STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 1, Alessandro Liuti Yicheng Han
1. jpg created by Ninja, Grasshopper3d.com View Photo
“THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS ARCHITECTURE.” - LOUIS. I. KAHN I NEVER FIGURED I WOULD DO ARCHITECTURE. THE TERM WAS NEVER FORMALLY INTRODUCED TO ME BEFORE I ENTERED THE UNIVERSITY. BUT I WAS SUFFERING AND STRUGGLING IN YEARS OF SOLITUDE. SO I PUT HOPE IN ARCHITECTURE AS I STRONGLY BELIEVED, THAT THROUGH STUDYING IT, MANY OF MY QUESTIONS COULD BE ANSWERED, AND IT VERY MUCH DID. I FOUND BUILDINGS ARE CARRIERS OF THOUGHTS AND DREAMS, THEY INHERIT THEIR CREATORS’ STRONG SOUL & TENACIOUS HOPE. EVERY PROPERLY TRAINED ARCHITECT IS A HERO TO THIS WORLD, WE EACH HAVE ENORMOUS RESPONSIBILITIES TO SAVE THE PLANET, AS DESIGN IS UNFORTUNATELY ONE OF THE FEW LINE OF DEFENCE REMAINING AGAINST OUR OWN DESTRUCTION.
Deep Deep Learning Learning Model Model
Design Design Input Input
Design Design Output Output
Training Training Data Data Unit 3 Unit 3 Tutors: Tutors: Students: Students:
Architectural Association Visiting School Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017 7-15 July 2017
Immanuel KOH and LI Meizi Immanuel KOH and LI Meizi Alex Meparishvili | Zebin Chen | Yicheng Han | Bolong Liu | Shengyuan Zhang Alex Meparishvili | Zebin Chen | Yicheng Han | Bolong Liu | Shengyuan Zhang
DURING THE “CITY SMART” PROGRAM, WE WORKED IN GROUPS AND WENT THROUGH A DESIGN PROCESS THAT INCLUDED “DEEP LEARNING” CODES DEVELOPED BY OUR MENTOR IMMANUEL KOH USING PYTHON.
“CITY SMART” - AA SHANGHAI VISITING SCHOOL
THE “DEEP LEARNING” MODEL:
USING DOCKER, THE FILE WAS MADE AVAILABLE TO RUN IN GRASSHOPPER AND GENERATED A 3D MODEL.
DESIGN INPUT: A COLOURED CITY PATTERN DESIGNED BY AN ARCHITECT, INTENDING TO PRODUCE A REALISTIC RENDER BASED ON IT.
AFTER THIS POINT, THE DIGITAL MODEL GOT SENT TO 3-D PRINTING AND COMPUTER RENDERING IN KEYSHOT.
DESIGN OUTPUT: A REALISTIC RENDER OF THE DESIGN INPUT. A DEMONSTRATION OF AN ARCHITECT’S INTENT.
TRAINING DATA: INFORMS THE CODE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INPUT AND GIVES GUIDELINE TO WHAT OUTPUT SHOULD LOOK LIKE IN TERMS OF COLOUR CHARACTERISTICS. AS DEMONSTRATED, THE COLOUR OF ONE OF THE TRAINING Venice and Suzhou have similar urban topography; and theWON’T distributions of lowIMAGE MUST MATCH WITH THE INPUT’S, both SOinclude THEcanals CODE rise buildings. Suzhou, as a typical Chinese city that underwent significant development in recent years, MESS UP DIFFERENT ELEMENTS. Suzhou, China
ing older architectural styles and city fabric, differ THE CODE UNDERGOES A “DEEP LEARNING” PROCESS AND in their conservational approach to it. In the light of this situation, we haveTO selected these two cities as WORKS THE IMAGE FROM A LARGE SCALE DOWN FINE the inputs of our deep learning process. Our goal, is toAT inferTHE and generate combinational PIXELS. A RENDERED OUTPUT IS OBTAINED ENDnewOF THE urban morphologies that is capable of retaining the urban features of the existing urban inputs. PROCESS. has increased its density. Both cities, while retain-
THE OUTPUT IS THEN PLUGGED INTO PROCESSING TO GENERATE TOPOLOGICAL DATA.
Unit 3 Tutors: Students:
Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017
Immanuel KOH and LI Meizi Alex Meparishvili | Zebin Chen | Yicheng Han | Bolong Liu | Shengyuan Zhang
Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School
Introduction Back in 15 BCE, Vitruvius made the case that an architect should
“be educated, skillful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens.”
Throughout human history, however, the role of an architect has been growing more and more specialised. Though Vitruvius’s statement still applies today and certainly more skills were added to the list, now we have construction engineers, urban planners, civil engineers, geotechnical engineers, internal designers. Etc. who take jobs which were all done by only one person back in the ancient times - an architect. However, Modern Architecture has dispersed the role of an architect, even leaving the internal space design to internal designers whereas architects are mostly responsible for only the appearance of the buildings now. For architects, this has shifted the meaning of “design” and started to put extra emphasis on cultures and environmental sustainability. Etc. As a result, the “art” in architecture starts to reflect more intentions from “design”; introducing new, modern aesthetics values to the society. The emergence of new global issues demand architects to take more problems into consideration while designing, including environmental ethics. Therefore, new tools and techniques, and theories are created to help architects to do this. “Computation” have allowed architects to integrate their design with practise with tighter control, and making the modelling of meaningful, real-world scenarios possible. “Grasshopper” extends the function of Rhino by digitising the BIM process and provide the possibility for realistic simulations to architectural applications with fully controlled parametric algorithm.
STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 1, Alessandro Liuti Yicheng Han
Table of Contents PART A. CONCEPTUALISATION A.1 Design Futuring A.2 Design Computation A.3 Composition/Generation A.4 Conclusion
The Kimbell Museum features its shells which are not only crucial elements for the distribution of light to internal space, but are also lightweight structures and overall a thin piece of curved concrete where it is thicker at the edges and increasingly thinner as it evolves towards the middle, minimising unnecessary material & weight. Figure. 4. Screenshot from the movie â€œLouis Kahn Architectâ€?; Kahn trying hard to explain shell structure. However, for a unique and great mind such as Kahn, it was difficult for everyone to have the same picture as he did in mind and the structural engineer doubted greatly the structural soundness of the shells and suggested altering the shape and increase thickness. For Kahn, this was about changing the architectural language and would have severely damaged the lighting and spatial quality. Luckily, Kahn was able to agree upon some minor changes that did not cause too much destruction on the architectural qualities of the shells. Not to mention COMPUTATION, back then they did not even have COMPUTERISATION, the way to communicate design is purely based on drawings and the explanation by architects. If this happened at the digital age, Kahn and the engineer would have been able to run a load simulation to prove the structural soundness.
Figure. 5. Richard. F Brown, the first director of Kimbell Museum, looking at the drawings.
This provided a good reference to reflect upon the benefits of COMPUTATION. Traditionally, the responsibility of architects and structural engineers almost never overlap except when changes must be made during construction, causing lots of confusion even to experienced practitioners. When architects fail to explain effectively, there will be discord. COMPUTATION, on the other hand, have allowed both architects and engineers to work on a project simultaneously, there will be much less confusions since most design and construction decisions are made together. This saves, time, cost and creates new design discoveries and opportunities because designers now have access to a broader network of knowledge more easily.
Figure. 4. Watercube-6. 4
Figure. 6. Representation of Scale
THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM LOUIS KAHN
Figure. 6. Kimbell Museum Entrance
Figure. 1. Exploded axonometic showing a detail of the facade with a double-layer secondary triodesic structure (green and red) as the support structure for the hexagonal panels.1
Figure. 2. Structural diagram showing the inner columns of the parking grid, the 28 steel columns, concrete belt, seven steel bracings that take the lateral forces, and the concrete core that takees the gravity force.2
Using a complex 3-D Modelling computation design process, the FREE (Fernando Romero EnterprisE) group created a complex form where the internal finishes and external panels are connected by struts which each have unique dimensions. This would have presented a serious engineering challenge before COMPUTATION is introduced, but the digital model created by the architects allowed the Structural engineers Arup â€œto ensure the 26 curving columns and horizontal steel rings lay on the design surface.â€? as stated by Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos.
Figure. 3. Museo Soumaya (in Polanco, Mexico City) under construction. Architect Fernando Romero.
MUSEO SOUMAYA IN MEXICO CITY The design of this building employed the idea of COMPUTATION for design and construction, which allowed the architects to solve complex architectural and structural issues that may not be possible in the past. 1. A central digital model allowed architects to work simultaneously on different parts of the building. This reduced cost of time and everyone could gain clear understanding from unique angles. 2. The use of parametric modelling enabled architects and structural engineers to make real-time changes on the central model. This improved efficiency in collaboration. 3. Innitial analysis of the model showed that 16,000 unique hexagonal panels, which resulted in both cost and fabrication issues. Using Gaussian analysis and parametric modelling techniques developed by Gehry Technologies, FREE was able to categorise panels into groups and standardize their dimensions so that fabrication is a lot easier and cost was reduced.
Bibliography: ARCHITECT STAFF, ‘The Kimbell Art Museum: The Original Louis Kahn Building’, ARCHITECTMAGAZINE.COM <http://www.architectmagazine.com/design/buildings/the-kimbell-art-museum-the-original-louis-kahnbuilding_o>[11 March 2018] Design Computation (Melbourne School Of Design Department of Environments, 6th March) [On LMS] Igor, Fracalossi, ‘AD Classics: Kimbell Art Museum / Louis Kahn’, ArchDaily <https://www.archdaily.com/123761/ad-classics-kimbell-art-museum-louis-kahn>[11 March 2018] Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 ‘Museo Soumaya / FR-EE Fernando Romero Enterprise’, ArchDaily <https://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> [11 March 2018] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘BRIDGING A CULTURE The Design of Museo Soumaya’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 66-69 Jörg Schlaich, Mike Schlaich, Lightweight Structures [accessed 11 March 2018]
Published on Mar 11, 2018