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A L A B A M A CO NCR E TE I NDU STRIES ASSOC IATION M AGAZ IN E | SPR I N G 2015


SPRING 2015

ConcreteWorks is a publication of the Alabama Concrete Industries Association and features articles and photographs pertaining to product applications, educational opportunities, as well as innovative construction techniques impacting the industry. Please email rlindsay@ alconcrete.org with any comments regarding featured articles in ConcreteWorks or to suggest a story idea for a future edition. Rebecca Lindsay,

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Climbing out of the Ditch

A 4-acre site in West Montgomery is now

18

Top Block Award

Carrie A. Tuggle Elementary School was

in the midst of a three-phase project that,

this year’s recipient of ACIA’s prestigious

when completed, will help the city to

Top Block Award. Read how the school

resolve long standing issues with storwater

was designed and constructed in the

runoff and pollution.

hilly Enon Ridge neighborhood of Birmingham. (ON THE COVER)

6

5 Myths

Read this in-depth article by Don Beers

22

Lateral Bracing

Masonry can be the best wall system

Art Director & Editor

on 5 Common Myths about energy. You’ll

available for resisting high winds and

John Sorrell, Editor

learn what the PNNL energy study is and

preventing damage to structures. Don

what information can be obtained from it.

Beers explains how lateral bracing at the top of a wall provides critical connection.

www.alconcrete.org www.mysaferoom.org

10

Architect Spotlight

Creig Hoskins knew that architecture could be a good profession for him to pursue because of his love of drawing at an early age. Thirty years after his career began, he is the proud owner of HOSKINS Architeture, LLC, in Birmingham.

14

Concrete Thinking

The University of Alabama has aggressively improved its research capability in the last seven years by investing in new state-of-the-art engineering and educational facilities. Read more to find out what is happening in the school’s College of Engineering, including its new concrete testing facility.

25 27

Concrete News

2015 Calendar


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

I B M I L C OF THE DIT

Five years ago, the intersection of Fairview

Montgomery is in the midst of a three-phase

park with several unique environmental

Avenue and Interstate 65 was home to

project. What used to be called a ditch is

features. The park’s focal point is a man-

a

now being called the Genetta Stream

made wetland designed to restore the

surrounding the site was polluted with oil and

Restoration

water quality of the stream flowing through

hydraulic fluids. Old concrete culverts built

the former vacant lot will help the city of

to contain an urban stream were clogged

Montgomery resolve long-standing issues

with trash. Nearby residents appropriately

with stormwater runoff and pollution.

long-abandoned

glass

factory.

Soil

Project.

When

completed,

called the spot “Genetta Ditch”. Today, the 4-acre site in the heart of West

the site. To further reduce pollutants reaching the stream, walking areas are being built with

The former industrial eyesore is being

specially designed interlocking concrete

converted into an attractive inner-city

pavers.


T U O G BINCH

PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

IT

For this part of the project, designers turned

Stewart says when installed, the Eco-Priora

on-site. This ensures storm drains won’t be

to Block USA for a new type of permeable

permeable units provide the classic look of a

overwhelmed in a flash flood.”

paver called Eco-Priora. “This project is a

traditional brick-shaped paver. The resulting

first for the state of Alabama,” says Block

paved surface is smooth and compliant

Beneath the pavers are several layers of

USA’s Bobby Coffey. “Eco-Priora has a

with all requirements of the Americans with

stone. This open-graded base helps store

unique 8% void that’s great for handling

Disabilities Act (ADA).

water and slowly release it back into the soil.

stormwater runoff while being well-suited to

Permeable pavers and the crushed stone

pedestrian areas like those found in the new

“The product is great looking but it also has

base work together to manage stormwater,

Genetta Park.”

great function,” he says. “Eco-Priora allows

stop sewer overflows and keep pollutants

stormwater to go through and be contained

out of the water.

Installers leveling bedding course | Montgomery, AL

SPRING 2015 3


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

“The paver, along with the base and sub-

water body when the project started.

base, cleans the rain water as it passes

Beginning in the 1960s, the stream was

through. It takes away the total suspended

channelized underground using concrete

solids and some of the phosphates,” says

pipes to facilitate urban development.

Coffey.

This channelization led to an increase in

The project is also lined with several concrete segmental retaining walls which seamlessly tie-in to the park’s natural appearance.

Eco Priora Pavers

“Because the walls are shorter, this project used a six-inch unit,” says Coffey. “The retaining wall blocks are used to bring the right elevation and look to Genetta Park.”

About the Park Top left: Preconstruction site

Fairview Environmental Park is located on a four-acre site at the intersection of Fairview

Eco-Priora® has become the

Avenue and Interstate 65. The site was a

permeable paver of choice among

former brownfield containing petroleum and

design professionals. This paver

asbestos contamination.

features interlocking spacers that offer advanced interlocking

Flowing through the site is the Genetta

capability under traffic loads

Stream, an urban waterway that is a major

compared to other rectangular

tributary of Catoma Creek, which was as a

permeable pavement systems on

Clean Water Act Section 303(d) impaired

the market. The flat surface and minimal chamfers of Eco-Priora make it well-suited to pedestrian areas and for ADA handicapaccessible pavements where a smoother surface is desired. Eco-Priora® pavers are ideal for residential, municipal, and commercial applications, such as walkways, patios, driveways, courtyards, plazas, retail areas, entry areas, parking lots, and streets. It can be installed in a number of patterns such as herringbones, running bond, and basketweaves.


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

impermeable surfaces, the elimination of the

also financed the design work, acquired

Partnership for Sustainable Communities.

stream and riparian habitat, and increased

the land in order to construct the park,

The goal of the project was to preserve the

pollutant loading to the watershed.

and contributed matching-share funds for

history of the trail while also revitalizing the

federal program dollars.

underserved neighborhoods it traverses.

The Fairview Environmental Park (Genetta

Work began with EPA conducting 18

Park) project began in 2009. The project

Phase II of the project, consisted of the

brownfields site assessments along the

consisted of three (3) original phases. Two

construction of an urban plaza, which

trail to determine the sites in most need

of the original phases have been completed

included green infrastructure and a variety

of revitalization. EPA, the U.S. Army

to date.

of sustainable elements to assist in the

Corps of Engineers, and the National

collecting and remediation of stormwater

Park Service supported nine community-

Phase I consisted of the remediation of

before it enters into Genetta Stream. Green

visioning workshops, which allowed the

contaminated soils and the creation of

infrastructure included permeable pavers,

communities to share their improvement

a constructed wetland, which included

silva cells for healthy trees, and native

and development ideas. The City of

“daylighting” the Genetta Stream restoring

plants to form a rain garden and a shaded

Montgomery also conducted community

the

The

urban plaza. The goal of this phase was to

outreach sessions with HUD Community

constructed wetland and stream daylighting

streams

natural

processes.

use highly visible features to demonstrate

Development Block Grant funds.

will help remediate stormwater by removing

how green infrastructure can be used

urban debris, reduce sediment loads, and

as educational elements in an urban

filter bacteria from sewage leaks in the

environment. Phase Two cost $1.3 million

sanitary sewer system before flowing to

and was funded with dollars from EPA’s

Catoma Creek. Based on the elevation,

Clean Water State Revolving Loan Fund and

native shrubs, trees, and grasses were

HUD CDBG funds.

planted to create three distinct planting

DESIGN TEAM •Judd Langham, 2D Studio, LLC. (Project Manager);

zones, stream ecology, riparian ecology,

The Fairview Environmental Park (Genetta

•Thomas Doyle, LA+South Inc.

and the upland stream ecology. The $1.5

Park) Project is part of a larger brownfields

(Lead Landscape Architect);

million cost for Phase I of the project

cleanup and community revitalization effort

•S&ME Inc. (Environmental

was funded through an ADEM Section

along the Selma to Montgomery National

Engineer);

319 grant, a loan from Alabama’s EPA-

Historic Voting Rights Trail. The effort

•Krebs Engineering (Civil Engineer);

funded Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund,

began as a partnership between EPA and

•Grant Engineering LLC. (Structural

and a HUD Community Development

ADEM, along with the U.S. Department of

Engineer);

Block Grant. The city of Montgomery

Transportation (DOT) and HUD, through the

SPRING 2015 5


T echnical R E V I E W

5 Common Myths About Energy This article is a brief introduction to the

zones. However, it did confirm the value of

development, there is little room for doubt

energy research recently completed by

mass that researchers have verified over the

or dissension. In other words the results are

Pacific NW National Laboratories (PNNL)

past 40 years on energy use in residential

rock solid – and favorable to high mass wall

and funded by the Masonry Assoc of FL

structures. This is, in essence, a very good

systems.

(MAF) and the National Concrete Masonry

thing as it also means the research over the

Assoc (NCMA).

This research is ground

past 40 years validates this recent research.

The results are groundbreaking in the

The

Combined with the technical force of

breadth and scope of the walls compared

masonry industry would certainly have

PNNL; the proven validity of Energy Plus™

- 607 different combinations of CMU,

preferred it showed wild increases in the

modeling software used in the research;

wood and ICF. Almost every conceivable

value of thermal mass across all climate

and the carefully documented research

arrangement of standard building products

breaking – but not astounding.

AUBURN UNIVERSITY RAPTOR CENTER | AUBURN, AL


T echnical R E V I E W

compared “apples to apples” across every

Things I always wanted to know about

little dollar return. In Miami, where we have

climate zone in the US.

energy and masonry (was not afraid to ask)

the largest difference, your igloo cooler

but could never find the real answer.

wall insulation gets you the equivalent of a

It leaves nowhere

to hide. Additionally, the research is leading edge in that it moves us past discussions of “R”

Q1

Starbucks Frappuccino and lemon pound What

do

save

when

you

REALLY

you

insu-

value to the ability to see the actual kWhs

late the beejebers out of the exte-

(and thus $$) differences between walls with

rior walls of a typical Florida home?

varying mass, insulation levels and insulation arrangements. It brings all discussions on wall insulation levels into clear monetary focus, putting it in the correct perspective.

A1

cake a month. In Orlando you’ll have to pass on the lemon pound cake.

Q2

As you continue to increase insulation in the exterior walls

Real Answer (as opposed to all

of a Florida home is there an optimum level

of the ridiculousness floating

beyond which you are just wasting your

around the internet)

money?

Quadrupling the insulation in your walls sounds great until you find out that it only

Super high R value wall systems don’t pay

saves you a mere $100 a year and will never

for themselves anywhere in the Florida

give you payback for the first cost of the

climate. The maximum dollar savings that

higher R value wall!

can be achieved by changing the insulation

A2

Real

Answer

(as

opposed

to what your local insulation

salesman is going to tell you)

of the exterior walls in a 2000 sf one story

In Florida your return on exterior wall

The data base is huge – nearly 22,000

home is roughly $100 per year. That’s it.

insulation starts to diminish rapidly. I always

individual analysis were run. Thousands of

And that is NOT going to pay for the $4000

knew this was generally true – but I now

Table 1: Comparison of Energy Savings of the Least and Most Insulated Walls in Florida] Total Energy $ Savings per Year Over Standard CMU w/R4 Added Insulation (2000 sf Single Story Home)

$ Savings in Miami

$ Savings in Orlando

$ Savings in Jax

Cost of Energy Upgrade

Payback Period 6 for Mia

Wall#

Wall Disc

Overall U Value

1

CMU R4

.172

0

0

0

0

0

3

ICF R20

.046

$101

$79

$96

$4,2075

41.5 yrs

energy use comparisons can be made on

plus dollars it is going to take to do it.

various wall types and climate zones. For

know EXACTLY how it is true. Insulation beyond the R4 to R8 range for mass exterior

the purposes of this article I have picked out

Table 1 was generated from the PNNL data

walls is a complete waste of money.

5 eye opening truths that specifically relate

and clearly shows the HVAC savings when

to Florida’s climate and building types. The

you change out the walls from R4 CMU to

Figure one shows the savings for various

PNNL research gives is the REAL answer

R20 ICF. The overall U value is - well – the

levels of insulation. Going from no insulation

to residential energy questions that have

overall U value. I haven’t got room for a

to a nominal R4 in Miami makes perfect

plagued masonry for the past 4 decades.

detailed answer in this article for U stuff so

sense. It costs around $240 and saves you

I am not going to go through the details of

just consider it the insulation value of the wall

$70 or so per year. Going from R4 insulation

the research – for that you can view the two

with the smaller number having the better

to R8 insulation is a marginal return of

technical reports on our website at www.

insulation.

What is clear is that approx. 4

around $53/year on an initial investment of

floridamasonry.com.

times the insulation value nets you precious

$770 for the upgraded insulation package.

SPRING 2015 7


T echnical R E V I E W

Table 2 - Energy Differences Between R4 CMU and R13 Wood Walls Total Energy $ Savings per Year Over Standard CMU w/R4 Added Insulation Wall#

Wall Disc

Overall U Value

Miami

Orlando

Jax

11

CMU R4

.172

0

0

0

12

4” Wood R13

.092

$46

$15

$18

Increasing your insulation from R8 to R20

for all practical purposes a dead heat (your

homes, offsetting any incremental energy

costs you around $4000 and nets you a

monthly allotment is down to free coffee at

savings by 10 to 30 time.

whopping additional $48 per year of energy

Publix and a donut).

savings. This is a straight payback of over 80 years and not worth the investment no matter how you crunch the numbers.

Q3

Can masonry homes with R4 insulation be energy efficient in

Jacksonville with the cold winter weather? Are R13 wood frame homes really

much

more

energy

efficient than R4 masonry homes?

A3

Q4 A4

Real Answer (Not what you hear from the track wood frame

Q5

Do you have to put the insulation on the exterior of a

mass wall in order for it to be effective?

A5

Real Answer (Not what you get from self-appointed energy

gurus)

builders in Jacksonville) Real to

Answer what

(As

your

opposed

local

wood

distributor will tell you)

As we knew from past research, exterior We were surprised that mass did not

insulation is more efficient; however, this

perform better in Miami but elated at how

research allowed us to look at the actual

close CMU came to wood in Jacksonville

cost savings.

The energy efficiency of CMU with R4

- $18/year difference – nearly as good as

insulation and wood walls with R13 bat

Orlando! (see Table 2).

When you factor

Table 3 is a direct comparison of the same

insulation is neck and neck across Florida.

in the moisture/mold degradation of wood’s

wall with the only difference being insulation

Table 2 shows the real HVAC energy savings

batt insulation over time we are back to what

on the interior or the exterior of the wall. The

in Miami, Orlando and Jacksonville.

we always knew – CMU with a minimum of

research data shows that indeed, exterior

insulation is very energy efficient everywhere

insulation is more energy efficient but only at

Wood edges out CMU in Miami at $46/

in Florida! In addition, insurance for wood

around 4 to 6 cents per day.

year but this lead reduces to $15/year in

frame homes costs $150 to $575 (10-

Orlando. $15 per year ($1.25 per month) is

20%) more annually11 than CMU masonry

At this small savings exterior insulation is just

Table 3 - Comparison of Energy Savings of Interior vs. Exterior Insulation - Florida CMU Walls Total Energy Savings per Year of Exterior Insulation over Interior Insulation

Jax

Cost of Exterior Insulation 10

Payback Period 6 for Jax

Wall#

Wall Disc

Overall U Value

13

CMU Int Insul

.10

0

0

0

0

0

14

CMU Ext Insul

.10

$14

$17

$22

$3366

153 yrs

Miami

Orlando

AUBURN UNIVERSITY RAPTOR CENTER | AUBURN, AL


T echnical R E V I E W

not feasible. The interior insulation location

for use in the North Florida climate – FALSE!

currently being used in almost all CMU walls

deterioration of batt insulation over time (the average rainfall in South Florida is 60 inches

looks very cost effective. This is a 40-year

• Insulation is only effective on the outside of

discussion item solved for Florida – keep the

CMU – FALSE!

insulation on the inside of the wall.

per year). Masonry is the proven system for building

The energy data from the PNNL research will

Florida homes.

The comparisons presented in this article

certainly be dissected by those depending

has quietly dominated the market of

were chosen to highlight the amount of bad

on exaggerated claims of energy savings.

exterior wall building systems – for many

information and confusion associated with

For 60+ years masonry

good reasons – energy efficiency not the

them. When it comes to energy it seems

The force of this research is that there is

least.

like everyone has a product to sell or a

no better information currently available –

this comprehensive study to forcefully

personal “green” perspective to promote.

anywhere.

counteract the wild claims being promoted

The real value of this research is being able

The masonry industry undertook

in the residential construction arena. Added

systems. Not having the actual yearly dollar

The Rest of the Story

differences between walls leaves too much

In addition to energy efficiency CMU has

power and hopefully, with the knowledge

room for exaggeration and the imagination.

tremendous advantages.

Unlike wood

provided by this research, home buyers

“If no one knows - then anything goes” and

walls, CMU is unaffected by water and is

can make an educated decision on the

myths on energy efficiency abound:

not a food source for mold – no rot, no mold

best building material for their new home –

and no deterioration over time. Because it

concrete masonry.

to quickly and easily get to the real cost vs value relationship between virtually all wall

• Putting heavy insulation in your walls can

does not burn, your home insurance rates

save you hundreds of dollar PER MONTH

for CMU are 10 - 20% lower than for wood

– FALSE!

homes. Generally, this results in a savings

to these untruthful claims is the increasingly accepted notion that any amount of energy savings is worth any cost.

Knowledge is

of $150-$575 per year11 for insurance alone. • More insulation is always better – FALSE!

Structurally, CMU has proven far superior to wood in hurricanes and wind storms. CMU

• R13 wood walls are much more energy

is unaffected by the catastrophic termite

efficient than R4 CMU – FALSE!

damage to wood structures in Florida. And, getting back to energy, the minor differences

• R4 masonry is not energy efficient enough

in Table 2 are quickly reversed with moisture

SPRING 2015 9


A R C H ITE CT S P O T L I G H T

a Thoughtful Approach Creig Hoskins of HOSKINS Architecture LLC A natural leader and communicator,

always loved drawing. But as he entered his

State University where he was accepted

Creig Hoskins knew that architecture

high school years, he moved to Michigan to

into the school’s architecture program.

could be a good profession for him to

live with his uncle who worked for General

pursue. After dabbling in some drafting

Motors. He assumed he would just enter

After graduating from MSU in 1985,

and design classes while an undergrad, it

college and perhaps design cars rather

he was recruited by several firms but

sealed the deal.

than buildings but, as GM dealt with the

ultimately ended up at Giattina and Aycock

economic downfall of the early 80s, Creig

Architecture Studio, where he climbed his

returned home and enrolled at Mississippi

way up the ladder and ended up as senior

Creig was born in Clarksdale, MS and


AR CHI TE CT S P O T L I G H T

vice president before leaving the company

material, including George Washington

to open his own firm in 2005.

Carver High School and the Boy Scout Headquarters.

And now, 30 years after his career began, Creig is owner of HOSKINS Architecture

“Just about all of my projects use concrete

LLC,

in some manner,” he says. “However,

a

minority-owned

professional

architecture firm in Birmingham.

none designed by Hoskins Architecture has had the opportunity to use concrete

The of

firm

specializes

healthcare,

in

the

educational

design

in so much of an expressive manner, but

facilities,

there are projects that I have managed

corporate, judicial, ecclesiastical and multi-

with my previous company that expressed

unit housing facilities while using concrete

concrete, such as the Carver High School

as a key component.

Entrance using board formed concrete and the Boy Scout Headquarters at Liberty

“Concrete is chosen for certain designs

Park is all concrete with a green roof.”

because it is a proven product,” says Creig. “It’s strong, simple, clean and versatile.”

“Creig has an innate ability to create very thoughtful designs, which has made him

While notable pieces of architecture that

an award-winning architect,” said a fellow

LEFT: Carver High School entry from

include concrete such as the Hoover Dam,

colleague. “He’s always fun to work with,

exterior photo courtesy of GA Studio

Le Corbusier’s Chapel of Notre Dame

and it makes the experience that much

TOP RIGHT: Carver High School interior

and Philips Pavilion are some of Creig’s

more seamless.”

entry photo courtesy of GA Studio

favorites for their ‘clean, simple forms,’ he

BOTTOM RIGHT Inglenook Library

tries to incorporate the product into all of

Creig notes that his favorite thing about

his personal designs as well.

his profession is how it can strengthen the

interior entry

community if thoughtfully done. Throughout his career, he has designed several structures that heavily used the

“The great thing about architecture is

SPRING 2015 11


A R C H ITE CT S P O T L I G H T

GET TO KNOW CREIG Q. What’s your favorite food? A. Grilled fish and candied yams. Not necessarily in that order. Q. What is an interesting fact that

About Hoskins Architecture

Since the creation of the United States Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

most people don’t know about you? A. It is hard for me to say no.

HOSKINS

Architecture

is

a

minority-

program,

many

design

professionals

owned professional Architectural firm in

are rising to the industry-wide call for

Q. Where did you grow up?

Birmingham, Alabama with more than

environmental

A. Mississippi & Michigan. However,

75 combined years of experience and

Creig’s 30 years of experience, however,

I would call Mississippi home.

the capability to develop sound design

environmental responsibility has always

strategies for a wide range of government

been a priority. In fact, as a member

and commercial projects.

of the project team, he helped design

Q. What’s the last book you read?

responsibility.

During

Homewood Middle School, the nation’s

A. Some of My Best Friends Are Black: The Strange Story of

HOSKINS Architecture’s philosophy is

first middle school to achieve a LEED

Integration in America.

to listen, learn and employ critical and

Silver certification. Not only were 95% of

creative thinking to use time, space, and

the school’s spaces day-lit, promoting

Q. Are any other members of your

resources effectively to enhance the

wellness

family architects?

client, community, and built environment

environment, but this design strategy

A. My brother-in-law Juan

without

Their

amounts to 38% energy savings, when

Milhouse is an architect.

team approach renders more efficient

compared to a code-compliant school of

and

our

its same size. Other sustainable design

Q. What are your hobbies?

clients whether the project requires

strategies were integrated as well, such

A. Golf

building and site design, renovations,

as a state-of-the-art building automation

interior

compromising

well-rounded

design,

quality.

solutions

landscape

for

and

the

optimum

learning

design,

system, the building’s orientation for

Q. What is the one tool you can’t

building information modeling, master

optimal use of daylight, low-flow plumbing

live without?

planning or feasibility studies.

fixtures, and recycled, local, and low-VOC materials. In addition to its notoriety for

A. I never thought I would say this. It’s my cell phone

Its understanding of diverse building

sustainability, its clever design won Honor,

typologies has created a well-rounded

Merit, and Best of Show Awards from the

and knowledgeable team capable of

American Institute of Architects and has

that no two problems are the same, and

undertaking

large

been published in Alabama Construction

everything is always new and challenging,”

or

project

News, Portico Magazine, The Birmingham

he says. “And using concrete is proven,

management, they have built relationships

News,

and helps to create a clean simple design

with other disciplines within the building

Construction.

that will respond to the owner’s needs

community with a proven record of

without any fussiness.”

technical competence as well as a shared

TOP: CHS Parking Deck & Data Center

passion for design excellence.

photo courtesy of GA Studio

small.

most Through

any

project,

years

of

and

Environmental

Design

+


Creig has an innate ability to create very thoughtful designs, which has made him an awardwinning architect

Regions Field from RR Park | BIRMINGHAM, AL

SPRING 2015 13


FE A T U R E

C oncr ete T hi nk ing The Un i v e r si t y o f A l a ba m a C onc r e te La b or ato ry


FE A T U R E

In 1837, The University of Alabama (UA)

lab is designed to offer maximum flexibility

studies. Extensive work with computer

became one of the first five universities in the

for research.

Much of the large-scale

modeling and data acquisition and analysis

nation to offer engineering classes. Today,

testing equipment can be reconfigured as

is currently under way. A two-story facility

UA’s fully accredited College of Engineering

necessary to accommodate a wide variety

of approximately 20,000 square feet is

has approximately 5000 students and more

of research needs.

equipped

than 200 faculty and staff.

with

comprehensive

modern

metal casting equipment. It provides space The lab features an innovative hybrid testing

and facilities for teaching, research, and

In the last seven years, the University has

system working in sync with a new 17-feet-

service to metal casting and processing

aggressively improved its research capability

by-17-feet uni-axial seismic simulator, or

industries and is one of the largest

by investing heavily in new state-of-the-

shake table. It is capable of testing up to

facilities of its kind in the United States.

art engineering research and educational

two-story buildings with a full capacity of

The laboratory houses all basic types of

facilities.

approximately 50,000 pounds. Installed on

equipment used in operating foundries and

a 32-inch concrete slab, which exceeds one

permits demonstration to students of most

Opened in January 2012, the South

million pounds, the shake table will move

of the practices encountered in making cast

Engineering

(SERC)

directionally to replicate many of the world’s

iron, steel, and nonferrous alloys which may

is the first building dedicated solely to

Research

Center

largest and most environmentally damaging

be of interest in addressing the needs of

the College of Engineering since 1960

earthquakes.

urban infrastructure.

designed to encourage collaboration across

The hybrid testing system is unique in

Research

scientific disciplines. The new three-story

providing real-time theoretical modeling

faculty include the development of green

building has 175,000 square feet and was

coupled with physical seismic lab simulation

materials, advance materials engineering,

constructed at cost of approximately $70

as it is operating, and the feedback adjusts

solidification

million. There are seven large multimedia

the simulation immediately. With the largest

high-temperature superconductors; metal

classrooms that include two with 40 seats,

shake table in the Southeast, U.S. the

matrix composites; mechanical properties

three with 50 seats and two lecture halls

University of Alabama is uniquely qualified to

of

seating 90 people. There are more than 40

perform the research on structural aspects

information technology; materials for fuel

research and instructional labs including

of urban infrastructure in a variety of global

cells; mathematical and physical modeling

nine flexible-use instructional labs that can

environments.

of materials-processing operations such

and purposely creates research hubs

seat 36 students each.

interests

science

materials;

of

the

and

materials

for

materials

technology;

magnetic

as solidification and steelmaking; plasma The metallurgical and materials engineering

processing of materials; electromagnetically

Specifically, the South Engineering Research

laboratories also provide unique capabilities

driven flow systems; corrosion control;

Center has advanced laboratory capability

for

research.

facilities

refractories; ceramics; fracture mechanics,

in structural, materials, energy, and electro-

for

solidification

chemical

resource reclamation; foundry methods;

mechanical engineering.

The labs are

metallurgy, mechanical processing, heat

uniquely designed to accommodate large

treating, specimen preparation, light and

scale testing. One of the largest research

electron

labs, of particular interest to the concrete

corrosion, and electrochemistry.

They

include

processing,

microscopy,

X-ray

diffraction,

and metal casting. In the fall of 2013, the College of Engineering opened the North Engineering Research

industry, is the Large Scale Structures

Center (NERC) as part of the overall master

Laboratory, which supports the building’s

New, specialized facilities also exist for rapid

plan to reshape engineering education

theme of “engineering on display”.

It is

and unidirectional solidification, container-

and research at the university. Those who

designed to satisfy both research and

less melting, chemical-vapor deposition,

moved into NERC focus on research in

educational objectives.

sputtering of thin films, thermogravimetric

materials characterization and technology,

the laboratory are actually comprised of

analysis,

properties,

specifically in structural characterization,

ballistic glass, which allows students and

plasma processing of materials, fuel cells,

composite and nanocomposites, coatings

visitors to observe research in action. The

thermodynamic properties, and surface

and

Windows into

physico-chemical

corrosion,

materials

processing,

SPRING 2015 15


FE A T U R E

U niqu e Feat u r es of t h e L a b *For our undergraduates, each student can now makes and test their own concrete cylinder as part of their sophomore-level materials class. Students are also introduced to nondestructive testing equipment for concrete in these classes. *From a research perspective, the concrete lab and other new facilities in the college are a major improvement. Included are: -two mortar mixers -three rotating drum concrete mixers (up to 6 cubic feet capacity) -pan mixer capable of making ultraand a 7,000-square-foot clean room that

high performance concretes (UHPC).

hosts research under strict environmental guidelines.

This allows students to make mortar or concrete in just about any quantity

The instructional labs, like those in SERC,

needed for research purposes.

are designed to be flexible so they can handle any of the College’s disciplines

The lab houses one of the few “pore

each semester. Research and instructional

presses” in the United States, which

labs have the ability to accommodate new

is a high-strength steel die that allows

research tools and equipment without major

students to squeeze out a sample

disruptions or heavy costs, an important

of the pore solution in hydrated

part of its design and construction.

cement paste under pressures up to 100,000 psi, which contributes to

The lab is one of several at UA that offer

our knowledge of how cement-based

the ability to test a range of structural

materials hydrate over time. It also

materials,

bamboo,

has equipment for isothermal and

welding and joining, as well as electronic,

reinforcing steel, nanocomposites, and

including

wood,

semi-adiabatic calorimetry, which

magnetic and photonic devices.

unconventional cementitious materials such

are additional tools to study the

as geopolymers. We are able to test how

hydration of cementitious materials,

Like SERC, the building is a significant

these will respond to a variety of loads,

and a collection of nondestructive

upgrade in research and laboratory teaching

loading rates, and environmental conditions.

testing equipment. The environmental

space. The four-story building has about

chambers are particularly special for

206,000 gross square feet that includes 59

“Since opening at UA in 2012, my students

research laboratories, five instructional labs

and I have focused our research activities

their combination of size and flexibility.


FE A T U R E

in the area of concrete durability,” says Wei

construction and environmental engineering.

Song, Ph.D, assistant professor, civil

“Researchers from many universities will be invited to test out novel NDE methods on a

construction,

and

environmental

common collection of reference specimens.”

engineering. “It’s generally easy to make concrete that can meet the required 28-day

Wang’s research group focuses on applying

compressive strength for a project.

nanotechnology

and

green

chemistry

principles to enhance the sustainability of Making concrete that can stand the test of

construction materials. “

time remains a challenge, and researchers are constantly trying to find ways to predict

On nanotechnology, we invented a new

50+ years of field performance using

method to grow carbon nanotubes on

accelerated

Another

cement or fly ash particles which can

challenge we are seeking to address is how

laboratory

tests.

be used to manufacture self-dispersed

best to evaluate deteriorating concrete in

nanocomposite,” he says. “We also show

our existing infrastructure.”

that calcium carbonate core-silica shell nano-microparticles can be in-situ produced

“To that end, we have worked with the

in fresh concrete. A green routine to recycle

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to

waste or demolished concrete has also

develop a set of mockup specimens with

been developed. “

different types and degrees of distress for their nondestructive evaluation (NDE)

Currently, two projects are being finished

center.,” says Ed Back, professor, civil,

that should lead to cost savings and benefit Alabama’s

transportation

infrastructure.

The first is to help ALDOT to identify better bridge deck sealers, which protect our concrete bridge decks from moisture and salt ingress, which can lead to corrosion of the reinforcing steel over time. The second project is a PCA-funded study to examine the potential for reintroducing carbonate aggregates such as limestone and dolomite in concrete pavement construction. “Limestone, in particular, tends to have a low coefficient of thermal expansion; this reduces cracking and joint movement in pavements, and can allow for more efficient pavement designs.,” says Wang. “This work was primarily a review of the state-of-theart in pavement materials, design, and rehabilitation, but we have identified several research needs and hope to partner with ALDOT on experimental work in the near future.”

SPRING 2015 17


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

Top Block

Award Winner Carrie A. Tuggle Elementary School, located

site with its 13 structures in 1934. It was

in Birmingham, Alabama in the Eron Ridge

renamed Enon Rige School.

neighborhood, was awarded the Alabama

Project at a Snapshot

Concrete Industries Association’s “Top

Two years later the Board honored Mrs.

Block Award” at the American Institute

Tuggle by renaming it “ Tuggle Elementary.”

The new 80-square-foot Tuggle

of Architect’s (AIA) Annual Design Award

She is buried on the school grounds.

K-5 School contains:

program in Birmingham in February.

• 28 Classrooms “We found it to be an honor to be

• A 300 –seat gymnasium

The school was founded as the Tuggle

commissioned to design the new Tuggle

•M  usic, art and computer

Institute by social worker Carrie A. Tuggle

Elementary School K-5 based on the

in 1903.

founder’s legacy,” says Clay Dorsey of

• An open atrium area

Dorsey Architects.

•P  oured in place concrete

As a privately run charity, Mrs. Tuggle’s

rooms

FEMA Storm Shelter with

passion was to provide safe housing and

The new two-story building is approximately

restrooms and emergency

a good education to orphaned African-

80,000 square feet, with 28 classrooms, a

power backup

American children.

300-seat gymnasium, and music, art and

•A  memorial plaza around

computer rooms. A cafeteria, library and

the tomb of the school’s

In 1926, the institute became associated

media center and administrative offices are

namesake, Carrie A. Tuggle

with the Birmingham City Schools, and the

included in the design, as well as an open

Board of Education bought the 15-acre

atrium in the lobby.


Carrie A. Tuggle Elementary School | Birmingham, AL

SPRING 2015 19


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

“We designed two towers one that is reminiscent of the one found on the school’s forerunner, the Tuggle Institute, and the other a clock tower placed over the entry and library and media center,” says Dorsey. “Separate areas are designated for school bus and car pick-up and drop-off points. Football and baseball fields are placed in the “bowl” area behind the school.” The

project’s

total

construction

cost

was $10.2 million. Enon Ridge is a hilly neighborhood,

and

extensive

grading

work had to be done before construction started. The design documents took seven months, with construction taking about 21 months. Some of the unique features of the school

and help slow down sound transition.”

include an open atrium with a 22’-8”

Interior corridor features stained concrete

high glazed opening area overlooking the

Precast concrete was used around the

hillside, and a Memorial plaza around the

main entrance area using precast concrete

existing tomb of the school’s namesake.

coping, bands and lintels over openings

floors

and precast concrete trim around the “We also we used brick veneer columns

window below the clock tower.

with concrete masonry unit (CMU) backup and interior brick veneer walls through

“We had a very challenging site with

the main lobby and the open atrium area

several anomalies; however it played to our

overlooking the hillside,” he says. CMUs are

advantage particularly the steep slopes,”

durable and economical for classrooms,

says Dorsey. “We incorporated a cast-in-


PROJECT SPOTLIGHT

place concrete FEMA storm shelter on the

“We blended the design of the school into

slightly sloped gamble parapets with

sloping side of the site.”

and complemented the neighborhood. The

alternating flat parapets and different brick

building floor elevation was set lower than

colors and patterns, which were all done

The monumental stair in the open atrium

the former school that was demolished,

with CMU backups throughout.

is also cast-in-place concrete, as well the

so that the two story spaces and the high

retaining wall, which serves as the backup

volume spaces would not over power and

“The exterior and interior walls of the

for the brick veneer on the curved memorial

dominate the residential area.”

structure

plaza wall. In addition, all of the CMU’s cells

are

100%

concrete

block,”

says Dorsey. “The CMU interior walls are

throughout were filled with concrete, with

Dorsey said they planned the design so

excellent for school construction because

re-bars every 8 inches.

that the administration wing of the building

of its durability, maintenance and long term

was angled along a curved drive in order

cost savings.”

“We were mindful that the school was

to break up the long linear elevation. The

being placed in a residential area,” he says.

various elevations were articulated with

SPRING 2015 21


T echnical R E V I E W

Best Practices

Lateral bracing

Don Beers, PE

at top of wall provides critical connection Research confirms resiliency of structural masonry in major wind events Masonry can be the best wall system

Structural

available for resisting high winds and

understand

engineers

and

builders

type construction with that of construction using best practices, IBHS tested two 30’

preventing damage to structures. The weight

x 20’, single-story structures side by side in

and stability of the concrete masonry unit

• masonry walls taller than 4’ or 5’ must be

their wind tunnel facility in Chester County,

(CMU) or structural brick combined with the

designed as cantilevers or be supported at

South Carolina. Associations affiliated with

grouted rebar connections throughout the

both the top and bottom.

the building envelope (including walls, roof

wall give masonry a unique ability to stand

and doors) were consulted.

up to high wind pressures, even pressures

• cantilevered walls taller than 8’ usually

far in excess of the calculated design loads.

require special oversized foundations and

Best Practice vs Common Practice.

For masonry, and any other type of wall, one

additional vertical reinforcement at the base

Because of their experience with masonry

of the essential requirements for resistance

of the wall.

structures in high wind, both in theory and

to horizontal wind load is support by a

practice, IBHS approached the Masonry

roof or elevated floor at the top of the wall

• walls above 15’ in height are not

Association of Florida and the National

(referred to as diaphragm action). Walls with

usually

very

Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA)

lateral support at the top and the bottom

large foundation and heavy reinforcement

for help in designing masonry walls for the

are called simply supported as opposed to

necessary to handle the overturning and

two side-by- side commercial buildings.

cantilevered walls, which have no horizontal

bending moment.

One of the buildings (called Common) was

cantilevered

because

of

support at the top.

to contain the most common practices

IBHS Testing Gives Graphic Illustration of the Impact of Side Wall Connection

of masonry construction, many of which

the wall over, or if the connection to the

The Insurance Institute for Business & Home

best practices and current design code

foundation is strong enough, tries to over

Safety (IBHS) is dedicated to research and

requirements. The assembled design team

turn the foundation. This torque at the base

training as related to the evaluation of

agreed on four key differences in the two

is referred to by engineers as an overturning

residential and commercial construction

wall designs (see table page 23).

moment. The moment being simply a

materials and systems. Research performed

rotational force. This moment action has

at their test center is used to justify revisions

The virtual lack of continuity of the wall

to be resisted by a large founda tion with

to building codes and practices toward

vertical reinforcement into the bond beam

enough weight to resist the overturning

more resiliency in the built environment and

and poor connection to the roof in the

and creates excessive bending moment

a reduction of the cost to the public in both

common building was the primary failure

in the lower area of the wall. The bending

lives and property lost as a result of natural

area. Indeed, the Common building failed

moment in a cantilevered wall is four times

disasters.

in the wind test in the exact mode I have

The tall, unsupported cantilevered wall acts as a lever creating torque (high bending forces at the bottom) which tries to push

the bending moment in a wall of equivalent

include doing things as they have always been done. The second building (called Stronger) was to be built according to

seen played out in wind storms across

height braced (simply supported) at the top

In an effort to compare and contrast

Florida.

The

vertical

reinforcement

in

for horizontal (lateral) wind loads.

performance of typical commercial strip mall-

the wall of the Common building lacked

AUBURN UNIVERSITY RAPTOR CENTER | AUBURN, AL


T echnical R E V I E W

Common Building

Stronger Building

Amount of Vertical Reinforcement

Contained #4 vertical reinforcement on both sides of openings and in the corners

Added #4 vertical reinforcement at maximum spacing of 8’ on center along all walls

Connection of the bond beam to the vertical wall steel (Primary failure area)

No hook bars extended into the bond beam. Vertical bars were allowed to extend into the bottom of the bond beam ¼”

90° hook bars extended fully into the bond beam and extended down into the wall to lap with vertical wall steel

Corner bars for continuity of reinforcement in bond beams around corners

No corner bars were used in bond beams

Corner bars in bond beams were used to fully connect walls together at the top corners

Bond Beam Depth

Used an 8” deep bond beam at the top of the wall

Bond beam depth was increased to 16” (two courses). Both courses contained (2) #4 bars in top of ach course

adequate connection to the bond beam.

Portions of the test can be online seen at

to winds in the Category 2 hurricane range

Consequently,

of

disastersafety.org. Of all the masonry

(96-100 mph sustained wind speeds). The

approximately 45 to 50 psf pulled the bond

building designs I have ever been involved

collapsed wall was connected to the roof

beam away from the top of the wall leaving

with, this is the only one that was built to be

structure with a cut nail every 48’’, which

no horizontal support for the wall. It had little

blown down!

was obviously provided during – and for –

the

net

roof

up-lift

capacity since it was not designed to act as a cantilevered wall and thus had little means to resist the approximately 35 psf of wall net wind pressure.

construction, not for lateral support.

Most Vulnerable Structures

Pictured (on page 24) is an endwall of a

Churches, gymnasiums, box retail stores,

warehouse structure. While the wall was

warehouses and other structures with walls

very well reinforced, there was no tie in

The top wind gust during the test was

above 10’ in height and a single span roof

between the vertical wall reinforcement and

136 mph, or the equivalent of a 97 mph

system are at increased risk from high winds.

the bond beam (sound familiar?)

oneminute sustained wind speed. All wind

Where cast-in-place floors and roofs lock in

speeds are referenced to standard open

the exterior walls, the problem is much less

country con di tions at an elevation of 10m

likely. However, every exterior wall must be

(33’) (Exposure C in wind code terms).

properly connected into the structure at the

Both the IBC and the MSJC call for lateral

top and bottom for best performance.

support at the top of the wall. Section

Results indicate that proper reinforcement

Best Practices

1.7.4.1 of TMS 402-08 states, “Walls, After Hurricane Andrew made landfall in

columns and pilasters shall be designed to

turn,

Florida in 1992, we observed some classic

resist loads, moments and shears applied at

protects occupants and property. This

failures due to lack of connection. Large

the intersections with horizontal members”.

is especially important to the insurance

doors are vulnerable in high winds. If the

The location and number of these structural

industry as their research indicates that

large door fails on the windward side,

elements are obviously left up to the

one in four businesses that close during

increased pressure develops inside the

designer, but their presence is essential, as

a disaster does not repair their facilities

building and may blow out the side wall,

we have seen, to the wind load resistance

and reopen. This can have disastrous

particularly with a lack of connection bet

of the structure.

repercussions on the economy, as small

ween the wall and pre-stressed roof. This

businesses are vital, occupying 30- 50%

type of collapse would likely completely

Communication.

of all commercial space and accounting for

demolish the interior of the structure.

collaboration and communication between

and

detailing

structural

significantly

damage,

which

reduce in

54% of all sales in the US, according to the Small Business Administration.

Early

and

regular

members of the design team, construction We encountered a church structure exposed

team and inspectors can reinforce the

SPRING 2015 23


T echnical R E V I E W

singlefamily homes fair no better than their commercial counterparts. A standard failure mode is wind on the leading edge of the roof pries up decking, trusses progressively collapse into the structure, and the endwall, with no lateral bracing, collapses into the structure also. It is instructive to note that during the development of the Florida wind codes, the arguments over the proper bracing of the gable end were the most contentious and animated. Subsequent wind storms have ended the argument. Bracing of the gable endwall is essential! The solution is either adequate bracing of the importance

to

effort with out clear understanding of how

gable endwall back into the roof structure

lateral

critically important to the survival of the

or balloon framing where the endwall

structure the connectors are. The IBHS

spans from the foundation all the way up

study showed, how ever, that while

to the underside of the roof decking (roof

Detailing. Designers often have a floor

a building may perform accept ably

diaphragm including proper connection).

or roof near the top of the wall to act as

under normal conditions without those

lateral support (diaphragms). Without one,

connections, the time and cost of

solutions are not immediately obvious. For

rebuild ing after a storm or earthquake

some large open structures with tall walls, I

is exponentially more expensive than

Masonry

have gone to the extent of creating horizontal

the original savings were worth. And

advances in both design codes and

trusses span ning between the bearing

you run the risk of human injury or loss

computerization. Real-life failures are often

walls. In other cases, long tall walls may

of life as a result. Acting on the big picture,

from a simple omission. Not providing lateral

require regular vertical pilasters spanning

for the long term, is always better than a

support at the top of all walls is an easy-to-

between the foundation and roof diaphragm

shortterm savings.

understand and easily correctable mistake,

structural

of

proper

elements

to

connection prevent

connections from being overlooked.

with the wall spanning horizontally between these members.

The Answer design

has

made

incredible

not only in masonry construction but in all Checks and Balances. Without some

construction types. Sadly, it is also the most

foreknowledge by the inspector on the

common and unneces sary masonry failure

Another common oversight happens when

importance of proper roof-to-wall detailing,

mode I have seen from Florida hurricanes

the engineer of record assumes that the wall

he may miss checking for this when work is in

and tornados.

to roof connection is being detailed by roof

progress. After construction, the connection

supplier. Again, this can be resolved by early

areas may not be obvious or be hidden from

Reprinted with permission from SMART |

and open communication between parties.

view, especially if 20’ or 30’ off the ground,

dynamicsofmasonry v1.4

so verifying their placement may be difficult The Big Picture. Bearing wall connections

after the fact. Again, early commu ni cation

to the roof are generally not where the issue

and planning can help ensure not only that

arises, because there has to be some type

the work is being executed properly, but that

of connection to hold the roof in place.

it will be inspected for accuracy and verified.

Not so for the non-bearing walls. Special brackets or odd connectors attaching the roof and top of the endwall (non-bearing) may be ignored simply as a cost-saving

Is Residential Exempt? Unbraced

gable

endwalls

in

smaller,


C O N C R E T E NE W S

Concrete News

SPRING 2015

ACIF Pheasant Shoot raises $20,000+

Charles Bell was presented with the 2015

For more than 22 years, the Alabama

Chairman’s award at this year’s Annual

Concrete

Meeting held in January. He worked

awarded scholarships to students enrolled

in the concrete industry for 51 years,

in

and was involved with many notable

architecture at our state’s universities. Since

projects around the state and at Auburn

1993, we have awarded 44 scholarships

University. We were pleased to honor

totaling over $240,000, and since 2006

Charles with this coveted award, and are

the foundation has given away two $8,000

grateful to his service in the industry.

scholarships annually.  

Scholarship Recipients recognized at 2015 Annual Meeting

Industries

building

science,

Foundation engineering

has or

Congratulations to Katie Sheibley, a student at UAB and Heath Roeber, a student from Auburn University who were awarded the scholarships.

The ACIF Continental Pheasant Shoot was held this past November, and raised more than $20,000 for the Foundation. Fourteen companies sponsored four

member

companies

teams, with serving

as

overall sponsors. A total of 56 shooters participated. The event was held at Extreme Whitetails in Oneonta, AL, and takes place every two years to raise money for the Alabama Concrete Industry’s Foundation.

Charles Bell receives 2015 Chairman’s Award

Alabama Concrete Industries Foundation

SUMMER FALL 2014 25


C O N C R E T E NE W S

on the ACIA Board of Directors and the Concrete PAC.

ACIA introduces 2015 Board

Phil Webb named the Anniston Star’s 2015 Citizen of the Year

organizations including the Calhoun County

2015 Board of Directors

Home Builders Association, Calhoun County

• Sam Reed- Chairman

Habitat for Humanity, the JSU Foundation,

(Midsouth Aggregates) • Jeff Blankenship- Vice Chairman (Sherman Industries) • Greg Bowman- Secretary (Delta Industries) • Cosby Carmichael- Treasurer (Cosby Carmichael) • Stephen Snipes • Bart Moore • Bill Martin • Mike Lanier • Byron Hunt • Clark Gates • Evans Duncan • Tyler Davis • Phil Webb • Brent Brusser

Anniston Museum Endowment Corporation

• Bill Warr

The ACIA would like to congratulate

Board, the Calhoun County Chamber of

• Stacey Renfroe

Phil being

Webb

of

recognized

Webb as

for

Commerce, the Anniston Country Club,

the Anniston

Concrete

Noble Bank & Trust, McClellan Development

Star’s 2015 Citizen of the Year. Phil has

Authority, the Knox Concert Series, YMCA

devoted a large portion of his life working to

of

improve Calhoun County and is most worthy

Council of Boy Scouts of America, and the

of the distinguished award. Currently, Phil

Governor’s Circle. Phil also finds time to give

serves on the board of directors of nine local

back to the concrete industry by serving

Calhoun

County, Greater

Alabama


2 0 1 5 C A L END A R

MARK IT

DOWN

2015

MAY ACI Certification

07-08 montgomery, al

ACI Level 1 is a two-day only program that will consist of classroom review followed by a written test and hands on performance test. To register, visit www.alconcrete.org/classes.

MAY

13 Birmingham, al

Parking Lot Seminar

AGC Headquarters | 11 a.m.-1 p.m. *Topics to be covered: • Pavement Design, Construction, Concrete Materials, Testing, and NRMCA CPA Software To register call (334) 265-0501. Free of charge, 3 hours of education

WINTER 2014 27 SPRING 2015


2 0 1 5 C A L END A R

JUNE ACI Certification

02-03 Troy, al

ACI Level 1 is a two-day only program that will consist of classroom review followed by a written test and hands on performance test. To register, visit www.alconcrete.org/classes.

JUNE

04-07 Biloxi, MS

Summer Convention

Please join us for our annual summer convention this year at the beautiful Beau Rivage Hotel & Casino in Biloxi, MS.

AUG. ACI Certification

11-12 Grove Hill, al

ACI Level 1 is a two-day only program that will consist of classroom review followed by a written test and hands on performance test. To register, visit www.alconcrete.org/classes.


ARBA AD 2015.pdf 1 1/9/2015 9:33:05 AM

It’s not just what we make; it’s what we make possible.®

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Alabama District

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(205) 969-2629

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www.martinmarietta.com

NYSE: MLM


PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE

PAID

MONTGOMERY, AL PERMIT NO. 456

1745 Platt Place Montgomery, AL 36117 www.alconcrete.org 334.265.0501

SAVE THE DATE 2015 Summer converntion J UNE 4 - 7 | B I L O X I , M S TO RE G I S TER VI S IT W W W. A L CONCRETE . OR G / NE W S / CONVENTION

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