62 WINTER 2018
PROUDLY SPONSORED BY
S TAINLESS DELIVERS SUCCESS World-class infrastructure demands high quality products and long-term asset performance, both of which have been delivered through superior workmanship and the use of stainless steel. Fuchs Lubricants Australasia opened its new $33 million purpose-built plant at Beresfield, New South Wales in February 2018. Operating in Australia since 1979, Fuchs’ expanded and relocated from its original factory in Newcastle due to strong business growth, now being the only major lubricants company to still manufacture products in the country. Fuchs’ new plant is a blending operation, features two highlydeveloped laboratories and is three times larger than the old factory, producing 10,000 lubricant products for applications in industries ranging from mining and automotive to transport and food. Stainless steel has been integral to the plant expansion project design and construction, being the material of choice in demanding environments that involve high heat and aggressive substances. Offering structural integrity and excellent corrosion resistance in high temperature applications, stainless steel is vital in the construction of tanks, pressure vessels, valves and pipework.
THE MYRIAD CONNECTIONS
PROCESSING AND VESSELS
ASSDA Member and Accredited Fabricator TFG managed the 12-month stainless steel installation project. This included 9km of 304L grade AS1528 tube ranging from 25mm to 101mm in diameter, 1km of pipe, 33 tanks, and the specialised fabrication of a blending platform and pipe racks for a purpose-designed traffic flow system to move and process raw through to final product oils and lubricants around the 25,000m2 plant. The stainless steel materials were supplied by ASSDA Members Prochem Pipeline Products and Stirlings Australia.
ASSDA Member and Accredited Fabricator Furphy Engineering designed, fabricated and supplied 33 grade 304 stainless steel tanks ranging in size capacities of 16kL to 180kL, with material including processed plate supplied by ASSDA Member Vulcan Stainless.
After receiving the process design and piping and instrumentation diagrams from Fuchs, TFG’s Foodline Projects division mechanically designed and installed the pipe routes and pipe racks, increasing production capacity from 30 million to 90 million litres per year. Foodline Projects was integral in the success of the project through designing and incorporating 3D models of the pipe routes and racks which improved performance and efficiencies. Foodline Projects also completed the piping and installation of a custom loading arm. TFG’s Austline Fabrications division designed and completed 3D drawings of the 35-tonne blending platform and pipe racks, and included 40 per cent extra capacity for future expansion. The 40-metre-long and three-tier platform was pre-fabricated in their Perth workshop, then flat packed, transported, assembled and installed on site.
The tank designs were produced by Furphy’s in-house engineering team, accommodating for both heat exchange and agitation requirements to ensure that Fuchs were confident in the ability of the tanks and vessels to perform the required manufacturing operations going forward, all of which were completed to AS1210. The manufacture of the designs heavily utilised a range of innovative technologies in Furphy’s state-of-the-art workshop, including plasma welders, automated strake manufacturing and seam polishing systems, full undercover hydrotesting and QA/QC sign off, as well their own in-house laser welded cavity plate. While widely embraced in Europe, Furphy Engineering is currently the only manufacturer with laser welded cavity plate technology in Australia, a key part of the heat exchange design on this project. The heat exchange loading on the pressure vessels was high given the materials and size of the equipment, and the laser welded cavity plate system enabled additional heat exchange surfaces to be included on the cones, increasing the active thermal exchange area and optimising the efficiency of the system to ensure effective operation.
The successful collaboration of TFG Group and Furphy Engineering resulted in the project being completed on time and within budget, each using their in-house stainless steel design and technical expertise to deliver a world-class facility supporting Fuchs’ continued expansion and investment in the Australian lubricants market.
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ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS: FURPHY ENGINEERING: Stephen Lawrence, Business Development Manager +61 3 5832 1400 | email@example.com | www.furphys.com.au PROCHEM PIPELINE PRODUCTS: Adrian Coates, State Manager - Victoria +61 3 9799 2244| firstname.lastname@example.org | www.prochem.com.au STIRLINGS AUSTRALIA: Mark Rossbridge, Sales Manager NSW 0422 408 485 | email@example.com | www.stirlingsaustralia.com.au TFG GROUP: Justin Anderson, Managing Director +61 8 9451 7300| firstname.lastname@example.org | www.tfggroup.com.au VULCAN STAINLESS: Stephen Orridge, Business Unit Leader +61 3 9238 7100 | email@example.com | www.vulcansteel.com.au
6.30pm | 3rd October 2018 QT Gold Coast Hotel
9 & 10 October 2018 Van der Valk Airport Hotel Düsseldorf, Germany
50% S ticke eminar t disc ount for A SS mem DA bers!
AUSTRALIAN INDUSTRY STAINLESS STEEL SUPPLIER AND FABRICATOR AWARDS
Seminar & Summit
Take part in the leading knowledge, networking and business event for the global duplex community
Launched at PacRim Stainless 2017, the ASSDA Awards Program celebrates innovation and excellence in Australian stainless steel supply, design and fabrication. Three individual prestigious awards voted by the industry are presented, with all winners announced at the PacRim Stainless Gala Dinner. The Supplier Awards include ASSDA Flat Product Supplier of the Year and ASSDA Long Product Supplier of the Year, which recognises excellence in supply performance. Nominees are determined by ASSDA Distributor Members. The ASSDA Fabricator Project of the Year is also presented, recognising excellence in Australian design and fabrication of stainless steel. Nominees are selected from projects featured in the last year’s Australian Stainless Magazine. All 2018 nominees will be notified by 10 August, and nominations will be announced on 14 August.
Join ASSDA and celebrate the high standard and quality of Australian stainless steel supply and fabrication at PacRim Stainless 2018. The ASSDA Awards nights forms part of PacRim Stainless 2018. Tickets are available at pacrim-stainless-2018.lilregie.com
Seminar & Exhibition: » Discussion Based Seminars » Traditional Exhibition Stands » Technical Paper Sessions » Network Lounges » Interactive Forum » Table Top Exhibition
For more information please contact: Exhibition Sales: Nicole Nagel Tel: +49 2821 711 45 55 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Seminar: Joanne McIntyre Tel: +31 575 585 298 E-mail: email@example.com Exhibition Sales: Elisa Hannan Tel: +31 575 585 291 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
www.duplex-world.com/duplex2018 Sponsored by:
The Duplex Seminar & Summit 2018 is organized by Stainless Steel World & Edelstahl Aktuell, Tiergartenstr. 64, D-47533 Kleve, Germany, Tel: +49 2821 711 45 0, Fax: +49 2821 711 45 69
AUSTRALIAN STAINLESS 62 3
FERRITIC S TAINLESS S TEEL S Ferritics account for approximately 25% of stainless steel use worldwide. The name arises because these alloys have similar properties to carbon steels when they are bent or cut and, unlike the well-known 304 and 316 austenitic grades, ferritics are strongly attracted to a magnet. There is a major misconception that ferritic stainless steels are less corrosion resistant than austenitic alloys. On the contrary, for any required level of corrosion resistance (or Pitting Resistance Equivalent [PRE]), you can select a specific stainless steel from either the austenitic or ferritic family depending on the physical properties desired. Another similarity of these two families of stainless steel is that neither can be hardened by heat treatment. However, a significant difference is that, in common with carbon steels, ferritic stainless steels become brittle when used in sub-zero temperatures. The actual transition temperature depends on the specific alloy, but it increases for welded fabrications. Often regarded as the simplest stainless steel alloy, ferritics are steels (iron and a small addition of carbon) with at least 11% chromium added to produce the passive chromium oxide film. This self-repairing chromium oxide layer gives stainless steel its corrosion resistance. The first stainless steels developed in 1913 were ferritics with a high carbon content. Today, those alloys are called martensitics and are used for high hardness blades or wear resistant surfaces. The alloys now known as ferritic stainless steels have been used commercially for many decades, primarily as sheet cladding up to about 3mm that do not require welding. The Fujitsu building in Brisbane for example is clad in profiled ferritic stainless steel sheet, and the use of perforated and solid ferritic stainless steel sheeting is featured in the ceiling and fascia paneling in Sydney’s Wynyard Walk. Apart from the 12% chromium utility alloys, the sheet thickness limits for the supply and welding of ferritics are due to its metallurgical structure. Unlike austenitic stainless steels, the microstructure does not transform during welding, and so the initially microscopic ferrite grains can grow and embrittle the metal. Ferritics have gained wider acceptance since changes in its alloy design and production methods allowed welding. The adoption of the Argon Oxygen Decarburisation (AOD) refining process in the 1970s also assisted, allowing both the reduction of impurity levels and, critical for welding, good control of both carbon and nitrogen content.
AVAILABLE FERRITIC ALLOYS AND APPLICATIONS The Ferritic Solution (TFS), published by the International Stainless Steel Forum, lists 71 ferritic alloys in ASTM, EN and JSA standards, although most are in sheet form. For example, A240 lists 26 alloys as flat product while ASTM A276 only has nine alloys listed as bar or shape. TFS classifies ferritic alloys into five groups based on chromium content: • Chromium (10.5% to 14%) • Chromium 14% to 18%) • Titanium and/or niobium added to avoid sensitisation with welding • Molybdenum additions for corrosion resistance • Weldable group of alloys with higher corrosion resistance and chromium >18%, added molybdenum and low impurity content. Table 1 lists common names, UNS numbers, typical compositions and applications of representative alloys. There are also families of alloys derived from the same root UNS numbers. In addition, a growing number of proprietary ferritic alloys have been and are being developed especially in Japan. The PRE column is a measure of corrosion resistance based on composition, i.e. PRE = %Cr + 3.3% Mo. The 16%N term used for austenitic and duplex grades is omitted because nitrogen is virtually insoluble in ferritic alloys.
CORROSION AND HEAT RESISTANCE These are not the same. Oxidation (or scaling) resistance of stainless steels in air depends on the stability of the oxide layer (or scale) on the surface. This is not the thin (nanometres) passive film formed in water but the thicker, high temperature oxide formed above about 250oC. Its protective properties depend on its bond to the metal surface below. In turn, this depends on the relative expansion of the oxide and the metal surface.
TABLE 1: SELECTED FERRITIC ALLOYS Common name
PRED Main uses
Rail wagons, noncosmetic structures
Cladding (not marine)
Instant hot water units
NOTES: A. Balance of composition important to avoid welding corrosion issues B. Also derivative grades with low carbon and Ti/Nb to allow welding C. Not a good indicator of corrosion resistance especially if welded because of high carbon D. For compagrison, the PRE of 304 is ~18.5 and 316 ~23.5
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As shown in Table 3, ferritic alloys have low thermal expansion compared to austenitics, which means the adhesion of their protective scale is better in thermal cycling conditions. In practical terms, this means that ferritic alloys have higher scaling temperature limits for intermittent service than in continuous service, whereas the reverse is true for austenitic alloys. At temperatures in the high hundreds (oC), the relatively low strength of most ferritic alloys limits their use, although the niobium-treated ferritics have similar strength to the austentic alloys. Ferritic (and duplex) grades should not be used in the band around 475oC as metallurgical phase transformations cause embrittlement during extended exposures.
Left: Fujitsu Building in Brisbane is clad in profiled ferritic stainless steel sheet. Right: Ferritic stainless steel sheeting featured in the ceiling and fascia paneling in Sydney’s Wynyard Walk.
In oxygen-rich environments, the simple wet corrosion resistance of ferritic, austenitic and duplex alloys is well-described by the PRE index as given in Table 1. The predictions are for a passive surface and will be unreliable if the surface has been contaminated by carbon steel or if welding heat tint has not been removed. PRE does not influence the spidery cracking that occurs in austenitic alloys that are stressed and exposed to warm or hot chloride solutions. Ferritic and duplex grades are effectively immune to this stress corrosion cracking attack and it is the reason why instant hot water tanks used in kitchens are ferritic alloys, usually 444.
MECHANICAL AND FABRICATION PROPERTIES Because of their microstructure, ferritic stainless steels behave very similarly to carbon steels in bending, roll forming, spinning and shaping. Fabricators can use the same techniques for ferritics when forming roofs or couplings. Ferritics do not cold-work like austenitics and so, for the same thickness, they have less springback. Although deep drawing is easier for ferritics than austenitics, the higher chromium ferritics can suffer from ridging, so there are not many deep drawing applications. Stretch forming can only be to about 50% of that achieved with austenitics, as might be expected from the difference in ductility. Table 2 compares the mechanical properties of several ferritics with 304 and carbon steel. In broad outline, ferritic stainless steels have a higher yield (or strictly 0.2% proof stress) than austenitic stainless steels, lower tensile strength and about half the elongation at fracture. The modulus of elasticity is similar to carbon steels, so deflections under loading will be comparable.
outside the workshop where drafts can be a problem. Because of the risk of grain growth (and consequent low toughness) with extended periods at high temperatures, low heat input is required and pulsed welding equipment is a useful tool. This metallurgical sensitivity is the reason why ferritics are rarely available in thicknesses greater than 3mm. However, the low thermal expansion and better thermal conductivity of ferritics compared to austenitics means that welding distortion is less critical for all ferritics (refer to Table 3). Like all stainless steels, the corrosion resistance of welded ferritics is restored if all heat tint is removed after welding, preferably by pickling. Mechanical abrasion is a good second best provided the surface roughness is not excessive. The 12% chromium utility ferritics are widely used in welded thick structural sections in coal wagons, heavy vehicle chassis, high temperature exhaust ducting, fire proof fencing, low corrosion wear locations and multiple structures where aesthetics are not the primary consideration, i.e. where a brown adherent cosmetic haze is not considered a problem. The 12% utility ferritics are discussed in more detail in Australian Stainless #52 (available at www.assda.asn.au).
SUMMARY Some ferritic grades have been in large scale commercial production for many years, but the variety of grades now available has only been possible because of new melting and refining technologies. A large number of grades now exist, and a great deal of active research and alloy development is continuing. Ferritic stainless steels offer: • Formability similar to carbon steels and can be readily bent, roll f ormed, pressed to shape or spun
WELDING With the exception of the 12% chromium utility grades, welding of ferritics requires more skill than welding austenitics because of their sensitivity to impurities, which may cause cracking in the heat-affected zone. Very thorough attention to cleanliness is required as well as the use of high purity shielding gas and care in gas shielding – particularly TABLE 2: TYPICAL ROOM TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
• Higher yield strength and lower ductility than austenitics • Comparable range of corrosion resistances to other stainless steel families • A wide range of possible applications.
TABLE 3: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FERRITIC AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS
Elongation Modulus at break % GPa
Thermal expansion (0-100oC um/m/oC)
Thermal conductivity (20oC, W/m.oC)
Specific heat (0-100oC, J/kg.oC)
Electrical resistivity (nΩ.m)
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S TAINLESS AND SAND GO HAND -IN-HAND With the use of stainless steel, indigenous artist Kylie Grahamâ€™s interest in Whadjuk Noongar customs and culture has helped bring a symbolic sculpture to life at Perthâ€™s recently revitalised Scarborough beach. The people of Whadjuk Noongar are the traditional owners of Perth. The Ethereal Welcome Hand sculpture represents a hand casting sand which acknowledges the custodians, the people of Whadjuk and their enduring spiritual connection to the land and sea. In respect to Noongar cultural customs, visitors are to throw a handful of sand into the water as an introduction of themselves to the spirits and ancestors. It was only fitting for the 3D sculpture to cast its presence near water and is primarily constructed from grade 316 stainless steel supplied by ASSDA Members Midway Metals and Stirlings Australia. The 6.5m tall sculpture uses 5mm stainless steel plate throughout the entire wire frame hand spanning 4m long. The finish is 2B and all the welds are TIG welded, cleaned and passivated. The four support columns are also fabricated from 316 stainless steel. Illustrated in the palm of the stainless steel hand, pouring down to the ground is gold anodised aluminium cladding, with perforations backlit with LED lights which can be programmed for multiple occasions. At the back of the hand, the design of a dolphin and three fish is laser cut through the stainless steel, to reflect the importance of the relationship between Noongars and mammals. Stainless steel was chosen as the main sculptural material for its durability, excellent corrosion resistance and aestheticallypleasing properties. This stunning work-of-art was designed, fabricated and installed by local art consultant Forever Shining. The Ethereal Welcome Hand is one of six pieces of artwork along the redeveloped foreshore and can be found between the surf club and swimming pool. It has been welcoming the public since March 2018 and will continue to do so for many years to come thanks to the durable life span of stainless steel. ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS: MIDWAY METALS Brad Quinton, Account Manager +61 7 3382 9500 | email@example.com www.midwaymetals.com.au STIRLINGS AUSTRALIA Nigel Wadsworth, Trade & Retail Manager +61 8 9366 6700 | firstname.lastname@example.org www.stirlingsaustralia.com.au
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GR AND REFLEC TIONS Innovative Melbournian architecture has delivered a striking stainless steel feature in the city’s latest commercial mixed-use development. Melbourne is setting the benchmark for world-class design with Collins Square now one of Australia’s largest CBD commercial precincts, covering an entire city block on Collins Street. Already home to a number of leading global corporations and the revitalised heritage-listed Southern Goods Shed, the $2.5 billion project will at completion comprise of five commercial towers and over 10,000sqm of retail space. Black mirror finish stainless steel columns are the focal point in the lobbies and food precincts of Towers Two and Four of Collins Square. Soaring an impressive 10m to 12m tall at a diameter of 1300mm, the stainless steel-clad columns are complemented by floor-toceiling window glass and natural stone masonry walls and floors. ASSDA Member Fabmetal Specialists supplied, fabricated and installed the grade 304 stainless steel circular columns, using its own patented column cladding system. Twenty stainless steel clad columns were installed across the two towers.
Fabmetal Specialists’ pre-fabricated the customised stainless steel column panels from 1.2mm sheet, and using a modular cladding method, installed the panels with a unique fixing system allowing no visible fixings or caulked joints. Coloured stainless steel in a No. 8 mirror finish from the company’s TiVox range was used for the project and specified for its upmarket appeal and elegant aesthetics. In addition, stainless steel also offers durability and easeof-use during construction. Providing a true mirror reflection, the black chromatic colour (known as ‘Jet Mirror’ in the TiVox range) was achieved with a titanium film using a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) coating process. The coating technology offers a number of high chemical and technical features, including resistance to abrasion, scratches and corrosion, and overall minimal maintenance. The end result is an innovatory, high quality stainless steel finish, bringing life to the surrounding activity of Melbourne’s place-to-be for business and leisure.
ASSDA MEMBER CONTACT: FABMETAL SPECIALISTS Clinton Truong, Project Coordinator +61 3 9720 2177 email@example.com www.fabmetal.com.au
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2018 3-4 October 2018 | QT Gold Coast STAINLESS STEEL TRENDS IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE
Australia’s ONLY premier conference event bringing together the local stainless steel industry and colleagues from abroad in an exclusive networking environment. •
Two half-day conference sessions with an exceptional line-up of speakers from around the globe
Gala Dinner: Australian Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards
2-ball Golf Ambrose with players vying for the Barry Durrant Memorial Trophy
REGISTER AT PACRIM-STAINLESS-2018.LILREGIE.COM +61 7 3220 0722 | www.assda.asn.au
ASSDA GENERAL MANAGER: LISSEL PILCHER Appointed as General Manager in May 2018, Lissel is in her eighth year of working for ASSDA, having joined the Association in 2011. She has been instrumental in the delivery of all ASSDA publications and events, including the PacRim Stainless Conference. Over the years, she has stepped up to the challenge of taking on additional activities, from fabricator accreditation and educational webinars to local advocacy campaigns. Lissel brings energy, stability and commitment to ASSDA. She will continue to manage the communications for the Association, and in planning for the future, will now also lead the operational matters of ASSDA to assist with the day-to-day management of ASSDA activities, develop and execute strategic initiatives to improve performance and grow its position in the industry. “I look forward to building upon our existing strengths and develop in exciting directions to ensure the sustained growth of our industry.”
ASSDA PLATINUM MEMBERS
ASSDA GOLD MEMBERS Midway Metals, Stanch Stainless Steel Co., Ltd., Stoddart, Ta Chen Stainless Pipe Co., Ltd., Viraj Profiles Ltd, YC Inox Co., Ltd. ASSDA SILVER MEMBERS Arcus Wire Group, Austral Wright Metals, Australian Stainless Distributors, Callidus, Ching-Hann Industries Co., Ltd., Dalsteel Metals, Daming International Import & Export Co., Ltd., Froch Enterprise Co., Ltd., Metal Centre Australia, Prochem Pipeline Products, Sanwa, Yue-Seng Industrial Co., Ltd.
ABOUT ASSDA The Australian Stainless Steel Development Association (ASSDA) is a not-for-profit industry group that aims to increase the consumption of stainless steel in Australia. Established in 1992, ASSDA represents more than 145 member companies representing the stainless steel spectrum. ASSDA aims to foster the understanding and use of stainless steel in Australia by developing the competence and efficiency of the industry through promotion, education and training, the provision of adequate technical advice and industry accreditation. ASSDA could not continue without the valuable support of its members, who work with ASSDA to grow the market for stainless steel.
MORE INFORMATION Enquiries for further information on any material presented in this publication should be directed to ASSDA: Level 9, 307 Queen Street T +61 7 3220 0722 Brisbane QLD 4000 AUSTRALIA E firstname.lastname@example.org www.assda.asn.au EDITORIAL Contributions of story ideas specialising in stainless steel and its applications are welcome from members of ASSDA. ADVERTISING Advertise in the only publication that reaches a targeted group of 5000+ in the Australian stainless steel industry. Rates available at www.assda.asn.au. CONTACT Lissel Pilcher, Editor: email@example.com. DISCLAIMER ASSDA sources articles and advertisements from a variety of contributors and accordingly does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of the contents of this publication nor the suitability of specific applications referred to herein for any particular use. Competent advice should be sought before acting on any matter contained in this publication.