Australian Stainless #77

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ISSUE 77 2023
Photo credit: Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions

Kalbarri Skywalk

Stainless steel has contributed to one of Western Australia’s architectural masterpieces overlooking the Murchison River Gorge.

Kalbarri National Park is located approximately 550km north of Perth in Western Australia and is dubbed as one of the state’s best scenic nature destinations. Delivering a major tourism boost for the Mid-West region, the WA State Government with the Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions opened the highly anticipated Kalbarri Skywalk in June 2020.

The skywalk allows visitors to immerse themselves in breathtaking views of Murchison River Gorge and the natural beauty of the surrounding landscape. Two cantilevered viewing platforms ‘float’ mid-air 100m above the canyon, with one platform projecting 25m and the other 17m beyond the cliff face. Offering extensive 270-degree views from the highest point in the gorge system, the skywalk platforms were built and anchored into the 400-million-year-old sandstone.

The inspiration behind the skywalk’s architecture and materials selection was to deliver a unique wilderness experience without detracting visitors from connecting with the natural environment. Designed by Eastman Poletti Sherwood Architects, the skywalk is 40km inland from the coastline and merges elegantly into the rocky gorge country and its geological features.

Built by Bocol Constructions, the skywalk and surrounding tourist infrastructure make extensive use of coloured patterned concrete and rust-coloured weathering steel to blend in with the surrounding landscape. Over 200m of grade 316 stainless steel handrails complement the structure, delivering safety and stability for visitors.

ASSDA Member International Corrosion Services (ICS) was engaged to perform the chemical surface treatments on the stainless steel handrails, which included 128 units of 25mm rectangular hollow sections (RHS), ranging from 1100mm – 1600mm in length. Fabricated and delivered by Bouvard Marine, the stainless steel material for the project was supplied by ASSDA Member Stirlings Performance Steels.

All sections underwent a post-fabrication, two-stage surface treatment process – chemical pickling, followed by electropolishing. Firstly, the sections were pickled and passivated in accordance with ASTM A380 Standard Practice for Cleaning, Descaling, and Passivation of Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment, and Systems as a pre-electropolishing treatment. This involved immersion of the sections in chemical baths of up to 30 degrees Celsius to remove surface contaminants and heat-affected zones.

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Photo credit: Dermot Boyle, Bocol Constructions

The sections were then dried, in preparation for the electropolishing process which was performed in accordance with ASTM B912 Standard Specification for Passivation of Stainless Steel Using Electropolishing. Each section was suspended by contact points from an anode and immersed into an electropolishing bath at a set current for optimum corrosion resistance and to ensure an even and smooth finish (Ra value). The sections were then drained, carefully washed, air-dried, and individually wrapped to ensure no damage occurred during the six-hour on-road transport to Kalbarri National Park. All post-fabrication surface treatments were performed at the ICS workshop in Forrestdale.



A certificate of conformity was issued to the client by ICS to verify the completed treatments complied with the international standards specified. The pickling, passivation and electropolishing treatments were performed to ensure a high level of corrosion resistance was delivered, in addition to the material’s durability, longevity and low cost of ownership and maintenance. Electropolishing further delivered an aesthetically pleasing finish, complementing the structure’s design.

Representative of a great design, the individual sections of the stainless steel handrails were bolted in place to avoid onsite welding and for future ease of maintenance. If any of the handrails require maintenance or replacement, the individual sections can simply be unbolted for offsite cleaning and surface treatment and re-installed.

The skywalk attraction recognises the Nanda Aboriginal people and their heritage, as the traditional owners of the land. Interpretive information on all facets of the park’s culture and natural history, including artwork created by several local indigenous artists adds to the Skywalk experience.

The removal of any high-temperature scale and any adjacent low chromium layer of metal from the surface of stainless steel by chemical means. The process leaves a slight matt finish and provides a passive surface immediately upon rinsing, maximising the ongoing performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

PASSIVATION The treatment of the surface of stainless steel, often with acid solutions (or gels), to remove contaminants and promote the formation of the passive film on a surface that was freshly created, e.g., through grinding, machining, or mechanical damage.


A factory bath method of improving corrosion resistance and brightening the surface of components. It uses electrical current rather than chemical means to selectively remove peaks and reduce surface roughness to give a deep lustre. Electropolishing also improves corrosion resistance by thickening the protective passive film which delivers durability and performance in stainless steel for extended product life.

ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS International Corrosion Services \ Mark Ghisio, Business Development Manager \ 08 9497 3500 \ \ Stirlings Performance Steels \ Matthew Stevens, Sales Manager Western Australia \ 08 9366 6700 \ \
Photo credits: Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions
Over 200m of grade 316 stainless steel handrails complement the structure, delivering safety and stability for visitors.
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Celebrating 30 years of ASSDA

The Australian Stainless Steel Development Association was inaugurated on 17 December 1992, marking 30 years of supporting, growing, and defending the market for stainless steel in Australia. We are proud of this milestone and have enjoyed the challenges and triumphs delivered for the benefit of our material and industry. It’s a testament to our Members, staff, and industry colleagues – past and present.



ASSDA is inaugurated with 31 Members to address and harness stainless steel’s growth trend in Australia.


First National Conference, PacRim Stainless, is held at the Novotel North Beach Hotel in Wollongong.

First Australian Stainless Magazine is published and today continues to be ASSDA’s flagship publication promoting stainless steel and its applications.


First edition of the Australian Stainless Reference Manual is published, an industry guide and comprehensive technical resource to stainless steel. In February 2020, ASSDA published the eighth edition.


First ‘tea staining’ problems were recognised and followed with two years of research. An education program focused on preventing coastal corrosion was initiated in 2001, and there is now a greater understanding of the topic and stronger relationships with asset owners and specifiers that are still delivering results for the industry today. Technical information, recommendations, and specifications have been published since this time and ASSDA’s influence on this subject has stretched offshore.


The threat of standards restrictions on the release of particulate and gaseous matter in welding fume led to a battle from ASSDA at Standards Australia and with WorkSafe Australia. The proposals would have essentially seen a ban on welding stainless steel. ASSDA rigorously fought the proposal, eventually winning the day and providing guidelines adequate for fabricators to meet regulation in a simple way. To do so, ASSDA partnered with Weld Australia and other industry organisations to create the guidance notes.


The rebar market in Australia is established through ASSDA in conjunction with Arminox Australia with the delivery of information, education, and rigorous technical advice on the durability of concrete structures. Amongst the first applications was the floating walkway in Brisbane which saw a modest several hundred tonnes of stainless steel used in the pontoon structures with many more tonnes of stainless steel specified for the topside structure.

Australian Standard AS 1528 was first issued and developed by an ASSDA group of stakeholders in the manufacture, supply, fabrication, and use of stainless steel tube and associated fittings in the food manufacturing industries. Its aim is to standardise hygienic tube for use in dairy, food and beverage manufacturing and has been successful in maintaining the required food standards in Australia and New Zealand.


In conjunction with and through the World Stainless Association, the online Stainless Steel Specialist Course is launched. The 17-module course provides a standard level of knowledge and qualification and is designed to improve knowledge of stainless steel, its properties, performance and uses. Further work down the track saw the first five modules of the course made available in Chinese, Indian and Portuguese.


An opportunity in Brisbane saw ASSDA and Blucher Australia test stainless steel for the plumbing market, establishing risers in the Aurora building in stainless steel that were used for the dual purpose of fire service and potable water supply. This resulted in standards being written by ASSDA operatives, launching the market for stainless steel plumbing across Australia in a range of designs and fitting technologies.

Launch of the ASSDA Accreditation Scheme, an industry-based program designed to establish a benchmark for stainless steel fabricators to become recognised providers (ASSDA Accredited Fabricators) of a standardised level of quality.

GALA DINNER 4 – Australian Stainless Issue 77


The first edition of the ASSDA Food Code of Practice is published, a technical specification covering the requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection, transport and installation of stainless steel plant and equipment in the food and beverage industry.


Development of a Standard covering the grade and dimensions of stainless steel pipes and tubes suitable for water supply and drainage systems completed, and converted into the full Australian/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 3500


A report called Whole of Life Cost Comparison and Cost Benefit Analysis for Steel Structures Constructed in the Foreshore Zone is published by a Griffith University civil engineering student in conjunction with the Gold Coast City Council (GCCC). The study investigates multiple structural scenarios from the perspective of what would represent the most cost-effective solution: hot-dipped galvanised steel, paint systems, duplex systems using both HDG and paint, or stainless steel. The result was that stainless steel is the most viable option based on cost alone for structures with a design life greater than 19 years. This in turn saw the GCCC adopt stainless steel as the default materials specification for structures within the foreshore zone requiring a design life greater than 19 years.


Along with other industry groups, ASSDA joins the Queensland Jobs from Queensland Resources alliance to campaign for reforms to deliver more skilled local work from Queensland’s major resources projects. ASSDA with its industry partners rallied at parliament house in Brisbane in a result that saw the State Government commit to policy reforms that would see local manufacture being integrated into the supply chain for future project approvals.

ASSDA secures an estimated $200 million trade within the Australian stainless steel industry, following the 2012 draft proposals to the National Construction Code (NCC) indicating barriers erected for surfaces over onemetre above the ground would have to be ‘non-climbable’. This would have effectively banned the use of horizontal balustrades, including stainless steel wire balustrades. ASSDA actively lobbied against the proposed change and formed an industry group called the ‘Balustrades and Barriers Committee’ to address the lack of standard for horizontal wire barrier and balustrade structures including the restriction of children. The decision by the Australian Building Codes Board to not implement the proposed changes is a testament to the dedication, promotion, and advocacy efforts by ASSDA and all stakeholders involved.


ASSDA hosts its first webinar on a topic focusing on stainless steel finishes, expanding its reach in its efforts to educate the wider industry on stainless steel. ASSDA has delivered 44 topics over 78 webinars as of January 2023.


ASSDA’s Australian Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards is launched at PacRim Stainless 2017. The awards program promotes excellence in stainless steel supply and performance, and in Australian design and fabrication. The Peter Matheson Industry Service Award was also introduced, recognising industry veterans for their commitment and service to the Australian stainless steel industry.


ASSDA wins its first World Stainless Industry Award - Silver Award for Best New Development for the Murray Irrigation PIIOP Round 3 Project on behalf of ASSDA Member, AWMA Water Control Solutions. The fifth edition of the ASSDA Stainless Steel Stock Guide is published 11 years since its last release. An online-only publication detailing the stocking portfolio of commonly-used stainless steel semifinished and finished materials in Australia, it is ASSDA’s most downloaded publication. The Stock Guide is now revised and republished on an annual basis.


Launch of the ASSDA Young Professionals Network, a new initiative to support the emerging generation of stainless steel professionals and leaders. The aim is to connect, empower and build the knowledge and leadership skills of young professionals to ensure the future success of Australia’s stainless steel industry.

ASSDA is in the early stages of spearheading a project to revitalise the recently withdrawn AS 4673 standard (Cold-formed stainless steel structures) with Standards Australia.

A night to remember: Celebrating 30 Years of ASSDA 30 November 2022,
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Congratulations to Peter George (left) and Paul D’Alpuget (right) for receiving the Peter Matheson Stainless Steel Industry Service Award. The Calile Hotel Brisbane


Stainless steel delivers confidence in the production and quality of the globally-trending beverage, kombucha.

Kombucha – also locally known in Australia as ‘booch’ - is a fermented tea drink, produced using sugar and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). Its composition dates back thousands of years but the drink has grown in popularity over recent times due to its health and probiotic benefits.

Remedy is currently the largest kombucha producer in Australia and New Zealand and the third largest globally. With kombucha market demand expected to grow 15% year-on-year to 2030, Remedy took the lead to consolidate its production, warehousing and distribution operations, catering for its expanding product range and future local and international demand.

Its state-of-the-art facility in Victoria’s Dandenong South covers over 18,000 sqm and was completed in 2022. It features new equipment and technologies, with stainless steel at the forefront of the design to ensure no quality compromise in the traditional, small-batch brewing process

strength durability integrity

Their kombucha is brewed in stainless steel tanks in a separate room maintained up to 30 degrees Celsius, using SCOBY which is more than 50 years old. The drink is made from slightly sweetened tea which feeds the SCOBY, delivering a carbonated beverage filled with live cultures, antioxidants, and organic acids. After the 30-day brewing process, the sugar is removed from the fermented product and tapped into the filling lines.

ASSDA Member Fineweld Stainless Steel was engaged to design, fabricate, and deliver 12 stainless steel tanks in various sizes and applications for the 2022 expansion, including:

• 25,000L tea buffer tank (316 wetted parts, 304 nonwetted), insulated and sheathed with provision for a side entry agitator.

• 30,000L hot water tank (duplex 2205 wetted parts, 304 non-wetted), insulated and sheathed with internal heating elements.

• 7,000L caustic tank (316 wetted parts, 304 non-wetted) with internal heating elements, insulated and sheathed.

• 5,000L secondary fermenter (316 wetted parts, 304 non-wetted), dimple jacket, bottom aerator, insulated and sheathed.

• 10,000L hibiscus (flavoured kombucha) tank (316 wetted parts, 304 non-wetted), insulated and sheathed.

• 3 x 20,000L brew storage tanks (316 wetted parts), insulated and sheathed with provision for a side entry agitator.

• 2 x primary fermenters (316 wetted parts, 304 nonwetted), insulated and sheathed.

• 2 x PFS tanks (316 wetted parts, 304 non-wetted), insulated and sheathed with provision for a side entry agitator.

Over 18 tonnes of various stainless steel grades including 304, 316 and 2205 were supplied by ASSDA Member, Midway Metals. All tank designs included dual skin with insulation to help maintain desired temperatures. Some tanks feature Mixquip side entry agitators to prevent the product from settling. The caustic and hot water tanks were designed and built with internal heating elements and side access for ease of maintenance.

Stainless steels are excellent combatants of corrosion and are strongly suited for producing beverages containing microbes and acidic compositions. In addition, it is a hygienic, lowmaintenance product that offers structural strength, durability, and integrity, whilst being able to withstand high temperatures during the brewing process.

FOOD AND BEVERAGE ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS Fineweld Stainless Steel \ Tony Eichstadt \ Managing Director \ 0413 836 285 \ \ Midway Metals \ Nick Scanlon \ Branch Manager \ 03 9791 5111 \ \
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Life cycle costing IN THE CITY OF MELBOURNE

Street furniture defines a city’s urban landscape, and stainless steel is becoming a material of choice for its long-term cost benefits in addition to its sleek designs, durability, and visual appeal.

In Australia, the City of Melbourne has led the way in sustainable materials selection, undertaking a life cycle costing comparison study over a 25-year term between carbon steel and stainless steel for use in its public street furniture. The products studied and manufactured included 1200 general waste bins, 500 recycling bins, 800 seats, 400 benches and 80 drinking fountains. Two broad costing components were considered:

1) The initial (procurement) cost of the different products in the two materials.

2) The ongoing maintenance costs, including costs associated with the following:

a. Items physically destroyed when in situ and in service.

b. Repairable damage to items when in situ and in service, e.g., graffiti.

c. Any required repairs due to natural corrosion and degradation.

The total cost of products made from carbon steel was $21.1 million:

• $4 million in procurement costs.

• $4 million in early replacement (re-procurement) costs.

• $600,000 in maintenance costs (i.e., graffiti removal and re-coating of surfaces) per year.

The total cost of products made from stainless steel was $14.8 million:

• $6.2 million in procurement costs.

• $400,000 in

costs per year.

Choose stainless steel

Stainless steel street furniture products realised a financial saving of $6.2 million over a 25-year term or $250,000 per year when compared with carbon steel. The stainless steel products are expected to last much longer than 25 years, delivering further cost savings for the City of Melbourne.

While there may be a higher capital cost initially, the benefits of using stainless steel are unmatched in its material performance and reduction in ongoing maintenance and life-cycle costs.

rate: 5.6% Destruction rate: 9.2% Repair rate: 1.3% Repair rate: 12.1% TYPICAL ANNUAL DAMAGE Stainless steel furniture items Carbon steel furniture items 156 general waste and recycling bins destroyed 260 general waste and recycling bins destroyed 10 seats and benches destroyed 10 seats and benches destroyed 1 drinking fountain destroyed 4 drinking fountains destroyed 40 general waste and recycling bins repaired 200 general waste and recycling bins repaired N/A 120 seats repaired N/A 40 benches repaired
This article was adapted and originally published by World Stainless:
Photo credit: City of Melbourne.
Total cost in AUD for 25 years 25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 YEAR 1 YEAR 5 YEAR 10 YEAR 15 YEAR 20 YEAR 25 0 Carbon steel Stainless steel 7 – Australian Stainless Issue 77

PacRim Stainless 2023

Australia’s only dedicated stainless steel conference event

18-19 October


Program Overview:

• Two half-day conference sessions with speakers from around the globe and nation

• Australian Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards

• PacRim 2-ball Golf Ambrose

• ASSDA Young Professionals Network function



Stanch Stainless Steel Co., Ltd.

Stoddart YC Inox Co., Ltd.



Acerinox \ Aqseptence Group \ Arcus Wire Group \ AusPress Systems \ Austral Wright Metals \ Amity Pacific \ Australian Stainless Distributors \ B & R Enclosures \ Callidus Welding Solutions \ Ching-Hann Industries Co., Ltd. \ Dalsteel Metals \ Fagersta Steels \ HH Stainless Pte Ltd \ Industrial Tube Manufacturing \ Metal Centre Australia \ Prochem Pipeline Products \ Sanwa \ Stainless Bar & Wire Company \ Stainless Steel Wire & Mesh \ Stirlings Performance Steels \ Vulcan Stainless \ Yue-Seng Industrial Co., Ltd.

MORE INFO: Enquiries or further information on any material presented in this publication should be directed to ASSDA: Level 6, 200 Adelaide St, Brisbane Qld 4000 \ +61 7 3220 0722 \ \

EDITORIAL: Contributions of story ideas specialising in stainless steel and its applications are welcome from Members of ASSDA.

ADVERTISING: Advertise in the only publication that reaches a targeted group of 5000+ in the Australian stainless steel industry. Rates available at

CONTACT: Lissel Pilcher, Editor:

ASSDA sources articles and advertisements from a variety of contributors and accordingly does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of the contents of this publication nor the suitability of specific applications referred to herein for any particular use. Competent advice should be sought before acting on any matter contained in this publication. The content of this document is subject to copyright law. You must not use, reproduce or adapt any part of it without ASSDA`s express consent. © Australian Stainless Steel Development Association 2023
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