20 in 20: Twenty Real Estate Developments That have Defined The Changes Seen In The Post-9/11 Era

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DEAR NEIGHBOR, Twenty years ago, Lower Manhattan changed forever. The events of September 11, 2001, left a hole in the city, wounding our neighborhood so deeply some believed we’d never recover. The grief born of that calamitous day endures in our hearts, and is embodied in the two memorial pools that now sit in the footprints of the Twin Towers.

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At the same time, we’ve come a long way since 9/11. Among the most powerful rebukes to the evil that visited us that day has been our collective determination to rebuild and remake Lower Manhattan. Instead of floundering, our neighborhood has flourished. The World Trade Center campus itself is a visible example of how Lower Manhattan has rebounded and then some, with new infrastructure and buildings like One World Trade and the Oculus earning their spots in the city’s skyline and its collection of landmarks. The new office buildings on the World Trade Center campus — including WTC 1, 3, 4 and 7 — are remarkable achievements on their own. But the investment we’ve made in rebuilding has done more than replace the buildings that were taken from us. It has spurred the transformation of the neighborhood as a whole, beyond the confines of the campus itself. In the 20 years since 9/11, dozens of new developments have popped up in Lower Manhattan, opening space for downtown to transition from the city’s financial center to a thriving commercial, culinary and residential destination. In this document we are highlighting 20 developments other than the new World Trade Center Towers that have helped define the kinds of changes we have seen in post-9/11 era in Lower Manhattan — new construction, billions in private investments to renovate office space, impressive conversions, new residential space and a host of now-iconic developments that tell the story of our rebirth in the face of tragedy. Our commitment to rebuild the World Trade Center has been the engine of profound growth throughout Lower Manhattan — growth that has redounded to the benefit of the city, state and nation. Among what we are noting is new and creative office space that has led to a tremendous growth in industries like media, advertising and technology. Thanks to new residential developments and a spate of commercial-to-residential conversions, including in landmarks like 70 Pine, we have twice as many

residents downtown as we did prior to September 11, with 60% of residents identifying as young professionals between the ages of 18 to 44. We have over 500 restaurants in Lower Manhattan, including two Michelin-starred restaurants, the venerable cocktail bar Dead Rabbit and eateries run by celebrated chefs like David Chang, Danny Meyer, Wolfgang Puck, Tom Colicchio and Jean-Georges Vongerichten. The last two decades have brought us impressive civic improvements like the Fulton Center — a major transit hub that seamlessly connects Lower Manhattan to the rest of the city and to the PATH train at the Oculus — and the reinvention of the old World Financial Center into Brookfield Place, now a premiere retail destination. A complete reimagining of the Seaport, after the devastation of Superstorm Sandy, has created a revitalized district with exciting entertainment and dining options. And soon, we can expect Lower Manhattan to become a true cultural center thanks to the Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts center, which topped out in 2021 and is slated to open in 2023. The top-of-the-line center will feature three customizable stages in addition to rehearsal and dress room space as well as dining for patrons, and is on track to become the heart of Lower Manhattan’s revitalization. Lower Manhattan has faced other steep challenges in the years since 2001, particularly in the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, which has once again thrust us into the unknown. It is hard to be certain, in the face of so much uncertainty, what the neighborhood and the world will look like in another 20 years. But we continue to believe in the strength of our neighbors and fellow New Yorkers. As we did once before, we will build back, and better.

Jessica Lappin President

Ric Clark Chair

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

20 Exchange Place............................................................................................................... 8

Goldman Sachs Headquarters at 200 West Street..........................................................28

50 West Street.................................................................................................................... 10

Governors Island.................................................................................................................30

63 & 67 Wall Street............................................................................................................12

New York By Gehry at 8 Spruce Street..............................................................................32

70 Pine Street..................................................................................................................... 14

One Wall Street...................................................................................................................34

100 Pearl Street................................................................................................................. 16

Park Row Buildings ............................................................................................................36

130 William Street..............................................................................................................18

Pier 11/Wall Street.............................................................................................................38

The Beekman Hotel............................................................................................................20

Pier 17.................................................................................................................................40

Brookfield Place..................................................................................................................22

The Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center..............................................................42

Four Seasons Hotel New York Downtown.......................................................................... 24

76 Trinity Place...................................................................................................................44

Fulton Center......................................................................................................................26

The Woolworth Residences at 2 Park Place......................................................................46 5


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20 EXCHANGE Art Deco gem 20 Exchange Place was built by erstwhile architecture firm Cross & Cross in the early 1930s to serve as the headquarters for City Bank–Farmers Trust Company, a predecessor of Citigroup. At the time, it was the fourth tallest building in the world, and and remained one of the city’s tallest until 1970.

Designed by: Cross & Cross Developed by: DTH Capital, Metro Loft Size: 57 stories, 777 apartments Completion: 1931; Conversion 2008/2015

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In 2004, development group DTH Capital bought 20 Exchange Place and enlisted Metro Loft Management to oversee a partial conversion of the commercial building to residential space; by 2008, the first of 556 units located were made available to residents. An additional 221 luxury units were completed in 2015.


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2 Designed by: Helmut Jahn Developed by: Time Equities Size: 64 stories, 191 condos Completion: 2017

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50 WEST Construction began on this Helmut Jahn-designed residential condominium tower in 2008 and was completed in 2017, adding an impressive curved glass facade to the neighborhood’s skyline. At 778 feet tall, 50 West is one of the tallest buildings in the city, an attribute residents can enjoy via a private observation deck on the 64th floor.

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3 Designed by: Delano & Aldrich Designed by: Metro Loft Size: 696 apartments Completion: 1921 (67) and 1929 (63); Conversion: 2003/2004

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63 & 67 WALL Formerly Wall and Hanover Building, 63 and 67 Wall Street comprises two high-rises built in the 1920s. The 37-story 63 Wall was designed by Delano & Aldrich as the headquarters of Brown Brothers & Co.; 67 Wall, which is 25 stories and was also designed by Delano & Aldrich, is built on the site of Alexander Hamilton’s company’s offices. Converted to rental apartments by Metro Loft Management in 2003 and 2004, the towers now boast a total of 696 units, offering highlights like double-hung oversized windows and high ceilings. Retail at the base of the buildings has shown Lower Manhattan’s evolution, as BMW, TUMI, Pink and La Maison du Chocolat gave way to Cava, Sweetgreen, La Colombe Coffee and Le Labo.

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4 Designed by: Clinton & Russell, Holton & George, Developed by: Rose Associates Size: 67 stories, 612 apartments Completion: 1932; Conversion 2015/2016

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70 PINE Built in 1932 to serve as the New York City headquarters for the Cities Services Company (now known as CITGO), 70 Pine was Lower Manhattan’s tallest building upon completion, eclipsing the 792-foot Woolworth Building at an impressive 952 feet. An elegant Art Deco jewel, the Clinton & Russell, Holton & George-designed brick and limestone tower was converted by Rose Associates to residential apartments in 2015. 70 Pine is also home to Michelin-starred Crown Shy, rooftop restaurant SAGA, Black Fox Coffee and Blue Park Kitchen, along with City Acres Market. Mint House, a collection of luxury suites for short-and long-term hotel stays, makes up an additional 132 units in the building for travelers.

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100 PEARL Emblematic of waves of significant investment devoted to updating existing office space downtown, 7 Hanover Square, now known as 100 Pearl Street and 50 Water Street, received more than $25 million in investments over the last several years. This fully transformed 29-story tower received an entire

Developed by: GFP Real Estate, Northwind Group Completion: 2021

infrastructure upgrade. The newly created footprint for the tower has two new double-height lobbies and a vibrant market hall by Urbanspace at the base of the building. Like many buildings in the Water Street area, its utilities were relocated above the flood zone, with an all-new emergency power plant, HVAC and fire protection system. The ground floor is expanding to recapture an existing arcade, complete with hurricane proof storefronts and flood barriers.

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6 Designed by: Sir David Adjaye Developed by: Lightstone Size: 66 stories, 244 condos Completion: 2021

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130 WILLIAM Newcomer 130 William Street was designed by famed architect Sir David Adjaye, whose works include the Museum of Contemporary Art Denver and the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, DC. 130 William features Adjaye’s signature expressive style, complete with large-scale arched windows peppering a custom hand-cast façade. Topping out at 800 feet, the building boasts 242 residences spread across 66 stories, in addition to a public plaza and 20,000 sq. ft. set aside for retail. And it’s certainly a popular spot for buyers: In 2018 and 2019, 130 William earned the distinction of being the fastest-selling luxury condo development in New York City.

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THE BEEKMAN HOTEL One of Lower Manhattan’s most elegant hotels, The Beekman’s 287 luxury rooms are spread out among three buildings, including the historic 10-story terracotta masterpiece at the 5 Beekman address. Built between 1881 and 1883, the Temple Court building was designed by the firm of Benjamin Silliman Jr. and James M. Farnsworth and intended as law office space; it is considered one of the first high-rise structures in New York, and features an impressive 10-story skylit atrium.

123 Nassau Street to serve as the Beekman Residences, housing 68

Developed by: GFI Development

renovated and reopened in 2016 as part of the 287-room, Beekman Hotel.

Size: 287 hotel rooms, 68 condos Completion: 2016

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In 2016, Thomas Juul-Hansen designed a new building at neighboring

Designed by: Martin Brudnizki, Thomas JuulHansen

condominiums in a 51-story tower. The original building at 5 Beekman was In addition, The Beekman is home to Temple Court, a fine-dining restaurant helmed by Tom Colicchio.


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8 Designed by: Cesar Pelli Developed by: Brookfield Properties Completion: 1982-1988; Renovation 2015

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BROOKFIELD PLACE Brookfield Place existed pre-9/11 as the World Financial Center, built between 1982 and 1988. But the complex was heavily damaged in the attacks — notably, the Winter Garden Atrium, whose famous glass panes were blown out by debris from the Twin Towers and suffered significant structural damage. The Winter Garden was the first major structure to be restored after the attacks. Its reconstruction was so notable that President Bush hosted a reception for the UN Heads of State on September 12, 2002, ahead of its reopening. In the decades since, Brookfield Place has been repositioned with great shopping and dining in addition to office space, and is part of Lower Manhattan’s post-9/11 transformation. What was once just a financial hub has expanded into a retail and culinary center. Brookfield Place is home to a wide mix of industries, including the US headquarters of Brookfield, American Express, Meredith (owner of Time Inc.), J.Crew, Hudson’s Bay Company, New York Magazine, the Royal Bank of Canada and many others. Brookfield Place highlights include the Hudson Eats food hall, which offers quick bites and to-go meals. Visitors and office workers can opt for a sit-down restaurant with a Hudson River view, or dine outdoors on the riverside promenade. There’s also a seasonal outdoor ice-skating rink and rotating public art exhibitions throughout the year for visitors to enjoy. 23


9 Designed by: Robert A.M. Stern Architects Developed by: Silverstein Properties Size: 82 stories; 189 hotel rooms, 157 condos Completion: 2016

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FOUR SEASONS HOTEL NEW YORK DOWNTOWN Construction started on this Robert A.M. Stern-designed building in 2007, but stalled following the financial crisis in 2008, yet another hit weathered by an ever-resilient Lower Manhattan. The project resumed in 2013, and in 2016, the 82-story building celebrated its grand opening, elevating the level of high-priced luxury offered in the neighborhood. 30 Park Place comprises of 157 luxury residential units, ranging from one to six bedrooms. AAt 926 feet high, it is the tallest and one of the most luxurious residential towers in the neighborhood. Below the residences at 30 Park Place exists one of New York City’s most luxurious hotels. The Four Seasons Hotel New York Downtown features 189 high-end hotel rooms, in addition to its own entrance at 27 Barclay Street. In addition to the hotel rooms and suites, amenities include a spa, 24-hour gym, a 75-foot lap pool and the Wolfgang Puck restaurant CUT.

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10 Designed by: Grimshaw Architects Developed by: Metropolitan Transportation Authority Completion: 2014

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FULTON CENTER This now-well trafficked subway hub/retail complex was first announced in 2002, shortly after the events of 9/11, as part of the MTA’s $1.4 billion capital improvement project. The proposed center was intended to cement Lower Manhattan as a major destination for commuters. Construction began in 2005 but quickly stalled; the project was revived thanks to funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, amid the Great Recession. Several years later, the project was completed, and Fulton Center opened on November 10, 2014. A significant transit hub in New York City and the busiest station in Lower Manhattan, the Center not only offers access to the 2,3,4,5,A,C,J and Z trains, but the Dey Street passageway connects to the World Trade Center, the Oculus and the World Trade Center PATH station. Further connections are available to Chambers Street A,C, World Trade Center E, Park Place 2,3, Cortlandt R,W and the WTC Cortlandt 1. Fulton Center, which received LEED Silver certification in 2016, features bright, wide passageways, seamless transferring and easy navigation, in addition to 60,000 sq. ft. of retail and office space.

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11 Designed by: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, with Adamson Associates Architects Developed by: Goldman Sachs Size: 44 stories Completion: 2009

The Goldman Sachs global headquarters at 200 West Street, an indelible legacy of the financial giant, and a tribute to teamwork, creativity, and diversity. — Jacqueline Pezzillo, Center for Architecture

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GOLDMAN SACHS HEADQUARTERS AT 200 WEST Investment banking behemoth Goldman Sachs has a long history in Lower Manhattan, with a pre-9/11 headquarters at 85 Broad Street, in addition to a trading floor at One New York Plaza and office space at 32 Old Slip. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, Goldman Sachs explored the area for new construction and cemented its commitment to Lower Manhattan, as other companies considered moving out of the city. After some back-and-forth with the state, Goldman agreed to develop a large site at West Street, using state and city subsidies, and commissioned venerated architecture firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners to design the new building. Construction began in 2005 and reached completion in 2009, topping out at 44 stories; in 2010, Goldman Sachs officially moved in its employees. Critics celebrated the building for its innovative exterior and interior design, with modern highlights including movable workstations and an environmentally-friendly underfloor air system. An elegant glass canopy covers North End Way, known as Goldman Alley, a public pedestrian walkway between the Goldman headquarters and the neighboring Conrad Hotel, which was an Embassy Suites until 2012. The building was awarded a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) gold certification, and now stands as an attractive symbol of the finance industry’s resilience in the face of disaster.

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GOVERNORS ISLAND This 172-acre island in the New York Harbor spent several centuries as a U.S. Army post, dating back to the Revolutionary War. From 1966 to 1996, it served as a United States Coast Guard installation, but was then decommissioned by the military. At the end of the Giuliani years and beginning with the Bloomberg era, plans began to transform Governors Island into a public amenity, and in 2003, it was sold to the public. Thus began a joint effort between the city and state to develop Governors Island as, per terms of the deed, part parkland, part “educational, civic or cultural” development. A portion of Governors Island was opened to the public in 2005; over the last 15 years, the island has continued to develop, hosting art installations, festivals, concert series, a day spa and glampsite. Easily accessible via ferry from the Battery Maritime Building and Brooklyn Bridge Park, it is a delightful parklike escape for city-weary New Yorkers and tourists alike.

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13 Designed by: Frank Gehry Architects, WSP Cantor Seinuk Structural Engineers Developed by: Forest City Ratner Size: 76 stories, 899 apartments Completion: 2012

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NEW YORK BY GEHRY AT 8 SPRUCE Towering over much of a rebuilt Lower Manhattan, this 76-story residential/ mixed-use building was designed by famed deconstructivist architect Frank Gehry, whose notable works include the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain and the Walt Disney Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles. Ground broke on the project in 2006, and the building opened to residents in 2012. Built on a hotel parking lot, construction financing for the residential portion of the building used New York City Liberty Bonds, a program funded by the federal government after 9/11 that was intended to help revitalize Lower Manhattan. 8 Spruce Street features a striking contemporary design, with a crinkling steel exterior resembling waves or rippling curtains. The interior finishes and fixtures within the 899 residential units have been designed by Gehry himself. It is the largest single residential building by number of units in Lower Manhattan.


In addition to the residential units, 8 Spruce Street is home to a pre-K to 8 public elementary school, two public plazas and some street-level retail. The building is one of the tallest residential skyscrapers in the world. It has been favorably compared to downtown landmarks such as the Woolworth Building, signifying a new era of notable architecture in the neighborhood.

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14 Designed by: Ralph Walker Developed by: Macklowe Properties Size: 50 stories, 566 condos Completion: Original building built 1929-1931, annex 1963-1965, Conversion 2021

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ONE WALL STREET Originally designed by Ralph Walker, One Wall Street was first built in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Then known as the Irving Trust Company Building, the Art Deco gem would get renamed in its second and third iterations, respectively, as the Bank of New York Building and the BNY Mellon Building. In 2018, the limestone skyscraper got a fourth wind when it was purchased by Harry Macklowe, whose development company set to work converting it from office to residential space. With an expected opening in Fall 2021, One Wall Street will house 566 residential condos, with apartments ranging in size from one to four bedrooms, including a three-story penthouse in the building’s famed crown. Forty-seven units will have private decks with views of the skyline and the New York Harbor. There will also be nearly 160,000 sq. ft. of retail on the bottom floors, including a Whole Foods and Life Time Fitness, and a new entrance constructed on Broadway. Best of all, the building’s famed Red Room — a hidden lobby dotted with fiery red and orange mosaics — has been restored to its original glory. 35


15 Designed by: 25 Park Row: COOKFOX 33 Park Row: Rogers Stirk Harbour Developed by: 25 Park Row: L&M 33 Park Row: Urban Muse Size: 25 Park Row: 49 stories, 110 condos 33 Park Row: 23 stories, 31 condos Completion: 25 Park Row: 2020 33 Park Row: 2021

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PARK ROW BUILDINGS When the iconic Lower Manhattan media megastore J&R Music and Computer World shuttered in 2014, it left behind a full block of empty buildings on Park Row. In the years since, the block has seen significant development. 15 Park Row, originally built from 1896 to 1899, was fully converted from J&R retail to rental apartments in 2002. The 49-story tower at 25 Park Row was built in 2020, offering condos and a small amount of office space and retail on the bottom floors. And the luxury condominiums at 33 Park Row were designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and completed in 2021. The penthouses have a beautiful view of City Hall. More development is expected in the area in the near future.

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PIER 11/ WALL STREET One of the most significant transportation improvements since 9/11 is the NYC Ferry, a citywide ferry system that got its first sea legs in 2011, as part of an East River Ferry pilot program helmed by the post-9/11 Bloomberg administration. In 2014, de Blasio administration expanded the East River Ferry to hot waterfront areas like Williamsburg and Greenpoint, eventually expanding it to 21 different landings across all five boroughs. The old Pier 11 was demolished and replaced as part of a major capital improvement project — today, it’s the hub for all five NYC Ferry routes, save the forthcoming Staten Island-to-Midtown West route that will have a stop in Battery Park City. Pier 11 also services the New York Water Taxi ferry to IKEA in Red Hook, the NY Waterway (which operates along the Hudson waterfront) and SeaStreak (which operates a suburban commuter and sightseeing ferry service). Pier 11 is part of the East River Waterfront Esplanade, which under the Bloomberg administration, stretched from Wall Street to Maiden Lane and now runs from Battery North to Montgomery Street. 39


17 Designed by: SHoP Architects Developed by: Howard Hughes Corporation Size: 365,000 sq. ft. Completion: 2018

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PIER 17 The Seaport was once a key part of New York City’s golden age of shipping, a history now memorialized by the historic district’s three piers and 11 blocks of 18th- and 19th-century buildings. Recently, the area has undergone a significant revitalization that rebuilt Pier 17 into a 365,000-square-foot retail, dining and entertainment complex. The Howard Hughes Corporation development, designed by SHoP Architects, started phased openings to the public in 2018. Offerings include restaurants like Momofuku Ssäm Bar, Jean-Georges Vongerichten’s The Fulton and Andrew Carmellini’s Carne Mare; a 1.5-acre rooftop, with 3,400-standing capacity concert venue, in partnership with LiveNation; and, more recently, The Greens, a rooftop dining retreat operating during the Covid-19 pandemic. The development is also home to some dynamic office space, with ESPN and Nike as current tenants.

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THE RONALD O. PERELMAN PERFORMING ARTS CENTER While it is on the WTC campus, we are including The Perelman Performing Arts Center in our list as it will bring an entirely new use on the site and one that will have a profound

Designed by: REX, Davis Brody Bond Size: 90,000 sq. ft., including three theaters Completion: 2023

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impact on the cultural life of the neighborhood and the entire city. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) first announced plans for the multidisciplinary performing arts center in 2004 as part of the World Trade Center rebuilding effort; those initial plans had stalled, but saw a rebirth in 2015 when architects REX and Davis Brody Bond were selected to draw up new designs. Now, the Performing Arts Center is nearing completion, with an expected opening in 2023. The 90,000-square-foot building will include three theaters, in addition to rehearsal and dressing rooms and a restaurant/bar for show patrons. The theaters have been designed with unique rotating, expandable walls to help customize performances and create a single large theater for bigger audiences, making it a true future home for a wide array of live performances.


One of the reasons we live in cities is because of culture and the ability to gather in public spaces. So the challenge for the performing arts center is the challenge we all face together, which is how we come back as Lower Manhattan and as a city. New York really embodies the role of culture, not only in economic development but in what makes New York New York, as a place to live, as a place to work and as a place to visit. We’re universally recognized around the world as one of — if not the — leading cultural capitals, and we have all learned as individuals what we’ve missed in not being able to fully participate, certainly in the performing arts, if not culture more broadly, during the pandemic. — Leslie Koch, President Of The Perelman Center 43


19 Designed by: Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects Developed by: Trinity Church Size: 40 stories Completion: 2020

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76 TRINITY PLACE This Trinity Church-owned site envisions itself as the city’s “spiritual living room,” connecting the historic 17th century house of worship to modern mixed-use towers that will add office and various gathering spaces to the neighborhood. Construction began on 76 Trinity Place in 2017 and topped out in 2020. The building will offer 13 floors of leasable office space accessible via an entrance at 107 Greenwich Street, plus a 5-floor podium called Trinity Commons with gathering spaces, classrooms and meeting rooms open to the community. In addition, Trinity Church has their offices right above Trinity Commons. The building’s design directly ties it to Trinity Church via a pedestrian bridge, adding a physical attachment between modern Lower Manhattan and its colonial past. In addition, the podium features an outdoor terrace with views of the church and its famed graveyard.


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20 Designed by: Cass Gilbert Developed by: Alchemy Properties Size: 34 condos on top 30 floors, Completion: 1913, Conversion in 2018

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THE WOOLWORTH RESIDENCES AT 2 PARK PLACE The Woolworth Building is one of the most famous skyscrapers in New York City, a Cass Gilbert-designed gem that earned the title of the tallest building in the world until 1930. And its height wasn’t the Woolworth’s only noteworthy attribute — with its cathedral-like exterior, stepped tower and magnificent mosaic-dotted lobby, it’s considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. For most of its history, the Woolworth Building was exclusively commercial space. But in 2012, developer Alchemy Properties bought the building’s top 30 floors and enlisted French architect Thierry W Despont to redesign them for residential use. Now, the Woolworth Residences includes 34 luxury condominiums and a five-story penthouse.

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS Ric Clark, Chair WTC Performing Arts Center

Honorable Bill de Blasio Mayor of the City of New York

Honorable Gale A. Brewer Manhattan Borough President

Honorable Margaret S. Chin Council Member, City of New York

Betty Cohen Century 21 Department Stores

Tom Costanzo Fosun Hive Holding

K. Thomas Elghanayan TF Cornerstone Inc.

David V. Fowler The Bank of New York Mellon

Brett S. Greenberg Jack Resnick & Sons

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Francis J. Greenburger

Ross F. Moskowitz

Frank J. Sciame

Time Equities, Inc.

Stroock & Stroock & Lavan LLP

F.J. Sciame Construction Co., Inc.

Daniel Haimovic

Jeremy Moss

Allan G. Sperling

Eastbridge Group

Silverstein Properties

Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, LLP

Thomas M. Hughes

Dr. Anthony Munroe

Brian R. Steinwurtzel

Residential Representative

Borough of Manhattan Community College

GFP Real Estate

Jonathan Iger

Dan Palino

Honorable Scott M. Stringer

The William Kaufman Organization

New Water Street Corp.

Office of the Comptroller of the City of NY

Jeff Katz

Edward V. Piccinich

Kent M. Swig

Crown Shy

SL Green Realty Corp.

Swig Equities, LLC

Marvin Krislov

Peter A. Poulakakos

Matthew Van Buren

Pace University

Ahead Realty/HPH Hospitality Group

CBRE Group, Inc.

Sarah Miyazawa LaFleur

Cynthia C. Rojas Sejas

John Wheeler

M.M.LaFleur

S&P Global Market Intelligence

Jones Lang LaSalle

Stephen Lefkowitz

Joel Rosen

Jolene Yeats

Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP

GFI Hospitality LLC

The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey

Josh Marwell

William C. Rudin

HarperCollins Publishers

Rudin Management Company, Inc.

Tammy Meltzer

Todd Schwartz

Manhattan Community Board 1

Cushman & Wakefield

Jessica Lappin President


PHOTO CREDITS

Cover, Back Cover: Photo courtesy of Paul Seibert Photography Inside Cover, Page 14. 38-39: Photo courtesy of Josh Katz Page 2: Photo courtesy Pete Thomposon Page 4: Stock Photography Page 8: Photo courtesy of https://twenty.exchange/apartments-in-financial-district/ Page 10: https://www.50westnyc.com/gallery Page 12: https://www.63wallstreet.com/63-wall-street-new-york-ny/ Page 15: Photo shot by Adrian Gaut and provided by Natalie Black Page 17: Photo courtesy of https://100pearlst.com Page 18: Photo courtesy of https://130william.com/ Page 21, 23, 24, 33: Photo courtesy of Mark Weinberg Page 24: Photo courtesy of Silverstein Properties Page 28: Photo courtesy of https://www.pcf-p.com/projects/200-west-street-global-financial-company-headquarters/ Page 30: Photo shot by Tim Schenck via Governors Island Page 31: Bathsheba Parker & Kristen Heise Page 34: https://onewallstreet.com/ Page 36-37: https://25parkrow.com/gallery Page 40-41: Sophie Fjello Page 43: https://www.theperelman.org/ Page 44: https://trinitywallstreet.org/trinity-commons Page 46: https://thewoolworthtower.com/ 49


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