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Variety is the Spice of Life Gender Issues Through the Stages of Life Youth for Exchange and Understanding 2017   Foreword This publication is the outcome of the project ‘Variety is spice of life’ which was implemented by Youth for Exchange and Understanding and funded by European Youth Foundation of the Council of Europe. This publication is for youth workers, trainers, and facilitators dealing with gender issues. The publication was written and produced by: Lilia Hos Murat Mislimi Electra Athantsiki Sebastien Ortiz Ivana Radojicic Laura Tomic Maria Lebioda Cazim Lisicic Filp Janevic Katarina Vukadinovic Nataliia Shevchuk Edited by: Nik Paddison Igor Jojkic Dragana Jovanovska Tamara Gojkovic Panagiotis Chatzimichail The process has been supported by: Vladimir Mitrovic Giulia Annibaletti

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Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU) YEU is an International Non-Governmental Youth Organization, founded in 1986 by a group of young people from 11 different countries. Today YEU represents 36 youth organisations from 27 countries, therefore representing hundreds of young people across the continent of Europe and parts of Africa, providing them opportunities to be involved in youth exchanges, meetings, conferences, and training courses in different countries. YEU is a member of the European Youth Forum. YEU has an administrative office in Brussel and is run by a Board made up of young people who are working on a voluntary basis. The mission of YEU is to inspire young people and to encourage them to think outside of the box. Through YEU young people can have opportunities to cooperate, and to increase tolerance and awareness between different countries, cultures and traditions. The work of YEU promotes a greater level of comprehension among young people through the development of youth activities, such as youth exchanges, seminars, conventions, meetings, study visits, training courses, and the development of educational manuals. The main aim of YEU is to promote peace, understanding and cooperation between the young people of the world, in a spirit of respect for human rights.

CoE - EYF Founded in 1949, the Council of Europe seeks to develop throughout Europe common and democratic principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. The Council of Europe has 47-member countries, including 27 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The aim of CoE is to protect human rights, pluralist democracy, and the rule of law. It aims to promote awareness and encourage the development of Europe’s cultural identity and diversity. It seeks solutions to problems facing European society, such as: discrimination against minorities, xenophobia, intolerance, environmental protecting, human cloning, terrorism, human trafficking, organised crime and corruption, cybercrime, violence against children. It also helps to consolidate democratic stability in Europe by backing political, legislative and constitutional reform. The European Youth Foundation (EYF) was founded in 1972. The EYF plays a key role in the Council of Europe’s work to encourage cooperation between young people in Europe and to facilitate their active participation in civil society and political decisionmaking. The EYF gives young people a voice in the political and democratic life and the tools they need to function effectively in today’s diverse societies. The EYF is guided by values like diversity, respect, flexibility, approachability, and teamwork.

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Contents Foreword YEU CoE - EYF Contents Introduction The Publication Glossary Recommendations for Working on Gender Issues Summary of Activities Birth Stage Explored Birth Stage Activities Adulthood Stage Explored Adulthood Stage Activities Third Age Stage Explored Third Age Stage Activities References Appendices  

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Introduction


Introduction Society is a living thing that changes all the time. With new technology there is no distance between us, but at the same time we are alienated from each other. People have a need to connect outside of social media but still there is lack of understanding because of cultural differences: are we the same as we are always saying? People want to use social media to communicate with the others to share their own opinion without filters. Due to different cultures and traditions, we forget to respect other points of view, causing debates and misunderstanding. In the 20th century people started to think and talk about equality particularly through the strong civil rights and women’s suffrage movements. While these movements are still needed and still active, the 21st century has seen the important issue of individual identities as gaining a higher profile. YEU believes that there is a need to enhance an understanding of cultures and identities. European societies are different per se and are constantly being challenged in order to improve personal freedoms, concepts and values in the name of human rights. The new wave of migrations bring many different cultures together and therefore many different points of view. A challenge for societies all over Europe today is how to live together and to respect each other. Being human, showing solidarity and accepting people in need should be priority for each one of us. Ensuring intercultural dialogue, especially from a gender perspective, and understanding and accepting differences in the community is a role that young people and youth organisation can take on. The freedom to choose one’s own gender identity and to be the human being you want to be is hugely important in order to develop a happy and healthy personality not suppressed by society and tradition.

Where did the project idea come from? The vision behind the programme ‘Variety is the spice of life’ is for an openminded and tolerant society that provides equal opportunities to all no matter of their background or personal characteristics. ‘Variety is Spice of Life’ was a one-year project that consisted of several different steps. During the one year process the concept was to build the capacities of the youth workers in order to enable them to work towards achieving this vision. This was done by exploring intercultural dialogue and gender diversity as a subject for their everyday work, the participants engaged in questioning current and promoting new practices by (re)thinking and (de) constructing cultural and gender concepts.

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The first step was the research of cultural and gender norms in the local realities of the first group of participants. After the research the participants met in Stockholm (Sweden) for the training course ‘Breaking the Boxes’. Here they developed their competences related to the gender perspective in youth work in multicultural communities. The participants received some basic training in facilitation skills in order to prepare them for implementing activities in their own communities as well as preparing them for facilitating part of the process in the next residential phase. During the time in Sweden they developed activities that they then implemented in their own local realities based on the learning they had gained in the training course. The participants reported on the reactions and responses to their activities by the young people they worked with. This learning was taken to the next phase which was the YEU Convention 2017. The 36th YEU Convention was titled, ‘Cycle of Life: Try Walking in My Shoes’. The Convention is a traditional event of YEU that brings together a larger number of young people from the member organisations, to explore a subject and be introduced to YEU. The idea behind this step in the year long process was to go back to the roots and for the group to put themselves in the shoes of the others. The ‘Cycle of Life’ consisted of three stages to be explored in the context of gender: Birth, Adulthood, and the 3rd age. The team of participants from ‘Breaking the Boxes’ training course helped with the overall process of the Convention and specifically facilitated the development of new activities enhancing the gender perspective developed by the Convention’s participants. These in turn would be implemented in the local realities by the young people participants of the Convention. The Convention participants were divided into 5 ‘Spice Groups’. Each group developed an activity for each of the different phases of life. The Convention took place in three different countries for tackling the different stages: Birth in Kozani (Greece), Adulthood in Shkoder (Albania) and the 3rd Age in Ohrid (FYROM-Macedonia). This also provided an opportunity for presenting the customs from the different cultures, relating them to social, intercultural and gender issues. The Convention programme also raised discussions on current trends in Europe today, the differences among cultures and how to ‘handle’ them. After the Convention the goal was for the participants to test the new approaches in their local communities and understand if they would be usable for youth workers across Europe when promoting workshops and learning programmes on gender. The end of the whole project saw the original participants from Sweden meeting again in Brussels (Belgium) for the final evaluation seminar ‘Spice it up!’. The aim was to respond to the feedback from the Convention participants on the implementation of the created activities and to prepare and conclude the guidebook on gender issues in youth work.

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This publication would include all the new approaches, methodologies, exercises and activities made by participants and facilitators during the whole process. To support the development of the activities the participants met with a number of representatives of IYNGOs based in Brussels: - World Organization of The Scout Movement (WOSM) - European Educational Exchanges - Youth for Understanding (EEE- YFU) - Organization Borean of European School Student Union (OBESSU) - Association des Etats Généraux des Etudiants de l’Europe/European Students’ Forum (AEGEE) - World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) Each representative received a selection of the activities in advance and then gave feedback on the activities they had received. The team collected the suggestions and adjusted the activities accordingly. Some of the advice was generic and some was more specific. The meeting and the suggestions were positively accepted by the participants and trainers. The second meeting on the evaluation seminar was in Foyer Molenbeek, a local youth centre located in Brussels, Belgium, in the international and cultural part of the city. The participants and trainers had the opportunity to face the local reality with discussion about gender issues with young people from different backgrounds, that frequently live the youth centre’s reality. These discussions also informed the participants for the development of the activities.  

The Publication This publication came into being as a result of the YEU annual work plan 2017. It was led by a core team of YEU trainers and organisers from the YEU People for Education and Training pool. However, the bulk of the work – the text and activities for this publication – were developed by a group of eleven participants of the ‘Variety is the Spice of Life’ training experience. This team was empowered to work as a team of facilitators and in the subject of gender issues in order to lead the participants of the Convention in their exploration of gender through the life cycle. The material that follows is the result of the team’s guidance, creativity and dedication with the Convention participants and to the whole project.

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The Publication


About the Publication This guidebook is a tool for youth workers, youth organizations, and facilitators who are dealing with gender issues in their work with young people. There are three main chapter: Birth, Adulthood, and the 3rd Age. Each chapter consists of information related to gender issues of that life stage and a series of activities for youth organizations to use when working on gender as a subject. There are also a set of recommendations, ideas, suggestions and tips on working with this subject and the activities for workshops and training courses, etc. The guidebook contains a lot of different terms related to gender that may or may not be familiar. For this reason, we have included a glossary at the beginning of this manual. The glossary will help to understand the terms and follow the recommendations provided in the manual. The publication is divided into three main sections, each section representing a stage of life: Birth, Adulthood, and the Third Age. Each of these sections in broken down into five sub-topics. The information for these sub-topics came from the research and knowledge of the participants and teams of facilitators and trainers working with them.

The main sections and sub-topics are: Birth -

Pre-Birth and Birth 0 to 2 Years 2 to 5 Years 5 to 10 Years Traditions and Celebrations

Adulthood -

Adolescence Leisure, Study and Work Family Life Recognition of Gender Rights Rites of Passage

Third Age -

Family Life Intergenerational Gap Attitude of the 3rd Age to Themselves Dying Funerals and Ceremonies

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The participants worked in groups of up to 8 people. None of the participants or team would describe themselves as experts in the overall theme of gender or in the sub-topics. Discussions were based on the exchanging of personal knowledge between the participants about the respective life period they were exploring, from the inputs in the sessions run by the core team and any research they were able to conduct on the spot.  

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Glossary


Glossary (in alphabetical order) Agender: a person who don’t feel any gender identity, although some define this more as having a gender identity that is neutral. Androgynous: having both male and female characteristics appearance that it becomes a challenge for one to decipher what sex that person is. Asexual: the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual. Binary gender: means that you do not identify as male or female. You fall in the LGBT community if you are binary. While using pronouns in reference to them, you call them, “Them”, or as “that person”. NOT “That” or “It”. Regardless of their gender, they may still be attracted to the opposite gender. Cisgender: (often abbreviated to simply cis) is a term for people whose experiences of their own gender agree with the sex they were assigned at birth. Cisgender may also be defined as those who have “a gender identity or perform a gender role society considers appropriate for one’s sex.”

Variety is the Spice of Life

Freedom of speech: the right to express one’s ideas and opinions freely through speech, writing, and other forms of communication but without deliberately causing harm to others’ character and/or reputation by false or misleading statements. Gender awareness: understanding that there are socially determined differences between women & men based on learned behaviour, which affect their ability to access and control resources. Gender based Violence: is the general term used to capture violence that occurs as a result of the normative role expectations associated with each gender, along with the unequal power relationships between the two genders, within the context of a specific society. Gender equity: requires equal enjoyment of socially valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Gender equity does not mean that women, men and third gender become the same, but that their opportunities and life chances are equal. Gender fluid: is a gender identity which refers to a gender that varies over time. A gender fluid person may at any time identify as male, female, neutral, or any other non-binary identity, or some combination of identities. Their gender can also vary at random or vary in response to different circumstances.

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Gender gap: the differences between women and men, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes. Genderqueer: most commonly used to describe a person who feels that his/her gender identity does not fit into the socially constructed norms associated with his/her biological sex. Genderqueer is an identity that falls anywhere between man/boy/ male and woman/girl/female on the spectrum of gender identities. Gender sensitivity: the act of being aware of the ways people think about gender, so that individuals rely less on assumptions about traditional and outdated views on the roles of men and women. Gender: refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to society and can be changed. When individuals or groups do not “fit” established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices or social exclusion. Hate speech: it’s speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race, disability, or sexual orientation.

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Homophobia: the irrational fear and intolerance of people who are homosexual or of homosexual feelings within one’s self. This assumes that heterosexuality is superior. Homosexuality: sexual, emotional, and/or romantic attraction to the same sex. LGBTQI+*: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex. - Lesbian: woman attracted to a woman - Gay: men attracted to men Bisexual: a person who is attracted to two sexes or two genders, but not necessarily simultaneously or equally - Transgender: those whose gender identity differs from the social expectations for the physical sex they were born with. Transgender is not a sexual orientation; transgender people may have any sexual orientation. It is important to acknowledge that while some people may fit under this definition of transgender, they may not identify as such - Queer: a person who redefines or plays with gender, or who refuses gender altogether. A label for people who bend/break the rules of gender and blur the boundaries Intersex: intersexuality is a set of medical conditions that feature congenital anomaly of the reproductive and sexual system. Intersex people are born with “sex chromosomes,” external genitalia, or internal reproductive systems that are not considered “standard” for either male or female

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*The symbol + covers new identities which will identify as part of the LGBTQI community. Non-binary gender: refers to any gender that is not exclusively male or female. A similar term is genderqueer. It is usually considered to be under the transgender umbrella, and some non-binary people will also identify as trans. Pansexual: one who can love sexuality in many forms. Like bisexuality, but even more fluid, a pansexual person can love not only the traditional male and female genders, but also trans, androgynous, and gender fluid people.

Trans: people who experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender. Other terms that relate to the trans’ community are Transgender and Transvestite. Transition: a complicated, multi-step process that can take years as trans align their anatomy with their sex identity; this process may ultimately include sex reassignment surgery.

Sexuality: capacity for sexual feelings, the way people experience and express themselves as sexual beings. Sexual identity: is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted. Sexual orientation: is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality, while asexuality is sometimes identified as the fourth category.

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Recommendation for Working on Gender Issues


Recommendations for Working on Gender Issues Building on the experience of the process, it is noticeable how essential it is for youth organizations to address and include gender perspective in youth work, from local/national to European/International level. Therefore, this publication includes a set of recommendations as fundamental actions and attitudes that can be implemented, focusing mainly on internal practices, development of activities and networking.

Internal Practices: 1. To better understand the current situation of your organization, it is vital to map the existing practices within your structures (staff, beneficiaries, organization’s positions etc); 2. Identify strengths and weaknesses about gender perspective in your work. Take action upon weaknesses or ask for support from organizations with more expertise; 3. When working with young people it is always essential to assure and offer safe-space; Therefore: a. Mind the language you are using within the organization and during your activities b. Create a glossary to use in your youth centre/trainings/workshops in order to support your colleagues and beneficiaries to learn about inclusive gender terminologies c. Raise awareness on the vocabulary d. Build up on your understanding and tolerance e. Support inclusion and assure diversity beyond traditional/dominant groups (gender roles, LGBTQI+ community etc.) f. Be aware of discriminative discussions - prevent the development of such attitudes g. Do not engage in or apply aggressive attitudes

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Activities: 4. Implement activities/projects that support internal capacities and promote equality; 5. Assure activities that share the gender perspective knowledge amongst the staff members, facilitators, trainers, youth workers and volunteers; 6. Be sure to address/implement gender perspective and gender issues gradually. Be aware of your audience and local realities; 7. Based on the local realities and needs, empower your activities using the gender perspective and a. develop basic courses\activities\workshops about gender issues b. expand its use in fields like sports, music, art, games where boys and  girls are mixed and confronted to basic issues about gender equality

Networking: 8. Promote collaborations and share expertise regarding topics such as gender issues. Therefore, you can expand the impact of gender perspective in your work beyond your beneficiaries towards the general public; 9. Advocate and create networks to support the implementation of gender perspective beyond the youth field towards other fields of education (primary, secondary etc); 10. Promote and create memorandums of understanding with other organizations assuring the implementation of a safe-space regarding gender issues/perspective; 11. Collaborate and build up activities with a diversity of organizations to maximize the capacity and expertise on/through gender perspective; 12. Diversify your beneficiaries and partners: a. Civil Society Organizations working on the topic (Women Organizations, LGBTQI+, etc) b. Youth Workers that work more on gender and the use of gender perspective c. Experts d. Representatives of Formal Education (e.g Teachers, Academies etc.)

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Summary of Activities


Summary of Activities Title

Story Making

Quiz of the Absurd

Be Who You Want To Be

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Life stage covered

Overview

Level

Time in min

Page

Birth Stage Activities

Participants are asked to fill the blank spaces in a text describing the daily life of a child, whose gender is not specified. This activity focuses on the exploration of gender stereotypes according to the norms and roles established in the society.

Low

60

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Birth Stage Activities

Participants are divided into small groups and asked to present a short theatrical play for a number of questions related to gender stereotypes during birth stage, triggering a discussion about such behaviours and raising awareness about these stereotypes.

Medium

60

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Birth Stage Activities

Refers to two different activities, one for young parents and one for their children at the same time in two different rooms. Parents are having the “speed dating� activity exploring whether they are affected by gender stereotypes and how that influences their behaviour towards their children. At the same time, children in a different room are exploring the gender aspect of different professions, by seeing pictures of different jobs and answering a number of questions related to gender.

Medium

60

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Title

Will You Wear(y) Me?

Gender Lottery

Offline Theatre

Tricky Puzzle

Life stage covered

Overview

Level

Time in min

Page

Birth Stage Activities

Participants are given two figures (one boy, one girl) with neutral characteristics and are asked to draw their clothes and place a list of hobbies, occupations and characteristics to the figure they believe are most related to (these categories are given to them). This activity explores the personal beliefs about differences between boys and girls and the existing stereotypes on gender issues.

Low

45

46

Birth Stage Activities

This activity is based on the game “Take a step forward” and focuses on the exploration of the roles that are given from the birth in relation to gender, religion, types of the family and place of living, revealing the gender inequality in societies.

Medium

90

49

Adulthood Stage Activities

Participants are working on Forum Theatre (Theatre of the Oppressed, Augusto Boal) exploring situations of genderbased discrimination and what influence it has on young people’s personalities.

High

150

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Adulthood Stage Activities

This activity is suitable for children at the age of 8-12. Participants are asked to solve a puzzle, which depicts the equality that should exist in choice making procedures and politics, focusing mainly on the role of women in workplaces.

Low

40

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Title

Job Interview

I See Through Your Eyes

Family Life

When I Was Old

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Life stage covered

Overview

Level

Time in min

Page

Adulthood Stage Activities

It is a role-playing activity about the inequality people face when applying for a job based on their gender. The activity vividly shows the stereotypes that exist in labour market, and give a step to the participants to go deeper in this topic from gender perspective.

High

60

68

Adulthood Stage Activities

Participants are given a genderbased identity and based on the reaction of other participants they have to understand whether they are accepted or not. This way they have a chance to develop empathy towards other and realise the personal beliefs about different genders and how they are connected with society’s common perception.

Medium

90

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Adulthood Stage Activities

Participants are given the same beginning of the story and they have to complete it based on a set of words they are given including sexual orientation, discrimination and identity issues. The aim is to enhance the tolerance and the awareness for different life situations in which people live.

Medium

70

76

Third Age Activities

Through a series of short theatrical plays and discussions, participants explore the lives of elderly people and the difficulties they face, while tackling gender differences and stereotypes at this stage of life.

Medium

120

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Title

The Bus Ride

Aging Today

Chasing traditions

Life stage covered

Overview

Level

Time in min

Page

Third Age Activities

A theatrical scene is taking place on a bus, where six people are arguing about homosexuality and gay marriage. Participants are given a description of their role and the side they should support, having the chance to get into the shoes of others and explore the generation gap between younger and elderly people from a gender perspective.

Medium

50

88

Third Age Activities

This activity is designed as a game to explore the different ways society behaves towards old people and their gender. Participants are put in the shoes of third age generations in order to experience their real-life situations and the challenges they are facing.

Medium

70

92

Third Age Activities

The activity is designed as a memory board game, participants consider various funeral ceremonies considering cultural traditions. Participants are exploring the ceremonies from gender perspective.

Medium

60

96

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Birth Stage Explored


The Birth Stage Pre-birth Period Whilst the unborn or new-born child is unaware of any cultural gender perspectives it is being born into, societies norms regarding gender differences will have a huge impact and influence on its development. The different cultural patterns established in any specific society impact the whole cycle of life which starts directly from the moment of conception. The pre-birth period can be considered as a very superstitious period in most European countries. For example, in many countries it is believed that the shape of the woman’s belly can define the sex of a child: if it is rounded or lower, it will be a girl, if it is pointed or high, it will be a boy. A fairly recent tradition in many European countries is the ‘baby-shower’. This is a reunion of female family and close friends one or two months before the actual birth, the future mother receives a lot of congratulations and presents for her child regarding to the gender of the baby.

Patriarchal Culture In all of the countries explored, couples and families predominantly want a male child. This shows that patriarchal culture in society is still very strong. It is stronger in the Eastern parts of Europe. In Macedonia, for example, when a boy is born there is an emotional celebration by the male friends of the family who go to the house to celebrate with the father where they rip their shirts to pieces. In Georgia, when a boy is born, fathers will often shoot into the air as an expression of happiness. In Islamic cultures, when a baby is born there is a tradition called Aqiqah which involves the sacrifice of sheep: if it is a girl it is one lamb, if a boy it is two! It is usual practice in most European cultures to give the surname of the father to the new-born child. However, in Portugal and Spain the father’s and mother’s family names go together, traditionally the father’s surname is first and the mothers is second. In Italy, the surname of the father is obligatory while the couple can choose whether to include mother’s one or not. A typical custom from Kosovo and Bosnia is the circumcising of young boys between the ages of 0-10, this is often a big party with relatives and friends even coming from abroad to celebrate. The practice of circumcising is mostly done in the Muslim communities, in other countries, such as Romania, circumcision is done only for hygiene reasons. Female Genital Mutilation while not legal in European countries is practiced illegally in some countries and is based on specific cultures and traditions.

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Gender Norms A classic gender-based custom is linked to colours, for example, in almost all European cultures, blue is the colour for boys and pink the one for girls. This also includes the decorations in the child’s room. In Italy when there is a new-born in the family, the parents put a bow on the front door of their homes, blue for boys and pink for girls, in this way everyone in the building or street knows that there has been the birth of a girl or boy and they can rejoice with the family. Interestingly before the child is born and the sex of the child is not known, people usually buy neutral toys like rattles in the form of animals. Later on, in respect of games and other toys, cars and superheroes are identified for boys, while dolls and princesses are provided for girls. Baptism in the Christian traditions though mostly the same does vary a little in some countries. For example, in some countries the mother is not allowed to enter the church during the process. In most of the countries, there is the same custom of godparents. In Lithuania for example, the godfather and godmother have to be married, in Croatia there can only be a godmother for girls and a godfather for boys.

Early Childhood and understanding of gender roles The pre-birth and after birth period influences the growth of the child and creates the basic image about the gender perspective in its own surrounding influenced by different socially structured cultures, traditions. In early childhood the children begin to discover how things work and learn about their surroundings. Within a classic more or less traditional family unit, children begin to realise the division of tasks and activities promoted and allocated according to their gender. Young children begin to construct their personality and identity. During this young age, children build connections with other people around them, especially their parents. They also start their gender identity construction at this age, they are becoming aware of their bodies and discovering their sexuality. In this period children usually go to kindergarten and begin to socialise with the other children of similar ages to a much larger extent than before.

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Social Expectations The social expectations for boys are connected, for example, to being active, creative, ambitious, practising active sports and other outdoor activities. Boys spend more time with their fathers, helping mainly with technical things, connected with repairing and building. For boys there is a consensus that ‘innocent’ physical aggression – fighting, punching, playing soldiers, playing with plastic guns, behaving in a more ‘uncultured’ way (burping, farting, etc.) is ok. A good boy should be strong and boys certainly don’t cry. In some countries, boys are allowed to be bossy at home, they are also expected to be responsible for their female siblings, even if the sibling is older than they are. All these patterns add up to explaining the reason for the cultural role of adult man as the more dominant, connected with strength, and with moments of acceptable ‘out of social control’ behaviour. The social expectations for girls are most often an opposite to those of the ones for boys. It is appreciated when the girl is quiet, respectful, concentrated on taking care of herself (being pretty) and other people, when she plays homely imagination games with dolls. From the early years of her social life, a girl is being prepared for helping her mother in the kitchen, learning how to cook and bake, and clean the house. An adult woman is perceived as being more ‘prepared’ for doing this kind of work at home. Young girls are encouraged to dream about being a princess, a ballerina or a mother. Through media influences they are taught to dream of finding the ‘perfect’ man or their prince on a white horse. All of these points create a vision of a girl as more passive, less creative and at the same time weaker and dependent on boys.

Preschool and elementary school education In some countries kindergarten is mandatory but in many it is not, in such countries it is the role of the grandparents or other relatives to look after the young children. Some kindergartens have divided spaces for sleeping (boys and girls), others have only one room for all. In most of the countries, there is not a separation of toilets for boys and girls. Most of the teachers / workers in kindergartens are female. In many kindergartens boys and girls have different activities and toys provided according to their sex, this can include sports, books, movies, cartoons, etc. Mother’s day is commonly celebrated and prepared for in primary schools and kindergartens. However, Father’s Day is usually less acknowledged, except in Sweden. In the majority of cases, going to elementary school children do not receive proper sexual education, if any at all, especially regarding sexual identity.

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Children are told misleading stories about how they were conceived. In almost all of the countries explored children are told that a stork brings the new born babies to the family through the chimney or that they were found in cabbage leaves.

Gender Identities Children start constructing their gender identities in different ways even from such an early age, largely due to the activities and defined roles that are pushed onto them because of their identifiable sex. By the time children are entering school, they already have the understanding of the binary genders and have some ideas regarding the gender roles of each. Cross gender interaction becomes less common as boys and girls get older and divide themselves. These positions and this level of awareness is mostly the product of parental (family) influence, social expectations, institutional frameworks and limited social interaction. In almost all countries, male and female children are expected to fit into the social gender norms. It is very unusual for the parents to accept that their child might feel more comfortable being a different gender identity than the biological one.  

Birth Stage Activities These activities and tools in this chapter were developed around 5 subtopics in relation to birth and the early years of life: - Pre-birth and birth - Birth to 2 years - 2 years to 5 years - 5 years to 10 years - Ceremonies and Celebrations

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Birth Stage Activities


Activities Summary Story Making: Participants are asked to fill the blank spaces in a text describing the daily life of a child, whose gender is not specified. This activity focuses on the exploration of gender stereotypes according to the norms and roles established in the society.

Quiz of the Absurd:

Participants are divided in small groups and asked to present a short theatrical play for a number of questions related to gender stereotypes during the birth stage, triggering a discussion about such behaviours and raising awareness about these stereotypes.

Be Who You Want to Be:

Refers to two different activities, one for young parents and one for children at the same time in two different rooms. Parents are having the ‘speed dating’ activity exploring whether they are affected by gender stereotypes and how that influences their behaviour towards their children. At the same time, children in a different room are exploring the gender aspect of different professions, by seeing pictures of different jobs and answering a number of questions related to gender.

Will you Wear(y) Me:

Participants are given two figures (one boy, one girl) with neutral characteristics and are asked to draw their clothes and place a list of hobbies, occupations and characteristics. They should choose the ones they believe are most related to the categories that are given to them. This activity explores the personal beliefs about differences between boys and girls and the existing stereotypes on gender issues.

Gender Lottery:

This activity is based on the game ‘Take a step forward’ and focuses on the exploration of the roles that are given from birth in relation to gender, religion, types of the family and place of living, revealing the gender inequality in societies.

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Activity Title:

Story Making Level of difficulty: Low

Target Group:

Young people aged 14-16 years

Group Size:

Maximum 25 people

Time Needed for the Activity: 1 hour

Aim: • • • •

To explore what gender stereotypes are according to the norms and roles as established in society and culture To raise awareness on how society influences individual perception about gender characteristics To urge participants to realize their own perception of gender differences To trigger a discussion on gender issues

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 5min

Divide the group into small groups of between 3 and maximum 5 people per group There should not be more than 5 groups

Step 2- 15min

Each participant in the sub group will receive a copy of the same story Each group should read the story and fill in the gaps in the story, so there is only one version from the group There is 10min to complete the task

Step 3- 5min

Bring the subgroups back to the plenary Each subgroup reads their version of the story to the rest of the group

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Step 4- 10min

Plenary discussion Guiding questions • How was the task for you? • Which gender is your child and why? • Why did you decide to ascribe this set of words (features/ characteristics) to the character of your story? • How did the name influence the gender of the character? • Were you surprised by any of the other stories? • What do you think if the child in your story had opposite gender? Would you change something? What? Why?

Step 5- 15min

Small groups – combine 2 groups • Discuss the different aspects that led each member of the group to assume the gender of the child? • Consider own background • Link to culture • Link to society and existing stereotypes

Step 6- 10min

Plenary share • Each group provides a short input on the different aspects highlighted in their group • Facilitator makes a note on a flip chart of the key points • With the highlighted notes participants should make a final conclusion.

Tips:

The name of the child used in the story must be a gender-neutral depending on the working group or the country of implementation, meaning it could be a boy or a girl. Or if there is no a gender-neutral name in your language you can also use nicknames, for example: French male - Raphael / French female - Raphaelle So, if you write “Rapha”, it will be up to the participants to decide whether it is a male or a female character. - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - You can also make it an individual activity, asking each of the participants to fill in the gaps on their own (5-10 min). Later you can bring them into small groups (for 10-15 min) so that they can discuss their stories having some leading questions written on the flipchart as stated in the plenary questions example. Bring different subgroups together to discuss the link to the culture and society as a final part of the activity - Times are approximate

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Materials / Resources:

One copy of the story for each participant One pen for each participant.

Andrea’s Day

There is a child named Andrea who is a pupil of an elementary school. Every Monday Andrea wakes up at ______ am. The first thing Andrea does in the morning is ____________________________________. Andrea likes to wear ____________________________ . On the way to school, Andrea also likes to ____________________________ . In school Andrea has to ___________________. During lunch break Andrea likes to eat _________________. When Andrea comes home Andrea’s friends ask Andrea to go to _____________________________ with them. With Andrea’s friends, Andrea likes to play ____________________________. At the end of the day Andrea goes to bed with ______________, which is Andrea’s favourite toy for sleeping.

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Activity Title:

Quiz of the Absurd Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 16+

Group Size:

15 to 20 people maximum

Time Needed for the Activity: Minimum 1 hour

Aim:

Raise awareness of the absurdity of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination and how they are developed from the very early stages of life

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 2min

Split the group into 4 sub-groups – maximum 5 people per group

Step 2- 5min preparation

Reveal to the groups one of the questions on a flip chart (see in ‘materials’ below for list of questions) Each group has 5 minutes to prepare a short 3min role play depicting their opinion on the question given All plays should include stereotypical elements from the local reality of the participants

Step 3- 20 min (5 min role play per group)

Plenary Groups are gathering back in plenary and one by one presenting their plays

Step 4-

After all groups finish the acting, proceed with another question and repeat the steps 2-3

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Step 5- 30 min

Plenary When the questions or time is finishing Each group explains their plays and the reasons why they chose to present specific stereotypes Questions to be addressed: What was your first reaction to the questions? How did you decide which elements to include in the play? Why? Is gender behaviour based on stereotypes or stereotypes are based on gender? Do you agree with the behaviours that were addressed in your theatrical plays? Is this behaviour common nowadays? Why? Which answer, according to your opinion, respects gender equality?

Tips:

- There are 6 questions in total, but it is suggested to use less (2-3) according to the number of the participants and the time offered for this activity - The facilitator can add new questions according to the specifics of the topic they are working on - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate

Materials / Resources:

List of questions: 1. What is the first thing a father thinks/does when he sees his new son? 2. What should a man do when a woman just gave a birth? 3. What is the first toy parents generally buy for their baby? 4. What sex of the baby do parents mostly want to have? 5. What is the purpose of the baby boy in his life, according to his family? 6. If a baby girl is born, what will you say to the parents?

 

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Activity Title:

Be Who You Want To Be Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young parents and their children

Group Size:

Minimum 5 Maximum 20 people

Time Needed for the Activity: 1 hour

Aim:

Promote awareness of gender equality Encourage children to choose freely what they want to be Encourage parents to reflect on their children’s education and development in reference to gender stereotypes in professions

Step by Step Description:

Young Parents and Children Step 1- 10min Divide the children and parents into two different spaces in order to have two different activities For the parents the activity is Speed Dating For the children the activity is ‘Be Who You Want To Be’

Young Parents Step 1- 5min

Speed dating The group is to discuss a series of questions in pairs (see below for questions) A circle of chairs is placed in the middle of the room facing out A second circle of chairs is placed around the first circle facing in There must be the same number of chairs in both circles The total number of chairs must be equal to the total number of participants Get all of the group seated – 2 people facing each other all round the circle

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Step 2- 5min per round

Before each question the pair should exchange their names, how many children they have and their age(s) A question is read out loud Each pair has 3 to 4 minutes to respond to the question After each question one of the circles of participants should all move to the right or left This is to ensure that for each question there is a different pairing Maximum 5 or 6 rounds

Step 4- 15min

Plenary Get the group back into a large circle and hold an open discussion where the parents can raise any topic from the different discussions they held and questions they responded to --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Children Step 1- 10min

Give the children pictures of different professions (without the possibility to identify the gender) Give them a few minutes to explore them all

Step 2- 10min

After a few minutes of looking at the images ask them what they see in the picture What is the sex of the profession What is the sex of the person in each picture (facilitator may ask children guiding questions) Take a few answers

Step 3- 5min

Question for the children What job would you like to do? Write down their answers on small papers and put them into a box

Step 4- 5min

Ask one child to pick a paper from the box and read it out Each child will have a turn at doing this

Step 5- 30min

Ask the all the children to act out this profession as they understand it During the acting the facilitator asks the children different questions (see below for questions)

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Parents and Children Step 2-

Plenary Ask one or two parents to explain to the children what they were doing (depending on the age of the children this may or may not be necessary) Ask some of the children to share what they did and what they discovered for themselves about a profession they would like to do (Optional)

Step 3-

Some food and games to share

Tips:

- All the questions provided are optional, the facilitator of the activity should choose questions that are relevant to the issues they are working with - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate

Materials / Resources:

Questions for parents 1. Do you read the same stories to your sons and daughters? (If you have only one child would you read them different kind of stories based on gender about princesses and heroes) 2. What is the colour and types of the clothes that you buy to your child. Do you buy your child’s clothes according to their sex? Why? 3. What kind of animations/ movies do you play to your children to watch? Is it based on their sex? Why? 4. Does your child play with children of a different sex? 5. Do you reinforce certain professions as being for men or women – fireman, nursing…? 6. Are you buying your children gender based toys?

Questions for the children 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Do you know anyone doing this job? Who? How did you feel to pretend to be doing this job? Is/was it difficult for you to see yourself in this job? What did you like about this job? What not? Do you think it is for boys or girls?

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Title of Activity:

Will You Wear(y) Me? Level of difficulty: Low

Target Group: Young people

Group Size:

6 to 18 people Time Needed for Activity: 45 minutes

Aim:

To reflect about the gender differences between boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 10 years To explore personal beliefs about gender differences To raise awareness about stereotypes based on gender norms and roles

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 2 min

Divide group into subgroups - if there are more than 10 participants make pairs, if it’s less than 10 let them work alone

Step 2 - 2 min

Each participant or pair gets a picture of a boy and a girl, set of category labels and pictures of toys

Step 3- 10min

Ask the participants to hold up their 2 figures of a boy and a girl Explain that the girl is named Lilly and the boy is named Tommy Ask the participants to imagine what each wears and use colored pencils to draw the clothes on their figures

Step 4- 10min

Ask the participants now to look through the category labels and to add what they want to their two figures according to how they imagine they are, what they like to do in their daily life, what are their hobbies, who they want to be in the future, etc. If they want they can also use empty labels to write some other category

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Step 5- 10min

Create groups of 4 participants and ask them to share what they did in a previous step (share their figures and category labels)

Step 6- 10min

Discuss in plenary with guiding questions‌ 1. Was this game difficult? Why yes, why not? 2. How did you feel during the game? 3. Did something surprise you about other’s work? 4. Are there some categories that could fit in both figures? And if yes, which ones? 5. Why did you decide to put some categories on Tommy and some on Lilly? 6. Do you think that all the boys and girls in real life are like the figures you make? Why yes, why not? 7. What have you learnt from this game?

Tips:

- The picture of the boy and girl must be gender neutral without any specification - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate - The activity can be adapted to work with children from 6 to 10 years of age

Materials and Resources:

- copies of materials (cut out) for each participant (or group): Category Labels + Picture of boy and girl + pictures of toys - colored pencils

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Category Labels TOYS

OCCUPATIONS

HOBBIES

CHARACTERISTICS

teddy bear

police officer

painting

strong

car

actor

football

weak

doll

firefighter

dancing

quiet

plastic gun

teacher

singing

active

ball

hairdresser

playing guitar

shy

cards

doctor

horse riding

responsible

LEGO

astronaut

gymnastics

funny

hula hop

chef

karate

pretty

computer games

dancer

cycling

smart

soldiers

lawyer

basketball

clever

jumping rope

nurse

cooking

delicate

bike

architect

swimming

bossy

professor

travelling

sensitive

engineer

brave

 

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Title of Activity:

Gender Lottery

(based on the game Take a Step Forward, pp.281, Compass: manual for Human Rights Education with young people)

Lever of activity: Medium

Aim:

To explore the roles that are given from the birth (in relation to gender, religion, type of the family, place, etc.) To explore an individual’s life opportunities and challenges through life according to their identity To promote empathy and acceptance towards social diversity To raise awareness about the inequality and inequity in societies To encourage an understanding of possible personal consequences of belonging to certain social minorities or cultural groups To get in the shoes of other people and to think over the possibilities they have, coming from a different religion\gender\family\country

Target Group:

Young people aged 14+

Group Size:

10 to 30 people

Time Needed for Activity: 1 hour to 1 hour 30 minutes

Step by Step Description: Step 1-

Prepare a line across the floor of the room at one end of the room Mark between 10 and 15 steps from the line

Step 2- 5min

Each participant chooses one card from each of 4 decks of cards - Religion - Gender - Family Background - Country / Nationality

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Step 3- 5-10 min

The facilitator gives the participants 5-10 min to read their cards and imagine who this person is. The facilitator can guide participants with following questions: What is your childhood like? Where do You live? What is your everyday life like? What do you do in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening? What kind of games do you play? What do you do in your free time? What sort of work your parents do? What excites you and what are you afraid of?

Step 4- 2 min

Place the participants on the line standing in a row

Step 5- 15min

The facilitator reads out a series of statements The participants move a step forward if they believe their character can agree with the statement and can react affirmatively to the statement. The participants remain in place if they believe their character cannot agree with the statement and cannot react affirmatively to the statement.

Step 6- 5 min

The group remains in their final positions for a short discussion: - How does it feel to be in this position? - How do you feel about where the others are?

Step 7 - 10 min

The facilitator asks participants to stand into a circle and starts discussion about the characters’ participants have represented: - Who are you? - What was difficult about being this character? - How did it feel to step forward when others were not? - Did you notice others during the game?

Step 8- 3 min

De-role Ensure that every member of the group steps out of their character and affirms themselves as the individual they really are

Step 9- 20 min

Plenary discussion Does the exercise mirror society in some way? How? What first steps could be taken to address the inequalities in society?

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How much is identity influenced by society and culture and how much does society and culture influence identity? How do you feel after the activity? How did you feel when stepping forward (or not)? Why? When did you realize that you are moving forward faster than the others? How did you feel about staying behind from the others? Did anyone at some point feel disappointed about your character’s gender? Why? Which factors affected your decisions? Why? How easy or difficult was it to play the different roles? How did you imagine what the person you were playing was like? Does the exercise mirror society in some way? How? What first steps could be taken to address the gender inequalities in society?

Tips:

- There are 21 questions in this example, questions can be added and changed, it is most important that the questions reflect the aims of the workshop or training course - Religion should not be linked to the traditions and customs of the certain country, but to the personal beliefs and feelings of participants. - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate - The activity should be implemented in open space (corridor, large room, outdoor)

Materials and Resources: Statements:

1. My family celebrated my birth before I was born (baby shower) 2. For a carnival/Halloween/birthday I can dress in a costume of the opposite sex 3. My family celebrated when I was born 4. I can attend extracurricular activities of my choice (leisure time/hobbies) 5. I am allowed to play with children of both sexes 6. I celebrate Father’s Day 7. I am allowed to play with dolls 8. Both my parents are present during all important days/events in my life 9. I can play football with my friends in the school 10. I can walk alone in the street in the evening hours 11. I’m not teased from the friends in the school because of who I am 12. I will study and follow the profession of my choice 13. I am allowed to play with tracks/cars

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14. I can choose whether to be circumcised 15. I’m not obliged to go to place of worship 16. I can choose my toys 17. I don’t feel discriminated by teachers because of my gender 18. I can follow the educational direction of my choice 19. I am obliged to help my family in housework 20. I feel comfortable with my gender 21. I don’t wish to have been another gender (Beyonce “If I were a boy” 2011)

4 decks of cards: RELIGION

FAMILY BACKGROUND

GENDER

COUNTRY / NATIONALITY

Muslim

Single mother

Male

Poland

Christian

Single father

Female

Greece

Atheist

Mother & father

Trans

Spain

Jewish

Same sex parents

Intersex

Serbia

Living with relatives

Sweden

Living with step family

Great Britain Ukraine Bosnia & Herzegovina Indonesia Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan France Mexico

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Adulthood Stage Explored


Adulthood Adolescence Adolescence is the process of becoming an adult. It is related to a number of biological, cognitive as well as social and emotional changes. Sometimes this process happens under the hard pressure of society and family who push young people into the state of being adults. Opinions of others are often imposed on the young people especially from the perspective of gender where the stereotypical vision of male-female roles and relations are reinforced and alternatives are often actively discouraged. Adolescence is affecting the young person’s body in many ways. For example, girls get their first menstruation period and grow pubic hair and boys have a drastic change in their voice and can grow facial hair. Many adolescents experience a lot of stress and can often feel lost about the changes that are happening to them. Often these changes are taboo and not spoken about by their parents. The cognitive aspect of adolescence includes a heightened political awareness, the developing of a sense of responsibility, and making own decisions and a growth in autonomy. In many of these aspects girls are believed to be faster in their development than boys and so are often expected to take on more responsibility in family life. Boys are usually underestimated and assumed to be not so smart and not so aware of social norms during this period and therefore get away with being given less responsibilities than their female peers. It also means they are given more freedom while girls often experience less freedom because of the responsibilities they have and the expectation that they should be ‘grown up’. Members of the LGBTQI+ community face many more issues on top of those as faced by their peers, especially in relation to the cognitive and social aspects of adolescence. The development of identity is especially tough for many because their identity is often seen as taboo and unacceptable in most cultures.

Sexual aspect of adulthood Sexuality can be expressed in different ways such as: thoughts, fantasies, beliefs, values, behaviour, practices, roles and relations. The ways of expression and experiencing of sexuality can be manifested in different aspects of our lives; biological, physiological, emotional, social and spiritual. Most of the time adolescents confuse gender, gender identity, sexual identity, and sexual orientation. Variety is the Spice of Life

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The most essential rite of passage is the first sexual intercourse, though it is seen very differently depending on whether it is a young man or a young woman. In general, it is more accepted for young men to lose their virginity at a young age than for young women. In many cultures sex before marriage is overlooked if it is a young man but condemned if it is a young woman.

Social Aspects In the majority of cultures gender roles are clearly established in the family. The man is the leader, the boss in the house, he makes the decisions and controls the money. The woman is responsible for taking care of the children and for household chores. Added to this, even if a woman is working fulltime, she is still expected to be responsible for taking care of the house. In countries like Spain and Italy a more equal division of roles can be established through dialogue but there is still an obvious division between the perceived woman’s home activities (cleaning, washing, cooking) and the man’s home activities (gardening, repairing, technical things). Conservative countries with strong religious values define marriage as a union between only one man and one woman. Even if marriage between same sex couples is becoming less taboo in Western Europe, the social acceptance of is still small. In most countries such a relationship is still seen as wrong. In more traditional societies, there is strong discrimination towards the LGBTQI+ community, which is often attacked and experiencing open hatred. In so called ‘collective societies’ women are expected to get married in their early 20’s while in the ‘individualistic societies’ there is less social pressure connected to the age – at least before the early 30’s. In most conservative societies around the world arranged or early marriages are still happening, e.g. in Georgia. In some cases, it is linked to first menstruation, once this has happened a girl or young woman is expected to get married. Wedding ceremonies are considered to be an extremely important part of the beginning of family life. But also, before the wedding there are some activities that have become part of the tradition, like bachelor (stag) or bachelorette (hen) parties. The words used for these parties express a strong difference between the man and woman. A stag being a big strong male deer and a hen being an annoying squawking chicken. After the wedding women mostly take the husband’s family name or hyphenate their own. It is unusual for husband to take the woman’s family name. In the last decades the number of divorces has risen in most of the cultures explored. There is a greater acceptance of divorce as a reality with less family pressure in many cases – though in stronger patriarchal societies it is still difficult for women to get a divorce.

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As women become more economically independent it has become easier for them to take control of their own lives. However, there is still a difference between the ease of a divorce in a city as opposed to the same in a rural setting in almost all cultures. In rural settings it is more likely to be problematic to get a divorce because it will result in the shaming of the whole family, something that affects women more than men. In most of the countries, both maternity and paternity leaves exist. However, in almost all cases it is the mother who takes care of the child, it is very unusual for fathers to take paternity leave. In some countries like Croatia and Syria it is also common to have further help from the midwife (who is usually a woman) for the first period after the birth.

Education In most of the countries it is more common for young men to get technical education and for young women to study in fields such as nursing, primary education, and journalism, etc. Spain is an exception to this, here more women graduate from technical education than men. In some countries the percentage of young women attending university is higher than for young men. Where sexual education in high schools takes place, it is generally healthy in supporting young people to understand better what they are going through in terms of their biological transition and in terms of entering into sexual engagement for the first time. The lack of sexual education can lead to difficult situations for young people because of ignorance, there is a higher chance of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases if there is little or no understanding of safe sex. Sexual education is more present in Northern and Western countries while in Eastern countries only girls get some basic information about the menstruation cycle.

Work As in the other aspects of adulthood, the labor market sees inequality between men and women. In most of the countries it is difficult for women to get to decision-making positions because it is most common that these positions are reserved for men. For mid level positions it is easier for women to get a job but there is still a huge pay gap between women and men for the same job; from 10% to 30% in Ukraine, for example. Even if women try and work for higher positions they face the glass ceiling effect.

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There is also gender-based discrimination for women during the recruitment process for employment. For example, questions about future plans for motherhood and marriage are often asked of women but almost never of a man. Gender-based discrimination is especially visible in politics. Many countries have created a special quota for the representation of women in parliament and in governmental positions. However, as in Croatia, for example, only 15% of Parliament members are women, while in Italy and Spain the percentage better at more or less 40%. In Italy there is equality in regards to electoral lists. Male and Female candidates should be equally represented. In some countries LGBTIQ+ politicians do not have the same level of influence in the governmental institutions as their heterosexual colleagues. In 2017 Serbia chose its first lesbian woman prime-minister.

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Adulthood Stage Activities


Adulthood Activities This activities and tools in this chapter were developed around 5 sub topics in relation to adulthood: - Adolescence - Family Life - Work life - Leisure time - Rites of Passage

Activities summary Offline Theatre:

Participants are working on Forum Theatre (Theatre of the Oppressed, Augusto Boal) exploring situations of gender based discrimination and what influence it has on young people’s personalities.

Tricky Puzzle:

This activity is suitable for children at the age of 8-12. Participants are asked to solve a puzzle which depicts the equality that should exist in choice making procedures and politics, focusing mainly on the role of women in workplaces.

Job Interview:

This is a role playing activity about the inequality people face when applying for a job based on their gender. The activity vividly shows the stereotypes that exist in labour market, and give a step to the participants to go deeper in this topic from gender perspective.

I See Through Your Eyes:

Participants are given a gender based identity and based on the reaction of other participants they have to understand whether they are accepted or not. This way they have a chance to develop empathy towards other and realise the personal beliefs about different genders and how they are connected with society’s common perception.

Family Life:

The participants are given the same beginning of the story and they have to complete it based on a set of words they are given including sexual orientation, discrimination and identity issues. The aim is to enhance the tolerance and the awareness for different life situations in which people live.

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Activity Title:

Offline Theatre

(based on Forum Theatre techniques of Augusto Boal)

Level of difficulty: High

Target Group:

Young people aged 16-20 years

Group Size:

Maximum 15 people

Time Needed for the Activity: Maximum 2.5 hours

Aim:

To explore the period of adolescence from the perspective of gender-based stereotypical situations which influence young people’s personalities

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 5min

Divide the participants into groups of 3 (max 5 participants in one group) Provide each group with scenario cards which also have roles written on them Important: If possible, males receive female characters and vice-versa

Step 2- 15 min

Participants have 15min to divide the roles between themselves and individually reflect on them

Step 3- 20min

Each group has 20min to prepare a play of maximum 5 minutes It should be clearly stated that the play has to show an act of discrimination based on prejudice or stereotype and one of the participants has to be an oppressor, meaning that this person is the reason of a conflict

Step 4- 10min

First group performs their play all the way through Other groups are the audience

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Step 5- 15min

First group then proceeds to perform their play again During this second round, members of the other groups can shout ‘STOP’ at any moment The members of the audience shout stop if they want to change something in the play This is done by the person who shouted stop taking the place of one of the actors and becoming that character in the play in order to try to create a different more constructive outcome It should be noted that oppressor characters cannot be replaced and acts of ‘magic’ (sudden change of personality or change of circumstances to make everything work out) are not allowed

Step 6- 15min

Plenary discussion after the second round to discuss the issues raised and what happened

Suggested questions:

What issues did the performance raise? How did you feel about the play? If you replaced someone, why did you choose that character to replace? How did you plan to influence the scenario differently? How much could you relate to the story and why? (You can share your personal stories, if you feel comfortable) Did you understand something new after this activity? How much do you believe people’s opinions influence you and your selfawareness and self-esteem? How did you feel playing the roles in these stories? What was your reaction after playing these roles? How hard it was playing the role of opposite sex? What conclusions can we state after seeing this performance?

Step 7- 40min per group

Repeat the same with the second group and then the third

Tips:

- This activity should be part of a larger workshop / training experience exploring gender stereotypes - The number of groups should not exceed three, more than three would probably mean the activity taking too long and individuals losing interest - Facilitator can always adapt scenario and role cards depending on the group - Times are approximate

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Materials / Resources: Scenario Cards A. School break – conversation while checking Facebook

Example: Some of the students saw Mia’s pictures attending a last week LGBTQI+ parade in their town and start talking about it

Roles:

1. Anja: Girl, 15 years old, brown hair with pink highlights, shy, has a boyfriend 2. Mia: Girl, 13 years old, growing up in open minded family, flexible in communication, lesbian 3. Marco: Boy, 15 years old, lives in the conservative family, shorttempered, stubborn 4. Dino: Boy, 16 years old, likes to learn new things, his best friend is older gay boy 5. Murat: Boy, 15 years old, Anja’s boyfriend, neutral towards LGBTIQ+ community

B. Going back from gym

Example: Young people start talking about a boy from their class who wants to be a hairdresser

Roles:

1. Sam: Boy, 17 years old, conservative parents, wants to be hairdresser, rejected by school colleagues 2. Lucas: Boy, 18 years old, smokes, acts like a ‘street’ boy, persistent, enjoys mocking others 3. Tom: Boy, 17 years old, failed the year in school, is never at home because he’s always in the park with his friends, open-minded 4. Ana: Girl, 16 years old, has only male friends, plays football, lesbian, calm 5. Iva: Girl, 17 years old, stubborn, likes to argue about everything, likes masculine boys

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C. Birthday party of a friend from school – by the pool, where everyone is going in the water Example: Somebody starts a conversation about other young people at the party (e.g. gossiping about their bodies or swimming suits/bikini) and proceeds with teasing them

Roles:

1. Filip: Boy, 16 years old, likes to be a leader of a group, keeps fit going to gym 2. John: Boy, 17 years old, shy, feminine, has a lot of hair in the body and face, asexual 3. Diana: Girl, 15 years old, lives in strict family, suffers from anorexia, obsessed with fashion 4. Sabrina: Girl, 16 years old, overweight, doesn’t have friends, lacks self-confidence especially in front of classmates 5. Lara: Girl, 16 years old, short hair, plays soccer, strong character, sometimes a little bit aggressive

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Activity Title:

Tricky Puzzle Level of difficulty: Low

Target Group:

Young people aged 8-12 years

Group Size:

Minimum 8 people

Time Needed for the Activity: 40 minutes

Aim:

To raise awareness on the lack of equality between men and women in society

Step by Step Description:

NOTE: For this description the group size is 8 young people For other sizes of group the timings and other details will need to be adapted

Step 1- 5min

Divide the group into even numbered sub groups 2 or 4 or 6 etc. For this description it will be 4 pairs Each group receives an envelope with puzzle pieces inside Each envelope holds 4 pieces of puzzle Two of the envelopes hold 3 ‘pipe’ pieces and 1 ‘lipstick’ Two of the envelopes holds 3 ‘lipstick’ and 1 ‘pipe’ piece

Step 3- 5min

The pairs need to make the puzzle They should be stationed around the room so they cannot see what the others are doing and the pairs must not interact with each other The pairs will discover that the puzzle cannot be made because the pieces don’t match

Step 4-

After several attempts the facilitator offers the pairs the chance to exchange 1 piece of their puzzle with another pair

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Step 5-

Once the pairs have exchanged they once again try to make the puzzle

Step 6- 5min

After the second attempt, if the puzzle is still not solved by all the pairs, the facilitator suggests another exchange The attempt to make the puzzle and the exchange of pieces continues until all the puzzles are complete

Step 7- 20min

Plenary discussion Suggested questions: How was it? Was it easy? Was it hard? Why? What was your first reaction? Can everyone share one word about the activity? What happened in the activity? Why? When the symbols were unequal what was the result? How was the puzzle completed? What did you learn from the activity? What is the connection of the activity with real life situations? How is equality in society with regards to representation, pay, leadership, etc.? Facilitator should guide the discussion toward gender equality in society What do the symbols mean for you? Do you agree with the figures that were chosen to represent male and female? Do you know any other genders beside male and female? Why according to your opinion, male representation is dominating in decision making process and politics? How can we work towards a better representation?

Tips:

- The pipe and lipstick symbols can be exchanged with neck tie/skirt; moustache/high heels; the male and female symbols – the facilitator should choose the symbols representing the two sexes - The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better as an introduction into a more complex workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate - Step 1 to 6 will take 10 to 15 min of the workshop and the step 7 (debriefing ) 20-30min. - Facilitators should have knowledge about gender issues.

Materials / Resources: Puzzle Pieces / Completed Puzzle Variety is the Spice of Life

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Activity Title:

Job interview Level of difficulty: High

Target Group:

Young people who are preparing for the job market

Group Size:

Minimum 6 persons

Time Needed for the Activity: Minimum 1 hour

Aim:

To explore the reality of the inequalities people face when applying for job based on their gender identity

Step by Step Description:

This description is for a small group of 6 participants All calculations and times should be adapted according to the number of participants

Step 1- 5min

Divide the group into pairs

Step 2- 5min

Each pair decides which one will be interviewer and which will be interviewee

Step 3- 10min

Each pair receives a profile card with 2 profiles Each pair has 5min to read through their individual profiles and develop their understanding of their character

Step 4- 5min

First pair acts out their scenario in front of the other pairs The scene should last for approximately 5min

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Step 5- 5min

Discussion after each play Questions: What happened during the interview? Would you offer the job to the interviewee? Yes/No, why? Did you find discrimination on working place? What would you change in the interviewers/interviewees roles?

Step 6 -

Repeat the process with the other 2 pairs

Step 7 - 10 min

Suggested questions: - Did you find some gender stereotypes? If yes, give examples. - Do men/women take paternity/maternity leave easily in your country? - Do you find discriminations in job interview in your local area? If yes, which is the common one? - How would you solve the issues in your local community?

Tips:

- The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate

Materials / Resources: Profile Card 1

Interviewee - You are ambitious and culturally beautiful female between 21-30 years old - You are qualified for this position - You are in a long term relationship and you want to have family (baby) at some point, and you live with your fiance - Ask about maternity leave conditions - You are not confident that you can work extra hours and travel for the job - You are not open to a relationship with a colleague

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Interviewer - You are male - You are looking to hire a good looking sociable female for a secretary position (administrative position) - You are looking for a long term employee (not providing maternity leave) - You should ask about relationship, status, family plans, etc. Ask about open relationships with work colleagues - You are looking for a person who is very flexible for traveling and staying extra hours after work

Profile Card 2

Interviewee - You are a handsome male between 21-30 years of age - You are single living with your mother - You are trying to flirt with the interviewer - You are lazy, flirty and an irresponsible person - You would rather relax than have extra working hours - You often use your attractive appearance to avoid hard work Interviewer - You are an ambitious female, a business woman - You do not allow relationships between colleagues - You are looking for a responsible and hardworking employee for a management position for a long-term period - You should ask about a marital / relationship status and any plans for having a family - You are searching for a flexible person, ready for frequent business trips and extra working hours Profile Card 3 Interviewee - You are a transgender person (from male to female) - You have PHD in Management (academic degree prize in the study of management science) - You really need this job position - You have volunteering experience in LGBTQI+ NGO - You are living with your partner - You are 33 years of age - You are a good strong team player - You recognise the need for regular business trips and extra working hours

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Interviewer - You are a radical male - You have judgmental attitude - You have traditional values - You are looking for a good-looking sociable person with master degree for a position of secretary/manager - You are interested in a long-term employee - Ask about work experience - You should ask about relationship status, family plans, open relationship with coworkers, etc. - You search for a flexible person, ready for business trips and staying for extra working hours Note: You should mentioned all things described about your character and by choice you can add some characteristic that might fit your role.

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Title of Activity:

I See Through Your Eyes Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 16+

Group Size:

10 to 20 people

Time Needed for Activity: 1 hour 30 minutes

Aim:

To develop empathy towards excluded groups by experiencing the reactions of society to different gender identities and minorities in different situations To encourage discussion and self-reflection on the social stigma of different minority identities

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 10min

Each participant receives a post it on their forehead without seeing it Each post it has the description of a person on it (see list of examples below)

Step 2- 10min

Participants must walk around the room and react to the characters they meet Participants should react as society (with all the stereotypes) Participants should react to all the people descriptions they meet Participants cannot talk but can interact in any other way (any non-verbal communication) (Small noises, hugs, greetings, handshakes, avoidance, eye contact‌)

Step 3- 5min

The facilitator calls stop All participants freeze where they are The facilitator places 3 papers (islands) on the floor of the room spread out in a large triangle formation

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Step 4- 5min

Participants need to position themselves on one of the papers (islands) according to how they felt during the activity Paper 1: I am accepted Paper 2: I am not accepted Paper 3: I don’t know Participants observe for a moment who is at which island

Step 5- 30min

NOTE: Participants cannot read their own character before question 4 Small group discussions Participants are asked to start moving around the room again until a number is called out (between 2 and 5) Participants should then form up into random groups of that number The groups then receive a question to discuss 1. Which island did you choose and why? After a few minutes participants move again and another number is called out Participants form new random groups and discuss the 2nd question 2. How did other people react to you and how did this make you feel? After a few minutes participants move again and another number is called out Participants form new random groups and discuss the 3rd question 3. How did you react to other the people descriptions; representing the attitude of society or your own? Why? After a few minutes participants move again and another number is called out Participants form new random groups and discuss the 4th question 4. What do you think your people description could be? Guess and check your paper. From question 4 the groups stay the same to answer the final questions 5. Can you identify with this person description? What is your usual attitude towards people of this community? 6. What difficulties / stereotypes / advantages / privileges do you think these people encounter in their daily life in your local community?

Step 6- 30 min

Plenary discussion Participants are asked to share how they feel as a result of the activity Suggested questions:

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What do you think the aim of the activity is? How does the activity relate to your community and the stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination you witness or know about? How is the current situation in our local community? Is there a option society to act differently towards these characters? How and why? What can be changed? Do you change your mind on this issues now at the end of the activity? How could we change those stereotypes in the society?

Tips:

- This simulation activity should not be played with new groups - Ensure a safe environment for sharing - Ensure that all emotions felt during the simulation are constructively dealt with in the final debrief - For 10 participants, give 5 minutes for acting out the reactions, for 20 participants give 10 min. The facilitator can change these times as they see fit, depending on group dynamics - According to the local reality and the level participants experience facilitator can chose among list and/or create characters - According to the level of english of the participant the facilitator can simplify characters, so everyone can understand them easily

Materials and Resources:

The facilitator needs to prepare roles on sticky notes in advance Choose from the following options and make sure to have enough for all participants 1. Transgender Female → Male 2. Transgender Male → Female 3. Lesbian 4. Gay 5. Patriarchal leader 6. Female sex-worker 7. Male sex-worker 8. Bisexual 9. Crossdressing man 10. HIV positive man 11. 13-year-old girl who lost her virginity 12. 13-year-old boy who lost his virginity 13. 30-year-old virgin male 14. 30-year-old female virgin 15. Teen mom

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16. Divorced women 17. Single father 18. Unmarried pregnant woman 19. Female victim of rape 20. Widow 21. Widower 22. Women with children from 2 different men 23. Feminist 24. Male feminist 25. Meninist 26. Gay parent with an adopted child 27. Cheating husband 28. Cheating wife 29. Man that has many sexual partners 30. Woman that has many sexual partners 31. Woman that is artificially pregnant 32. Woman with much younger boyfriend 33. Man with girlfriend of 20 years younger 34. Girl with a man of 20 years older 35. Refugee from a country at war 36. Migrant because of economic conditions 37. Girl teenager on wheelchair 38. Male homosexual Muslim 39. Female homosexual Muslim

Alternative version:

In order to make an easier version of the activity the facilitator can ask participants to place themselves on the three different papers immediately after receiving a post it with the character that they can see.

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Title of Activity:

Family Life

Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 14+

Group Size:

6 to 15 people

Time Needed for Activity: 70 min +

Aim:

To raise awareness and tolerance for different people’s life situations To develop the ability to analyze a situation from different perspectives To explore issues of discrimination, social exclusion, identity, and sexual orientation‌

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 2min

Divide the group into 3 subgroups

Step 2- 2 min

Each group receives the first two lines of the same story Each group receives a different set of words

Step 3- 25min

The groups read the beginning of the story and continue creating the story it in their own way with using of their own words and words that are provided. The groups must incorporate a minimum of 8 words from the list into the whole story, each participant should be involved into process, adding at least two sentences. Each story must be written down. *The groups can create their story more than once if there is time

Step 4- 10min

When step 3 is completed each group receives a paper with the following questions and discusses them: 1. If you would be in the situation of the Andrea how would you feel? 2. How would you deal if you were in the situation of Andrea?

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3. How do You think the family/ community would see you if you were in Andrea’s situation

Step 5- 10min

Plenary Each team shares their story (or one of their stories)

Step 6- 20min

Plenary discussion Suggested questions: How do you feel after creating this story for your character? Was it difficult / easy to create the story? Why did you choose this story for your character? How it was to try walking in his/her shoes? Do you know real examples of such stories from your experience?

Tips:

- The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues - Times are approximate

Materials and Resources:

The beginning of the story for each group: (Choose neutral gender name for your local reality)

Example:

Andrea is 15 years old, happy kid, lives with the parents in a small town. The father works in a factory, while the mother is a housewife. One day .....�

Set of words for each group: Group 1:

single mother, change, responsibility, education, work, anger, stepfather, happy, new child, conflict, misunderstanding, support, acceptance, guilty

Group 2:

adoption, gay couple, shame, discrimination, love, society, support, judging, job, obstacles, friends, success, depression, satisfaction, strength

Group 3:

radical, marriage, abortion, conflict, love, domestic violence, awareness, success, happiness, local community, loneliness, family, support, social pressure, understanding

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Third Age Explored


Third Age Family Life Family life during the third age has different patterns according to the culture but it also can be very personal and depends on the attitude of the individual person as well as the attitude of other family members. Usually because of the economic situation the grandfathers need to keep working in order to have enough money both for themselves and for their children in order to improve their lives. In most of the cultures, grandmothers are expected to take care of their grandchildren. Another key aspect identified is that it is often the man who is in control of bank accounts and economic possessions which often leads to financial difficulties for the widows. In the family life, grandmothers are sharing the traditions and values of their own era with their granddaughters which can lead to intergenerational differences in understanding of current values. The male grandchildren are usually directed on the path of their grandfather, which is to take care of the family traditions, the other members of the family, to be strong, to work hard and of course to have their own family.

Leisure and Religion Concerning leisure time, it is common for older people to go outside to hang out with other older people, though it has been observed that women stay more at home because they have duties and responsibilities there while the men spend more time outside; watching football, playing chess or cards and sitting in parks or cafes. Many 3rd age people turn to religion at this stage of their lives. In some cultures, at a certain age, women often begin to cover their heads, go to church and become involved in religious rituals and holidays. In Muslim communities it is often the men at a certain age who are starting to get religious, praying 5 times a day and going to the mosque more often.

Death (Funerals and Ceremonies) In many cultures it is common for women to live up to 10 or 11 years more than men. Different cultures have specific steps and ways of preparations for death and funerals. In some cultures, women are seen to be more prepared for the last years of their lives and death. In the Christian traditions men and women can be buried in one grave and have their names, pictures and birthdeath dates on the tombstones.

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In some countries like Spain, in rural areas, when somebody dies the church bells are rung, this is done 8 times for women and 7 times for men. In Muslim cities and villages, the imam is singing the name of the dead person from the mosque minaret. In many cultures if the dead person was from a Christian tradition they are often buried in their best clothes and with some of their possessions. In Muslim communities, before burial the body should be washed by women if it is a woman that has died and by men if it is a man. By religious tradition Muslims are buried without clothes but wrapped in a white cloth, this is done as a sign that a person should go to heaven as they came to this world. When a Muslim woman dies, she should be buried by her son or brother because with the death of the man or woman in Islam the marriage is broken. Religious traditions of Muslim cultures do not allow women to be a direct part of the funeral. In some countries it is also forbidden for women to enter a cemetery, however in others there is a strict division of when men and women can visit the cemetery. Men should visit it in the morning and women in the afternoon. Each of them must clean their body properly and wear clean clothes, this ritual is called Abdest (Ablution). Christian traditions allow women to be at the funerals as well as to go to the cemetery. In Syria, if a man dies during a war or doing his duties as a police officer, for example, people throw rice into his grave. In many cultures women are supposed to wear black and mourn for at least a year after husband’s death, whereas men are not obliged to stick to such rules. In the Muslim traditions each person must be buried in a different grave and have only their names and birth-death dates on their tombstone.


Third Age Activities


Third Age Activities This activities and tools in this chapter were developed around 5 subtopics in relation to Third Age: - Family Life - Intergenerational Gap - Attitude of the 3rd Age to Themselves - Dying - Funerals and Ceremonies

Activities summary: When I Was Old:

Through a series of short theatrical plays and discussions, participants explore the lives of elderly people and the difficulties they face, while tackling with gender differences and stereotypes on this stage of life.

The Bus Ride:

A theatrical scene is taking place on a bus, where six people are arguing about homosexuality and gay marriage. Participants are given description of their role and the side they should support, having the chance to get in the shoes of others and explore the generation gap between younger and elderly people from a gender perspective.

Aging Today:

This activity is design through game to explore different ways of ours and society behaviour towards older people and their gender. Participants are put in the shoes of third age generations in order to experience their real life situations and the challenges they are facing.

Chasing traditions:

The activity is design through memory board game, participants to consider various funeral ceremonies considering cultural traditions in different. Participants are considering this ceremonies from gender perspective.

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Title of Activity:

When I Was Old Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 14 to 25 years

Group Size:

5 to 10 people

Time Needed for Activity: 1.5 - 2 hours

Aim:

To explore how older people live and face difficult situations. To tackle gender stereotypes during this life stage by showing young people that we all have pre-constructed ideas about the activities that old men and women do.

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 5min:

Introducing each other Ask the participants to introduce themselves (telling their name and an object starting with the same letter as the name)

Step 2- 15min:

Theatre based energizer to warm up Participants are asked to make a small play of approximately 1 minute after a 5 minute-preparation, about the question: “Describe what would be your perfect life at the age of 80…” If the participants do not know what to talk about, the facilitator can guide them with questions such as: How do you spend your days? Where do you live? What does your social life look like? Do you work / volunteer, have hobbies etc…

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Step 3 - 20min:

Plenary discussion in order to collect different situations/difficulties elderly people face The facilitator asks the participants to share about issues/difficulties that the elderly people encounter and writes them down on the flipchart The facilitator should encourage participants to share experiences and stories from their local realities and also include positive aspects of elderly people’s lives [attitude of society, family, mental and physical deterioration, unconventional families…] Some of the following scenarios could be explored: Going blind Going deaf Losing a partner Having dementia Living far away from family and friends Your friends visit you often You have a lot of money You have little contact with your children You have no next of kin / relatives You are addicted to alcohol You never married and don’t have kids You found a new partner recently Wheelchair bound

Step 4- 40min:

Theatre Play 1st part Participants are asked to imagine a day in an old person’s life. They need to choose if they will perform a man or a woman Participants are asked to perform a 2min play that includes some of the scenarios previously discussed. Also, during the play, the facilitator can show some of the scenarios from the flipchart and the participants should adapt their role play according to it Example of scenarios: see list discussed during step 3 2nd part The participants have to perform the same role play (with the same questions/ scenarios) but the second time they need to change the gender of the role they played before (from male to female or transgender and from female to male or transgender).

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Step 5- 20/30min:

Final plenary discussion Sharing of own experiences and examples The facilitator invites the participants to start the final plenary discussion. During the discussion, the participants can share their own experiences and examples. The facilitator guides them with the following questions: How did you feel performing your play? How did you feel observing the others plays? Do you recognise any of these scenarios from real life? Did you change many things when you changed the gender of your role? Do you think old men and women live very different lives? Does society expect them to have different activities, points of view etc.? Do/Should we treat old men and women on the same way or are there some specificities of treatment? Do you think old people face less/more gender discrimination than young people or other adults? Do the difficulties/scenarios discussed affect old men and women on the same way?

Tips:

- Times are approximate - It can be useful to have a prepared flipchart showing a timeline and the following activities in their respective time of the day to help guide participants in how an elderly people day could look like - Important for the facilitators: participants are encouraged to develop empathy while performing step 2, they need to differentiate it with the energizer which is meant to be fun. Waking up, dressing, showering Breakfast Doctor’s visit Reading/watching tv/News Calling someone Lunch Toilet Siesta/sleep for a while Visitors coming Groceries Coffee/tea/television Writing your diary Going to bed - The facilitator can prepare one flipchart with scenarios in advance (as listed in the step 3).

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Title of Activity:

The Bus Ride Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 13 to 25 years

Group Size:

Not more than 20 people (only 6 will be directly engaged in the activity)

Time Needed for Activity: 45 minutes/ 1 hour

Aim:

To raise awareness about generation gaps between younger and older generations from a gender perspective

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 5min

Introduction The facilitator is the bus driver. The participants are the passengers who are picked up at three different bus stops. There will be between 3 and 5 minutes between each stop

Step 2- 5min

Each of the participants picks out a role from the 6 available

Step 3- 5min

Each role card is numbered to create pairs: 1.1-1.2 2.1-2.2 3.1-3.2 The number also indicates the order of pick up at the bus stops Pairs sit together, read their role cards and discuss their roles with each other

Step 4- 5min

Bus driver announces first Stop “1st Stop, Empire Street� First 2 passengers (pair 1.1-1.2) enter the bus and sit or stand as they think their characters would After entering the bus the passengers start a conversation in their pair according to the information on their role cards

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Step 5- 5min

Bus driver announces 2nd Stop “2nd Stop, University” Next 2 passengers (pair 2.1-2.2) enter the bus and sit or stand as they think their characters would After entering the bus, the passengers start a conversation in their pair according to the information on their role cards Other passengers can join in, interrupt or add a comment on any conversation When others enter the bus, the passengers can decide if they give up their seat or not

Step 6- 5min

Bus driver announces 3rd Stop “3rd Stop, Market Place” Next 2 passengers (pair 3.1-3.2) enter the bus and sit or stand as they think their character would After entering the bus, the passengers start a conversation in their pair according to the information on their role cards Other passengers can join in, interrupt or add a comment on any conversation When others enter the bus, the passengers can decide if they give up their seat or not

Step 7- 5min

Close the simulation / role play Ensure each participant de-roles

Step 8

Plenary discussion with whole group Begin with analysis by the role players How do you feel now? What happened in the different phases of the simulation? How did you feel? Ask for comments from the observers What did you see? How do you feel about the different things that happened? Do you recognise such situations from your own experience? Would you have acted differently, if acting according to you? How to develop mutual respect in the society between youth and elderly? Concerning the gender perspective, what different situations happened during the trip? Did it reflect what happens or can happen in real life? Are elderly gay couples accepted in society? What do you think about the conflict between Gustav and Sophia?

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Tips:

Before you start, read all the instructions carefully in order not to spoil the parts which are not for the ‘passengers’ The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues Times are approximate The facilitator should adapt the situations/questions to the local realities (legislation about gay partnership / marriage / child adoption, etc.)

Materials and Resources:

Room Layout: The shape of a bus should be mapped out on the floor using paper tape 2 chairs should be positioned next to each other – these are the only 2 available seats Shape should include 1 chair for the driver and an entrance / exit

Roleplay Cards:

1st Stop – Empire Street Passenger 1.1 Alberto Male, 72 Enters the bus with his boyfriend/husband, Matei, holds his hand and from time to time looks at his eyes. Retired and loves to plant flowers, to read books and to take care of his household and his lovely boyfriend/husband, a non-conflict person. During the conversation with Matei, Alberto reminds him about their lovely son Nick, his wife Laura and children, whom they have visited last summer in the USA. Passenger 1.2 Matei Male, 68 Enters the bus with his boyfriend/husband, Alberto, also holding his hand. Matei reminds to Alberto how they met and that today it is their 35th anniversary. 2nd Stop – University Passenger 2.1 Gustav Male, 24 Enters the bus with Sofia (they do not know each other yet, but he starts to flirt with her)

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Recently he graduated from university, he is currently trying to establish his own business. He believes that women’s place is in the kitchen and gay marriages should not be allowed in society at all. He supports the ideas and thoughts of elderly women Maria and Sarah. Passenger 2.2 Sophia Female, 18 Enters bus with Gustav (they do not know each other yet, but he starts to flirt with her) Sophia is finishing high school and is considering to study IT/programming at university. Sophia is a strong feminist and during her free time she is an activist for human rights and works with active youth at the local youth centre. She jumps into the conversation between two elderly women and gay couple, stands on the side of gay couple. 3rd Stop – Market Place Passenger 3.1 Maria Female, 62 Enters with her friend Sarah. Retired, worked as a nurse. Talks about low pensions, grandchildren, expensive medicine, healthcare system. Follows the conversation of two gay elderly men and suddenly interrupts them, showing that she does not approve their inappropriate behaviour, that it is a bad example for the children. Very aggressive woman. Passenger 3.2 Sarah Female, 75 Enters with her friend Maria. Retired, all life took care about her husband, very traditional. She has been a widow for 30 years already, does not have children. During the talk she always supports her friend Maria and agrees with Gustav’s opinions regarding women.

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Title of Activity:

Aging Today Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group: Young people aged 11+

Group Size:

10 to 25 people

Time Needed for Activity: 1 - 1.5 hour

Aim:

To put young people into the shoes of older people to experience everyday situations To foster critical thinking and empathy towards third age generations and to delete barriers between old men and old women’s activities To create an open space and playful ground for the exchange of experiences and individual attitudes towards third age generations from the gender perspective

Step by Step Description: Step 1- 10min

Read the game description to the participants (see below)

Step 2- 5min

Divide the participants into groups of 4 or 5 people

Step 3- 30-40 min

Each group sets up their board and pieces and starts to play. The game is over when the first person reaches the centre of the board – the last number on the board

Step 5- 20-30 min

Plenary discussion with all the groups together How did you feel during this game? Was it difficult to imagine the situations that were written and shown in the pictures? Was it difficult to step into the shoes of an older person? Why yes / why not?

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Did something surprise you from one of your own answers or the answer of another person? What was it? Have you thought about any of these questions and situations before doing this game? Some of the questions and pictures were related to the gender perspective, how did you feel about them? Did it change your perspective about gender issues concerning elderly people? How young people can help elderly people to get better understanding about gender issues and LGBTQI+ communities? Did this game change some of your attitudes towards older people?

Tips:

Game packages: 1 package for each group of 4-5 participants The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues Times are approximate As an example, 13 questions and 5 pictures are listed below, but the facilitator should adapt the content of the game and the number of questions/pictures according to his/her local reality According to the local reality and legislation, the last plenary discussion (step 5) can be more focused on the gender perspective

Materials and Resources:

Game Description: “This is a game that is called ‘Aging Today’ which is designed to explore our understanding of how we and society see old people and their gender. For this game, you will be divided into groups of 4 or 5 people. Each group will receive a Game Package that includes: a dice and a game board, a set of numbered cards with questions or pictures. In turn, each person in the group will throw the dice. Player 1 throws the dice and moves to the place on the board of that number. Player 1 then answers the question or responds to the picture of that same number (answering the question must take more than 60 seconds but less than 2 minutes). Please note that there are no wrong or right answers the best answer is your own opinion. The game is not competitive, it finishes when the first player reaches the centre of the board.” 1 Package for 1 group of 4-5 players (the number of packages depends on the number of participants): 1 Dice (with points from 1 to 6)

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1 Game board (see the picture below) 5 pawns (1 for each player) 1 Small bag (to put the questions and pictures inside) 1 Set of questions 1 Set of pictures Set of Questions [numbers on the game board]: 1. What do you think is the biggest difficulty in being an old person? 2. What do you think is the best thing about being an old person? 3. Picture 1 [description below] 4. How do you imagine yourself in your elderly life? Let’s act it! 5. Do you think that young people should support old people in home activities? Why yes / why not? 6. Do you think that old people should take care of their grandchildren or be more concentrated on realization of their personal needs? Why yes / why not? 7. If you were a 66 years old woman/man would you like to do physical activities? Why yes / why not? 8. Picture 2 [description below] 9. What would be, according to you, the main differences between old men and old women’s activities? Why? 10. If you were a 70 years old person would you want to travel? Why yes / why not? 11. Picture 3 [description below] 12. If you were a 78 years old person would you like to live in the same place as you live now? Why yes/ why not? 13. What would be your dream lifestyle after retirement? Answer from both gender perspectives: as a man and as a woman. Why is it similar/ different? 14. Picture 4 [description below] 15. Do you think it is ok for old people to show their personal feelings in the streets, parks… ? What if they belong to the LGBT+ community? 16. Picture 5 [description below] 17. Who is more responsible of the family (children, grandchildren…), an old man or an old woman? 18. Do you think old men and old women face the same difficulties? Think of some specificities and why it is different. 19. FINISH Set of Pictures – (descriptions): 3. Picture 1 – old lady crossing the street Questions to ask related to this picture: What do you see in the picture? How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? What would you do in this situation?

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8. Picture 2 – old hand with the smartphone Questions to ask related to this picture: What do you see in the picture? How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? Do you think it is an usual situation? Why yes/not? 11. Picture 3 – old man standing in the bus, when all of the seats are occupied Questions to ask related to this picture: What do you see in the picture? How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? Why? What would you do in this situation? 14. Picture 4 – old man/woman alone in a park Questions to ask related to this picture: Tell the story of the person in the picture Who is he/she? What is he/she doing in his/her daily life? What does he/she like? How does he/she spend his/her free time, etc.? 16. Picture 5 - Old men holding hands and walking together Questions to ask related to this picture: Tell the story of the people in the picture Who are they and what kind of relationship do they have? Can they be in a love relationship at this age? What is the attitude of their family towards them? What are they doing in their daily life? *Note for designer: Prepare: - the game board for this game with 19 fields - 5 pawns - cards with 13 questions - cards with 5 pictures All elements will be copied, cut into pieces and use in the game. Images of an example of board and playing pieces.  

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Title of Activity:

Chasing traditions Level of difficulty: Medium

Target Group:

Young people aged 17 to 25 years

Group Size:

10 to 15 participants

Time Needed for Activity: 60 Minutes

Aim:

To learn about the traditions of the other countries regarding death rituals and rites considering the gender perspective

Step by Step Description Step 1- 5 minutes

Introduction and meeting each other

Step 2- 35 minutes

The facilitator prepares two tables with two sets of covered fact cards (see example below) Each table has 10 cards on it and the tables should be distant from each other Cards consists of two parts of 5 facts, so they should be placed in random order The facilitator divides the participants into 2 groups which work in the same teams till the plenary discussion. Each group goes to one table. The facilitator stands in the middle of the two groups and starts giving the instructions: 1. This is the memory board game. In front of you, there are five hidden pairs of matching cards. You should not open the cards before the starting signal. 2. The cards represent various funeral rituals and rites of different cultures. There are 5 facts consisting of two parts so your task is to match them and learn about these funeral traditions.

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3. You should try to find both pieces of the facts one by one. If you open a wrong combination, the next person has to continue. 4. Once the team finds a matching pair of cards, each of them needs to do a research according to the fact they have on the card. The conclusion of the research has to be done from gender perspective. Here are some supporting questions: - Is there any difference for men and women in these rituals/traditions/ ceremonies? - Why men and women act differently? - What is the social factor of this roles? - How religion divides the roles for men and women (both Christianity and Islam)? - Why some rituals are conducted by men and women separately? - How important are these rituals for the society and is society flexible regarding realization of the same? 5. It is not a timing and competitive game. Both teams have 30 minutes in order to discuss all of the rituals.

Step 3- 20 minutes

Plenary discussion: In this part facilitator calls both groups for the plenary in order to share their conclusions about the research and start the debate regarding the gender perspective of the research. Suggested questions: - Was it hard to find the differences? - How do you feel about the facts that you found out? - Is there anything different than that you knew and did you find out the right way through this research? What was it (if participant wants to share)? - What are the differences in the conclusions between two groups? - How does the gender aspect of those ceremonies/rituals define/ influence gender roles?

Tips:

The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues The plenary discussion should take place in a safe environment as some of the topics can be sensitive The facilitator can adapt the fact cards to the local reality Leading questions for research can be written on the flipchart so that both groups see them The research should be done with the help of the Internet. If there is no access to the Internet, facilitator should prepare some materials which participants can use during their research

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Times are approximate Materials and Resources:

The cards should be of one colour (not to distract attention). Example of cards (each fact is divided into two parts with a dash): 1. Muslim women are allowed to go to the cemetery only - in the afternoon 2. Body of the dead person is washed - by men if the dead person is man and by women if the dead person is woman (mostly in Muslim tradition) 3. In some traditions there are special people who are paid for wailing at the funerals and they are mostly - women 4. The family of the dead person provides - food after the funeral 5. The funeral is done in the mosque but - only men lead it 6. The things which are considered to be important for the dead person - are put into the coffin 7. In Muslim tradition the depth of the grave depends on - the sex 8. Muslim women are not allowed to enter - cemetery during the funeral ceremony 9. Muslim women are obliged to wear - hijab when they go to the cemetery 10. Women wear black clothes - a year after death of the spouse  

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Appendices


Materials for Will You Wear(y) Me?

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List of Participants


List of participants who discussed gender issues through the stages of life during summer 2017 in Greece, Fyro Macedonia and Albania. Ilektra Athantsiki/Greece

Nemanja Jonas/Serbia

Ecaterina Dobroiu/Romania

Neel Klappe/Netherlands

Liliia Hos/Ukraine

Elene Koridze/Georgia

Filip Janevic/Macedonia

Dina Kuhar/Croatia

Maria Lebioda/Poland

Monika Lionaite/Sweden-Lithuania

Murat Mislimi/Macedonia

Seda Martirosyan/Armenia

Sebastien Ortiz/France

Sara Massimi/Italy

Cazim Lisicic/Montenegro

Mattia Messina/Italy

Katarina Vukadinovic/Montenegro

Angela Zdravkovska/Macedonia

Nataliia Shevchuk/Ukraine

Liudmyla Nikitina/Ukraine

Ivana Radojicic/Serbia

Dragan Perkov/Macedonia

Aleksandar Maričić/Serbia

Anastasiia Rohozhynska/Ukraine

Oleksandra Bahmet/Ukraine Sasha Porozova/Ukraine Melania Baltasar Otero/Spain Andrea Calvelo Boo/Spain Sanja Čulić/Croatia Vigan Aliu/Kosovo María Espiño Albela/Spain Selin Gürlemez/Turkey Adis Hukanovic/BiH

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Irma Sarac Hukanovic/BiH Nikolche Savevski/Macedonia Daniela Correia/Portugal Alberto Panzanini/Italy Andres Romero/Italy Emilia Bonadeo/Italy Iyad Tatari, Syria/Belgium Malek Alamah Syria/Belgium Adib Al Zain Syria/Belgium

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Variety is the spice of life  

This publication is the outcome of the project ‘Variety is spice of life’ which was implemented by Youth for Exchange and Understanding and...

Variety is the spice of life  

This publication is the outcome of the project ‘Variety is spice of life’ which was implemented by Youth for Exchange and Understanding and...