LAS Pro May-June 2021

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May/June 2021

Shining a Light on New Approaches LAS Pros embrace new ideas as they advance discoveries.

Celebrating Tech Week in COVID-careful Ways LAS Resources Focus on 3Rs and Animal Welfare Tech Tips Share Ideas on Enrichment, Refinement, and Husbandry Tactics


disinfection can be

SAFE AND EFFECTIVE Responsibly Disinfect Avoid animal and staff exposure to harsh chemicals.

Sustainable Protocols Responsible and noncorrosive disinfection protecting the environment and your equipment.

Disinfection Compliance Eliminate pathogens while decreasing product usage and time with a practical one-application protocol.

Exclusively available at

May/June 2021 Vol. 9 Issue 3



Building Awareness


Lighting the Path to Discovery


AALAS Serves


Three articles build awareness and increase access to animal welfare information and 3Rs resources.

Tech Week celebrations looked different due to COVID-19, but recognition and appreciation still took center stage.

Four AALAS National Office staff members volunteer at local COVID-19 vaccination sites.


22 May/June 2021

Shining a Light on New Approaches LAS Pros embrace new ideas as they advance discoveries.

Celebrating Tech Week in COVID-careful Ways LAS Resources Focus on 3Rs and Animal Welfare Tech Tips Share Ideas on Enrichment, Refinement, and Husbandry Tactics

2 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

On the cover: Dr. Jennifer Wilson-Welder, a Research Scientist at the National Animal Disease Center, USDA in Ames, IA, is pictured with “Tank.” Photo courtesy of Hannah Hill, Visual Services Specialist, at USDA, Ames, IA.

What can

Research Ready

do for your vivarium?

Research-Ready means having clean, single-use cages and pre-filled water delivered directly to your vivarium; cages that are pre-bedded, pre-enriched, and irradiated upon arrival. It means reducing repetitive non-ergonomic tasks such as cage processing. It means having peace of mind knowing you’ll receive consistent products with guaranteed quality. Research-Ready means your vivarium can focus on what’s important: the science. | (866) 432-2437

Less Washing, More Science




DEPARTMENTS 5 Publisher’s Note

37 DIY

6 People & Places

40 Tech Tips

Lifelong Learners

New hires, promotions, awards, memorials

8 PROfiles

Edible handles

Insights on techniques and tactics

54 AALAS Connection New ALL courses

Meet Leslie Anglin

26 Inside the IACUC PAM under an AV

30 Career & Training New takes on training

4 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

55 Ad Index 56 Pet Talk

AALAS members talk about their pets

PUBLISHER’S NOTE Staff Publisher Ann Turner Associate Publisher Chris Lyons

Lifelong Learners

Managing Editor John Farrar Associate Editor Liz Rozanski Ad Sales John Farrar

As an association, we provide high-quality learning opportunities for our members. We also offer our staff and volunteers continuing education. Recently, our AALAS directors spent 6 hours in leadership training. As we moved through that experience, I thought about how education shapes us. My parents emphasized a love of learning and reading. I enjoyed school and looked forward to each opportunity to expand my knowledge. After my formal educational years and achieving my PhD (first in my high school ever to do that!), I targeted professional certifications next. Like many of you who have taken advantage of AALAS certifications, I saw those programs as a way to advance my career and expand my knowledge base. Advancing careers and expanding knowledge is part of AALAS’ purpose. AALAS is delighted to provide a variety of educational opportunities to our members. We just completed our first Demo Day, a free 3-day event where 36 companies shared knowledge with attendees. We offer ILAM and are looking forward to welcoming new ILAM students to Memphis this year. Branch management and leadership summits provide AALAS volunteers information and training. Of course, the major learning opportunity is the National Meeting. Last year’s virtual event welcomed over 7,000 attendees and gave access to LAS industry expertise. COVID did not stop our members’ needs to learn, grow, and engage. The pandemic may have accelerated and refined moves to online and virtual platforms. AALAS adapted, and we continued to provide learning opportunities. And we will continue in our mission. As we move into the summer and fall, we are planning for an onsite meeting in Kansas City and a virtual experience. This hybrid event will take place in October, and I hope you will register to attend! Being a lifelong learner is one of my core values, and your AALAS membership proclaims the value you place on education. Let’s continue to learn, grow, and engage! I will see you in Kansas City.

Ann Turner

Publisher Executive Director American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

Design/Production Zara Garza

Editorial Advisory Board Leslie Birke Louisiana State Univ Andrew Burich Benaroya Research Institute Bob Dauchy Tulane Univ School of Medicine David DeOrnellis Champions Oncology Penny Devlin Pennsylvania State Univ College of Med Sonia Doss Duke Univ Medical Center Kelly Ethun Emory University Glenn Jackson Cornell University Richard Marble Alpha Genesis Inc Elizabeth Nunamaker Univ of Florida Sara Oglesby Abbvie Karuna Patil Seattle Children's Research Institute Amy Pierce Tulane Univ School of Medicine Stacy Pritt UT Southwestern Medical Center Robin Tucker Georgetown Univ

Mission Statement Laboratory Animal Science Professional (LAS Pro) is the official magazine for American Association for Laboratory Animal Science members. LAS Pro provides a wide range of useful resources and knowledge to the association’s 14,000 laboratory animal science professionals who are involved in advancing responsible laboratory animal care and use to benefit people and animals. All signed articles, including, committee reports, news, and commentary, reflect the individual views of the authors and are not official views of AALAS. Authorization to photocopy portions for personal or internal use is granted by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Photocopying for purposes of resale or outside distribution is prohibited unless written approval is obtained from the AALAS Director of Communications. Copyright 2021 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Laboratory Animal Science Professional (USPS 010-730) is published bimonthly by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive, Memphis, TN 38125. Periodicals Postage paid at Memphis, TN 38101 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to AALAS, 9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive, Memphis, TN 38125-8538.

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive Memphis, TN 38125-8538 Phone: 901-754-8620 Fax: 901-753-0046 E-mail: Web:

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 5


New hires, promotions, meeting updates, and memorials.

!2021 Metro New York Hosts Virtual Awards Ceremony

The Metro New York Branch hosted a virtual awards ceremony and recognized some amazing members. Congratulations to all our winners: • Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician Award, Sponsored by WFFisher and Son, Inc. in fond remembrance of Douglas F. McBride, DVM: Presented to Kyton Carolina, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals • Laboratory Animal Technician Award, sponsored by Purina LabDiet in memory of John J. Sabine, Jr.: Presented to Eric Soto-Lemus, Rockefeller University • Laboratory Animal Technologist Award, sponsored by ARES Scientific: Presented to Jennifer Martinez, IAVI • Innovation of the Year Award, sponsored by Tecniplast: Presented to Cesar Borja, NYU • Enhancement of Animal Welfare Award, sponsored by BioSer: Presented to Adrin Baez, Columbia University • Manager of the Year Award, sponsored by Allentown, Inc.: Presented to Deborah Dimke, Regeneron Phamaceuticals • Fred Quimby Veterinarian of the Year Award: Presented to Dr. Alexander Romanov, Columbia University • Vendor of the Year Award: Presented to Vincent Romano, ARES Scientific • Training and Education Award: Presented to Caroline Murray, Weill Cornell Medicine • Lifetime Achievement Award: Presented to Gladys Volmar

!New Jersey Branch Meeting Features Raptor Expert

The New Jersey AALAS branch soared into 2021 with their virtual January Membership Meeting. Guest speaker Christopher Soucy, Director of The Raptor Trust in Millington, New Jersey presented on his bird rehabilitation and education facility. The Trust provides free care and assistance to injured, sick, or orphaned wild birds while also educating people about birds of prey. Despite being virtual, Chris’ talk was very interactive and there were many great questions raised. Many local facilities near The Raptor Trust also have an ongoing relationship with Chris through donations of surplus census, veterinary equipment, and supplies. It is a beautiful place neighboring the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge - highly recommended to check out if you are in New Jersey.

6 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Now for a 2021 Global 3Rs Award !Apply !AAALAC International Fellowship Program The Global 3Rs Awards program is a collaboration between AAALAC International and the IQ Consortium (, recognizing significant innovative contributions toward the 3Rs of animal research to advance ethical science, by any researcher (nominated author, principal investigator, or research team leader) in academia or industry in any area of biology (e.g., basic science, discovery, development, teaching, testing, manufacture for new medicines, vaccines, medical devices or healthcare products for humans and animals). Up to four Global Awards (North America, Europe, Pacific Rim, and the Rest of World) will be presented in 2021 in the amount of $5,000 (USD) each. Award nominations must be based on a primary research paper that advances any of the 3Rs (i.e., the Refinement, Replacement or Reduction of animal use) and is published in a peer-reviewed journal in the last three (3) years. These may include modifications to existing research techniques or any innovative research approach including, but not limited to: improvements to whole-animal models, tissue-based models (e.g., cell lines, tissue cultures), molecular techniques (e.g., proteomics), analytic and computational models, study design or technique refinements (e.g., sampling technologies, improved test methods), and translational medicine applications. Meta-analyses that develop fundamental new insights into the 3Rs are also eligible, but the methodology must be described within the paper as this is one of the scoring criteria. Deadline for applications is June 1, 2021. Visit here for more details on applying for a 2021 Global 3Rs Award:

Paused until 2022

Due to uncertainty surrounding international travel, the AAALAC International Fellowship Committee has made the difficult decision to pause the Fellowship program this year. The program will resume in 2022 with a streamlined, online application process. The AAALAC International Fellowship recognizes two outstanding individuals—one AALAS Registered (RALAT, RLAT, RLATG, CMAR) and one IAT Registered (RAnTech)—who have made (or have the potential to make) significant contributions to the field of laboratory animal care and use. The award is presented by AAALAC International through grants from Priority One Services, Inc. and Datesand Group Ltd, in cooperation with AALAS, IAT, the Medical Research Council, and the National Institutes of Health. The AALAS registered winner will receive a week-long guest visit to prestigious biomedical research facilities in the U.K., plus complimentary attendance at the U.K.'s largest laboratory animal science and technology meeting. All registration, travel, lodging, meals, and out-of-pocket expenses are covered. Details on how to apply can be found on the AAALAC website: Plan ahead to apply for this outstanding professional development experience!

Feldman Recognized for JAALAS Article Erica Feldman recently was recognized for an article published in JAALAS. The March issue included, "Effects of Cisapride, Buprenorphine, and their Combination on Gastrointestinal Transit Time in New Zealand White Rabbits" by Erica R Feldman, Bhupinder Singh, Noah G Mishkin, Erica R Lachenauer, Manuel Martin-Flores, and Erin K Daugherity. Feldman received the Best Overall Presentation Award for the Clinical Investigator's Day at Cornell University and the Cornell Alpha Phi Zeta Award for Best Manuscript in Clinical Sciences based on the article. Congratulations!

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 7


minutes with...

Leslie Anglin, LATG


PRO-files in LAS Facility/Employer: Rutgers University Job Title: Veterinary Technologist How did you get in this field? I always wanted to be a veterinarian. When

I attended school to obtain my bachelor’s degree, I realized there were many more animal science field options than just being a veterinarian. I always loved the laboratory, so I changed my concentration from pre-vet to laboratory animal science. It was the best decision I ever made.

Who were your mentors? Dr. Sarah Ralston from Rutgers was one, and she

still insists I become a veterinarian. Dr. Mehmet Uzumcu oversaw the lab animal practicum when I was in school and was a mentor. I would also have to praise all the veterinarians I have worked in the laboratory and clinical setting as they are the ones who taught me everything I know.

What are your current interests in animal science? My current interest is


to continue to provide exceptional care for laboratory animals. I am always making sure their environment is appropriate and safe for their welfare and wellbeing. I am always looking to improve the facility’s policies and procedures to make sure we meet federal and state regulations/guidelines.

Where do you see yourself in 5 years? I am currently in school working

towards another bachelor’s degree. Otherwise, I still see myself working in an animal laboratory facility (full-time or part-time) as a technician. I will never stop working with animals as it is my passion. I have also thought about continuing to pursue becoming a veterinarian.


What is your favorite part of your job? My favorite part of the job is

Getting Personal What companion animals do you have?

Two dogs, 10 cats, a Burmese python, a box turtle, two birds (love bird and parakeet), a rat, and one goldfish.

coming into work to take care of the animals. I am always trying to develop new environmental enrichments (whether food or toys) to keep the animals entertained. Seeing the animals happy makes me happy, and I feel I have accomplished something for the day. Also, taking care of sick animals and seeing them recover and improve is the best outcome I could have for the day.

What advice do you have for others just beginning their animal science career? There is more to lab animal science than just being a veterinarian. You

Any crime/murder investigation show; especially the Law and Order series with Jack McCoy.

can work your way into a various careers in the laboratory setting and explore jobs that may best fit your career needs. I would also tell others that they will always learn something new each day, whether it is a technique, guidelines being developed, etc. There will constantly be changes within the facility which is a good thing. Change is needed to become successful.

What is the last book you read?

What is the most rewarding aspect of your career? The most rewarding part

Where is your favorite vacation spot?

What impacts have the pandemic had on your work experience? Stress

Best binge-watching TV series?

I am not a big reader, but the last thing I read was my father’s AARP newspaper!

The Borgata in Atlantic City, NJ

What is your favorite dessert?

Entenmann's Marshmallow Devil's Food Ice Cake


of the day is coming to work to care for animals. I have worked with a variety of animals, big and small. Coming from an urban area, raising farm animals right now is not an option, but I can care for those we may currently have. has become a major impact of the pandemic. Also, it is hard to get your hands on certain products due to manufacturer backorders and short supplies. There have been multiple conflicts scheduling procedures due to the COVID-19 restrictions we must abide by to ensure everyone in the facility safe.

4 8 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021


ISO 9001:2015 Certified Quality System (800) 996-9908 - U.S. & Canada | (908) 284-2155 - International


LAS Resources

Resources on Animal Welfare and the 3Rs The North American 3Rs Collaborative Survey Guides Development of Initiatives By Megan LaFollette, MS, PhD


hank you to all our laboratory animal communities for working hard to advance the 3Rs and animal welfare in North America and beyond. The 3Rs principles (refinement, reduction, and replacement) provide a framework for humane animal research and quality science. However, while the 3Rs are widely endorsed, their application varies. After all, it can be challenging to stay abreast of the latest developments and training. In 2020, the North American 3Rs Collaborative (NA3RsC) conducted a mixed-method survey to create a snapshot of current 3Rs efforts, barriers, and needs. Based on that survey and our board’s guidance, we have been developing resources, initiatives, and communications to guide our mission to advance science, innovation, and research animal welfare. In June of 2020, 83 diverse laboratory animal personnel completed our survey. These personnel represented various organization types and roles (e.g., vets, techs). Encouragingly, 95% of participants reported that their institutions are committed to the 3Rs. However, describing current 3Rs efforts, participants were more likely to describe refinement efforts (27%) versus reduction (22%) or replacement (19%). This may be related to participant role or simply to the increased complexity of applying the principles of reduction or replacement. One specific replacement opportunity identified was rodent health surveillance. Of personnel who knew their institution’s strategy, 43% used full sentinel programs, 43% used reduced sentinel programs, and 16% used environmental monitoring only.

Figure 1. Barriers to implementing the 3Rs.

10 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

We then asked personnel about barriers to 3Rs implementation and what needs they had related to the 3Rs. Participants were most likely to indicate barriers related to personnel attitudes such as “old-fashioned mindset” or “resistant to change” (29% of participants, Figure 1). They were somewhat less likely to indicate barriers related to research such as “confound research” (19%), funding such as “expense of new technology” (11%), or regulation such as “regulatory acceptance of new models” (11%, Figure 1). In terms of 3Rs needs, many participants wanted more 3Rs resources such as virtual training on the 3Rs, practical examples, and assistance with refinement (39% of participants). Participants were less likely to want help changing attitudes (7%) or with additional funding (4%).

Developing Online Resources on Refinement, Compassion Fatigue, and More

Based on our survey results, the NA3RsC began developing more 3Rs resources for the laboratory animal community (Figure 2). These resources can be found on our website at under the resource tab. Some of our current resources were born from our Refinement Initiative, a group of laboratory animal veterinarians and technicians who work to advance laboratory animals' refinement. Thus far, we have focused on creating high-level resource pages for common laboratory species that link to more detailed information. As of March 2021, we have articles focused on refining the housing and husbandry of common laboratory species, including

tiative focused on microphysiological systems that focuses mainly on technology providers. So far, NA3RsC has engaged 27 technology providers and end-users who are working together to improve implementation and regulatory acceptance of MPS technologies. Stay tuned for our progress.

The Emerging Role of Translational Digital Biomarkers

Figure 2. In 2021, NA3RsC’s currently has 5 main initiative programs.

mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, non-human primates, pigs, dogs, and zebrafish. We also spotlight rodent handling on its own page, which gives extensive guidance on tunnel handling, rat tickling, and general gentle handling. Additionally, we have articles on compassion fatigue and listings for 3Rs related funding and awards. In 2021, our Refinement Initiative will focus on benchmarking the prevalence of non-aversive handling (i.e., tunnel or cup handling), identifying barriers to practice, and presenting a panel talk supporting its implementation. Overall, our goal is to increase the implementation of evidence-based refinements that improve animal welfare.

Rodent Health Surveillance through Environmental Monitoring Rodent health monitoring was one key initiative developed from our survey and highlighted by our board. We gathered four laboratory veterinarians with expertise in researching and applying environmental monitoring to serve as leaders on our initiative. They have experience applying these concepts to various institutions and caging types. They presented their work for a webinar with the New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research that was attended by over 630 individuals and is available open access online. We also developed a comprehensive, open-access resource page. If your institution still uses live sentinel program, check out this resource at and consider switching. Environmental monitoring can replace thousands of mice per year, improve pathogen detection, at times save money and labor, and even improve compassion fatigue. In 2021, we will be releasing a survey to benchmark the prevalence of environmental monitoring and identify barriers to its practice. We also plan to conduct more presentations and offer more resources in this key area.

Increasing Regulatory Acceptance and Industry Adoption of Microphysiological Systems

Replacement and reduction are key aspects of the 3Rs that can be difficult to apply. However, one area that shows promise is microphysiological systems, sometimes termed “organs-on-a-chip.” These models have the potential to become an integral part of the drug development workflow, improve translation, and reduce or replace some animal models. However, progress is still needed. Although there is already a group of pharmaceutical companies dedicated to MPS, there is not a space for commercial technology providers to work together. Therefore, the NA3RsC formed an ini-

NA3RsCs also has an initiative focused on translational digital biomarkers. This initiative was established as a collaboration among early-stage users and technology providers to improve understanding of digital biomarker technologies' value and implementation. In 2021, this group will submit a peer-reviewed manuscript and resource page on the emerging role of translational digital biomarkers in drug discovery and development.

Creating a 3Rs Certification Course

Specific, standardized, and accessible training in the 3Rs for individuals working with research animals is lacking throughout the industry. Although some institutions and universities have training programs in laboratory animal science, they may only minimally address 3Rs. This lack of training creates difficulty in implementing the 3Rs. Furthermore, individuals seeking additional training or pursuing 3Rs efforts may not gain recognition or credibility because a clear definition of expertise in this area does not yet exist. In turn, there is no clear career path for expertise in the 3Rs. Therefore, the NA3RsC is excited to announce its newest initiative to develop a certification program specifically for the 3Rs in research. This program will be designed to accelerate recognition and promotion of the 3Rs across the research industry. Our goal is to release the certification course broadly in early 2022.

Communications and Outreach

NA3RsC aims to reach as many scientific professionals as possible. We publish a monthly newsletter highlighting our resources and relevant 3Rs related news (sign-up on our website). We also are active at many conferences, post regularly on LinkedIn, and contribute a monthly 3-Minute 3Rs Podcast in conjunction with Lab Animal & NC3Rs. To listen to our podcast, please visit podcast. Sign-up for our newsletter to ensure you stay up to date on all of our resources and upcoming activities.


The North American 3Rs Collaborative is a non-profit whose mission is to advance science, innovation, and research animal welfare. We facilitate collaborative opportunities to refine, reduce, and replace animals in research. We are unique in growing partnerships between academics, pharmaceutical companies, vendors, technology providers, contract research organizations, government organizations, regulatory agents, and other non-profits. Such partnerships are essential for the development and implementation of the 3Rs. Ultimately, we cannot make progress without you; therefore, we would like to thank you for doing your part to implement the 3Rs and improve animal welfare. Megan LaFollette, MS, PhD, is a Fellow with The North American 3Rs Collaborative. May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 11


LAS Resources

ICARE: The Interagency Collaborative Animal Research Education Project

U.S. interagency project provides training to improve animal welfare while reducing burden and increasing compliance. By Susan Brust Silk, MS and Patricia A. Brown, VMD, DACLAM


he ICARE Project provides training that empowers U.S. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) and their institutions to improve animal welfare and increase compliance with federal standards while minimizing regulatory burden. The ICARE Project is an interagency initiative led by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). This group of federal agencies is involved in the welfare of animals used in research, teaching, and testing in the U.S. ICARE training uses active learning pedagogy, which has been shown to increase effectiveness of adult education in factual and theoretical understanding of scientific and ethical issues by engaging the learner in activities that require the application of high-level concepts.1 The ICARE Project assigns the highest priority to meeting the needs of the IACUC community. ICARE workshops are inclusive, creative, and nimble in responding to issues and concerns in animal welfare and scientific or technical advancement.2

Federal and Private Sector Collaboration

Through the ICARE Project, federal agencies have collaborated with private sector academic, nonprofit, and for-profit partners3 to offer workshops since 2016. ICARE Academy (IA) workshops offer active learning instruction to IACUC members and animal program personnel at locations around the U.S. IA Intro is targeted toward those that are new in the field, newly promoted, or seeking a review of federal standards. IA Refining is a fast-paced workshop directed toward participants seeking a nuanced understanding of federal policies and methods for conducting more efficient and effective animal care and use programs. Train the Trainer Institutes (TTI), basic and advanced, instructs trainers in the development and use of active learning pedagogy. 12 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Optimizing Performance during a Pandemic

In early 2020, with the advent of the pandemic crisis, the ICARE Project faculty developed an online program, ICARE Dialogues and a new mission was added to the ICARE Project: to take care of the people who take care of the animals.4 This new goal supplemented the overarching mission of the ICARE Project: improving animal welfare, while increasing compliance with federal standards and reducing regulatory burden. Working quickly to respond to community needs, the ICARE faculty facilitated open discussions with a primary goal of networking to share strategies for optimizing performance during crisis. ICARE Dialogues sessions can be categorized into two main areas: • Integrating new requirements with existing standards • Using Flexibility Provided in the PHS Policy and AWAR • Integrating COVID-19 Restrictions into Existing Policies and Procedures • Contingency/Disaster Planning: Incorporating Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic • Optimizing circumstances for the animals and humans in our programs • Optimizing Performance During a Pandemic Crisis: Animal Welfare • Optimizing Performance During a Pandemic Crisis: Managing Teams Across Multiple Locations and Circumstances • Impact of Diversity, Inclusivity, and Race Relations on Animal Care and Use Programs and Personnel Detailed accounts of the eleven ICARE Dialogues webinars conducted between August and November 2020 can be found in the Meeting Reports ICARE Dialogues posted on the ICARE website: . Members of the animal care and use community eagerly

participated in ICARE Dialogues. They submitted interesting, thoughtful questions in advance of sessions, enabling the faculty to ensure relevant issues were addressed. All programs were filled, and nearly all had long waitlists. Dialogue, both spoken and through the chat function, was meaningful. Many individuals participated in multiple sessions and recommended the webinars to their colleagues.

ICARE Dialogue Themes

Briefly, several important themes emerged from ICARE Dialogues: transparency, flexibility, and communication. Previously adequate business practices were dismantled to accommodate quarantine restrictions and social distancing. Transparency, flexibility, and clear communications enabled institutions to establish new ways of meeting federal, state, and local requirements. Cooperation supplemented traditional hierarchy as younger staff mentored senior people in use of online technology. Technicians and post-docs who were not permitted onsite mentored those deemed “essential” in performing hands-on tasks. People worked in shifts to accommodate restrictions on numbers of people in small animal surgeries and holding rooms. Flexibility in sharing and distribution of PPE benefited many groups. Communication upward and downward was required. To reduce numbers of cages requiring husbandry, a management group required rodent breeding cessation, which increased cage numbers in the short term – not what they had intended. Reduction or closure of entrances and exits disrupted supplies delivery and movement of animals. Financial uncertainties increased anxiety. Parents found it difficult to work and supervise children. Hiring freezes, staffing issues, compassion fatigue, loss of coworkers, family, and friends increased employee stress. Transparency, flexibility, and communication helped employees cope with these stresses. Institutions provided benefits to support employees. Transportation subsidies, flexible work hours, and onsite meals were important to essential employees who were required to work onsite. Employees who worked from home appreciated computer and IT support, flexible working hours, and social interactions conducted during online meetings.


Moving into the uncertain future, the ICARE Project will continue to assess community needs and apply creative solutions to serve those needs. Please check the ICARE website (https:// or subscribe to the OLAW listserv ( to learn of ICARE’s upcoming online, hybrid, or face-to-face activities. The authors wish to acknowledge contributions of the following:

Founding ICARE Faculty 2015: Patricia Brown, VMD, MS, DACLAM, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH; Carol Clarke, DVM, USDA, APHIS Animal Care; Nancy Connell, PhD, Rutgers University; Clarissa Dirks, PhD, Evergreen State College; Elizabeth Goldentyer, DVM, USDA, APHIS, Animal Care; William Greer, University of Michigan; John J. Collins, PHD, Yale

University; Melinda Hollander, MS, CPIA, West Virginia University; Donna Jarrell, DVM, DACLAM, Massachusetts General Hospital; Susan Silk, MS, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, ICARE Project Director, James Stith, PhD, Retired, The Ohio State University and grantee PRIM&R.

ICARE Faculty 2016-2021: Lynn Anderson, DVM, DACLAM, Covance, George Babcock, PhD, University of Cincinnati, Robert Wayne Barbee, PhD, Virginia Commonwealth University; Patricia A. Brown, VMD, MS, DACLAM, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH;, Steven Butler, BA, University of Florida; Ivonne Chand O'Neal, PhD, MUSE Research, LLC; Nancy Connell, PhD, Johns Hopkins University; Clarissa Dirks, PhD, Evergreen State College; Elizabeth Ford, DVM, DACLAM, Scripps Research Institute; Neera Gopee, DVM, PhD, DABT, DACLAM, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH; William Greer, University of Michigan; Mindy Hollander, MS, CPIA, ICARE Project; Tanise Jackson, DVM, DACLAM, CPIA, Florida A&M University; Mary Lou James, BS, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Donna M. Jarrell, DVM, DACLAM, Massachusetts General Hospital; Jennifer Klahn, MA, CPIA, University of California, Los Angeles; Monte Matthews, BS, University of Oregon; Carolyn McKinnie, DVM, Animal Care, APHIS, USDA; Eileen Morgan, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH, Christopher Newcomer, VMD, AAALAC, retired; Jane Na, DVM, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH; Ernest Prentice, PhD, University of Nebraska Medical Center, retired; Susan Silk, MS, Silk Ethical Research Oversight, LLC, ICARE Project Director; William Singleton, DVM, ACLAM, Animal Care Training Services; William Stokes, DVM, DACLAM; James Stith, PhD, The Ohio State University, retired; Elizabeth Theodorson, DVM, Animal Care, APHIS, USDA; Tracy Thompson, DVM, National Park Service; Marley Thrasher, MEd, Duke University; Cody Yager, DVM, Animal Care, APHIS, USDA; Kate Ziegerer, DVM, Veterans Health Administration, VA and contractor Event Source Professionals. Susan Brust Silk, MS, is the Director ICARE Project and President of Silk Ethical Research Oversight, LLC (SERO) in Bethesda, MD. Pat Brown, VMD, MS, is OLAW Director in Bethesda, MD.

REFERENCES 1. Handelsman J, Miller S, Pfund C. 2007. Scientific teaching. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman and Company. 2. Chand O’Neal I, Brust Silk S. 2020. The role of inclusiveness in biomedical research animal care and use decision-making. Abstract presented at the 5th Western Psychological Positive Psychology Conference, Claremont, California, 25 January 2020. 3. Chand O’Neal I, Brown PA, Silk SB. 2020. The impact of flexibility and divergent thinking on federal policy applications in biomedical research animal care and use. Abstract to be presented at the Creativity Conference at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon, 8-11 July 2021. 4. Chand O’Neal I, Silk SB. 2021. Promoting well-being in people who care for animals used in biomedical research: a national institutes of health COVID-19 ICARE case study. Abstract to be presented at the 7th International Positive Psychology Association World Congress 2021 [Virtual]. 15-18 July 2021.

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 13


LAS Resources

A Path through the Jungle: Norecopa's 3Rs Resources By Adrian Smith, PhD, DVM


e are living in exciting but challenging times. Never before has there been so much focus on the 3Rs, culture of care, reproducibility of animal studies, and their translatability to human medicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges to facility management and an explosive growth in online meetings. It can seem like a hopeless task to keep up with this flood of information. The Norwegian 3R center, Norecopa, is committed to sharing information with the global animal research community. Norecopa has gradually built a comprehensive website whose mission is to be the international one-stop-shop for links to research animal science resources (in both the lab and the field) and the 3Rs. The website currently has 9,000 pages and has 300,000 hits a year.

Online Resources

Work on the site started in 1991 with the NORINA database of alternatives to animal use in teaching and training. Information was provided for all levels, from school dissections to undergraduate teaching, to training research technicians and scientists. NORINA and seven other databases are now embedded in the Norecopa website. We have collaborated with AWIC (the Animal Welfare Information Center at the US National Agricultural Library) for years in this process, including collecting guidelines for facility management and conducting animal experiments. The 3R Guide database embedded in the Norecopa website contains descriptions of over 400 guidelines. With the rapid increase in online events as the pandemic developed, Norecopa's International Webinars and Meetings Calendar has grown. This comprehensive calendar includes past meetings and a list of recorded events.

Quality Research Needs Good Planning

High-quality animal research is dependent upon good planning. You can't improve a burnt cake by writing a better description of it. For this reason, Norecopa, in collaboration with British 14 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

experts, has published the PREPARE guidelines for planning animal experiments. PREPARE is based upon the authors' 30 years of experience in conducting and supervising animal experiments, discussions on over 50 lab animal science courses, and lessons learned from AAALAC site visits. PREPARE consists of a 2-page checklist (Figure 1) and a website with more information on the checklist topics. The PREPARE website is updated as new resources are published. The checklist is currently available in 25 languages. Unlike reporting guidelines, PREPARE is designed to be offered to scientists, on a voluntary basis, for use from day 1 of planning. PREPARE encourages scientists to focus on the 3Rs and become aware of all issues that can affect the research quality, and the safety and welfare of animals and staff. PREPARE emphasizes the need for close collaboration with the facility which will be hosting their work. It's no coincidence that Norecopa's motto is PREPARE for better Science.

Culture of Care

Fostering a culture of care at an animal facility is now recognized as an essential part of good management. Not only will happy animals make better science, but staff who are confident they can discuss concerns with their seniors will provide better service to the research facility. An International Culture of Care Network was established in 2016. Norecopa hosts the website for this network. There are currently members in 14 countries, and more are welcome. The website includes a Quick Start Guide for those needing a practical tips overview for improving their institution’s culture. Norecopa has just published an interactive world map showing the location of network members, 3R centers and laboratory animal science associations. Where do you find all those practical tips on technique refinements? Some tips never get published or are hidden in a paper’s Materials and Methods section. Often bibliographic databases only index the title and abstract of a paper, so refinements not mentioned in these sections are often missed. Many refinements are mentioned on closed discussion forums, but

Figure 1. The PREPARE checklist is reprinted with permission from Smith AJ, Clutton RE, Lilley E, Hansen KEAa, Brattelid T. 2018. PREPARE: Guidelines for planning animal research and testing. Lab Anim 52(2): 135-141. doi: 10.1177/0023677217724823 Access the PREPARE checklist:

they are forgotten over time. Norecopa initiated a Refinement Wiki in March 2021 for the rapid and informal publication of refinement techniques to mitigate this situation. Use of this Wiki is gradually increasing, and we encourage anyone who would like to share refinements in the Wiki to contact Norecopa. A paper in the March 2021 issue of JAALAS demonstrates the importance of refinement. Rachael Labitt and colleagues show that the traditional method of scruffing mice causes bradycardia and arrhythmias persisting for an average of 4 minutes afterwards.1 A method published by Norecopa does not have this effect. We have made a 2-minute film demonstrating the technique. The Norecopa website also includes presentations and consensus documents from Norecopa's international consensus meetings. This is where representatives from the major stakeholders (regulators, industry, research, and animal welfare organizations) meet to identify current challenges and issue statements on how to tackle them. At these meetings, Norecopa has focused on animal groups that are not frequently discussed at mainstream lab animal science events, such as wildlife, fish, and farm animals. Collections of resources for scientists using these species are available on the website. Please feel free to contact us if you have questions about Norecopa or would like to contribute resources to the website.

Adrian Smith, PhD, DVM is the Secretary of Norecopa, The Norwegian Consensus Platform for the 3Rs. He can be reached at REFERENCE 1. Labitt RN, Oxford EM, Davis AK, Butler SD, Daugherity EK. 2021. A validated smartphone-based electrocardiogram reveals severe bradyarrhythmias during immobilizing restraint in mice of both sexes and four strains. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 60(2): 1-12.

Website Resources Norecopa: NORINA (A Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives): Norecopa 3R Guide: Global 3R Map: Norecopa Webinars and Meetings Calendar: Refined Scruffing Technique: PREPARE: International Culture of Care Network: May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 15

16 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Technicians Light the Path to Discovery Mayo Clinic Arizona

Even with the challenges associated with COVID-19, it was a terrific International Laboratory Animal Technician week this year. Our appreciation board showcased wonderful comments from the research staff. A second bulletin board featured the DCM staff and this year’s theme. The week started with morning break breakfast burritos from McDonald's. Like last year, breaks included fruit and veggie trays, ice cream, and fruit bars! Red Robin catered a burger bar and drawings were held for Amazon, Target, Home Depot, and Starbuck’s gift cards. Everyone was a winner, receiving a gift card and packet full of swag items from AALAS and Americans for Medical Progress. Submitted by Naomi M. Gades.

Tulane National Primate Research Center

TNPRC techs received swag bags (including the AALAS light pen), candy “survival kits” and an employee-designed Tech Week t-shirt. We remotely raffled locally donated items and awarded Tech Awards (Best Rookie, Duct Tape Award, Busy Bee). Appreciative posts to techs from Center employees were placed in a common area. Webinars on emotional intelligence and moral dilemmas were offered, preceded by live puppy/kitten/panda cams for relaxation. Personalized breakfast boxes went out Friday morning. Techs received a square canvas to paint for a community mural. New this year, techs participated in a scavenger hunt gathering items on campus, like a TNPRC statue selfie and finding good “soles”! Submitted by Shannon Aicklen. May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 17

Trudeau Institute

Tech Week at Trudeau Institute in Saranac Lake, NY included tasty individually wrapped laboratory themed cookies for everyone to enjoy. The cookies were donated by Jennifer Gates, owner of Sweet Elevation Bakery in Albany, NY. Our technicians also enjoyed lunch from a local ADK Street Eats food truck. Plus, several upgrades were made to their staff breakroom, including an all-important new coffee maker complete with a variety of flavored coffee pods! Submitted by Amanda Schneck.


This year we created a “Yellow Brick Road” leading to a cut-out lightbulb with all our staff listed. Mandala animals paved the road for socially distanced coloring, complete with a sanitation station. The technicians were given tokens of appreciation from admin staff and vendors. Mini-LED flashlights with the famous Dumbledore quote, “Happiness can be found in the Darkest of times if one only remembers to turn on the light,” were provided to techs. We had a word search and finished off the week with a socially distanced scavenger hunt. Each clue led to a puzzle piece which when placed made a lightbulb. We capped the week with individually wrapped Panera Lunch boxes. Submitted by Sara Lundy.

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At CRL SA, Spencerville, OH, departments created mascots connected to the Tech Week theme. The favorite mascot was selected by vote at the end of the week. The winner’s name(s) are added on an engraved plate to the Mascot plaque annually. A trivia page game was offered. Travel mugs were awarded as prizes for those who submitted answers. The first-place winner received a t-shirt. Donuts were provided through a vendor donation and were individually distributed. Goody bags were supplied by vendors (pens, key chains, post its), COBAALAS (candy), and our facility (Subway cards). Submitted by Linda Bryan.

University of Pennsylvania

With the pandemic things were much different, but we were able to do a scavenger hunt in each facility, hold raffles, and have technicians make an animal out of PPE based on its contribution to research. Submitted by Lynette Oguntayo.

Alpha Omega Bioservices

Alpha Omega Bioservices (contractor at NIH campus Vaccine Research Center) gave our staff goodie bags. The goodie bags included candy, a 2021 Tech Week magnet, Amazon gift card, and a touchless device. We had a raffle and Tony Jordan (pictured in blue scrubs) won the prize (Self-care/ Wellness gift items). Sienna Rush (pictured with the face shield) won an Amazon gift card during our AALAS ALAT Trivia. Submitted by Katina Brown.

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UT Southwestern

I think we can all agree that this year was unlike any other, but nothing can stop Tech Week! With a little bit of creative thinking, we were able to carry on some of our old traditions and create some new ones. The team really enjoyed boxed lunches, breakfast tacos, snacks, snacks, and more snacks! We had Peer Awards, goodie bags, Bio-Serv virtual speakers, BINGO, a prize raffle, and just an all-around good time. Even though we could not all be together we were able to have a great week recognizing our incredible team! Submitted by Kate Collier.

The George Washington University

New England Branch

To celebrate International Laboratory Animal Technician Week, the New England Branch of AALAS hosted the first annual Battle of the Branches: Tech Trivia Challenge. For this competition, New England Branch, Southern New England Branch, Metro NY Branch, and Upstate NY branch competed in a 3 rounds of general knowledge trivia and one round of laboratory animal science trivia. Once final scores were calculated the branch with the highest average score was METRO NY AALAS! Metro took home the inaugural Battle of the Branches Trophy and bragging rights for the year. Thank you everyone who attended this wonderful event, and we are looking forward to future District 1 events. Thank you to our vendors for their support and a special thank you to the NEBAALAS Program Chair Tim Brown for spearheading this event.

Despite the pandemic, the Office of Animal Research staff at GW had some socially distanced fun, as we celebrated Tech Week 2021! Our technicians received healthy grab-and-go snacks daily as well as some swag giveaways. In addition, our vendors (Medline, Tecniplast, and Allentown) showed great support to the animal care team by sponsoring a tasty and nutritious breakfast and lunch. We played “AALAS” (our version of Bingo) and joined in on a jeopardy style trivia game with our local AALAS Branch. Although we had to modify our festivities to adhere to university policy, it was still truly a celebration. We are very grateful for the hard work, dedication, and commitment to care for the research animals our staff display each and every day. Submitted by Tia Bobo. 20 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Univ of North Carolina – Chapel Hill

If there ever was a year to celebrate animal research technicians, it was 2020. Our staff battled through a pandemic to come to work every day contributing valuable time and energy to caring for our research animals. We wanted to recognize staff while also observing social distancing guidelines, meaning we had to get creative. DCM held our annual battle for the Tech Week trophy by having teams participate in virtual and in-person events. Some events and participation opportunities included virtual and in-person bingo, poster decorating, word search and crossword puzzles, a staff recipe book, trivia, and even a guest speaker presentation from one of the world’s leading experts on coronavirus research. To conclude, we served lunch on Friday and shared a personalized video from our 30+ person management team expressing gratitude to our entire division for such a great job in an extremely challenging year. Submitted by Lena Perdue.

Missouri State University

I celebrated my technicians by leaving them goodie bags every morning filled with treats and swag including notepads, light up lanyards, glow-in-the-dark stress toys, AALAS magnets, etc. The group said their favorite items were the candy-filled light bulbs and AALAS tech week magnets. We finished the week with a staff meeting where I presented my techs with their AALAS certificate of appreciation, and a slide show compilation of the many complimentary things the researchers had to say about them. Medline Industries provided lunch from Panera Bread. My techs are pictured with one of the many bear statues on campus. From left to right: Kodi Jameson, Shayla Lupfer, and Abilene Mosher. Submitted by Angela Goerndt.

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Zara Garza, Graphic Design Specialist (left), and John Farrar, Communications and Business Development Director (right), pose at the National Office after volunteering and receiving their vaccinations.

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AALAS Serves

AALAS in the community

Contributing to the Solution

Four AALAS National Office staff members volunteered at local vaccination sites. By Liz Rozanski, BA


hen you work for AALAS, you are reminded daily how vital volunteers are to the association’s health, effectiveness, and community. The COVID-19 vaccination efforts hinge on the same qualities AALAS relies on to deliver its mission. Since January, three AALAS Communication and Business Development department members and the AALAS Foundation administrator have volunteered at vaccination sites. In March, Vicki Campbell, the AALAS Foundation administrator, and I volunteered at a vaccination site in Germantown, a suburb of Memphis. John Farrar, the department’s director, and Zara Garza, the graphic designer, volunteered in Memphis in January. Like many volunteer experiences, the time we spent helping at the vaccination site proved to be rewarding. When it comes to COVID-19, it is nothing short of incredible to realize you are contributing to the solution instead of just enduring a situation.

Staffing Tent Two – Times Two!

Through a connection in our local government, my husband and I learned about a potential vaccination site volunteer opportunity. After building a volunteer profile in a scheduling app, we were contacted to select a day and shift. Once we received a brief orientation about the site’s organization and layout, we selected our assignment. We opted to work in “Tent Two,” which is where the vaccination cards and information sheets were provided. Cars began arriving from the appointment confirmation tent. Sometimes the vehicle had one person in it; other times, it had four. Grandchildren drove grandparents to their appointments. Adult children brought their elderly parents. Teachers arrived. Police personnel arrived. We did not know who would be in the next car, but they were happy to be there without fail. With four of us handing out paperwork, we moved traffic through quickly. This site is a drive-through, with clients remaining in their vehicles for the whole process. The site’s efficiency and organization was impressive, perhaps only topped by the enthusiasm on display from the firemen, municipal employees, and volunteers. Everyone we met noted how happy they were to be helping and what an affirming moment it was. The people arriving to be vaccinated were excited to be there and so appreciative.

Liz Rozanski, AALAS Communications Manager, along with her husband, Scott, volunteered at the Germantown, TN, site helping with vaccination efforts.

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Post-Vaccination Monitor

John Farrar volunteered in mid-January in Memphis. At that time, the Pfizer vaccine was being given to residents aged 75 and up. Working a five-hour shift, John checked on patients after they received the vaccine to make sure they were feeling okay and not experiencing an allergic reaction or needed assistance from an EMT on-site. “I enjoyed the experience overall. It was great to see how organized the process was. It was also interesting to see people from all walks of life come together for a common purpose. Nearly everyone I talked to was very appreciative that they were able to get the vaccine,” John said. He also expressed how good it felt to play a small role in helping people slowly return to normal life. “I would absolutely volunteer again. I did offer to when I was due for my second shot. But they had plenty of volunteers already scheduled,” he said.

Vaccine Card Duty

Zara Garza also volunteered in Memphis. Originally assigned to be a form distributor, she was reassigned to filling out the vaccine cards for the patients due to a large number of volunteers that day. She worked a four-hour shift on Saturday morning in January. “Volunteering felt great, and most of the interactions I had with the people there for their vaccines were relaxed and easygoing. While the organization of it all seemed chaotic at times, it was understandable, given these were some of the first volunteer opportunities available for the COVID vaccinations. I would volunteer again!” Zara said.

Working with You

Volunteering at a vaccination site is a full-circle moment. In our roles as AALAS National Office staff, we work each day to support the work you do in laboratory animal science. Volunteering to help with our national vaccination effort delivers a different LAS experience. For a few short hours, we stepped into partnering with you in your work to deliver cures and therapies for people and animals. As site volunteers, we all received vaccinations from extra doses available at the close of our shifts. As vaccinations become more readily available and the push to reach herd immunity continues, we thank you for the work you do to bring treatments, like vaccines, to our communities.

Vicki Campbell, the AALAS Foundation Administrator, volunteered in Tent Two providing vaccination forms to potential recipients.

Vicki Campbell also had a positive experience volunteering in Tent Two. “Overall, it was one of the best volunteer experiences I’ve ever done. Very rewarding to know I was part of such an important process to help get people vaccinated and safe so that our world can, hopefully, get back to normal again,” Vicki said. She noted that everyone she encountered driving through the tent to get their vaccine seemed happy and excited. The process went very smoothly, no long waits, despite a steady, non-stop flow of cars. “Volunteering made me feel proud to be part of something bigger than me and of such important magnitude,” Vicki added. 24 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Liz Rozanski, BA, is the Communications Manager at the AALAS National Office in Memphis, TN.



May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 25

+1 800-521-2109 / +1 650-349-1636 • INFO@FINESCIENCE.COM

Inside the IACUC One of the most daunting challenges in IACUC administration is establishing and maintaining a robust post-approval monitoring (PAM) program that balances the need for compliance with fostering researcher success. Sophia Patton at August University in August, GA, has done just that. While the new PAM program she created and implemented is still in its early stages, she presented a poster, “Going Against the Grain: Starting a Post Approval Monitoring Program under the Attending Veterinarian,” at the 2019 AALAS National Meeting, which was identified for further development as a LAS Pro article. So, you might be thinking that this is just another PAM article, but it is not. When Augusta University’s animal program leadership evaluated how to improve animal research compliance and better enable researcher success, they made a deliberate decision to work with the Attending Veterinarian rather than the IACUC’s administrative office in order to make the PAM program come to fruition. Sophia knew this type of organizational structure is not typical for PAM programs, and sometimes it is even discouraged. However, with some careful planning and stakeholder engagement, she made it work. As part of writing this article for LAS Pro, Sophia was able to include her experiences from 2020, adding to what was covered in her 2019 poster presentation. She has made some tweaks to the program, solidified communication channels, and incorporated researcher feedback in PAM documentation. It was a pleasure to work with Sophia on this project. I think she conceived and carried out the vision established by her institution’s animal research program and learned several lessons along the way, lessons that are now being shared with the LAS Pro family. Enjoy! Stacy Pritt, DVM, MS, MBA, CPIA, CHRC, DACAW

Going Against the Grain: Starting a Post-approval Monitoring Program under the Attending Veterinarian By Sophia Patton, BA, RLATG and Stacy Pritt, DVM, MBA, MS, CPIA, DACAW


hile the regulations do not stipulate any specific organizational structure for animal care, facility management, or regulatory compliance, as a field, laboratory animal science has developed and tested multiple models for assigning roles to various departments involved in animal care and research. In the most widely accepted model, animal care technicians typically report up to supervisory staff and ultimately to an Attending Veterinarian (AV), who may also serve as the animal care program director. AVs almost always report to the Institutional Official (IO). IACUC administrative staff may be embedded within the animal care program or may be in a separate office, such as a research compliance or administration office. Usually, IACUC staff may report either directly, or indirectly with additional layers of supervisory staff, to the IO. With such reporting arrangements, it is important that IACUC staff work closely with the IACUC Chair. Sometimes, IACUC staff may be located within a department that does not eventually report to the IO. In such instances, there still must be a formal mechanism for reporting to the IO as per the various regulatory requirements and other guidelines. With the case of Augusta University, a medium-sized animal care program of about 200 protocols, the desire to implement a post-approval monitoring (PAM) program encountered difficulties when it came to the organizational structure. The desire to implement a PAM program originated with the Augusta University Animal Leadership Committee (ALC; comprised of the Senior Vice President of Research, the Associate Vice President of Basic Research, the AV, and the IACUC Chair). Their goal for the new program was to create a new, dedicated position focused on improving research staff education and compliance. However, because the IACUC's administrative operations were incorporated into a stand-alone office and therefore did

26 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

not have a separate budget, the ALC decided to implement a new PAM program by fully integrating it into the animal care program rather than within IACUC administrative operations. Knowing that under the AV’s direction, Augusta’s animal care program, also known as the Division of Laboratory Animal Services (DLAS), had already successfully created a technical training program, the ALC determined that this new PAM position would report directly to the AV. Following a candidate search, which included both internal and external candidates, an internal candidate was hired into the newly created PAM position. At the outset, the AV and the Post Approval Monitor decided to create a step-bystep approach to create the new PAM program. Such an approach was meant to ensure transparency with the IACUC and avoid the appearance of overlap and unclear boundaries between the animal care program and IACUC responsibilities. The main high-level goal for the PAM program, aside from generally improving animal welfare by helping to ensure researcher compliance, was to have the research staff readily identify the program as a resource and partner for them as they navigate animal care requirements and compliance to IACUC policies. A guiding belief would be that by creating an

ethical, transparent program, research staff will be encouraged to reach out to the subject matter experts (DLAS and the IACUC) when they have questions or concerns. A mission statement was even developed to help convey the program’s goals to the animal research community at the university: “The Augusta University Post Approval Monitoring (PAM) Program serves as a mechanism to ensure that work with live animals is conducted in accordance with all applicable federal laws, regulations, and policies, as well as the recommendations within the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The PAM program reports monthly to the IACUC but operates independent from the IACUC. PAM facilitates communication between the research faculty and staff, DLAS, and the IACUC to ensure animal welfare in the pursuit of progressive science. PAM visits are intended to be collegial and supportive of animal-based research on our campus and are designed to assist in preparing laboratories for regulatory visits.”

Risk Assessment and Focus Areas

The first component of the set-by-step approach to building the PAM program was assessing the areas of risk for the animal research program. Four sources of information for the risk assessment were utilized: • Concerns noted by the AV. • Concerns routinely identified by other animal research programs. • Don’t discount meeting attendance, even virtual atten-

dance! Learning and sharing with AALAS and Laboratory Animal Welfare Training Exchange (LAWTE) colleagues was invaluable as Augusta University’s PAM program was forming. • Concerns noted in the literature via an internet search. • Concerns described by conversations and experiences within the Augusta animal research program. Initially, the PAM Specialist determined that protocol consistency was an area that needed the most focus. Assistance with rodent surgery was also identified as a high priority focus through the risk assessment process.

Partnering with the IACUC and Determining Responsibilities

Even though it was expected that the PAM Specialist would work closely with the IACUC, as a member of the DLAS, the PAM Specialist is not a member of the IACUC committee. The PAM Specialist is instead described as an IACUC observer or guest. This helps set the stage for how the PAM program, directed by the AV, interacts with the IACUC. The PAM Specialist was instructed to build a meaningful partnership with the IACUC administrative staff, Chair, and members. Notably, it was incumbent upon the PAM Specialist to keep the IACUC apprised of her activities. A useful communication method came with the sharing of metrics with the IACUC regularly. Metrics, including a brief description of what occurred during each PAM visit, are now provided on a regular basis to the committee in a succinct manner. All May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 27

committee members have full access to PAM documentation upon request. For the most part, activities to be observed are selected on a “for cause” basis.1 An example of a “for cause” PAM could be a follow-up on a concern or issue identified by the IACUC during a semiannual facility inspection. Observations are driven by veterinary and IACUC concerns and have three categories: 1. The PAM Specialist identifies observations that do not rise to the level of animal welfare concerns or non-compliance as "Suggestions for Improvements." • The PAM Specialist will typically provide information about the observation and how the PI may consider changing it (for example, suggesting that a PI describe a range of acceptable needle sizes for an injection procedure rather than a single gauge size within the approved IACUC protocol). 2. For instances of non-compliance with an IACUC protocol or policy not involving immediate animal welfare concerns, such as with the need for a protocol amendment, the IACUC is contacted expeditiously and at the same time as the PI. In this case, the IACUC staff directs the follow-up necessary to resolve the compliance concern. The resolution may or may not include additional involvement of the PAM Specialist. 3. Observations comprised of urgent animal welfare concerns are immediately communicated to the IACUC and veterinary staff through the “Animal Welfare Incident” form, which is used for all such incidents regardless of the reporter. After PAM visits with results described in #1 and 2 above, the formal report provided to the PI includes the completed checklist used by the PAM Specialist with comments about what was observed (more on the checklist below). All communication channels between the PAM Specialist, AV, and IACUC were approved by the IACUC.

Developing the PAM “Checklist”

Individuals who conduct PAM visits in laboratory animal science often use one or more checklists to facilitate their visits. Use of checklists ensures that all items are reviewed during a visit, and that item review is consistent from visit to visit. With the brand-new PAM program, the checklist was tested over the course of several visits with multiple PIs. The PAM Specialist wanted to ensure that the documentation was clear and understood by all stakeholders. After testing two previous versions of the checklist, the list is now on the third iteration, which has incorporated simple “yes” and “no” questions as well as some of the OLAW semiannual review formatting and terminology (e.g., “Acceptable,” “Minor,” etc.). Although this wording may be a point of confusion (where does the PAM program end and the IACUC semiannual facility inspections or program review begin?), keeping some familiar terms has been helpful. This aids the research staff to understand the importance of the PAM

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visits and further emphasizes that the PAM is a link to the IACUC, with a full understanding of those processes. Additionally, the PAM Specialist begins all visits with an introduction to discuss the difference between PAM and IACUC visits to help avoid confusion. To date, the research staff have been accepting of the PAM program, as evidenced by improved compliance with submitting amendments in a timely manner. Additionally, a few labs have used the visits to self-report concerns from their animal use protocols. All completed PAM visit checklists (which include notes regarding items that are noted as being “minor” or “significant” deficiencies) are made available to the IACUC through document sharing and are also discussed during monthly IACUC meetings. More recently, it was determined the IACUC Compliance Coordinator would be contacted immediately after the PI is contacted regarding the result of the PAM visit unless an instance of severe non-compliance necessitated immediate escalation. The Compliance Coordinator is provided with all of the visit’s findings.


An official PAM program under the direction of an AV can thrive when designed with the goals of transparency and communication. Meeting with IACUC members to discuss the PAM process, from initial lab visit through required resolutions, and providing PAM document access and updates to the IACUC committee during monthly meetings, are the two main methods used to reduce challenges with the IACUC and ensure the PAM program can succeed at Augusta University. Over time, evaluation of the program’s success will be conducted through the review of the number and types of non-compliance incidents recorded to track potential improvement. This is similar to previously published methods for quantifying PAM program.2 Furthermore, the Pam Specialist plans to send PIs a “customer satisfaction” survey to gather their opinions about the program’s current state and future direction. For now, the multiple notes of gratitude and appreciation, and identification of the program as “helpful,” is evidence of success! Sophia Patton, BA, RLATG, is a PAM Specialist in the Division of Laboratory Animal Services at Augusta University (previously Georgia Regents University), in Augusta, GA. Stacy Pritt, DVM, MS, MBA, CPIA, CHRC, DACAW is Assistant Vice President at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, TX. REFERENCES 1. Pritt S, Smith T. 2020. Institutional animal care and use committee postapproval monitoring programs: a proposed comprehensive classification scheme. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 59(2):127-131. 2. Vanderford DA, Doss S, Banks RE. 2015. A retrospective review of postapproval monitoring at a large academic institution. Lab Anim 44(10):395-401.

30 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Figure 2. Tech Lit club participants sit distanced around a table to discuss their assigned articles.

Management/Career & Training

Putting LAS Pro to Work: Increasing Engagement and Dialogue by Creating a Technician Literature Club By Johnathan DenHerder, DVM, RLATG and Kristin Clausing, RLATG


n the breakroom table sits a pile of periodicals and journals (Figure 1). Quiet and undisturbed, they lay in wait for someone – anyone – to thumb through their pages and discover the pearls and gems of wisdom they hold between their covers. Around the same table, a few technicians are taking a break. Food and water may be consumed, small talk could certainly happen, but most likely, this pile will go unnoticed. It has become commonplace; occasionally added to, dwindled, or shifted around, but rarely consumed. Such was the scene in the Laboratory Animal Resources Center (LARC) at Oregon State University. Knowing the value of periodicals such as Laboratory Animal Science Professional (LAS Pro) and seeking a way to provide additional opportunities for technicians to earn continuing education units, we created a technician literature club (Tech Lit Club) to increase engagement. We intended to put highly applicable and practical information in our technicians’ hands and discuss it in an intentional way. LAS Pro is a bimonthly publication of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. The magazine delivers reliable and practical information for laboratory animal care professionals at any stage in their careers.1 With several article types, LAS Pro serves this purpose well and offers a variety of ways authors and readers can connect and share information. Our goal in creating the Tech Lit Club was to help our technicians discover the value of routine engagement with the literature.

Tech Tips articles from LAS Pro were assigned to participants to review and summarize before each meeting (one article per participant). In addition to summarizing the article, participants were instructed to prepare two discussion questions directly related to the article or background information presented in the article. Distribution of the summary and questions to all group members was optional, but participants were encouraged to prepare written notes that they could refer to when presenting. Since our group size was small, everyone presented and discussed one article summary within the 45- to 60-minute timeframe of each meeting. To accommodate larger groups, meeting duration could be increased, or presenters could rotate such that only a portion of the group would prepare a summary to present at each meeting. Digital editions of LAS Pro were downloaded. Selected articles were either extracted using Adobe Acrobat software or copied and pasted into a Microsoft Word document to facilitate access to assigned articles. The resulting files were saved in a shared folder that was accessible to all group members. A copy of the meeting schedule with assignments was also saved to this folder. The meeting location rotated between the three LARC-managed facilities on campus, which gave each technician a chance to “host” a meeting (and not have to travel somewhere else) every three months. Meeting attendance was documented and maintained with the training records at each facility.

Materials and Methods

Early in 2019, the LARC Director was consulted to determine if a literature club could be formed for technicians and whether they could participate during their normal work schedules. A trial period was planned during which participants prepared for the club meetings on their own time, but the meetings occurred during the workday. Meeting frequency and duration were initially proposed once monthly for 45-60 minutes. We felt that this frequency would not burden participants’ work schedules nor significantly impact their personal lives with a heavy load of “homework.” To gauge interest in joining the Tech Lit Club, an e-mail was sent to the animal care technicians describing its purpose, format, and schedule. We received a 100% positive response – all 3 technicians and the supervisor wanted to participate.

Figure 1. Several laboratory animal science publications piled on a breakroom table.

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Since its first meeting in March of 2019, the Tech Lit Club has reviewed over 60 articles. Several article types have been reviewed, including LAS Pro Tech Tips, AALAS Serves, Management/Career & Training, and others. The club continues to meet once or twice a month, depending on the participants’ schedules. To maintain physical distance during the COVID-19 pandemic, meetings have been held either on the lawn or in the large breakroom at the LARC facility, or online via Zoom (Figure 2). Participants look forward to these meetings and are eager to share what they are reading. In discussing the articles, our procedures and processes are looked at through a fresh lens. We discuss how a different approach might help our facilities or how it might hinder our department's overall goal. We have started using a new restraint method for nail trims and have added new enrichment ideas for our animals. With the pandemic this year, these meetings have been the only time we are all in the same space at the same time. It gives us some sense of normalcy and helps us continue to look at what we are doing and ask the questions: Why we do things the way we do them? Is there a better, more efficient way? Is there something more we could or should be doing for the animals in our care?

The Tech Lit Club was formed to increase technician engagement with laboratory animal science literature. Not only has it addressed that goal, but it has also strengthened our team in a time when we need to stay strong. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Drs. Jennifer Sargent, Nina Woodford. and Gay Lynn Clyde for their thoughtful review of this article and in particular, Dr. Sargent for her support of this project. We are also grateful to the OSU LARC animal care staff for their enthusiastic participation in Tech Lit Club.

Johnathan DenHerder, DVM, RLATG. is a Clinical Veterinarian and Training Coordinator in the Office of the Campus Veterinarian at Washington State University in Pullman, WA. Kristin Clausing, RLATG. is the Supervisor for the Laboratory Animal Resources Center at Oregon State University in Corvallis, OR.

REFERENCES 1. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. [Internet]. 2012-2020. Laboratory Animal Science Professional (LAS Pro). [Cited 14 December 2020]. Available at:

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32 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Management/Career & Training

Investigation of Rodent Genotyping Refinements Honoring Dr. Darrell Hoskins By F. Claire Hankenson, DVM, MS, DACLAM


n the early spring of 2018, Dr. Darrell Hoskins had the "wild ed at the virtual 2020 AALAS National Meeting, as a poster, vision" to bring together a collaborative group of colleagues “Assessment of Existing and Novel Tissue Sample Collection to form the inaugural Transnetyx Scientific Publications Methods for Standard and Automated Rodent Genotyping Committee (TSPC). At the time, Darrell was serving as the (P216).” Associate Vice President, Comparative Medicine at Transnetyx The presentation compared tissue samples of ear punch (posin Memphis, TN. In partnership with Nate Nowak, Vice Presitive control), oral swab, rectal swab, skin swab, fur pluck, whisident, Scientific Affairs, the intention was to create a veterinary ker pull, and fecal pellet. Tail tip biopsies, the most commonly team that would facilitate research and scientific publications used source for genotyping, were not collected for the pilot relevant to collective areas of professional interest, including study, as it was decided beforehand that they would be assessed genotyping, tissue sampling, welfare outcomes, and rodent in a future project. The pilot study findings were provocative, assessments. specifically that for adult rats and mice, the rectal swab providThe individuals recruited ed the highest quality results for this "think tank" included (based on high signal yield laboratory animal veterinarion internal control assays and ans from across the country: the highest number of results Fernando Benavides (MD that passed quality control), Anderson, Houston), Lesley comparable with the ear Colby (Univ of Washington), punch, followed next in qualBob Dysko (Univ of Michity by oral swab samples. All igan), Claire Hankenson other tissues (hair, skin, and (Michigan State Univ), Pete fecal pellets) were deemed Smith (Yale Univ), and Doug to be inferior and below the Taylor (Emory Univ). At level of reliable detection. the 2018 AALAS National These outcomes will now Meeting in Baltimore, MD, direct the TSPC in a future the TSPC convened in-person multi-institutional study on to review contemporary issues tissue sampling and animal Pictured from left to right: Drs. Benavides, Nowak, Colby, Hoskins, Hankenson, and Dysko from a TSPC event at the 2019 ACLAM Forum. affecting laboratory animal wellbeing assessments. science. Topics discussed included ongoing concerns about reproducibility and transConclusion latability of animal experiments, and the logistics of designing The synergy of ideas and enthusiasm within the TSPC was a pioneer multi-institutional consortium to establish reliable, driven forward primarily by Darrell through the initial 2020 comparable, broadly applicable, and reproducible data. pandemic shutdown. When Darrell unexpectedly passed away Darrell assembled the TSPC routinely by conference call on June 13, 2020, the TSPC wished to honor his legacy in preand in-person semi-annually (at AALAS and ACLAM confer- senting the pilot data at the AALAS National Meeting, with ences) to continue to hone our shared scientific objectives and his name positioned as our senior author. chart a course to deliver evidence-based outcomes to the lab Darrell’s infectious positive energy toward animal care and animal community. responsible use was a driver throughout his career. The TSPC remains indebted to him for bringing us together. We aim to Launching a Pilot Study fulfill his vision of producing evidence-based study outcomes Ultimately, in response to ongoing queries for information for the betterment of replacement, reduction, and refinement about refinements in genotyping, the TSPC team designed efforts in the laboratory animal field. and executed a pilot study in summer 2019. The study involved tissue sampling of laboratory rats (at Michigan State) and mice (at Univ of Michigan) that was then assessed using routine F. Claire Hankenson, DVM, MS, DACLAM, is the Director and and novel automated diagnostics for DNA quantification. The Attending Veterinarian in Campus Animal Resources at Michigan results of this pilot collaboration were summarized and present- State University in Lansing, MI. May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 33

Management/Career & Training


The 3Rs of Management By Jared Nichol, MBA, PMP, CLSSBB, Prosci

elcome to a new periodical on management and leadership, where we look at specific tools you can use immediately in your animal care program. Some of the strategies may be more conceptual, but the objective is that you can read one of these articles, be inspired, and potentially try a few of these ideas back at your vivarium. Note that one size does not fit all, so be sure to experiment with the suggestions and customize them to your reality. Everyone in the biomedical research industry knows the 3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement. These are tenets of our commitment regarding research animal use. This month I would like to introduce the 3Rs of management: respect, responsibility, and recognition. While many other key leadership and management principles begin with the letter R, these three can have an immediate and profound impact on your research program and coworkers. Respect means placing something in high regard or importance. Regarding management, I like to tell people it is about treating people how you would like to be treated. This may sound simple but try an experiment. Walk around the vivarium and see how many people stop you in the hall and say, “Hi, how are you?” Or visit the animal holding room while a researcher is present and see how they interact with animal care personnel. What do you do if you see incivility in the workplace? Do you turn a blind eye, or do you address it? Real change starts with the orientation process. A good question to ask is, what does the orientation process look like? Is civility in the workplace addressed? If not, perhaps now’s a good time to rethink new staff and researcher orientation to emphasize the importance of mutual respect and the profound impact it can have on the entire animal use program. Take Responsibility for your actions. A good manager knows when to acknowledge mistakes and to encourage a person to learn from those mistakes. Far too often, people try to hide mistakes for fear of repercussions. The reality is that mistakes do occur, and it is important to encourage people not to hide mistakes. Allowing people to have responsibility for their own mistakes takes things to a different level. Team members will feel safe coming forward with errors if they know they will not be reprimanded every time a mistake occurs. This positively impacts the organizational culture and makes people feel good. There is, of course, a time where repercussions are necessary. It is at times like these where it is important to know your conflict management style. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument introduced in 1976,1 identifies five conflict management styles—collaborating, competing, avoiding, accommodating, and compromising. Online tests are available to help 34 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

pinpoint which style you prefer. If, for example, you prefer the avoiding style, it means you will do anything to ignore issues around you. Doing so forfeits leadership responsibility and can have longstanding negative effects on operational culture and organizational effectiveness. Each of these conflict management styles has a place, but knowing your personal preference can reveal how you might want to handle a future conflict. To grow as a manager, the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode analysis ( is a wonderful way to start. Recognition may be the last of the Rs, but it is probably the most important, especially in these precarious times. COVID-19 affected all of us differently, but it did impact each of us. It is important that your team members feel appreciated for the hard work they do daily. It is even more important to recognize their efforts during a worldwide pandemic. An example of this is, what did you do for your team during the holidays? It is likely the classic holiday party was canceled, but did you do anything in its place? What about giving gift cards to a popular restaurant that offered delivery and couple that with a Zoom gathering? Sure, maybe not everyone will join, but it is better than doing absolutely nothing. Another little acknowledgment might be placing a handwritten thank you note to every team member on their locker. LAS pros were deemed essential service workers. Their work supported the research that led to the vaccines we are all enjoying today. I would say that is cause for recognition. Naturally, recognition does not have to all-encompassing. Sometimes it is a pat on the back or saying “good job” when someone goes the extra mile. What is important to remember with recognition is that it needs to be sincere, and it needs to be timely. The 3Rs are not only important for animal usage in research but also in management and leadership. The Rs have the power to change you as a person and to help shape your animal use program into a workplace where everyone is treated with respect, where hard work is recognized, and where each person is responsible for their actions. Jared Nichol, MBA, PMP, CLSSBB, Prosci, is a Continuous Improvement Program Manager in the Comparative Medicine and Animal Resources Centre at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. REFERENCES 1. Jones J. 1976. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. Group & Organization Studies 1(2): 249-251.

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WARNING: ABUSE POTENTIAL, LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, and ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE Abuse Potential This formulation contains buprenorphine, a high-concentration (1.3 mg/mL) opioid agonist and Schedule III controlled substance with an abuse potential similar to other Schedule III opioids. The high concentration may be a particular target for human abuse. Buprenorphine has opioid properties that in humans may lead to dependence of the morphine type. Abuse of buprenorphine may lead to low or moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence. The risk of abuse by humans should be considered when storing, administering, and disposing of Ethiqa XR. Persons at increased risk for opioid abuse include those with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (suicidal depression). Because of human safety risks, this drug should be used only with veterinary supervision. Do not dispense Ethiqa XR. Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression The concentration of buprenorphine in Ethiqa XR is 1.3 mg/mL. Respiratory depression, including fatal cases, may occur with abuse of Ethiqa XR. Ethiqa XR has additive CNS depressant effects when used with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression. Because of the potential for adverse reactions associated with accidental injection, Ethiqa XR should only be administered by a veterinarian or laboratory staff trained in the handling of potent opioids. Important Safety Information for Rats and Mice For Rats and Mice: Only administer Ethiqa XR by subcutaneous injection. Ethiqa XR is not intended for intravenous, intra-arterial, intrathecal, intramuscular, or intra-peritoneal injection. Do not use on mice or rats with pre-existing respiratory deficiencies. Do not keep rats on wood chip-type bedding after administration of Ethiqa XR. Use caution with concomitant administration of Ethiqa XR with drugs that cause respiratory depression. For Humans: Ethiqa XR should only be administered by a veterinarian or laboratory staff trained in the handling of potent opioids. Protective clothing is recommended to avoid direct contact with human skin or mucus membranes which could result in absorption of buprenorphine and adverse reactions. Not for use in humans. For more information, consult the Prescribing Information including the boxed warning located on the next page. 833-EthiqaXR (833-384-4729) © 2021 Fidelis Pharmaceuticals, LLC February 2021 FID-ETH-024

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May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 35

Opioid Analgesic For subcutaneous use in mice and rats only. CAUTION: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. LEGAL STATUS--In order to be legally marketed, a new animal drug intended for a minor species must be Approved, Conditionally Approved, or Indexed by the Food and Drug Administration. THIS PRODUCT IS INDEXED--MIF # 900-014. Extra-label use is prohibited. This product is not to be used in animals intended for use as food for humans or food-producing animals. WARNING: ABUSE POTENTIAL, LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, and ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE Abuse Potential Ethiqa XR contains buprenorphine, a high concentration (1.3 mg/mL) opioid agonist and Schedule III controlled substance with an abuse potential similar to other Schedule III opioids. The high concentration of Ethiqa XR may be a particular target for human abuse. Buprenorphine has opioid properties that in humans may lead to dependence of the morphine type. Abuse of buprenorphine may lead to low or moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence. The risk of abuse by humans should be considered when storing, administering, and disposing of Ethiqa XR. Persons at increased risk for opioid abuse include those with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (suicidal depression). Because of human safety risks, this drug should be used only with veterinary supervision. Do not dispense Ethiqa XR. Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression The concentration of buprenorphine in Ethiqa XR is 1.3 mg/mL. Respiratory depression, including fatal cases, may occur with abuse of Ethiqa XR. Ethiqa XR has additive CNS depressant effects when used with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression. Because of the potential for adverse reactions associated with accidental injection, Ethiqa XR should only be administered by a veterinarian or laboratory staff trained in the handling of potent opioids. DESCRIPTION Ethiqa XR is an injectable suspension of extended-release buprenorphine. Buprenorphine hydrochloride, an opioid analgesic, is the active ingredient in Ethiqa XR. Lipid-bound buprenorphine hydrochloride is suspended in medium chain fatty acid triglyceride (MCT) oil. Lipids encapsulate the buprenorphine limiting diffusion which provides for larger doses and prolonged action.1,2 Ethiqa XR has a slightly yellow to white opaque appearance. Each mL contains approximately 1.3 mg buprenorphine hydrochloride. The sterile product contains cholesterol, glyceryl tristearate, and buprenorphine hydrochloride suspended in MCT oil. Buprenorphine Formula C29H41NO4

INDICATIONS Ethiqa XR is indicated for the control of post-procedural pain in mice and rats. MOUSE DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Wear protective clothing when administering Ethiqa XR (see Human Safety Warnings). Shake the vial briefly before each use to ensure uniform suspension. If stored refrigerated, bring to room temperature before use. Use aseptic techniques to withdraw the dose into a disposable 0.5 or 1 mL syringe. A 20 to 23 gauge needle should be used for injections due to the viscosity of the drug suspension. The dosage of Ethiqa XR is a single subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL per 20 gram mouse (3.25 mg/kg body weight). Therapeutic drug concentrations are maintained for 72 hours after the initial dose. If needed, a single repeat dose may be administered 72 hours after the initial dose. Secure the mouse in a scruff-of-the-neck hold. Insert the needle into the dorsal subcutaneous space created by the scruff hold. Inject the entire dose into the dorsal subcutaneous space. An oily sheen may be observed in the dorsal fur of the mouse after injection due to leakage of the oil-based drug suspension from the injection site. The oily sheen may last for 4 to 5 days postinjection. Leakage from the injection site can be minimized by slowly injecting Ethiqa XR into the subcutaneous space. The mouse can be returned to its cage immediately after receiving Ethiqa XR. Do not return any unused drug suspension from the syringe back into the vial. Once the vial is broached, Ethiqa XR can be stored at 15° to 25°C (59° – 77°F) or refrigerated for 28 days. DO NOT FREEZE. RAT DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Wear protective clothing when administering Ethiqa XR (see Human Safety Warnings). Shake the vial briefly before each use to ensure uniform suspension. If stored refrigerated, bring to room temperature before use. Use aseptic techniques to withdraw the dose into a disposable 0.5 or 1 mL syringe. A 20 to 23 gauge needle should be used for injections due to the viscosity of the drug suspension. The dosage of Ethiqa XR is a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mL per 200 gram rat (0.65 mg/kg body weight). Therapeutic drug concentrations are maintained for 72 hours after the initial dose. If needed, a single repeat dose may be administered 72 hours after the initial dose. Secure the rat in a passive restraint tube or by holding with a heavy glove with one person to secure the rat and a second person to administer the drug. Insert the needle in the dorsal subcutaneous space. Inject the entire dose into the dorsal subcutaneous space. An oily sheen may be observed in the dorsal fur after injection due to leakage of the oil-based drug suspension from the injection site. The oily sheen may last for 4 to 5 days post-injection. Leakage from the injection site can be minimized by slowly injecting Ethiqa XR into the subcutaneous space. The rat can be returned to its cage immediately after receiving Ethiqa XR. See CONTRAINDICATIONS and Rat PRECAUTIONS for additional information on bedding. Do not return any unused drug suspension from the syringe back into the vial. Once the vial is broached, Ethiqa XR can be stored at 15° to 25°C (59° – 77°F) or refrigerated for 28 days. DO NOT FREEZE. CONTRAINDICATIONS Only administer Ethiqa XR by subcutaneous injection. Ethiqa XR is not intended for intravenous, intra-arterial, intrathecal, intramuscular, or intra-peritoneal injection. Do not use on mice or rats with pre-existing respiratory deficiencies. Do not keep rats on wood chip-type bedding after administration of Ethiqa XR. HUMAN SAFETY WARNINGS Not for use in humans. Keep out of the reach of children. Human User Safety while handling Ethiqa XR: Two trained staff for administration: Ethiqa XR should only be handled and administered by a veterinarian, veterinary technician, or laboratory staff trained in the handling of potent opioids. To prevent human adverse reactions or abuse, at least 2 trained administrators should be present during injection of Ethiqa XR. Protective covering: To prevent direct contact of Ethiqa XR with human skin or mucous membranes when handling the suspension, protective clothing is recommended. Mucous membrane or eye contact during administration: Direct contact of Ethiqa XR with the eyes, oral or other mucous membranes of humans could result in absorption of buprenorphine and the potential for adverse reactions. If accidental eye, oral or other mucous membrane contact is made during administration, flush the area with water and contact a physician. Skin contact during administration: If human skin is accidentally exposed to Ethiqa XR, wash the exposed area with soap and water and contact a physician. Accidental exposure could result in absorption of buprenorphine and the potential for adverse reactions. Drug Abuse, Addiction, and Diversion of Opioids: Controlled Substance: Ethiqa XR contains buprenorphine, a mu opioid partial agonist and Schedule III controlled substance with an abuse potential similar to other Schedule III opioids. Ethiqa XR can be abused and is subject to misuse, abuse, addiction,

36 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

and criminal diversion. Ethiqa XR should be handled appropriately to minimize the risk of diversion, including restriction of access, the use of accounting procedures, and proper disposal methods, as appropriate to the laboratory setting and as required by law. Abuse: Abuse of Ethiqa XR poses a hazard of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of alcohol and other substances including other opioids and benzodiazepines. Buprenorphine has been diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. All people handling opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse. Drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects. Abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction. Storage and Discard: Ethiqa XR is a Class III opioid. Store in a locked, substantially constructed cabinet according to DEA and local controlled substance guidelines. Discard broached vials after 28 days. Any unused or expired vials must be destroyed by a DEA registered reverse distributor; for further information, call 1-833-384-4729. Physician information: Ethiqa XR injectable suspension is a mu-opioid partial agonist (1.3 mg buprenorphine/mL). In the case of an emergency, provide the physician with the package insert. Naloxone may not be effective in reversing respiratory depression produced by buprenorphine. The onset of naloxone effect may be delayed by 30 minutes or more. Doxapram hydrochloride has also been used as a respiratory stimulant. PRECAUTIONS Mice The safety of Ethiqa XR has not been evaluated in pregnant, lactating, neonatal, or immune-compromised mice. As with other opioids, buprenorphine may cause sedation, decreased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, decreased gastrointestinal mobility, and respiratory depression. Use caution with concomitant administration of Ethiqa XR with drugs that cause respiratory depression. The use of paper or soft bedding for up to 3 days following administration of Ethiqa XR should be considered. Normal mice may exhibit an obtunded response to stimuli up to 4 hours after receiving Ethiqa XR. Buprenorphine is excreted in the feces (see Clinical Pharmacology section below). Coprophagy may lead to ingestion of buprenorphine or its metabolites by mice treated with Ethiqa XR and untreated cage mates. Rats The safety of Ethiqa XR has not been evaluated in pregnant, lactating, neonatal, or immune-compromised rats. As with other opioids, buprenorphine may cause sedation, decreased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, decreased gastrointestinal mobility, and respiratory depression. Use caution with concomitant administration of Ethiqa XR with drugs that cause respiratory depression. Rats may exhibit signs of nausea including pica up to 3 days post-treatment. Rats should be maintained on paper or soft bedding to avoid ingestion of wood chip-type bedding after administration of Ethiqa XR. Pica involving wood chip-type bedding can be lethal in rats. Buprenorphine is excreted in the feces (see Clinical Pharmacology section below). Coprophagy may lead to ingestion of buprenorphine or its metabolites by rats treated with Ethiqa XR and untreated cage mates. ADVERSE REACTIONS Mice No adverse reactions were observed in 20 to 25 gram young adult male and female mice after a single subcutaneous injection of Ethiqa XR at a dose 5 times the indicated dose. Laboratory parameters evaluated in the study included hematology and clinical chemistry; histopathology was also performed. In a second study, adult male and female mice received Ethiqa XR subcutaneously at 5 times the indicated dose for three doses at four day intervals. A surgical procedure was performed on the study mice prior to receiving each of the three doses of Ethiqa XR. Mortality was seen in two male mice after the third surgical procedure and dose of Ethiqa XR (total dose of 49 mg buprenorphine/ kg body weight in 8 days). Weight loss has been observed in mice treated post-procedurally with Ethiqa XR. Rats Adverse reactions were evaluated in 180 to 200 gram young adult male and female rats after a single injection of Ethiqa XR. A surgical procedure was performed on the rats prior to administration of a single dose at the intended dose of 0.65 mg/kg or a single dose of 2, 6 or 10-fold excess dose. Adverse reactions also were evaluated in male and female rats administered 2, 6 and 10 times the intended dose for three doses at four day intervals. A surgical procedure was performed on the rats prior to administration of the first of three doses. Laboratory parameters evaluated in the study included hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, histopathology, and bodyweight. Signs of nausea were observed at all dose levels within 24 hours of the dose. Signs included self-licking, self-gnawing and efforts to eat wood-chip bedding. Mortality was seen in 1 of 36 rats exposed to wood chip bedding. Necropsy revealed the stomach and esophagus were compacted with bedding, the bladder was abnormally distended and the urine contained blood. Mortality was seen in 3 of 222 rats treated with Ethiqa XR due to technical complications with serial bleeding of the jugular vein. For technical assistance, or to report an adverse drug reaction, please call Fidelis Pharmaceuticals LLC at 1-833-384-4729. For additional information about adverse drug experience reporting for animal drugs, contact FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS or http:// CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY3 Buprenorphine can act as an agonist and antagonist at different classes of opioid receptors. Agonism at the mu opioid receptor and, in some cases, antagonism at the kappa or delta opioid receptors are possible underlying mechanisms for the ceiling effect and bell-shaped dose-response curve of buprenorphine. Studies with knockout mice have shown that the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine, which is mediated primarily by the mu opioid receptor, is attenuated by the ability of the drug to activate the opioid receptor like (ORL-1) receptor. The drug can be described as a ‘full’ and a ‘partial’ agonist at the same receptor depending on the specific assay. There appears to be no ceiling effect for analgesia, but there is a ceiling effect for respiratory depression. Pharmacokinetic studies with bolus injections of buprenorphine in mice and rats provide similar models. After bolus intravenous administration, plasma levels decline tri-exponentially. The drug is n-deakylated in the liver to norbuprenorphine (NBN), an active metabolite. Studies have shown that glucuronide metabolites of buprenorphine and NBN are also metabolically active, and can approximate or exceed the concentration of the parent drug. Un-metabolized drug excreted in the urine and feces one week after injection was 1.9 and 22.4% of the dose, respectively, and 92% of the dose was accounted for in one week.3 Mice Pharmacokinetic parameters of Ethiqa XR were studied in 6-8 week old male and female Balb/c mice following a single subcutaneous injection of 3.25 mg/kg bodyweight. Clinically significant blood levels were observed up to 72 hours after subcutaneous injection. Rats Pharmacokinetic parameters of Ethiqa XR were studied in 8 week old male and female Fischer rats following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.65 mg/kg bodyweight. Clinically significant blood levels were observed up to 72 hours after subcutaneous injection. HOW SUPPLIED Ethiqa XR is supplied in a multi-use glass vial containing 3.0 mL of injectable drug suspension. Ethiqa XR

3 mL vial

NDC 86084-100-30

U.S. Patent No. 8,461,173 STORAGE INFORMATION Store between 15° and 25°C (59° – 77°F) or refrigerated. DO NOT FREEZE. If stored refrigerated, bring to room temperature before use. Once broached, the multi-dose vial should be discarded after 28 days. REFERENCES 1. Mishra et al., Drug Delivery and Transl. Res, 2:238-253; 2012. 2. Bethune et al., The role of drug-lipid interactions on the disposition of liposome-formulated opioid analgesics in vitro and in vivo. Anesth Analg. 93(4):928-33; 2001. 3. Guarnieri et al., Lab Animal, 41(11): 337-343; 2012. Manufactured for: Fidelis Pharmaceuticals LLC CCIT Incubator 675 US Highway One, Suite B113 North Brunswick, NJ 08902 833-384-4729 Fidelis Pharmaceuticals® and EthiqaXR® are registered trademarks of Fidelis Pharmaceuticals LLC, a Delaware Corporation. February 2020



DIY: Acacia Gum Sealed Paper Straws Great for making “edible” handles for popsicles! By Kelsey Lambert, BS, LATG


his DIY snack is great for NHP and can be customized in a variety of ways. All dietary items should be approved by your veterinarian for the intended species and individual before use. Ingredients (Figure 1A)

• Acacia Gum or Arabic Gum (also available from Bio-Serv) • Liquid • Can use water, or other approved flavored liquids or juices. • We use Gatorade Zero to make a diabetic friendly treat.


Supplies • • • • • •

Parchment paper Container (that will allow the paper straws to sit vertically) Paper Straws (designs optional) Scissors Mixing cup (we used a 3oz paper cup) Optional – filler for the straw • Fruit or veggie puree (need fruit and/or veggies, a blender, and a syringe) • Chia seeds



1. Cut the paper straws in half (aiming for ~3 inches in length). 2. Mix 3 parts powder with 1part warm liquid (though this could be adjusted based on desired consistency). 3. Dip the paper straws into the acacia paste to coat one end of the straw (Figure 1B). 4. Freeze ~3-6 hours. 5. Optional – can fill the paper straw with chia seeds, or a fruit/veggie puree using a syringe. Freeze again for ~3-6 hours (Figure 1C). a. Once frozen, these items can be used as a popsicle stick by filling an ice cube tray or dixie cups with your choice of lightly flavored liquid (Figure 1D). b. Cover the liquid containers with parchment paper. c. Put holes in the parchment paper where you would like the straws to be placed. d. Place one straw in each hole. e. Remove parchment paper once frozen and serve.


1D May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 37


The following is sponsored content

The Unrelenting Burden of the Facility Staff: Manual Handling of Bedding, Diet, and Enrichment A washroom processing 5,000 cages per week will handle up to 1,600lbs of bedding alone into and out of the facility operation weekly. Consider handling of feed, enrichment, chemical and other consumables material management can feel like a full-time job. Manual handling of these materials is an unrelenting burden on the facility staff which can lead to injury, exposure to allergens, inconsistency, and material waste.

Automating the bedding process is half of the equation when examining the cage level. What options exist for automating feed handing? Feed presents its own unique set of challenges in sterilization, size and durability. Mechanical transportation and handing of feed can cause it to break down from its original form making it difficult to use within cage feeders. Utilizing vacuum transportation is a way to mitigate these conditions and allow manufactures to being applying the experience gained in conveying bedding materials to feed. Vacuum systems are best suited for conveying feed since every element of the system can be designed with the specific diet in mind. Critical elements of these systems are loading funnels, material receivers, and often forgotten, the vacuum tubing itself. Energy efficient pumps and filtration has allowed manufactures to increase the size of the system piping which increases the overall airflow while optimizing the air/material mixture. Older generation systems utilized smaller piping which can cause difficulty in conveying materials the size of most lab diets.

Advancements in technology have been able to scale down the working principals of large-scale material handling and automation systems to bring the benefits of these automated systems to smaller and medium sized facilities. Reductions in size do not equate to reductions in capabilities. Material management has been challenged by changes in materials and operations as facilities adapt to advancements in research. Systems once designed and engineered for heavier free flowing bedding may not function correctly with light lighter materials used in some or all facilities research. One product recently launched by Tecniplast is its Up & Down bedding dispenser which addresses the needs of such facilities. Not limited by its name, the dispenser is capable of processing multiple bedding types or a single bedding combined with select enrichments. The dispenser is a plug and play unit designed for maximum flexibility and accuracy in dosing. The unit allows facilities to utilize the integrated dust collection and on board filters contain dust protecting operators from repetitive scooping operations and exposure to dust/ allergens.

38 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Operational processes must be kept at for forefront of design considerations when specifying material handling equipment for bedding or food. Space is often at a premium and small systems can provide many of the benefits of larger fully automated systems. Companies such as Tecniplast can provide simplified solutions for facilities of all sizes utilizing their experience in engineering and implementation of solutions which remove the burden of manual handling of materials to enable staff to focus on their most critical mission. Research. For information on the Up & Down Bedding/Feed Dispenser contact Andrew Arvanites at


AALAS Heads to Kansas City! Each fall since 1950, the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science has held its annual National Meeting. Attendees come together to enjoy the workshops, lectures, poster sessions, and exhibits. Exhibitors have an opportunity to interact with AALAS members from the academic community, research institutions, government organizations, and commercial companies. The AALAS National Meeting is the largest gathering in the world of professionals concerned with the production, care, and use of laboratory animals. Visit for details!

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 39


Insights in husbandry, enrichment, and new techniques and tactics

Use of Food Enrichment for Medication Delivery in Large Groups of Sheep By Jennifer H. Wilson-Welder, PhD and Ami T. Frank, MS


n a 2018 AALAS webinar on Sheep and Goat Analgesia, Dr. Susie Vogel, a small ruminant expert, introduced the concept of getting sheep and goats to willingly take medication by putting it in a tasty food treat. Having raised sheep and goats in my youth, I knew a few animals could be trained and would be receptive to the idea, but I had doubts about implementing it in our current research projects. Our sheep were definitely not friendly or people-habituated. They were housed in large outdoor paddocks, 30-40 at a time were used in a study, and we already were concerned about the amount of time it took to catch them and administer medications. The idea that we were going to spend even more time coaxing them to eat ‘cookies’ seemed a bit ridiculous. We could not have been more wrong. The National Animal Disease Center (NADC) located in Ames, Iowa, is dedicated to basic and applied research on diseases of economic importance to U.S. livestock and poultry. As one of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service premier livestock research facilities, the center’s mission is to produce knowledge and technology to reduce economic losses from infectious, genetic, and metabolic diseases of livestock and poultry, to reduce or eliminate pre-harvest contamination or infection of livestock and poultry with food-borne human pathogens, and to prevent suffering and death caused by diseases in agriculturally important livestock and poultry. Our animal care unit works with everything from striped bass and raccoons to bison and dairy cattle. Animals are housed in everything from high containment (Biosafety Level 3 Agriculture, BSL-3-Ag) to typical farm-like settings.


Our specific research group within NADC is focused on understanding the pathogenesis of and finding effective mitigation for digital dermatitis, a polybacterial infectious foot disease and a leading cause of lameness in dairy and beef cattle. Using sheep as a model, we can replicate the acute phase of the disease. As lesions develop, usually in the second week following infection in a study, sheep present with lameness, a characteristic clinical sign associated with digital dermatitis. Upon showing lameness, medication is provided to help control pain and associated lameness and is critical for animal welfare. Oral meloxicam (3 to 6 15mg tablets) is used for this purpose, delivered by use of a small oral balling gun. The process often requires 2 people: one to restrain the sheep, the other to administer the medication. With the number of animals in our studies, daily medication could take over an hour,


Figure 1 A-B. Record sheet on clipboard with animal’s ID, weight dose and dose color code for verification along with check box for daily dose completion (A). Sheep were color coded with livestock marker during weekly weight checks for rapid identification of meloxicam dosage. Sheep on the right has green markings and sheep on the left has no markings indicating two different dosing groups (B).

40 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021



Figure 2 A-B. Fig bars, broken approximately in half, with gelcaps pressed into the fruit paste portion of the cookie (A). Presenting the fig bar to the sheep. Sheep needed to be watched to ensure that they did swallow gelcap and ate only their allotted fig bar (B).

especially as the sheep became less receptive to the idea, and less willing to enter the catch pen. Studies can last 3 to 4 wk with pain-mitigating medication given daily. So, the idea of an easier, more animal-cooperative approach to oral medication delivery was appealing. Sheep are naturally very leery of new situations and have high avoidance behaviors. They can differentiate between individuals, but will generalize bad, painful, or fearful interactions to all other new humans.1 Alterations in routine, such as delays in feeding, weighing and experimental manipulations, can increase stress and fear behaviors.2 Fearful sheep are less likely to seek out novelty or be accepting of new food offerings.3 Our attempts at offering individual sheep food-treats from a calm person in the pen even before the study began met with little success. However, a slightly more hands-on approach met with more success and it did not take the sheep long to learn to love their treats.

Materials and Methods

Thirty-nine sheep, already enrolled in a digital dermatitis study, were used for the food-enrichment medication delivery trial. Sheep were Dorset-Polypay crosses, females and castrated males between 8 and 16 mo of age. Sheep were housed in a single outdoor paddock with pasture access up until the final weeks of the study. Deep bedded straw was provided in a run-in covered area, a concentrate ration was fed twice daily with ad lib grass hay and water. All animal procedures were approved by National Animal Disease Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in accordance with the standards established by Public Health Service Policy "US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training", the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council), the Animal Welfare Act (1966), and the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (USDA, Federation of Animal Science Societies). Before the scientific trial was initiated, an acclimation phase was initiated. The sheep were habituated to the presence of research staff and introduced to fig bars (a Fig Newtons®-like

cookie) as a food treat. A person would go out daily and calmly stand, walk among, and talk to the sheep, offering pieces of fig bars by hand, and placing a few fig bars in the feeding troughs. Digital dermatitis lesions were induced according to established lab protocols.4 When animals started exhibiting lameness, pain mitigation medication was begun (oral meloxicam, 1 mg/kg) and continued as long as lameness continued (end of experiment). Sheep were weighed weekly to maintain accurate dosing. The animal’s number, weight, dose, and color group corresponding to the color code for that dose were all prefilled on the daily medication record sheet (Figure 1 A). Tablets were preassembled into pectin gelcaps for dosing. During weekly weight checks, the sheep’s face was marked with livestock marker according to dose (Figure 1 B). Example: sheep weighing between 56 and 60 kg were given 60 mg, the sheep would be marked with green head markings signifying use of this dose. Sheep would be brought into the catch pen and then 4-6 animals would be run into a single-file raceway along one side of the pen made with extra sorting panels. Animals could be checked off the record sheet when they were in the raceway, and upon exiting, returned to the main paddock. Color-coding animal by dose facilitated rapid identification as to which animal got what, speeding up daily medication delivery and increased accuracy. Fig bars are soft and sticky, insertion of the gelcaps is relatively easy and the resulting medicated treat holds together well enough that the sheep eat all of it without spitting out the medicine (Figure 2 A). For each dose, fig bars were broken roughly in half. For the first week of medication, medication was delivered using the oral balling gun. Beginning with the second week, the fig bars (food enrichment) were used. Briefly, the sheep’s head was grasped in the same manner as for use with the balling gun, and a gelcap-stuffed fig bar was offered. If the animal refused the gelcap-stuffed fig bar voluntarily, it was placed in their mouth (Figure 2 B). If they spit the fig bar and/or medicine out, a second attempt with gelcap-stuffed fig bar was performed. Failure of delivery at this second point was followed by medication using the oral balling gun. May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 41

Figure 3. Once fig bars were accepted, both sheep and caregivers looked forward to cookie time turning a daily medication into a favorable task.


In the acclimation phase prior to the scientific trial, 4 of 39 sheep would voluntarily accept fig bars from people’s hands, and only 1 would do so when being handled (i.e., in the weigh chute). Several animals would eat the fig bars left in the troughs but were too easily startled to make it reliable or accurate dosing in a large group setting. During the later phase of the experiment when daily pain medication was necessary, 6 animals would voluntarily accept gelcap-stuffed fig bars. After the second to third day of placing the fig bar in their mouths, 35 of 39 animals voluntarily accepted gelcap-stuffed fig bars. It did however remain necessary to hold their heads, not to get them to take it, but to prevent them from taking others. The majority loved their cookies and would attempt to return to the raceway for another one. Despite adoption by most animals, 4 sheep continued to be

problematic to dose, even with use of the balling gun. Once the routine was established, concerns regarding time involvement of using the food enrichment were minimized. With preloaded gelcaps, color-coded dosing and sheep willingly entering the raceway to get their cookies, 39 sheep could be individually medicated by a single person in approximately 30 min. The cooperation of the sheep and their willingness to come to the catch pen and raceway despite being lame and still undergoing experimental procedures was a significant source of time saving and reduction in stress both on the sheep and the human handlers.


Sheep, more than any other livestock species, are wary and distrustful of new things, including food offerings from people. While our initial attempts to use a food treat did not seem



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Acknowledgments: We wish to acknowledge Breyer Ott of the NADC Animal Resources Unit for dedication to these animals and excellence in animal care and Hannah Hill of NCAH Visual Services for the photography.

Disclaimer: Mention of trade names or commercial products in this study is solely for providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). USDA is an equal opportunity employer. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and may not reflect the official policy of the Agricultural Research Service, the USDA, or the U. S. Government. Funding Source: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Work was completed by US Department of Agriculture employees during their assigned duties in relation to project number 5030-32000-223-00-D. Jennifer Wilson-Welder, PhD, is a Research Microbiologist with the Agricultural Research Service-USDA at the National Animal Disease Center in Ames, IA. Ami Frank, MS, is a Biological Science Lab Technician with the Agricultural Research Service-USDA at the National Animal Disease Center in Ames, IA.

Sheep "Nubs" checking in on staff through the viewing portal to see if treats are ready yet.

to work, a more persistent approach, coupled with increased handling of the animals, led to not just acceptance but eagerness for the food treat (Figure 3). Food treats can be used and be time efficient in large group settings, replacing a lengthy, cumbersome task (daily medication by forced balling gun) with a more pleasant one. Sheep cookies not only improved the animals’ positive wellbeing but also increased caretaker job-satisfaction and positive outlook.

REFERENCES 1. Destrez A, Coulon M, Deiss V, Delval E, Boissy A, Boivin X. 2013a. The valence of the long-lasting emotional experiences with various handlers modulates discrimination and generalization of individual humans in sheep. J Anim Sci 91: 54185426. 2. Destrez A, Deiss V, Leterrier C, Boivin X, Boissy A. 2013b. Long-term exposure to unpredictable and uncontrollable aversive events alters fearfulness in sheep. Animal 7: 476-484. 3. Villalba JJ, Manteca X, Provenza FD. 2009. Relationship between reluctance to eat novel foods and open-field behavior in sheep. Physiol Behav 96: 276-281. 4. Wilson-Welder JH, Nally JE, Alt DP, Palmer MV, Coatney J, Plummer P. 2018. Experimental transmission of bovine digital dermatitis to sheep: development of an infection model. Vet Pathol 55: 245-257.

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Insights in husbandry, enrichment, and new techniques and tactics

Eliminate Errors and Increase Your Breeding Colony Management Efficiency By Sarah E. Jones, MLAS, RLATG


e all know that the main issues encountered in a rodent breeding program are caused by human errors. Strain contamination, unexpected pup yield genotype or phenotype, breeding errors, incomplete data record, overcrowded cages, unexpected pregnancies, genetic drift, pup cannibalism, miscommunication, and failure to produce enough experimental animals are just a few issues to consider when running a breeding program. The problem is not the lack of literature on what to do to manage and maintain colonies of rodents. There are hundreds if not thousands of free resources out there to include webinars and breeding manuals that teach lab animal professionals everything related to rodent breeding, from breeding schemes to genetic drift. These available literature and training pieces teach us what to do but not always how to do it. It is not always clear how to physically and visually keep track of all tasks required to run a rodent breeding program, and that may be the cause of the human errors we encounter in a breeding program. To successfully run a rodent breeding program, we need a visual system. Here I present to you a visual breeding management system (VBMS) that, if applied correctly, will eliminate errors and increase efficiency in your breeding program. The VBMS is a set of tools used in addition to the breeding software, and it is not meant to be used alone.

Figure 2. Cage card signage. A) breeding setup: write setup date and male removal date with a dry erase pen; b) male OUT indicates that female was bred and male removed; therefore a litter is on the way; c) BREED indicates that animal is available for breeding and should be bred soon; d) GENOTYPE/ Enter Genotype Results is a two-sided sign to remind technicians that animals are ready for tissue collection then after a procedure is complete, sign is turned to remind staff that genotyping results must be entered in the software and written in the cage cards. E) DO NOT DISTURB and/or DO NOT CHANGE CAGE signs are placed on the cage when female is close to parturition and should not be disturbed to avoid pup cannibalism; f) TIMED PREGNANT is a two-sided sign to remind technicians to check plugs the next day then write the date plug was found and after two weeks if pregnancy was confirmed; g) Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri signs are used to flag litters to be weaned that week.

Breeding Cage Card: A Must Have

Figure 1. Two-side cage card. Front: used for weanlings and stock animals; Back: used for breeding.

44 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

A rodent breeding program must have a specific cage card for easy record keeping. Most cage cards used in the vivarium are not fit for breeding records. They do not allow users to freely add any comments or specific records, which results in missing records and miscommunication. These cards should be of different colors, and each rodent line should be assigned a unique color. Any print shop can use this template to make your cards (Figure 1).



Figure 3 A-B. Weaning calendar (A) and color clips (B).

Cage Card Signage: Make It Clear

The amount of daily breeding tasks required to be performed in a breeding program can be overwhelming. There are pups to wean and tag in different days and weeks, breeding pairs or trios to set up according to animals age, genotype, study and availability, tissue collection for genotyping to be performed, genotyping results to be entered, males to be separated, and much more. Therefore, some tasks may often be dismissed either because they are not clear or are forgotten or there are not enough work hours to complete all tasks. Overcrowded cages and unexpected pregnancies due to litters that were not weaned on time become animal welfare and IACUC noncompliance issues. Breeders that were not set up on time may delay experiments and interfere with project deadlines. This set of cage card signage (Figure 2) is used to flag cages according to the breeding tasks required. That way, technicians have a clear visual reminder of what needs to be accomplished daily or weekly so they can plan to ensure all tasks are completed on time. Color-coded cage card signs are printed in color paper for fast identification of the tasks and are laminated for easy cleaning and long durability. Laminating signs will also allow you to use dry erase pens to write on them.

Weaning Calendar and Color Code Clips: You Cannot Miss It

Identifying litters to be weaned every day takes a long time! If you have a breeding software in place, it might send you reminders, but if record-keeping is not up-to-date or accurate, you may miss the weaning date, or the weaning will occur too late when pups may have already reached sexual maturity, not to mention the overcrowding and data record issues that come as a result. This colorful weaning calendar and color code clips (Figure 3) will make everyone’s job so much easier. You cannot miss any new litter or weaning day if you use this system to identify your litters. Follow the calendar and place the same color clip on the cage card where your new litter is born. For example,

pups born on the week of February 14 will all get a yellow clip. By the next time you see yellow on your calendar, such as the week of March 14, you will know that all cages marked with a yellow clip should be weaned that week. Then go around your breeding room, marking the cages with yellow clips with Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, and Fri signs (Figure 2g) to help you track how many litters you must wean each day. Note that this calendar was made to comply with weaning age of 28 days, but you can modify the weaning calendar to fit the weaning age required at your facility. Also, the green clip is used to mark cages with pregnant females, so technicians know where to look for new litters and when to avoid disturbance. This 1-page calendar can be found in MS Excel templates, and the colors are manually entered. Color clips are found at any office supplies store.


Uniformity, consistency, and completeness when using VBMS are essential to successfully reduce human errors and increase efficiency in your rodent breeding program. Technicians will differentiate strains based on their distinct cage card colors, thus avoiding accidental cross between animals of different strains. Custom-made cage cards will allow technicians to take proper breeding records, select the right breeders and maintain clear communication. Color-coded signs will not only remind technicians of important tasks such as the time to separate males and weaning so the program is always in compliance with the IACUC but will also quickly allow identification of the cages as well as time management. This VBMS was created based on years of experience managing breeding colonies in different animal facilities. It works well as a breeding management strategy, and you can adapt these simple but useful tools to fit your specific animal breeding protocol. Sarah E. Jones, MLAS, RLATG, is an Associate Scientist in San Diego, CA. May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 45


Insights in husbandry, enrichment, and new techniques and tactics

When to Wean? A Visual Guide to Black, White, and Agouti Mouse Pup Growth P14 – P28 By Erica Brogan, RLAT, CVT; and Sharron Kirchain, DVM, MBA, DACLAM


aboratory mouse pups are commonly weaned between postnatal day 21–28.1,3 Utilization of an exact wean date postpartum is a concrete metric for mouse colony management, but variation can result such as: developmental differences among genetically modified strains, personnel differences in assessing pup developmental stage, different breeding schemes which can lead to early weaning due to overcrowding, and lack of precision estimating birthdate in nontimed pregnancies. Clinical and operational outcomes of weaning pups too young may include failure to thrive, unsuitability for study assignment, undue distress on the pups, and extensive time and resource commitment to monitoring and supportive care by veterinary staff. Materials and Methods

At Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) we frequently onboard new investigators and animal care technicians working with rodents for the first time. Both roles may be tasked with weaning pups due to overcrowding or colony management, which can prove challenging if there is no visual frame of reference. There may be instances in which the pups are inadvertently weaned too early especially if a researcher is unfamiliar with neonatal mouse growth and development. Reports of small weanlings are triaged by the veterinary staff to assure animal welfare standards. If there are multiple cases from the same user, a veterinarian or veterinary technician investigates to find the root cause which is usually categorized as: 1. an emergency separation for housing density compliance due to postpartum estrus or harem breeding, 2. genetically small pups, or 3. research technicians who have weaned the pups too early due to a misunderstanding when it is appropriate to wean. We previously published2 a pup growth chart for black mice (C57BL/6J) ages 14 -28 d as a point-of-use visual aid for developmentally appropriate weaning time. The tool proved to be a highly beneficial tool for many institutions with mouse breeding colonies, and augmented previously available tools that covered up to 14 d.4 We recently expanded our original poster (v1.0) with a new poster (v2.0) to include three coat colors: black (C57BL/6J), white (BALB/c) and agouti (129 strain background) mouse pups from age P14 to P28, providing a more comprehensive point of use weaning visualization that includes three of the most commonly used mouse coat colors (Figure 1). 46 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

All work was conducted under an animal use protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee at Brigham & Women’s Hospital, an AAALAC-accredited institution. Photographs were taken of normal black, white, and agouti pups (aged 14 d to 28 d postpartum) with a ruler to show size and gross appearance. Photos were calibrated and sized to approximately equal scale with each other using the ruler markings. A consolidated poster comprised of each color pups was then printed and displayed in the vivarium where breeding colony management and weaning commonly occurred. Mouse pups (C57BL/6J, BALB/c and 129 background) from age P14 to P28 are shown in the visual guide (Figure 1), which was posted in the vivarium and used in the institutional orientation and training program. As seen in the visual guide, developmental appearance of white and agouti pups were more precocious than black pups at the critical pre-weaning age (days 14 – 21). As such, BALB/c and 129 background mice may be ready to wean earlier than age-matched C57BL/6 mice. Indeed, 129 mice were extremely lively from a young age and posed a challenge in remaining still for photographs. Conversely, C57BL/6J mice displayed comparatively slower development, and may need additional support and/or delayed weaning date. Based on the gross appearance and behavior we recommended weaning at 21 d for C57BL/6 mouse strains, 20 days for BALB/c mouse strains, and 19 d for 129 strain mice. (Figure 2).


Visual aids have shown to have a positive impact on learning among the research and animal care staff at our institution. An updated visual representation with black, white, and agouti

Figure 1. When to Wean Vivarium Sign 2.0

coat colors resulted in deeper personnel understanding of mouse pup strain differences and improved animal welfare through more accurate strain-based weaning date predictions. Animal care and research staff are more knowledgeable in the normal progression of weanling growth, and able to make better decisions on the appropriate day to wean mice, with less need for veterinary guidance. Positive outcomes from the Mouse Pup Visual Guide include: • • • •

lower morbidity and mortality fewer delays to study start less veterinary intervention required less time spent by personnel placing wet food and water on the cage floor • improved animal welfare and compliance Overall, the program saw a 50% decrease in total pup mortality with the roll-out of the first poster in 2018 despite stable to increasing rodent populations. This decrease in mortality was attributed to several factors including the black pup poster along with a program-wide education and re-training initiative, concerted efforts to decrease environmental perturbations (such as not entering during the dark cycle, gentle handling of cages, etc.), new rodent separation guidelines and operating procedures. While data analysis following roll-out of the Black, White and Agouti Pup poster (v2.0) in July 2020 has been complicated by COVID-19 pandemic shutdowns, we have continued to see positive weaning effects in the mouse colonies. We received positive feedback from researchers and animal care staff. As seen in the poster (Figure 1), the 129 and BALB/c pups are much larger and can be weaned earlier than the

C57BL/6 strain. Both animal care and researcher staff have stated that the visual pictures are extremely valuable tools. Animal care can reference the poster when weaning overdue cages and have found the poster guide helpful. Our research staff has also been seen continuing to use the poster. Personnel new to colony management often find assessing mouse pup age and weaning suitability challenging. This scaled, photographic teaching tool provides a universal standard that researchers and vivarium staff can comprehend even when English is not their first language. Animal care and research staff are more knowledgeable in the normal progression of weanling growth and able to make better decisions on the appropriate day to wean mice with less need for veterinary guidance.

Figure 2. OK to Wean: Black pup (21 d), White pup (20 d), Agouti pup (19 d)

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 47


As a teaching hospital, we have taken these opportunities as educational moments to train researchers and increase their understanding of mouse biology to improve welfare outcomes as the investigators do not intentionally put their mice in difficult situations. In addition to helping the investigator understand, it creates an environment where they can feel comfortable reaching out for help. In summary, this point-of-use visual representation of mouse pups provides a universal standard to help vivarium personnel and researchers identify mouse pup age and developmental stage through the critical weaning age period, even when English is not the first language. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Colleen Carmody from Dr. Ann Zavacki’s laboratory and Dongxi Zhang from Dr. Zhe Li’s laboratory at Brigham and Women’s Hospital for allowing us to photograph their pups for this project. Erica Brogan, RLAT, CVT is Senior Veterinary Technician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, MA.

Sharron Kirchain, DVM, MBA, DACLAM is Senior Director for Comparative Medicine North America at Takeda Pharmaceuticals USA, in Cambridge, MA. REFERENCES 1. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2018. Assistant laboratory animal technician training manual, chapter 18: mice. Memphis (TN): American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2. Brogan E et al. 2019. When to wean? A visual guide to mouse pup growth P14 – P28. LAS Pro March pp. 52-54. 3. Richter SH et al. 2016.A time to wean? Impact of weaning age on anxiety-like behavior and stability of behavioural traits in full adulthood. PLoS One 11 (12): e0167652.. 4. The Jackson Laboratory. [Internet}. 2020. Jax® mice pups appearance by age. [Cited 15 March 2021]. Available at: manuals-posters-and-guides/jmcrs-poster-request/poster-pupappearance-by-age


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Insights in husbandry, enrichment, and new techniques and tactics

When It Comes to Mouse Blood Collection for Inexperienced Users Chin Up, Don’t Get Cheeky By Darleen Tu, DVM; Katherine Nolan, DVM, MS; Andreanna Pavan, RVT, MPH; Jacqueline Stewart, AS, BBA, RVT; and Carrie Freed, MLAS, DVM, DACLAM


novice phlebotomist can be faced with the dilemma of choosing between the many options available for blood collection in mice. Additionally, the small size of the laboratory mouse makes blood sampling a difficult technique to master. The facial vein (FV) puncture, also known as a cheek bleed, is a commonly used method to obtain large non-terminal blood volumes by puncturing the facial vein with a needle or lancet. For an experienced individual, an average of 0.2-0.5 mL of blood can be collected safely every 3-4 wk with a maximum collection volume of no more than 10% of the animal’s body weight.2 Reports of uncontrolled bleeding and neurologic signs such as head tilts, ataxia, and circling have been published in literature using this technique.1 The submental (SM) blood collection technique, also referred to as a chin bleed, is considered an acceptable alternative to FV puncture in mice.3 Blood is collected ventrally from the chin just lateral to the midline. Relative to the FV technique, SM collection provides visualization of the vasculature under the chin where fur is sparse and skin puncture occurs in an area lacking critical structures such as the facial nerve and auditory canal. No adverse welfare outcomes have been published to date for this method. To validate the implementation of SM collection into our training program for inexperienced phlebotomists, we compared the success rates against the FV technique and moni-



tored for differences in welfare parameters by recording the presence of a predetermined list of adverse events and body weight following blood collection.

Materials and Methods

A total of 70 (30 M, 40 F) 9 to 42-wk old C57BL/6 mice that were naive to SM and FV blood collection were used for this study. The mice were separated into groups of 5 and randomly assigned to FV or SM technique. Trainees with no previous mouse phlebotomy experience were recruited (n = 7) and each received 2 sets of mice (10 mice total, 5 mice per technique) that were matched for age, sex, and size.


Figure 1 A-C. For the FV method, inexperienced phlebotomists were taught to restrain the mouse and rotate their hand positioning to visualize the hair whorl on the cheek of the mouse as a landmark (circled) (A). The 22-gauge needle was grasped with the forefinger and thumb of their dominant hand, leaving 0.5 inches of the needle exposed (B). A puncture was made dorsocaudal to the hair whorl of the mouse with their dominant hand and the needle perpendicular to the animal (C).

50 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

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B Figure 2 A-B. For the SM method, inexperienced phlebotomists were instructed to scruff just behind the pinnae and position the mouse parallel with the surface of the table while maintaining straight body alignment to visualize a hair whorl located at the midline as a landmark (circled) (A). A puncture was made 1-2 mm lateral to the hair whorl of the chin in the sparsely furred region of the mouse using a 4 mm lancet in their dominant hand, with the thumb placed on top of the lancet and the forefinger beneath (B).

To standardize the training session, each trainee viewed a prerecorded video with technique demonstrations. Printed directions, including images of the appropriate landmarks for puncture, were available during the session and trainers were present to provide verbal guidance. For the FV method (Figure 1 A-C), users were taught to restrain the mouse and position them sideways to visualize the hair whorl located on the cheek. They would grasp a 22-gauge needle towards the bevel with the forefinger and thumb of their dominant hand, leaving 0.5 in of the needle exposed. Trainees then aimed dorsocaudal to the hair whorl with the needle perpendicular to the animal. For the SM method (Figure 2 A-B), users were instructed to scruff just behind the pinnae and position the mouse perpendicular to the table surface with straight alignment. A 4 mm lancet was held in their dominant hand with the thumb placed on top of the lancet and the forefinger beneath. A hair whorl located on the midline was identified and a puncture was made 1-2 mm lateral to this landmark in the sparsely furred region of the mouse. While both lancets and needles have been shown to be equally successful for blood collection using the FV technique, our trainer preference is to teach the FV method using a hypodermic needle. In comparison, literature describes the use of mainly lancets for the submental method. Thus, trainees were given needles for the facial vein technique and lancets for the submental method during this study. The number of punctures and total quantity of blood collected was recorded for each mouse with a successful collection defined as a cumulative volume of 50μL (one drop of blood = 20μL). Trainees were allowed up to three puncture attempts per mouse with an established maximum allowable collection of 100μL. Mice were assessed continuously cage-side for 60 min immediately post-collection and at 24 h post-collection to monitor welfare parameters. Adverse events (Figure 3) were documented as present (1) or absent (0) for each mouse. In several circumstances, a single mouse experienced more than a single adverse event. The presence of multiple adverse events

Figure 3. Adverse events observed during the 60 min cage-side assessment immediately post-collection and at 24 h post-collection were tracked as present (1) or absent (0) for each mouse. Events present at the 60 minute and 24 h mark were counted only once for a single animal. Facial vein collection data points reflect 5/35 mice requiring euthanasia. Submental collection data points reflect 3/35 mice with hematomas as the most common adverse event and 0/35 requiring euthanasia.

52 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

Figure 4. The average percent success was not statistically different between methods for each attempt or overall. The FV success rate was highest during trainees’ second and third attempts while the SM success rate was highest for the last attempt.

weight was identified between the two groups of mice at any time point. While large volumes were successfully collected from the FV technique, serious adverse events did occur in several circumstances. Most notably, 5 out of 35 FV mice (Figure 3) experienced adverse events warranting euthanasia including barrel rolling, recumbency, head pressing, and/or excessive hemorrhage from nose and mouth. SM mice experienced fewer and less severe adverse effects with hematoma (n = 3) as the most common event observed. In addition, no SM mice required euthanasia. The use of needles for FV collection was selected to increase success for novices but likely contributed to the number of adverse events. Comparing both methods using the same puncture device would be beneficial for future studies. In summary, we recommend inexperienced phlebotomists utilize the submental method for successful blood collection with minimal adverse events when compared to FV. A special thanks to the ULAR staff (study participants) for their willingness to volunteer and to Dr. Harrison who provided the study mice. Additional thanks are given to Pfizer and the ASLAP Summer Fellowship Program, which supported this project.

Darleen Tu, DVM 2021, is veterinary student at Western University of Health Sciences. Katherine Nolan, DVM, MS, is a Clinical Veterinarian at the University of Rochester.

Andreanna Pavan, RVT, MPH, is a Technical Editor for the College of Nursing at The Ohio State University.

Jacqueline Stewart, AS, BBA, RVT, is the Staff Training and Development Coordinator for University Laboratory Animal Resources at The Ohio State University. Figure 5. FV mouse head pressing post collection.

in a single mouse was a poor prognostic indicator and required euthanasia in most cases. Weights were recorded precollection, 4- and 24-h post-collection. Animal work was performed at The Ohio State University under an approved IACUC protocol.


Statistically significant differences were not identified between the success rates for each technique by attempt or overall. The average percent success rate was slightly higher across all trainees for the FV relative to SM (60% and 40% respectively). The FV success rate was highest during the trainees’ second and third attempts, while the SM success rate was highest for the last attempt (Figure 4). No statistical significance in body

Carrie Freed, MLAS, DVM, DACLAM, is the Director of Operations Logistics for University Laboratory Animal Resources and a Professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine at The Ohio State University.

REFERENCES: 1. Frohlich J, Alarcón C, Toarmino C, Sunseri A, Hockman T. 2018. Comparison of Serial Blood Collection by Facial Vein and Retrobulbar Methods in C57BL/6 Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 57:382-391. 2. Golde, W., Gollobin, P. & Rodriguez, L. 2005. A rapid, simple, and humane method for submandibular bleeding of mice using a lancet. Lab Anim 34: 39–43. 3. Regan R, Fenyk-Melody J, Tran S, Chen G, Stocking K. 2016. Comparison of Submental Blood Collection with the Retroorbital and Submandibular Methods in Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 55: 570-576.

May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 53


Researching Responsibly: The Foundation of a Successful Scientific Career The AALAS Learning Library is excited to launch a new Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Course series. Previously, RCR training was only required for NIH funding. Now RCR is gaining importance as an essential scientific training component regardless of funding source. Based on materials adapted from the Office of Research Integrity, the AALAS Learning Library has added a new 5 course series on RCR for our subscribers. This allows current and future scientific community members to access online courses covering the NIH recommended subject areas. The applications discussed apply across the board, from beginning undergraduate researchers to tenured researchers. The series is pertinent to all research personnel, regardless of their field of study or research model. The course content provides an explanation of the rules, regulations, and professional practices that define RCR and enhance the research process. The first course introduces the background behind the establishment of responsible research conduct, its importance, and the remaining course objectives. Course 2 discusses government and institutional policies regarding both human and animal subjects. By understanding these policies, you will learn how to avoid potential pitfalls and issues that could arise. This course also details research misconduct policies at both federal and institutional levels and how research misconduct should be handled. Course 3 explores responsible conduct with respect to protecting human subjects, as well laboratory animal welfare. These lessons outline oversight committees and how these

subjects are responsibly cared for. Also, learn about personal, professional, and financial conflicts of interest. Learn how to avoid or how to manage unavoidable conflicts of interest properly. Course 4 addresses topics covering the proper practices of data management, acquisition, and how to function in a collaborative environment. This section outlines how to work collaboratively, including between institutions and industry, while identifying proper designation for data sharing and ownership. This course also identifies how to responsibly conduct mentor and trainee relationships and responsibilities, ensuring both sides benefit equally. The fifth course in this series examines responsible authorship and publication conduct. This section provides instruction on providing credit to contributing authors and practices to avoid in authorship and publications. This course also identifies the responsibilities of researchers when providing a peer review of other researchers’ work. We are excited to provide you with this new Responsible Conduct of Research series. Find then now in the Research Ethics Library of the AALAS Learning Library.

AALAS Welcomes Colton Miller Colton Miller, PhD, has joined the AALAS National Office staff as an Education Resources Editor. Before joining AALAS, Colton worked as a graduate student in the lab of Dr. Ed Harris at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in the biochemistry department. After graduation, he worked at St. Jude in Memphis as a postdoctoral fellow in the pathology dept for Dr. Jeff Klco. He has a BA and PhD in biochemis-

54 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021

try and is currently working on an MBA from the IU Kelley School of Business. Colton looks forward to interacting with AALAS members and contributing to the educational and community platforms that make AALAS the distinctive association it is. While not at the national office, he spends his spare time on Zoom calls learning finance, marketing, and accounting. Beyond his MBA studies, he enjoys doing anything outdoors/sports-related, playing with his dogs, and spending time with friends. Any baseball fans out there? Colton was a 4-year college baseball player at Division-III Earlham College. Before that, as a junior in high school, he traveled to Italy for 2 weeks to play baseball for Team USA International.






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May 2021 Laboratory Animal Science Professional 55


PET TALK Chester the Ball Python

Chester is a 21-year-old Ball python. Native to west-central Africa’s forest and wooded areas, Ball pythons are constrictors. Faith shares that she got Chester as a 1-year-old. While she doesn’t usually give Chester treats, she did share that he is large enough to feed on full-grown rats. For enrichment, she will take him outside to enjoy the yard on warm summer days, and if the weather isn’t good, she will let him roam the house under supervision. She said he has a funny habit of falling asleep with his head upside down and his eyes open.

Little Wasabi

Roxy (the calico) is mother to Raya, aka Wasabi (the gray kitten). Leslie shared that Roxy was a stray that hung around her backyard starting in the spring of 2020. When Leslie discovered Roxy was expecting a litter, she took her to the vet and brought her inside to improve her health. Due to Roxy’s poor condition, her litter came prematurely, and she suffered from dystocia. While Leslie was expecting 6 kittens, only one survived, Raya. Raya is a fighter, but after more vet visits, it was determined she has cerebellum hypoplasia. Her brain’s cerebella did not develop properly in utero, causing her coordination and balance to become affected. Unfortunately, in the case of Raya, her CH is a severe case, and she will most likely never walk or stand in her life. Raya is proving that nothing can stop her from getting where she needs to be! She will climb and jump to get around. She is smart and uses her claws to grab on carpet or cloth to pull herself forward. Raya and Roxy are inseparable. Leslie shared that these two have been a stress reliever during the past year. The little Wasabi has taught her that nothing should stop you from living life to the fullest!

56 Laboratory Animal Science Professional May 2021


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