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University of Alabama Student Recreation Center | Tuscaloosa, AL

FALL 2014

ConcreteWorks is a publication of the Alabama Concrete Industries Association and features articles and photographs pertaining to product applications, educational opportunities, as well as innovative construction techniques impacting the industry. Please email rlindsay@ alconcrete.org with any comments regarding featured articles in ConcreteWorks or to suggest a story idea for a future edition. Rebecca Lindsay,



Architect Spotlight

Birmingham architect Dick Richard began



Barry Davis Architects designed the

his career nearly 30 years ago, and always

newest fire station in Clanton around the

knew he wanted to work in a field that

iconic peach tower, providing efficient

allowed for his creative juices to flow.

and effective emergency response while

Intrigued by the infrastructure of bridges

giving visitors who approach the city from

and monuments, Dick has also designed

Interstate 65 and US 145 a good first

healthcare institutions using concrete.

impression of the city. (ON THE COVER)


Built by Bama

The new 130,000 square foot University of


Technical Review

Randall Riley, executive director/engineer

Art Director & Editor

Alabama Student Recreation Center brings

for the Illinois Chapter of CPA, explains

John Sorrell, Editor

an innovative, state-of-the-art center to

how to be more cost effective when

the growing campus residential area, and

designing and constructing concrete

boasts a 25,000 square foot concrete safe

parking lots.

www.alconcrete.org www.mysaferoom.org

area for weather related emergencies.


The Infinitus Renewable Energy Park


in Montgomery was built by The

all the important upcoming dates.


Conlan Company of Marietta, GA, which recommended concrete tilt-up construction rather than the initially proposed pre-engineered metal building. The result was a nearly 82,000 square foot facility that opened in April of this year.

2014 Calendar

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r ichard A RCHITECT He grew up in Birmingham, plays the guitar,

Bridge and the St. Louis Arch are examples

and for the past 27 years, Dick Richard has

which have become symbolic of the West

been practicing architecture.

in general, and their cities and people in particular.”

Since beginning his career in 1987, Dick knew at a young age that he wanted to go

He also credits the ancient pyramids of

in the direction of something ‘artistic.’

Egypt for helping people understand a culture from so long ago, and modern

“I wanted to become an architect because

buildings like Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim

I felt I had some natural artistic skills,” he

Museum Bilbao that ‘speak to our current

says. “My mom was an artist, and I loved to

culture and advancements in building

construct things, work with my hands and


figure out the best ways to put something together.”

Aside from some of his favorite historical pieces of architecture, Dick also has

Dick was always intrigued by the infrastructure

some notable designs of his own that

of bridges and monuments, and appreciates

include concrete. As an associate at TRO

the many examples of symbolic designs

Jung|Brannen (TRO JB), an architectural

across the nation, and world.

firm experienced in healthcare design, he routinely and dependably uses concrete in

“I especially love projects that mark a


moment in time and share a message about





In one example, the firm’s 117,000 square

generations,” says Dick. “The Golden Gate

foot Mission Cancer Center in Asheville,


Mission Cancer Center | Asheville, NC

FALL 2014 3


North Carolina, featured concrete in the

design of those walls. While the waterfall,

design in more ways than one.

itself, was adorned with a decorative, locally-harvested granite face and stone

“My partner, Paul Langland, who was

frame to represent material found in

the project manager on this project, says

the regional Appalachian Mountains (an

that the deep concrete foundations and

important factor in the project’s ultimate

concrete retaining walls were essential

LEED Gold certification), it was concrete

to our plan for the entire project. Paul

that supported the structure from behind

remarked that no other material can retain

and made the iconic architectural water

TOP: Mission Cancer Center exterior

earth like concrete; some walls on this

feature possible.

BOTTOM LEFT: Black bear lying on

project are as tall as thirty feet high,” said

concrete wall outside of Mission


In another application on this same project,

Cancer Center

concrete walls up to eight feet thick were Langland and his team were faced with

used, which is not unusual in cancer center

a complex, sloping site that required







locations on the site, most prominently

Together, those thick walls, constructed in

supporting a 25-foot waterfall feature,

both vertical side wall and horizontal floor

seen from the highway. Concrete was the

and ceiling applications, form vaults which

obvious choice to advance the structural

act as a shield for the highly radioactive


beams produced by the linear accelerator equipment. To soften the building’s exterior

Get to Know Dick Richard

where the concrete vault was located, TRO JB’s team developed an adjacent greenspace and Bocce Ball court there.

What are your hobbies? I love to read and study the Bible,

The resultingeffect is quite welcoming,

play tennis with my friends, take

maybe too much so. Even the larger local

walks with my wife, travel and do

wildlife, shown napping on one of the

projects around the house. I also

concrete walls, approved.

enjoy going out to Oak Mountain to hike or bike with my wife.

“Concrete is also a material we use when

Occasionally I’ll go mountain biking

designing parking deck projects, which

with my son as long as he doesn’t

we have designed for many of our hospital





clients,” Dick says. “We’ve even used

on building long-standing collaborative

decorative, precast, concrete panels for

relationships with our clients and partners.

our parking deck which supports the

want to do the “Blood Rock” trail. What’s the last book you read? The Atonement Child by Francine

Mission Cancer Center. The material can

Its success is the result of consistently

be utilitarian, cost effective, and design-

building the best team for a given

enhancing, at the same time.”

project – a custom team comprised

What’s your favorite food?






There’s not much I don’t like in way

Dick credits concrete’s natural beauty

designers, engineers, and planners with

of food, which is why I need to stay

and economic benefits, and the fact that

specific expertise matched to client needs.

disciplined about exercising. If I had

it can be formed or stained to create a

Its staff experience and portfolio feature

to pick something, it would have

multitude of appearances, or it can just be

concentrations across several sectors:

to be a nice filet mignon cooked

natural and evoke a sense of strength and

corporate and commercial development,



research and life science, and our deep

soppage (made from a little olive oil,

expertise in healthcare design.

a few spices and some of just about

“When you use concrete, you know it’s going to be there a long time,” he says.




everything in the refrigerator door). TRO JB’s healthcare practice encompasses

Put that alongside some good fresh

hundreds of clients over the years with

veggies, some of Deb’s homemade

Just like some of his favorite ancient

construction projects totaling more than

rolls, a nice glass of wine and share

buildings that recognized the lasting value


it with family and friends, that’s what

of stone based materials.

experience includes new construction and





I’m talking about.

renovation projects ranging from clinics About TRO JB

and community hospitals to academic

What is your favorite thing

medical centers in urban areas worldwide.

about your profession? Being


Many clients today rely on their expertise

a part of the creative process and

architecture and engineering firm, founded

in lean practices and alternative project

seeing something you design and

over a century ago to provide design

delivery methods.

create become a built reality.

firm is guided by a commitment to create

As an international practice, TRO JB has an

What is the one tool you can’t

exceptional and responsive design, using

extensive portfolio of projects throughout

live without? My mind


the United States, the Middle East Gulf






services for healthcare institutions. The









Region and Asia.

FALL 2014 5




Situated between the towering student

space, an administrative program, a food

concurrent with the adjacent Presidential


service venue, and an impressive storm

II Student Housing project.

shelter for 3,000 people.





square foot University of Alabama Student Recreation Center brings an innovative,

“The Student Center has a unique location

state-of-the-art center to the growing


north campus residential area, which


houses several thousand students.





on the north bluffs of the campus which



overlook the Black Warrior River,” says

project was planned in two stages, which

Binx Newton with Williams Blackstock.


included a five-month programming study

“The building design takes advantage

A classical exterior of brick and precast

and a nine-month design and working

of the height by stacking three stories of

concrete that fits the central campus


amenities with views through the treeline

traditional appearance, wraps an exciting,

Construction Company excavated rock

modern interior shared by recreation

and constructed the facility in 21 months,




and to the river activity beyond.”

University of Alabama Student Recreation Center | Tuscaloosa, AL


FALL 2014 7


The skylight-capped atrium is the main

University to identify the performance

TOP LEFT: University of Alabama Student

space onto which all of the major spaces

goals for the storm shelter, in concert with

Recreation Center construction

are organized. Student fitness, strength,

the FEMA 361 and ICC 500 guidelines.

BOTTOM LEFT: University of Alabama

and conditioning spaces, a three-court

While some hazardous events can last

Student Recreation Center interior

gymnasium, a training facility for the UA

longer, the design goal was to create an

BOTTOM RIGHT: University of Alabama

Rowing Team, food service, administrative

easily accessible central gathering area

Student Recreation Center exterior

office spaces for Housing & Residential

amongst the housing district to make

Life and Parent Programming, and a

students, faculty, and staff safe during

central space with a 40-foot tall climbing

tornado events, which typically last only

tower and wall are connected along a


grand organizing spine that provides transparency and depth of natural light

“Since the shelter was part of a larger

throughout the facility from the two-story

facility we had to design a place that 3,000

entry hall to the huge covered patio.

students would be safe not only from the storm but from the rest of the building,

Keeping the Campus Safe

and this was achieved by separating the

A secure 25,000 square foot storm

basement from the upper floors with 20

shelter designed using FEMA guidelines

inches of concrete, allowing the sports

is integrated into the basement, making

and recreation floors of the building to

it extremely accessible for the students,

collapse above the shelter, while keeping

faculty, and staff in the north campus.

students safe,” says Newton. “These

The design team worked closely with the

spaces are supported with emergency



power for mechanical systems and phone

and established a basis of a cool, neutral

concrete pedestals are a major feature of

charging, and for storage of emergency

palette that is warmed by natural light

the classical exterior of the building, along

supplies. The hardscape and topography

and accented by dramatic warm color

with precast cornices, lintels, and bands.

were shaped to allow several thousand


people to quickly access the storm shelter in an emergency situation.”

With an emphasis on natural light and The architectural qualities of exposed

creating large, welcoming spaces, the

concrete provide a refined and heroic

exposed concrete finishes provide a


design aesthetic that lends itself to

monumental feel for the facility,” says

provisions for stand-alone emergency

institutional and public buildings,” says

Garrett Goodman, University of Alabama

power around the generator and fuel

Garrett Goodman, University of Alabama

student architect.

supply, stand-alone mechanical systems,

student architect. “For the Student Center,

and storage for emergency supplies.

the University wanted to create large and

Whether it be in the strength of function or




dramatic spaces that were welcoming

the appearance of permanence, concrete

Why use concrete?

to thousands of students, faculty and

is versatile. For this structure, the density,

Concrete was chosen to not only achieve

staff on a daily basis, and from structural

durability, and fire resistance are critical

a monumental appearance, but to express

performance to a monumental design

for the protection of thousands, while

the juxtaposition of dense safe spaces

aesthetic, concrete was the perfect choice

the ability to shape it into any form are

with wide open sculptural spaces.

for the building”

important for creating subtle curves and

dramatic spaces.

Concrete enabled the expression of

The entire building, except for the long span

strength with a simple structure with

steel joints over the gymnasium, features

dramatic features. The visible, functional

a concrete frame, including foundations,

concrete columns, beams, and walls




columns, beams and floor systems. In

overall aesthetic of the interior design,

addition, three-story concrete columns on








FALL 2014 9


Infinitus Renewable Energy Park interior | montgomery, AL



This past spring, a revolutionary Materials

concrete tilt-up construction rather than

Recovery Facility (MRF) developed by

the initially proposed pre-engineered metal

Infinitus Energy opened in Montgomery,

building to reduce cost and the duration of

with the main purpose of eliminating up

the building construction.

to 85 percent of waste headed to the city’s landfill.

The architectural and engineering phase started in February 2013, and construction

The Infinitus Renewable Energy Park at

of the site, building, and equipment

Montgomery (IREP at Montgomery), is

package commenced in July of that same

located at 1551 Louisville Street, and is

year, and was completed in April 2014.

the first facility to combine several of the most technologically advanced systems

“So much concrete was used that you

available for waste recovery to create the

could extend a five-foot wide sidewalk

most advanced integrated waste recovery

44-plus miles,” he says. It took almost

facility in the country.

70 truckloads to transport Bulk Handling Systems’ equipment to the facility, and at

J.R. Miller & Associates, Inc. (J.R. Miller),

the recommendation of the design-build

an architect and engineering firm who

contractor, we made the decision to use

has planned and design over seventy

concrete due to a reduced cost over the

transfer stations and materials recovery

metal building, shortened construction

facilities, was commissioned to develop

schedule, and increased life.”

the building layout and overall site plan. In addition, Bulk Handling System (BHS),

The original parking lot was designed in

the equipment provider, was requested to

asphalt, but the decision was made to

provide an equipment layout to determine

switch to concrete due to the amount

the impact of their equipment on the

of traffic, soft existing soil conditions,

building and adjust the building footprint

excessive rain during grading operations,

to accommodate the proposed equipment

reduced maintenance costs and overall

processing line design.


With their combine expertise, a criteria set

“In addition, the weight of the materials

of drawings was created with the building

handling equipment and rolling stock , in

layout and details, along with the overall

conjunction with the existing soil conditions,

site layout.

led us to choose concrete pavement around the exterior of the facility and a10-





foot facility took about 10 months, and

inch, double mat reinforced concrete slab for the building,” says Mendez.

contains enough steel to build 466 cars,” says Angel Mendez, chief operating officer

Now that the facility is operational,

of Infinitus Energy.

residents can place all trash in one cityissued bin, which is collected by the city of

But steel wasn’t the only component. The

Montgomery sanitation department, and

project was a design-build contract, and the

taken to the Advanced Mixed Materials

awarded general contractor, The Conlan


Company of Marietta, GA, recommended

Energy Park.





FALL 2014 11

“So much concrete was used that you could extend a five-foot wide sidewalk 44-plus miles�

Infinitus Renewable Energy Park interior | montgomery, AL


Why use Concrete for Parking Lots? (source: NRMCA) The “first cost” price benefit of asphalt compared to concrete has been eroding steadily in recent years and disappeared entirely in many areas during 2008. This trend is explained in part by asphalt’s petroleum-based composition and the impact of long-term oil price increases. But another important factor is that refiners are increasingly producing more profitable fuels and other compounds from the barrel of oil resulting in reduced liquid asphalt availability—a trend that is expected to accelerate in the future. This is why asphalt prices have remained There, it is separated using the latest

needed to design a building that could be

high with ongoing shortages in some

in screening, air and optical separation

constructed quickly, be durable and have

areas even after the collapse of oil


reduced maintenance costs,” says Mendez.

prices at the end of 2008. Concrete

“Using concrete was an obvious choice.”


The system sorts and

recovers commodities such as cardboard, mixed paper, metals, aluminum cans,





dependability for the future.

plastics and wood based on density, size,

Additional features of the building

shape and material composition.

 108 sky lights to reduce the amount of

Normal maintenance costs of asphalt

overhead lighting required


Additional sorting will be done by hand at

 Exterior odor control system

resurfacing, and loss of business

the site. The advanced technology allows

 2,420 sq. ft. equipment pit with a 24”


the facility to accept a larger variety and

foundation and a volume larger than an

greatly exceed those needed for

volume of potentially recyclable products

Olympic size swimming pool

concrete. Click here for a real-world

than other recycling methods.

 Processing equipment has

example of the penalty associated

approximately 144 motors

with asphalt maintenance downtime.


re-striping, operations-

Mendez says his favorite part of the

 Facility (building and site) has enough

building is the overall architectural design

concrete to build a 5’ wide concrete

 Concrete increases curb appeal

and entry feature, and the use of concrete

sidewalk 44 miles long

for customers and tenants, boosting

panels allowed the architect to design

rental values and revenue.

recesses, texture and depth not found in

 Concrete parking areas may

metal buildings.

include an integral curb and gutter, saving time and reducing

“We had a short construction schedule

subcontract labor.

and a long-term contract with the city of

 Concrete parking lots stay cooler

Montgomery to provide waste processing

to reduce energy costs.

to recover recyclable materials, so we

FALL 2014 13


When the city of Clanton, AL, approached

The firm spent four months designing and

decontamination, maintenance, storage,

Barry Davis Architects to design its newest

preparing the project, and construction took

etc. – are immediately adjacent to the

fire station around the iconic peach tower,

18 months to complete.

apparatus bays.

iconic landmark in Chilton County, while

“We designed the facility around the

Secondarily, the building is arranged to

providing efficient and effective emergency

apparatuses that it must house, and the

provide an inviting center for community

response, giving visitors who approach the

emergency responders who must quickly

activities. When not fighting fires, the men

the firm knew it had to complement this

Fireproof city from Interstate 65 and US 145 a good

deploy from the facility,” says Barry. “Our

and women stationed here may offer free

first impression of Clanton.

primary objective in planning the building

blood pressure checks or install children’s

was to allow men and women to move easily

car seats.

“We were given a very prominent site at the

from the day room or dormitory through

around the easily recognizable “front door”,

Ample parking is arranged

base of the Peach Water Tower, a source

the room storing their turnout gear to their

encouraging citizens and visitors alike to

of pride for Clanton and Chilton County,

vehicles, and then allow the apparatuses to

take advantage of these services or simply

and part of our design included enhancing

move easily to the street.”

drop by for a tour.

Barry Davis. “The facility also serves as

The control center is situated to provide

“When we were designing the facility –

the command and control center during

clear visibility of the entire front of the facility

building and site – its character was as


as well as the apparatus bays.

All other

important to us as its function, and we

support functions – hazardous materials

carefully selected the materials – jumbo

the illumination of the water tower,” said


brick, split face concrete masonry unit

convey the character of the building, which

(CMU), cast stone, standing seam metal

will also keep a vehicle from driving through

roof, concrete, and the planting materials –

those doors,” says Barry. “In addition,

“We knew from the inception that we would

to evoke a sense of permanence and civic

concrete provides shorter lead time than

use concrete for the apparatus bays (8” thick

pride,” he says. “We used colors, textures,

structural steel, and doesn’t require painting

reinforced with #3 bars) as well as for the

and scale that are consistent with other civic

or other maintenance. Not to mention, it is

drafting pit, so we already had a significant

buildings we have designed for the City of

inherently fire-proof.”

amount of concrete in the project.,” says

Clanton, and our objective was to reflect

parking lots fail under such loads.

Barry. “It made sense to us to take care of all

the character of a growing seat of a rural

Load-bearing masonry gave the facility

of these with a single trade. Using concrete,

Alabama county while complementing the

durable, easily maintained walls throughout,

we were able to have cleaner details where

Peach Water Tower.”

which included the liberal use of water in the

these and other elements abut.

apparatus bay. Using this masonry made Of course, concrete was one of the main

it simpler to provide the requisite two-hour

Additionally, the plastic nature of concrete

components used to construct the fire

separations between the apparatus bay and

made it easier to address the drainage

station, mainly for its strength, durability,

the living and business areas.

problems around the site without adding

and permanence.

drainage structures. As an environmental The concrete parking lots are also a

concern, concrete reduces the “heat sink”


conversation starter, since fully-loaded fire

affect around the building while increasing

concrete columns at the entrances to

trucks are very heavy, and many asphalt

the amount of reflected natural light into the




FALL 2014 15

“We were given a very prominent site at the base of the Peach Water Tower...�

clanton fire station number 3 Exterior | clanton, AL


Project Quick Facts:

apparatus bay. The parking and circulation areas used by the fire trucks are 6” thick

• $180 per square foot includes

reinforced with welded wire fabric and

extensive site work. A large part of

fiberglass fibers for maximum strength.

this is the drafting pit – a structure that, for practical purposes, must

Project Team:

be constructed of concrete – that

Architect: Barry Davis, Architects, P.C.

cost approximately $70,000.

Barry Davis, Principal in Charge / Olivia

The use of concrete is quite

Davis, Project Management & Interiors /

economical, and probably did not

Kevin Kempke, Intern Architect

increase the cost.

Structural Engineer: LBYD Civil &

• In addition to the basic elements

Structural Engineers

of a firehouse (two 77’ deep

Mechanical Engineer: Southern

apparatus bays; dormitories for

Engineering Consultants, Inc.

eight men and two women; control

Electrical Engineer: Jackson, Renfro &

center; day room; turnout lockers;


dining), the facility includes:

General Contractor: Clements Dean

• Two concrete/cmu safe rooms

Building Co., LLC

• Gas-fired radiant heat strips for energy efficiency in the apparatus bays; • An emergency generator • A separate office that serves as police depart annex, task force headquarters, command/control center, etc. • A 20’x30’x10’ deep concrete drafting pit • A hazardous materials decontamination room.

FALL 2014 17


Birmingham Fire Station No. 18 Constructed of modular brick with concrete

consists of concrete masonry unit (CMU)

block back-up, the No. 18 fire station in

backup with FBX modular brick veneer for

Birmingham is a one-story facility highlighted

the exterior and all CMU wall partitions for

with brick accents and precast concrete.

the interior because of sound transition,

The exterior features shingled hip roofs, a

durability, maintenance and long term cost

dry stack stone entrance tower, a tower over

savings. The exterior and interior walls of the

the middle apparatus bay, and a continuous

building are 100% CMU.

precast bull nose around the front elevation. The building, which took seven months to

The new structure also includes a safe room,

design and 10 months to construct, also

which was a relatively simple design plan

includes a concrete parking lot to minimize

for the firm since all of the walls were CMU

the maintenance of resurfacing.

block and filled with concrete throughout.

“The building was designed with residential

“We just added the required size re-bars in

features to fit within the residential context,”

all of the cells around the safe room area,

says Clay Dorsey with Dorsey Architects.

and provided a reinforced concrete slab

“The facility is well landscaped and has an

above the ceiling area,” says Dorsey.

architectural keystone designed retaining wall at the rear.”

Technologies Inc. Structural Engineer: MBA Group

The project cost $220 per square feet, and

Mechanical Engineer: Engineering

came in under budget.

Design Technologies Inc.

Concrete was used concrete in certain

Electrical Engineer: Sajjadieh Engineering

areas for its durability and maintenance, and

Project Team:

Group, P.C.

for its ability to withstand the heavy loads

Architect: Clay Dorsey

General Contractor: Civicon General

of trucks and equipment. The construction

Consultants: Civil Engineering Design


T echnical R E V I E W

Inch by Inch

I n tro d u ctio n b y A m y M iller , Natio n al R eso u rce Director ,

N R M C A - A rticle b y R a n d ell R ile y, P. E . , E x ec u tive Director / E n gi n eer for I lli n ois C hapter of A C PA a n d co n s u lta n t to I lli n ois R ea d y M i x e d C o n crete A ssociatio n Introduction

option to be cost competitive on concrete

been first-cost competitive if you were

parking lots. Randy cites examples from the

designing the sections to actually carry

In the “old days” (prior to 2008) we were

Illinois Department of Transportation, but

roughly the same traffic and getting the

forced to sell concrete parking lots based

frankly the example is apropos for most any

same life. Let’s take a typical Illinois parking

primarily on long-term costs savings, or so

state as Randy uses AASHTO 1993 Guide

lot pavement section. How many of you

we thought. We would perform life cycle

for Design of Pavement Structures as the

have routinely seen a section of 3-inches of

costs analyses showing those savings to

basis of his discussion.

bituminous surface on 6-inches of granular material? How many of you have seen even

engineers and owners and anyone else that would listen. We would tout the longevity

At NRMCA we endorse use of ACI 330.

less? How many inches of concrete would

of the product citing examples of concrete

The Guide for Design and Construction of

it take compared to what the engineers

structures from the days of Jesus Christ.

Concrete Parking Lots as the first option

and architects frequently pull out of their

Short of offering our first-born, we would

for concrete parking lots. The Guide and

mysterious design manual? And why? Let’s

resort to any means of selling concrete

associated specification offer an all-inclusive

start with the why.

pavement advantages only to have the

approach to design and construction. Often

first-cost issue thrown back in our face.

engineers cite use of AASHTO 93 as their

Most engineers and architects start one of

We thought we were just fighting price but

design choice because they feel there is

two places in Illinois: either Chapter 54 of

perhaps we were really fighting our own lack

some comfort in using the same source as

the Illinois Department of Transportation’s

of education.

their DOT. We feel there are many smarter

(IDOT) Bureau of Design and Environment

reasons to use ACI 330 instead, but I

Manual (BDE Manual) for highways or

Various economic factors have driven

will leave that for another discussion ( or

Chapter 37 of IDOT’s Bureau of Local

asphalt prices higher so now we believe

Webinar, see below). When dealing with

Roads Manual. (BLR Manual) Are these

we can finally face first-cost competition

engineers and designers that refuse to move

really appropriate for parking lots? Probably

head-on. According to Randell Riley, P.E.,

away from AASHTO 1993 in designing their

not! IDOT designs for controlling vehicles

executive director/engineer for the Illinois

concrete parking lots, Randy’s article might

that are principally trucks – and usually a lot

Chapter of ACPA and consultant to Illinois

do just the trick in getting a reasonable

more than we are inclined to see on a typical

Ready Mixed Concrete Association, we’ve


parking lot.

Inch by Inch

For example, if you look at either of these

I’d like to take a couple of minutes of your

levels with about 12 percent truck traffic.

time to show you how concrete has always

There are provisions if you know what you

always been able to do this, yes, even in the “old days.” Below is a reprint of Randy’s article entitled “Inch by Inch” explaining why we always had the

references they start at the bottom traffic


T echnical R E V I E W

are doing to go below this level, but even

on a variation of the results of the road test

The tables above demonstrate how the

then the minimum thickness for concrete

conducted by the American Association of

pavement sections performed. The tables

from the design charts in the BDE Manual is

State Highway Officials (AASHO). I will not

area little busy, but they are jampacked with

currently about 7.5 inches for soil conditions

go into detail here, but CPA uses a variation

exciting information for pavement geeks

typical of parking lot construction and 6.5

on the structural coefficient approach to

interested in promoting concrete pavements

inches for the BLR Manual. Both procedures

assign a structural coefficient to concrete.

for parking lot applications. During the Road

are mechanistically based and incorporate

Test vehicles ran over the traffic loops until

extremely high levels of reliability. Both also

However, since the AASHO Road Test was

the loops had received roughly 1,114,000

imply that granular sub-base is “optional”

conducted right here in Illinois, why not use

axle load repetitions or the pavement section

at traffic levels typical of parking lots, but

the data, the methods and the equations

had failed. Periodically, engineers at the Test

explain “optional” to most engineers and

laid out in the 1993 Guide for Design of

Road would evaluate the “serviceability” of

the word “required” seems to take its place.

Pavement Structures? If it is meaningful

the sections on a 5-point scale, five being

anywhere, it should be here in Illinois.

a smooth pavement in new condition and

What about the asphalt designs? What are

1.5 having been determined to be failure

the minimums there? The BLR Manual says

First, a little history. The engineers at the

of a section in need of serious repair. The

3 inches on 8 inches of stone is adequate.

Road Test conducted testing on sections

vehicles ran in adjacent lanes restricting the

So how do you actually compare these

of both asphalt and concrete pavements

specific loads to those lanes. In our table you

competing sections? Clearly, IDOT methods

under the same traffic loadings at the

will see that one lane operated with 2,000

are not the answer!

test site west of Ottawa, IL. Interestingly,

lb. axle loads; the other with 6,000 lb. axle

some of these sections included loadings

loads. By conducting the test in this manner

There are a number of competing design

restricted to automobiles and light trucks;

is was possible to compare performance

systems for concrete pavement in this

loads more typical of convenience store

of different loads to one another while

design niche. Many of you are familiar

and mall parking lots. The concrete

simultaneously evaluating the affect of those

with the Concrete Pavement Analyst (CPA)

thicknesses on these sections ranged from

loads on different pavement sections. The

software available from National Ready

2.5 inches of concrete up to 5 inches. How

asphalt and concrete pavements of different

Mixed Concrete Pavement Association. It

did they fare? One of my personal favorites,

sections received identical loadings under

has been discussed on several occasions

an out of print publication, Pavement

identical traffic for roughly two years.

at the IRMCA annual short course and

Performance in the National Road Test,

seminars have been conducted on its use

produced by Portland Cement Association

The tables as laid out depict the service-

by your association. CPA is largely based

in 1962 offers some insight.

ability after 1M plus axle loads shown as a

T echnical R E V I E W

grade ranging from 1.7 to 4.4. If the section

3-inches of asphalt on dirt carrying the

terminal serviceability of 4.4! Wow!). Also,

failed, i.e. reached a serviceability of 1.5, the

rough equivalent of automobile traffic the

in my Webinar I refer to Low-Volume Road

number of axle-load repetitions in thousands

serviceability of the asphalt was 3.0 at the

Design Table 4.9 in AASHTO 93. Even at

is shown. In addition, various subbase

end of the test. This compared to 4.3 for the

thickness estimation using these charts

thicknesses were evaluated for both asphalt

2½-inch concrete section under identical

from the manual the thicknesses are well

and concrete. For concrete sections mesh-

conditions. A fluke, right? How about the

below what some engineers use that are

reinforcement was also evaluated as that

6,000 lb. axle loads?

citing AASHTO 93 as the source of their

was popular at the time of the test. (Mesh-


reinforcement turned out to not make a

Careful inspection of the 6,000 lb. data

difference, but that is perhaps an article for

indicates that for the same conditions

For more information, contact Amy Miller at

another time. Needless to say, we no longer

described in the previous paragraph, the

amiller@nrmca.org. Amy presents monthly

use mesh in Illinois.) Let’s work left to right

2½-inch concrete pavements carried greater

a Webinar entitled “ACI 330: The Gold

for the concrete section of Loop 2 and the

than five times the number of repetitions to

Standard for Concrete Parking Lot Design

2½-inch concrete pavements. Yes, they

failure as that of the 3-inch asphalt section.

and Construction.” The Webinar delves into

tested them that thin. Serviceability of the

Checking the tables carefully you will find

reasons why using ACI330 as opposed to

pavement sections for 2,000 lb. axle loads

that in general inch for inch, the concrete

the AASHTO 1993 Guide is most beneficial

similar to that of an automobile were in very

outlasted the asphalt!

for owners and designers among other

good condition, i.e. serviceability greater

topics related to the ACI 330 document.

than 4.0 after 1M plus repetitions. This was

So, back to the original question; how would

regardless of whether the pavement was

the sections compare using IDOT standards

Contributing author Randall Riley is the

placed directly on Illinois’ marginal soils or

that an architect or engineer might pull off

executive director/engineer for the Illinois

with 3 inches or 6 inches of stone subbase

the shelf and use? The chart on page 19

Chapter – ACPA, and a consultant to

somewhat similar to today’s dense-graded

shows the answer. The concrete sections,

Illinois Ready Mixed Concrete Association.

granular CA-6 with a fairly high amount of

either the minimum that we normally

He is actively and enthusiastically involved

fine material.

recommend for parking lot section drives

in the day-to-day building of partnerships

with low truck traffic or the IDOT section

and promotion of long-life quality concrete

The 6,000 lb. axle loads pounded the

will carry significantly more traffic than the

pavements. He can be reached at 217-793-

section a little harder, but even here the 2

minimum IDOT bituminous section.

4933 or at pccman@ilacpa.com.

½-inch concrete section still carried about 469,000+/- axle load repetitions. The stone

Next time we can use some of these

helped some on these very thin sections.

relationships in the current competitive

What about the asphalt sections? They

climate to prove why concrete has always

were tested under the same traffic and

been first-cost competitive if you can get an

same weather conditions. Indeed, these

equivalent design.

were loops so the trucks ran on concrete on one side and asphalt on the other. Looking

So there you have it. If you are promoting

at the table we find some interesting

concrete pavements, particularly parking


lots, it is very important to understand this article. ACI 330 should be our first source

From top to bottom on the asphalt section

for concrete parking lots, but in the event we

of the table it shows the thickness of the

have an engineer refusing to use anything

asphalt surface. The “base” and “subbase”

but AASHTO we should point to the data

as defined at the Road Test are a stone

that came from the actual study (i.e. 1.1

base and sand-gravel subbase; in simple

million repetitions of a 2K lb axle load over

terms, all basically granular material. For

2.5” over concrete with NO subbase and a

FALL 2014 21


Concrete News

Fall 2014

for Gov. Bentley’s reelection campaign, in

Based on testing by member companies

which ACIA contributed $5,000.

and ALDOT, 8.5 yards maximized the average truck’s weight while still meeting

ACIA Works with ALDOT to Increase

the bridge formula for maximum weight of

Yardages for Bridgemasters In June,

66,000 pounds at 36 feet on the interstate

the Alabama Concrete Association was

system. The allowance of 8.5 yards will

successful in working with the Alabama

cover most trucks, but if your company

Department of Transportation.

has a vehicle that you believe could haul additional yardage, please contact the

(ALDOT) to






concrete truck featuring a bridgemaster could deliver to an ALDOT project. Under

The ACIA is working with ALDOT to develop

the new regulations, bridgemaster trucks

a system to address older trucks which

are now able to deliver 8.5 yards instead of

have a lighter empty weight due to more

the previous 7.5 yards.

lenient emissions requirements in the past.

Concrete Representatives Meet with Gov. Bentley On June 16, representatives from the Alabama Concrete Association, Alabama cement companies, ready mix producers and the Southeast Cement Association met with Governor Robert Bentley. The meeting was held at Brasfield and Gorrie in Birmingham, with its main purpose being the discussion of the increased use of concrete products in

New Montgomery High School Receives National Recognition

Alabama through concrete paving options

The school features storm shelters designed by Alabama architectural and design firm Goodwyn, Mills and Cawood that can protect students and teachers from winds up to 250

and the importance of green building to the

Montgomery’s new Park Crossing High

mph. An entire storm shelter just like

state, as well as the detrimental effect of

School was featured this month as part

the ones at Park Crossing was set up

anti-LEED legislation.

of an exhibition at Washington D.C.’s

inside the museum.

National Building Museum. In addition, the meeting helped raise funds


Butch Wyatt Concrete Cup The Alabama







Bentley’s campaign. We also contributed

Associates), Steven George (Cemex) &

to 15 Senate candidates and 33 House

Frank Conn (Conn Ready Mix).

of Representative candidates. Of these


Association recently hosted its 4th Annual

contributions, only one candidate lost in

PAC Update

the primary election.

Butch Wyatt Concrete Cup, which was held in appreciation for architects and engineers

The PAC has reached 95% of its goal of

Adding in the $5,150 we raised through

who are proponents of designing with

$25,000. Currently, $12,033 was raised

contributions on our annual billings, our

concrete products. The event took place at

through our materials auction, and an

current total is $23,868. With a little more

Inverness Country Club in Birmingham on

additional $6,685 on the silent auction and

work, we will meet or exceed our goal.

Monday, September 29, with more than

gun raffle at the 2014 Annual Convention.

80 architects, engineers and industry

TOP: First place winners (L to R: Frank

representatives participating in the ACIA

This year, we contributed $11,000 to

Conn, Gene Kelley and Steven George;

sponsored event.

Senate candidates, $14,000 to House

not pictured: Darren Hamrick)

of Representative candidates, $1,500 to First Place Team: Gene Kelley (McKee

statewide races, and $5,000 to Governor


2 0 1 4 C A L E ND A R



2014 NOV.

04 -05

ACI/CT Certification

ACI Level 1 is a two-day only program that will consist of classroom review followed by a written test and hands on performance test. Concrete Technology (CT) is a one and a half day course addressing regulations of concrete as required by the state. After successful completion of this class, state employees will be qualified to run testing procedures to determine the quality of the concrete. There is a written exam for this certification. To register, visit www.alconcrete.org/classes.







ACI/CT Certification

2015 Annual Meeting


ACI Level 1 is a two-day only program that

The Hyatt Regency (formerly Wynfrey Hotel),

will consist of classroom review followed by


a written test and hands on performance

ACIF Pheasant Shoot

test. Concrete Technology (CT) is a one and

9am & 1pm, Whitetail Adventures of

a half day course addressing regulations

Alabama - Oneonta, AL

of concrete as required by the state. After successful completion of this class, state

This fundraiser will help raise money for

employees will be qualified to run testing

two $8,000 scholarships. To register visit

procedures to determine the quality of


the concrete. There is a written exam for this certification. To register, visit www. alconcrete.org/classes.

Speakers: TBD

AL Concrete 6-17-14.pdf 1 6/17/2014 12:46:39 PM

Building the World Around You









It’s not just what we make, it’s what we make possible.


Martin Marietta Materials

Alabama District (205) 969-2629





1745 Platt Place Montgomery, AL 36117 www.alconcrete.org 334.265.0501



Meeting Wednesday, January 14, 2015 The Hyatt Regency (formerly Wynfrey Hotel), Birmingham Speakers: TBD 2015 ACIF Scholarship Recipients 2015 Chairman Award Recipients *Invitation and additional information to follow

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