. Full terms and conditions can be found on our website.
Front cover: Sky Reflector-Net: a unique daylighting solution at New York’s Fulton Center subway and retail complex. See Daylighting Icons, page 34
THE UK’S TRUSTED DAYLIGHTING & VENTILATION SPECIALIST • Preferred supplier to leading architects, engineers & contractors • Multi-sector expertise • Design, manufacture, installation, servicing • All relevant accreditations & affiliations • RIBA CPD Providers Network member • Nationwide sales & support
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Welcome to a new issue – and a new decade They say that the New Year is a time for acting on new ideas and re-appraising old ones, so it’s appropriate that our key features for this issue cover daylighting innovations and refurbishment challenges.
for smart-tinting glass to improve daylighting automation performance in small to medium-sized projects.
On the subject of innovation, I’m delighted that this issue carries a fascinating insight into the latest work by daylighting pioneer John Mardaljevic. In the late 1990s, John pioneered what is now known as Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM). In this exclusive article, he discusses his new concept of Aperture Based Daylight Modelling and its potential to provide a more reliable basis for sunlight/daylight planning than currently used methods. My thanks also go to Andrew McNeil, Facade Performance Specialist at Kinestral Technologies, for his excellent article on a new development in smart glazing technology. ‘Shadow mapping’ is making it possible
Our refurbishment feature in this issue presents details of the daylighting challenges and opportunities faced during refurbishment projects in three very different sectors: historic buildings, retail premises and utilities buildings. All three demonstrate how modern daylighting technology and innovation can provide important improvements in building performance.
Paul Bennett email@example.com
Finally, a big ‘thank you’ to all those who took part in our Reader Survey. We’ll be publishing an overview of the results – plus details of our Prize Draw winner, in the next issue of Daylighting Magazine. Future issues will benefit from the insights we’ve gained. In the meantime, I hope you find this one and enjoyable and interesting read.
Issue 17 July/August 2019
Don’t forget, back issues are always available to read on-line at daylightingmag.co.uk
Issue 6 September/October 2017
DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER BUILDINGS
IN THIS ISSUE:
DAYLIGHT & ENERGY SAVING
• GRP ROOFLIGHTS • DAYLIGHTING IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS • INDUSTRY NEWS • PROJECTS AND MORE
Previous issues of DAYLIGHTING Magazine will be available on-line indefinitely. So you can refer back to old issues whenever you like. It’s also on our ‘to-do’ list to set up a features index, so if you can’t remember in which issue you read that fascinating feature about XYZ, you’ll be able to find it in a moment.
IN THIS ISSUE:
Daylighting for dramatic effect RETAIL SECTOR REFURBISHMENT & ENERGY SAVING MODULAR ROOFLIGHTS AND MORE
Construction Product Manufacturing: Caution Remains for 2020 The Construction Products Association (CPA) has reported that the final quarter of last year proved to be a mixed performance for the construction products manufacturing sector, with an equal proportion of manufacturers reporting an increase or decrease in sales for both heavy side and light side products. The Construction Products Association’s State of Trade Survey for 2019 Q4 reports that 43% of heavy side manufacturers each reported a rise or fall in sales compared to Q3. Heavy side products are typically used in the early, structural stages of construction. Sales of light side products, typically used in the later stages of building, were reported to have either increased or decreased by 36% of manufacturers. Manufacturers retain a positive, yet cautious view for the next 12 months that will encompass the UK leaving the EU and negotiating trade agreements during the transition period to the end of December. On balance, 21% of heavy side firms and 29% of light side firms anticipated a rise in sales for the year ahead. This was combined with the majority of product manufacturers anticipating that headcount would remain unchanged over the same period. Rebecca Larkin, CPA Senior Economist said: “The Q4 survey results provide a clear illustration of the varying levels of activity across sectors of construction and regions of the country. Those manufacturers reporting decreases in sales are likely to be feeding into private new house building and RM&I, where activity has slowed as buyers and homeowners pause to take stock of the economic situation and their personal finances. In contrast, manufacturers whose products are used in warehouses, infrastructure or hotels will be buoyed by a pipeline of projects. Nevertheless, the high proportion of manufacturers citing demand as their key concern for 2020 and signs of a pause in hiring suggest that the cloud of uncertainty is yet to clear.” Key survey findings include: • 43% of heavy side product manufacturers reported that sales increased or decreased in the fourth quarter of 2019 compared with the third quarter, resulting in a zero balance.
• 36% of light side product manufacturers reported that sales increased or decreased in the fourth quarter of 2019 compared with the third quarter, resulting in a zero balance. • On balance, 29% of heavy side manufacturers anticipated a rise in sales in 2020 Q1 and 21% expected sales to increase over the next 12 months. • For light side firms, a balance of 38% anticipated an increase in sales in Q1 and 29% expected a rise over the next 12 months. • A balance of only 8% of heavy side firms anticipated an increase in their labour force over the year ahead. • Demand was cited as the factor most likely to constrain output over the next year, according to 71% of respondents on both the heavy side and light side. www.constructionproducts.org.uk
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Social housing new-build pipeline booms Group to build 325 homes at Upper Achintore in Fort William (Glenigan Project ID: 17311006). There were also five RSLs amongst the industry’s top 100 construction clients in 2019 and Notting Hill Genesis was also the biggest spender. The association is building a swathe of new homes on the Aylesbury Estate at Southwark in south London. Hill Partnerships bagged a major deal and started on site last summer (Glenigan Project ID: 18257506).
The pipeline of social housing new-build projects entering the planning system boomed last year according to exclusive market research from Glenigan. There was a 14% rise in the number of detailed planning applications to build new homes by RSLs (registered social landlords) last year. Those 527 applications contained plans for 28,489 new social homes, which is an 18% rise on the number of units entering the pipeline in 2018. Four RSLs put together planning submissions for more than 1,000 units last year with Notting Hill Genesis proposing the biggest number of new homes. Notting Hill Genesis’ Grahame Park estate redevelopment in Colindale, north London, was the biggest project to enter the planning pipeline. This proposal from Notting Hill Genesis will provide more than 2,000 homes and construction is likely to begin in 2022. Other major social housing schemes about to go live include the Turnhouse Road development of 1,400 homes in Edinburgh by Dunedin Canmore Housing Association and West Craigs (Glenigan Project ID: 16368698). According to Glenigan’s research, construction should start on this scheme later this year. A host of other major social housing projects are moving through the system according to Glenigan’s data with some smaller RSLs joining forces to progress bigger developments. For example, Lochaber Housing Association and Highland Small Communities Housing Trust is working with Link
Other contractors working on the Aylesbury Estate packages include Vistry, which is due to start on a £60 million package this summer (Glenigan Project ID: 16270537). Other RSLs amongst the construction industry’s top 100 clients include Southern Housing, which is working on a £150 million residential scheme at Shoreham-by-Sea (Glenigan Project ID 16244688), and Places for People. Places for People is spending £100 million on modular homes with Ilke Homes (Project ID: 19181842) and also progressing other large developments, such as the Egham Gateway development, which is delivering hundreds of new homes with phase two starting this spring according to Glenigan’s analysis (Glenigan Project ID: 19105039). Social housing construction is one of the sectors that is predicted to weather any post-Brexit downturn according to Glenigan’s latest industry forecasts. Economics director Allan Wilén says: “Housing associations are now better placed to finance and take forward new developments. Government requirements limiting association’s rent increases to 1% below the rate of inflation are ending. This will provide associations with greater flexibility to increase their borrowing to fund new developments.” After some weakness this year, Glenigan is predicting a rise of around 9% in the underlying value of social housing project starts next year. www.glenigan.com
Government confirms backing for digital construction strategy The new UK government has stated that it remains committed to its digital construction strategy, which will form an essential part of its 2050 net zero carbon target. Fergus Harradence, deputy director for construction at the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, said: “The objective of the UK government is to ensure that the UK remains a world leader in the development and application of digital technologies to the built
environment. “The potential benefits of digitisation are clear, and include more efficient transport systems, more energy-efficient buildings, lower waste and carbon emissions, and most importantly homes and other buildings that are safe and promote wellbeing for the people who live and work in them.” Mr. Harradence made reference to government initiatives introduced since 2011 to achieve these objectives, including the BIM mandate of 2016 for
all new public buildings and infrastructure, investment in the Centre for Digital Built Britain, and the recent establishment of the Digital Framework Task Force, to deliver the National Infrastructure Commission’s vision for a National ‘Digital Twin’. He concluded: “The digitisation of the built environment is one of the most exciting opportunities ahead of the UK, and is essential to enabling the UK to achieve its net zero carbon target by 2050,” www.gov.uk
NARM Glass Rooflight Guide gets RIBA CPD accreditation • Safety for building users • Non-fragility • Fire regulations • Limiting excessive solar gain • Light diffusion • Walk-on rooflights • Framed systems NARM NTD14 is listed under RIBA’s Core curriculum subjects under the Design, Construction and Technology section as a document classified as ‘General Awareness’. NARM, the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers, has published a further new RIBA approved CPD document, following approval by the RIBA CPD Providers Network. This approval takes the current total number of RIBA accredited CPD documents published by NARM, to six, in addition to the Association’s widely referenced on-line CPD seminar, all of which
can be accessed via the RIBA CPD website: www.ribacpd.com NARM NTD14: ‘Glass Rooflights Specification Guide’, is a ten page technical document covering all aspects of the specification of glass rooflights for all types of buildings across all sectors. Topics covered in the guide, include: • Common types of glazing
All NARM technical documents can also be downloaded free of charge from the NARM website: www.narm.org.uk. NARM will continue to publish further material for submission to RIBA, with content and subject matter reflecting the breadth of NARM’s membership, covering all rooflight types. www.narm.org.uk
RCI Show Ricoh Arena 2020
Futurebuild 2020 takes place at ExCel London from 03-05 March 2020.
Following the success of the RCI Show 2019, Mark Allen Group has announced that in 2020, the Show will return to Coventry’s Ricoh Arena on 25th and 26th March 2020.
The event will focus on exploring and tackling the biggest challenges impacting the industry and is a unique destination for visitors to gain unrivalled insight and hands-on experience around the latest innovations, products and materials in order to address these challenges. Futurebuild provides over 200 hours of structured learning across an inspiring conference programme, 6 keynote stages – all completely free and CPD accredited. For information, visit: www.futurebuild.co.uk
The RCI Show is the largest UK event where the entire roofing, cladding and insulation supply chain comes together under one roof. This vibrant two-day event allows visitors to compare and source new products, learn from the experts and hear about the important issues currently impacting the market. For information, visit www.rcishow.co.uk
National Construction Expo 2020 The 2020 National Construction Expo is now open for free registration. The event will be held on the 6th May 2020 in the Arena MK, Milton Keyes. Key Topics will Include: Planning, Energy Efficiency, Meet the Buyer, Smart Buildings & Cities, Sustainability, Investment Outlook, Infrastructure, Energy Projects, Municipal and Government Projects, Industrial Projects, Technology & Innovation, Building materials, & more. Register free at: www. nationalconstructionexpo.co.uk
Smart Home Expo + Smart Buildings Live
Smart Cities UK
National Homebuilding & Renovating Show
Construct UK is delighted to be supporting Smart Home Expo, and its new zone Smart Buildings Live, taking place from 17th-18th March 2020 at the NEC, Birmingham.
International Conference & Exhibition, Feb 13th 2020, London
NEC, Birmingham, 26- 29 March 2020
For 2020, the show is evolving to another level with the launch of the new zone, Smart Buildings LIVE - the UK’s hub for the innovations driving Smart Buildings forward. This feature brings together speakers, panel sessions, workshops and visitors from commercial property endusers to real estate developers. www.smarthometechlive.co.uk
Smart Cities UK is pleased to announce the launch of a new national engagement programme. Smart Cities UK has established itself as a Forum for learning amongst UK Cities and Towns whom seek to gain understanding on how to meet economic and social challenges. Established in 2015, the Conference has engaged with over one thousand regional leads, sharing guidance, expertise, information, knowledge and resources. www.smartcityuk.com
The National Homebuilding & Renovating Show is the go-to exhibition for self builders and renovators. No matter what stage your project is at, there will be sessions, experts and exhibitors at the show to help you bring your project to life. The show offers a wide range of free talks including topics on self-build, renovating, innovative products, extensions, conversions and DIY projects. www.national. homebuildingshow.co.uk
NARM welcomes a new member company BIM and other relevant topics. Jonathan Llewellyn also commented: NARM provides an excellent fit with our current and future business requirements. My primary focus is on health and safety and I have a particular interest in educating main contractors regarding the correct handling of rooflights on site”. Standard Patent Glazing Directors Darren Lister (left) and Jonathan Llewellyn (right) outside the Company’s Yorkshire headquarters.
NARM, the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers, is delighted to welcome The Standard Patent Glazing Company as a new member. Based in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, the Standard Patent Glazing Company was founded in 1902, making it the longest established patent glazing company in the UK. With 29 employees involved in design, manufacture and installation of modern through to heritage patent glazing solutions for large and small projects across the whole of the UK, it remains a respected
market leader in its field. Standard Patent Glazing Directors Darren Lister and Jonathan Llewellyn recently attended a meeting with NARM at which mutual goals were discussed and the Company’s membership confirmed. Darren Lister said: “Many of our competitors have fallen by the wayside over the last 100 years so we must be doing something right! We believe that joining NARM will allow us to consolidate our technical knowledge in respect of building regulations, non-fragility,
NARM Chairman Jim Lowther said: “We are delighted to welcome The Standard Patent Glazing Company to our ranks. Their commitment to high standards of quality, workmanship and safety are entirely in line with NARM’s ongoing mission. We look forward to working together and welcome further membership applications from quality rooflight suppliers.” The Standard Patent Glazing Company takes NARM’s membership to 20 leading companies, further underpinning the Association’s position as the recognised voice of the UK’s rooflight industry. www.narm.org.uk
MBS announces new upgrades for 2020 MBS Survey Software Ltd presented a host of new features and upgrades to its best selling Waldram Tools for AutoCAD® at the Company’s recent User Forum, as well as providing a glimpse into further developments planned for 2020. The event was held at MBS’ London heaquarters and attended by surveyors, architects, and consultants from around the UK. www.mbs-software.co.uk
New features include the ability to simulate the performance of a variety of fenestration elements and blinds, with detailed rendering available.
NEW PROJECTS University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA The interior of this 8,500 sq metre building is now bathed with diffused daylight through the Kalwall panels fitted into the original clerestory encircling the central hall. The Kalwall keeps the interior free from glare and hotspots and the stark contrasts of light and shade. It also specifically helps the computer users by keeping direct sunlight and glare off their screens making it more restful and reducing eye fatigue. www.structura-uk. com/kalwall
The Coachworks, Ashford, Kent Translucent GRP sheet was supplied by Filon Products for The Coachworks, an urban design scheme in the heart of Ashford town centre: part of a cluster of former industrial buildings owned by Ashford Borough Council.
Photo: G.G. Archard
The project breathes new life into disused buildings in Dover Place, close to the Kent townâ€™s international railway station.
NEW PROJECTS Erie Basin, Salford Quays, Manchester Architectural glazing systems by leading UK manufacturer Kawneer were specified for their “robustness and quality” for two linked 16-storey apartment blocks on the last plot to be developed in one of Britain’s fastest-growing property hot spots. Kawneer’s AA®100 curtain walling features as strip curtain wall to copper-coloured rainscreen areas of the £37 million BTR (Build To Rent) towers at Erie Basin in Salford Quays, Manchester, a stone’s throw from MediaCityUK. www.kawneer.com Portopiccolo Spa, Sistiana, Italy Renamed as the Italian Monte Carlo, Sistiana Portopiccolo is a complex of 460 houses overlooking the sea, with shops, a five star hotel, five salt water pools and parking spaces carved into the rock. The complex is equipped with a wellness center of 9000 square meters, complete with spa area designed by wellness design specialists, Studio Apostoli. www.albertoapostoli. com
Aperture-Based Daylight Modelling: a new direction for daylight planning Paul Bennett talks to daylight modelling pioneer John Mardaljevic about his latest work and its potential to provide a more reliable basis for sunlight/daylight planning than currently used methods. Professor John Mardaljevic BSc PhD, Professor of Building Daylight Modelling, School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, Loughborough University
Since pioneering what is now widely known as Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM), John Mardaljevic, Professor of Building Daylight Modelling School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering at Loughborough University, has remained at the forefront of research and academic studies in this complex and increasingly widely-referenced field. In 2013 the UK Education Funding Agency (EFA) made CBDM a mandatory requirement for the evaluation of designs submitted for the Priority Schools Building Programme (PSBP). School designs submitted to the PSBP must achieve certain ‘target’ criteria for the useful daylight illuminance metric (proposed by John in 2005). This is believed to be the first major upgrade to mandatory daylight requirements since the introduction of the daylight factor more than half a century ago and CBDM remains the predominant basis for research and, increasingly, industry practice worldwide. Since 2018 the requirement was extended to all school buildings funded by the EFA.
Differences of opinion... In January 2019, in his role of Chair at a meeting of the CIBSE Daylight Group (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers), John attended a presentation by UK/EU practitioners in London introducing EN 17037, the first Europe-wide standard to deal exclusively with the design for, and provision of, daylight in buildings. There were stark differences of opinion regarding the daylight part - a small minority were in favour of a national annex essentially keeping BS8206. The majority however favoured the 17037 methodology for daylight, which was reflected in a revised, ‘light touch’ national annex. In contrast, there was little discussion of the parts of the standard relating to sunlight and planning, perhaps because there was little that was substantively different to what had gone before. However, as a consequence of serving on the panel, John had formed misgivings about the various schema for sunlight and daylight planning, both in the EU standard and guidelines such as BR 209. The rationale for these
DAYLIGHT MODELLING 16,131 m2hrs 20
15,601 m hrs 523
Stot = 20800 m2 hrs
Aglaz = 25.52 m2
15,530 m hrs
24,694 m2hrs 1106
S [m2 hrs]
[ Snorm = 815 hrs ]
15 10 5 0
20,800 m hrs
Temporal maps showing AM/PM monthly totals of whole dwelling sunlight beam index for eight orientations. London, UK.
were conceived ‘in a pre-digital age’ and, in John’s view, produce results which have little connection to realworld performance. The reasons for this are many, though perhaps the most significant is that, for sunlight, the size of the window opening is not accounted for in the traditional approaches. John concluded that a re-think was necessary, exploring options for taking a back-to-basics approach which would result in a complete reframing of the basis for evaluation. What emerged was a method that was conceptually very simple and yet able to cope with any plausible real-world building complexity located in any scenario/ context.
A simple line-of-sight calculation The new approach, now called Apertute-Based Daylight Modelling, had three stages of development. “I decided first to look simply at the potential of a given aperture to deliver sunlight. Currently, the guidelines take no account of the size of the aperture”, said John. “The concept of aperturebased modelling starts with a simple line-of-sight calculation between a grid of points on the aperture (window or skylight) and the sun position repeated many times for all the possible sun positions, to arrive at a cumulative annual Sunlight Beam Index (SBI). The SBI, measured in m2hrs, is a measure of an aperture’s ‘connectedness’ to all of the annually occurring possible
DAYLIGHT MODELLING 6000
Measured overcast sky brightness patterns Measured overcast sky daylight factors Pcell 1
Luminance Luminance (normalised) cd/m2 (normalised) cd/m
Measured overcast sky brightness patterns
Measured overcast sky daylight factors
Pcell 3 Pcell 1
Pcell 4 Pcell 2
Pcell 5 Pcell 3
Pcell 6 Pcell 4
2000 0 -90 1000
2.0 5.0 Daylight Factor [%]
2.0 5.0 Daylight Factor [%]
Pcell 6 -60
-30 < South
30 North >
Real overcast sky brightness patterns (black lines) rarely match the CIE standard (red line). The green line is the average of the 0 measured brightness patterns. -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 < South
sun positions where sunlight can be incident on the aperture”. He continued: “The next stage was to devise a complementary measure for skylight, which I called the aperture skylight index (ASI). This is an area measure of the ‘connectedness’ of an aperture to the sky vault in terms of the amount of illumination received from a uniform luminance sky dome, measured in (normalised) units of lumens. As with the sunlight beam index, ASI takes into account the effect of any form of obstruction, e.g. exterior window reveals, overhangs, surrounding buildings, etc. The uniform sky used was normalized so that a 1m2 horizontal aperture (e.g. rooflight) with no obstructions would receive 2000 lumens – this is the measure of the apertures ‘connectedness’ to the sky. The same 1m2 aperture vertically (i.e. a window) would receive 1000 lumens because the aperture now sees half the sky compared to the rooflight. Using the lumen in this way appears to be entirely novel.” However, that wasn’t the end of John’s story:
0.5 Pcell 5
Measured daylight factors under real overcast skies (green x) are invariably greater than the CIE standard overcast sky DF (red bar). The green bar is average of the measured DFs.
The Eureka moment “The ‘Eureka’ moment came early in 2019 when I realised that the numerical value used as the basis for the Aperture Skylight Index (i.e. the lumens received at the aperture) can also be thought of as a measure of the view of the sky from that aperture. So, why not extend this notion to the rest of the scene? In other words, make the ground and any external obstructions self-luminous (to the same degree as the uniform sky) and determine the respective contributions to lumens received at the aperture. For example, the 1m2 vertical aperture ‘sees’ 1000 lumens from the sky (as before) and 1000 lumens from the ground. With an obstruction in place, the same method gives a measure of the apertures ‘view’ of the obstruction (and, of course, now there are fewer lumens of view to the sky since it is partially obscured). The aperture-based method is informative, remarkably simple, purely-geometrical, scalable to any realistic 3D complexity and essentially impossible to gameplay. In other words, ideally suited as the basis for guidelines or standards
“The adoption (in 1955) of the CIE overcast pattern as the basis for guidelines and standards was, I believe, a dreadful blunder.”
DAYLIGHT MODELLING for sunlight/daylight planning.” John continued: “I was asked why I had not considered using the widely accepted CIE ‘overcast sky’ standard as part of the calculation. However, evidence from monitoring sky brightness patterns has revealed that it represents an extreme type of overcast sky, that rarely occurs in reality. In fact, the adoption (in 1955) of the CIE overcast pattern as the basis for guidelines and standards was, I believe, a dreadful blunder.”
High levels of interest
During 2019, John has carried out exploratory studies using ABDM and has presented his findings to leading academics, designers and planners in London, Rome and New York. Whilst
“...there is a general feeling of a ‘disconnect’ between the methods used at the planning stage (usually BR209 in the UK) and the building performance evaluation that invariably follows.”
Maps showing examples from John’s ABDM calculations on typical buildings in various different orientations/ configurations are providing an
extremely positive insight into the potential for the new methodology to provide consistent and reliable results. In a paper accepted for the CIBSE Technical Symposium (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 16-17th April 2020), John makes comparisons with BR 209 using the example of an apartement with balcony facing a large obstruction – a fairly typical urban scenario.
No balcony / No obstruction
Balcony / No obstruction
No balcony / Obstruction
Balcony / Obstruction
Example ABDM skylight/view evaluation for an apartment with balcony facing a large external obstruction. Combined aperture area for the two windows is 8.26m2. So, with no balcony or obstructions present (1st column of images), the window apertures receive 8,260 view lumens from the sky (red) and 8,260 from the ground (blue). With the addition of the balcony (2nd column) the view lumens from the sky and ground are greatly reduced. The effect of the external obstruction (green) without and with the balcony surround is shown in the 3rd and 4th columns.
DAYLIGHT MODELLING in many respects, ABDM represents a radical shift away from accepted methods, John has reported high levels of interest and acceptance among his recent audiences. “Among practitioners I have spoken to, there is a general feeling of a ‘disconnect’ between the methods used at the planning stage (usually BR209 in the UK) and the building performance evaluation that invariably follows. The work done for a planning evaluation (3D model etc.) is ‘shelved’ once that stage has been passed, and rarely, if ever, revisited. ABDM offers the potential for a seamless workflow progression from outline planning to detailed building performance evaluation. This includes ‘climatising’ ABDM until the solution becomes full CBDM. Another key attraction for practitioners is that the ABDM measures account for the size of the windows. This means that the sunlight part of the ABDM evaluation can serve as an early indication of the potential for excessive solar gain, and therefore the risk of overheating. Equally, the skylight part gives an indication of the daylighting potential of the windows. Lastly, the view component provides a numerical measure of, say, the visual impact of an external obstruction. Thus the potential now exists to make view a material concern in evaluations to predict daylight loss due to obstructions. It remains to be seen if ABDM could be applied as an alternative to the Waldram method in ‘rights to light’ cases, or perhaps even serve as the basis for a replacement to Waldram. As noted, the ABDM approach only came about from many years serving on the panel that produced EN 17037. In any future revision of that standard (both in the UK and the EU now that they would be dealt with separately), I would propose the consideration of ABDM to replace those parts dealing with sunlight and
daylight planning, and perhaps also view.” In addition to his academic work, John offers a range of Daylight Consultancy Services including Expert Witness in ‘rights to light’ cases. For further information, visit: http://climate-based-daylighting.com This year will see the completion of New York’s Central Park Tower – the world’s tallest residential building. The legal agreement for the development of Central Park Tower includes an aperture measure of daylight injury to the studios of the neighbouring Art Students League building predicted by John using CBDM, first in 2005 (outline proposal) and then 2013 (final design). With hindsight, that landmark evaluation could be considered an example of ‘climatised’ ABDM. A copy of John’s paper entitled: Aperture-Based Daylight Modelling: Introducing the `View Lumen’ can be downloaded here.
Central Park Tower nearing completion (August 2019).
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Remaking history Rob Hamblen, Sales & Marketing Director at Whitesales, explains the challenges faced by manufacturers and contractors in historical refurbishment projects, and how 3 specific areas are the key to success. Restoring and refurbishing historical buildings takes skill, precision and the utmost respect for the original architecture. The materials and methods must marry the original design intent with modern environmental and comfort performance, which is no mean feat. Attention to detail, inside and out, is everything, and roof glazing units affect both interior and exterior views, making them particularly important. Ultimately each historic refurbishment project is unique. Sympathetic replacement of existing structures requires creativity and experience to ensure newly installed elements blend seamlessly. Success factors usually lie within 3 key areas: initial project scoping and design input, careful product selection, and onsite project management during installation. To fully understand project requirements at the outset, experienced contractors will undertake
multiple sites visits to record critical dimensions, establish design complexities and key deciding factors. Dedicating significant pre-planning time and completing a comprehensive assessment and analysis on site will ensure complications are identified before solution design commences. Photographic records of existing structures and their integration with the roof structure can greatly assist with the solution design.
â€œSuccess factors usually lie within 3 key areas: initial project scoping and design input, careful product selection, and onsite project management during installation.â€?
The selection of replacement rooflights needs to be carefully considered. High-performance materials will be required in order to meet relevant building regulations. Clients are often looking to reduce carbon footprint and improve occupant comfort levels as well. Double or triple glazed glass will optimise thermal performance and can also include other options such as self-
The extensive roof glazing refurbishment project at Bristol Universityâ€™s Fry Building included a complex saw-tooth roof section.
At Londonâ€™s Gunnersbury Park Orangery, existing roof glazing was removed and replaced with bespoke modern replica glazing to enhance performance and longevity
REFURBISHMENT cleaning functionality and solar tint. Incorporating ventilation options for greater climate and comfort control – all without impacting on the aesthetic – can also be an important factor when constructing a sympathetic restoration. Modern rooflights are usually supported by low-profile aluminium frames, and with exact detailing, very large units can be built to precise bespoke designs. This means the aesthetics of original rooflight architecture can be replicated, with the benefit of high-performance glazing and a fully tested glazing system. Use of specifically designed glazing bars can ensure the final design perfectly matches that of the original roof glazing installation. Experience and in-house manufacture capabilities make it possible to accurately replicate virtually any known historic rooflight design and shape, on any scale, from both interior and exterior perspectives. Once projects move into the installation phase, site logistics and project management demand painstaking attention. Project leads are often looking to work with a company that can provide a
comprehensive end-to-end service. Attending regular meetings on site to ensure that all stakeholders are involved in critical decision making is essential. Refurbishment projects often require contractors to work in very detailed stages as existing structures are removed or renovated. Rooflight installers will likely be working with other specialist trades in relation to works being completed on the roof structure – and this will require collaboration and effective communication.
“Modern rooflights are usually supported by low-profile aluminium frames, and with exact detailing, very large units can be built to precise bespoke designs”.
We all understand that our heritage is a finite resource. Conservation is all about preserving the past for future generations. Manufacturers and contractors that work in the refurbishment and restoration arena are genuinely truly passionate about heritage and conservation projects. Through close collaboration with architects, consultants and building owners, they provide unparalleled project support from start to finish. Dedicated to excellence, the resulting installations bring stunning glass architecture back to its former glory to delight for years to come. www.whitesales.co.uk
ILLUMINATING EXPERIENCE Bright designs for architectural impact At Whitesales, we design specialist daylight solutions providing outstanding aesthetics and creativity to buildings. Our bespoke roof glazing and continuous rooflights offer superior performance and turn aspirations into reality.
Discover the design possibilities, call us today. www.whitesales.co.uk | firstname.lastname@example.org | 01483 917580
Bespoke daylighting solution for Waste Recycling Centre The Technical Department at Filon Products developed a bespoke rooflight system to meet non-fragility requirements in the refurbishment of this facility in Kent.
Pepperhill Household Waste Recycling Centre (Pepperhill HWRC) is a large waste recycling plant in Gravesend, Kent, designed to recycle more than 70% of the waste brought in by residents served by Gravesham and Dartford Borough Councils.
concrete walls and aluminium standing seam roof, including almost 1,000 linear metres of rooflights.
Following a major fire at the facility in 2018, the waste transfer station on the site required a complete rebuild of the
The customer required that the roof should be rebuilt to the original specification using the Ziplok 400 standing
Industrial Construction (Sussex) Ltd of Rodmell, East Sussex, were contracted to carry out the roof replacement.
seam roof from Omnis by System. Having previously worked with Filon Products on a number of projects, the team at ICS looked to Filon to provide rooflights to meet the required light levels and Class B non-fragility certification* required by the client.
A challenging project... Steve Mercer, Filon’s Technical Manager, takes up the story: “This was a particularly interesting project for us, as it required a rooflight to be developed specifically for it.” He continued: “Ziplok roofing is usually installed as a twin skin, insulated roof system, so the rooflights for the standing seam element can be very lightweight – typically CE18E which is nominally 1.8 kg/m2. This is because the required non-fragility is provided by a combination of the weather sheet and the liner sheet. However, the roof for the Pepperhill project was a single skin roof, yet required the same Class B non-fragility rating. This meant that the rooflights needed to be much stronger, as no liners would be used.”
Steve and the R&D team at Filon Products undertook the development of a rooflight to meet the project requirements. It was thought that producing the required profile in CE30E (3.0 kg/m2) would be suitable. However the 1.6mm thick laminate could not be manipulated into the very tight profile of the standing seam ‘lollypop’ side detail. Filon’s innovative R&D team rose to the challenge. Their solution was simple,
*In accordance with ACR[M]001:2014.
REFURBISHMENT “The test proved extremely successful, with the new rooflight achieving a ‘very good’ Class B certification, leading the way to a successful project.”
but effective: using Filon’s 1.3mm thick CEDR24E double reinforced laminate for the rooflights. This 2.4 kg/m2 sheet, is produced with a special combination of glass mats that ensure a strength equivalent to a 3.0 kg/m2 sheet.
Short lead time Following a successful production trial, the next stage was the all-important non-fragility test to ensure suitability for the project.
Steven Johnson, Contracts Manager at ICS Ltd, said: “I’ve worked with Filon on many previous projects and I’ve always been extremely satisfied with their very pro-active technical support and general ‘can do’ attitude. So it was an easy choice to involve them on this important and technically challenging project”. A nine-week shutdown was required at the waste transfer station to allow the work to be completed.
A test programme in conjunction with ICS Ltd and roof system manufacturer Omnis was scheduled. Filon then carried out the required ACR[M]001 drop test procedure at its Staffordshire factory, with representatives of ICS and Omnis present.
The new roof, complete with rooflights, was completed on-time, with the development work on the new rooflights completed within just two weeks, with a further two weeks for production at Filon’s plant.
The test proved extremely successful, with the new rooflight achieving a ‘very good’ Class B certification, leading the way to a successful project.
Steven Johnson summed up: “Filon’s short lead time for what is a bespoke product, was impressive and bears testament to their commitment and technical expertise”.
SEE VIDEOS OF THE ROOFLIGHTS AT THE PEPPERHILL SITE HERE
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Filon Products Ltd, Unit 3 Ring Road, Zone 2, Burntwood Business Park, Burntwood, Staffs WS7 3JQ
Gearing up industrial refurbishment Zenon Pro helps new Harley Davidson dealership break out into Wales & beyond
Strategic choice of rooflights by Davis Roofing has enabled the Harley Davidson motorcycle dealership, in Cardiff, to achieve a modern and bright showroom for the prestige marque. Davis Roofing was contracted by Trident BC to refurbish a number of units at Glynstell Park to provide modern high specification industrial buildings for new occupants. As part of the project, enhanced energy efficiency via a combination of greater use of natural light and upgraded thermal performance were key criteria. Zenon GRP rooflights manufactured by Hambleside Danelaw were therefore chosen to meet the specification.
The new rooflights have contributed towards enhanced thermal performance of the building envelope and reduced running costs: the Zenon site assembled rooflights as specified deliver light transmission of 53%, and a U value of just 1.7W/m2K. www.hambleside-danelaw.co.uk
Joe Robbens, commercial manager at Davis Roofing explained, “The service we receive, and quality of product, from Hambleside Danelaw means we have a good relationship. Wherever possible we specify Zenon rooflights on our projects.” In the Cardiff project, one of the units has been converted into a 560m2 (6000ft2) motorcycle showroom, split over two levels, with a state of the art workshop behind the sales area. Bringing the units up to current building regulations, Davis Roofing over-clad the outer roof skin with new Omnis Exteriors 32/167/1000 profile sheeting. Replacement of the original (25+ years old) rooflights was achieved by site-assembled Zenon rooflights. Zenon Pro formed to mirror the Omnis profile created the outer layer, with a 4mm twin wall polycarbonate providing insulation between the Zenon Pro liner to the existing PMFR35 profile of the roof’s original skin.
THE EVIDENCE FOR REFURBISHMENT IS CLEAR Transform your building, update your rooflights • • • •
Improves the health and wellbeing and productivity of the occupants Produces savings in ongoing energy costs Impacts positively on the CO2 emissions of the building Can increase the property’s asset value
LOW CARBON GRP DAYLIGHT SOLUTIONS
CONTACT US FOR A COPY OF OUR REFURBISHMENT GUIDE BROCHURE
DISCOVER MORE: WWW.HAMBLESIDE-DANELAW.CO.UK/ZENON-ROOFLIGHTS T: 01327 701 920 E: SALES@HAMBLESIDE-DANELAW.CO.UK
daylight diary Jan/Feb Back to the future – of the environment 2020 Way back in 2003, we commissioned a report by the DeMontfort University – the findings of which increased the understanding of the positive role that rooflights play in energy and emissions reductions. In the following years, as ‘the voice’ of the UK’s rooflight industry, we’ve commissioned further research and analysis on the subject, building on that knowledge base. We’ve published technical documents (all of which are still available in updated form on our website) and run media campaigns supporting the benefits of daylighting in tackling emissions reductions. We’re proud of the role that NARM continues to play, in informing construction professionals in the ongoing fight against climate change. But... and it’s a big but: science points to the fact that today, climate change is continuing to gather momentum, as evidenced by environmental events happening all over the world, from the ice caps to the Australian outback. Whilst much of the cause for this is
attributed to reliance on fossil fuels, there is no doubt that improvements in building design can make a significant contribution to much-needed reductions in harmful emissions. For this reason, in 2020 we will be redoubling our efforts to encourage and support the increasing public interest in sustainable construction.
FLASHBACK TO 2007: NARM’s marketing campaign that year highlighted energy saving & emissions reductions through increased daylight levels in buildings
This year, in addition to maintaining our focus on architectural specifiers and building contractors, we will also be working to provide more information and support to the growing numbers of envionmentally-conscious homeowners and self-builders. Find out more and download technical documents at: www.narm.org.uk Access our on-line RIBA CPD seminar and other CPD materials at: www. ribacpd.com Become a NARM member
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Making smart-tinting glazing even smarter Shadow Mapping with Photographic Obstruction Maps for Better Daylighting, by Andrew McNeil, Facade Performance Specialist, Kinestral Technologies, Inc.
Human reaction to direct sunlight through glass, which translates to glare or thermal heat, is immediate: shades go down. Those same occupants, however, are slower to raise the shades when discomfort disappears. Consequently, shades stay down longer than necessary, depriving occupants of daylighting and views are blocked. Automated shading solutions are growing in popularity because they can be programmed to raise shades when
the risk of glare and thermal discomfort is low, enhancing daylighting. Theyâ€™re increasingly common in large commercial office buildings, but window shading in smaller buildings and residences are left out of automation â€“ primarily because of cost. The cost of centralized control hardware and commissioning sensors on a rooftop might be more easily absorbed in a building with a thousand windows than a building with only 10 windows.
SMART GLAZING Dense urban environments are often shaded from direct sunshine by neighboring buildings, awnings, fins, trees, mountains, and other contextual obstructions for intermittent periods. When site shadowing isn’t taken into account by the shading control system, shades can be deployed unnecessarily.
Shading Automation Today People vividly remember when the shading system isn’t doing the right thing – even if it’s only for two hours of the work week or 95% correct automation. From an occupant’s point of view, satisfaction can only be achieved when automatic shading is at least 99.5% accurate. Automation should not activate shading when a window is in a shadow. To account for shadowing, some automated shading vendors generate annual shadow schedules for windows using ray tracing CAD models on site. Most automated shading control systems can account for exterior geometry. What they do is they build a CAD model of the building and the site and then they ray trace from the windows to the site. The trouble with this is that setting up the CAD model, verifying that as accurate can cost money and add a lot of time to a project. CAD model availability is also spotty. For major cities like Paris, there’s probably a good CAD model of most of the city. In most small or mediumsized cities, all that’s often available are the footprints of the buildings. Heights have to be estimated. Any errors in the alignment or the height of exterior buildings used can get baked into scheduled automation and can be difficult to diagnose and correct afterthe-fact. While not insurmountable, shadow modeling adds additional costs to projects that small projects can’t absorb. The cost of setting up the
shadowing schedules can be justified when amortized over hundreds or thousands of windows.
Photographic Obstruction Mapping: A New Way to Account for Shadows Photographic obstruction mapping is about achieving more accurate automation and doing it more economically so that it can be used on small buildings. That was our goal at Kinestral Technologies when we developed our photographic obstruction mapping tools. Our goal was to enable our Halio® smarttinting windows to tint or clear to near 99.9% accuracy from the view of the occupants – and make that practical for even smaller projects. Large projects can use our system to spot check the accuracy of the ray-tracing method. The idea behind photographic obstruction mapping is simple: a camera is used to collect angles of exterior obstructions to a window. The photos are remapped to angular pixel coordinates, and the area of the sky that’s visible from the window is traced. The traced sky is then queried in realtime to determine whether or not a window sees the sun or is in shadow.
”... we developed a prototype camera based on the raspberry pi system. It has a 180-degree fisheye lens, allowing a full view left to right and from sky to ground.”
To do this, we developed a prototype camera based on the raspberry pi system. It has a 180-degree fisheye lens, allowing a full view left to right and from sky to ground. A black shroud makes it possible to hold the camera against the window so that it’s aligned to the plane of the window and the lens is very close to the glass. The black color reduces reflection for a clearer image. Because it’s nearly impossible to hold the camera perfectly level, we added an accelerometer that can measure the angle, which can then be used to correct image rotation so that they are level.
Fig. 1: The image on the right is the corrected version of the image on the left.
No lens is perfect, so we also correct for angular distortions. To account for this, we put the camera on a motor and step the camera every few degrees. Figure 1 shows the uncorrected and corrected image. We call our shadow mapping image format an orthonormal pseudocylindrical projection. The X-axis has the azimuth angle and the Y-axis has profile angle. The benefit of using this projection is that lines that are Orthonormal to the field of view are straight in the projected image. And it turns out that a lot of the built environment is orthogonal so that can be a helpful feature. Figure 2 demonstrates two renderings of a cube with grids. On the left is the equirectangular projection that is commonly used in virtual reality: the vertical lines are straight, but the horizontal lines are all curved. On the right is the orthonormal projection which shows straight horizontal and vertical lines.
Electrochromic Glass: Perfectly Accurate Modern-Day Automated Shading Electrochromic technology has advanced dramatically. Continuous tints (versus a fixed number) and transition speeds 10x faster than earlier entrants make it possible to respond quickly to changing conditions. In a real-life setting, the Halio window control system queries the photographic obstruction mapping in real-time relative to the sunâ€™s path throughout the year to determine when to tint a window or not and by how much. Our system can query the system every minute, every hour, or every 30 seconds. Photographic obstruction maps are quick to create and easy to setup. Obstruction maps allow smart-tinting facades to admit diffused daylight when a window is in shadow for prolonged periods of time, improving the daylight amenity provided to occupants. Additionally, photographic obstruction maps provide a visual
Fig. 2: Two renderings of a cube with grids. On the left is the equirectangular and on the right is the orthonormal projection which shows straight horizontal and vertical lines.
record of the condition at the time of setup, an asset for troubleshooting and customer support when buildings are erected or demolished. Daylighting is about maximizing daylight without sacrificing occupant comfort. Photographic obstruction mapping makes it possible for systems like our Halio smart-tinting glass to improve automation performance for small to medium-sized projects. For more details about photographic obstruction maps see â€œA Photographic Method for Mapping Angular Locations of Exterior Solar Obstructionsâ€? published in The Journal of Building Engineering. www.kinestral.com Andy McNeil is a daylight specialist whose current work focuses on developing fenestration products that increase the quantity of daylight and the quality of daylight, i.e., dramatically reduced glare. Before Kinestral Technologies, Andy was a lighting consultant at Arup.
The camera used in the study: based on the raspberry pi system
DAYLIGHTING ICONS The biggest: the best: the most awe-inspiring; the most outrageous; the most influential... In this regular feature we indulge ourselves and our readers with images of daylighting projects throughout the years that simply deserve a double page photograph...
Fulton Centre, New York City Fulton Center is a subway and retail complex at the intersection of Fulton Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan, New York City, with more than 2,800 m2 of retail space featuring a unique daylighting solution. â€˜Sky Reflector-Netâ€™, which was commissioned by the MTA Arts & Design (the art program of the Metropolitan Transport Authority) TA), was installed in 2014 in the Fulton Center transit hub. Located at the center of the oculus, the Sky Reflector-Net uses hundreds of aluminum mirrors to provide natural sunlight from a 16 m skylight to an underground area as much as four stories deep. This is the first intentional skylight in the New York City Subway system since the 1945 closure of the original City Hall station.
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