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V. A. Mogilevtsev

FUNDAMENTALS OF DRAWING

Saint Petersburg


V. A. Mogilevtsev

FUNDAMENTALS OF DRAWING Textbook

Saint Petersburg 2016


Reviewers:

Approved by Department of Drawing, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, the Russian Academy of Arts. >

O. A. Yeremeyev Professor, Head of Department of Drawing, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Head of Studio, People’s Artist of the Russian Federation, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Arts N. S. Kuteinikova PhD in Art History, Professor, Department of Russian Art, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Honoured Artist of the Russian Federation

Awarded with Gold and Silver Medals by the Russian Academy of Arts. >

Recommended as a reference standard for students of the fine arts Painting Program (code 070901.65) by St. Petersburg State University. >

Academic Editor: E. A. Serova Asistant Professor, Department of Russian Art, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

V. A. Mogilevtsev Fundamentals of Drawing: Textbook - St. Petersburg: 4art, 2016 – pp.72, ill.

Fundamentals of Drawing 1st English Edition

This book, written by one of the leading professors of Department of Drawing, Ilya Repin Institute, is a significant summary of the author’s teaching experience acquired through teaching drawing at a higher education institution. The author shares his method of drawing human figure and the head, explaining the process step by step. This book may be useful for young artists trying to improve their skills in depicting the human form. This work reminds us about the infinity of art, its development and its perfecting. This textbook is truly unique and takes a special place among the numerous other books teaching drawing methods. The author expresses his view based on firsthand experience of training future artists. O. A. Yeremeyev, Professor, Head of Department of Drawing, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Arts

Drawing is the most important, determinative, one might say, component of the artistic process. Its self-dependent artistic value is hardly attainable without preliminary, at times long, practice and understanding of drawing methods. The textbook written by V. A. Mogilevtsev, one of the most experienced professors of Department of Drawing of the Ilya Repin Institute of the Russian Academy of Arts, is aimed to help a young artist to master the skills of drawing human head and figure. Many years of teaching experience enabled the author to create a clear and concise teaching system. It is of crucial importance that the practical part of the book successively uncovering the steps of the drawing process finds its substantiation and development in the reproductions of works by the outstanding masters. No doubt that this book will be in demand with those who aim to unearth the mysteries of the world of Art. N. S. Kuteinikova, Honoured Artist of the Russian Federation, PhD in Art History, Professor of Department of Drawing, Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

Printed in Russia

text, illustrations: Vladimir Mogilevtsev translation: Anna Edwards design: Nicholas Fedotov editor-in-chief: Liana Solonkina cover: Vladimir Mogilevtsev reproductions: made by students of Ilya Repin St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

All rights reserved under international copyright conventions. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photo copying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher 4art Ltd. Every effort has been made to trace all copyright owners, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked, the Publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

4art Ltd 17 liniya V.O., dom 4-6 St. Petersburg 199026 Russia www.4-art.org © 4art, 2016 (English)

Note: This edition is based on the Russian edition published in 2012.

© 4art, 2010 (Russian) © V. A. Mogilevtsev, 2007

ISBN-10: 5-904957-05-X ISBN-13: 978-5-904957-05-6


figure

DEDICATED TO THE 250TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS

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What this book is about and how to use it Every novice artist faces two major tasks that they must accomplish during their training: to overcome fragmentary observation and to master a proper, step by step drawing method. The only way to achieve the first task is by making a lot of drawings and sketches. Constant and systematic practice is essential. The vision will eventually develop, as well as the ability to see things as a whole. The progress will depend entirely on the determination and the discipline of a student. Academic training must help achieve the second task. This book offers a certain method based on a thorough study of the Russian school of drawing, as well as the author’s own teaching and creative experience. This book consists of three parts. “Head” and “Figure” drawing exercises demonstrate the correct drawing methods in the first and in the second parts of this book. Students of art academies do these exercises to develop the basic knowledge about the depiction of the human body.

The third part of this book offers a selection of classical images to help with the study of human form. This book is arranged in the following way: images illustrating steps of the drawing process are on the right side of the spread, and the commentary is on the left. The commentary consists of the text, diagrams, anatomical drawings and examples from art history. You will be able to see how the planar changes demonstrated in our schemes can be found in classical works of art. From my own experience I know that the only way to remember the information about form is by drawing it. That is why this book is intended not only for reading but also for practicing drawing. Take a sketching pad of the right size, follow the tasks step by step – and you will absorb the information, even without a model or an instructor.


CONTENTS HEAD Step by step process of creating a drawing.....................8 I. Concept.........................................................................9 Choice of materials................................................10 Sketch......................................................................12 II. Rough drawing...........................................................14 Composition...........................................................14 Proportions.............................................................14 Gesture....................................................................16 Tonal value relationships......................................16 III. Construction based on a rough drawing ...............18 IV. Defining the Details...................................................20 1. Eyes......................................................................20 2. Nose.....................................................................22 3. Mouth and chin..................................................24 4. Forehead..............................................................26 5. Modeling the form with planar changes.........28 6. Neck and shoulders...........................................30 V. Final Step.....................................................................32 FIGURE Step by step process of creating a drawing...................36 I. Concept.......................................................................37 Choice of materials................................................38 Sketch......................................................................38 II. Rough drawing...........................................................40 Composition...........................................................40 Proportions.............................................................42 Gesture....................................................................42 Tonal value relationships......................................44 III. Construction based on a rough drawing................46 IV. Defining the Details...................................................48 1. Torso....................................................................50 2. Head.....................................................................52 3. Arms, hips...........................................................54 4. Knees...................................................................56 5. Feet.......................................................................58 V. Final Step.....................................................................60 APPENDIX Samples for copying.........................................................64


8 fundamentals of drawing


head

HEAD

9


10

fundamentals of drawing

STEP BY STEP PROCESS OF CREATING A DRAWING

I. Concept Choice of materials Sketch

II. Rough drawing Composition Proportions Gesture Tonal value relationships

III. Construction based on a rough drawing Establishing the hierarchy of the details IV. Defining the Details 1. Eyes 2. Nose 3. Mouth and chin 4. Forehead 5. Modeling the form with planar changes 6. Neck and shoulders V. Final Step Unifying the drawing, restoring tonal relationships, establishing the hierarchy of the details

Drawing for learning purposes and creative drawing are performed following similar steps. The only difference is that drawing as a learning task is extended in time as it involves studying and training. A creative drawing is, on the other hand, completed quickly. There may not be a lot of time for drawing from nature in the real life. An artist with experience and holistic vision may merge certain stages of drawing and shorten them in time.


head

I. CONCEPT Before you start work, it is necessary to think the drawing over. First and foremost, you should try to see the beauty of your model. Beauty can be found in everything created by nature. We must decide what is it that we wish to convey to the viewer with our drawing. The peculiarity of art is that an artist can “record� their feelings and thoughts in their

work of art and the latter (a picture, a drawing or a sculpture) will keep on conveying them to the viewer for as long as it exists. A work of art creates its own emotional environment and little by little, unobtrusively, it exerts its influence on a viewer. An artistic image is a medium for carrying sensual information. Thus, any drawing, even if done as an exercise, must not be impassive.

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12

fundamentals of drawing

Choice of materials

The choice of materials should fit the concept and the solution. The combination of paper and materials must evoke the viewer’s emotions. The old masters treated the choice of materials very seriously; they often used color grounds. As a rule, a ground for a drawing is prepared with color pigments and glue, sometimes with an addition of white paint. Such ground is mostly combined with soft materials (sepia, charcoal, sanguine, sauce).

We shall work in pencil; our paper will be given a warm grey tone with watercolor. Paper should be stretched over a sketching board prior to toning to prevent deformation.


head

13


14

fundamentals of drawing

Drawing with a background

Sketch

Drawing with a partial background

Drawing with a plain background

A purpose of a sketch is to help students visualize the final result of their work. Here we solve four tasks: composition, proportions, gesture and tonal relationships. Composition is influenced by the concept, the character of the model, the lighting and the surroundings. Taking this into account we decide whether our drawing is going to have a background, a partial background or a plain background. The drawing that we are working on will have a plain background. First of all we should set the dimensions of our sketch. The proportions of a sketch should correspond with the dimensions of the future drawing. Our drawing is going to be 40x50 cm (16"x20"). With these dimensions in mind we choose the composition for our portrait. The head in a drawing should be smaller than life size, as a life size creates an impression of a “giant�. If an image is too small in relation to the size of a paper, a person will appear small too. As a rule, there should be a little bit more space in the front of the face than in the back of the head. However, sometimes the character of the model, their gesture or inner state would require a different composition.

BAD The image is too large

BAD The image is too small

Making sure the proportions are correct, we are drawing from general to particular. The pose in our drawing is static; nevertheless this is still a gesture and we must show it. Pay attention to how a head is linked to the shoulders. Set the tonal relationships. Keep in mind that the eyes, the nose and the mouth are always more active in tone than other parts of the head. Determine what is important and what is secondary. The purpose of a sketch is to capture, without getting into too much detail, the impression our finished work should convey to the viewer.

! Common mistake: A drawing without

a concept becomes a dull collection of details with a weak composition and poor proportions. BAD The head should not be placed in the center when drawn from this angle

GOOD


head

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fundamentals of drawing

II. ROUGH DRAWING It is better to start a portrait with a rough drawing rather than construction. This stage is very important. It is necessary to capture your impression of the model straight away. This skill must be developed by regular sketching. At later stages, when you are in the middle of work, when your eyes are tired and your senses are duller, capturing this impression is much harder. Whereas feelings put into a drawing right away make the artist work with interest until the end; it helps to maintain holistic vision. A rough drawing is best done with a soft pencil – 3В, 4В. With our concept in mind we address the same tasks as we did in our sketch: composition, proportions, gesture and tonal relationships.

Composition We position the general shape of the head and the shoulders within the paper. We have already completed this task in our sketch. Now we transfer the composition onto a larger paper.

Proportions The main challenge with rough drawing is overcoming fragmentary observation. Students often draw by adding one detail to another. Such a method makes it very hard to “grasp” proper proportions, to make the portrait life-like and expressive. It is recommended to follow the advice of the 19th century professor of the Academy, Pavel Chistyakov, and to draw from general to particular. 1. Having found the composition and general shape of the head, we check the likeness. Pay attention to the insertions, the areas where the planes connect.

2. Next we search for the general shape of the face, the shape of the hair. Then the shape of the light and the shadow shape of the face. 3. In the shape of the face, we find the shapes of the eye-sockets, then the nose and the mouth. It is useful to have knowledge of classical proportions. Each person has their own individual proportions, nevertheless, the knowledge of classical proportions helps to avoid serious distortions (see proportions of the head according to Anton Losenko). For the majority of people, the middle of the head is at the pupils level. The length of the face can be divided into three equal parts: from the hairline to the brow ridges, from the brow ridges to the base of the nose and from the base of the nose to the chin.


head

1

2

3

4

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18

fundamentals of drawing

Gesture We connect the head to the shoulders. Compare the location of the jugular notch and the details of the head; put an imaginary vertical line though the jugular notch and check the position of other details in relation to that line. Pay attention to how the axes of the head correlate with the axes of the shoulders.

Tonal Value Relationships Tonal relationship is the difference between the dark and the light shapes of the head, as well as the contrasts these shapes create. Tonal relationships are first established in the sketch, they influence the perception of proportions. If tonal relationships are not set from the very start then it is very difficult to do it while working on the details. First we establish the shadows. Start drawing the shadow from the border with the light that you shift towards the shaded part. Then indicate the difference in the light. Bear in mind that even the lightest reflected light in the shadow is darker than the darkest midtone.

! Common mistake: Fragmentary observation hinders capturing

true proportions and tonal relationships.

light tonal values

dark tonal values


head

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fundamentals of drawing

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III. CONSTRUCTION BASED ON A ROUGH DRAWING

Establishing the hierarchy of the details 1

Before you start modeling the details make sure that they are in the right places and check their proportions once again. 1. Draw the center line.

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2. Draw the axes through the reference points of the head: inner corners of the eyes, top edge of the eye-socket, base of the nose, frontal eminence, chin, etc. Consider the perspective and the horizon line. Make sure those reference points are symmetrical with respect to the center line. Accentuate them. Many painters make these points prominent in their portraits thus creating the effect of constructiveness. Portraits by such different masters as Karl Bryullov and Nicolai Fechin exemplify that. 3. Verify the inclination of the head, comparing the top part of the eye-socket with the top edge of the ear, the base of the nose – with the lower edge of the ear. Check the facial angle. 4. Connect the head with the shoulders – draw a vertical line from the jugular notch and see where it comes to with respect to the eye.

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5. Find the vertebra prominens (the seventh cervical vertebra), and draw the line of the trapezius muscle through it. Check the proportions (see Proportions).

4

5

If all the details are given the same attention, the drawing will appear fragmented and unfinished. Any work of art has a focal point and minor details. It is necessary to rank the details in terms of their significance and the degree of completeness. Looking at your sketch, determine what is important and what is secondary. For the sake of convenience we shall number the details. DETAILS 1. Eyes 2. Nose 3. Mouth and chin 4. Forehead 5. Modeling the form with planar changes 6. Neck and shoulders

! Common mistake: This stage is totally

skipped over.


head

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Fundamentals of Drawing (ENGLISH ediiton)  

The first English edition of the Russian Academy of Arts bestseller on academic drawing. The only manual on academic drawing approved and re...

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