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A L A B A M A CO NCR E TE I NDU STRIES ASSOC IATION M AGAZ IN E | SPR I N G 2016

SPRING 2016 1


SPRING 2016

ConcreteWorks is a publication of the Alabama Concrete Industries Association and features articles and photographs pertaining to product applications, educational opportunities, as well as innovative construction techniques impacting the industry. Please email rlindsay@ alconcrete.org with any comments regarding featured articles in ConcreteWorks or to suggest a story idea for a future edition. Rebecca Lindsay,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Blazing a New Trail

The University of Alabama Birmingham

Jennifer Wagner and Chelsea Code-McNeil

cuts the ribbon on a 162,000 square foot

explain the complexity of LEED v4 with

student center, with concrete being one of

concrete masonry, and understanding this

the main building components of the new

new disclosure credit.

state-of-the-art building.

6

Architect Spotlight

Freddie Lynn, Jr. with Goodwyn Mills

27

Concrete News

& Cawood talks about how his love

Art Director & Editor

of drawing and art steered him in the

John Sorrell, Editor

direction of architecture, and how concrete has been featured in many of his designs along the way.

www.alconcrete.org www.mysaferoom.org

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Navigating the Complexities of LEED v4...

10

Lion Country

The new $26 million Whitesburg P-8 School in Huntsville opened in August for the 2015-2016 school year, and has a current enrollment of more than 1,000 students. It also has a massive amount of concrete used in the structure of the building.

14

Anytime is Maritime

After many years of planning and construction, the new maritime museum in Mobile, known as Gulfquest, recently opened its doors to the public, and was awarded the Mobile Area Council of Engineer’s “Project of the Year” for 2016. (ON THE COVER)

28

2016 Calendar


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

BLAZING

A NEW TRAIL


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

In mid-January, the University of Alabama

the art building boasts 4-stories, a 284-

university, the student center is a ‘home

Birmingham (UAB) cut the ribbon on the

seat movie theater, numerous offices and

away from home,’ providing a place for

brand new Hill Student Center, named for

meeting rooms and is the latest addition to

students to socialize, eat and study. The

former UAB President, the late S. Richardson

the college campus.

Hill Student Center strives to provide an

Hill, a 162,000 square foot facility designed by Herrington Architects. This state-of-

environment conducive to student success, Referred to as “The Living Room” of the

with

the

services

available

including:

SPRING 2016 3


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

Information Desk, ATMs, dining venues (Full

Finishes like wood paneling and ceilings,

Moon Bar-B-Que, Mein Bowl, Starbucks

stainless steel guardrails and handrails,

and Panera Bread), game room, and TV and

decorative wall coverings, and terrazzo

study lounges.

and porcelain tile floors serve to make the building more inviting and impressive.

Todd Clark, lead architect on the project, explained that original student center that

“The all-glass, serpentine shaped east

was built in 1984 was not conducive to

façade allows a person to stand in one spot

the needs of today’s college students. It

of the building and have an impressive,

consisted of a five-story brick office building

expansive view of the heart of UAB’s

with ribbon windows surrounded by one-

campus,’ Clark explains. “This features is

story, bunker-like buildings that housed an

made possibly thanks, in part, to the use of

auditorium, cafeteria, and an event space.

concrete and its ability to mold into almost

With very few windows and not much

any shape to form the structure of the

natural light, the building was ‘uninviting.’

building.”

“The university realized it was time to

In addition, numerous alcoves and small

upgrade the facility and charged us with

meeting spaces were carved out on each

creating a new building that was more

floor to provide small groups of students

open, inviting and had a ‘wow factor’,” says

with places to congregate, whether it be for

Clark. “To that end, glass became a major

studying or socializing.

design element, and much of the building’s facades are enveloped in a glass curtainwall

The designing process began in February

system.”

2013, with demolition of the existing building starting in September of that same year.

Fire-rated glass systems were used to

After the former building was razed, the

make stair enclosures more transparent,

construction of the new building began in

both to the interior and exterior of the

May 2014 and was completed in December

building. Inside, several types of decorative

2015.

glass were used throughout the building, including some stair and balcony guardrails.

The design team used a post-tensioned


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

Complete list of features • Multiple food service venues, including Starbucks, Panera, Full Moon Bar-b-que, and an Asian concept called Mein Bowl. A large, 2-story dining area provides seating for about 400 people adjacent to these venues. • 2-story UAB Bookstore (Barnes & Noble) • A Tech Store

concrete structure as a way to achieve

• A 284-seat movie theater.

longer structural spans while at the same

• an informal performance lounge

time minimizing the depth of the structural

• 2-Story Ballroom (500 seating

beams.

Many of the concrete columns

capacity at tables and chairs). The

were left exposed in a few key spaces, such

room can be divided into 4 smaller

as the two-story performance lounge and

spaces using 22’-0 tall operable

the 3rd floor informal lounge area, in order

partitions.

to juxtapose their monumentality and visual

• A 2,600 sq. ft. Visitor Center

weight against the lightness of the glass

• Numerous office suites and

curtainwall system that envelops most of

meeting rooms

the building’s facades.

• 2 outdoor patio spaces and a 3rd floor balcony space • Area: 162,256 sq. ft. Construction Cost: Approx. $40,000,000

“Concrete

has

so

many

components

that make it ideal for certain architectural structures, and in this case it’s long life and the fact that it is relatively low maintenance

Architect of Record: Herrington

were key aspects of why we chose it,”

Architects, P.C.

says Clark. “It is also non-combustible, which makes achieving required fire-rated

Associate Architect: Hastings +

separations much easier.”

Chivetta Architects The center also offers a variety of meeting General Contractor: Doster

rooms including ballroom that can easily

Construction

be divided into four sections, a stadiumsized theater, a two-story bookstore, a

Foundation/Site Utility Contractor:

technology store, and a full “One Stop

Duncan & Thompson

Student Service” center where students

Construction

can tend to admissions, course registration, financial aid, parking, student accounting and student identification.

SPRING 2016 5


A R C H ITE CT S P O T L I G H T

Due to his love of drawing, Freddie Lynn, Jr. thought he might want to be an artist. But growing up on a farm in Texas, he learned about all of the construction associated with farms and machinery, which helped him develop an appreciation of how things are put together. So he decided that architecture would be a way to combine both interests. And for 26 years, he’s put his talents to work in that field. A senior vice president with Goodwyn Mills & Cawood, Freddie has gained significant recognition for exceptional design work, particularly in the K-12 and higher education

Freddie

arenas. Projects under his leadership have received numerous awards on local, regional and national levels from institutions such as the American Institute of Architects, School Planning & Management, College

Lynn, Jr. Planning & Management, American School and University and Learning By Design. Some of his most recent work included Park Crossing High School in Montgomery, which has been included in the Disaster exhibit at the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C., and serves as a benchmark for innovative safe schools design. “For our education projects we have not found a better choice for meeting the projects


AR CHI TE CT S P O T L I G H T

needs of fire protection, wind protection and

on elevated concrete structures with hollow

the concourse is made of concrete, as

durability all with one material, says Lynn.

core concrete slabs.

well as The Renaissance Montgomery

“Concrete is not affected by the weather as

Hotel and Spa at the Convention Center.

much as some materials. Hollow core slabs

“We used a deep foundation with drilled

This structure, which uses post-tensioned

with concrete toppings install very quickly

piers, and the storm-safe rooms are multi-

slabs, allowed the design to have a lower

and allow adjacent work above and below

story solid concrete poured walls,” he

floor-to floor height and provides good fire

the slab to proceed faster, which helps the

explains. “From the exterior you would

separation.

overall schedule.”

never know it is such a robust structure.” “We have been so pleased with the

Due to poor soil conditions the project

Additional projects using concrete include

aesthetic qualities of the concrete in our

design for Park Crossing was somewhat

Troy University’s Trojan Arena, whose

commercial projects,” he says. “For instance

challenging, and the entire project was built

entire seating bowl and everything below

at the Maritime training facility in Mobile,

SPRING 2016 7


A R C H ITE CT S P O T L I G H T

“Polished concrete is always a popular choice for the quality of the finished material, and it has limitless possibilities in forming and finish.�


AR CHI TE CT S P O T L I G H T

Get to know Freddie Lynn, Jr.

What are your hobbies? Camping, Hiking, Kayaking What is the one tool you can’t live without? I would like to say a sketch pen but realistically it is my iPhone. It keeps me connected and helps to manage the chaos. What’s the last book you read? The End of Secrets by Ryan Quinn. we used wood shiplap form liners for the

What’s your favorite food?

exterior concrete load bearing walls to pay

Tex Mex.

homage to the ship building techniques of the past. Polished concrete is always a

What is an interesting fact

popular choice for the quality of the finished

that most people don’t know

material, and it has limitless possibilities in

about you?

forming and finish.”

I have been a Scoutmaster for the past 10 years for Troop 13 in

Other

Wetumpka. It has been a huge

Freddie’s design portfolio include the Selma

award-winning

projects

within

commitment but very rewarding.

Public High School and Georgiana K-12

It has allowed me to have some

School.

amazing adventures that most people don’t get a chance to

Freddie plays an active role within the

do. We recently had four scouts

American Institute of Architects, serving

earn the Eagle Rank in one night

previously as the local chapter secretary,

including my youngest son. I enjoy

treasurer, president-elect and president,

mentoring the youth and helping

in addition to helping launch its first

the scouts to develop confidence

design awards program, organizing the

and leadership skills.

“Streamlined

Design”

symposium

in

conjunction with the Montgomery Museum

Are any other members of your

of Art and representing the chapter at the

family architects?

Grass Roots Convention in Washington

Yes. My wife Katherine is an

D.C. and the National Convention in San

Architect and is Director of the

Francisco.

Alabama Building Commission. He is also a member of the Council of What is your favorite thing

Educational Facility Planners International,

about your profession?

Alabama Association of School Boards,

Creating something tangible that

Alabama Association of School Business

contributes to the fabric of the

Officials, Alabama School Plant Managers

community.

Association and School Superintendents of Alabama.

SPRING 2016 9


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

Lion Country Photography by Seth Parker, Parker Studios As the 2015-2016 school year began, students in Huntsville were thrilled to walk the halls of the new $26million Whitesburg P 8 School. The new school, which grew by 300 students (from 700 to 1000), houses pre-kindergarten through 8th grade and is the latest addition to a growing school district in Madison County. The new design was a collaborative effort between the community, school administrators and teachers, and Chapman Sisson Architects. Design for the new school began in early 2013 and Construction was completed for the 2015-2016 school year. “Because this is a P-8 school, the challenge was

to

create

learning

areas

which

adequately separated the younger and older students,” says Rob Mercer, AIA, design director with Chapman Sisson. “The form of the school was generated by this goal, with elementary and middle school wings stretching out on opposite sides of the administrative core of the building. In addition, common use areas of the school such as cafeteria, media center and multipurpose room were also located between these two areas.”


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

The school gymnasium is a designated

the entry maintain the schools welcoming

busses. In addition, the queuing drives form

storm shelter that meets the current State

feel to the community.

In addition, all

a major part of the first Green Car race track

requirement for all new schools, and can

classrooms are accessed with card readers

in the District where teams throughout the

accommodate the entire school population.

so that the security of all rooms can be

world can compete each year.

monitored at any time. The new Whitesburg P8 also includes the

Whitesburg P 8 is constructed mainly

latest in school security. Utilizing a series

Since both wings of the school are directly

of concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls,

of secure lobby spaces and cumulating in a

accessed through a common secure area,

with several areas incorporating stained

bullet resistant administrative desk, visitors

this type of layout helped with security.

concrete floors for both appearance and

are checked for before they are allowed into

Automobile queuing is also separated on the

ease of cleaning. The floor structure is made

the student occupied areas of the school.

site, with designated entry and exit routes

up of precast concrete hollow core planks,

Though secure, large expanses of glass at

for elementary parents, middle parents and

which are extremely economical and allow

SPRING 2015 2016 11


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

Concrete and concrete masonry units have always been the best materials for use in schools in terms of durability and low maintenance


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

the building to be constructed more quickly

In 1961 the Junior High addition was

than if steel joists and decking were used.

constructed. The lunchroom connected

The hollow core concrete planks, due to

both buildings and served both facilities.

their shallow depth, allow for more above

In the fall of 1962 7th-9th graders were

ceiling space, which is vitally important

housed at Whitesburg Junior High, with an

when running utilities and communications

enrollment of 505 students and a faculty of

cabling in a new school.

20 teachers. In 1975 Whitesburg Junior High consisted of grades 7th and 8th and

“Concrete and concrete masonry units

later adding 6th grade and changing names

have always been the best materials for

to Whitesburg Middle School.

use in schools in terms of durability and low maintenance,” says Mercer. “Of course,

In 1965 the tunnel, which is still used today,

concrete is very friendly from a design

was built to safely allow students a way to

standpoint because it can be formed

cross Whitesburg Drive to and from school.

into whatever shape and application that one chooses.

Being a natural material,

In order to raise funds and purchase new

its appearance contrasts well with other

equipment for the growing school in 1959

natural materials such as masonry and

the PTA was formed. Today, the PTA

wood and metal.”

continues to be a vital part of the school and

History of Whitesburg

is a critical part of its success.   In 2011, Whitesburg again become one

The original Whitesburg Elementary school

school under the leadership of Mr. Greg

opened in December 1958 with just eight

Hicks. The new WP8 School opened with

classrooms. By January 1959, 350 students

a ribbon cutting ceremony on Monday,

had moved in, and by 1961 Whitesburg

Aug 3, 2015. Whitesburg P8 has a current

expanded by ten new classrooms. There

enrollment of over 1,000 students grades

were 753 students enrolled including a

Pre-K through 8th grade, and continues to

newly added 7th grade class. By 1964

strive to become the premiere P-8 school in

enrollment peaked at 1425, which later

the nation.

declined as more schools were built.

SPRING 2016 13


F E AT U R E


F E AT U R E

ANYTIME IS MARITIME In the 1990’s, the National Maritime Museum of the Gulf of Mexico, a non-profit organization, was formed to establish a maritime museum that would serve as an educational resource for the region and the nation. The museum’s mission would be “To inspire people of all ages and backgrounds to understand and appreciate the Gulf Coast’s rich maritime heritage through exhibits, programs and activities”. The museum would specialize in providing hands-on experiences that inspire visitors to understand and appreciate the maritime heritage of the Gulf of Mexico, there would, however be historical artifacts and memorabilia displayed in a few areas and temporary exhibits. In 2001, planning for Mobile Landing, one of a series of redevelopment projects undertaken by the City of Mobile to help restore access to the Mobile River waterfront, was underway. The conceptual plan for Mobile Landing included a deep draft bulkhead, a hotel and/or a signature restaurant, and a Maritime Transportation Center which would house a passenger ferry terminal and educational/interpretive presentations of the Gulf of Mexico’s maritime heritage. In the latter stages of planning, the need for a cruise terminal was introduced and a fast-track project to have facilities in-place by November of 2004 was launched. By early 2003, the initial phase of the Mobile Landing development was completed. The deep draft bulkhead, which incorporated

SPRING 2016 15


F E AT U R E

a 30 foot wide concrete relieving platform

the size and access requirements of the

supported on precast concrete driven piles

Cruise terminal, it was positioned at the

and 60 foot sheet piling was in place. The

south end of the site to take advantage of

bulkhead was designed and permitted for

the additional width and existing roadways.

dredging up to 41 feet for access from the

The Maritime Transportation Center was

channel in the Mobile River. The bulkhead

positioned at the northern end of the site,

was designed and fitted with bollards and

which in addition to being much narrower, is

fenders for mooring large cruise ships. A

where the newly constructed amphitheater,

riverside promenade was installed, which

fountain and d’Iberville statue were located.

tied into and extended the pedestrian access to the riverfront afforded by Cooper

Early

Riverside Park and the Arthur C. Outlaw

programming

Convention Center. Additional amenities

Transportation Center building and exhibits

included an amphitheater, a fountain,

was adjusted to reflect the narrow available

parking and infrastructure for the future

footprint and to accommodate expansion

Maritime Transportation Center and the

of the scope of the intended users. The

Cruise Terminal. A cast bronze statue of

building was intended to be multi-story

Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville, founder of Mobile

due to the nature of some of the exhibits,

as capital of French Louisiana was also

however, the narrow site and programmed

installed. d’Iberville’s face is tilted upward

site access requirements led to the decision

and angled toward a duplicate statue that

to have each successive floor overhang the

stands on a waterfront promenade near his

previous to keep from adding additional

burial place in Mobile’s sister city, Havana,

floors.

Cuba.

evolved into an elongated hexagon, and

conceptual

The

design

for

initial

work

the

rectangular

and

Maritime

footprint

with the overhanging floors and pointed Schematic

design

for

the

Maritime

Transportation Center began in the latter

ends the form began to take on the stylized characteristics of a ship’s hull.

stages of design of Mobile Landing. The addition of the Cruise Terminal and

In the process of juggling the spatial

the

requirements of the exhibits, programmatic

connected

parking

deck

altered

programming for the site. To accommodate

requirements

for

maximizing

openness


F E AT U R E

“To inspire people of all ages and backgrounds to understand and appreciate the Gulf Coast’s rich maritime heritage through exhibits, programs and activities.”

SPRING 2016 17


F E AT U R E

for views of the surrounding city and port,

hung from the structure above with stainless

and code requirements for egress, the

steel rods to give the notion that they are

decision was made to go with exterior

life boats.

egress balconies and stairs. With that, the

eating area and the port beyond. The upper level floors at the north end house the administrative offices, meeting

basis for the buildings form and appearance

The building is divided in half functionally and

rooms, classrooms, and lunchroom. One of

was established. By summer of 2003 the

structurally. The north half of the building is

the two main mechanical rooms is located

schematic plans, elevations and building

defined by the rotunda. This 3 story sphere,

on the third floor of this area with a screened

sections were completed and by early 2004

representing the global ties that Mobile and

mechanical yard located on the roof above.

they were approved.

the Gulf have to the world, is created by

The open mechanical enclosure houses the

the handrails at the second and third floor,

chillers, boilers, and emergency generators

The design development phase began in

accent panels at the underside of the roof

for the entire building protected from flood

early 2004 and continued through early

deck and a domed skylight in the roof. The

waters and direct effects of hurricane winds.

2007. This time was spent developing the

balcony rails are made-up of 64 steel plates

various building systems and refining the

rolled in two directions to a 25 foot radius.

The south end of the building is dominated

plans, elevations and sections suit. The

The panels are arrayed in 2 rows around the

by a 4 story atrium which houses the

decision to go with concrete framing was

circular floor and roof openings with gaps

Container

influenced by aesthetics and function.

to mimic the lines of latitude and longitude.

replicates the stern of a loaded container

The desire was to expose the structure,

Sixteen radial columns surround and are

ship moored at dock. The hull sits in a 30

inside and out as much as possible to

aligned with the wind points of a colored

inch deep water feature, the surface of

reflect the industrial context of the Port of

compass rose in the terrazzo flooring at

which is approximatly 13 feet below the

Mobile, while maintaining a monumental

the main level. These columns support the

exhibit entrance from the preshow area

quality to highlight the institutional aspects

cantilevered balconies at the second and

and rotunda. The main deck level, which

of the buildings educational and museum

third floors, and the roof and twelve foot

is open to the surrounding atrium, and the

functions. Concrete provided the mass that

diameter compression ring that forms the

3 levels of interactive exhibits within the

was desired without having to incorporate

opening for the skylight. Above the roof

stacked container portion of the exhibit are

additional cladding systems.

and visible from the exterior and interior,

offset from the levels of the main building to

Ship

Exhibit.

This

exhibit

a domed open steel framework springing

reinforce the notion of being on a ship. The

The body of the building was framed with

from the center point of the internal sphere

structure of this exhibit is all exposed steel

reinforced cast-in-place concrete columns

extends the globe element beyond the

to further reinforce the “ship” environment.

and beams with one-way pan-joist floor

envelope of the building. The emphasis on

There are three means of access to the

slabs and roof deck. Design considerations

the entrances and the global theme of the

levels of the “ship”. A steel framed walkway

for

construction

rotunda is further developed by the radiating

supported from the floor of the basement

weighed the pros and cons of precast and

columns and beams that support the covers

to mimic a dockside structure provides

cast-in-place concrete. Due to anticipated

at the east and west entrances and the arc

access to a series of switchback handicap

complications with staging and erection

of the east and west entrance steps which

accessible ramps on the east and west side

of precast, particularly on the east side of

focus on the center of the rotunda

of the container. These ramps, with mesh

the

egress

balcony

the building where the 30 foot overhang is

railing and exposed steel framing to give the

within 15 feet of the rivers edge, the decision

The Rotunda at the ground floor provides

impression of scaffolding, are hung from the

was made to go with cast-in-place framing.

access to the Galley Café, ticketing window,

roof with steel rods and couplings which

Six egress stairs were located around the

gift shop, and a Preshow exhibit and theater.

resemble a block-and-tackle. There is also

building to provide a way to the ground

All-glass entry systems at the east and west

an open stair with similar construction and

from the balconies. These stairs are precast

entrances provide light and views of the

an elevator that combines passenger and

concrete,

freight functions.

sections

river and the city, and all glass wall between

and landing sections. They are similar in

consisting

of

stair

the rotunda and café allow more light and

appearance to the form of the building, and

a view through café to the elevated exterior

The “Bridge” is a cylindrical steel structure


F E AT U R E

on the roof which extends the “ship” exhibit

subsurface contamination. A continuous

another 2 stories. The exposed steel

perimeter pile cap 11 feet wide and almost

structure of the lower container levels is

6 feet thick was designed to support the

continued, however access is only by the

load of the egress balconies and roof

extension of the stair and elevator. The roof

overhang that were being transferred back

level of the bridge has no windows, but has

to the columns at the exterior wall.

access to the roof for egress and future event space. The upper Bridge level has a

The first floor at the north end of the building,

view window which overlook the port to the

a slab-on-grade, is at elevation 16 feet and

south and exterior viewing platforms which

is approximately 8 feet above adjacent

provide views of the port and the city both

finish grade. The site being in a flood zone

north and south. The Simulator exhibit, a

is required to be elevated to a minimum of

control panel with a wall of monitors which

13 feet or flood proofed. Three additional

encompass the full front visual field, allows

feet of freeboard was added as a proactive

the visitor to take the wheel and control

measure after the base flood elevations

a vessel in a channel such as the Port of

were adjusted along the Mississippi coats

Mobile.

due to flooding produced by the storm surge from hurricane Katrina.

Poor soil conditions and proximity to the bulkhead

dictated

a

deep

foundation

The south end of the building has a

system. A Drilled Displacement Pile system

basement level. The basement houses the

consisting of over 850, 16”diameter piles

air handling equipment for much of the

varying in length from 30 to 50 feet was

south end of the building, the main electrical

selected due to the massive loads of

service entrance and switchgear, the fire

the concrete structure and pockets of

pump, lift stations for sanitary and underslab

SPRING 2016 19


F E AT U R E

drainage, offices and workroom for facilities

The excavation for the basement varied

personnel, and a loading dock. The

from a depth of approximately 13 feet below

basement floor, a structural slab supported

grade at the perimeter pile cap to 16 feet

on grade beams, is at elevation 0.5 feet.

at the elevator pit and lift station sump.

The average groundwater level at the site

The north end perimeter pile cap required

is approximately 4 feet and varies with the

excavation to approximately 8 feet below

tide; therefore this floor is always below

grade. Constricted site conditions dictated

water level. All of the concrete at columns,

shoring for the entire footprint of the building

walls and slabs below elevation 16 feet at

to allow for access and staging. Ground

this end of the building has a waterproofing

water at an average depth of 4 feet below

admixture

Crystallization

grade necessitated dewatering, which for

technologies as a last line of defense against

an excavation 30 feet from the Mobile River

water intrusion. The formed grade beams

required continuous drawdown to a depth

and pile caps are waterproofed with a blind-

of about 20 feet below grade. The sheet pile

side waterproofing membrane which lined

shoring was extended below this depth to

the form prior to concrete placement. The

limit the effects of the dewatering operation

slab areas have a redundant waterproofing

on adjacent railroad tracks which at places

system

is within 100’ of the excavation.

which

starting

uses

with

a

blind-side

waterproofing membrane on compacted backfill and tied into the membrane at the pile

The first floor at the south end of the

caps and grade beams. Next a 3 inch thick

building and the main deck of the Container

mud slab was installed which was sloped

Ship exhibit were programmed as traveling

to the drains of an under-slab drainage

exhibit space. This function requires 18

system. A structural drainage material with

wheel access and a 4 foot loading dock.

filter fabric was installed on the mud slab.

To accommodate this requirement an 8

A blindside vapor barrier membrane was

foot by 8 foot opening with a coiling door

installed on top of the drainage material and

and a personnel door were provided at

tied into the waterproofing membrane at the

the basement wall for access to a covered

pile caps and grade beams and the 8� thick

loading dock and for emergency egress. The

concrete slab with waterproofing admixture

loading dock floor matched the basement

was placed.

floor elevation, which put the elevation of bottom of the truck well approximately 12


F E AT U R E

feet below grade. A truck well and ramp,

concrete basement walls are designed to

the deep foundation work began, which

140 feet overall length, was provided for

accommodate the load of 8 feet of earth and

included shoring, dewatering, excavation,

access and to accommodate a 55 foot

the hydrostatic load of 16 feet of water. The

and installation of Piling. The building

trailer at a safe working slope. The slab is

loading dock door is equipped with a rolling

construction began in January 2011 and

an 18 in thick structural slab thickened to

flood door with pneumatic seals and the

continued on through Completion in the

24 inches at the sides and supported on

personnel door is has a bolt-on flood panel

summer of 2015. Exhibit installation began

drilled displacement piles. The walls are 15

to provide flood proofing. The atrium and

in mid-2014 and continued through late

inch thick reinforced concrete and extend

bridge require smoke evacuation system.

summer 2015.

to a foot above grade. There is gravity

Six exhaust fans are located at the roof and

flow a trench drain at the top of the ramp

8 operable intake louvers are located in the

GulfQuest was opened to the public in late

to reduce the amount of rainwater entering

exterior walls of the basement. The airflow

September 2015. 90 exhibits, theaters,

the truck well. Another trench drain with

requirements dictated large openings which

displays, simulators will provide visitors

a sump pump is located near the loading

extend approximately 4 feet below grade.

an interactive way to explore the Gulf of

dock and collects rainwater and pumps it to

To provide for flood proofing, concrete walls

Mexico. A CafĂŠ, Store, multiple meeting

the subsurface stormwater system on-site.

forming intake wells extending to elevation

rooms, an amphitheater and riverside

16 feet were provided. Grates at the top

promenade provide other opportunities for

The building is flood proofed to elevation

provide security and a drainage system tied

locals and visitors to experience the Mobile

16 feet. The first floor elevation at north

to a sump take care of any rainwater that

riverfront.

half of the building is at 16 feet. The

happens to make its way into the wells.

basement floor elevation at the south half

GulfQuest was recently awarded the Mobile

of the building is at 0.5 feet. The perimeter

The Construction Phase began in January

Area Council of Engineers (http://www.

walls of the basement therefore required

2010 with site preparation and surcharge

mobileareacouncilofengineers.com/)

flood proofing measures to meet this

of the north end of the site to receive the

Project of the Year.

requirement. The concrete columns and infill

slab-on-grade. In the summer of 2010

2016

SPRING 2016 21


T echnical R E V I E W

Navigating the Complexities of LEED v4 with Concrete Masonry Understanding the new disclosure credit

by designers for climate-resistant building

innovations within masonry manufacturing,

materials, while its thermal mass benefits

this article looks at how these Division

can reduce energy bills and improve indoor

04 materials can contribute to points in

thermal comfort.

the latest, forthcoming iteration of the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC’s)

Some

concrete

masonry

unit

(CMU)

providers are looking for ways to introduce

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating program, LEED v4.

new elements of sustainability into their manufacturing practices, including use of

Proponents of the LEED system say it has

carbon dioxide (CO2) recycling technology.

always made it a priority to propel and push

This process involves retrofitting existing

industry to redefine what makes a material

concrete plants with its technology that

sustainable for manufacturers, designers,

introduces

gas

and building owners. The definition of

sourced from the smokestacks of local

carbon

dioxide

(CO2)

what makes a building material green has

by Jennifer Wagner and Chelsea Code-

industrial emitters into concrete during

evolved in the newest version, as LEED

McNeil

production. The CO2 gas undergoes a

v4 will take into account a broad range of

reaction whereby it becomes chemically

considerations, including regional sourcing,

Masonry is inherently a sustainable building

converted into a calcium carbonate mineral.

recycled content, and environmental impact

material, thanks to its attributes contributing

This mineralization not only permanently

over a product’s lifecycle.

to resiliency—including protection against

eliminates the CO2, but it also helps to

rotting, mold, and termites—that translates

make the concrete stronger, which enables

into lower maintenance costs and reduced

concrete to become a powerful tool in the

need for virgin products. Further, its strength

fight against climate change.

and ability to withstand severe weather and fire are helping meet new demands

Introducing LEED v4

LEED v4 will take a more holistic approach to defining a green building material with a particular focus on lifecycle impacts and

Acknowledging the continually greener

supply chain management, taking the


T echnical R E V I E W

program’s scope one step deeper into

address different aspects of building product

using an accepted methodology and for

the manufacturing process. This change

disclosure and optimization, and are worth

selecting products verified to minimize the

is expected to influence the information

up to two points each. Those three credits,

use and generation of harmful substances.

designers and architects are requesting

which acknowledge a designer’s use of

To reward raw material manufacturers who

from

sustainable products, are:

produce products verified to have improved

manufacturers.

Architects

are

requiring more rigorous information from manufacturers, by asking them to collect information from outside their localized manufacturing processes.

life-cycle impacts.” •  Building

Product

Disclosure

Optimization−Environmental

and

Product

Declarations; •  Building

Product

Disclosure

and

In the past, self-declared recycled content

Optimization−Sourcing of Raw Materials;

and bare-bones regional declarations were

and

enough to meet credit requirements, but under LEED v4 this will no longer be the case. The information being requested will take time to collect, so manufacturers

So how do CMUs fit into all of this?

Environmental product declarations

The intention of Building Product Disclosure

•  Building

Product

Disclosure

and

Optimization−Material Ingredients.

and Optimization−Environmental Product Declarations, is to encourage manufacturers

• The other two credits under LEED v4’s MR category are:

to report and verify their products’ lifecycle impacts. The best tool to communicate

looking to stay ahead of the curve should

•  Building Life-cycle Impact Reduction

impacts over a product’s lifetime is a

start this process now during the transition

(worth up to five points, it encourages the

tool known as an environmental product

period from the current 2009 version of

adaptive reuse of materials or optimizes

declaration (EPD). EPDs that quantify

LEED to LEED v4, which comes into full

the

the impact from the raw material supply,

effect on October 31, 2016.

environmental

performance

of

products and materials); and •  Construction

Now that LEED is redefining what makes a

and

transport, and manufacturing stages are

Demolition

Waste

Management (up to two points).

material sustainable, less emphasis is being

called ‘cradle-to-gate,’ whereas those that go one step further to incorporate an endof-life stage are called ‘cradle-to-grave.’

put on a product’s individual attributes.

According to the LEED credit language,

This new emphasis is reflected in the

the intent of the three Building Product

In order to achieve this particular credit,

redistribution of points in the Materials &

Disclosure and Optimization credits is

project teams have several options. One

Resources (MR) credits. For example, under

“to encourage the use of products and

option is for project teams to use a minimum

LEED 2009, six points (from three separate

materials for which life-cycle information

of 20 different permanently installed products

credits) could be awarded for products with

is available and that have environmentally,

from at least five manufactures that have

recycled (i.e. MRc4, Recycled Content),

economically,

preferable

issued public declarations disclosing the

regional (i.e. MRc5, Regional Materials), or

life-cycle impacts.” Further, their intent

environmental impact of these products. In

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) content

is to reward project teams for selecting

other words, a single manufacturer cannot

(i.e. MRc7, Certified Wood), whereas in

products according to specific criteria.

contribute more than four EPDs to the total

LEED v4 the individual attributes of recycled

For example, the Environmental Product

20 that are required.

and FSC content are combined, and

Declarations credit calls for products “from

“Regional materials” is not a separate credit,

manufacturers who have verified improved

Each of the 20 must be unique—that is,

but is rather introduced as a value multiplier

environmental life-cycle impacts,” whereas

the purchased finished product has a

that applies to several credits.

the Sourcing of Raw Materials credit lauds

unique function, or is made by a different

materials “verified to have been extracted or

manufacturer. For example, two CMUs

sourced in a responsible manner.”

created by the same manufacturer with the

LEED

v4’s

MR

category

has

two

and

socially

prerequisites (i.e. Storage and Collection

only difference being their color would not

of Recyclables and Construction and

Similarly, the material ingredients credit

be considered unique materials; thus, only

Demolition Waste Management Planning)

recognizes products “for which the chemical

one EPD would be able to count towards

and five credits. Three of those credits

ingredients in the product are inventoried

the required 20.

SPRING 2016 23


T echnical R E V I E W

The most common method to comply with

credits from LEED 2009, such as recycled

The credit requires project teams meet one

this credit is for manufacturers to issue

content and certified wood.

of the recommended responsible extraction

product-specific International Organization for

Standardization

criteria for at least 25 percent—by cost—of

(ISO)-compliant,1

In Option 1, a raw material source and

the permanently installed products in the

cradle-to-gate EPDs, or to use industry-

extraction report can be provided by

building. Acceptable responsible extraction

wide generic EPDs. Industry-wide EPDs

either the raw material suppliers or the

criteria include recycled content, FSC

are valued at half value for credit calculation

manufacturer

report

certifications, and materials reuse, which

purposes, since product-specific EPDs are

must

supplier

have requirements that appear relatively

considered to be more reflective of an actual

extraction locations and describe supplier’s

product’s environmental impact.

commitments to:

The second option of this credit involves

•  long-term ecologically responsible land

themselves.

outline

raw

The

material

consistent from previous versions of LEED. One of the new options for complying

“multi-attribute optimization.” The credit requires project teams comply with one of

use; •  reducing

‘extended producer responsibility’ (EPR), environmental

a list of criteria for 50 percent—by cost—

extraction

of the permanently installed products on

processes; and

the project. One option is to demonstrate

•  meeting

with the responsible extraction criteria is

and/or

harms

from

also known as ‘product take-back.’ This

manufacturing

involves taking products at the end of their useful life and recycling them into the same

applicable

standards

products have environmental impacts lower

programs

voluntarily

than industry averages in at least three of

responsible sourcing criteria.

or

product in a ‘closed-loop’ system. Currently,

addressing

this credit option is difficult to achieve because there are limited products with

the following categories:

EPRs—the authors are unaware of any for

• global warming potential (i.e. greenhouse gases [GHGs]);

The project team must have a minimum of

CMUs or other masonry products. (Some

20 permanently installed products from at

exist, for example, for carpeting.) Further,

least five manufacturers that have publicly

products meeting criteria for this credit are

• depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer;

issued these reports. Third-party-verified

valued at 50 percent of their cost.

• acidification of land and water sources;

corporate

• eutrophication;

reports that comply with a set of approved

To meet this credit of responsible extraction

• formation of tropospheric ozone; or

frameworks such as the Global Reporting

practices, some CMU manufacturers provide

•  depletion

Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Report are

products with recycled content to projects.

preferred (these reports contribute full value

The recycled content credit is calculated in

to the credit calculations), but self-declared

the same way as it was in LEED 2009—

For this credit, some CMU manufacturers

reports are also acceptable (these reports

that is, the sum of postconsumer recycled

can issue EPDs for products made with

provide half value).

content plus one-half the pre-consumer

of

nonrenewable

energy

resources.

social

responsibility

(CSR)

recycled CO2 using proprietary technology

recycled content. The credit states products

that also reduces GHGs associated with

The most common framework for creating

meeting the recycled content criteria are

manufacturing processes.

these reports is that which is set out by

valued at 100 percent of their cost in credit

the GRI, which has a framework outlining

calculations.

Sourcing of raw materials

what needs to be included in the report in

There are two opportunities to achieve

the economic, environmental, and social

Building

Product

Disclosure

Material ingredients

and

categories.2 That last category has several

Optimization−Sourcing of Raw Materials.

sub-categories, including labor practices

Product

The first option is to publish a raw material

and decent work, human rights, social and

Material Ingredients, but only the first two

source and extraction report, and the

product responsibility.

options are currently viable. The first option

second is for the manufacturer to engage in

There are three options to achieve Building Disclosure

and

Optimization–

is around material ingredient reporting.

sustainable leadership extraction practices.

In Option 2, the manufacturer must engage in

Projects must use at least 20 different

This is the credit that captures many of the

sustainable leadership extraction practices.

permanently installed products from at least


T echnical R E V I E W

five different manufacturers using one of

of compliance include products certified

which is a significant portion of the 20 total

the approved programs to demonstrate the

under Cradle to Cradle (where v2 Platinum

documents required to collect the credit. If

chemical inventory of the products.

products are valued at 150 percent of cost,

the products meet a certain set of criteria,

for instance) and GreenScreen (where

such as local sourcing and the absence of

Acceptable approaches include products

products can be valued at 150 percent

the highest level of hazardous material, they

that

of cost if they undergo a full GreenScreen

may be eligible for additional points.

have

published

health

product

declarations (HPDs) in accordance with

Assessment).

the HPD Open Standard, or products that

Regional materials multiplier

have been certified by Cradle to Cradle

The third option within this credit involves

(v2 Basic or v3 Bronze level). HPDs are

supply chain optimization. This credit is not

points were awarded to projects that sourced

transparency documents similar to EPDs,

currently viable, but USGBC has assembled

materials regionally. However, this is no

except they disclose materials that may

a working group to iron out the details of this

longer the case in LEED v4. Under the new

pose a health risk for either an end user or

credit in order to make it viable. The intention

program, separate points are not awarded

a person involved in the manufacturing of

of the credit is to encourage sourcing from

for sourcing materials regionally, but rather

that product. To achieve this credit, a single

manufacturers who “engage in validated

a “regional material multiplier” is applied to

manufacturer can contribute up to four

and robust safety, health, hazard, and risk

other categories to increase or decrease the

HPDs toward the 20 required.

programs.”

value of the points in the credit calculations.

A second option takes it to the next level

The easiest way for masonry producers to

For each of the three Building Product

of optimization where one point is awarded

contribute to this credit is by issuing HPDs

Disclosure and Optimization credits, the

when products are used that document

or Cradle2Cradle certifications. An individual

regional materials multiplier is applied in the

their

optimization

company can provide HPDs/C2Cs on up

same way. Products sourced within 160 km

employing various approved tools. Options

to four products for a particular project,

(100 mi) of the project site are valued at 200

material

ingredient

In the MR credit in previous versions of LEED,

SPRING 2016 25


T echnical R E V I E W

percent of their cost in credit calculations.

Guidelines, and 21930, Sustainability in

member of the Health Product Declaration

Another major change is the regional

Building

Manufacturers’ Advisory Panel. She can be

material threshold has been reduced from

Declaration of Building Products.

reached at ccodemcneil@carboncure.com.

2. Visit www.globalreporting.org/

Abstract

Construction−Environmental

800 km (500 mi) down to 160 km.

Conclusion

resourcelibrary/GRIG4-Part1-Reporting-

As concrete masonry unit manufacturers continue to promote sustainable practices, they will seek out new opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of the

Principles-and-Standard-Disclosures.pdf.

Concrete

masonry

units

(CMUs)

are

inherently green building materials. Masonry has many attributes that contribute to

Authors

its resilience including protection against

Jennifer Wagner, MSc, MBA, LEED

rotting, mold, and fungus, and resistance

products they manufacture—implementing

Green Associate, is the vice president of

against

CO2 recycling technology is just the first

sustainability for CarbonCure Technologies,

translates into lower maintenance costs

step. With both EPDs and HPDs available

a company that retrofits concrete plants

and reduced virgin materials. CMU strength

for these products, architects can ask for

with a technology that recycles waste

and ability to withstand severe weather

these documents to help them achieve

carbon dioxide into the building units.

and fire are helping to meet new demands

credits and points on projects going after

Experienced with carbon accounting, she is

by designers for climate-resistant building

either LEED 2009 or LEED v4 certification.

a member of the Health Product Declaration

materials. Further, masonry’s thermal mass

Manufacturers’ Advisory Panel. Wagner

benefits can reduce energy bills and improve

can be contacted via e-mail at jwagner@

thermal comfort in buildings. This article

carboncure.com.

looks at the material within the context of

Notes 1. ISO

standards

include

14025,

Environmental Labels and Declarations− Type

III

Principles

Environmental and

Declarations:

Greater

the LEED v4 rating system. Chelsea

Code-McNeil,

LEED

Green

14040,

Associate, is CarbonCure’s sustainability

MasterFormat No.

Management−Lifecycle

coordinator, and works to reduce the

04 22 00−Concrete Unit Masonry

Assessment: Principles and Framework,

carbon footprint of the concrete industry.

14044,

Management−

Formerly a LEED coordinator for a prominent

UniFormat No.

Lifecycle Assessment: Requirements and

architectural firm, Code-McNeil, she is a

B2010−Exterior Walls

Environmental

Procedures,

termites.

Environmental

resilience


CONCRETE NEWS

Concrete News

SPRING 2016

Chairman’s Award

For more than 23 years, the Alabama Concrete

At

the

Alabama

Concrete

Industries

Industries

Foundation

has

awarded scholarships to students enrolled

Association’s Annual Business Meeting

in

held in January, Bill Moore received the

architecture at our state’s universities. Since

building

science,

engineering

or

2016 Chairman’s Award for his outstanding

1993, we have awarded 46 scholarships

career and leadership in the concrete

totaling over $256,000, and since 2006

industry.

the foundation has given away two $8,000 scholarships annually. This year’s recipients

Congratulations to our 2016 Chairman

were Rebecca Nylen, a student at Auburn

Award winner, Bill Moore.

University majoring in civil engineering, and Logan Holley, who is also studying civil

Foundation Scholarships Awarded

engineering at the University of Alabama.

SPRING 2016 27


CONCRETE NEWS

Concrete Companies paint trucks to raise cancer awareness Two member companies have each painted a concrete truck to promote breast cancer awareness. Kerr Ready Mix painted the entire truck pink in honor of Betty Agan Lee, breast cancer survivor since 1986. Each year Sherman Industries paints a truck to recognize various foundations, and this year they painted ribbons on the truck in honor of the “Find a Cure” campaign. We are proud to have members of the concrete industry supporting such a wonderful cause!

2016 SUMMER CALENDAR

April

MAY

JUNE

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 ACI Field Testing - Alex City, AL

 ACI Field Testing - Montgomery, AL

 Summer Convention - Sandestin, FL

7 8 9

21 22 23

 ACI Field Testing - Mobile, AL

 ACI Field Testing - Troy, AL


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