Bartlett Design Research Folios
Bartlett Design Research Folios
Co-designers: Nick Callicott, Stahlbogen GmbH; Phil Ayres, Centre for Information Technology in Architecture (CITA), Royal Academy of Fine Art Copenhagen; Emmanuel Vercruysse, The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL Sheil realised this project through the collaborative practice, sixteen*(makers), comprised of Sheil, Callicott, Ayres and Vercruysse. Title:
Cock Stoor, Lakeside Way, Kielder Water and Forest Park, Northumberland, UK
Kielder Partnership (representing: Calvert Trust, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Northumberland County Council, Northumbrian Water, Northumberland Wildlife Trust and local community groups)
2009 (commissioned 2008)
Budget: £50,000 Size:
15m × 11m
Engineer / Fabricator:
Bartlett Research Folio
Statement about the Research Content and Process
Description 55/02 is one of the earliest examples in the UK of a building entirely designed and fabricated through digital technology, and is unique in how this process was explored as an evolving exchange of design and manufacturing relationships. The shelter responds to Kielder’s manufactured landscape and history, and to the particular topology of its site at Cock Stoor. It provides protection from prevailing weather, with seating positions that look out upon key vistas, in a position that was previously inaccessible to visitors. Questions 1. How may the common distinction of design, fabrication and construction, as discrete phases of activity, be challenged through digital design and fabrication technologies at full scale? 2. How may the designer’s ability to see what is being made and their direct engagement in the process of production alter the outcome of their intent? 3. How may critical methodologies of digital design and fabrication processes facilitate an innovative and creative relationship between design practice and industry? 4. How may notions of site specificity be enhanced through advanced architectural design?
1 (previous page) The entirely prefabricated shelter ‘55/02’ settles into its new surroundings (June 2009).
Methods 1:1 manufactured prototypes, including CNC folding, plasma cutting and semi-automated welding, were central to the research process. In addition, simultaneous elementary sketches, 2D and 3D CAD models (Vectorworks, Rhino, Autodesk Inventor), 3D printed scaled models (ZCorp), contextual drawings (Illustrator and Photoshop), further CNC-manufactured prototypes in steel plate, and modifications during fabrication (metalwork, finishing) were used. Dissemination Published in a monograph, refereed paper and three book chapters, featured in a touring exhibition, and presented in six international keynotes/lectures. It has also been widely reviewed, including in three book chapters, 11 journal articles and three online video documentaries.
Statement of Significance
Recipient of 2011 RIBA Regional (NE) Award for Design (with automatic longlisting for RIBA Stirling Prize 2011). Exhibited at Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions 2009 and 2010.
2 Looking north towards the site at Cock Stoor prior to installation (2008)
Introduction / Aims and Objectives
55/02 is an experiment in making digital architecture in collaboration with the manufacturing industry. It represents one of the earliest examples in the UK of a building entirely designed and fabricated through digital technology and is unique in how this process was explored as an evolving exchange of design and manufacturing relationships from concept to completion (Stacey 2009: Appendix 2.10). 55/02 is also a site-
specific building in that it is tailored to respond, in broad terms, to Kielder’s manufactured landscape and history, and in local terms to the particular topology and configuration of its site at Cock Stoor (Sheil 2009: Appendix 1.2). The shelter provides protection from prevailing wind and rain, with seating positions among screens that look out upon key vistas and landmarks in a position that was previously inaccessible. [fig. 2 &3]
Aims and Objectives
The competition brief asked for ‘some form of shelter for up to four people, with seating’, and ‘some form of engagement with the Kielder landscape’ for a budget of £50,000 on a hypothetical site. Unlike each of the other five selected projects, 55/02 won the commission on the basis of a design strategy rather than a predetermined form. The strategy was twofold: first, it is informed by the real location rather than a hypothetical one; second, it is developed as a collaboration between architects sixteen*(makers), led by Bob Sheil, and steel fabrication specialists Stahlbogen GmbH of
Blankenburg, Germany, led by Nick Callicott (formerly of sixteen*(makers) and The Bartlett, UCL). Preproduction design was completed in May 2008. Planning permission was granted on 17 December 2008, and production design and manufacture began at Stahlbogen GmbH in February 2009. 55/02 is entirely made from steel, and was fully assembled at Stahlbogen’s factory prior to shipping. Its 21 distinct elements, sprayed in RAL ‘2002Vermilion’, weigh 8.1 tons; its footprint is approximately 15m × 11m. The shelter was completed on site on 26 May 2009. [fig. 4 –9]
3 Looking south-east towards Cock Stoor as access road is laid (March 2009)
4 Freehand sketch plan by Emmanuel Vercruysse, defining dynamic spatial tactics (February 2008)
5 Preproduction design file overlaid on GIS survey file (April 2008)
Aims and Objectives
Aims and Objectives
6 Example of planning drawing. The representation of 55/02 is approximate as many of the final design decisions had not been made (October 2008).
7 Section from the pre-production drawing set. The entire scheme was redrawn again on several occasions both prior to and during production. This set was developed for both structural and design analysis (May 2008).
Aims and Objectives
8 3D digital sketch by Stahlbogen, defining structural, material and envelope strategy (February 2008)
Aims and Objectives
9 1:100 3D print of an early design iteration on topographical context. Manufactured at The Bartlett’s Digital Manufacturing Centre (April 2008)
10 Test piece: the ‘exam’ set by Stahlbogen to select staff fabricators for 55/02 (February 2009)
55/02’s award-winning design marks its collaborative fabrication and design methodology, and innovative utilisation of digital technologies and analogue processes in both design and fabrication (Ward 2011: Appendix 2.13). The building is both a demonstrator and a critique of making experimental architecture in the digital age, and signifies a uniquely tangible outcome in response to digital design research of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries: not only as a
technical and aesthetic artefact, but also as evidence of a process that shifts the role of the designer from a position that is remote from production, to one that is engaged and influential throughout the production process (Sheil and Callicott 2011: Appendix 1.3). 55/02 operates on multiple scales, leading to multiple publications, including a 12,000-word monograph and 6,000-word refereed paper. [fig. 10 – 12]
How may the common distinction of design, fabrication and construction, as discrete phases of activity, be challenged through digital design and fabrication technologies at full scale? This question was first answered through procurement where the project was managed under bespoke terms of agreement with specified milestones allowing the design to evolve through a series of approved phases. This provided flexibility for the collaboration between the authors and the manufacturers to exploit digital design and fabrication processes creatively and efficiently. Second, it was facilitated by the deployment of tacit knowledge in fabrication processes, and
an approach that continuously challenged the drawing as a complete instruction to make. Third, speculative prototypes were manufactured at full scale very early in the design process. Their results subsequently led many of the design decisions that followed, and defined the drawn model as a holding ground for decisions formed in manufacture (Jones 2009: Appendix 2.7). [fig.13 – 15]
How may the designer’s ability to see what is being made and their direct engagement in the process of production alter the outcome of their intent? 55/02 was developed in collaboration with an industrial partner to explore the impact of digital fabrication technologies
Aims and Objectives / Questions
11 1:1 Prototype of ‘structural tank’. This established choice of fold radius and exposed the
need for a greater number of folds in later iterations. The same prototype was later used for colour testing (April 2008).
12 Hybrid digital and analogue modelmaking under way at The Bartlett’s Digital Manufacturing Centre. This series had a twofold purpose: to take an overview on Callicott’s proposals
for how the project would be built at Stahlbogen, and to develop and merge these ideas with further speculative proposals on form, scale and spatial configuration (April 2008).
13 Folding geometries and folding sequences were calibrated by the limitations of the CNC press and Stahlbogen’s stock of existing tool heads (February 2009).
14 55/02’s first series of elements take shape at Stahlbogen, Blankenburg, Germany (February 2009).
15 Master welder Klaus Leineweber operates Stahlbogen’s semi-automatic welding tractor to stitch one of the longest seams. All such welds were left exposed rather than ground flat to preserve the shelter’s manufactured blueprint (March 2009).
as design rather than production tools. It operates as a critical design performance where speculative and reflexive practices more familiar within the domain of the studio were tested out in a factory setting. Subsequently, the difference between what is drawn and what is made, and how both realms are defined by unique protocols, was brought into focus and defined as a territory for enquiry and an asset for design development. [fig. 16 – 20]
How may critical methodologies of digital design and fabrication processes facilitate an innovative and creative relationship between design practice and industry? The design and fabrication of 55/02 not only identified the potential for collaborative engagement between design and industry, but was also concerned with understanding the differences of approach within each discipline towards the same technology. 55/02 offered an opportunity for these two cultures to overlap and define a new methodology for creative knowledge transfer. A practical exam (see Figure 10) selected two individuals to make and install the project from start to finish. The evolutionary making of 55/02 defined new protocols of craftsmanship within the workforce and stood as a demonstrator of alternative results that might be extracted by everyday tools within the plant’s inventory. [fig. 21 – 25]
How may notions of site specificity be enhanced through advanced architectural design? A threefold approach was utilised: 1) The notion of site specificity for 55/02 was broadened to refer to Kielder’s history as an industrialised landscape (Sheil 2009: Appendix 1.2) and developed by the intervention of an unambiguous industrial architecture. Kielder Reservoir was commissioned to serve the chemical industries within the surrounding delta, but has subsequently only supported energy and leisure. This agenda is further developed through close proximity to evidence of process and fabrication: for example, semi-automated welding seams on the shelter were left exposed and not ground down as might be expected by an overt digital aesthetic. 2) Site specificity was developed through contextual modelling and survey verification. 55/02 was configured to address and reflect particular nodes of the localised and distant landscape. 3) The question is finally addressed by the overlay of both these strategies. Visitors are engaged by an ‘alien’ artefact and find that it is tailored to its location in a bespoke fashion. [fig.26 – 34]
16 The first cluster of elements are assembled and reviewed. The welding tractor can be seen in the lower foreground (March 2009).
17 Roof assembly en route to positioning test (March 2009)
18 Track for the central sliding screen is laid. To the left in this image, Nick Callicott; to the right, Bob Sheil. The image also shows the roof assembly in position for testing (March 2009).
19 A typical illustration of how individual elements were prepared in CAD for digital fabrication. This view has been generated to communicate the context of CAD data when the project is talked about in lectures (January 2010).
20 Typical illustration of how individual elements were prepared in CAD for digital fabrication (March 2009).
21 Nick Callicott inspects work in progress. On account of his unique role as co-designer and manufacturer of 55/02, Callicott refined and altered production drawings while simultaneously managing fabrication. A significant factor in its final resolution was the decision to assemble 55/02 on the factory floor in a direct line of sight from Callicott’s drawing position (March 2009).
22 Eight weeks from first fold to first full assembly (April 2009).
23 Factory colour test. Vermilion was selected to offset the forest’s predominantly dark features and acknowledge the palette of livery colours for forestry machinery (April 2009).
24 Utilising the new access pathway generated for 55/02 as a new section of the Lakeside Way (May 2009)
28 Nick Callicott supervises and leads on-site assembly with the same team he chose to fabricate 55/02 (May 2009).
25 Organising the assembly on site (May 2009)
26 The ground slab is marked out using factory-prepared sheet steel jigs, seen here either side of the sliding screen lower rail (May 2009).
27 Once the primary elements of 55/02 are in place, setting-out jigs are discarded (May 2009).
29 Temporary strapping to adjacent trees was deployed in assembly (May 2009).
30 Local contractors D.G. Walton assist in offering components into place (May 2009).
31 Stahlbogen’s assembly and fabrication team, from left: Reinhard Schumann, Klaus Leineweber, Nick Callicott. Redundant setting-out jigs can be seen in the foreground (May 2009).
32 (overleaf) Looking down on Cock Stoor from a forestry access road in a northern elevated position (May 2009).
Site 55/02 – an abbreviation of its position at 55°11.30 N, 02°29.23 W – is located at Cock Stoor, Lakeside Way, Kielder Water and Forest Park, Northumberland, UK. Kielder Forest contains over 150 million trees; it covers an area of 650km2 and is England’s largest forest. Kielder Reservoir is England’s largest artificial reservoir at 200 million litres capacity. It primes England’s largest hydro-electric plant. 55/02 was commissioned by the Kielder Partnership in February 2008 along with five other projects by artists and architects. The Kielder Partnership was established in 1994 and represents the Calvert Trust, the Environment Agency, the Forestry Commission, Northumberland County Council, Northumbrian Water, the Northumberland Wildlife Trust and local community groups. The Kielder Partnership’s portfolio includes awardwinning buildings and installations by artists and architects such as James Turrell and Softroom. [fig. 32 – 33]
Digital design Digital tools have allowed for continuous flow between design data and machine production (Sheil 2005), yet the paradox of the digital revolution in architecture is that it coincides with a period in which the designer’s influence on and responsibility for how buildings are made is deeply constrained by contract.
1:1 design and craft decisions at the place of production are key investigations. As digital processes evolve into mainstream media and modernist arguments for mass production are challenged (Callicott 2000), the subjects of ornament, craft and formal expression have returned to contemporary architectural enquiries (Moussafavi 2006). The Digital Tectonics Conference (Bath, 2002) and the Acadia Fabrication Conference (Toronto, 2004) address the disjunction between the relatively unrestricted domain of digital information and parallel engagements in the construction industry.1
Industry collaboration Routine commissions for Stahlbogen GmbH involve the manufacture of large pressure vessels for the chemical industry and steel moulds for civil engineering structures to support wind turbine towers. In this context Stahlbogen’s design staff concentrate on utilising 3D modelling and CAD-CAM to deliver and verify consistent results rather than develop unique constructs on every occasion. The same software tools are utilised in the design industry to explore and experiment with uniqueness.
1. The author is founding co-chair of Fabricate, an international conference on making digital architecture, first held at UCL in April 2011, and scheduled to run at ETH Zürich in February 2014.
In the first instance, the brief offered the unusual opportunity to select the project site from a number of options along the reservoir perimeter. The site that was selected provided the highest degree of raw potential for design intervention, remote from pedestrian or vehicular access at the time and distant from any other Kielder Partnership commissions, and a distinct place-making opportunity. The design and build of 55/02 emerged through a series of 1:1 prototypes,
33 (previous page) 55/02 from the southern shore of Kielder Reservoir (January 2010)
simultaneous elementary sketches, 2D and 3D CAD models, 3D printed scaled models, contextual drawings, further prototypes, and modifications during fabrication. Significantly, 55/02’s design was developed entirely in collaboration with Stahlbogen at their factory in Blankenburg, allowing the final construct to develop at 1:1 as a simultaneous design and fabrication process (Dunn 2012: Appendix 2.3). [fig. 34– 40]
34 Cluster of roofing elements assembled and installed (May 2009)
35 Close view from north-east nearing completion. 55/02’s installation was completed in three days (May 2009).
36 Detail one of several roof connection solutions (May 2009)
37 Detail two of several roof connection solutions (May 2009)
38 View from southwest, within Cock Stoor plantation (May 2009)
39 The sliding screen in closed position (May 2009)
Monograph R. Sheil (ed.), 55/02: A sixteen*(makers) Project Monograph. Toronto: Riverside Architectural Press, 2012.
Refereed article R. Sheil, ‘A manufactured architecture in a manufactured landscape’, Architectural Research Quarterly (2009).
Book chapters N. Dunn, ‘Introduction: Digital tools and machines for fabrication’, ‘Integration: Case study plasma-cut shelter’, and ‘Strategies: Case study folding as reconfigurable and interactive installation’, in Digital Fabrication in Architecture. 2012. W. Jones (ed.), ‘sixteen*(makers)’, in The Architect’s Sketchbook. 2011. K. Moskow and R. Linn, ‘55/02’, in Contemporary Follies. 2012. R. Sheil, ‘sixteen*(makers)’, in Digital Architecture: Passages through Hinterlands (ed. R. Glynn and S. Shafiei). 2009. R. Sheil and N. Callicott, ‘The point of production’, and R. Sheil, ‘Ways of seeing, ways of doing’, in 55/02: A sixteen*(makers) Project Monograph (ed. R. Sheil). 2012.
Exhibitions 55/02: A Manufactured Architecture in a Manufactured Landscape (Photographs, models, timelapse animations). Touring exhibition: The Bartlett, UCL (Jan–Feb 2010); The Building Centre, Store Street, London (Feb–Mar 2010); University of Nottingham School of Architecture (Mar–Apr 2010); Queen’s Hall Hexham, Northumberland (Feb–Apr 2011). Exhibited at Royal Academy Summer Show 2009 (‘Shelter 55/02, Factory Files’, Selective Laser Sintering model) and 2010 (‘NW Projection: 55/02 Kielder 07.03.10 1643hrs’, illuminated print from 3D terrestrial laser scan).
40 Detail of roof canopy, southern section (May 2009)
Journal Articles/Reviews/Interviews Architects’ Journal, Special RIBA Issue (2011); R. Waite, Architects’ Journal (May 2009); J. Pallister, Architects’ Journal (Aug 2009); W. Jones, A10 (July/Aug 2009); Architecture and the Built Environment (2011); W. Jones, Blueprint Magazine (July 2009); N. Spiller, AD Architects of the Near Future (2009); M. Stacey, Building Design (2009); E. Stathaki, Wallpaper (2009); M. Ward, Architectural Review Australia (2011); M. Armengaud, Interview, D’Architectures (2010).
Online references and articles with video or slideshow 2011 RIBA Awards website (2011); J. Pallister, Architects’ Journal Online (Aug 2009); M. Wainwright, The Guardian (Oct 2009); UCL News (2010); Youtube (2000 views); J. Glancy, ‘RIBA Awards – Winners’, The Guardian (May 2011).
Lectures ‘55/02: A Manufactured Architecture in a Manufactured Landscape’: keynote speaker at The Queen’s Hall, Hexham, Northumberland, Feb 2011. Nick Callicott, Design Computation Symposium, Autodesk University Las Vegas, Nov 2011. Invited lecture (with Nick Callicott), University of Nottingham School of Architecture, Mar 2010. Keynote speaker at Atmosphere Conference, School of Architecture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Canada, Feb 2010. International lecture series (with Nick Callicott), The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL, Feb 2010. Invited lecture, School of Architecture, University of Lincoln, Mar 2009.
Dissemination / Appendix
Related publications by the researcher(s) Monograph pp. 40–87 R. Sheil (ed.), 55/02: A sixteen*(makers) Project Monograph. Toronto: Riverside Architectural Press, 2012.
Refereed article pp. 88–109 R. Sheil, ‘A manufactured architecture in a manufactured landscape’, Architectural Research Quarterly 13.3/4 (2009): 200–219.
Book chapters pp. 56–67 N. Callicott and R. Sheil, ‘The Point of production’, in 55/02: A sixteen*(makers) Project Monograph (ed. R. Sheil). Toronto: Riverside Architectural Press, 2012: 43–65. pp. 68–85 R. Sheil, ‘Ways of seeing, ways of doing’, in 55/02: A sixteen*(makers) Project Monograph (ed. R. Sheil). Toronto: Riverside Architectural Press, 2012: 67–101. pp. 110–115 Sheil, ‘sixteen*(makers)’, in Digital Architecture: Passages through Hinterlands (ed. R. Glynn and S. Shafiei). London, 2009: 97–101.
Related writings by others Award pp. 118–120 RIBA Regional (NE) Award for Design, 2011.
Book chapters pp. 121–124 W. Jones (ed.), ‘sixteen*(makers)’, in The Architects’ Sketchbooks. Thames & Hudson, 2011. 302–305. pp. 125–126 N. Dunn, ‘Introduction: Digital tools and machines for fabrication’, ‘Integration: Case study plasma-cut shelter’ and ‘Strategies: Case study folding as reconfigurable and interactive installation’, in Digital Fabrication in Architecture. Laurence King, 2012. 24, 93. pp. 127–133 K. Moskow and R. Linn, ‘55/02’, in Contemporary Follies. New York: Monacelli Press, 2012. 68–71.
Journal Articles p. 134 R. Waite, ‘First Look: Adjaye and others design new Kielder shelters’, Architects’ Journal (7 May 2009). p. 135 W. Jones, ‘Unconventional shelter’, A10 (July/Aug 2009): 55. pp. 136–139 W. Jones, ‘Shelter 55/02 Kielder Park’, Blueprint Magazine (July 2009): 54–57. pp. 140–147 J. Pallister, ‘Telling Stories’, Architects’ Journal (27 Aug 2009): 22–29. p. 148 N. Spiller, ‘Mathematics of the ideal pavilion’, in Architectures of the Near Future (ed. N. Clear), Architectural Design 79.5 (2009): 124–125.
p. 149 E. Stathaki, ‘Refuge collection’, Wallpaper Magazine (Sept 2009): 63. pp. 150–151 M. Stacey, ‘Folding into the landscape’, Solutions: Tectonics/Steel, Building Design 1880 (14 Aug 2009): 16–17. pp. 152–158 M. Armengaud, ‘Abbattre son jeu’, D’Architectures 190 (April 2010): 14–20. [An interview with Bob Sheil on the design and manufacture of 55/02.] pp. 159–162 M. Ward, ‘From homo faber to homo fabber’, Architectural Review Australia 119 (April/May 2011): 22–24. pp. 163–167 ‘55/02 Kielder Forest’, Architecture and the Built Environment 13 (Spring 2011): 15. pp. 168–171 Architects’ Journal Special RIBA Awards Issue 2011 (16 June 2011): 42. Featuring 55/02 by sixteen*(makers).
Online articles with video or slideshow pp. 172–175 J. Pallister, ‘55/02, Cock Stoor, by sixteen*(makers) with Stahlbogen, Kielder Water’, Architects’ Journal Online (27 Aug 2009), London. www.architectsjournal.co.uk/ buildings/55/02-cock-stoor-by-sixteenmakers-with-stahlbogen-kielder-water/5207296.article p. 176 M. Wainwright and C. Thomond, ‘Kielder art trail’, The Guardian Online (21 Oct 2009): www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/audioslideshow/2009/oct/21/kielder-art-trail pp. 177–179 M. Wainwright, ‘Kielder visitors take shelter in art’, The Guardian Online (21 Oct 2009): www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2009/oct/21/kielder-reservoir-art-sculpture-shelters pp. 180–182 ‘Bartlett architects explore relationship between nature and artifice’, UCL News (25 Jan 2010): www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/1001/10012501 p. 183 J. Glancy, ‘RIBA awards 2011: The winners — in pictures’, The Guardian Online (19 May 2011): www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/gallery/2011/may/19/riba-international-awards-2011winners?INTCMP=SRCH
Bartlett Design Research Folios ISSN 2753-9822 Founding Editor: Yeoryia Manolopoulou Editors: Yeoryia Manolopoulou, Peg Rawes, Luis Rego Content © the authors Graphic Design: objectif Typesetting: Axel Feldmann, Siaron Hughes, Alan Hayward Proofreading: Wendy Toole
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