Australian Stainless #60

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SUMMER 2017 Dulux Honeyeater Project, Photo Courtesy Prochem Australia



Collaboration Brings Results “Dulux’s brand new water-based paint manufacturing facility is now the largest coatings plant in Australasia with capacity in excess of 100 million litres per year”

The new facility in Merrifield Estate on Melbourne’s outer northern fringe will allow Dulux to step into the next generation of paint manufacturing technology and innovation. Dulux aim was to design and construct a state-of-the-art facility, so using quality products was essential to achieve this. Stainless steel in 300 series grades was an integral part of the project design, including storage vessels and over 10,000 metres of food grade quality tube complying with AS1528. Concept Stage In 2015, Dulux announced its decision to construct the new state-of-the-art, highly automated paint factory at an investment of $165m. The Dulux plant, the first of its kind, is approximately 20,000m², built on 17 hectares of land and is due for completion towards the end of 2017. For a project of this large scale, it was crucial that a strong collaborative relationship was set up between Dulux and its chosen suppliers. In relation to the tubing, supply flexibility, reliability and quality was a key requirement and ASSDA Sponsor Prochem Pipeline Products stepped up to the mark and was the successful tenderer. At the outset the total amount of tube was unclear and would only become apparent as the building process unfolded. Working together with the client, Prochem executed a strategy to provide more than 10,000 metres of stainless steel tube over a nine-month period to complete the project. Whilst the original engineering design specified pharmaceutical standard ASME BPE, Prochem worked with the client and design team to have this changed to AS1528 due to its suitability for the application and also due to availability of this stainless steel standard compliant product in the Australian market.

The Design The design included a number of large and small storage vessels which were fabricated locally and supplied by ASSDA Members and Accredited Fabricators A&G Engineering and J Furphy & Sons. A major part of the design involved the supply and fabrication of the AS1528 tubing and included stainless steel fitting and flanges. The fabrication work was contracted to ASSDA member John Beever Australia who worked closely with Prochem to ensure a continuous supply of materials was made available as required. The project consumed over 10,000 metres of AS1528 tubular products in a size range from ½” to 8” in outside diameter with the bulk being 2”, 3” and 4”. The fittings used in the project included BSM fittings, tri-clover ferrules and clamps and also a significant amount of ANSI flanges which were all supplied by Prochem and fabricated by John Beever. The overall project quantities were significant and as such a large degree of co-ordination and co-operation was required with numerous manufacturers to meet the project schedule. An innovative technique was designed to match the tri-clover ferrules and clamps to the tube and machinery to enable a correct fit-out at site. With good co-operation and education, the project also allowed the flexibility to use both stainless steel grades 304 and 316 if availability became an issue. With an innovative and co-operative approach involving many ASSDA members, this project was completed on time and within budget, and will support the Dulux paints business for decades to come.


Wynyard Walk, Sydney. Photo courtesy of Stoddart Australia.

ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS: A & G Engineering Australia’s leading designers and fabricators of stainless steel tanks and vessels. C: William Irving P: +61 2 6964 3422 E: W: J. Furphy & Sons is one of Australia’s unique and diverse engineering and metal trades companies. C: Adam Furphy P: +61 3 5832 1400 E: W: John Beever (Aust) is a leading mechanical engeering company who provides construction, maintenance and industrial services. C: Jose Sorto, Construction Manager P: +61 3 9624 4420 E: W: Prochem Pipeline Products is a supplier of world-class stainless steel products who focuses on quality management and expert technical support. C: Adrian Coates, State Manager (Vic) P: +61 3 9799 2244 E: W:


The Family of Duplex Stainless Steels

Marina Bay Pedestrian Bridge Sinagpore, Photo Courtesy Outokumpu.

The use of duplex stainless steels has grown globally based on their strength, corrosion resistance and a range of properties that improve equipment life. The name duplex is sometimes used to describe Alloy 2205 (UNS S31803 or UNS S32205), however duplex is a family of alloys ranging from lean duplex and standard duplex to super duplex stainless steel.

History Duplex stainless steel was first developed in France and Sweden in the 1930’s, with the early grades becoming a forerunner for AISI 329, but a lack of control over the chemistry and lack of adequate welding products and techniques impeded development of the product. Cast versions eventually became available and were subsequently used successfully in many industries where some corrosion, wear and strength were required. Areas such as pump components saw a raft of duplex grades developed in standard and super duplex. It should be noted that further work or welding was not required with these particular forms.

Table 1: Available Grades In Australia


In the 1970’s Swedish manufacturers produced and marketed what could be described as a lean duplex called 3RE60 (UNS S31500) with lower chromium, nickel and nitrogen than grade 2205. 3RE60 had success with tubing and displayed excellent resistance in replacing 304 and 316 tubes that had previously failed due to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking. The use of 3RE60 in vessels was less successful due to issues such as inter-granular corrosion (IGC) from early welding techniques. The issue was not with the grade but with fabrication, as well as the melting technique to enable control of alloying elements to provide a consistent structure and provide predictable strength and corrosion control. In the late 1970’s grade 2205 arrived in the market, initially as a tube, then in flat-rolled and other products. The pointof-difference from earlier attempts was well-documented welding technique control, which lead to the increased usage of duplex. The grades displayed higher strength than standard austenitic grades, excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and improved pitting resistance. The other driver was the rising price of nickel, which added a commercial advantage over using a lower nickel duplex product.

TECHNICAL Grades of Duplex The grades are listed in three groups; standard, lean and super. The major difference between each grade is corrosion resistance. This is based on a Pitting Equivalent Number: (PREN) = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N. This is a comparative rating that relates to the critical pitting and crevice corrosion temperatures in hi chloride environments (CPT and CCT respectively).




Approximately 35



Super Duplex

Above 40

Uses of Duplex Stainless Steels

Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) is a form of corrosion that occurs with a particular combination of factors:

Where Care is Required with Duplex Stainless Steels Duplex stainless steels can also form a number of unwanted phases if steel is not given the correct processing, notably in heat treatment. Phases like sigma phase leads to embrittlement, meaning the loss of impact toughness, but sigma phase also reduces corrosion resistance. The formation of sigma phase is most likely to occur when the cooling rate during manufacture or welding is not fast enough. The more highly alloyed the steel, the higher the probability of sigma phase formation. Therefore, super duplex stainless steels are most prone to this problem. Another form of embrittlement occurs above 475°C, and it can still form at temperatures as low as 300°C. This leads to the design limitations on the maximum service temperature for duplex stainless steels.

Summary: Duplex Characteristics Compared to the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, duplex can give:

• Tensile stress;

• Up to double the design strength;

• Corrosive environment;

• Good corrosion resistance depending on the level required;

• Sufficiently high temperatures: Normally above 60°C but can occur at lower temperatures (around 30°C in specific environments, notably unwashed atmospheric exposures above indoor chlorinated swimming pools). Unfortunately, the standard austenitic steels like 304 (1.4301) and 316 (1.4401) are the most susceptible to SSC. The following materials are much less prone to SCC: • Ferritic stainless steels;

• Good toughness down to -50°C; • Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking; • Welding in thin and thick sections with care; • Additional effort required due to high mechanical strength; • Up to 300°C maximum in service.

• Duplex stainless steels; • High nickel austenitic stainless steels; The resistence to SSC makes duplex stainless steels suitable for many processes operating at higher temperatures. Examples of the successful use of duplex stainless steel are hot water tanks, brewing tanks and thermal desalination vessels.

“The resistance to stress corrosion cracking makes duplex stainless steels suitable materials for many processes operating at higher temperatures”.

Desalination FISIA, Photo Courtesy Outokumpu.

AUTHOR: Trent Mackenzie is a metallugist with more than 35 years experience in the industry and General Manager of the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association.

Sölvesborg, Sweden, Photo Courtesy Outokumpu.



Art Symbolises Community You return home after a long journey. Imagine being greeted by a beautiful stainless steel sculpture surrounded by landscaped gardens on your return. One ASSDA member has used stainless steel to symbolise everything we love about our communities: Security, comfort and home. It’s easy to think of stainless steel in relation to tubes, panels and rolls in the construction industry, but Brisbane-based ASSDA member, Concept Stainless Design, has taken the product and crafted it into stunningly beautiful sculptures for developers Villa World at their new subdivision on the northern Gold Coast. Located 70km south of Brisbane, Arundel Springs will provide 386 dwellings in a family-friendly environment adjacent to the Coombabah Lakelands Conservation Area and close to Griffith University and light rail services. Villa World provided the concept design to reflect the organic growth of nature and symbolise the new families and children who will grow in the new suburb. The team at Concept Stainless Design adapted the design to match the size of available grade 316 stainless steel sheets. A small curve of 5mm radius was provided at the tip of the fronds to avoid sharp edges. Another small curve of 9mm was used at the gully between fronds to achieve a flawless polished finish. The sculptures have been designed to withstand winds of up to 160km per hour, an important feature given Arundel Spring’s proximity to the ocean. An internal frame was built to secure the fronds in position, as well as a horizontal base beam hidden within the sculpture and two legs extending down from the base beam into a large buried concrete block. The structural design certification was completed by Concept Stainless Design’s in-house engineer. The face of each sculpture was manufactured from grade 316 stainless steel sheet supplied by ASSDA Sponsor Dalsteel Metals. The sculpture faces are joined along the centre line with an invisible polished butt weld, executed by Concept Stainless Design’s highly skilled tradesman at their Brisbane workshop. The faces were bonded to marine ply and “U” stiffeners were formed from grade 316 stainless steel strips then glued and screwed in. The second face was then placed over the stiffeners, glued and screwed to the ply-bonded face. The entire project took eight weeks to construct and transported to their new home at Arundel Springs. The sculptures were secured in place by concrete blocks and steel bolts provided by Villa World’s civil contractor in under two hours. Stainless steel was chosen for the sculptures because of its beautiful, smooth and highly polished finish, and for its lowmaintenance properties. Surrounded by clear skies, new vegetation and lush grass, the sculptures welcome residents and visitors alike. ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS: Concept Stainless Design is an innovative fabricator based in Brisbane. C: Janita Wallis P: +61 7 3890 8840 E: W:

Arundel Springs Sculptures and Sign, Photos courtesy of Concept Stainless Design 6 AUSTRALIAN STAINLESS 60

Dalsteel Metals is a supplier with branches in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. C: Les Anderson P: +61 7 3216 2575 E: W:


PacRim Stainless 2017

Stephen Robertson, ASSDA President.

Gala Dinner: Australia Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards.

With attendees and speakers from around the world plus home-grown talent, PacRim Stainless 2017 was a tremendous success.

Markus Pirkkalainen (Stalatube Oy), Jim Lennon (Red Door Research), Glenn Byrne (Rolled Alloys UK) and Trent Mackenzie (ASSDA).

Held at QT Hotel on Queensland’s Gold Coast from 11-12 October, the stainless steel industry gathered for two days of education, inspiration, and networking at what was ASSDA’s 24th National Conference.

This year’s event saw the launch of the Australian Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards. Three individual prestigious awards voted on by the industry were presented at the conference Gala Dinner. Recognising excellence in supply performance, YC Inox Co., Ltd. celebrated two wins, taking out the awards for Long Product Supplier of the Year and Flat Product Supplier of the Year.

The conference offered an exceptional line-up of speakers who shared their experience and expertise in new trends and technologies, perspectives on global and local stainless steel market direction, plus a fabrication panel that discussed stainless steel innovation, recent project highlights and best practice welding procedures. Thank you to all speakers who joined our program: Peter Munckton (BOQ), Graham Sussex (Sussex Materials Solutions), Neil Henry (ABB Engineering Services), Robert Beson (AR-MA), Tim Stoddart (Stoddart), Kevin Finn (Paige Stainless Fabrications), Steve Scott (Rivet Engineering), Peter Kuebler (BOC), Juerg Schweizer and

L-R: Cameron Johnston (Rowlands Metalworks), Alan Sinfield (Austral Wright Metals) and Natasha Araullo (Austral Wright Metals).

L-R: Juerg Schweizer (Stalatube Oy), Stuart Cloney, Adrian Coates, Roger Franco (Prochem Pipeline Products) and Mark Farrugia (Viraj Profiles).

The Fabricator Project of the Year Award recognises excellence in Australian design and fabrication of stainless steel, and nominees were selected from projects featured in Australian Stainless Magazine during 2016 and 2017.Congratulations to Stoddart who won this award for the fabrication and installation of over 50 tonnes of stainless steel in Sydney’s Wynyard Walk. The Peter Matheson Industry Service Award was also presented during the

dinner to two industry veterans in recognition and appreciation of their commitment and service to the Australian stainless steel industry - Sam Adel for over 50 years of service, and Ken Hayes for over 43 years of service. An afternoon of golf was enjoyed by a small group of delegates at the Palmer Gold Coast, with players vying for the Barry Durrant Memorial Trophy. The 2-ball golf ambrose for 2017 was won by Gary Lantzke (Callidus Welding Solutions) and Glenn Byrne (Rolled Alloys UK). Many thanks goes to our generous sponsors for their support and contribution to the conference, whom without, this event would not be possible: Atlas Steels, Metal Centre Australia, Paige Stainless Fabrications and Viraj Profiles. Our thanks also to all delegates who attended the 2017 event. We look forward to seeing you all again next year and encourage you to bring your colleagues and make the most of the opportunity to connect with the Australian stainless steel industry.

L-R: Lynne Georgiadis, Con Logos (Outokumpu), Leo O’ Callaghan (Atlas Steels), Steve Warnett (Tasman Sinkware) and Les Anderson (Dalsteel Metals).

L-R: Glenn Byrne (Rolled Alloys UK), Steve Scott (Rivet Engineering) and Stephen Robertson (ASSDA).

L-R: Jean Charles Lemaitre (Aperam), Greg Moffat (Metal Centre Australia), Adam Baigent (A&G Engineering), Aleasha McCarthy (Nickel Institute) and Richard Matheson (Nickel Institute).

L-R: The 2-ball golf ambrose for 2017 was won by Gary Lantzke (Callidus Welding Solutions) and Glenn Byrne (Rolled Alloys UK).


PacRim Stainless 2017

Australian Industry Stainless Steel Supplier and Fabricator Awards were kindy designed and made by Paige Stainless Fabrications.

Ken Hayes gives an acceptance speech after recieving The Peter Matheson Industry Service Award.

L-R: Jessie Chang, Zoe Chiu and Heather Yen from YC Inox Co., Ltd. celebrated two wins, taking awards for Long Product Supplier of the Year and Flat Product Supplier of the Year.

L-R: Sam Adel and Ken Hayes both worthy winners of The Peter Matheson Industry Service Award.

Tim Stoddart from Stoddart recieves the Fabricator Project of the Year Award for their work on Sydney’s Wynyard Walk.

Heather Yen, YC Inox Co., Ltd. recieves award for Long Product Supplier of the Year from Trent Mackenzie (ASSDA).

L-R: Sam Adel recieves The Peter Matheson Industry Service Award from Richard Matheson.

L-R: Trent Mackenzie (ASSDA) and Graham Sussex (Sussex Materials Solutions) enjoying the Gala Dinner.

is proudly brought to you by the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association (ASSDA). MORE INFORMATION Enquiries for further information on any material presented in this publication should be directed to ASSDA: Level 18, 324 T +61 7 3063 0462 Brisbane QLD 4000 AUSTRALIA E EDITORIAL Contributions of story ideas specialising in stainless steel and its applications are welcome from members of ASSDA. ADVERTISING Advertise in the only publication that targets more than 5,000 readers in the Australian stainless steel industry. Rates available at DISCLAIMER ASSDA sources articles and advertisements from a variety of contributors and accordingly does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of the contents of this publication nor the suitability of specific applications referred to herein for any particular use. Competent advice should be sought before acting on any matter contained in this publication.


ASSDA SPONSOR 2 Midway Metals Pty Ltd, Stanch Stainless Steel Co. Ltd., Stoddart Manufacturing, Viraj Profiles Ltd., Ta Chen Stainless Pipe Co. Ltd., YC Inox Co. Ltd.

ASSDA SPONSOR 3 Austral Wright Metals, Australian Stainless Distributors Pty. Ltd., Ching-Hann Industries Co., Ltd., Dalsteel Metals Pty. Ltd., Daming International Import & Export Co., Ltd., Froch Enterprise Co. Ltd., Global Stainless Steel Inc., Metal Centre Australia, Prochem Pipeline Products Pty. Ltd., Sanwa Pty. Ltd., Yue-Seng Industrial Co., Ltd.

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